Science.gov

Sample records for added organic acids

  1. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now. PMID:24432652

  2. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2011-11-01

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  3. Recovery of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Verser, Dan W.; Eggeman, Timothy J.

    2009-10-13

    A method is disclosed for the recovery of an organic acid from a dilute salt solution in which the cation of the salt forms an insoluble carbonate salt. A tertiary amine and CO.sub.2 are introduced to the solution to form the insoluble carbonate salt and a complex between the acid and an amine. A water immiscible solvent, such as an alcohol, is added to extract the acid/amine complex from the dilute salt solution to a reaction phase. The reaction phase is continuously dried and a product between the acid and the solvent, such as an ester, is formed.

  4. Delayed gastric emptying rate as a potential mechanism for lowered glycemia after eating sourdough bread: studies in humans and rats using test products with added organic acids or an organic salt.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Björck, I M

    1996-12-01

    The possible effects of organic acids or an organic salt on the rate of gastric emptying was studied to identify the cause for reduced postmeal responses of blood glucose and insulin to foods containing such components, eg, sourdough bread. Paracetamol was included in bread products with added lactic acid or sodium propionate and used as a marker for the rate of gastric emptying in healthy subjects. In parallel, postprandial glycemia, insulinemia, and satiety were evaluated. The influence of lactic acid, propionic acid, and sodium propionate was also studied in rats after they were tube-fed with glucose solutions. The bread products with lactic acid or sodium propionate both lowered blood glucose and insulin responses. The bread with sodium propionate also prolonged satiety. The reason for the lowered metabolic responses with sodium propionate was probably a lowered gastric emptying rate, as judged from reduced blood paracetamol concentrations; there was no such effect observed with bread with added lactic acid. A similar amount of lactic acid in solution tube-fed to rats did not affect the disappearance of glucose from the stomach. In contrast with the finding in humans, sodium propionate had no effect on the rate of gastric emptying in rats whereas an equimolar solution of propionic acid reduced gastric emptying rate in rats. Possibly, less of this acid was produced in the gastric contents after a bolus load of a sodium propionate solution (in rats) than in an eating situation. Also, the pH and/or the osmolarity may be important, and when provided in excessive amounts, lactic acid reduced the gastric emptying rate in rats. A hydrochloric acid solution of similar pH was much less effective in this respect.

  5. Efficacy of adding folic acid to foods.

    PubMed

    Fajardo, Violeta; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2012-06-01

    In the past, food fortification along with nutritional education and the decrease in food costs relative to income have proven successful in eliminating common nutritional deficiencies. These deficiencies such as goiter, rickets, beriberi, and pellagra have been replaced with an entirely new set of "emergent deficiencies" that were not previously considered a problem [e.g., folate and neural tube defects (NTDs)]. In addition, the different nutrition surveys in so-called affluent countries have identified "shortfalls" of nutrients specific to various age groups and/or physiological status. Complex, multiple-etiology diseases, such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer, and obesity have emerged. Food fortification has proven an effective tool for tackling nutritional deficiencies in populations; but today a more reasonable approach is to use food fortification as a means to support but not replace dietary improvement strategies (i. e. nutritional education campaigns). Folic acid (FA) is a potential relevant factor in the prevention of a number of pathologies. The evidence linking FA to NTD prevention led to the introduction of public health strategies to increase folate intakes: pharmacological supplementation, mandatory or voluntary fortification of staple foods with FA, and the advice to increase the intake of folate-rich foods. It is quite contradictory to observe that, regardless of these findings, there is only limited information on food folate and FA content. Data in Food Composition Tables and Databases are scarce or incomplete. Fortification of staple foods with FA has added difficulty to this task. Globally, the decision to fortify products is left up to individual food manufacturers. Voluntary fortification is a common practice in many countries. Therefore, the "worldwide map of vitamin fortification" may be analyzed. It is important to examine if fortification today really answers to vitamin requirements at different ages and/or physiological states. The

  6. Microorganisms for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-09-30

    Organic acid-producing microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-producing microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, acrylic acid, propionic acid, lactic acid, and others. Further modifications to the microorganisms increase production of such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others. Methods of producing such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid, lactate, and others with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers are also provided.

  7. Effect of an organic acid blend and phytase added to a rapeseed cake-containing diet on performance, intestinal morphology, caecal microflora activity and thyroid status of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Smulikowska, S; Czerwiński, J; Mieczkowska, A

    2010-02-01

    The experiment was carried out on 96 female broilers, allocated to eight groups of 12 birds kept in individual cages. Two basal wheat- and soyabean meal-based diets containing 150 g/kg of rapeseed expeller cake were formulated, differing in the level of P: 7.1 g/kg in diet H or 5.9 g/kg in diet L. Rapeseed cake supplied 3.15 micromol alkenyl glucosinolates per gram of diet. The eight treatments were: basal diets only, basal diets + phytase (1000 U/kg), basal diets + organic acid blend (OA, 6 g/kg), or basal diets + both additives. Diets were fed from day 8 to 28 of life. The results showed that the lower dietary P content and OA supplementation did not significantly affect feed intake or BWG, while both increased (p < 0.001) after phytase supplementation. Tibia ash content as well as tibia ultimate strength were lower (p < 0.001) in birds fed diets L compared with diets H, and increased (p < 0.01) with phytase supplementation of diet L, while OA had no influence on either parameter. Dietary P levels and OA supplementation had no influence on the pH of gut digesta, but the pH of jejunal digesta increased following phytase supplementation (p < 0.01). Morphological measurements of the small intestinal mucosa of chicks indicated that OA added to diet L depressed villi height (p < 0.001) and crypt depth (p < 0.001); both parameters increased after phytase supplementation (p < 0.01). The lower total SCFA as well as acetic, propionic and butyric acid concentrations in caecal digesta indicated lower activity of caecal microflora in birds fed diets L compared with H. OA supplementation had no influence, while phytase supplementation increased the concentration of acetic acid in caecal digesta. Supplementation of diets with either phytase or OA increased thyroid weight by 16% (p < 0.01) and 11% (p < 0.05) respectively. The increase in thyroid weight because of phytase supplementation was greater at the lower dietary P level, and the greatest when both phytase and OA were

  8. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product Report

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; Tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Significantly improved returns in their aerosol chemistry data can be achieved via the development of a value-added product (VAP) of deriving OA components, called Organic Aerosol Components (OACOMP). OACOMP is primarily based on multivariate analysis of the measured organic mass spectral matrix. The key outputs of OACOMP are the concentration time series and the mass spectra of OA factors that are associated with distinct sources, formation and evolution processes, and physicochemical properties.

  9. Analysis of Organic Acids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, John R.; Rauner, Richard A.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are the procedures and a discussion of the results for an experiment in which students select unknown carboxylic acids, determine their melting points, and investigate their solubility behavior in water and ethanol. A table of selected carboxylic acids is included. (CW)

  10. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  11. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on speciation of exogenous Cu in an acid soil].

    PubMed

    Huang, Guo-Yong; Fu, Qing-Ling; Zhu, Jun; Wan, Tian-Ying; Hu, Hong-Qing

    2014-08-01

    In order to ascertain the effect of LMWOA (citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid) on Cu-contaminated soils and to investigate the change of Cu species, a red soil derived from quartz sandstone deposit was added by Cu (copper) in the form of CuSO4 x 5H2O so as to simulate soil Cu pollution, keeping the additional Cu concentrations were 0, 100, 200, 400 mg x kg(-1) respectively. After 9 months, different LMWOA was also added into the simulated soil, keeping the additional LMWOAs in soil were 0, 5, 10, 20 mmol x kg(-1) respectively. After 2 weeks incubation, the modified sequential extraction method on BCR (European Communities Bureau of Reference) was used to evaluate the effects of these LMWOAs on the changes of copper forms in soil. The result showed that the percentage of weak acid dissolved Cu, the most effective form in the soil increased with three organic acids increase in quantity in the simulated polluted soil. And there was a good activation effect on Cu in the soil when organic acid added. Activation effects on Cu increased with concentration of citric acid increasing, but it showed a rise trend before they are basically remained unchanged in the case of tartaric acid and oxalic acid added in the soil. On the contrary, the state of the reduction of copper which was regarded as a complement for effective state decreased with the increased concentration of organic acid in the soil, especially with citric acid. When 20 mmol x kg(-1) oxalic acid and citric acid were added into the soil, the activation effect was the best; whereas for tartaric, the concentration was 10 mmol x kg(-1). In general, the effect on the changes of Cu forms in the soil is citric acid > tartaric acid > oxalic acid.

  12. Substrate quality alters microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-03-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial processing of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly-labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils, despite an initial delay in respiration. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days was sufficient to model decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but was insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality imparts considerable control on microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and added substrates.

  13. Heart Birth Defects Dropped After Folic Acid Was Added to Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... 160673.html Heart Birth Defects Dropped After Folic Acid Was Added to Food Canadian study found that ... 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The introduction of folic acid-fortified foods in Canada was associated with a ...

  14. Soil Decomposition of Added Organic C in an Organic Farming System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kpomblekou-A, Kokoasse; Sissoko, Alassane; McElhenney, Wendell

    2015-04-01

    In the United States, large quantities of poultry waste are added every year to soil under organic management. Decomposition of the added organic C releases plant nutrients, promotes soil structure, and plays a vital role in the soil food web. In organic agriculture the added C serves as the only source of nutrients for plant growth. Thus understanding the decomposition rates of such C in organic farming systems are critical in making recommendations of organic inputs to organic producers. We investigated and compared relative accumulation and decomposition of organic C in an organic farming system trial at the George Washington Carver Agricultural Experiment Station at Tuskegee, Alabama on a Marvyn sandy loam (fine-loamy, kaolinitic, thermic, Typic Kanhapludults) soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates and four treatments. The main plot (54' × 20') was split into three equal subplots to plant three sweet potato cultivars. The treatments included a weed (control with no cover crop, no fertilizer), crimson clover alone (CC), crimson clover plus broiler litter (BL), and crimson clover plus NPK mineral fertilizers (NPK). For five years, late in fall, the field was planted with crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L) that was cut with a mower and incorporated into soil the following spring. Moreover, broiler litter (4.65 Mg ha-1) or ammonium nitrate (150 kg N ha-1), triple super phosphate (120 kg P2O5 ha-1), and potassium chloride (160 kg K2O ha-1) were applied to the BL or the NPK plot and planted with sweet potato. Just before harvest, six soil samples were collected within the two middle rows of each sweet potato plot with an auger at incremental depths of 0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-5, 5-10, and 10-15 cm. Samples from each subplot and depth were composited and mixed in a plastic bag. The samples were sieved moist through a

  15. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  16. Persistent organic pollutants in benthic and pelagic organisms off Adélie Land, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Goutte, A; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Chastel, O; Cherel, Y; Eléaume, M; Massé, G

    2013-12-15

    The concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB) and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDE) were described in benthic and pelagic species collected off Adélie Land, Antarctica. Strong differences were observed among species, with reduced PeCB and HCB levels in benthic species, and elevated PCB levels in the Antarctic yellowbelly rockcod, the Antarctic sea urchin and the snow petrel. Lower-chlorinated congeners were predominant in krill; penta-PCBs in benthic organisms; hexa- and hepta-PCBs in seabirds and cryopelagic fish. This segregation may result from sedimentation process, specific accumulation and excretion, and/or biotransformation processes. The presence of PBDEs in Antarctic coastal organisms may originate from atmospheric transport and partly from a contamination by local sources. Although POP levels in Antarctic marine organisms were substantially lower than in Arctic and temperate organisms, very little is known about their toxic effects on these cold-adapted species, with high degree of endemism. PMID:24237994

  17. Substrate quality alters the microbial mineralization of added substrate and soil organic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadamma, S.; Mayes, M. A.; Steinweg, J. M.; Schaeffer, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    The rate and extent of decomposition of soil organic carbon (SOC) is dependent, among other factors, on substrate chemistry and microbial dynamics. Our objectives were to understand the influence of substrate chemistry on microbial decomposition of carbon (C), and to use model fitting to quantify differences in pool sizes and mineralization rates. We conducted an incubation experiment for 270 days using four uniformly labeled 14C substrates (glucose, starch, cinnamic acid and stearic acid) on four different soils (a temperate Mollisol, a tropical Ultisol, a sub-arctic Andisol, and an arctic Gelisol). The 14C labeling enabled us to separate CO2 respired from added substrates and from native SOC. Microbial gene copy numbers were quantified at days 4, 30 and 270 using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Substrate C respiration was always higher for glucose than other substrates. Soils with cinnamic and stearic acid lost more native SOC than glucose- and starch-amended soils. Cinnamic and stearic acid amendments also exhibited higher fungal gene copy numbers at the end of incubation compared to unamended soils. We found that 270 days were sufficient to model the decomposition of simple substrates (glucose and starch) with three pools, but were insufficient for more complex substrates (cinnamic and stearic acid) and native SOC. This study reveals that substrate quality exerts considerable control on the microbial decomposition of newly added and native SOC, and demonstrates the need for multi-year incubation experiments to constrain decomposition parameters for the most recalcitrant fractions of SOC and complex substrates.

  18. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, Corey R.; Harden, Jennifer W.; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  19. Modeling the influence of organic acids on soil weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Corey; Harden, Jennifer; Maher, Kate

    2014-08-01

    Biological inputs and organic matter cycling have long been regarded as important factors in the physical and chemical development of soils. In particular, the extent to which low molecular weight organic acids, such as oxalate, influence geochemical reactions has been widely studied. Although the effects of organic acids are diverse, there is strong evidence that organic acids accelerate the dissolution of some minerals. However, the influence of organic acids at the field-scale and over the timescales of soil development has not been evaluated in detail. In this study, a reactive-transport model of soil chemical weathering and pedogenic development was used to quantify the extent to which organic acid cycling controls mineral dissolution rates and long-term patterns of chemical weathering. Specifically, oxalic acid was added to simulations of soil development to investigate a well-studied chronosequence of soils near Santa Cruz, CA. The model formulation includes organic acid input, transport, decomposition, organic-metal aqueous complexation and mineral surface complexation in various combinations. Results suggest that although organic acid reactions accelerate mineral dissolution rates near the soil surface, the net response is an overall decrease in chemical weathering. Model results demonstrate the importance of organic acid input concentrations, fluid flow, decomposition and secondary mineral precipitation rates on the evolution of mineral weathering fronts. In particular, model soil profile evolution is sensitive to kaolinite precipitation and oxalate decomposition rates. The soil profile-scale modeling presented here provides insights into the influence of organic carbon cycling on soil weathering and pedogenesis and supports the need for further field-scale measurements of the flux and speciation of reactive organic compounds.

  20. Spoilage characteristics of traditionally packaged ground beef with added lactic acid bacteria displayed at abusive temperatures.

    PubMed

    Hoyle Parks, A R; Brashears, M M; Woerner, W D; Martin, J N; Thompson, L D; Brooks, J C

    2012-02-01

    Growth of pathogenic organisms such as Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella spp. can be inhibited in ground beef through the addition of certain lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB; Lactobacillus acidophilus NP51, Lactobacillus crispatus NP35, Pediococcus acidilactici, and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis). This study evaluated the effects of LAB inclusion on the organoleptic and biochemical properties typically associated with spoilage in traditionally packaged ground beef displayed at abusive (10°C) temperatures for 36 h. Trained and untrained panelist evaluations of lean color and off-odor, as well as instrumental color analyses, did not indicate an effect on spoilage traits due to LAB utilization (P > 0.05). However, display length affected each variable independently and was indicative of decreased stability and acceptability as display time (h) increased (P < 0.05). Thiobarbituric acid values were decreased for ground beef with added LAB (P < 0.05), but likely can be related to bacterial degradation of lipid oxidation by-products because no reduction in organoleptic traits due to oxidation was noted between treatments. Overall, LAB did not adversely influence the spoilage characteristics of traditionally packaged ground beef displayed at abusive temperatures for up to 36 h. Furthermore, biochemical and sensory indicators of spoilage were present for all treatments at the conclusion of display. Therefore, LAB can be added to ground beef in traditional packaging as a processing intervention without masking or delaying the expected spoilage characteristics.

  1. Production of Value-added Products by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are a group of facultative anaerobic, catalase negative, nonmotile and nonsporeforming–Gram positive bacteria. Most LAB utilize high energy C sources including monomer sugars to produce energy to maintain cellular structure and function. This anaerobic fermentation proce...

  2. Removal of lead by apatite and its stability in the presence of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Katoh, Masahiko; Makimura, Akihiko; Sato, Takeshi

    2016-12-01

    In this study, lead sorption and desorption tests were conducted with apatite and organic acids (i.e. citric, malic, and formic acids) to understand lead removal by apatite in the presence of an organic acid and lead dissolution from the lead- and organic-acid-sorbed apatite by such organic acid exposure. The lead sorption test showed that the amount of lead removed by apatite in the presence of organic acid varied depending on the type of acid used. The molar amounts of calcium dissolved from apatite in the presence and absence of organic acid were exactly the same as those of lead removed even under different pH conditions as well as different organic acid concentrations, indicating that the varying amount of lead removal in the presence of different organic acids resulted from the magnitude of the dissolution of apatite and the precipitation of lead phosphate minerals. The percentages of lead dissolved from the organic-acid-sorbed and non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by all the organic acid extractions were equal and higher than those by water extraction. In particular, the highest extractions were observed in the non-organic-acid-sorbed apatite by citric and malic acids. These results suggest that to immobilize lead by the use of apatite in the presence of organic acids, much more apatite must be added than in the absence of organic acid, and that measures must be taken to ensure that the immobilized lead is not dissolved.

  3. Estimating the acidity of transition metal hydride and dihydrogen complexes by adding ligand acidity constants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert H

    2014-02-01

    A simple equation (pKa(THF) = ∑AL + Ccharge + Cnd + Cd6) can be used to obtain an estimate of the pKa of diamagnetic transition metal hydride and dihydrogen complexes in tetrahydrofuran, and, by use of conversion equations, in other solvents. It involves adding acidity constants AL for each of the ligands in the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-coordinate conjugate base complex of the hydride or dihydrogen complex along with a correction for the charge (Ccharge = -15, 0 or 30 for x = +1, 0 or -1 charge, respectively) and the periodic row of the transition metal (Cnd = 0 for 3d or 4d metal, 2 for 5d metal) as well as a correction for d(6) octahedral acids (Cd6 = 6 for d(6) metal ion in the acid, 0 for others) that are not dihydrogen complexes. Constants AL are provided for 13 commonly occurring ligand types; of these, nine neutral ligands are correlated with Lever's electrochemical ligand parameters EL. This method gives good estimates of the over 170 literature pKa values that range from less than zero to 50 with a standard deviation of 3 pKa units for complexes of the metals chromium to nickel, molybdenum, ruthenium to palladium, and tungsten to platinum in the periodic table. This approach allows a quick assessment of the acidity of hydride complexes found in nature (e.g., hydrogenases) and in industry (e.g., catalysis and hydrogen energy applications). The pKa values calculated for acids that have bulky or large bite angle chelating ligands deviate the most from this correlation. The method also provides an estimate of the base strength of the deprotonated form of the complex.

  4. Estimating the acidity of transition metal hydride and dihydrogen complexes by adding ligand acidity constants.

    PubMed

    Morris, Robert H

    2014-02-01

    A simple equation (pKa(THF) = ∑AL + Ccharge + Cnd + Cd6) can be used to obtain an estimate of the pKa of diamagnetic transition metal hydride and dihydrogen complexes in tetrahydrofuran, and, by use of conversion equations, in other solvents. It involves adding acidity constants AL for each of the ligands in the 5-, 6-, 7-, or 8-coordinate conjugate base complex of the hydride or dihydrogen complex along with a correction for the charge (Ccharge = -15, 0 or 30 for x = +1, 0 or -1 charge, respectively) and the periodic row of the transition metal (Cnd = 0 for 3d or 4d metal, 2 for 5d metal) as well as a correction for d(6) octahedral acids (Cd6 = 6 for d(6) metal ion in the acid, 0 for others) that are not dihydrogen complexes. Constants AL are provided for 13 commonly occurring ligand types; of these, nine neutral ligands are correlated with Lever's electrochemical ligand parameters EL. This method gives good estimates of the over 170 literature pKa values that range from less than zero to 50 with a standard deviation of 3 pKa units for complexes of the metals chromium to nickel, molybdenum, ruthenium to palladium, and tungsten to platinum in the periodic table. This approach allows a quick assessment of the acidity of hydride complexes found in nature (e.g., hydrogenases) and in industry (e.g., catalysis and hydrogen energy applications). The pKa values calculated for acids that have bulky or large bite angle chelating ligands deviate the most from this correlation. The method also provides an estimate of the base strength of the deprotonated form of the complex. PMID:24410025

  5. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  6. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  7. Organic Acid Production by Filamentous Fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Jon K.; Lasure, Linda L.

    2004-05-03

    Many of the commercial production processes for organic acids are excellent examples of fungal biotechnology. However, unlike penicillin, the organic acids have had a less visible impact on human well-being. Indeed, organic acid fermentations are often not even identified as fungal bioprocesses, having been overshadowed by the successful deployment of the β-lactam processes. Yet, in terms of productivity, fungal organic acid processes may be the best examples of all. For example, commercial processes using Aspergillus niger in aerated stirred-tank-reactors can convert glucose to citric acid with greater than 80% efficiency and at final concentrations in hundreds of grams per liter. Surprisingly, this phenomenal productivity has been the object of relatively few research programs. Perhaps a greater understanding of this extraordinary capacity of filamentous fungi to produce organic acids in high concentrations will allow greater exploitation of these organisms via application of new knowledge in this era of genomics-based biotechnology. In this chapter, we will explore the biochemistry and modern genetic aspects of the current and potential commercial processes for making organic acids. The organisms involved, with a few exceptions, are filamentous fungi, and this review is limited to that group. Although yeasts including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, species of Rhodotorula, Pichia, and Hansenula are important organisms in fungal biotechnology, they have not been significant for commercial organic acid production, with one exception. The yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, and related yeast species, may be in use commercially to produce citric acid (Lopez-Garcia, 2002). Furthermore, in the near future engineered yeasts may provide new commercial processes to make lactic acid (Porro, Bianchi, Ranzi, Frontali, Vai, Winkler, & Alberghina, 2002). This chapter is divided into two parts. The first contains a review of the commercial aspects of current and potential large

  8. Organic Aerosol Component (OACOMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Fast, J; Zhang, Q; tilp, A; Shippert, T; Parworth, C; Mei, F

    2013-08-23

    Organic aerosol (OA, i.e., the organic fraction of particles) accounts for 10–90% of the fine aerosol mass globally and is a key determinant of aerosol radiative forcing. But atmospheric OA is poorly characterized and its life cycle insufficiently represented in models. As a result, current models are unable to simulate OA concentrations and properties accurately. This deficiency represents a large source of uncertainty in quantification of aerosol effects and prediction of future climate change. Evaluation and development of aerosol models require data products generated from field observations. Real-time, quantitative data acquired with aerosol mass spectrometers (AMS) (Canagaratna et al. 2007) are critical to this need. The AMS determines size-resolved concentrations of non-refractory (NR) species in submicrometer particles (PM1) with fast time resolution suitable for both ground-based and aircraft deployments. The high-resolution AMS (HR-AMS), which is equipped with a high mass resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer, can be used to determine the elemental composition and oxidation degrees of OA (DeCarlo et al. 2006).

  9. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled.

  10. Membrane filtration of agro-industrial wastewaters and isolation of organic compounds with high added values.

    PubMed

    Zagklis, Dimitris P; Paraskeva, Christakis A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was the exploitation of agro-industrial wastes or by-products such as olive mill wastewater (OMW) and defective wines. A cost-effective system for their maximum exploitation is suggested, using a combined process of membrane filtration and other physicochemical processes. Wastewaters are first treated in a membrane system (prefiltration, ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis) where pure water and other organic fractions (by-products) are obtained. Organic fractions, called hereafter byproducts and not wastes, are further treated for the separation of organic compounds and isolation of high added value products. Experiments were performed with OMW and defective wines as characteristic agro-industrial wastewaters. Profit from the exploitation of agro-industrial wastewaters can readily help the depreciation of the indeed high cost process of membrane filtration. The simple phenolic fraction of the OMW was successfully isolated from the rest of the waste, and problems occurring during winemaking, such as high volatile acidity and odours, were tackled. PMID:24434988

  11. Mechanisms for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali/acidic oil systems; Effect of added surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Rudin, J. Wasan, D.T. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that experimental studies are conducted in order to determine the physicochemical mechanism responsible for lowering of interfacial tension in alkali, surfactant, and surfactant-enhanced alkali/acidic oil systems. A well-defined model oil is chosen to examine the influence of various surfactants and surfactant mixtures, such as oleic acid and its ionic counterpart, sodium dodecyl sulfate, petroleum sulfonate, and isobutanol, on equilibrium interfacial tension. With added surfactant alone, the interfacial tension goes through an ultralow minimum with increasing acid concentration. This proves for the first time that the un-ionized acid species plays a major role in affecting interfacial tension, and the ionized acid species.

  12. Electrical Properties of Poly-Lactic Acid with Nucleating Agent Added

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinyama, Katsuyoshi; Oi, Toru; Fujita, Shigetaka

    We examined electrical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) with nucleating agent added. At that time, nucleating agent was added to PLA was then heat-treated at 100°C for 30 seconds. The crystallinity of the nucleating agent was added to PLA increased to more than 40%, and its crystallization speed also increased significantly. The temperature dependence of the conductivity (σ) was investigated, the σ of PLA to which nucleating agent had been added showed the tendency to become lower than the σ of PLA to which nucleating agent had not been added in σ at temperatures higher than 60°C. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the dielectric breakdown strength (EB) was investigated, EB of nucleating agent was added to PLA was around 5.0 MV/cm at a temperature of 25°C. Of particular note was the fact that EB of nucleating agent was added to PLA measured at 100°C was around 4.7 MV/cm, around 3 times greater than the EB value for PLA to which nucleating agent had not been added. The temperature dependence of the relative dielectric constant (εr‧) and the relative dielectric loss factor (εr″) was investigated, the peak dielectric absorption value of εr″ for the PLA to which nucleating agent had been added showed a tendency that lower than that of the PLA to which nucleating agent had not been added.

  13. Organic acids in naturally colored surface waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, D.F.

    1966-01-01

    Most of the organic matter in naturally colored surface waters consists of a mixture of carboxylic acids or salts of these acids. Many of the acids color the water yellow to brown; however, not all of the acids are colored. These acids range from simple to complex, but predominantly they are nonvolatile polymeric carboxylic acids. The organic acids were recovered from the water by two techniques: continuous liquid-liquid extraction with n-butanol and vacuum evaporation at 50?C (centigrade). The isolated acids were studied by techniques of gas, paper, and column chromatography and infrared spectroscopy. About 10 percent of the acids recovered were volatile or could be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Approximately 30 of these carboxylic acids were isolated, and 13 of them were individually identified. The predominant part of the total acids could not be made volatile for gas chromatographic analysis. Infrared examination of many column chromatographic fractions indicated that these nonvolatile substances are primarily polymeric hydroxy carboxylic acids having aromatic and olefinic unsaturation. The evidence suggests that some of these acids result from polymerization in aqueous solution. Elemental analysis of the sodium fusion products disclosed the absence of nitrogen, sulfur, and halogens.

  14. Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and uses thereof for producing organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Pfleger, Brian Frederick; Begemann, Matthew Brett

    2014-05-06

    Organic acid-tolerant microorganisms and methods of using same. The organic acid-tolerant microorganisms comprise modifications that reduce or ablate AcsA activity or AcsA homolog activity. The modifications increase tolerance of the microorganisms to such organic acids as 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3HP), acrylic acid, and propionic acid. Further modifications to the microorganisms such as increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase and/or acetyl-CoA carboxylase provide or increase the ability of the microorganisms to produce 3HP. Methods of generating an organic acid with the modified microorganisms are provided. Methods of using acsA or homologs thereof as counter-selectable markers include replacing acsA or homologs thereof in cells with genes of interest and selecting for the cells comprising the genes of interest with amounts of organic acids effective to inhibit growth of cells harboring acsA or the homologs.

  15. Testing of organic acids in engine coolants

    SciTech Connect

    Weir, T.W.

    1999-08-01

    The effectiveness of 30 organic acids as inhibitors in engine coolants is reported. Tests include glassware corrosion of coupled and uncoupled metals. FORD galvanostatic and cyclic polarization electrochemistry for aluminum pitting, and reserve alkalinity (RA) measurements. Details of each test are discussed as well as some general conclusions. For example, benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In benzoic acid inhibits coupled metals well but is ineffective on cast iron when uncoupled. In general, the organic acids provide little RA when titrated to a pH of 5.5, titration to a pH of 4.5 can result in precipitation of the acid. Trends with respect to acid chain length are reported also.

  16. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Ronald Lee (Inventor); Luebben, Silvia DeVito (Inventor); Myers, Andrew William (Inventor); Smith, Bryan Matthew (Inventor); Elliott, Brian John (Inventor); Kreutzer, Cory (Inventor); Wilson, Carolina (Inventor); Meiser, Manfred (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  17. Nanoparticles modified with multiple organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Ronald Lee; Luebben, Silvia DeVito; Myers, Andrew William; Smith, Bryan Matthew; Elliott, Brian John; Kreutzer, Cory; Wilson, Carolina; Meiser, Manfred

    2007-07-17

    Surface-modified nanoparticles of boehmite, and methods for preparing the same. Aluminum oxyhydroxide nanoparticles are surface modified by reaction with selected amounts of organic acids. In particular, the nanoparticle surface is modified by reactions with two or more different carboxylic acids, at least one of which is an organic carboxylic acid. The product is a surface modified boehmite nanoparticle that has an inorganic aluminum oxyhydroxide core, or part aluminum oxyhydroxide core and a surface-bonded organic shell. Organic carboxylic acids of this invention contain at least one carboxylic acid group and one carbon-hydrogen bond. One embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with two or more acids one of which additional carries at least one reactive functional group. Another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that have been surface modified with multiple acids one of which has molecular weight or average molecular weight greater than or equal to 500 Daltons. Yet, another embodiment of this invention provides boehmite nanoparticles that are surface modified with two or more acids one of which is hydrophobic in nature and has solubility in water of less than 15 by weight. The products of the methods of this invention have specific useful properties when used in mixture with liquids, as filler in solids, or as stand-alone entities.

  18. Dithiolopyrrolone antibiotic formation induced by adding valeric acid to the culture broth of Saccharothrix algeriensis.

    PubMed

    Merrouche, Rabiâa; Bouras, Noureddine; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Monje, Marie-Carmen; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2010-06-25

    Three new antibiotics were isolated from the fermentation broth of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 and characterized as the dithiolopyrrolone derivatives valerylpyrrothine (1), isovalerylpyrrothine (2), and formylpyrrothine (3) as well as the known antibiotic aureothricin. The production of the dithiolopyrrolone derivatives was induced by adding valeric acid to the culture medium. The compounds exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity in vitro.

  19. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  20. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Weaver, Paul F.

    1990-01-01

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion or organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input.

  1. Photoenhanced anaerobic digestion of organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.F.

    1989-08-25

    A process is described for rapid conversion of organic acids and alcohols in anaerobic digesters into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, the optimal precursor substrates for production of methane. The process includes addition of photosynthetic bacteria to the digester and exposure of the bacteria to radiant energy (e.g., solar energy). The process also increases the pH stability of the digester to prevent failure of the digester. Preferred substrates for photosynthetic bacteria are the organic acid and alcohol waste products of fermentative bacteria. In mixed culture with methanogenic bacteria or in defined co-culture with non-aceticlastic methanogenic bacteria, photosynthetic bacteria are capable of facilitating the conversion of organic acids and alcohols into methane with low levels of light energy input. 8 figs.

  2. Organic acids from biomass by continuous fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.C.

    1984-12-01

    In continuous fermentation, a 90% conversion of glucose and an 86% conversion of xylose were achieved in the continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for a 72 hour retention time and a 30 g/l total sugar concentration. The fermentation in the CSTR was shown to be about four times faster than that in a batch reactor. A 92% conversion of glucose and a 75% conversion of xylose were found at a 28 hour retention time in the immobilized cell reaction (ICR). Also, about 67% of the sugar can be converted into organic acids in this reactor, yielding more than 20 g/L of organic acids in the ICR. The total capital investment expected for a 20 million lb (9 Gg)/yr propionic acid plant is expected to be just over $11 million, including hydrolysis and acid production. Acetic acid is also produced in this plant at a rate of 11.1 million lb (5 Gg)/yr. For this facility, the recovered acids costs is projected to be 16.6 cents/lbm (36.6cents/kg). 11 references.

  3. Quantification of organic acids using voltammetric tongues.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan David; Alcaniz, Miguel; Masot, Rafael; Fuentes, Ana; Bataller, Roman; Soto, Juan; Barat, Jose Manuel

    2013-06-01

    Recently, electronic tongues (ET) have appeared as an excellent alternative to traditional techniques for the evaluation of food quality and processes. ET systems are based on arrays of low selectivity sensors that are simultaneously sensitive to several components in a measured sample (cross-sensitivity). The aim of this study was to determine the ability of an ET based on pulse voltammetry to quantify organic acids (ascorbic, citric and malic acids) in simple (SS) and binary solutions (BS) using different electrodes. The most significant electrodes for ascorbic acid prediction were Ni and Ag for SS, and Ag and Ir for BS where positive pulses were more suitable than negative ones. The prediction of citric and malic acids in SS and BS were suitable using Ir, Rh, Pt, Ag and Cu electrodes, using both positive and negative pulses.

  4. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings.

    PubMed

    Degerud, Eirik M; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A; Dierkes, Jutta

    2015-11-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking.

  5. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings.

    PubMed

    Degerud, Eirik M; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A; Dierkes, Jutta

    2015-11-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking. PMID:26469774

  6. Bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to condiments and seasonings

    PubMed Central

    Degerud, Eirik M.; Manger, Mari Skar; Strand, Tor A.

    2015-01-01

    Seasonings and condiments can be candidate vehicles for micronutrient fortification if consumed consistently and if dietary practices ensure bioavailability of the nutrient. In this review, we identify factors that may affect the bioavailability of iron, vitamin A, zinc, and folic acid when added to seasonings and condiments and evaluate their effects on micronutrient status. We take into consideration the chemical and physical properties of different forms of the micronutrients, the influence of the physical and chemical properties of foods and meals to which fortified seasonings and condiments are typically added, and interactions between micronutrients and the physiological and nutritional status of the target population. Bioavailable fortificants of iron have been developed for use in dry or fluid vehicles. For example, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaFeEDTA) and ferrous sulfate with citric acid are options for iron fortification of fish and soy sauce. Furthermore, NaFeEDTA, microencapsulated ferrous fumarate, and micronized elemental iron are potential fortificants in curry powder and salt. Dry forms of retinyl acetate or palmitate are bioavailable fortificants of vitamin A in dry candidate vehicles, but there are no published studies of these fortificants in fluid vehicles. Studies of zinc and folic acid bioavailability in seasonings and condiments are also lacking. PMID:26469774

  7. Reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Razuvaev, G.A.; Vyshinskaya, L.I.; Vasil'eva, G.A.

    1987-12-10

    As a result of the reactions of tetraphenyltitanium with dibasic organic acids high yields were obtained of new thermally stable titanium(III) complexes: phenyltitanium(III)carboxylates. Under the action of proton-active reagents (hydrochloric acid, cyclopentadiene, methanol) the latter break down with the breakage of titanium-phenyl bond. The proposed structure was based on IR- and ESR-spectral data. The dinuclear structure of the complexes was established on the basis of a study of the triplet structure of the ESR spectra, which showed the existence of intermolecular titanium-titanium exchange through methylene groups of the dicarboxylate bridges.

  8. Treatment of broiler litter with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, I E

    2001-04-01

    Experiments for treatment of contaminated broiler litter with citric, tartaric and salicylic acids were performed. At days 2 and 6 after the treatment, pH values (using a pH-meter), the ammonia concentrations (titration with 0.1 N HCl) and the microbial cells counts were determined in both experimental and control specimens of litter. The cost of acidification of litter was also determined. Our studies showed that the treatment of the contaminated litter with 5 per cent citric acid, 4 per cent tartaric acid and 1.5 per cent salicylic acid created an acid medium with pH under 5.0 and thus reduced the microbial counts to 2.2 x 10(3)colony forming units per gram manure litter. The treatment reduced the content of ammonia in the litter and in the air under the hygienic limits, i.e. 25-50 ppm. The cost of acidification of litter with these organic acids amounted to 0.1 $ per bird and 1.5 $ per 15 birds on one square metre in a growth period of 50 days. PMID:11356097

  9. Energy densification of biomass-derived organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Wheeler, M. Clayton; van Walsum, G. Peter; Schwartz, Thomas J.; van Heiningen, Adriaan

    2013-01-29

    A process for upgrading an organic acid includes neutralizing the organic acid to form a salt and thermally decomposing the resulting salt to form an energy densified product. In certain embodiments, the organic acid is levulinic acid. The process may further include upgrading the energy densified product by conversion to alcohol and subsequent dehydration.

  10. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI. PMID:21569932

  11. Exploitation of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) puree added of stem infusion through fermentation by selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; Surico, Rosalinda Fortunata; Minervini, Giovanna; Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Lovino, Raffaella; Servili, Maurizio; Taticchi, Agnese; Urbani, Sefania; Gobbetti, Marco

    2011-08-01

    Strains of Lactobacillus plantarum, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides were identified from 8 cultivars of sweet cherry by partial 16S rRNA gene sequence and subjected to typing by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis. Representative isolates from each species and each cultivar were screened based on the kinetics of growth on cherry puree added of (10%, v/v) stem infusion (CP-SI). A protocol for processing and storage of CP-SI, which included fermentation by selected autochthonous P. pentosaceus SWE5 and L. plantarum FP3 (started CP-SI) or spontaneous fermentation (unstarted CP-SI), was set up. Starters grew and remained viable at elevated cell numbers (ca. 9.0 log cfu g(-1)) during 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The number of presumptive lactic acid bacteria of the unstarted CP-SI did not exceed the value of ca. 3.0 log cfu g(-1). Consumption of carbohydrates (e.g., glucose and fructose) by starter lactic acid bacteria was limited as well as it was the lactic acid fermentation. Consumption of organic acids (e.g., malic acid) and free amino acids was evident, especially, throughout storage. Compared to CP-SI before processing, the concentrations of total phenolic compounds and anthocyanins did not vary in the started CP-SI. The concentration of anthocyanins slightly decreased in the unstarted CP-SI. The antioxidant activity, expressed as the scavenging activity toward DPPH radical, was found at highest level in the started CP-SI which approached that found in CP-SI before processing. During storage, viscosity and, especially, color indexes of started CP-SI were higher than those found in the unstarted CP-SI. Fermentation by autochthonous lactic acid bacteria seemed to also positively interfere with the sensory attributes of CP-SI.

  12. Arterial Blood Carbonic Acid Inversely Determines Lactic and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Christopher Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To establish that arterial blood carbonic acid varies inversely with lactic acid in accordance with bicarbonate exchanging for lactate across cell membranes through the anion exchange mechanism to maintain the Gibbs-Donnan equilibrium. Study Design: Over 5 years, lactate was measured on all blood gases taken from neonatal admissions, as well as organic acid whenever electrolytes were required. Results: Arterial blood gases from 63 infants given high calcium TPN were analyzed. Twenty two needed continuous positive airways pressure (CPAP) only and 31 intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV) and surfactant followed by CPAP to treat respiratory distress syndrome in 51 and meconium aspiration syndrome in 2. All survived and were free of infection. Excluded gases were those with high and falling lactate soon after delivery representing perinatal asphyxia, and those on dexamethasone. Strong inverse relations between carbonic and lactic acids were found at all gestational ages and, independent of glomerular filtration, between carbonic and organic acids. Lactate (mmol/L) = 62.53 X PCO2 -0.96(mmHg) r2 0.315, n 1232, p <0.001. Sixty divided by PCO2 is a convenient measure of physiological lactate at any given PCO2. In the first week, 9.13 ± 2.57% of arterial gases from infants on IPPV had lactates above 120/PCO2, significantly more than 4.74 ± 2.73% on CPAP (p<0.05) and 2.47 ± 2.39% on no support. Conclusion: Changes in arterial blood carbonic acid cause immediate inverse changes in lactic acid, because their anions interchange across cell membranes according to the Gibbs –Donnan equilibrium. Increasing PCO2 from 40 to 120 mmHg decreased lactate from 1.5 mmol/L to 0.5 mmol/L, so that the sum of carbonic and lactic acids increased from 2.72 mmol/L to only 4.17 mmol/L. This helps explain the neuroprotective effect of hypercapnoea and highlights the importance of avoiding any degree of hypocapnoea in infants on IPPV. PMID:24392387

  13. The abiotic degradation of soil organic matter to oxalic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Studenroth, Sabine; Huber, Stefan; Schöler, H. F.

    2010-05-01

    degradation of catechol to oxalic acid delivers a maximum yield of approximately 60 %, whereas the presence of chloride reduces the formation of oxalic acid to 30 %. Chloride possibly induces further competing reactions of catechol leading to a lower concentration of oxalic acid. Freeze-dried soil samples have been tested for production of oxalic acid, where the rate of organic matter seems to play an important role for the formation. By adding iron (III) and/or hydrogen peroxide oxalic acid yields increase, which demonstrates the reaction of soil organic matter with iron (III) and hydrogen peroxide as expected. Thus the natural abiotic formation of oxalic acid is confirmed. The results of the soil measurements are similar to those obtained with catechol. Therefore, the newly gained insights with model compounds appear to be applicable to soil conditions and these findings increase our understanding of the degradation pathways of soil organic matter. Furthermore an overview of the rates of oxalic acid formation of a variety of soil samples is shown and discussed in the light of different soil parameter.

  14. Dynamics of three organic acids (malic, acetic and succinic acid) in sunflower exposed to cadmium and lead.

    PubMed

    Niu, Zhixin; Li, Xiaodong; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) has been considered as a good candidate for bioaccumulation of heavy metals. In the present study, sunflower was used to enrich the cadmium and lead in sand culture during 90 days. Biomass, Cd and Pb uptake, three organic acids and pH in cultures were investigated. Results showed that the existence of Cd and Pb showed different interactions on the organic acids exudation. In single Cd treatments, malic and acetic acids in Cd10 showed an incremental tendency with time. In the mixed treatments of Cd and Pb, malic acids increased when 10 and 40 mg x L(-1) Cd were added into Pb50, but acetic acids in Pb50 were inhibited by Cd addition. The Cd10 supplied in Pb10 stimulated the secretion of malic and succinic acids. Moreover, the Cd or Pb uptake in sunflower showed various correlations with pH and some organic acids, which might be due to the fact that the Cd and Pb interfere with the organic acids secretion in rhizosphere of sunflower, and the changes of organic acids altered the form and bioavailability of Cd and Pb in cultures conversely.

  15. Effects of added organic matter and water on soil carbon sequestration in an arid region.

    PubMed

    Lai, Liming; Li, Yufei; Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M

    2013-01-01

    It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%-29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region.

  16. Effects of Added Organic Matter and Water on Soil Carbon Sequestration in an Arid Region

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Jiang, Lianhe; Zhao, Xuechun; Zhu, Linhai; Chen, Xi; Gao, Yong; Wang, Shaoming; Zheng, Yuanrun; Rimmington, Glyn M.

    2013-01-01

    It is generally predicted that global warming will stimulate primary production and lead to more carbon (C) inputs to soil. However, many studies have found that soil C does not necessarily increase with increased plant litter input. Precipitation has increased in arid central Asia, and is predicted to increase more, so we tested the effects of adding fresh organic matter (FOM) and water on soil C sequestration in an arid region in northwest China. The results suggested that added FOM quickly decomposed and had minor effects on the soil organic carbon (SOC) pool to a depth of 30 cm. Both FOM and water addition had significant effects on the soil microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass increased with added FOM, reached a maximum, and then declined as the FOM decomposed. The FOM had a more significant stimulating effect on microbial biomass with water addition. Under the soil moisture ranges used in this experiment (21.0%–29.7%), FOM input was more important than water addition in the soil C mineralization process. We concluded that short-term FOM input into the belowground soil and water addition do not affect the SOC pool in shrubland in an arid region. PMID:23875022

  17. A reclamation approach for mined prime farmland by adding organic wastes and lime to the subsoil

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Qiang; Barnhisel, R.I.

    1996-12-31

    Surface mined prime farmland may be reclaimed by adding organic wastes and lime to subsoil thus improving conditions in root zone. In this study, sewage sludge, poultry manure, horse bedding, and lime were applied to subsoil (15-30 cm) during reclamation. Soil properties and plant growth were measured over two years. All organic amendments tended to lower the subsoil bulk density and increase organic matter and total nitrogen. Liming raised exchangeable calcium, slightly increased pH, but decreased exchangeable magnesium and potassium. Corn ear-leaf and forage tissue nitrogen, yields, and nitrogen removal increased in treatments amended with sewage sludge and poultry manure, but not horse bedding. Subsoil application of sewage sludge or poultry manure seems like a promising method in the reclamation of surface mined prime farmland based on the improvements observed in the root zone environment.

  18. Lithocholic acid extends longevity of chronologically aging yeast only if added at certain critical periods of their lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Michelle T.; Kyryakov, Pavlo; Beach, Adam; Richard, Vincent R.; Koupaki, Olivia; Gomez-Perez, Alejandra; Leonov, Anna; Levy, Sean; Noohi, Forough; Titorenko, Vladimir I.

    2012-01-01

    Our studies revealed that LCA (lithocholic bile acid) extends yeast chronological lifespan if added to growth medium at the time of cell inoculation. We also demonstrated that longevity in chronologically aging yeast is programmed by the level of metabolic capacity and organelle organization that they developed before entering a quiescent state and, thus, that chronological aging in yeast is likely to be the final step of a developmental program progressing through at least one checkpoint prior to entry into quiescence. Here, we investigate how LCA influences longevity and several longevity-defining cellular processes in chronologically aging yeast if added to growth medium at different periods of the lifespan. We found that LCA can extend longevity of yeast under CR (caloric restriction) conditions only if added at either of two lifespan periods. One of them includes logarithmic and diauxic growth phases, whereas the other period exists in early stationary phase. Our findings suggest a mechanism linking the ability of LCA to increase the lifespan of CR yeast only if added at either of the two periods to its differential effects on various longevity-defining processes. In this mechanism, LCA controls these processes at three checkpoints that exist in logarithmic/diauxic, post-diauxic and early stationary phases. We therefore hypothesize that a biomolecular longevity network progresses through a series of checkpoints, at each of which (1) genetic, dietary and pharmacological anti-aging interventions modulate a distinct set of longevity-defining processes comprising the network; and (2) checkpoint-specific master regulators monitor and govern the functional states of these processes. PMID:22894934

  19. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  20. Predicting Reaction Mechanisms and Potentials in Acid and Base from Self-Consistent Quantum Theory: H(ads) and OH(ads) Deposition on the Pt(111) Electrode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Meng; Anderson, Alfred B

    2016-02-18

    It has been shown recently that when reactants and products are well modeled within a comprehensive self-consistent theory for the electrochemical interface, accurate predictions are possible for reversible potentials, Urev, in acid electrolyte for reactions such as reduction of H(+)(aq) to form under potential deposited H(ads) and oxidation of an OH bond of H2O(ads) to deposit OH(ads). Predictions are based on calculated Gibbs energies for the reactant and product being equal at the reversible potential, which is the potential at the crossing point for reaction and product Gibbs energies, plotted as functions of electrode potential. In this Letter, it is demonstrated that the same capability holds for these reactions in basic electrolyte. This demonstration opens up the opportunity for predictions of reversible potentials and mechanisms for other electrocatalytic reactions in base.

  1. Adding explicit solvent molecules to continuum solvent calculations for the calculation of aqueous acid dissociation constants.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Casey P; Cramer, Christopher J; Truhlar, Donald G

    2006-02-23

    Aqueous acid dissociation free energies for a diverse set of 57 monoprotic acids have been calculated using a combination of experimental and calculated gas and liquid-phase free energies. For ionic species, aqueous solvation free energies were calculated using the recently developed SM6 continuum solvation model. This model combines a dielectric continuum with atomic surface tensions to account for bulk solvent effects. For some of the acids studied, a combined approach that involves attaching a single explicit water molecule to the conjugate base (anion), and then surrounding the resulting anion-water cluster by a dielectric continuum, significantly improves the agreement between the calculated pK(a) value and experiment. This suggests that for some anions, particularly those concentrating charge on a single exposed heteroatom, augmenting implicit solvent calculations with a single explicit water molecule is required, and adequate, to account for strong short-range hydrogen bonding interactions between the anion and the solvent. We also demonstrate the effect of adding several explicit waters by calculating the pK(a) of bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) using as the conjugate base carbonate (CO(3)(2-)) bound by up to three explicit water molecules.

  2. Decomposition of added and native organic carbon from physically separated fractions of diverse soils

    SciTech Connect

    Jagadamma, Sindhu; Steinweg, Jessica M; Mayes, Melanie; Wang, Gangsheng; Post, Wilfred M

    2013-01-01

    There have been increasing efforts to understand the dynamics of organic carbon (OC) associated with measurable fractions of bulk soil.We compared the decomposition of native OC (native C) with that of an added substrate (glucose) on physically separated fractions of a diverse suite of soils. Five soil orders were selected from four contrasting climate zones (Mollisol from temperate, Ultisol and Oxisol from tropics, Andisol from sub-arctic, and Gelisol from arctic region). Soils from the A horizon were fractionated into particulate OC (POC) and mineral-associated OC (MOC) by a sizebased method. Fractions were incubated at 20 C and 50 % water-holding capacity in the dark after the addition of unlabeled D-glucose (0.4 mg C g 1 fraction) and U 14C glucose (296 Bq g 1 fraction). Respiration of glucose 14C indicated 64 to 84 % of added glucose 14C which was respired from POC and 62 to 70 % from MOC within 150 days of incubation, with more than half of the cumulative respiration occurring within 4 days. Native C respiration varied widely across fractions: 12 to 46 % of native C was respired from POC and 3 to 10 % was respired from MOC fractions. This suggested that native C was more stabilized on the MOC than on the POC, but respiration from the added glucose was generally similar for MOC and POC fractions. Our study suggests a fundamental difference between the behavior of freshly added C and native C from MOC and POC fractions of soils.

  3. Capture and release of acid-gasses with acid-gas binding organic compounds

    DOEpatents

    Heldebrant, David J; Yonker, Clement R; Koech, Phillip K

    2015-03-17

    A system and method for acid-gas capture wherein organic acid-gas capture materials form hetero-atom analogs of alkyl-carbonate when contacted with an acid gas. These organic-acid gas capture materials include combinations of a weak acid and a base, or zwitterionic liquids. This invention allows for reversible acid-gas binding to these organic binding materials thus allowing for the capture and release of one or more acid gases. These acid-gas binding organic compounds can be regenerated to release the captured acid gasses and enable these organic acid-gas binding materials to be reused. This enables transport of the liquid capture compounds and the release of the acid gases from the organic liquid with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems.

  4. Intelligent self-organization methods for wireless ad hoc sensor networks based on limited resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hortos, William S.

    2006-05-01

    A wireless ad hoc sensor network (WSN) is a configuration for area surveillance that affords rapid, flexible deployment in arbitrary threat environments. There is no infrastructure support and sensor nodes communicate with each other only when they are in transmission range. To a greater degree than the terminals found in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs) for communications, sensor nodes are resource-constrained, with limited computational processing, bandwidth, memory, and power, and are typically unattended once in operation. Consequently, the level of information exchange among nodes, to support any complex adaptive algorithms to establish network connectivity and optimize throughput, not only deplete those limited resources and creates high overhead in narrowband communications, but also increase network vulnerability to eavesdropping by malicious nodes. Cooperation among nodes, critical to the mission of sensor networks, can thus be disrupted by the inappropriate choice of the method for self-organization. Recent published contributions to the self-configuration of ad hoc sensor networks, e.g., self-organizing mapping and swarm intelligence techniques, have been based on the adaptive control of the cross-layer interactions found in MANET protocols to achieve one or more performance objectives: connectivity, intrusion resistance, power control, throughput, and delay. However, few studies have examined the performance of these algorithms when implemented with the limited resources of WSNs. In this paper, self-organization algorithms for the initiation, operation and maintenance of a network topology from a collection of wireless sensor nodes are proposed that improve the performance metrics significant to WSNs. The intelligent algorithm approach emphasizes low computational complexity, energy efficiency and robust adaptation to change, allowing distributed implementation with the actual limited resources of the cooperative nodes of the network. Extensions of the

  5. Acidic organic compounds in beverage, food, and feed production.

    PubMed

    Quitmann, Hendrich; Fan, Rong; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Organic acids and their derivatives are frequently used in beverage, food, and feed production. Acidic additives may act as buffers to regulate acidity, antioxidants, preservatives, flavor enhancers, and sequestrants. Beneficial effects on animal health and growth performance have been observed when using acidic substances as feed additives. Organic acids could be classified in groups according to their chemical structure. Each group of organic acids has its own specific properties and is used for different applications. Organic acids with low molecular weight (e.g. acetic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid), which are part of the primary metabolism, are often produced by fermentation. Others are produced more economically by chemical synthesis based on petrochemical raw materials on an industrial scale (e.g. formic acid, propionic and benzoic acid). Biotechnology-based production is of interest due to legislation, consumer demand for natural ingredients, and increasing environmental awareness. In the United States, for example, biocatalytically produced esters for food applications can be labeled as "natural," whereas identical conventional acid catalyst-based molecules cannot. Natural esters command a price several times that of non-natural esters. Biotechnological routes need to be optimized regarding raw materials and yield, microorganisms, and recovery methods. New bioprocesses are being developed for organic acids, which are at this time commercially produced by chemical synthesis. Moreover, new organic acids that could be produced with biotechnological methods are under investigation for food applications.

  6. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Neta, E R D; Johanningsmeier, S D; Drake, M A; McFeeters, R F

    2009-01-01

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on sour taste of equimolar protonated organic acid solutions and to investigate the potential roles of organic anions and sodium ions on sour taste perception. Despite equal concentrations of protonated acid species, sour taste intensity decreased significantly with increased pH for acetic, lactic, malic, and citric acids (P < 0.05). Total organic anion concentration did not explain the suppression of sour taste in solutions containing a blend of 3 organic acids with constant concentration of protonated organic acid species and hydrogen ions and variable organic anion concentrations (R(2)= 0.480, P = 0.12). Sour taste suppression in these solutions seemed to be more closely related to sodium ions added in the form of NaOH (R(2)= 0.861, P = 0.007). Addition of 20 mM NaCl to acid solutions resulted in significant suppression of sour taste (P = 0.016). However, sour taste did not decrease with further addition of NaCl up to 80 mM. Presence of sodium ions was clearly shown to decrease sour taste of organic acid solutions. Nonetheless, suppression of sour taste in pH adjusted single acid solutions was greater than what would be expected based on the sodium ion concentration alone, indicating an additional suppression mechanism may be involved.

  7. Purification Or Organic Acids Using Anion Exchange Chromatography.

    DOEpatents

    Ponnampalam; Elankovan

    2001-09-04

    Disclosed is a cost-effective method for purifying and acidifying carboxylic acids, including organic acids and amino acids. The method involves removing impurities by allowing the anionic form of the carboxylic acid to bind to an anion exchange column and washing the column. The carboxylic anion is displaced as carboxylic acid by washing the resin with a strong inorganic anion. This method is effective in removing organic carboxylic acids and amino acids from a variety of industrial sources, including fermentation broths, hydrolysates, and waste streams.

  8. Biobased organic acids production by metabolically engineered microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yun; Nielsen, Jens

    2016-02-01

    Bio-based production of organic acids via microbial fermentation has been traditionally used in food industry. With the recent desire to develop more sustainable bioprocesses for production of fuels, chemicals and materials, the market for microbial production of organic acids has been further expanded as organic acids constitute a key group among top building block chemicals that can be produced from renewable resources. Here we review the current status for production of citric acid and lactic acid, and we highlight the use of modern metabolic engineering technologies to develop high performance microbes for production of succinic acid and 3-hydroxypropionic acid. Also, the key limitations and challenges in microbial organic acids production are discussed. PMID:26748037

  9. D-Amino Acids in Living Higher Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Noriko

    2002-04-01

    The homochirality of biological amino acids (L-amino acids) and of the RNA/DNA backbone (D-ribose) might have become established before the origin of life. It has been considered that D-amino acids and L-sugars were eliminated on the primitive Earth. Therefore, the presence and function of D-amino acids in living organisms have not been studied except for D-amino acids in the cell walls of microorganisms. However, D-amino acids were recently found in various living higher organisms in the form of free amino acids, peptides, and proteins. Free D-aspartate and D-serine are present and may have important physiological functions in mammals. D-amino acids in peptides are well known as opioid peptides and neuropeptides. In protein, D-aspartate residues increase during aging. This review deals with recent advances in the study of D-amino acids in higher organisms.

  10. Temporal Variations of Organic Acids in Sumac Fruit

    SciTech Connect

    Robbins, C.; Mulcahy, F.; Somayajula, K.; Edenborn, H.M.

    2006-10-01

    Extracts from staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina) fruits were obtained from fresh fruits obtained from June to October in two successive years. Total acidity, pH, and concentrations of malic and succinic acids determined using liquid chromatography were measured for each extract. Acidity and acid concentrations reached their maxima in late July, and declined slowly thereafter. Malic and succinic acid concentrations in the extracts reached maxima of about 4 and 0.2% (expressed per unit weight of fruit), respectively. Malic and succinic acids were the only organic acids observed in the extracts, and mass balance determinations indicate that these acids are most likely the only ones present in appreciable amounts.

  11. Compound amino acids added in media improved Solanum nigrum L. phytoremediating CD-PAHS contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuhe; Bai, Jiayi; Yang, Chuanjie; Zhang, Qianru; Knorrm, Klaus-Holger; Zhan, Jie; Gao, Qianhui

    2016-01-01

    Cd hyperaccumulator Solanum nigrum L. was a promising plant used to simultaneously remediate Cd-PAHs combined pollution soil through its extra accumulation capacity and rhizosphere degradation. This article compared the strengthening remediation role of cysteine (Cys), glycine (Gly) and glutamic acid (Glu) with EDTA and TW80. The results showed that the addition of 0.03 mmol L(-1) Cys, Gly, and Glu didn't significantly impact (p < 0.05) shoot biomass of S. nigrum, but obviously increased Cd concentration. Therefore, Cd capacity (µg pot(-1)) in shoots of S. nigrum was significantly increased (p < 0.05) by 37.7% compared to the control without reagent added. At the meantime, the PAHs degradation ratio in rhizoshpere was increased by 34.5%. Basically, the improving role of Cys, Gly, and Glu was higher than EDTA and TW80. The main reasons of enhanced the accumulation of S. nigrum to Cd might lie in the addition of Cys, Gly, and Glu which reduced pH and increased extractable Cd concentration in rhizosphere and phytochelatines (PCs) concentration in leaves. As for the degradation of PAHs in rhizosphere, increased microorganism number might be play important role.

  12. Intake of Added Sugar and Sugar-Sweetened Drink and Serum Uric Acid Concentration in US Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructose-induced hyperuricemia might have a causal role in metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and other chronic disease. However, no study has investigated whether sugar added to foods or sugar-sweetened beverages, which are major sources of fructose, are associated with serum uric acid concentration...

  13. Efficient and Secure Self-Organized Public Key Management for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Daeseon; Lee, Younho; Park, Yongsu; Jin, Seung-Hun; Yoon, Hyunsoo

    This paper presents a fully self-organized key management scheme for mobile ad hoc networks. Unlike most previous schemes, there is no priori shared secret or no priori trust relationship in the proposed scheme; every node plays the same role and carries out the same function of key management. The proposed scheme consists of (1) Handshaking (HS) and (2) Certificate request/reply (CRR) procedures. In HS, a node acquires the public key of the approaching node via a secure side channel. In CRR, a node requests certificates of a remote node via a radio channel to the nodes that it has HSed. If the number of received valid certificates that contain the same public key exceeds a given threshold, the node accepts the remote node's public key as valid. Security is rigorously analyzed against various known attacks and network costs are intensively analyzed mathematically. Using this analysis, we provide parameter selection guideline to optimize performance and to maintain security for diverse cases. Simulation results show that every node acquires the public keys of all other nodes at least 5 times faster than in a previous scheme.

  14. Leaching of organic acids from macromolecular organic matter by non-supercritical CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, P.; Glombitza, C.; Kallmeyer, J.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of CO2 in underground reservoirs is discussed controversly in the scientific literature. The worldwide search for suitable storage formations also considers coal-bearing strata. CO2 is already injected into seams for enhanced recovery of coal bed methane. However, the effects of increased CO2 concentration, especially on organic matter rich formations, are rarely investigated. The injected CO2 will dissolve in the pore water, causing a decrease in pH and resulting in acidic formation waters. Huge amounts of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) are chemically bound to the macromolecular matrix of sedimentary organic matter and may be liberated by hydrolysis, which is enhanced by the acidic porewater. Recent investigations outlined the importance of LMWOAs as a feedstock for microbial life in the subsurface [1]. Therefore, injection of CO2 into coal formations may result in enhanced nutrient supply for subsurface microbes. To investigate the effect of high concentrations of dissolved CO2 on the release of LMWOAs from coal we developed an inexpensive high-pressure high temperature system that allows manipulating the partial pressure of dissolved gases at pressures and temperatures up to 60 MPa and 120° C, respectively. In a reservoir vessel, gases are added to saturate the extraction medium to the desired level. Inside the extraction vessel hangs a flexible and inert PVDF sleeve (polyvinylidene fluoride, almost impermeable for gases), holding the sample and separating it from the pressure fluid. The flexibility of the sleeve allows for subsampling without loss of pressure. Coal samples from the DEBITS-1 well, Waikato Basin, NZ (R0 = 0.29, TOC = 30%). were extracted at 90° C and 5 MPa, either with pure or CO2-saturated water. Subsamples were taken at different time points during the extraction. The extracted LMWOAs such as formate, acetate and oxalate were analysed by ion chromatography. Yields of LMWOAs were higher with pure water than with CO2

  15. Organic acids in continental background aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbeck, Andreas; Puxbaum, Hans

    With a newly developed method aerosol samples from three distinctly different continental sites were analyzed: an urban site (Vienna), a savanna site in South Africa (Nylsvley Nature Reserve, NNR) and a free tropospheric continental background site (Sonnblick Observatory, SBO). In all samples a range of monocarboxylic acids (MCAs) and dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) has been identified and quantified. The three most abundant MCAs in Vienna were the C18, C16 and C14 acids with concentrations of 66, 45 and 36 ng m -3, respectively. At the mid tropospheric background site (SBO) the three most abundant MCAs were the C18, C16 and C12 acid. For the DCAs at all three sites oxalic, malonic and succinic acid were the dominant compounds. For some individual compounds an information about the sources could be obtained. For example the determined unsaturated MCAs in South Africa appear to result from biogenic sources whereas in Vienna those acids are considered to be derived from combustion processes. Oxalic and glyoxalic acid appear to have a free tropospheric air chemical source. The relative high amounts at SBO in comparison to Vienna can only be explained by secondary formation of oxalic acid in the atmosphere.

  16. [Effect of organic acids on the biosynthesis of macrotetralide antibiotics by an Actinomyces chrysomallus var. carotenoides strain].

    PubMed

    Nefelova, M V; Sverdlova, A N; Silaev, A B

    1978-07-01

    The biosynthesis of macrotetrolides by Actinomyces chrysomalus var. carotenoides was stimulated by acetic, succinic, propionic, oxalic, malic, tartaric, citric, pyruvic, alpha-ketoglutaric and fumaric acids. Incorporation of 14C-acetate into the molecule of the antibiotic and the data on dependence of the stimulating effect upon the quantitative ratio and time of the organic acid addition were indicative of the role of acetic, succinic and propionic acids as precursors of macrotetrolides. The other organic acids increased the biosynthesis of macrotetolides when added to the culture within wide time ranges of the culture development and prolonged the period of the mycelium productive state.

  17. On the source of organic acid aerosol layers above clouds.

    PubMed

    Sorooshian, Armin; Lu, Miao-Ling; Brechtel, Fred J; Jonsson, Haflidi; Feingold, Graham; Flagan, Richard C; Seinfeld, John H

    2007-07-01

    During the July 2005 Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and the August-September 2006 Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS), the Center for Interdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter probed aerosols and cumulus clouds in the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coast of northern California and in southeastern Texas, respectively. An on-board particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) quantified inorganic and organic acid species with < or = 5-min time resolution. Ubiquitous organic aerosol layers above cloud with enhanced organic acid levels were observed in both locations. The data suggest that aqueous-phase reactions to produce organic acids, mainly oxalic acid, followed by droplet evaporation is a source of elevated organic acid aerosol levels above cloud. Oxalic acid is observed to be produced more efficiently relative to sulfate as the cloud liquid water content increases, corresponding to larger and less acidic droplets. As derived from large eddy simulations of stratocumulus underthe conditions of MASE, both Lagrangian trajectory analysis and diurnal cloudtop evolution provide evidence that a significant fraction of the aerosol mass concentration above cloud can be accounted for by evaporated droplet residual particles. Methanesulfonate data suggest that entrainment of free tropospheric aerosol can also be a source of organic acids above boundary layer clouds.

  18. Organic acids for performance enhancement in pig diets.

    PubMed

    Partanen, K H; Mroz, Z

    1999-06-01

    Organic acids and their salts appear to be potential alternatives to prophylactic in-feed antibiotics and growth promoters in order to improve the performance of weaned piglets, fattening pigs and reproductive sows, although their growth-promoting effects are generally less than that of antibiotics. Based on an analysis of published data, the growth-promoting effect of formates, fumarates and citrates did not differ in weaned piglets. In fattening pigs, formates were the most effective followed by fumarates, whereas propionates did not improve growth performance. These acids improved the feedgain ratio of both weaned piglets and fattening pigs. In weaned piglets, the growth-promoting effects of dietary organic acids appear to depend greatly on their influence on feed intake. In sows, organic acids may have anti-agalactia properties. Successful application of organic acids in the diets for pigs requires an understanding of their modes of action. It is generally considered that dietary organic acids or their salts lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes and gastric retention time, and thus improved protein digestion. Reduced gastric pH and increased retention time have been difficult to demonstrate, whereas improved apparent ileal digestibilities of protein and amino acids have been observed with growing pigs, but not in weaned piglets. Organic acids may influence mucosal morphology, as well as stimulate pancreatic secretions, and they also serve as substrates in intermediary metabolism. These may further contribute to improved digestion, absorption and retention of many dietary nutrients. Organic acid supplementation reduces dietary buffering capacity, which is expected to slow down the proliferation and|or colonization of undesirable microbes, e.g. Escherichia coli, in the gastro-ileal region. However, reduced scouring has been observed in only a few studies. As performance responses to dietary organic acids in pigs often varies

  19. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V

    2013-04-30

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  20. Recombinant microorganisms for increased production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Yi, Jian; Kleff, Susanne; Guettler, Michael V.

    2012-02-21

    Disclosed are recombinant microorganisms for producing organic acids. The recombinant microorganisms express a polypeptide that has the enzymatic activity of an enzyme that is utilized in the pentose phosphate cycle. The recombinant microorganism may include recombinant Actinobacillus succinogenes that has been transformed to express a Zwischenferment (Zwf) gene. The recombinant microorganisms may be useful in fermentation processes for producing organic acids such as succinic acid and lactic acid. Also disclosed are novel plasmids that are useful for transforming microorganisms to produce recombinant microorganisms that express enzymes such as Zwf.

  1. Organic acids and bases: Review of toxicological studies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, H.W.; Paustenbach, D.J. )

    1990-01-01

    Organic acids and bases are among the most frequently used chemicals in the manufacturing industries. However, the toxicology of only a number of them has been fully characterized, and for fewer still have occupational exposure limits been established. This paper reviews the acute and chronic toxicity data of the organic acids and bases, and considers the mechanism by which these chemicals produce their effects. A methodology for establishing preliminary occupational exposure limits based on the physicochemical properties of these chemicals is presented. Workplace exposure limits for 20 organic acids and bases which currently have no exposure guidelines are suggested. Advice regarding appropriate medical treatment of exposure to these materials is discussed. 98 references.

  2. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-01-01

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented. PMID:25811473

  3. [Use of organic acids in acne and skin discolorations therapy].

    PubMed

    Kapuścińska, Alicja; Nowak, Izabela

    2015-03-22

    Acne is one of the most frequent skin disorders that occurs in puberty, but often adults also have acne. The most important factors responsible for acne are elevated production of sebum by hyperactive sebaceous glands and blockage of the follicle because of hyperkeratosis [14]. The third etiopathogenic factor of acne is excessive microflora reproduction [8]. The most significant bacterium that is responsible for formation of skin lesions is Propionibacterium acnes, a rod-shaped Gram-positive and aerotolerant anaerobic bacterium. It is estimated that P. acnes is responsible for acne in approximately 80% of people aged 11 to 30 [27,40]. Even healed skin lesions can often cause skin discolorations and scar formation [51]. Exfoliating chemical substances that are commonly used in dermatology and cosmetology are organic acids. Exfoliating treatment using organic acids is called "chemical peeling" and consists of controlled application of those substances on the skin [38]. The depth of exfoliation depends on organic acid concentration, type of substance and contact time with the skin [41]. Using exfoliating agents seems to be helpful in excessive keratinization - one of several factors responsible for acne. Moreover, epidermis exfoliation is a popular method of removing skin discoloration [22]. Considering chemical structure, exfoliating substances that are most often used in cosmetology contain alpha-hydroxyacids (glycolic acid, lactic acid, mandelic acid and citric acid), beta-hydroxyacids (salicylic acid) and other organic acids, such as trichloroacetic acid and pyruvic acid [47]. In this article, a literature review of use of organic acids in acne and skin discoloration therapy is presented.

  4. Alteration of organic matter during infaunal polychaete gut passage and links to sediment organic geochemistry. Part I: Amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woulds, Clare; Middelburg, Jack J.; Cowie, Greg L.

    2012-01-01

    Of the factors which control the quantity and composition of organic matter (OM) buried in marine sediments, the links between infaunal ingestion and gut passage and sediment geochemistry have received relatively little attention. This study aimed to use feeding experiments and novel isotope tracing techniques to quantify amino acid net accumulation and loss during polychaete gut passage, and to link this to patterns of selective preservation and decay in sediments. Microcosms containing either Arenicolamarina or Hediste (formerly Nereis) diversicolor were constructed from defaunated sediment and filtered estuarine water, and maintained under natural temperature and light conditions. They were fed with 13C-labelled diatoms daily for 8 days, and animals were transferred into fresh, un-labelled sediment after ∼20 days. Samples of fauna, microcosm sediment and faecal matter were collected after 8, ∼20 and ∼40 days, and analysed for their bulk isotopic signatures and 13C-labelled amino acid compositions. Bulk isotopic data showed that, consistent with their feeding modes, Hediste assimilated added 13C more quickly, and attained a higher labelling level than Arenicola. Both species retained the added 13C in their biomass even after removal from the food. A principal component analysis of 13C-labelled amino acid mole percentages showed clear differences in composition between the algae, faunal tissues, and sediment plus faecal matter. Further, the two species of polychaete showed different compositions in their tissues. The amino acids phenylalanine, valine, leucine, iso-leucine, threonine and proline showed net accumulation in polychaete tissues. Serine, methionine, lysine, aspartic and glutamic acids and tyrosine were rapidly lost through metabolism, consistent with their presence in easily digestible cell components (as opposed to cell walls which offer physical protection). All sample types (polychaete tissues, sediments and faecal matter) were enriched in

  5. Electrochemical activity of iron in acid treated bentonite and influence of added nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrinić, T.; Mojović, Z.; Milutinović-Nikolić, A.; Mojović, M.; Žunić, M.; Vukelić, N.; Jovanović, D.

    2015-10-01

    Bentonite originated from Mečji Do, Serbia, was submitted to acid treatment at 70 °C for 30 min, while only the concentration of applied HCl varied. The obtained acid treated samples were used to modify glassy carbon (GC) electrode. The effect of applied acid treatment on the electrochemical behavior of GC electrodes modified with these materials was investigated. Furthermore, the effect of the introduction of nickel into acid treated samples was studied. The incorporation of nickel into acid treated bentonite was achieved by either ion exchange or impregnation/decomposition method. The obtained samples were characterized using the following methods: inductively coupled plasma (ICP), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The electrochemical behavior of these samples was tested by cyclic voltammetry in 0.1 mol dm-3 H2SO4 solution. The ICP, FTIR and ESR results exhibited a slight decrease of iron content in the acid treated samples. XRD and FTIR results confirmed that the conditions applied for the acid treatment were mild enough for the smectite structure to be preserved. The electrocatalytic test showed that the current response of Fe2+/Fe3+ oxidation/reduction process increased on the GC electrodes separately modified with each of the acid treated samples in comparison with current obtained on the GC electrode modified with untreated sample. These results indicated that applied acid treatment probably increased the accessibility of the electroactive iron within smectite. Cyclic voltammograms obtained for the GC electrodes modified with acid treated bentonite materials showed greater anodic charge (qa) than cathodic charge (qc). This difference might be due to iron detachment from smectite structure during the oxidation process. Further modification of the selected acid treated sample with nickel species resulted in decreased current response of the Fe2+/Fe3+ oxidation

  6. Modulation of sialic acid levels among some organs during insulin resistance or hyperglycemic states.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Abdulkadir, Aisha; Onojah, Alice; Sani, Lawal; Adamu, Auwal; Abdullahi, Hadiza

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a possible connection between insulin resistance and chronic hyperglycemia with membrane sialic acid content. In this study, the effects of high (20% ad libitum) fructose and glucose feeding on the sialic acid levels of some organs were investigated in rats. The blood glucose levels of the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats were consistently and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the normal control throughout the experiment. Free serum sialic acid and total hepatic sialic acid levels were elevated in the high fructose- and glucose-fed rats compared to normal control, but only the data for the high glucose-fed group were significantly (P < 0.05) different from the normal control. Conversely, a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in the pancreatic sialic acid level was observed in high glucose-fed group compared to normal control. Also, the high fructose-fed rats had lower, but insignificant (P > 0.05), pancreatic sialic acid level than the normal control. On the other hand, high fructose and glucose feeding did not significantly (P > 0.05) affect the sialic acid levels of the skeletal muscle and heart, though a tendency to increase the sialic acid level was evident in the heart. In the kidney, the sialic acid level was significantly (P < 0.05) increased in both high fructose- and glucose-fed groups. It was concluded that the liver and kidney tend to stimulate sialic acid synthesis, while the pancreas downregulate sialic acids synthesis and/or promote sialic acid release from glycoconjugates. Also, these organs may contribute to high-serum sialic acid level observed during diabetes. PMID:26468092

  7. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  8. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  9. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding. PMID:27617019

  10. Association Mapping of Main Tomato Fruit Sugars and Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jiantao; Xu, Yao; Ding, Qin; Huang, Xinli; Zhang, Yating; Zou, Zhirong; Li, Mingjun; Cui, Lu; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Association mapping has been widely used to map the significant associated loci responsible for natural variation in complex traits and are valuable for crop improvement. Sugars and organic acids are the most important metabolites in tomato fruits. We used a collection of 174 tomato accessions composed of Solanum lycopersicum (123 accessions) and S. lycopersicum var cerasiforme (51 accessions) to detect significantly associated loci controlling the variation of main sugars and organic acids. The accessions were genotyped with 182 SSRs spreading over the tomato genome. Association mapping was conducted on the main sugars and organic acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) over 2 years using the mixed linear model (MLM). We detected a total of 58 significantly associated loci (P < 0.001) for the 17 sugars and organic acids, including fructose, glucose, sucrose, citric acid, malic acid. These results not only co-localized with several reported QTLs, including fru9.1/PV, suc9.1/PV, ca2.1/HS, ca3.1/PV, ca4.1/PV, and ca8.1/PV, but also provided a list of candidate significantly associated loci to be functionally validated. These significantly associated loci could be used for deciphering the genetic architecture of tomato fruit sugars and organic acids and for tomato quality breeding.

  11. Organic geochemistry of amino acids: Precambrian to recent

    SciTech Connect

    Engel, M.H.; Macko, S.A.

    1985-01-01

    Since the discovery of amino acids in fossils (Abelson, 1954), considerable effort has been made to elucidate the origin and distribution of amino acids in geologic materials. Racemization and decomposition reactions of amino acids and peptides derived via the natural hydrolysis of protein constituents of organisms have been extensively studied. While the ubiquity of amino acids presents a challenge for discerning their indigeneity in geologic samples, careful analyses have resulted in successful applications of amino acid racemization and decomposition reactions for investigations of geochronologic, paleoclimatic, stratigraphic, diagenetic and chemotaxonomic problems for Quaternary age samples. An investigation of amino acids in sediments from Baffin Island fjords indicates that their distribution may also provide data with respect to the relative contributions of marine and terrigenous organic matter to recent sediments. While the absence of unstable amino acids and the presence of racemic amino acids in a sample may preclude very recent contamination, the possibility of retardation of amino acid racemization rates subsequent to geopolymer formation must also be considered. Studies of amino acids in Paleozoic, Mesozoic and early Cenozoic age samples are limited. Precambrian samples, however, have received much attention, given the potential (however slight) for isolating compounds representative of the earliest living systems. A future approach for elucidating the origin(s) of amino acids in ancient samples may be analyses of their individual stable isotopic compositions.

  12. EFFECT OF ACIDITY ON SECONDARY ORGANIC AEROSOL FORMATION FROM ISOPRENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle-phase acidity on secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from isoprene is investigated in a laboratory chamber study, in which the acidity of the inorganic seed aerosol was controlled systematically. The observed enhancement in SOA mass concentration is c...

  13. Perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid--a catalyst for certain organic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Etlis, V.S.; Beshenova, E.P.; Semenova, E.A.; Shomina, F.N.; Dreiman, N.A.; Balaev, G.A.

    1986-09-10

    The purpose of this work was to examine the possibility of using, as a catalyst in certain organic reactions, the perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid F-4SK in the H form, which is an analog of the perfluorinated resinsulfonic acid Nafion-H.

  14. Transformation of organic and inorganic compounds in trifluoroacetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishnetskaya, M. V.; Mel'nikov, M. Ya.

    2016-09-01

    It is established that the effectiveness of fluorine-containing acids in the transformation of organic and inorganic substrates is due to the ability of the acid to perform several functions: to accumulate relatively high concentrations of molecular oxygen, to activate it, and to serve as a hydrogen-containing medium.

  15. Acoustic properties of organic acid mixtures in water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macavei, I.; Petrisor, V.; Auslaender, D.

    1974-01-01

    The variation of the rate of propagation of ultrasounds in organic acid mixtures in water points to structural changes caused by interactions that take place under conditions of thermal agitation, at different acid concentrations. At the same time, a difference is found in the changes in velocity as a function of the length of the carbon chain of the acids in the mixture as a result of their effect on the groups of water molecules associated by hydrogen bonds.

  16. Interaction of Humic Acids with Organic Toxicants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchaikovskaya, O. N.; Yudina, N. V.; Maltseva, E. V.; Nechaev, L. V.; Svetlichnyi, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    Interaction of humic acids with polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (naphthalene and anthracene) and triazole series fungicides (cyproconazole (CC) and tebuconazole (TC)) is investigated by the method of fluorescence quenching depending on the concentration of substances in solutions and their structural features. Humic acids were modified by mechanochemical activation in a planetary mill. The complex character of intermolecular interactions between PAH and fungicides with humic acids, including donor-acceptor and hydrophobic binding, is established. Thermodynamically stable conformations of biocide molecules were estimated using ChemOffice CS Chem3D 8.0 by methods of molecular mechanics (MM2) and molecular dynamics. Biocide molecules with pH 7 are in energetically favorable position when the benzene and triazole rings are almost parallel to each other. After acidification of solutions to pH 4.5, the CC molecule retains the geometry for which donor-acceptor interactions are possible: the benzene ring in the molecule represents the electron donor, and triazole is the acceptor. In this case, the electron density in CC is redistributed easier, which is explained by a smaller number of carbon atoms between the triazole and benzene rings, unlike TC. As a result, the TC triazole ring is protonated to a greater degree, acquiring a positive charge, and enters into donoracceptor interactions with humic acid (HA) samples. The above-indicated bond types allow HA to participate actively in sorption processes and to provide their interaction with biocides and PAH and hence, to act as detoxifying agents for recultivation of the polluted environment.

  17. Metabolic evolution of Escherichia coli strains that produce organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Grabar, Tammy; Gong, Wei; Yocum, R Rogers

    2014-10-28

    This invention relates to the metabolic evolution of a microbial organism previously optimized for producing an organic acid in commercially significant quantities under fermentative conditions using a hexose sugar as sole source of carbon in a minimal mineral medium. As a result of this metabolic evolution, the microbial organism acquires the ability to use pentose sugars derived from cellulosic materials for its growth while retaining the original growth kinetics, the rate of organic acid production and the ability to use hexose sugars as a source of carbon. This invention also discloses the genetic change in the microorganism that confers the ability to use both the hexose and pentose sugars simultaneously in the production of commercially significant quantities of organic acids.

  18. Reactions Between Water Soluble Organic Acids and Nitrates in Atmospheric Aerosols: Recycling of Nitric Acid and Formation of Organic Salts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander

    2014-03-25

    Atmospheric particles often include a complex mixture of nitrate and secondary organic materials accumulated within the same individual particles. Nitrate as an important inorganic component can be chemically formed in the atmosphere. For instance, formation of sodium nitrate (NaNO3) and calcium nitrate Ca(NO3)2 when nitrogen oxide and nitric acid (HNO3) species react with sea salt and calcite, respectively. Organic acids contribute a significant fraction of photochemically formed secondary organics that can condense on the preexisting nitrate-containing particles. Here, we present a systematic microanalysis study on chemical composition of laboratory generated particles composed of water soluble organic acids and nitrates (i.e. NaNO3 and Ca(NO3)2) investigated using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (micro-FTIR). The results show that water-soluble organic acids can react with nitrates releasing gaseous HNO3 during dehydration process. These reactions are attributed to acid displacement of nitrate with weak organic acids driven by the evaporation of HNO3 into gas phase due to its relatively high volatility. The reactions result in significant nitrate depletion and formation of organic salts in mixed organic acids/nitrate particles that in turn may affect their physical and chemical properties relevant to atmospheric environment and climate. Airborne nitrate concentrations are estimated by thermodynamic calculations corresponding to various nitrate depletions in selected organic acids of atmospheric relevance. The results indicate a potential mechanism of HNO3 recycling, which may further affect concentrations of gas- and aerosol-phase species in the atmosphere and the heterogeneous reaction chemistry between them.

  19. Organic Acids Over Equatorial Africa: Results from DECAFE 88

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helas, Günter; Bingemer, Heinz; Andreae, Meinrat O.

    1992-04-01

    Gaseous short chain organic acids were measured during the dry season (February) in and above the rain forest of the northern Congo. Samples were taken at ground level and during several flights up to 4 km altitude. The organic acids were concentrated from the atmosphere by using "mist scrubbers," which expose a mist of deionized water to the air to be probed. The organic acids absorbed in the water were subsequently analyzed by ion chromatography. Formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids were identified in the samples. At ground level, average mixing ratios of gaseous formic and acetic acid of 0.5±0.6 and 0.6±0.7 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) (1 s), respectively, were found. Boundary layer mixing ratios, however, were significantly higher (3.7±1.0 and 2.7±0.9 ppbv). This indicates a downward net flux of these atmospheric trace components from the boundary layer to the surface. Free tropospheric samples taken above the cloud convection layer show lower mixing ratios again (0.9±0.3 and 0.7±0.1 ppbv). On the basis of this vertical distribution, direct emission by vegetation is not considered to be the dominant source. Biomass burning and photochemical oxidation of biogenic precursors are the major processes contributing to the enhancement of organic acids observed in the boundary layer. The organic acids parallel the profiles of ozone and CO, which suggests that their generation processes are closely related. Pyruvic acid is not correlated with formic acid, indicating that the oxidation of isoprene is not of major importance. In emissions from biomass fires, CO correlates well with formic and acetic acid, and thus some of the enhancement of organic acids in the boundary layer can be explained due to burning. However, an additional gas phase source for organic acids must exist to explain the observed ratio of formic to acetic acid. This is most likely the ozonolysis of olefins which were released as pyrolysis products from biomass burning.

  20. Value-added lipid production from brown seaweed biomass by two-stage fermentation using acetic acid bacterium and thraustochytrid.

    PubMed

    Arafiles, Kim Hazel V; Iwasaka, Hiroaki; Eramoto, Yuri; Okamura, Yoshiko; Tajima, Takahisa; Matsumura, Yukihiko; Nakashimada, Yutaka; Aki, Tsunehiro

    2014-11-01

    Thraustochytrid production of polyunsaturated fatty acids and xanthophylls have been generally sourced from crop-derived substrates, making the exploration of alternative feedstocks attractive since they promise increased sustainability and lower production costs. In this study, a distinct two-stage fermentation system was conceptualized for the first time, using the brown seaweed sugar mannitol as substrate for the intermediary biocatalyst Gluconobacter oxydans, an acetic acid bacterium, along with the marine thraustochytrid Aurantiochytrium sp. to produce the value-added lipids and xanthophylls. Jar fermenter culture resulted in seaweed mannitol conversion to fructose with an efficiency of 83 % by G. oxydans and, after bacteriostasis with sea salts, production of astaxanthin and docosahexaenoic acid by Aurantiochytrium sp. KH105. Astaxanthin productivity was high at 3.60 mg/L/day. This new system, therefore, widens possibilities of obtaining more varieties of industrially valuable products including foods, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and biofuel precursor lipids from seaweed fermentation upon the use of suitable thraustochytrid strains.

  1. Effect of baking process on added folic acid and endogenous folates stability in wheat and rye breads.

    PubMed

    Gujska, Elzbieta; Majewska, Katarzyna

    2005-06-01

    In Poland bread as a staple food both made from wheat and rye flour can be a potential product for future fortification with folic acid. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of fermentation and baking on added folic acid and some endogenous folates stability during breadmaking of rye and wheat breads. Breads were produced using the formulation containing enriched flour with 0.2 mg folic acid/100 g product, baker's yeast and additionally ascorbic acid for wheat bread and lactic acid for rye bread. Folates were extracted with Hepes/Ches buffer (pH = 7.85) followed by destruction of matrix by amylase and protease and deconjugation with rat serum conjugase. Affinity chromatography (FBP bovine milk) was used to purify and concentrate samples. The folates were separated by HPLC with C18 column and with a combination of fluorescence and UV detection. For both rye and wheat breads there was a decrease of folic acid from flour to bread stage. The total losses depend on baking process and ranged from 12 to 21%. Some changes in the level of different native folate forms during the stage of baking process were also observed.

  2. Microbial production of organic acids: expanding the markets.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Michael; Porro, Danilo; Mattanovich, Diethard; Branduardi, Paola

    2008-02-01

    Microbial production of organic acids is a promising approach for obtaining building-block chemicals from renewable carbon sources. Although some acids have been produced for some time and in-depth knowledge of these microbial production processes has been gained, further microbial production processes seem to be feasible, but large-scale production has not yet been possible. Citric, lactic and succinic acid production exemplify three processes in different stages of industrial development. Although the questions being addressed by current research on these processes are diverging, a comparison is helpful for understanding microbial organic acid production in general. In this article, through analysis of the current advances in production of these acids, we present guidelines for future developments in this fast-moving field. PMID:18191255

  3. Habituation to organic acid anions induces resistance to acid and bile in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yimin; Carpenter, Charles E; Broadbent, Jeff R; Luo, Xin

    2014-03-01

    We evaluated the intrinsic and inducible resistance of four human pathogenic strains of Listeria monocytogenes to acid and bile, factors associated with virulence. Cells were grown in media at pH 7.4, or in media at pH 6.0 containing 0 (HCl control) or 4.75 mM of different organic acids, harvested at stationary or mid log phase, and challenged for 1h in acid or bile. Stationary phase cells were intrinsically more resistant to either challenge than log phase cells, and large differences between strains were evident among the latter. Compared to the HCl control, habituation to log phase with organic acids induced significant (p<0.05) and meaningful (≥1 log) increases in acid resistance of three of four strains tested, and in bile resistance of two strains suggesting that exposure to organic acid anions may enhance virulence in L. monocytogenes.

  4. A Model of Adding Relations in Multi-levels to a Formal Organization Structure with Two Subordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Kiyoshi; Amano, Kazuyuki

    2009-10-01

    This paper proposes a model of adding relations in multi-levels to a formal organization structure with two subordinates such that the communication of information between every member in the organization becomes the most efficient. When edges between every pair of nodes with the same depth in L (L = 1, 2, …, H) levels are added to a complete binary tree of height H, an optimal set of depths {N1, N2, …, NL} (H⩾N1>N2> …>NL⩾1) is obtained by maximizing the total shortening path length which is the sum of shortening lengths of shortest paths between every pair of all nodes in the complete binary tree. It is shown that {N1, N2, …, NL}* = {H, H-1, …, H-L+1}.

  5. Survival of the functional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 in fermented milk with added sorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Tabanelli, G; Verardo, V; Pasini, F; Cavina, P; Lanciotti, R; Caboni, M F; Gardini, F; Montanari, C

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the survival of the functional yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus B0399 in an industrially produced fermented milk was evaluated. In particular, the yeast viability was assessed throughout the entire shelf-life of the product (30 d) to ensure the presence of the effective yeast dose (20 million viable cells for each serving of 125 g) while avoiding, by sorbic acid addition, yeast growth, which could affect product quality and stability. To find the best combination of yeast and sorbic acid concentration, 13 different combinations were tested, and then 2 of them were chosen for industrial production. In production at lower concentrations (30 million viable cells, 150 mg/kg of sorbic acid) the effective dose was maintained only at 4 and 6°C, whereas at higher dosages (70 million viable cells, 250 mg/kg of sorbic acid) the effect of temperature was less evident. In all the trials, the concentration of sorbic acid was not affected by microbial metabolism and remained stable throughout the entire shelf-life. PMID:26547644

  6. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  7. The Roles of Organic Acids in C4 Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ludwig, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Organic acids are involved in numerous metabolic pathways in all plants. The finding that some plants, known as C4 plants, have four-carbon dicarboxylic acids as the first product of carbon fixation showed these organic acids play essential roles as photosynthetic intermediates. Oxaloacetate (OAA), malate, and aspartate (Asp) are substrates for the C4 acid cycle that underpins the CO2 concentrating mechanism of C4 photosynthesis. In this cycle, OAA is the immediate, short-lived, product of the initial CO2 fixation step in C4 leaf mesophyll cells. The malate and Asp, resulting from the rapid conversion of OAA, are the organic acids delivered to the sites of carbon reduction in the bundle-sheath cells of the leaf, where they are decarboxylated, with the released CO2 used to make carbohydrates. The three-carbon organic acids resulting from the decarboxylation reactions are returned to the mesophyll cells where they are used to regenerate the CO2 acceptor pool. NADP-malic enzyme-type, NAD-malic enzyme-type, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type C4 plants were identified, based on the most abundant decarboxylating enzyme in the leaf tissue. The genes encoding these C4 pathway-associated decarboxylases were co-opted from ancestral C3 plant genes during the evolution of C4 photosynthesis. Malate was recognized as the major organic acid transferred in NADP-malic enzyme-type C4 species, while Asp fills this role in NAD-malic enzyme-type and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase-type plants. However, accumulating evidence indicates that many C4 plants use a combination of organic acids and decarboxylases during CO2 fixation, and the C4-type categories are not rigid. The ability to transfer multiple organic acid species and utilize different decarboxylases has been suggested to give C4 plants advantages in changing and stressful environments, as well as during development, by facilitating the balance of energy between the two cell types involved in the C4 pathway of CO2

  8. Organic acid contents in onion cultivars (Allium cepa L.).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Galdón, Beatriz; Tascón Rodríguez, Catalina; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena; Díaz Romero, Carlos

    2008-08-13

    The following organic acids (glutamic, oxalic, pyruvic, malic, tartaric, citric, and fumaric), pungency, Brix degree, acidity, and pH were determined in onion cultivars (Texas, Guayonje, San Juan de la Rambla, Carrizal Alto, Carrizal Bajo, and Masca) harvested in the same agroclimatic conditions. Glutamic acid was the most abundant organic acid (325 +/- 133 mg/100 g) followed by citric acid (48.5 +/- 24.1 mg/100 g) and malic acid (43.6 +/- 10.4 mg/100 g). There were significant differences between the onion cultivars in the mean concentrations of all of the analyzed parameters. The San Juan de la Rambla and Masca cultivars presented, in general, higher concentrations of the organic acids than the other cultivars. Significant differences in most of the analyzed parameters were observed between the two seed origins for the Masca and San Juan de la Rambla cultivars. The onion samples tended to be classified according to the cultivar and, in the case of San Juan de la Rambla cultivar, according to the precedence of the seeds after applying discriminant analysis. PMID:18616262

  9. [Inhibition of Low Molecular Organic Acids on the Activity of Acidithiobacillus Species and Its Effect on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soil].

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-wei; Wang, He-rul; Cao, Yan-xiao; Li, Fei; Cui, Chun-hong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-15

    Application of organic fertilizer can reduce the solubility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil, but in the flooded anaerobic environment, organic fertilizer will be decomposed to produce a large number of low molecular organic acids, which can inhibit the biological activity of Acidithiobacillus species. Batch cultures studies showed that the monocarboxylic organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid exhibited a marked toxicity to Acidithiobacillus species, as indicated by that 90% of inhibitory rate for Fe2 and So oxidation in 72 h were achieved at extremely low concentrations of 41.2 mg · L⁻¹, 78.3 mg · L⁻¹, 43.2 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ and 81.9 mg 230. 4 mg · L⁻¹, 170.1 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ respectively. Of these organic acids, formic acid was the most toxic one as indicated by that Fe2 and So oxidation was almost entirely inhibited at a low concentration. In addition, it was found that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was more sensitive to low molecular organic acids than Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. What's more, there was little effect on biological acidification process of heavy metal contaminated soil when organic acids were added at initial stage (Oh), but it was completely inhibited when these acids were added after 12 h of conventional biological acidification, thus decreasing the efficiency of heavy metals dissolution from soil.

  10. The biohydrogenation of α-linoleic acid and oleic acid by rumen micro-organisms

    PubMed Central

    Wilde, P. F.; Dawson, R. M. C.

    1966-01-01

    1. α-[U-14C]Linolenic acid was incubated with the rumen contents of sheep and the metabolic products were characterized by thin-layer chromatography, gas–liquid chromatography and absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared. 2. A tentative scheme for the biohydrogenation route to stearic acid is presented. The main pathway is through diconjugated cis–cis–cis-octadecatrienoic acid, non-conjugated trans–cis (cis–trans)-octadecadienoic acid and trans-octadecenoic acid, but other pathways are apparent. 3. Washed rumen micro-organisms possessed only a limited capacity to hydrogenate α-linolenic acid and oleic acid but the rate was greatly stimulated by a factor(s) present in the supernatant rumen liquor. 4. Pure cultures of Clostridium perfringens, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and a coliform organism isolated from sheep faeces possessed negligible ability to hydrogenate unsaturated fatty acids compared with a mixed population of rumen micro-organisms. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens slowly converted linoleic acid into octadecenoic acid. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:4287407

  11. Organic acids induce tolerance to zinc- and copper-exposed fungi under various growth conditions.

    PubMed

    Sazanova, Katerina; Osmolovskaya, Natalia; Schiparev, Sergey; Yakkonen, Kirill; Kuchaeva, Ludmila; Vlasov, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    Heavy metals, Zn and Cu, in high concentration (2 mM for Zn and 0.5 mM for Cu) have some inhibiting effect on the growth of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium citrinum. Toxic effects of these metals considerably depend on cultivation conditions including nitrogen sources, pH of nutrient media, and its consistency (presence or absence of agar). In general, nitrate media provides less inhibiting effect on fungal growth under heavy metal exposure than ammonium-containing media. Adding of Zn in nitrate media induces oxalic acid production by fungi. Importance of oxalic acid production in detoxification of heavy metals is confirmed by the formation of Zn-containing crystals in fungal cultures. Cu bringing to the cultural media had no stimulating effect on oxalic acid production as well as no copper-containing crystals were observed. But proceeding from essential increase in oxalic acid production during a long-term fungi adaptation to Cu, it may be proposed that oxalic acid plays some functional role in Cu tolerance of fungi as well. It may be concluded that the role of organic acids and oxalate, in particular, in fungi tolerance and adaptation to heavy metals can be determined by the nature of the metal and its ability to form stable complexes with an acid anion. Stimulating effect of metals on acid production is not universal for all species of fungi and largely depends on metal concentration, nitrogen form in a medium, and other cultivation conditions.

  12. Starch Modification by Organic Acids and Their Derivatives: A Review.

    PubMed

    Ačkar, Đurđica; Babić, Jurislav; Jozinović, Antun; Miličević, Borislav; Jokić, Stela; Miličević, Radoslav; Rajič, Marija; Šubarić, Drago

    2015-10-27

    Starch has been an inexhaustible subject of research for many decades. It is an inexpensive, readily-available material with extensive application in the food and processing industry. Researchers are continually trying to improve its properties by different modification procedures and expand its application. What is mostly applied in this view are their chemical modifications, among which organic acids have recently drawn the greatest attention, particularly with respect to the application of starch in the food industry. Namely, organic acids naturally occur in many edible plants and many of them are generally recognized as safe (GRAS), which make them ideal modification agents for starch intended for the food industry. The aim of this review is to give a short literature overview of the progress made in the research of starch esterification, etherification, cross-linking, and dual modification with organic acids and their derivatives.

  13. Neutralization of an acidic surface mine lake using organic additives. Final research report, 1 July 1991-1 October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brugam, R.B.

    1993-10-01

    We added 9.1 metric tons of manure to a pH 2.9 acid coal mine lake in Southern Illinois to test whether the added organic matter would support sulfate and iron reduction by anaerobic bacteria resulting in the production of alkalinity and a rise in pH. The added organic matter did cause a rise in pH in the deep water of the lake, but the effect did not increase the pH of the whole lake. Experiments in laboratory microcosms at 23 C show that lake sediment treated with manure can permanently raise the pH of acid mine drainage. In the open lake diffusion of oxygen into the anaerobic zones of the water column and low water temperatures in the winter limited the effects of sulfate and iron reduction to the deep water of the lake during summer thermal stratification.

  14. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Ruziye; Cagri-Mehmetoglu, Arzu

    2013-01-01

    Sorbic acid (SA) and benzoic acid (BA) were determined in yoghurt, tomato and pepper paste, fruit juices, chocolates, soups and chips in Turkey by using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Levels were compared with Turkish Food Codex limits. SA was detected only in 2 of 21 yoghurt samples, contrary to BA, which was found in all yoghurt samples but one, ranging from 10.5 to 159.9 mg/kg. Both SA and BA were detected also in 3 and 6 of 23 paste samples in a range of 18.1-526.4 and 21.7-1933.5 mg/kg, respectively. Only 1 of 23 fruit juices contained BA. SA was not detected in any chips, fruit juice, soup, or chocolate sample. Although 16.51% of the samples was not compliant with the Turkish Food Codex limits, estimated daily intake of BA or SA was below the acceptable daily intake.

  15. Using organic acids to diagnose and manage recalcitrant patients.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Sherry A

    2006-01-01

    "Organic acids" refers to a broad class of compounds used in fundamental metabolic processes of the body. They provide valuable clues about functional nutrient deficiencies, mitochondrial energy production, intestinal dysbiosis, free radical overload, and more, including where to start when diagnosing a patient with complicated symptoms. Organic acids present a whole new exciting world of therapeutic options. They are one of the tools that enable us to identify and correct the underlying causes of disease, and not merely temporarily suppress symptoms with pharmaceuticals. The sicker the patient, the more they need this intervention: half the patients in intensive care units were found to be nutrient-deficient in studies that look at only 1 or a few of the many nutrients. Studies show that a patient's outcome is more dismal and his chances of dying are greater as undiagnosed nutrient deficiencies mount. Furthermore, studies confirm that giving pennies' worth of antioxidants to patients in intensive care can cut the death rate in half. What drug can accomplish this, much less for pennies a day? Doesn't it make more sense to individually determine the patients' deficiencies and correct them? Combined with companion tests of intracellular minerals, toxic elements (heavy metals), fatty acids, vitamins, and amino acids, organic acids testing can clearly indicate health challenges the patient will face in the future. In many cases, they are correctable and curable. This article explored only 5 categories of organic acids out of more than 9 and 29 organic acids out of more than 47. For physicians who want more information, there are several resources available. This knowledge, along with biochemical knowledge and patient experience, can further empower physicians to help truly heal their patients.

  16. Metabolic engineering in the biotechnological production of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid cycle of microorganisms: Advances and prospects.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xian; Li, Jianghua; Shin, Hyun-Dong; Du, Guocheng; Liu, Long; Chen, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, which are chemically synthesized, are also natural intermediates in the metabolic pathways of microorganisms, among which the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is the most crucial route existing in almost all living organisms. Organic acids in the TCA cycle include citric acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, l-malic acid, and oxaloacetate, which are building-block chemicals with wide applications and huge markets. In this review, we summarize the synthesis pathways of these organic acids and review recent advances in metabolic engineering strategies that enhance organic acid production. We also propose further improvements for the production of organic acids with systems and synthetic biology-guided metabolic engineering strategies.

  17. Influence of dissolved organic carbon content on modelling natural organic matter acid-base properties.

    PubMed

    Garnier, Cédric; Mounier, Stéphane; Benaïm, Jean Yves

    2004-10-01

    Natural organic matter (NOM) behaviour towards proton is an important parameter to understand NOM fate in the environment. Moreover, it is necessary to determine NOM acid-base properties before investigating trace metals complexation by natural organic matter. This work focuses on the possibility to determine these acid-base properties by accurate and simple titrations, even at low organic matter concentrations. So, the experiments were conducted on concentrated and diluted solutions of extracted humic and fulvic acid from Laurentian River, on concentrated and diluted model solutions of well-known simple molecules (acetic and phenolic acids), and on natural samples from the Seine river (France) which are not pre-concentrated. Titration experiments were modelled by a 6 acidic-sites discrete model, except for the model solutions. The modelling software used, called PROSECE (Programme d'Optimisation et de SpEciation Chimique dans l'Environnement), has been developed in our laboratory, is based on the mass balance equilibrium resolution. The results obtained on extracted organic matter and model solutions point out a threshold value for a confident determination of the studied organic matter acid-base properties. They also show an aberrant decreasing carboxylic/phenolic ratio with increasing sample dilution. This shift is neither due to any conformational effect, since it is also observed on model solutions, nor to ionic strength variations which is controlled during all experiments. On the other hand, it could be the result of an electrode troubleshooting occurring at basic pH values, which effect is amplified at low total concentration of acidic sites. So, in our conditions, the limit for a correct modelling of NOM acid-base properties is defined as 0.04 meq of total analysed acidic sites concentration. As for the analysed natural samples, due to their high acidic sites content, it is possible to model their behaviour despite the low organic carbon concentration.

  18. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. PMID:23199277

  19. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-03-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, L- and D-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers.

  20. Fatty acids profile and alteration of lemon seeds extract (Citrus limon) added to soybean oil under thermoxidation.

    PubMed

    Luzia, Débora Maria Moreno; Jorge, Neuza

    2013-10-01

    This paper aimed at evaluating fatty acids profile and the total alteration of lemon seeds extract added to soybean oil under thermoxidation, verifying the isolated and synergistic effect of these antioxidants. Therefore, Control treatments, LSE (2,400 mg/kg Lemon Seeds Extract), TBHQ (mg/kg), Mixture 1 (LSE + 50 mg/kg TBHQ) and Mixture 2 (LSE + 25 mg/kg TBHQ) were subjected to 180°C for 20 h. Samples were taken at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 h intervals and analyzed as for fatty acid profile and total polar compounds. Results were subjected to variance analyses and Tukey tests at a 5% significance level. An increase in the percentage of saturated fatty acids and mono-unsaturated, and decrease in polyunsaturated fatty acids was observed, regardless of the treatments studied. For total polar compounds, it was verified that Mixtures 1 and 2 presented values lower than 25% with 20 h of heating, not surpassing the limits established in many countries for disposal of oils and fats under high temperatures, thus proving the synergistic effect of antioxidants. PMID:24426004

  1. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-01

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  2. Organics Characterization Of DWPF Alternative Reductant Simulants, Glycolic Acid, And Antifoam 747

    SciTech Connect

    White, T. L.; Wiedenman, B. J.; Lambert, D. P.; Crump, S. L.; Fondeur, F. F.; Papathanassiu, A. E.; Kot, W. K.; Pegg, I. L.

    2013-10-01

    The present study examines the fate of glycolic acid and other organics added in the Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) as part of the glycolic alternate flowsheet. Adoption of this flowsheet is expected to provide certain benefits in terms of a reduction in the processing time, a decrease in hydrogen generation, simplification of chemical storage and handling issues, and an improvement in the processing characteristics of the waste stream including an increase in the amount of nitrate allowed in the CPC process. Understanding the fate of organics in this flowsheet is imperative because tank farm waste processed in the CPC is eventually immobilized by vitrification; thus, the type and amount of organics present in the melter feed may affect optimal melt processing and the quality of the final glass product as well as alter flammability calculations on the DWPF melter off gas. To evaluate the fate of the organic compounds added as the part of the glycolic flowsheet, mainly glycolic acid and antifoam 747, samples of simulated waste that was processed using the DWPF CPC protocol for tank farm sludge feed were generated and analyzed for organic compounds using a variety of analytical techniques at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). These techniques included Ion Chromatography (IC), Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectroscopy. A set of samples were also sent to the Catholic University of America Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for analysis by NMR Spectroscopy at the University of Maryland, College Park. Analytical methods developed and executed at SRNL collectively showed that glycolic acid was the most prevalent organic compound in the supernatants of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) products examined. Furthermore, the studies suggested that commercially available glycolic acid contained minor amounts

  3. Cobalt concentration effect in Pt 1- xCo x on the reversible potential for forming OH ads from H 2O ads in acid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roques, Jérôme; Anderson, Alfred B.

    2005-05-01

    We present results of a periodic spin-density-functional theory study of the effect of the cobalt concentration in Pt x-1 Co x surfaces on the reversible potential for forming OH(ads) from H 2O(ads). Adsorbed OH is recognized as a poison to oxygen cathodes that contributes to the high O 2 reduction overpotential. Five surface compositions with a cobalt concentration of 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% were studied, and these surfaces were covered with a monolayer Pt skin. The OH(ads) formation potential was found to depend significantly on the sub-surface composition. Alloying platinum with cobalt atoms led to an increasingly positive shift of the reversible potential for forming OH(ads), as the amount of cobalt is increased. Beyond 75% cobalt concentration the effect levels off. Experimentally, the Pt 3Co alloy has been well studied and is believed to be covered by a Pt skin and the potential for OH(ads) formation on it, from water oxidation, is shifted positive. The present theoretical results suggest that if Pt skins form on alloys more concentrated in Co than Pt 3Co, the positive shift in the potential for OH(ads) formation will be greater and, on an oxygen cathode in a fuel cell, the overpotential for O 2 reduction will be even less.

  4. Utilisation of single added fatty acids by consortia of digester sludge in batch culture

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Andreas Otto; Gstrauntaler, Gudrun; Illmer, Paul

    2010-10-15

    Inocula derived from an anaerobic digester were used to study (i) their potential for methane production and (ii) the utilisation rates of different short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) by the microbial community in defined media with mono-carbon sources (formic-, acetetic-, propionic-, butyric acid) in batch culture. It could be demonstrated that the microbial reactor population could be transferred successfully to the lab, and its ability to build up methane was present even with deteriorating biogas plant performance. Therefore, this reduction in performance of the biogas plant was not due to a decrease in abundance, but due to an inactivity of the microbial community. Generally, the physico-chemical properties of the biogas plant seemed to favour hydrogenotrophic methanogens, as seen by the high metabolisation rates of formate compared with all other carbon sources. In contrast, acetoclastic methanogenesis could be shown to play a minor role in the methane production of the investigated biogas plant, although the origin of up to 66% of methane is generally suggested to be generated through acetoclastic pathway.

  5. Promoted degradation of perfluorooctanic acid by persulfate when adding activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yu-Chi; Lo, Shang-Lien; Kuo, Jeff; Huang, Chin-Pao

    2013-10-15

    Treatment of persistent perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in water using persulfate (PS) oxidation typically requires an elevated temperature or UV irradiation, which is energy-consuming. Under relatively low temperatures of 25-45°C, activated carbon (AC) activated PS oxidation of PFOA was evaluated for its potential of practical applications. With presence of AC in PS oxidation, PFOA removal efficiency at 25°C reached 682% with a high defluorination efficiency of 549% after 12h and few intermediates of short-chain perfluorinated carboxylic acids (PFCAs) were found. The removal and defluorination rates with the combined AC/PS system were approximately 12 and 19 times higher than those of the PS-only system, respectively. Activated carbon not only removes PFOA through adsorption, but also activates PS to form sulfate radicals that accelerate the decomposition and mineralization of PFOA. The activation energy for PS oxidation of PFOA was reduced from 668 to 261kJ/mol by the catalytic effect of AC, which implies a lower reaction temperature and a shorter reaction time would suffice. A 2-cycle schematic reaction mechanism was used to describe PS oxidation of PFOA with the generation of various intermediates and end-products.

  6. Docosahexaenoic acid triglyceride-based microemulsions with an added dendrimer - Structural considerations.

    PubMed

    Lidich, Nina; Francesca Ottaviani, M; Hoffman, Roy E; Aserin, Abraham; Garti, Nissim

    2016-12-01

    Omega fatty acids, mainly the triglyceride of docosahexaenoic acid (TG-DHA), are considered important nutraceuticals. These compounds are water-insoluble and their transport across membranes depends on their carriers. Dendrimers are known as drug carriers across cell membranes and also as permeation enhancers. The solubilization of TG-DHA and dendrimer into a microemulsion (ME) system serving as a carrier could be used for a targeted delivery in the future. The interactions between TG-DHA and second generation poly(propyleneimine) dendrimers (PPI-G2) and their effect on structural transitions of ME were explored along the water dilution line using electron paramagnetic resonance and pulsed-gradient spin-echo NMR along with other analytical techniques. The microviscosity, order parameter, and micropolarity of all studied systems decrease upon water dilution. Incorporation of TG-DHA reduces the microviscosity, order, and micropolarity, whereas PPI-G2 leads to an increase in these parameters. The effect of PPI-G2 is more pronounced at relative high contents (1 and 5wt%) where PPI-G2 interacts with the hydrophilic headgroups of the surfactants. In the macroscale, the effects of TG-DHA and PPI-G2 differ mostly in the bicontinuous region, where macroviscosity increases upon TG-DHA incorporation and decreases upon solubilization of 5wt% PPI-G2. From DSC measurements it was concluded that in the presence of TG-DHA the PPI-G2 is intercalated easily at the interface. PMID:27571688

  7. Structure of seven organic salts assembled from 2,6-diaminopyridine with monocarboxylic acids, dicarboxylic acids, and tetracarboxylic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xingjun; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Bin; Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Daqi

    2015-08-01

    Studies concentrating on non-covalent interactions between the organic base of 2,6-diaminopyridine, and carboxylic acids have led to an increased understanding of the role 2,6-diaminopyridine in binding with carboxylic acid derivatives. Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the carboxylic acids as nicotinic acid, o-chlorobenzoic acid, 1,3-benzodioxole-5-carboxylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, 4-nitro-phthalic acid, 1,4-cyclohexanedicarboxylic acid, and butane-1,2,3,4-tetracarboxylic acid. The seven crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. All structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthons. The supramolecular architectures bear extensive Nsbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯N, Osbnd H⋯O, Nsbnd H⋯O, and CH⋯O associations as well as other nonbonding contacts as CHsbnd N, CH2sbnd O, π-π, C-π, O-π, Cl-π, Clsbnd O, and Osbnd O interactions. The role of weak and strong hydrogen bonding in the crystal packing is ascertained.

  8. [Simultaneous separation of organic acid and organic salts by electrostatic ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Shen, G J; Yang, R F; Yu, A M

    2001-09-01

    The electrostatic ion chromatographic column was prepared by coating conjugated acid salt micelles on the surface of octadecyl silica stationary phase. Pure water was used as mobile phase, and the conductance detector was connected on-line to electrostatic ion chromatograph. The conditions under which organic acid and organic salts were detected were studied. The mechanism for the above separation is discussed. Sodium benzoate and citric acid in Lichee drink were separated and determined. This method is rapid, simple with little interference and good reproducibility without any pollution since the mobile phase is water. This is an environmental friendly analytical method. PMID:12545440

  9. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects.

  10. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawrence, G.B.; Sutherland, J.W.; Boylen, C.W.; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S. W.; Momen, B.; Baldigo, Barry P.; Simonin, H.A.

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg 2+, Na+, and K+, minus SO42-, NO3-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and NO 3-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  11. Acid rain effects on aluminum mobilization clarified by inclusion of strong organic acids.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, G B; Sutherland, J W; Boylen, C W; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S W; Momen, B; Baldigo, B P; Simonin, H A

    2007-01-01

    Assessments of acidic deposition effects on aquatic ecosystems have often been hindered by complications from naturally occurring organic acidity. Measurements of pH and ANCG, the most commonly used indicators of chemical effects, can be substantially influenced by the presence of organic acids. Relationships between pH and inorganic Al, which is toxic to many forms of aquatic biota, are also altered by organic acids. However, when inorganic Al concentrations are plotted against ANC (the sum of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, and K+, minus S042-, N03-, and Cl-), a distinct threshold for Al mobilization becomes apparent. If the concentration of strong organic anions is included as a negative component of ANC, the threshold occurs at an ANC value of approximately zero, the value expected from theoretical charge balance constraints. This adjusted ANC is termed the base-cation surplus. The threshold relationship between the base-cation surplus and Al was shown with data from approximately 200 streams in the Adirondack region of New York, during periods with low and high dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and for an additional stream from the Catskill region of New York. These results indicate that (1) strong organic anions can contribute to the mobilization of inorganic Al in combination with SO42- and N03-, and (2) the presence of inorganic Al in surface waters is an unambiguous indication of acidic deposition effects. PMID:17265932

  12. Formation of Organic Tracers for Isoprene SOA under Acidic Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    The chemical compositions of a series of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) samples, formed by irradiating mixtures of isoprene and NO in a smog chamber in the absence or presence of acidic aerosols, were analyzed using derivatization-based GC-MS methods. In addition to the known is...

  13. Bioactive Compost - A Value Added Compost with Microbial Inoculants and Organic Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavitha, R.; Subramanian, P.

    A study was conducted in the Department of Environmental Science, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, to transform the normal compost into bioactive compost through the addition of various substrates, which has multiple benefits to the crop system. The key players in this transformation process were Azotobacter, Pseudomonas, Phosphobacteria, composted poultry litter, rock phosphate and diluted spent wash. This enrichment process has increased the nutritive value of compost. The highest nitrogen content (1.75%) and phosphorus content (1.16%) was observed in the treatment T5 (compost enriched with composted poultry litter, spent wash, microbial inoculants and rock phosphate). The beneficial microorganism viz., Azotobacter, Pseudomonas and Phosphobacteria population were higher in the treatment T5 where all the inputs (composted poultry litter, microbial consortium, rock phosphate and spent wash) were added to the compost. The plant growth promoters viz., IAA and GA content was more in the treatment applied with spent wash and microbial inoculum. Beneficial microorganisms, composted poultry litter, rock phosphate and diluted spent wash contributes maximum level of nutrients and growth promoters to the compost with small expenses.

  14. Metabolism of Sugars and Organic Acids in Immature Grape Berries

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, P. J.

    1968-01-01

    Individual intact excised immature Sultana berries were supplied through the cut pedicel with 14C-sugars and organic acids. When 14C-hexoses were supplied malic and tartaric acids accounted for 25% and 10% of the total activity extracted after 24 hours, and sucrose was synthesized. It is proposed that the changes in the levels of organic acids during ripening are related to changes in the ability of the berry to synthesize them. Although administration of uniformly labeled sucrose resulted in the unequal labeling of glucose and fructose, the results indicate breakdown of sucrose by invertase. It is suggested that the route of entry of the pedicel-fed sugars into the berry may be different from the route taken by sugar translocated from the leaf. PMID:16656755

  15. Indoor air chemistry: Formation of organic acids and aldehydes

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.; Lioy, P.J. ||; Wilson, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Laying emphasis on the formation of aldehydes and organic acids, the study has examined the gas-phase reactions of ozone with unsaturated VOCs. The formation of formaldehyde and formic acid was observed for all the three selected unsaturated VOCs: styrene, limonene, and 4-vinylcyclohexene. In addition, benzaldehyde was detected in the styrene-ozone-air reaction system, and acetic acid was also found in limonene-ozone-air system. The study has also examined the gas-phase reactions among formaldehyde, ozone, and nitrogen dioxide and found the formation of formic acid. The nitrate radical was suggested to play an important role in converting formaldehyde into formic acid. Experiments for all the reactions were conducted by using a 4.3 m{sup 3} Teflon chamber. Since the conditions for the reactions were similar to those for indoor environments, the results from the study can be implicated to real indoor situations and can be employed to support the findings and suggestions from the previous studies: certain aldehydes and organic acids could be generated by indoor chemistry.

  16. Effect of pH and organic acids on nitrogen transformations and metal dissolution in soils

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Minhong.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of pH (4, 6, and 8) on nitrogen mineralization was evaluated in three Iowa surface soils treated with crop residues (corn (Zea mays L.), soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.), and sorghum (Sorghum vulgare Pers.), or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)) and incubated in leaching columns under aerobic conditions at 30C for 20 weeks. In general, N mineralization was significantly depressed at soil pH 4, compared with pH 6 or 8. The types of crop residues added influenced the pattern and amount of N mineralization. A study on the effect of 19 trace elements on the nitrate red activity of four Iowa surface soils showed that most trace elements inhibited this enzyme in acid and neutral soils. The trace elements Ag(I), Cd(II), Se(IV), As(V), and W(VI) were the most effective inhibitors, with >75% inhibition. Mn(II) was the least effective inhibitor, with <10% inhibition. Other trace elements included Cu(I), Co(II), Cu(II), Fe(II), Ni(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), Al(III), As(III), Cr(III), Fe(III), V(IV), Mo(VI), and Se(VI). The application of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that, when coupled to a refractive index detector, it is a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for determining organic acids in soils. Three organic acids, acetic (2-20 mM), propionic (0-3 mM), and n-butyric (0-1.4 mM), were identified with HPLC and confirmed by gas chromatography in crop-residue-treated soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 25C for 72 h. No organic acids were detected under aerobic conditions. Four mineral acids and 29 organic acids were studied for their effect on N mineralization and metal dissolution in soils incubated under waterlogged conditions at 30C for 10 days.

  17. Direct Capture of Organic Acids From Fermentation Media Using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Klasson, K.T.

    2004-11-03

    Several ionic liquids have been investigated for the extraction of organic acids from fermentation broth. Partitioning of representative organic acids (lactic, acetic, and succinic) between aqueous solution and nine hydrophobic ionic liquids was measured. The extraction efficiencies were strongly dependent on pH of the aqueous phase. Distribution coefficient was very good (approximately 60) at low succinic acid concentrations for one of the ionic liquids (trihexyltetradecylphosphonium methanesulfonate) at neutral pH. However, this ionic liquid had to be diluted with nonanol due to its high viscosity in order to be useful. A diluent (trioctylamine) was also added to this mixture. The results suggest that an extraction system based on ionic liquids may be feasible for succinic acid recovery from fermentation broth and that two ideal extraction stages are needed to reduce the concentration from 33 g/L to 1 g/L of succinic acid. Further studies are needed to evaluate other issues related to practical applications, including ionic liquid loss in the process, toxicity effects of ionic liquids during simultaneous fermentation and extractions.

  18. Monitoring of the fermentation media of citric acid by the trimethylsilyl derivatives of the organic acids formed.

    PubMed

    Ghassempour, Alireza; Nojavan, Saeed; Talebpour, Zahra; Amiri, Ali Asghar; Najafi, Nahid Mashkouri

    2004-10-20

    In this approach, a derivatization method is described for monitoring of organic acids in fermentation media without any separation step. The aqueous phase of fermentation media was evaporated and heated in a silylation reagent to form trimethylsilyl (TMS) derivatives. The silylated compounds are analyzed by 29Si nuclear magnetic resonance (29Si NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 29Si NMR can qualitatively monitor the components produced in the Krebs cycle. Quantification of these compounds is investigated by using selected ion monitoring mode of mass spectrometry. In this mode, mass to charge (m/z) values of their [M - 15]+ ions, which are 465, 275, 247, 221, 335, 251, and 313 of TMS derivatives of citric, alpha-ketoglutaric, succinic, fumaric, l-malic, oxaloacetic, and palmitic (as an internal standard), acids, respectively, are used. The limit of detection and the linear working range for derivatized citric acid were found to be 0.1 mg L(-1) and 10-3 x 10(4) mg L(-1). The relative standard deviation of the method for five replicates was 2.1%. The average recovery efficiency for citric acid added to culture media was approximately 97.2%. Quantitative results of GC-MS are compared with those obtained by an ultraviolet-visible method.

  19. Organic dopant added polyvinylidene fluoride based solid polymer electrolytes for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R. A.; Theerthagiri, J.; Madhavan, J.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of phenothiazine (PTZ) as dopant on PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was studied for the fabrication of efficient dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The different weight percentage (wt%) ratios (0, 20, 30, 40 and 50%) of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte films were prepared by solution casting method using DMF as a solvent. The following techniques such as Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and AC-impedance analysis have been employed to characterize the prepared polymer electrolyte films. The FT-IR studies revealed the complex formation between PVDF/KI/I2 and PTZ. The crystalline and amorphous nature of polymer electrolytes were confirmed by DSC and XRD analysis respectively. The ionic conductivities of polymer electrolyte films were calculated from the AC-impedance analysis. The undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited the ionic conductivity of 4.68×10-6 S cm-1 and this value was increased to 7.43×10-5 S cm-1 when PTZ was added to PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. On comparison with different wt% ratios, the maximum ionic conductivity was observed for 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte. A DSSC assembled with the optimized wt % of PTZ doped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 2.92%, than the undoped PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte (1.41%) at similar conditions. Hence, the 20% PTZ-PVDF/KI/I2 electrolyte was found to be optimal for DSSC applications.

  20. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components. PMID:26143651

  1. Influence of pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt.

    PubMed

    Akbaridoust, Ghazal; Plozza, Tim; Trenerry, V Craige; Wales, William J; Auldist, Martin J; Ajlouni, Said

    2015-08-01

    The influence of different pasture-based feeding systems on fatty acids, organic acids and volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt was studied. Pasture is the main source of nutrients for dairy cows in many parts of the world, including southeast Australia. Milk and milk products produced in these systems are known to contain a number of compounds with positive effects on human health. In the current study, 260 cows were fed supplementary grain and forage according to one of 3 different systems; Control (a traditional pasture based diet offered to the cows during milking and in paddock), PMR1 (a partial mixed ration which contained the same supplement as Control but was offered to the cows as a partial mixed ration on a feedpad), PMR 2 (a differently formulated partial mixed ration compared to Control and PMR1 which was offered to the cows on a feedpad). Most of the yoghurt fatty acids were influenced by feeding systems; however, those effects were minor on organic acids. The differences in feeding systems did not lead to the formation of different volatile organic flavour compounds in yoghurt. Yet, it did influence the relative abundance of these components.

  2. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.'' The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  3. Organic acid modeling and model validation: Workshop summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Eilers, J.M.

    1992-08-14

    A workshop was held in Corvallis, Oregon on April 9--10, 1992 at the offices of E&S Environmental Chemistry, Inc. The purpose of this workshop was to initiate research efforts on the entitled ``Incorporation of an organic acid representation into MAGIC (Model of Acidification of Groundwater in Catchments) and testing of the revised model using Independent data sources.`` The workshop was attended by a team of internationally-recognized experts in the fields of surface water acid-bass chemistry, organic acids, and watershed modeling. The rationale for the proposed research is based on the recent comparison between MAGIC model hindcasts and paleolimnological inferences of historical acidification for a set of 33 statistically-selected Adirondack lakes. Agreement between diatom-inferred and MAGIC-hindcast lakewater chemistry in the earlier research had been less than satisfactory. Based on preliminary analyses, it was concluded that incorporation of a reasonable organic acid representation into the version of MAGIC used for hindcasting was the logical next step toward improving model agreement.

  4. Adding monounsaturated fatty acids to a dietary portfolio of cholesterol-lowering foods in hypercholesterolemia

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, David J.A.; Chiavaroli, Laura; Wong, Julia M.W.; Kendall, Cyril; Lewis, Gary F.; Vidgen, Edward; Connelly, Philip W.; Leiter, Lawrence A.; Josse, Robert G.; Lamarche, Benoît

    2010-01-01

    Background Higher intake of monounsaturated fat may raise high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol without raising low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. We tested whether increasing the monounsaturated fat content of a diet proven effective for lowering LDL cholesterol (dietary portfolio) also modified other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, specifically by increasing HDL cholesterol, lowering serum triglyceride and further reducing the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol. Methods Twenty-four patients with hyperlipidemia consumed a therapeutic diet very low in saturated fat for one month and were then randomly assigned to a dietary portfolio low or high in monounsaturated fatty acid for another month. We supplied participants’ food for the two-month period. Calorie intake was based on Harris–Benedict estimates for energy requirements. Results For patients who consumed the dietary portfolio high in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol rose, whereas for those consuming the dietary portfolio low in monounsaturated fat, HDL cholesterol did not change. The 12.5% treatment difference was significant (0.12 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.21, p = 0.003). The ratio of total to HDL cholesterol was reduced by 6.5% with the diet high in monounsaturated fat relative to the diet low in monounsaturated fat (−0.28, 95% CI −0.59 to −0.04, p = 0.025). Patients consuming the diet high in monounsaturated fat also had significantly higher concentrations of apolipoprotein AI, and their C-reactive protein was significantly lower. No treatment differences were seen for triglycerides, other lipids or body weight, and mean weight loss was similar for the diets high in monounsaturated fat (−0.8 kg) and low in monounsaturated fat (−1.2 kg). Interpretation Monounsaturated fat increased the effectiveness of a cholesterol-lowering dietary portfolio, despite statin-like reductions in LDL cholesterol. The potential benefits for cardiovascular risk were

  5. Plasma amino acid concentrations in normal adults fed meals with added monosodium L-glutamate and aspartame.

    PubMed

    Stegink, L D; Filer, L J; Baker, G L

    1983-09-01

    Aspartame is a dipeptide sweetener containing aspartate. It has been suggested that aspartame addition to meals containing large amounts of monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) would result in a rapid rise in plasma glutamate and/or aspartate concentrations and increase the potential for dicarboxylic amino acid--induced toxicity. Sic normal adult subjects were fed three hamburger and milk shake meals providing protein at 1 g/kg body weight in a Latin square design. One meal had no additions, the second provided MSG at 150 mg/kg body weight, and the third provided MSG at 150 mg/kg body weight and aspartame at 23 mg/kg body weight. The addition of MSG alone significantly increased plasma glutamate + aspartate concentration above values noted after ingestion of the meal alone. Aspartame addition to meals already containing MSG did not further significantly increase plasma glutamate + aspartate concentration above values noted when only MSG was added. However, aspartame addition did significantly increase the mean plasma phenylalanine concentration above values noted after ingestion of the meal alone or the meal with added MSG, reflecting aspartame's phenylalanine content. The data do not support the suggestion that aspartame addition to high protein meals already containing large amounts of MSG, will promote a rapid and dangerous rise in plasma glutamate and aspartate concentrations.

  6. Bio-based production of organic acids with Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Wieschalka, Stefan; Blombach, Bastian; Bott, Michael; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2013-01-01

    The shortage of oil resources, the steadily rising oil prices and the impact of its use on the environment evokes an increasing political, industrial and technical interest for development of safe and efficient processes for the production of chemicals from renewable biomass. Thus, microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks found its way in white biotechnology, complementing more and more traditional crude oil-based chemical processes. Rational strain design of appropriate microorganisms has become possible due to steadily increasing knowledge on metabolism and pathway regulation of industrially relevant organisms and, aside from process engineering and optimization, has an outstanding impact on improving the performance of such hosts. Corynebacterium glutamicum is well known as workhorse for the industrial production of numerous amino acids. However, recent studies also explored the usefulness of this organism for the production of several organic acids and great efforts have been made for improvement of the performance. This review summarizes the current knowledge and recent achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor C. glutamicum for the bio-based production of organic acids. We focus here on the fermentative production of pyruvate, l-and d-lactate, 2-ketoisovalerate, 2-ketoglutarate, and succinate. These organic acids represent a class of compounds with manifold application ranges, e.g. in pharmaceutical and cosmetics industry, as food additives, and economically very interesting, as precursors for a variety of bulk chemicals and commercially important polymers. Funding Information Work in the laboratories of the authors was supported by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe (FNR) of the Bundesministerium für Ernährung, Landwirtschaft und Verbraucherschutz (BMELV; FNR Grants 220-095-08A and 220-095-08D; Bio-ProChemBB project, ERA-IB programme), by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU Grant AZ13040/05) and the Evonik Degussa AG. PMID

  7. Various instrumental approaches for determination of organic acids in wines.

    PubMed

    Zeravik, Jiri; Fohlerova, Zdenka; Milovanovic, Miodrag; Kubesa, Ondrej; Zeisbergerova, Marta; Lacina, Karel; Petrovic, Aleksandar; Glatz, Zdenek; Skladal, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Biosensors based on lactate oxidase, sarcosine oxidase and mixture of fumarase and sarcosine oxidase were used for monitoring of organic acids in wine samples. Additionally, tartaric acid was determined by modified colorimetric method based on formation of the vanadate-tartrate complex. The above mentioned methods were used for the analysis of 31 wine samples and obtained data were compared with the results from capillary electrophoresis as a basic standard method. This comparison showed a certain degree of correlation between biosensors and capillary electrophoresis. The provided information pointed to the potential uses of biosensors in the field of winemaking.

  8. Separators and organics for lead-acid batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhnstedt, Werner

    This review discusses various interactions between organic compounds, brought into the lead-acid battery via the separator, and their subsequent effect on battery performance. Historically, the interrelationship started with certain 'expander' actions on the lead morphology due to lignins, which leached out of the wooden separators of that time. Synthetic separator materials did not show this effect, but gained acceptance as they were far more stable in the hostile battery environment. The partially hydrophobic character of synthetic separators has been overcome by organic surfactants. Other organic compounds have been found to improve further the stability of separators against oxidation. Special organic molecules, namely aldehydes and ketones, have been identified to retard, or even suppress, the adverse effects of metals such as antimony, and thus prolong the cycle-life of traction batteries in heavy-duty applications or reduce water loss from automotive batteries. Knowledge about these interactions has opened ways to improve separators.

  9. Amino Acid, Organic Acid, and Sugar Profiles of 3 Dry Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Varieties.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Luthria, Devanand

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we compared the amino acid, organic acid and sugar profiles of 3 different varieties of dry beans (black bean [BB], dark red bean [DRB], and cranberry bean [CB]). The efficiency of the 2 commonly used extraction solvents (water and methanol:chloroform:water [2.5:1:1, v/v/v/]) for cultivar differentiation based on their metabolic profile was also investigated. The results showed that the BB contained the highest concentration of amino acids followed by DRB and CB samples. Phenylalanine, a precursor for the biosynthesis of phenolic secondary metabolites was detected at low concentration in CB samples and correlated with the reduced anthocyanins content in CB extract as documented in the published literature. Comparing the extractability of 2 extraction solvents, methanol:chloroform:water (2.5:1:1, v/v/v/) showed higher recoveries of amino acids from 3 beans, whereas, sugars were extracted in higher concentration with water. Analytically, gas chromatography detected sugars (9), amino acids (11), and organic acids (3) in a single run after derivatization of the extracts. In comparison, ion chromatography detected only sugars in a single run without any derivatization step with the tested procedure. Bean samples are better differentiated by the sugar content extracted with water as compared to the aqueous organic solvent extracts using partial least-square discriminant analysis.

  10. Corrosion of dental amalgams in solutions of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Palaghias, G

    1986-06-01

    A conventional and two high copper amalgams were tested in 0.5% aqueous solutions of acetic, formic, lactic and succinic acid. The corrosion behavior of the amalgams in the different solutions was evaluated by analyzing the soluble corrosion products using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer every month during a 6-month experimental period. The high copper amalgams showed a high dissolution rate in formic and lactic acid solutions from the initial stages of immersion when compared to the conventional. Later a marked decrease of the dissolution rate could be observed but it still remained at high levels. In acetic acid the amounts of elements dissolved from high copper amalgams were much less. Conventional amalgam released much smaller amounts of elements in almost all solutions tested except in the case of silver in lactic acid. Finally, in succinic acid solution, the amounts of elements dissolved were unexpectedly small considering the low pH of the solution and the dissolution rates of the amalgams in the other organic acid solutions. PMID:3461548

  11. Air-nitric acid destructive oxidation of organic wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.R.

    1993-09-01

    Many organic materials have been completely oxidized to CO{sub 2}, CO, and inorganic acids in a 0.1M HNO{sub 3}/14.8M H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution with air sparging. Addition of 0.001M Pd{sub +2} reduces the CO to near 1% of the released carbon gases. To accomplish complete oxidation the solution temperature must be maintained above 130--150{degrees}C. Organic materials quantitatively destroyed include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, TBP, tartaric acid, and nitromethane. The oxidation is usually complete in a few hours for soluble organic materials. The oxidation rate for non-aliphatic organic solids is moderately fast and surface area dependent. The rate for aliphatic organic compounds (polyethylene, PVC, and n-dodecane) is relatively very slow. This is due to the large energy required to abstract a hydrogen atom from these compounds, 99 kcal/mole. The combination of NO{sub 2}{center_dot} and H{center_dot} to produce HNO{sub 2} releases only 88 kcal/mole. Under conditions of high NO{sub 2}{center_dot} concentration it should be possible to oxidize these aliphatic compounds.

  12. Phytoremediation of uranium-contaminated soils: Role of organic acids in triggering uranium hyperaccumulation in plants

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.W.; Blaylock, M.J.; Kapulnik, Y.; Ensley, B.D.

    1998-07-01

    Uranium phytoextraction, the use of plants to extract U from contaminated soils, is an emerging technology. The authors report on the development of this technology for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils. In this research, they investigated the effects of various soil amendments on U desorption from soil to soil solution, studied the physiological characteristics of U uptake and accumulation in plants, and developed techniques to trigger U hyperaccumulation in plants. A key to the success of U phytoextraction is to increase soil U availability to plants. The authors have found that some organic acids can be added to soils to increase U desorption from soil to soil solution and to trigger a rapid U accumulation in plants. Of the organic acids (acetic acid, citric acid, and malic acid) tested, citric acid was the most effective in enhancing U accumulation in plants. Shoot U concentrations of Brassica juncea and Brassica chinensis grown in a U-contaminated soil increased from less than 5 mg kg{sup {minus}1} to more than 5,000 mg kg{sup {minus}1} in citric acid-treated soils. To their knowledge, this is the highest shoot U concentration reported for plants grown on U-contaminated soils. Using this U hyperaccumulation technique, they are now able to increase U accumulation in shoots of selected plant species grown in two U-contaminated soils by more than 1,000-fold within a few days. The results suggest that U phytoextraction may provide an environmentally friendly alternative for the cleanup of U-contaminated soils.

  13. Organic corrosion inhibitors for aluminum in perchloric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Metikos-Hukovic, M.; Stupnisek-Lisac, E. . Dept. of Electrochemistry); Grubac, Z. . Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry)

    1994-02-01

    Substituted N-arylpyrroles containing carbaldehyde groups on a pyrrole ring and their inhibitive effects on the corrosion of aluminum (Al) in perchloric acid (HCIO[sub 4]) were investigated. Electrochemical measurements showed the organic compounds examined had good inhibiting properties at 40 C. The high inhibition effect of the N-aryl-2,5-dimethylpyrroles containing carbaldehyde groups on a pyrrole ring on corrosion of Al in acid media was explained on the basis of the electronic structure of the molecule and by the condensation characteristic of the carbaldehydes. Investigation of the influence of substitution type ([minus]F,[minus]Cl,[minus]NH[sub 2]) on the inhibiting characteristics of examined organic compounds showed the best inhibiting effect was from substituted N-arylpyrrole with fluorine in the ortho position of the phenyl ring.

  14. Production of Optically Pure D-Lactic Acid by the Combined use of Weissella sp. S26 and Bacillus sp. ADS3.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxin; Hudari, Mohammad Sufian Bin; Wu, Jin Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Optically pure D-lactic acid was produced from glucose, xylose, or starch by the combined use of Weissella sp. S26 and Bacillus sp. ADS3, two native bacterial strains isolated from Singapore environment. Weissella sp. S26 was used to ferment various sugars to lactic acid rich in D-isomer followed by sterilization of the broth and inoculation of Bacillus sp. ADS3 cells to selectively degrade acetic acid (if any) and L-lactic acid. In a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of starch by Weissella sp. S26 in 1 L of modified MRS medium containing 50 g/L starch at 30 °C, lactic acid reached 24.2 g/L (23.6 g/L of D-isomers and 0.6 g/L of L-isomers), and acetic acid was 11.8 g/L at 37 h. The fermentation broth was sterilized at 100 °C for 20 min and cooled down to 30 °C followed by inoculation of Bacillus sp. ADS3 (10 %, v/v), and the mixture was kept at 30 °C for 115 h. Acetic acid was completely removed, and L-lactic acid was largely removed giving an optical purity of D-lactic acid as high as 99.5 %.

  15. Aquatic organisms in acidic environments: a literature review

    SciTech Connect

    Eilers, J.M.; Lien, G.J.; Berg, R.G.

    1985-10-01

    Acid deposition has aroused concern about aquatic organisms in soft water lakes and streams, as the loss of indigenous species is commonly observed when pH decreases. This literature review was initiated to intensively examine the distribution of invertebrates with respect to pH, in order to define the tolerance limits of various species in acidified waters and predict how acidification would alter distributions.

  16. Biochar: a green sorbent to sequester acidic organic contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigmund, Gabriel; Kah, Melanie; Sun, Huichao; Hofmann, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    Biochar is a carbon rich product of biomass pyrolysis that exhibits a high sorption potential towards a wide variety of inorganic and organic contaminants. Because it is a valuable soil additive and a potential carbon sink that can be produced from renewable resources, biochar has gained growing attention for the development of more sustainable remediation strategies. A lot of research efforts have been dedicated to the sorption of hydrophobic contaminants and metals to biochar. Conversely, the understanding of the sorption of acidic organic contaminants remains limited, and questions remain on the influence of biochar characteristics (e.g. ash content) on the sorption behaviour of acidic organic contaminants. To address this knowledge gap, sorption batch experiments were conducted with a series of structurally similar acidic organic contaminants covering a range of dissociation constant (2,4-D, MCPA, 2,4-DB and triclosan). The sorbents selected for experimentation included a series of 10 biochars covering a range of characteristics, multiwalled carbon nanotubes as model for pure carbonaceous phases, and an activated carbon as benchmark. Overall, sorption coefficient [L/kg] covered six orders of magnitude and generally followed the order 2,4-D < MCPA < 2,4-DB < triclosan. Combining comprehensive characterization of the sorbents with the sorption dataset allowed the discussion of sorption mechanisms and driving factors of sorption. Statistical analysis suggests that (i) partitioning was the main driver for sorption to sorbents with small specific surface area (< 25 m²/g), whereas (ii) specific mechanisms dominated sorption to sorbents with larger specific surface area. Results showed that factors usually not considered for the sorption of neutral contaminants play an important role for the sorption of organic acids. The pH dependent lipophilicity ratio (i.e. D instead of Kow), ash content and ionic strength are key factors influencing the sorption of acidic organic

  17. Investigation into the chemical, thermal and radiological changes of organic chemicals added to the underground storage tanks at Hanford

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, W.D.; Camaioni, D.M.; Clauss, S.A.; Linehan, J.C.

    1996-10-01

    Uranium and plutonium production at the Hanford site produced large quantities of radioactive by-products and contaminated process chemicals that are presently stored in underground tanks awaiting treatment and disposal. Having been made strongly alkaline and then subjected to successive water evaporation campaigns to increase storage capacity, the wastes now exist in the physical forms of salt cakes, metal oxide sludges, and saturated aqueous brine solutions. Those waste storage tanks containing organic process chemicals mixed with nitrate/nitrite salt wastes are thought to be at risk for fuel-nitrate combustion accidents. To support resolution of this potential hazard, we are studying how organic chemicals added to the tanks may have {open_quotes}aged{close_quotes} or changed under storage conditions. Simulated wastes have been irradiated with gamma rays at temperatures between ambient and 90{degrees}C and subsequently analyzed quantitatively. The presentation will report findings on the rates and products of organic degradation. Reaction mechanisms and implications of the findings will be discussed.

  18. Catalytic hydrothermal conversion of carboxymethyl cellulose to value-added chemicals over metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al).

    PubMed

    Zi, Guoli; Yan, Zhiying; Wang, Yangxia; Chen, Yongjuan; Guo, Yunlong; Yuan, Fagui; Gao, Wenyu; Wang, Yanmei; Wang, Jiaqiang

    2015-01-22

    Catalytic hydrolysis of biomass over solid catalysts can be one of the most efficient pathways for a future sustainable society dependent on cellulose biomass. In this work metal-organic framework MIL-53(Al) without any functionalization was directly employed as an efficient heterogeneous catalyst for the hydrolysis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to 5-hydroxymethyl-furaldehyde (5-HMF) in aqueous phase. A 5-HMF molar yield of 40.3% and total reducing sugar (TRS) molar yield of 54.2% were obtained with water as single solvent at 473 K for 4 h. The catalyst could be reused three times without losing activity to a greater extent. With the remarkable advantages such as the use of water as single solvent and MIL-53(Al) as a novel heterogeneous green catalyst, the work provides a new platform for the production of value added chemicals and liquid fuels from biomass. PMID:25439879

  19. Organic acid mediated repression of sugar utilization in rhizobia.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Bhagya; Rajput, Mahendrapal Singh; Jog, Rahul; Joshi, Ekta; Bharwad, Krishna; Rajkumar, Shalini

    2016-11-01

    Rhizobia are a class of symbiotic diazotrophic bacteria which utilize C4 acids in preference to sugars and the sugar utilization is repressed as long as C4 acids are present. This can be manifested as a diauxie when rhizobia are grown in the presence of a sugar and a C4 acid together. Succinate, a C4 acid is known to repress utilization of sugars, sugar alcohols, hydrocarbons, etc by a mechanism termed as Succinate Mediated Catabolite Repression (SMCR). Mechanism of catabolite repression determines the hierarchy of carbon source utilization in bacteria. Though the mechanism of catabolite repression has been well studied in model organisms like E. coli, B. subtilis and Pseudomonas sp., mechanism of SMCR in rhizobia has not been well elucidated. C4 acid uptake is important for effective symbioses while mutation in the sugar transport and utilization genes does not affect symbioses. Deletion of hpr and sma0113 resulted in the partial relief of SMCR of utilization of galactosides like lactose, raffinose and maltose in the presence of succinate. However, no such regulators governing SMCR of glucoside utilization have been identified till date. Though rhizobia can utilize multitude of sugars, high affinity transporters for many sugars are yet to be identified. Identifying high affinity sugar transporters and studying the mechanism of catabolite repression in rhizobia is important to understand the level of regulation of SMCR and the key regulators involved in SMCR. PMID:27664739

  20. Amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profile of some marine organisms from Portuguese waters.

    PubMed

    Pereira, David M; Valentão, Patrícia; Teixeira, Natércia; Andrade, Paula B

    2013-12-01

    Marine organisms have been increasingly regarded as good sources of new drugs for human therapeutics and also as nutrients for human diet. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols profiles of the widely consumed echinoderms Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck (sea urchin), Holothuria forskali Chiaje (sea cucumber), the gastropod molluscs Aplysia fasciata Poiret and Aplysia punctata Cuvier (sea hares), from Portuguese waters, were established by GC-MS analysis. Overall, 10 amino acids, 14 fatty acids and 4 sterols were determined. In general, all species presented the 10 amino acids identified, with the exceptions of H. forskali, in which no glycine, proline, trans-4-hydroxy-proline or phenylalanine were found, and of A. fasciata which did not contain proline. Unsaturated fatty acids were predominant compounds, with those from the ω-6 series, being in higher amounts than their ω-3 homologues, and cholesterol being the main sterol. The amino acids, fatty acids and sterols qualitative and quantitative composition of A. fasciata, A. punctata and H. forskali is reported here for the first time.

  1. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing.

  2. Effects of sulfhydryl compounds, carbohydrates, organic acids, and sodium sulfite on the formation of lysinoalanine in preserved egg.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu-Ying; Tu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Yan; Li, Jian-Ke; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2014-08-01

    To identify inhibitors for lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg, sulfhydryl compounds (glutathione, L-cysteine), carbohydrates (sucrose, D-glucose, maltose), organic acids (L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, DL-malic acid, lactic acid), and sodium sulfite were individually added at different concentrations to a pickling solution to prepare preserved eggs. Lysinoalanine formation as an index of these 10 substances was determined. Results indicate that glutathione, D-glucose, maltose, L-ascorbic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, and sodium sulfite all effectively diminished lysinoalanine formation in preserved egg albumen and yolk. When 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, citric acid, L-ascorbic acid, and D-glucose were individually added into the pickling solution, the inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the produced preserved egg albumen and yolk were higher. However, the attempt of minimizing lysinoalanine formation was combined with the premise of ensuring preserved eggs quality. Moreover, the addition of 40 and 80 mmol/L of sodium sulfite, 40 and 80 mmol/L of D-glucose, 40 mmol/L of citric acid, and 40 mmol/L of L-ascorbic acid was optimal to produce preserved eggs. The corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the albumen were approximately 76.3% to 76.5%, 67.6% to 67.8%, 74.6%, and 74.6%, and the corresponding inhibition rates of lysinoalanine in the yolk were about 68.7% to 69.7%, 50.6% to 51.8%, 70.4%, and 57.8%. It was concluded that sodium sulfite, D-glucose, L-ascorbic, and citric acid at suitable concentrations can be used to control the formation of lysinoalanine during preserved egg processing. PMID:25047093

  3. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  4. Comparison of capillary pressure relationships of organic liquid water systems containing an organic acid or base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lord, D. L.; Demond, A. H.; Hayes, K. F.

    2005-04-01

    The presence of surface-active solutes such as organic acids and bases may have a profound influence on the transport of organic liquid contaminants through their impact on the constitutive relationship of capillary pressure vs. saturation. This relationship is a function of the interfacial tension and wettability of the system, which, in turn, depend on the pH and the concentration of organic acids and bases that are present. This study examines the impact of pH and the concentration on the interfacial tension, contact angle, and capillary pressure of systems consisting of tetrachloroethylene, water, and quartz containing either octanoic acid or dodecylamine. In general, the ionic form of the solute tended to remain in the aqueous phase and reduced the capillary pressure through its impact on the interfacial tension and contact angle; on the other hand, the neutral form of the solute partitioned into the organic liquid phase and had a lesser impact on the capillary pressure for the same total mass of solute. A comparison of these data with data generated in previous research in similar systems where o-xylene was the organic liquid showed that the trends are analogous. Thus, the behavior of these two solvent systems seems to be driven primarily by the aqueous phase speciation of the solute, and the differences between the capillary pressure relationships for the two systems could be attributed to the pure system interfacial tension.

  5. Proton-binding study of standard and reference fulvic acids, humic acids, and natural organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Jason D.; Perdue, E. Michael

    2003-01-01

    The acid-base properties of 14 standard and reference materials from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS) were investigated by potentiometric titration. Titrations were conducted in 0.1 M NaCl under a nitrogen atmosphere, averaging 30 min from start to finish. Concentrations of carboxyl groups and phenolic groups were estimated directly from titration curves. Titration data were also fit to a modified Henderson-Hasselbalch model for two classes of proton-binding sites to obtain "best fit" parameters that describe proton-binding curves for the samples. The model was chosen for its simplicity, its ease of implementation in computer spreadsheets, and its excellent ability to describe the shapes of the titration curves. The carboxyl contents of the IHSS samples are in the general order: terrestrial fulvic acids > aquatic fulvic acids > Suwannee River natural organic matter (NOM) > aquatic humic acids > terrestrial humic acids. Overall, fulvic acids and humic acids have similar phenolic contents; however, all of the aquatically derived samples have higher phenolic contents than the terrestrially derived samples. The acid-base properties of reference Suwannee River NOM are surprisingly similar to those of standard Suwannee River humic acid. Results from titrations in this study were compared with other published results from both direct and indirect titrations. Typically, carboxyl contents for the IHSS samples were in agreement with the results from both methods of titration. Phenolic contents for the IHSS samples were comparable to those determined by direct titrations, but were significantly less than estimates of phenolic content that were based on indirect titrations with Ba(OH) 2 and Ca(OAc) 2. The average phenolic-to-carboxylic ratio of the IHSS samples is approximately 1:4. Models that assume a 1:2 ratio of phenolic-to-carboxylic groups may overestimate the relative contribution of phenolic groups to the acid-base chemistry of humic substances.

  6. Nickel deficiency disrupts metabolism of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids of young pecan foliage.

    PubMed

    Bai, Cheng; Reilly, Charles C; Wood, Bruce W

    2006-02-01

    The existence of nickel (Ni) deficiency is becoming increasingly apparent in crops, especially for ureide-transporting woody perennials, but its physiological role is poorly understood. We evaluated the concentrations of ureides, amino acids, and organic acids in photosynthetic foliar tissue from Ni-sufficient (Ni-S) versus Ni-deficient (Ni-D) pecan (Carya illinoinensis [Wangenh.] K. Koch). Foliage of Ni-D pecan seedlings exhibited metabolic disruption of nitrogen metabolism via ureide catabolism, amino acid metabolism, and ornithine cycle intermediates. Disruption of ureide catabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of xanthine, allantoic acid, ureidoglycolate, and citrulline, but total ureides, urea concentration, and urease activity were reduced. Disruption of amino acid metabolism in Ni-D foliage resulted in accumulation of glycine, valine, isoleucine, tyrosine, tryptophan, arginine, and total free amino acids, and lower concentrations of histidine and glutamic acid. Ni deficiency also disrupted the citric acid cycle, the second stage of respiration, where Ni-D foliage contained very low levels of citrate compared to Ni-S foliage. Disruption of carbon metabolism was also via accumulation of lactic and oxalic acids. The results indicate that mouse-ear, a key morphological symptom, is likely linked to the toxic accumulation of oxalic and lactic acids in the rapidly growing tips and margins of leaflets. Our results support the role of Ni as an essential plant nutrient element. The magnitude of metabolic disruption exhibited in Ni-D pecan is evidence of the existence of unidentified physiological roles for Ni in pecan. PMID:16415214

  7. Extended Virtual Spring Mesh (EVSM): The Distributed Self-Organizing Mobile Ad Hoc Network for Area Exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Kurt Derr

    2011-12-01

    Mobile Ad hoc NETworks (MANETs) are distributed self-organizing networks that can change locations and configure themselves on the fly. This paper focuses on an algorithmic approach for the deployment of a MANET within an enclosed area, such as a building in a disaster scenario, which can provide a robust communication infrastructure for search and rescue operations. While a virtual spring mesh (VSM) algorithm provides scalable, self-organizing, and fault-tolerant capabilities required by aMANET, the VSM lacks the MANET's capabilities of deployment mechanisms for blanket coverage of an area and does not provide an obstacle avoidance mechanism. This paper presents a new technique, an extended VSM (EVSM) algorithm that provides the following novelties: (1) new control laws for exploration and expansion to provide blanket coverage, (2) virtual adaptive springs enabling the mesh to expand as necessary, (3) adapts to communications disturbances by varying the density and movement of mobile nodes, and (4) new metrics to assess the performance of the EVSM algorithm. Simulation results show that EVSM provides up to 16% more coverage and is 3.5 times faster than VSM in environments with eight obstacles.

  8. Predictions of diagenetic reactions in the presence of organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Wendy J.; Thyne, Geoffrey D.

    1992-02-01

    Stability constants have been estimated for cation complexes with anions of monofunctional and difunctional acids (combinations of Ca, Mg, Fe, Al, Sr, Mn, U, Th, Pb, Cu, Zn with formate, acetate, propionate, oxalate, malonate, succinate, and salicylate) between 0 and 200°C. Difunctional acid anions form much more stable complexes than monofunctional acid anions with aluminum; the importance of the aluminum-acetate complex is relatively minor in comparison to aluminum oxalate and malonate complexes. Divalent metal cations such as Mg, Ca, and Fe form more stable complexes with acetate than with difunctional acid anions. Aluminum-oxalate can dominate the species distribution of aluminum under acidic pH conditions, whereas the divalent cation-acetate and oxalate complexes rarely account for more than 60% of the total dissolved cation, and then only in more alkaline waters. Mineral thermodynamic affinities were calculated using the reaction path model EQ3/6 for waters having variable organic acid anion (OAA) contents under conditions representative of those found during normal burial diagenesis. The following scenarios are possible: 1) K-feldspar and albite are stable, anorthite dissolves 2) All feldpars are stable 3) Carbonates can be very unstable to slightly unstable, but never increase in stability. Organic acid anions are ineffective at neutral to alkaline pH in modifying stabilities of aluminosilicate minerals whereas the anions are variably effective under a wide range of pH in modifying carbonate mineral stabilities. Reaction path calculations demonstrate that the sequence of mineral reactions occurring in an arkosic sandstone-fluid system is only slightly modified by the presence of OAA. A spectrum of possible sandstone alteration mineralogies can be obtained depending on the selected boundary conditions: EQ3/6 predictions include quartz overgrowth, calcite replacement of plagioclase, albitization of plagioclase, and the formation of porosity-occluding calcite

  9. Second-generation sulfonamide inhibitors of D-glutamic acid-adding enzyme: activity optimisation with conformationally rigid analogues of D-glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Sosič, Izidor; Barreteau, Hélène; Simčič, Mihael; Sink, Roman; Cesar, Jožko; Zega, Anamarija; Grdadolnik, Simona Golič; Contreras-Martel, Carlos; Dessen, Andréa; Amoroso, Ana; Joris, Bernard; Blanot, Didier; Gobec, Stanislav

    2011-07-01

    D-Glutamic acid-adding enzyme (MurD) catalyses the essential addition of d-glutamic acid to the cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursor UDP-N-acetylmuramoyl-l-alanine, and as such it represents an important antibacterial drug-discovery target enzyme. Based on a series of naphthalene-N-sulfonyl-d-Glu derivatives synthesised recently, we synthesised two series of new, optimised sulfonamide inhibitors of MurD that incorporate rigidified mimetics of d-Glu. The compounds that contained either constrained d-Glu or related rigid d-Glu mimetics showed significantly better inhibitory activities than the parent compounds, thereby confirming the advantage of molecular rigidisation in the design of MurD inhibitors. The binding modes of the best inhibitors were examined with high-resolution NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography. We have solved a new crystal structure of the complex of MurD with an inhibitor bearing a 4-aminocyclohexane-1,3-dicarboxyl moiety. These data provide an additional step towards the development of sulfonamide inhibitors with potential antibacterial activities. PMID:21524830

  10. Crystal and molecular structure of eight organic acid-base adducts from 2-methylquinoline and different acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Jin, Shouwen; Tao, Lin; Liu, Bin; Wang, Daqi

    2014-08-01

    Eight supramolecular complexes with 2-methylquinoline and acidic components as 4-aminobenzoic acid, 2-aminobenzoic acid, salicylic acid, 5-chlorosalicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malic acid, sebacic acid, and 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid were synthesized and characterized by X-ray crystallography, IR, mp, and elemental analysis. All of the complexes are organic salts except compound 2. All supramolecular architectures of 1-8 involve extensive classical hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the classical hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between acidic components and 2-methylquinoline are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic acid-base adducts. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These weak interactions combined, the complexes 1-8 displayed 2D-3D framework structure.

  11. Biochar enhances Aspergillus niger rock phosphate solubilization by increasing organic acid production and alleviating fluoride toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Gilberto de Oliveira; Zafra, David Lopez; Vassilev, Nikolay Bojkov; Silva, Ivo Ribeiro; Ribeiro, José Ivo; Costa, Maurício Dutra

    2014-05-01

    During fungal rock phosphate (RP) solubilization, a significant quantity of fluoride (F(-)) is released together with phosphorus (P), strongly inhibiting the process. In the present study, the effect of two F(-) adsorbents [activated alumina (Al2O3) and biochar] on RP solubilization by Aspergillus niger was examined. Al2O3 adsorbed part of the F(-) released but also adsorbed soluble P, which makes it inappropriate for microbial RP solubilization systems. In contrast, biochar adsorbed only F(-) while enhancing phosphate solubilization 3-fold, leading to the accumulation of up to 160 mg of P per liter. By comparing the values of F(-) measured in solution at the end of incubation and those from a predictive model, it was estimated that up to 19 mg of F(-) per liter can be removed from solution by biochar when added at 3 g liter(-1) to the culture medium. Thus, biochar acted as an F(-) sink during RP solubilization and led to an F(-) concentration in solution that was less inhibitory to the process. In the presence of biochar, A. niger produced larger amounts of citric, gluconic, and oxalic acids, whether RP was present or not. Our results show that biochar enhances RP solubilization through two interrelated processes: partial removal of the released F(-) and increased organic acid production. Given the importance of organic acids for P solubilization and that most of the RPs contain high concentrations of F(-), the proposed solubilization system offers an important technological improvement for the microbial production of soluble P fertilizers from RP.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Ai; Guo, Yanchao; Si, Zhenjun; Duan, Qian

    2014-05-01

    Three ultraviolet light-emitting organic acids of 3,3'-(4-phenyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-1), 4,4',4″-(4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,4,5-triyl)tribenzoic acid (Tz-2), and 4,4'-(4-(4'-carboxy-[1,1'-biphenyl]-4-yl)-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3,5-diyl)dibenzoic acid (Tz-3) were successfully synthesized and fully characterized by the (1)H NMR, the IR absorption spectra, and the X-ray single crystal diffraction. It was found that Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3 could give out the ultraviolet photoluminescent spectra centered at 369 nm, 365 nm and 350 nm, respectively. The luminescence quantum yields of Tz-1 and Tz-2 were measured to be 0.20 and 0.14, respectively. Additionally, the density functional theory (DFT) and the time-dependent DFT calculations were also carried out for Tz-1, Tz-2, and Tz-3.

  13. Microbial production of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid by adding hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate in batch culture of Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Long; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian; Zhu, Yang; Wang, Miao; Sun, Jun

    2009-01-01

    Microbial production of low molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA) by the addition of hydrogen peroxide and ascorbate during the batch culture of Streptococcus zooepidemicus was investigated. Hydrogen peroxide (1.0 mmol/g HA) and ascorbate (0.5 mmol/g HA) were added at 8h and 12h to degrade HA. With the redox depolymerization of HA, the HA molecular weight decreased from 1,300 kDa for the control to 80 kDa, and the average broth viscosity during 8-16 h decreased from 360 mPa s for the control to 290 mPa s. The average oxygen mass transfer coefficient K(L)a increased from 10h(-1) for the control to 35 h(-1) and the average dissolved oxygen level increased from 1% of air saturation in the control to 10%. HA production increased from 5.0 g/L for the control to 6.5 g/L, and contributed to the increased redox potential and energy charge. This novel process not only significantly enhanced production of low molecular weight HA, but also improved purification efficiency due to a decreased broth viscosity. Low molecular weight HA finds applications in biomedical and healthcare fields.

  14. New dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics induced by adding sorbic acid to the culture medium of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137.

    PubMed

    Merrouche, Rabiâa; Bouras, Noureddine; Coppel, Yannick; Mathieu, Florence; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2011-05-01

    Dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics, produced by several microorganisms, are known for their strong antimicrobial activities. This class of antibiotics generated new interest after the discovery of their anticancer and antitumor properties. In this study, four new antibiotics were purified from the fermentation broth of Saccharothrix algeriensis NRRL B-24137 and characterized as dithiolopyrrolone derivatives. These new dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics were induced by adding sorbic acid, as precursor, at a concentration of 5 mM to the semi-synthetic medium. The analysis of the induced antibiotics was carried out by HPLC. The maximal production of the antibiotics PR2, PR8, PR9 and PR10 was 0.08±0.04, 0.21±0.04, 0.13±0.03 and 0.09±0.00 mg L(-1) , respectively, obtained after 8 days of fermentation. The chemical structures of these antibiotics were determined by (1) H- and (13) C-nuclear magnetic resonance, mass and UV-visible data. The four new dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics - PR2, PR8, PR9 and PR10 - were characterized, respectively, as crotonyl-pyrrothine, sorbyl-pyrrothine, 2-hexonyl-pyrrothine and 2-methyl-3-pentenyl-pyrrothine. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the new induced antibiotics were determined.

  15. DC diaphragm discharge in water solutions of selected organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyhnankova, Edita J.; Hammer, Malte U.; Reuter, Stephan; Krcma, Frantisek

    2015-07-01

    Effect of four simple organic acids water solution on a DC diaphragm discharge was studied. Efficiency of the discharge was quantified by the hydrogen peroxide production determined by UV-VIS spectrometry of a H2O2 complex formed with specific titanium reagent. Automatic titration was used to study the pH behaviour after the plasma treatment. Optical emission spectroscopy overview spectra were recorded and detailed spectra of OH band and Hβ line were used to calculate the rotational temperature and comparison of the line profile (reflecting electron concentration) in the acid solutions. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  16. Engineering Porous Organic Cage Crystals with Increased Acid Gas Resistance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guanghui; Hoffman, Christopher D; Liu, Yang; Bhattacharyya, Souryadeep; Tumuluri, Uma; Jue, Melinda L; Wu, Zili; Sholl, David S; Nair, Sankar; Jones, Christopher W; Lively, Ryan P

    2016-07-25

    Both known and new CC3-based porous organic cages are prepared and exposed to acidic SO2 in vapor and liquid conditions. Distinct differences in the stability of the CC3 cages exist depending on the chirality of the diamine linkers used. The acid catalyzed CC3 degradation mechanism is probed via in situ IR and a degradation pathway is proposed and supported with computational results. CC3 crystals synthesized with racemic mixtures of diaminocyclohexane exhibited enhanced stability compared to CC3-R and CC3-S. Confocal fluorescent microscope images reveal that the stability difference in CC3 species originates from an abundance of mesoporous grain boundaries in CC3-R and CC3-S, allowing facile access of aqueous SO2 throughout the crystal, promoting decomposition. These grain boundaries are absent from CC3 crystals made with racemic linkers. PMID:27253350

  17. Conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into its molecular components by sequential combination of organic acid and base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noda, Yu

    The primary objective of this research is to explore a new concept of converting lignocellulosic biomass into liquid organic products via hydrolysis by sequentially combining acid and base treatments. The concept was examined by studying two-step hydrolytic reactions of biomass (spruce) using oxialic acid (OA) and tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) at moderate reaction temperatures below 200 °C. Different selectivity of C-O bond cleavage of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin between the reactions with OA and TMAH was demonstrated, and the sequential combination of OA and TMAH treatments exhibited an enhancing effect on conversion of biomass, which proves the promise of the proposed concept. A similar enhancing effect of combination was further confirmed in the reactions with mineral acid and base. Interestingly, characterization of solid residue from reactions of biomass and further investigation of the reactions of commercial cellulose revealed that the A-B sequence (the first reaction with OA and the second with TMAH) enhanced the conversion of cellulose at the second step with TMAH. It was suggested from the NMR and XRD study of solid residues that this enhancement was caused by the reduction of crystallinity of cellulose by the first reaction with OA. This effect was shown to be an interesting feature of A-B treatment sequence for converting lignocellulosic biomass. To improve the yield of monomeric sugars, the effect of adding organic solvents to the system was also studied. No improvement on sugar yield was observed under the explored conditions. However, it was shown that some furans and phenols can be directly formed from the reactions of biomass in the binary solvent system, which may be beneficial for producing more value-added chemicals from biomass.

  18. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids.

    PubMed

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  19. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  20. N-Heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a powerful tool in organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    De Vreese, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Summary The interplay between metals and N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) has provided a window of opportunities for the development of novel catalytic strategies within the past few years. The recent successful combination of Brønsted acids with NHCs has added a new dimension to the field of cooperative catalysis, enabling the stereoselective synthesis of functionalized pyrrolidin-2-ones as valuable scaffolds in heterocyclic chemistry. This Commentary will briefly highlight the concept of N-heterocyclic carbene/Brønsted acid cooperative catalysis as a new and powerful methodology in organic chemistry. PMID:22509208

  1. Simple method of isolating humic acids from organic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, O.

    2009-04-01

    Humic substances particularly humic acids (HA) play a major role in soil conditioning e.g. erosion control, soil cation exchange capacity, complexation of heavy metal ions and pesticides, carbon and nitrogen cycles, plant growth and reduction of ammonia volatilization from urea. Humified substances such as coal, composts, and peat soils have substantial amounts of HA but the isolation of these acids is expensive, laborious, and time consuming. Factors that affect the quality and yield of HA isolated from these materials include extraction, fractionation, and purification periods. This work developed a simple, rapid, and cost effective method of isolating HA from peat soils. There was a quadratic relationship between extraction period and HA yield. Optimum extraction period was estimated at 4 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 48 h. There was no relationship between fractionation period and HA yield. As such 2 h instead of the usual range of 12 to 24 h fractionation period could be considered optimum. Low ash content (5%), remarkable reduction in K, coupled with the fact that organic C, E4/E6, carboxylic COOH, phenolic OH, and total acidity values of the HA were consistent with those reported by other authors suggest that the HA dealt with were free from mineral matter. This was possible because the distilled water used to purify the HA served as Bronsted-Lowry acid during the purification process of the HA. Optimum purification period using distilled waster was 1 h instead of the usual range of 1 and 7 days (uses HF and HCl and dialysis). Humic acids could be isolated from tropical peat soils within 7 h (i.e. 4 h extraction, 2 h fractionation, and 1 h purification) instead of the existing period of 2 and 7 days. This could facilitate the idea of producing organic fertilizers such as ammonium-humate and potassium-humate from humified substances since techniques devised in this study did not alter the true nature of the HA. Besides, the technique is rapid, simple

  2. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  3. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  4. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  5. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  6. 40 CFR 721.5465 - Amine salt of organic acid (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amine salt of organic acid (generic... Substances § 721.5465 Amine salt of organic acid (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as amine salt of organic acid...

  7. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses II. Relationship of Adenovirus 2 Deoxyribonucleic Acid and Simian Virus 40 Deoxyribonucleic Acid in the Ad2+ND1 Genome

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Myron J.; Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Lewis, Andrew M.; Oxman, Michael N.; Henry, Patrick H.; Rowe, Wallace P.

    1971-01-01

    A nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, Ad2+ND1, has been plaque-isolated from an Ad2-SV40 hybrid population. This virus, unlike the defective Ad-SV40 hybrid populations previously described, replicates without the aid of nonhybrid adenovirus helper. Consequently, the hybrid virus deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) can be obtained free of nonhybrid adenovirus DNA. The DNA of the Ad2+ND1 virus was shown by ribonucleic acid (RNA)-DNA hybridization to consist of nucleotide sequences complementary to Ad2- and SV40-specific RNA. Techniques of equilibrium density and rate zonal centrifugation were employed to demonstrate that these Ad2 and SV40 nucleotide sequences were linked together in the same DNA molecules by alkali-resistant bonds. Calibration curves were established relating the amount of tritium-labeled SV40-specific RNA (prepared in vitro or in vivo) bound to given amounts of SV40 DNA in a hybridization reaction, and these curves were employed to determine the equivalent amount of SV40 DNA in the Ad2+ND1 molecule. From the results obtained, it was estimated that 1% of the Ad2+ND1 DNA consists of SV40 nucleotide sequences. PMID:4323709

  8. [Inhibition of Low Molecular Organic Acids on the Activity of Acidithiobacillus Species and Its Effect on the Removal of Heavy Metals from Contaminated Soil].

    PubMed

    Song, Yong-wei; Wang, He-rul; Cao, Yan-xiao; Li, Fei; Cui, Chun-hong; Zhou, Li

    2016-05-15

    Application of organic fertilizer can reduce the solubility and bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil, but in the flooded anaerobic environment, organic fertilizer will be decomposed to produce a large number of low molecular organic acids, which can inhibit the biological activity of Acidithiobacillus species. Batch cultures studies showed that the monocarboxylic organic acids including formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid exhibited a marked toxicity to Acidithiobacillus species, as indicated by that 90% of inhibitory rate for Fe2 and So oxidation in 72 h were achieved at extremely low concentrations of 41.2 mg · L⁻¹, 78.3 mg · L⁻¹, 43.2 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ and 81.9 mg 230. 4 mg · L⁻¹, 170.1 mg · L⁻¹, 123.4 mg · L⁻¹ respectively. Of these organic acids, formic acid was the most toxic one as indicated by that Fe2 and So oxidation was almost entirely inhibited at a low concentration. In addition, it was found that Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans was more sensitive to low molecular organic acids than Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans. What's more, there was little effect on biological acidification process of heavy metal contaminated soil when organic acids were added at initial stage (Oh), but it was completely inhibited when these acids were added after 12 h of conventional biological acidification, thus decreasing the efficiency of heavy metals dissolution from soil. PMID:27506054

  9. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed.

  10. Microbial-processing of fruit and vegetable wastes for production of vital enzymes and organic acids: Biotechnology and scopes.

    PubMed

    Panda, Sandeep K; Mishra, Swati S; Kayitesi, Eugenie; Ray, Ramesh C

    2016-04-01

    Wastes generated from fruits and vegetables are organic in nature and contribute a major share in soil and water pollution. Also, green house gas emission caused by fruit and vegetable wastes (FVWs) is a matter of serious environmental concern. This review addresses the developments over the last one decade on microbial processing technologies for production of enzymes and organic acids from FVWs. The advances in genetic engineering for improvement of microbial strains in order to enhance the production of the value added bio-products as well as the concept of zero-waste economy have been briefly discussed. PMID:26761593

  11. Comment on the paper: "Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate: a non-linear optical crystal".

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2015-01-01

    The title paper (Manimekalai et al., 2014) reports a slow evaporation solution growth of a so called 'Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate' (AALSMH) crystal. In this communication, many points of criticism, concerning the crystal growth, NMR spectrum and X-ray powder pattern of this so called AALSMH nonlinear optical crystal are highlighted.

  12. Gamma Peptide Nucleic Acids: As Orthogonal Nucleic Acid Recognition Codes for Organizing Molecular Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Sacui, Iulia; Hsieh, Wei-Che; Manna, Arunava; Sahu, Bichismita; Ly, Danith H

    2015-07-01

    Nucleic acids are an attractive platform for organizing molecular self-assembly because of their specific nucleobase interactions and defined length scale. Routinely employed in the organization and assembly of materials in vitro, however, they have rarely been exploited in vivo, due to the concerns for enzymatic degradation and cross-hybridization with the host's genetic materials. Herein we report the development of a tight-binding, orthogonal, synthetically versatile, and informationally interfaced nucleic acid platform for programming molecular interactions, with implications for in vivo molecular assembly and computing. The system consists of three molecular entities: the right-handed and left-handed conformers and a nonhelical domain. The first two are orthogonal to each other in recognition, while the third is capable of binding to both, providing a means for interfacing the two conformers as well as the natural nucleic acid biopolymers (i.e., DNA and RNA). The three molecular entities are prepared from the same monomeric chemical scaffold, with the exception of the stereochemistry or lack thereof at the γ-backbone that determines if the corresponding oligo adopts a right-handed or left-handed helix, or a nonhelical motif. These conformers hybridize to each other with exquisite affinity, sequence selectivity, and level of orthogonality. Recognition modules as short as five nucleotides in length are capable of organizing molecular assembly.

  13. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments. PMID:26841776

  14. Organic acids in cloud water and rainwater at a mountain site in acid rain areas of South China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiao; Wang, Yan; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Xueqiao; Sun, Lei; Wang, Xinfeng; Wang, Tao; Wang, Wenxing

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the chemical characteristics of organic acids and to identify their source, cloud water and rainwater samples were collected at Mount Lu, a mountain site located in the acid rain-affected area of south China, from August to September of 2011 and March to May of 2012. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) concentration of organic acids in cloud water was 38.42 μeq/L, ranging from 7.45 to 111.46 μeq/L, contributing to 2.50 % of acidity. In rainwater samples, organic acid concentrations varied from 12.39 to 68.97 μeq/L (VWM of 33.39 μeq/L). Organic acids contributed significant acidity to rainwater, with a value of 17.66 %. Formic acid, acetic acid, and oxalic acid were the most common organic acids in both cloud water and rainwater. Organic acids had an obviously higher concentration in summer than in spring in cloud water, whereas there was much less discrimination in rainwater between the two seasons. The contribution of organic acids to acidity was lower during summer than during spring in both cloud water (2.20 % in summer vs 2.83 % in spring) and rainwater (12.24 % in summer vs 19.89 % in spring). The formic-to-acetic acid ratio (F/A) showed that organic acids were dominated by primary emissions in 71.31 % of the cloud water samples and whole rainwater samples. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis determined four factors as the sources of organic acids in cloud water, including biogenic emissions (61.8 %), anthropogenic emissions (15.28 %), marine emissions (15.07 %) and soil emissions (7.85 %). The findings from this study imply an indispensable role of organic acids in wet deposition, but organic acids may have a limited capacity to increase ecological risks in local environments.

  15. Inoculation of Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 degrades the organic acids present in raw compost material and accelerates composting.

    PubMed

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Araya, Shogo; Mimoto, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the yeast strain Pichia kudriavzevii RB1 was used as an inoculum to accelerate organic matter degradation of rabbit food with added organic acids, which was used as a model food waste for composting. The RB1 strain rapidly degraded the organic acids present in the raw compost material, leading to an increase in pH beyond the neutral level, within 2 days. Both mesophilic and thermophilic bacteria proliferated faster in the compost with RB1 inoculation than in that without inoculation. Although the yeast died with the increase in compost temperature, it affected the early stages of composting prior to the thermophilic stage and accelerated the composting process by 2 days by eliminating the initial lag phase seen in the growth of other microorganisms. Moreover, populations of Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Bacillus foraminis, and Bacillus coagulans became dominant during the thermophilic stages of both composting with and without RB1 inoculation. PMID:23886646

  16. Selective cellular acidification and toxicity of weak organic acids in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Karuri, A R; Dobrowsky, E; Tannock, I F

    1993-12-01

    The mean extracellular pH (pHe) within solid tumours has been found to be lower than in normal tissues. Agents which cause intracellular acidification at low pHe might have selective toxicity towards cells in tumours. Weak acids (or their anions) with pKa values in the range of 4-6 have a higher proportion of molecules in the uncharged form at low pHe and can diffuse more rapidly into cells. The effects of organic acids including succinate, monomethyl succinate and malonate to acidify cells have been evaluated under conditions of different pHe in the acidic range. These weak acids caused intracellular acidification of murine EMT-6 and human MGH-U1 cells in a concentration and pHe dependent fashion. At concentrations of 10 mM and above, these acids also caused in vitro cytotoxicity to these cells at low pHe (< 6.5). The rate and extent of cellular acidification caused by these weak acids, and their cytotoxicity at low pHe, were enhanced by exposure to amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), agents which inhibit Na+/H+ exchange, and hence the regulation of intracellular pH. Acid dependent cytotoxicity was also investigated in a murine solid tumour using the endpoints of growth delay and colony formation in vitro following treatment in vivo. Agents were tested alone or with 15 Gy X-rays to select a population of hypoxic (and presumably acidic) cells. Achievable serum concentrations of succinate were about 1 mM and no antitumour activity of succinate was detected when used in this way. It is concluded that weak acids are selectively taken up into cells, and can cause selective cellular acidification and toxicity, at low pHe in culture. Weak acids that are normal cellular metabolites are not toxic in vivo, but weak acids carrying cytotoxic groups offer the potential for selective uptake and toxicity under the conditions of low pHe that exist in many solid tumours.

  17. Selective cellular acidification and toxicity of weak organic acids in an acidic microenvironment.

    PubMed Central

    Karuri, A. R.; Dobrowsky, E.; Tannock, I. F.

    1993-01-01

    The mean extracellular pH (pHe) within solid tumours has been found to be lower than in normal tissues. Agents which cause intracellular acidification at low pHe might have selective toxicity towards cells in tumours. Weak acids (or their anions) with pKa values in the range of 4-6 have a higher proportion of molecules in the uncharged form at low pHe and can diffuse more rapidly into cells. The effects of organic acids including succinate, monomethyl succinate and malonate to acidify cells have been evaluated under conditions of different pHe in the acidic range. These weak acids caused intracellular acidification of murine EMT-6 and human MGH-U1 cells in a concentration and pHe dependent fashion. At concentrations of 10 mM and above, these acids also caused in vitro cytotoxicity to these cells at low pHe (< 6.5). The rate and extent of cellular acidification caused by these weak acids, and their cytotoxicity at low pHe, were enhanced by exposure to amiloride and 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), agents which inhibit Na+/H+ exchange, and hence the regulation of intracellular pH. Acid dependent cytotoxicity was also investigated in a murine solid tumour using the endpoints of growth delay and colony formation in vitro following treatment in vivo. Agents were tested alone or with 15 Gy X-rays to select a population of hypoxic (and presumably acidic) cells. Achievable serum concentrations of succinate were about 1 mM and no antitumour activity of succinate was detected when used in this way. It is concluded that weak acids are selectively taken up into cells, and can cause selective cellular acidification and toxicity, at low pHe in culture. Weak acids that are normal cellular metabolites are not toxic in vivo, but weak acids carrying cytotoxic groups offer the potential for selective uptake and toxicity under the conditions of low pHe that exist in many solid tumours. PMID:8260358

  18. Separation of membranes from acid-solubilized fish muscle proteins with the aid of calcium ions and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yong; Hultin, Herbert O

    2005-04-20

    Calcium chloride, and to a lesser extent MgCl2, aided in the separation of membranes by centrifugation from cod (Gadus morhua) muscle homogenates solubilized at pH 3 in the presence of citric acid or malic acid but not lactic acid. Adding citric acid and Ca2+ before solubilizing the cod muscle homogenates was needed for the effect. At 1 mM citric acid, 70-80% of the phospholipid and 25-30% of the protein were removed at 10 mM Ca2+. At 8 mM Ca2+, citric acid showed an optimal effect on phospholipid removal at 5 mM with 90% of the phospholipid and 35% of the protein removed. The treatment with citric acid and Ca2+ was also effective in separating the membrane from solubilized herring (Clupea harengus) muscle homogenate. Ca2+ and citric acid might exert their influence by disconnecting linkages between membranes and cytoskeletal proteins.

  19. HPLC method for the simultaneous quantification of the major organic acids in Angeleno plum fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanwei; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Wei; Zhao, Zhilei; Cao, Jiankang

    2014-08-01

    A method was developed to profile major organic acids in Angeleno fruit by high performance liquid chromatography. Organic acids in plum were extracted by water with ultra- sonication at 50°C for 30 min. The extracts were chromatographed on Waters Atlantis T3 C18 column (4.6 mm×250 mm, 5 μm) with 0.01mol/L sulfuric acid and water as mobile phase, and flow rate was 0.5 ml/min. The column temperature was 40C, and chromatography was monitored by a diode array detector at 210 nm. The result showed that malic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, oxalic acid, pyruvic acid, acetic acid, succinic acid in Angeleno plum, and the malic acid was the major organic acids. The coefficient of determination of the standard calibration curve is R2 > 0.999. The organic acids recovery ranged from 99.11% for Malic acid to 106.70% for Oxalic acid, and CV (n=6) ranged from 0.95% for Malic acid to 6.23% for Oxalic acid, respectively. The method was accurate, sensitive and feasible in analyzing the organic acids in Angeleno plum.

  20. Carbohydrate, Organic Acid, and Amino Acid Composition of Bacteroids and Cytosol from Soybean Nodules 1

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Metabolites in Bradyrhizobium japonicum bacteroids and in Glycine max (L.) Merr. cytosol from root nodules were analyzed using an isolation technique which makes it possible to estimate and correct for changes in concentration which may occur during bacteroid isolation. Bacteroid and cytosol extracts were fractionated on ion-exchange columns and were analyzed for carbohydrate composition using gas-liquid chromatography and for organic acid and amino acid composition using high performance liquid chromatography. Analysis of organic acids in plant tissues as the phenacyl derivatives is reported for the first time and this approach revealed the presence of several unknown organic acids in nodules. The time required for separation of bacteroids and cytosol was varied, and significant change in concentration of individual compounds during the separation of the two fractions was estimated by calculating the regression of concentration on time. When a statistically significant slope was found, the true concentration was estimated by extrapolating the regression line to time zero. Of 78 concentration estimates made, there was a statistically significant (5% level) change in concentration during sample preparation for only five metabolites: glucose, sucrose, and succinate in the cytosol and d-pinitol and serine in bacteroids. On a mass basis, the major compounds in bacteroids were (descending order of concentration): myo-inositol, d-chiro-inositol, α,α-trehalose, sucrose, aspartate, glutamate, d-pinitol, arginine, malonate, and glucose. On a proportional basis (concentration in bacteroid as percent of concentration in bacteroid + cytosol fractions), the major compounds were: α-aminoadipate (94), trehalose (66), lysine (58), and arginine (46). The results indicate that metabolite concentrations in bacteroids can be reliably determined. PMID:16665774

  1. Bioconversion of α-Linolenic Acid into n-3 Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid in Hepatocytes and Ad Hoc Cell Culture Optimisation

    PubMed Central

    Alhazzaa, Ramez; Sinclair, Andrew J.; Turchini, Giovanni M.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to establish optimal conditions for a cell culture system that would allow the measurement of 18∶3n-3 (ALA) bioconversion into n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA), and to determine the overall pathway kinetics. Using rat hepatocytes (FaO) as model cells, it was established that a maximum 20∶5n-3 (EPA) production from 50 µM ALA initial concentration was achieved after 3 days of incubation. Next, it was established that a gradual increase in the ALA concentration from 0 up to 125µM lead to a proportional increase in EPA, without concomitant increase in further elongated or desaturated products, such as 22∶5n-3 (DPA) and 22∶6n-3 (DHA) in 3 day incubations. Of interest, ALA bioconversion products were observed in the culture medium. Therefore, in vitro experiments disregarding the medium fatty acid content are underestimating the metabolism efficiency. The novel application of the fatty acid mass balance (FAMB) method on cell culture system (cells with medium) enabled quantifying the apparent enzymatic activities for the biosynthesis of n-3 LC-PUFA. The activity of the key enzymes was estimated and showed that, under these conditions, 50% (Km) of the theoretical maximal (Vmax = 3654 µmol.g−1 of cell protein.hour−1) Fads2 activity on ALA can be achieved with 81 µM initial ALA. Interestingly, the apparent activity of Elovl2 (20∶5n-3 elongation) was the slowest amongst other biosynthesis steps. Therefore, the possible improvement of Elovl2 activity is suggested toward a more efficient DHA production from ALA. The present study proposed and described an ad hoc optimised cell culture conditions and methodology towards achieving a reliable experimental platform, using FAMB, to assist in studying the efficiency of ALA bioconversion into n-3 LC-PUFA in vitro. The FAMB proved to be a powerful and inexpensive method to generate a detailed description of the kinetics of n-3 LC-PUFA biosynthesis enzymes activities in vitro

  2. Interactions between organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers modify phosphate sorption processes in an acid soil

    SciTech Connect

    Sckefe, C.R.; Patti, A.F.; Clune, T.S.; Jackson, W.R.

    2008-07-15

    To determine how organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers interact to modify P sorption processes, three phosphate fertilizers were applied to lignite- and compost-amended acid soil and incubated for either 3 or 26 days. The fertilizers applied were potassium dihydrogen phosphate, triple superphosphate, and diammonium phosphate (DAP). After 3 days of incubation, sorption of all three P sources was decreased in the lignite-amended treatments, whereas P sorption was increased in the compost-amended treatments. Increased incubation time (26 days) resulted in significantly decreased P sorption when DAP was added to lignite-amended treatments. Addition of triple superphosphate increased P sorption in lignite- and compost-amended treatments and decreased solution pH compared with DAP application. In addition to the effect of P source, differences in P sorption between the lignite- and compost-amended treatments were driven by differences in solution chemistry, predominantly solution pH and cation dynamics. Soil amendment and fertilizer addition also increased microbial activity in the incubation systems, as measured by carbon dioxide respiration. It is proposed that the combination of lignite and DAP may contribute to decreased P sorption in acid soils, with the positive effects likely caused by both chemical and biological processes, including the formation of soluble organic-metal complexes.

  3. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  4. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  5. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  6. Recoded organisms engineered to depend on synthetic amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alexis J; Haimovich, Adrian D; Katz, Spencer R; Li, Zhe; Grome, Michael W; Gassaway, Brandon M; Amiram, Miriam; Patel, Jaymin R; Gallagher, Ryan R; Rinehart, Jesse; Isaacs, Farren J

    2015-02-01

    Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are increasingly used in research and industrial systems to produce high-value pharmaceuticals, fuels and chemicals. Genetic isolation and intrinsic biocontainment would provide essential biosafety measures to secure these closed systems and enable safe applications of GMOs in open systems, which include bioremediation and probiotics. Although safeguards have been designed to control cell growth by essential gene regulation, inducible toxin switches and engineered auxotrophies, these approaches are compromised by cross-feeding of essential metabolites, leaked expression of essential genes, or genetic mutations. Here we describe the construction of a series of genomically recoded organisms (GROs) whose growth is restricted by the expression of multiple essential genes that depend on exogenously supplied synthetic amino acids (sAAs). We introduced a Methanocaldococcus jannaschii tRNA:aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase pair into the chromosome of a GRO derived from Escherichia coli that lacks all TAG codons and release factor 1, endowing this organism with the orthogonal translational components to convert TAG into a dedicated sense codon for sAAs. Using multiplex automated genome engineering, we introduced in-frame TAG codons into 22 essential genes, linking their expression to the incorporation of synthetic phenylalanine-derived amino acids. Of the 60 sAA-dependent variants isolated, a notable strain harbouring three TAG codons in conserved functional residues of MurG, DnaA and SerS and containing targeted tRNA deletions maintained robust growth and exhibited undetectable escape frequencies upon culturing ∼10(11) cells on solid media for 7 days or in liquid media for 20 days. This is a significant improvement over existing biocontainment approaches. We constructed synthetic auxotrophs dependent on sAAs that were not rescued by cross-feeding in environmental growth assays. These auxotrophic GROs possess alternative genetic codes that

  7. Qualitative urinary organic acid analysis: 10 years of quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Bonham, James R; Hoffmann, Georg F; Scott, Camilla; Langhans, Claus-Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, a total of 90 urine samples from patients with metabolic disorders and controls were circulated to different laboratories in Europe and overseas, starting with 67 laboratories in 2005 and reaching 101 in 2014. The participants were asked to analyse the samples in their usual way and to prepare a report as if to a non-specialist pediatrician. The performance for the detection of fumarase deficiency, glutaric aciduria type I, isovaleric aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria, mevalonic aciduria, phenylketonuria and propionic aciduria was excellent (98-100 %). Over the last few years, detection has clearly improved for tyrosinaemia type I (39 % in 2008 to over 80 % in 2011/2014), maple syrup urine disease (85 % in 2005 to 98 % in 2012), hawkinsinuria (62 % in 2010 to 88 % in 2014), aminoacylase I deficiency (43 % in 2009 to 73 % in 2012) and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (60 % in 2005 to 93 % by 2011). Normal urines were mostly considered as normal (83-100 %), but laboratories often made additional diagnostic suggestions. When the findings were unambiguous, the reports were mostly clear. However, when they were less obvious, the content and quality of reports varied greatly. Repetition of organic acid measurements on a fresh sample was rarely suggested, while more complex or invasive diagnostic strategies, including further metabolic screening or biopsy were recommended. Surprisingly very few participants suggested referral from the general paediatrician to a specialist metabolic centre to confirm a diagnosis and, if applicable, to initiate treatment despite evidence suggesting that this improves the outcome for patients with inherited metabolic disorders. The reliability of qualitative organic acid analysis has improved over the last few years. However, several aspects of reporting to non-specialists may need discussion and clinicians need to be aware of the uncertainty inherent in all forms of laboratory diagnostic

  8. Qualitative urinary organic acid analysis: 10 years of quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Peters, Verena; Bonham, James R; Hoffmann, Georg F; Scott, Camilla; Langhans, Claus-Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Over the last 10 years, a total of 90 urine samples from patients with metabolic disorders and controls were circulated to different laboratories in Europe and overseas, starting with 67 laboratories in 2005 and reaching 101 in 2014. The participants were asked to analyse the samples in their usual way and to prepare a report as if to a non-specialist pediatrician. The performance for the detection of fumarase deficiency, glutaric aciduria type I, isovaleric aciduria, methylmalonic aciduria, mevalonic aciduria, phenylketonuria and propionic aciduria was excellent (98-100 %). Over the last few years, detection has clearly improved for tyrosinaemia type I (39 % in 2008 to over 80 % in 2011/2014), maple syrup urine disease (85 % in 2005 to 98 % in 2012), hawkinsinuria (62 % in 2010 to 88 % in 2014), aminoacylase I deficiency (43 % in 2009 to 73 % in 2012) and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency (60 % in 2005 to 93 % by 2011). Normal urines were mostly considered as normal (83-100 %), but laboratories often made additional diagnostic suggestions. When the findings were unambiguous, the reports were mostly clear. However, when they were less obvious, the content and quality of reports varied greatly. Repetition of organic acid measurements on a fresh sample was rarely suggested, while more complex or invasive diagnostic strategies, including further metabolic screening or biopsy were recommended. Surprisingly very few participants suggested referral from the general paediatrician to a specialist metabolic centre to confirm a diagnosis and, if applicable, to initiate treatment despite evidence suggesting that this improves the outcome for patients with inherited metabolic disorders. The reliability of qualitative organic acid analysis has improved over the last few years. However, several aspects of reporting to non-specialists may need discussion and clinicians need to be aware of the uncertainty inherent in all forms of laboratory diagnostic

  9. DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID BASE COMPOSITION OF PROTEUS AND PROVIDENCE ORGANISMS

    PubMed Central

    Falkow, Stanley; Ryman, I. R.; Washington, O.

    1962-01-01

    Falkow, Stanley (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington D.C.), I. R. Ryman, and O. Washington. Deoxyribonucleic acid base composition of Proteus and Providence organisms. J. Bacteriol. 83:1318–1321. 1962.—Deoxyribonucleic acids (DNA) from various species of Proteus and of Providence bacteria have been examined for their guanine + cytosine (GC) content. P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. rettgeri possess essentially identical mean GC contents of 39%, and Providence DNA has a GC content of 41.5%. In marked contrast, P. morganii DNA was found to contain 50% GC. The base composition of P. morganii is only slightly lower than those observed for representatives of the Escherichia, Shigella, and Salmonella groups. Aerobacter and Serratia differ significantly from the other members of the family by their relatively high GC content. Since a minimal requirement for genetic compatibility among different species appears to be similarity of their DNA base composition, it is suggested that P. morganii is distinct genetically from the other species of Proteus as well as Providence strains. The determination of the DNA base composition of microorganisms is important for its predictive information. This information should prove of considerable value in investigating genetic and taxonomic relationships among bacteria. PMID:13891463

  10. Rapid simultaneous determination of organic acids, free amino acids, and lactose in cheese by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Izco, J M; Tormo, M; Jiménez-Flores, R

    2002-09-01

    A capillary electrophoresis (CE) method for the simultaneous separation of 11 metabolically important organic acids (oxalic, formic, citric, succinic, orotic, uric, acetic, pyruvic, propionic, lactic, and butyric), 10 amino acids (Asp, Glu, Tyr, Gly, Ala, Ser, Leu, Phe, Lys, and Trp), and lactose has been optimized, validated, and tested in dairy products. Repeatability and linearity were calculated for each compound, with detection limit values as low as 0.2 x 10(-2) mM for citric acid and Gly. The method was applied to analyze yogurt and different varieties of commercial cheeses. This method yielded specific CE patterns for different varieties of cheese. Also, it has been shown to be sensitive enough to measure small changes in composition of some of those compounds in fresh cheese stored under accelerated ripening conditions for 2 d at 32 degrees C (e.g., from 1728.3 +/- 45.0 to 1166.7 +/- 4.5 mg/100 g of DM in the case of lactose, or from 23.5 +/- 0.6 to 76.8 +/- 16.7 mg/100 g of DM in the case of acetic acid).

  11. Antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds added to a functional emulsion containing omega-3 fatty acids and plant sterol esters.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Raquel Rainho; Inchingolo, Raffaella; Alencar, Severino Matias; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Castro, Inar Alves

    2015-09-01

    The effect of eleven compounds extracted from red propolis on the oxidative stability of a functional emulsion was evaluated. Emulsions prepared with Echium oil as omega 3 (ω-3 FA) source, containing 1.63 g/100mL of α-linolenic acid (ALA), 0.73 g/100 mL of stearidonic acid (SDA) and 0.65 g/100mL of plant sterol esters (PSE) were prepared without or with phenolic compounds (vanillic acid, caffeic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, 2,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin, trans-ferulic acid, trans,trans-farnesol, rutin, gallic acid or sinapic acid). tert-Butylhydroquinone and a mixture containing ascorbic acid and FeSO4 were applied as negative and positive controls of the oxidation. Hydroperoxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), malondialdehyde and phytosterol oxidation products (POPs) were evaluated as oxidative markers. Based on hydroperoxide and TBARS analysis, sinapic acid and rutin (200 ppm) showed the same antioxidant activity than TBHQ, representing a potential alternative as natural antioxidant to be applied in a functional emulsion containing ω-3 FA and PSE.

  12. Use of Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy to Characterize Organic Acids and Aerosols Emitted in Biomass Burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bililign, Solomon; Fiddler, Marc; Singh, Sujeeta

    2012-02-01

    One poorly understood, but significant class of volatile organic compounds (VOC) present in biomass burning is gas-phase organic acids and inorganic acids. These acids are extremely difficult to measure because of their adsorptive nature. Particulates and aerosols are also produced during biomass burning and impact the radiation budget of the Earth and, hence, impact global climate. Use cavity ring down spectroscopy (CRD) to measure absorption cross sections for OH overtone induced photochemistry in some organic acids (acetic acid and peracetic acid) will be presented and planed measurements of optical properties of aerosols composed of mixtures of different absorbing and non-absorbing species using CRD will be discussed.

  13. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its applications to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N.; King, C.J.

    1991-11-01

    The solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents increase remarkably with an increasing amount of water in the organic phase. This phenomenon leads to a novel extract regeneration process in which the co-extracted water is selectively removed from an extract, and the carboxylic acid precipitates. This approach is potentially advantageous compared to other regeneration processes because it removes a minor component of the extract in order to achieve a large recovery of acid from the extract. Carboxylic acids of interest include adipic acid, fumaric acid, and succinic acid because of their low to moderate solubilities in organic solvents. Solvents were screened for an increase in acid solubility with increased water concentration in the organic phase. Most Lewis-base solvents were found to exhibit this increased solubility phenomena. Solvents that have a carbonyl functional group showed a very large increase in acid solubility. 71 refs., 52 figs., 38 tabs.

  14. Calculating the acidity constants of homologues and isomers of organic acids by means of recurrence relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zenkevich, I. G.

    2013-06-01

    It is noted that the p K a values of organic acids can be calculated using the unique recurrence relation p K a( n + 1) = ap K a( n) + b from the p K a values of other (usually the simplest and, consequently, better characterized) homologues of the same series. It is shown that this relation is valid within two taxonomic groups: insertion homologues of the ω-substituted acids X(CH2) n CO2H ( n ≥ 1) and isomers that differ in the position of substituents X in their alkyl fragments, k-X(C n H2 n )CO2H ( n ≥ 1, 1 ≤ k ≤ n + 1). It is concluded that this algorithm is a consequence of the unique mathematical properties of recurrence relations.

  15. Effects of pH adjustment and sodium ions on sour taste intensity of organic acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Protonated organic acid species have been shown to be the primary stimuli responsible for sour taste of organic acids. However, we have observed that sour taste may be modulated when the pH of acid solutions is raised using sodium hydroxide. Objectives were to evaluate the effect of pH adjustment on...

  16. Isolation of organic acids from large volumes of water by adsorption chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon from most natural waters ranges from 1 to 20 milligrams carbon per liter, of which approximately 75 percent are organic acids. These acids can be chromatographically fractionated into hydrophobic organic acids, such as humic substances, and hydrophilic organic acids. To effectively study any of these organic acids, they must be isolated from other organic and inorganic species, and concentrated. Usually, large volumes of water must be processed to obtain sufficient quantities of material, and adsorption chromatography on synthetic, macroporous resins has proven to be a particularly effective method for this purpose. The use of the nonionic Amberlite XAD-8 and Amberlite XAD-4 resins and the anion exchange resin Duolite A-7 for isolating and concentrating organic acids from water is presented.

  17. [Determination of sugars, organic acids and alcohols in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose using high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Fan, Guifang; Du, Ran; Li, Peipei; Jiang, Li

    2015-08-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method was established for the determination of metabolites (sugars, organic acids and alcohols) in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose. Sulfate was first added in the samples to precipitate calcium ions in microbial consortium culture medium and lower the pH of the solution to avoid the dissociation of organic acids, then the filtrates were effectively separated using high performance liquid chromatography. Cellobiose, glucose, ethanol, butanol, glycerol, acetic acid and butyric acid were quantitatively analyzed. The detection limits were in the range of 0.10-2.00 mg/L. The linear correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999 6 in the range of 0.020 to 1.000 g/L. The recoveries were in the range of 85.41%-115.60% with the relative standard deviations of 0.22% -4.62% (n = 6). This method is accurate for the quantitative analysis of the alcohols, organic acids and saccharides in microbial consortium fermentation broth from cellulose.

  18. [Effects of organic acids on the toxicity of cadmium during ryegrass growth].

    PubMed

    Liao, Min; Huang, Changyong

    2002-01-01

    Effects of low molecular weight organic acids(oxalic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid) and higher molecular weight organic acid(humic acid) on the toxicity of Cd during ryegrass growth were studied. The results showed that Cd toxicity enhanced gradually with increasing the concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, and led to the decreasing of chlorophyll concentration in ryegrass plant and the biomass of ryegrass. The sequence of this influence was: oxalic acid < acetic acid < citric acid. On the contrary, Cd toxicity was reduced as a result of addition of humic acid, and the concentration of chlorophyll in ryegrass shoots and the biomass of ryegrass increased consequently. The concentration of Cd in roots and shoots of the ryegrass increased with increasing the concentration of low molecular weight organic acids, and the sequence of this influence was: citric acid > acetic acid > oxalic acids. The concentration of Cd decreased gradually as a result of increasing the concentration of humic acid, which means humic acid could reduce the toxicity of Cd on ryegrass. Furthermore, the concentration of Cd was higher in roots than in shoots, which indicated that the roots of ryegrass could prevent transport of Cd from roots to shoots and reduce Cd accumulation in the shoots.

  19. Deletion of glucose oxidase changes the pattern of organic acid production in Aspergillus carbonarius.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lei; Lübeck, Mette; Lübeck, Peter S

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus carbonarius has potential as a cell factory for the production of different organic acids. At pH 5.5, A.carbonarius accumulates high amounts of gluconic acid when it grows on glucose based medium whereas at low pH, it produces citric acid. The conversion of glucose to gluconic acid is carried out by secretion of the enzyme, glucose oxidase. In this work, the gene encoding glucose oxidase was identified and deleted from A. carbonarius with the aim of changing the carbon flux towards other organic acids. The effect of genetic engineering was examined by testing glucose oxidase deficient (Δgox) mutants for the production of different organic acids in a defined production medium. The results obtained showed that the gluconic acid accumulation was completely inhibited and increased amounts of citric acid, oxalic acid and malic acid were observed in the Δgox mutants.

  20. Uptake of Ambient Organic Gases to Acidic Sulfate Aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liggio, J.; Li, S.

    2009-05-01

    The formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere has been an area of significant interest due to its climatic relevance, its effects on air quality and human health. Due largely to the underestimation of SOA by regional and global models, there has been an increasing number of studies focusing on alternate pathways leading to SOA. In this regard, recent work has shown that heterogeneous and liquid phase reactions, often leading to oligomeric material, may be a route to SOA via products of biogenic and anthropogenic origin. Although oligomer formation in chamber studies has been frequently observed, the applicability of these experiments to ambient conditions, and thus the overall importance of oligomerization reactions remain unclear. In the present study, ambient air is drawn into a Teflon smog chamber and exposed to acidic sulfate aerosols which have been formed in situ via the reaction of SO3 with water vapor. The aerosol composition is measured with a High Resolution Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS), and particle size distributions are monitored with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The use of ambient air and relatively low inorganic particle loading potentially provides clearer insight into the importance of heterogeneous reactions. Results of experiments, with a range of sulfate loadings show that there are several competing processes occurring on different timescales. A significant uptake of ambient organic gases to the particles is observed immediately followed by a slow shift towards higher m/z over a period of several hours indicating that higher molecular weight products (possibly oligomers) are being formed through a reactive process. The results suggest that heterogeneous reactions can occur with ambient organic gases, even in the presence of ammonia, which may have significant implications to the ambient atmosphere where particles may be neutralized after their formation.

  1. Exploration of amino acid biomarkers in polar ice with the Mars Organic Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarajah, C.; Botta, O.; Aubrey, A.; Parker, E.; Bada, J.; Mathies, R.

    2009-05-01

    A portable microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) system named the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has been developed to analyze fluorescently-labeled biomarkers including amino acids, amines, nucleobases, and amino sugars with the goal of life detection on Mars (1,2). This technology has also been shown to be effective in screening the formation of biogenic amines during fermentation (3). The MOA is a part of the Urey instrument package that has been selected for the 2016 European ExoMars mission by ESA. The identification of recent gully erosion sites, observations of ice on and beneath the surface of Mars, and the discovery of large reservoirs of sub-surface ice on Mars point to water-ice as an important target for astrobiological analyses. In addition, the ice samples on the Moon, Mercury, Europa and Enceladus are of interest due to the possibility that they may contain information on biogenic material relevant to the evolution of life. We explore here the use of the MOA instrument for the analysis of amino acids in polar ice samples. The amino acids valine, alanine/serine, glycine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were found in the parts-per-billion range from Greenland ice-core samples. Chiral analysis of these samples yielded D/L ratios of 0.51/0.09 for alanine/serine and 0.14/0.06 for aspartic acid. Individual amino acids in the parts-per-trillion range were found in Antarctic ice samples collected from the surface of a meteorite collection area. The distinct amino acid and amine content of these samples indicates that further biomarker characterization of ice samples as a function of sampling location, depth, and structural features will be highly informative. The rapid sensitive analysis capabilities demonstrated here establish the feasibility of using the MOA to analyze the biomarker content of ice samples in planetary exploration. 1. Skelley, A. M.; Scherer, J. R.; Aubrey, A. D.; Grover, W. H.; Ivester, R. H. C., Ehrenfreund, P.; Grunthaner, F. J

  2. Degradation of dissolved organic monomers and short-chain fatty acids in sandy marine sediment by fermentation and sulfate reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdemarsen, Thomas; Kristensen, Erik

    2010-03-01

    The decay of a wide range of organic monomers (short-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA's), amino acids, glucose and a pyrimidine) was studied in marine sediments using experimental plug flow-through reactors. The reactions were followed in the presence and absence of 10 mM SO 42-. Degradation stoichiometry of individual monomers (inflow concentration of 6 mM organic C) was traced by measuring organic (VFA's, amino acids) and inorganic (CO 2, NH 4+, SO 42-) compounds in the outflow. Fermentation of amino acids was efficient and complete during passage through anoxic sediment reactors. Aliphatic amino acids (alanine, serine and glutamate) were primarily recovered as CO 2 (24-34%), formate (3-22%) and acetate (41-83%), whereas only ˜1/3 of the aromatic amino acid (tyrosine) was recovered as CO 2 (13%) and acetate (20%). Fermentation of glucose and cytosine was also efficient (78-86%) with CO 2 (30-35%), formate (3%) and acetate (28-33%) as the primary products. Fermentation of VFA's (acetate, propionate and butyrate), on the other hand, appeared to be product inhibited. The presence of SO 42- markedly stimulated VFA degradation (29-45% efficiency), and these compounds were recovered as CO 2 (17% for butyrate to 100% for acetate) and acetate (51% and 82% for propionate and butyrate, respectively). When reaction stoichiometry during fermentation is compared with compound depletion during sulfate reduction, the higher proportion CO 2 recovery is consistent with lower acetate and formate accumulation. Our results therefore suggest that fermentation reactions mediate the initial degradation of added organic compounds, even during active sulfate reduction. Fermentative degradation stoichiometry also suggested significant H 2 production, and >50% of sulfate reduction appeared to be fuelled by H 2. Furthermore, our results suggest that fermentation was the primary deamination step during degradation of the amino acids and cytosine.

  3. Growth inhibition of Cronobacter spp. strains in reconstituted powdered infant formula acidified with organic acids supported by natural stomach acidity.

    PubMed

    Zhu, S; Schnell, S; Fischer, M

    2013-09-01

    Cronobacter is associated with outbreaks of rare, but life-threatening cases of meningitis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and sepsis in newborns. This study was conducted to determine the effect of organic acids on growth of Cronobacter in laboratory medium and reconstituted powdered infant formula (PIF) as well as the bacteriostatic effect of slightly acidified infant formula when combined with neonatal gastric acidity. Inhibitory effect of seven organic acids on four acid sensitive Cronobacter strains was determined in laboratory medium with broth dilution method at pH 5.0, 5.5 and 6.0. Acetic, butyric and propionic acids were most inhibitive against Cronobacter in the laboratory medium. The killing effect of these three acids was partially buffered in reconstituted PIF. Under neonatal gastric acid condition of pH 5.0, the slightly acidified formula which did not exert inhibition effect solely reduced significantly the Cronobacter populations. A synergistic effect of formula moderately acidified with organic acid combined with the physiological infant gastric acid was visible in preventing the rapid growth of Cronobacter in neonatal stomach. The study contributed to a better understanding of the inhibitory effect of organic acids on Cronobacter growth in different matrixes and provided new ideas in terms of controlling bacteria colonization and translocation by acidified formula.

  4. Staining of proteins in gels with Coomassie G-250 without organic solvent and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Ann-Marie; Besir, H Uuml Seyin

    2009-01-01

    In classical protein staining protocols using Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB), solutions with high contents of toxic and flammable organic solvents (Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol) and acetic acid are used for fixation, staining and destaining of proteins in a gel after SDS-PAGE. To speed up the procedure, heating the staining solution in the microwave oven for a short time is frequently used. This usually results in evaporation of toxic or hazardous Methanol, Ethanol or 2-Propanol and a strong smell of acetic acid in the lab which should be avoided due to safety considerations. In a protocol originally published in two patent applications by E.M. Wondrak (US2001046709 (A1), US6319720 (B1)), an alternative composition of the staining solution is described in which no organic solvent or acid is used. The CBB is dissolved in bidistilled water (60-80 mg of CBB G-250 per liter) and 35 mM HCl is added as the only other compound in the staining solution. The CBB staining of the gel is done after SDS-PAGE and thorough washing of the gel in bidistilled water. By heating the gel during the washing and staining steps, the process can be finished faster and no toxic or hazardous compounds are evaporating. The staining of proteins occurs already within 1 minute after heating the gel in staining solution and is fully developed after 15-30 min with a slightly blue background that is destained completely by prolonged washing of the stained gel in bidistilled water, without affecting the stained protein bands. PMID:19684570

  5. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Myhre, C. E.; Nielsen, C. J.

    2004-09-01

    Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  6. Optical properties in the UV and visible spectral region of organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund Myhre, C. E.; Nielsen, C. J.

    2004-06-01

    Refractive and absorption indices in the UV and visible region of selected aqueous organic acids relevant to tropospheric aerosols are reported. The acids investigated are the aliphatic dicarboxylic acids oxalic, malonic, tartronic, succinic and glutaric acid. In addition we report data for pyruvic, pinonic, benzoic and phthalic acid. To cover a wide range of conditions we have investigated the aqueous organic acids at different concentrations spanning from highly diluted samples to concentrations close to saturation. The density of the investigated samples is reported and a parameterisation of the absorption and refractive index that allows the calculation of the optical constants of mixed aqueous organic acids at different concentrations is presented. The single scattering albedo is calculated for two size distributions using measured and a synthetic set of optical constants. The results show that tropospheric aerosols consisting of only these organic acids and water have a pure scattering effect.

  7. Comparison of acid generation in EUV lithography films of poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) and noria adamantyl ester (Noria-AD(50)).

    PubMed

    Wu, Weiqiang; Nuzhdin, Kirill; Vyushkova, Mariya; Janik, Ireneusz; Bartels, David

    2012-05-31

    The mechanism for acid production in phenolic extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography films containing triphenylsulfonium triflate (Ph(3)S(+)TfO(-)) acid generator has been investigated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy and by use of the acid indicator coumarin 6 (C6). Gamma radiolysis was substituted for the EUV radiation with the assumption that the chemistry generated by ionization of the matrix does not depend on the ionization source. Poly(4-hydroxystyrene) (PHS) was first investigated as a well-studied standard, after which the water-wheel-like cyclic oligomer derivative containing pendant adamantyl ester groups, noria-AD(50), was investigated. EPR measurements confirm that the dominant free radical product is a phenoxyl derivative (PHS-O(•) or noria-O(•)) that exhibits quite slow stretched exponential recombination kinetics at room temperature. Also observed at 77 K was the presence of a significant hydrogen atom product of radiolysis. The G value or yield of acid production in thin lithography films was measured with the C6 indicator on a fused silica substrate. It was found that a significant amount of acid is generated via energy transfer from the irradiated fused-silica substrate to the Ph(3)S(+)TfO(-) in the films. By varying the film thickness on the substrates, the substrate effect on the acid yield was quantitatively determined. After subtraction of the contribution from the substrates, the acid yield G value in the PHS film with 10 wt % Ph(3)S(+)TfO(-) and 5 wt % C6 was determined to be 2.5 ± 0.3 protons per 100 eV of radiation. The acid yield of noria-AD(50) films was found to be 3.2 ± 0.3 protons per 100 eV. PMID:22607084

  8. Remarkable Impact of Acidic Ginsenosides and Organic Acids on Ginsenoside Transformation from Fresh Ginseng to Red Ginseng.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Xia, Juan; Wang, Chong-Zhi; Zhang, Jin-Qiu; Ruan, Chang-Chun; Sun, Guang-Zhi; Yuan, Chun-Su

    2016-07-01

    Panax ginseng contains many chemical components, including acidic ginsenosides and organic acids. However, whether these acidic substances play a role in ginsenoside transformation during steaming treatment has not yet been explored. In this paper, the content of neutral ginsenosides, acidic ginsenosides, and their degradation products in unsteamed and steamed P. ginseng were simultaneously quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that neutral ginsenosides were converted to rare ginsenosides during the root steaming but not during the individual ginsenoside steaming. In contrast, acidic malonyl ginsenosides released malonic acid and acetic acid through demalonylation, decarboxylation, deacetylation reactions during the steaming at 120 °C. These malonyl ginsenosides not only were converted to rare ginsenosides but also promoted the degradation of neutral ginsenosides. Further studies indicated that a low concentration of organic acid was the determining factor for the ginsenoside conversion. The related mechanisms were deduced to be mainly acidic hydrolysis and dehydration. In summary, acidic ginsenosides and organic acids remarkably affected ginsenoside transformation during the steaming process. Our results provide useful information for precisely understanding the ginsenoside conversion pathways and mechanisms underlying the steaming process.

  9. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer.

  10. The influence of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and stream waters on a seasonal basis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Pippa J; Clark, Joanna M; Reynolds, Brian; Adamson, John K

    2008-01-01

    Much uncertainty still exists regarding the relative importance of organic acids in relation to acid deposition in controlling the acidity of soil and surface waters. This paper contributes to this debate by presenting analysis of seasonal variations in atmospheric deposition, soil solution and stream water chemistry for two UK headwater catchments with contrasting soils. Acid neutralising capacity (ANC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and the Na:Cl ratio of soil and stream waters displayed strong seasonal patterns with little seasonal variation observed in soil water pH. These patterns, plus the strong relationships between ANC, Cl and DOC, suggest that cation exchange and seasonal changes in the production of DOC and seasalt deposition are driving a shift in the proportion of acidity attributable to strong acid anions, from atmospheric deposition, during winter to predominantly organic acids in summer. PMID:17478019

  11. The Photochemical Isomerization of Maleic to Fumaric Acid: An Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Albert J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate organic chemistry experiment on the photochemical isomerization of maleic to fumaric acid. Background information, chemical reactions involved, and experimental procedures are included. (JN)

  12. Inhibition of succinic acid production in metabolically engineered Escherichia coli by neutralizing agent, organic acids, and osmolarity.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Christian; Helmerius, Jonas; Hodge, David; Berglund, Kris A; Rova, Ulrika

    2009-01-01

    The economical viability of biochemical succinic acid production is a result of many processing parameters including final succinic acid concentration, recovery of succinate, and the volumetric productivity. Maintaining volumetric productivities >2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) is important if production of succinic acid from renewable resources should be competitive. In this work, the effects of organic acids, osmolarity, and neutralizing agent (NH4OH, KOH, NaOH, K2CO3, and Na2CO3), and Na2CO3) on the fermentative succinic acid production by Escherichia coli AFP184 were investigated. The highest concentration of succinic acid, 77 g L(-1), was obtained with Na2CO3. In general, irrespective of the base used, succinic acid productivity per viable cell was significantly reduced as the concentration of the produced acid increased. Increased osmolarity resulting from base addition during succinate production only marginally affected the productivity per viable cell. Addition of the osmoprotectant glycine betaine to cultures resulted in an increased aerobic growth rate and anaerobic glucose consumption rate, but decreased succinic acid yield. When using NH4OH productivity completely ceased at a succinic acid concentration of approximately 40 g L(-1). Volumetric productivities remained at 2.5 g L(-1) h(-1) for up to 10 h longer when K- or Na-bases where used instead of NH4OH. The decrease in cellular succinic acid productivity observed during the anaerobic phase was found to be due to increased organic acid concentrations rather than medium osmolarity.

  13. Effects of organic acids, amino acids and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin in an aqueous model system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Hyejeong; Lim, Sangyong; Jo, Cheorun; Chung, Jinwoo; Kim, Soohyun; Kwon, Joong-Ho; Kim, Dongho

    2008-06-01

    The effects of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol on the radio-degradation of patulin by gamma irradiation in an aqueous model system were investigated. The patulin, dissolved in distilled water at a concentration of 50 ppm, was practically degraded by the gamma irradiation at the dose of 1.0 kGy, while 33% of the patulin remained in apple juice. In the aqueous model system, the radio-degradation of patulin was partially inhibited by the addition of organic acids, amino acids, and ethanol. The proportions of remaining patulin after irradiation with the dose of 1.0 kGy in the 1% solution of malic acid, citric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid, ascorbic acid, and ethanol were 31.4%, 2.3%, 31.2%, 6.1%, 50.8%, and 12.5%, respectively. During 30 days of storage, the remaining patulin was reduced gradually in the solution of ascorbic acid and malic acid compared to being stable in other samples. The amino acids, serine, threonine, and histidine, inhibited the radio-degradation of patulin. In conclusion, it was suggested that 1 kGy of gamma irradiation (recommended radiation doses for radicidation and/or quarantine in fruits) is effective for the reduction of patulin, but the nutritional elements should be considered because the radio-degradation effects are environment dependent.

  14. Qualitative urinary organic acid analysis: methodological approaches and performance.

    PubMed

    Peters, V; Garbade, S F; Langhans, C D; Hoffmann, G F; Pollitt, R J; Downing, M; Bonham, J R

    2008-12-01

    A programme for proficiency testing of biochemical genetics laboratories undertaking urinary qualitative organic acid analysis and its results for 50 samples examined for factors contributing to poor performance are described. Urine samples from patients in whom inherited metabolic disorders have been confirmed as well as control urines were circulated to participants and the results from 94 laboratories were evaluated. Laboratories showed variability both in terms of their individual performance and on a disease-specific basis. In general, conditions including methylmalonic aciduria, propionic aciduria, isovaleric aciduria, mevalonic aciduria, Canavan disease and 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase were readily identified. Detection was poorer for other diseases such as glutaric aciduria type II, glyceric aciduria and, in one sample, 3-methylcrotonyl-CoA carboxylase deficiency. To identify the factors that allow some laboratories to perform well on a consistent basis while others perform badly, we devised a questionnaire and compared the responses with the results for performance in the scheme. A trend towards better performance could be demonstrated for those laboratories that regularly use internal quality control (QC) samples in their sample preparation (p = 0.079) and those that participate in further external quality assurance (EQA) schemes (p = 0,040). Clinicians who depend upon these diagnostic services to identify patients with these defects and the laboratories that provide them should be aware of the potential for missed diagnoses and the factors that may lead to improved performance.

  15. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface. PMID:25254114

  16. Low-Vacuum Deposition of Glutamic Acid and Pyroglutamic Acid: A Facile Methodology for Depositing Organic Materials beyond Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Iwao; Maeda, Shunsaku; Suda, Yoriko; Makihara, Kenji; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Thin layers of pyroglutamic acid (Pygl) have been deposited by thermal evaporation of the molten L-glutamic acid (L-Glu) through intramolecular lactamization. This deposition was carried out with the versatile handmade low-vacuum coater, which was simply composed of a soldering iron placed in a vacuum degassing resin chamber evacuated by an oil-free diaphragm pump. Molecular structural analyses have revealed that thin solid film evaporated from the molten L-Glu is mainly composed of L-Pygl due to intramolecular lactamization. The major component of the L-Pygl was in β-phase and the minor component was in γ-phase, which would have been generated from partial racemization to DL-Pygl. Electron microscopy revealed that the L-Glu-evaporated film generally consisted of the 20 nm particulates of Pygl, which contained a periodic pattern spacing of 0.2 nm intervals indicating the formation of the single-molecular interval of the crystallized molecular networks. The DL-Pygl-evaporated film was composed of the original DL-Pygl preserving its crystal structures. This methodology is promising for depositing a wide range of the evaporable organic materials beyond amino acids. The quartz crystal resonator coated with the L-Glu-evaporated film exhibited the pressure-sensing capability based on the adsorption-desorption of the surrounding gas at the film surface.

  17. Ion-exclusion chromatography determination of organic acid in uridine 5'-monophosphate fermentation broth.

    PubMed

    Niu, Huanqing; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Wu, Jinglan; Liu, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous determination of organic acids using ion-exclusion liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection is described. The chromatographic conditions are optimized when an Aminex HPX-87H column (300 × 7.8 mm) is employed, with a solution of 3 mmol/L sulfuric acid as eluent, a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and a column temperature of 60°C. Eight organic acids (including orotic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and acetic acid) and one nucleotide are successfully quantified. The calibration curves for these analytes are linear, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. The average recovery of organic acids is in the range of 97.6% ∼ 103.1%, and the relative standard deviation is in the range of 0.037% ∼ 0.38%. The method is subsequently applied to obtain organic acid profiles of uridine 5'-monophosphate culture broth fermented from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data demonstrate the quantitative accuracy for nucleotide fermentation mixtures, and suggest that the method may also be applicable to other biological samples. PMID:22634191

  18. Sourdough fermentation or addition of organic acids or corresponding salts to bread improves nutritional properties of starch in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Liljeberg, H G; Lönner, C H; Björck, I M

    1995-06-01

    Postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses to barley bread containing organic acids or corresponding salts were evaluated in healthy human subjects. The satiety score and the rate and extent of in vitro starch digestion were also studied. Lactic acid was generated by use of a homofermentative starter culture or added to the dough. In addition, products were baked with Ca-lactate, or with Na-propionate at two different concentrations. Consumption of the product baked with a high concentration of Na-propionate significantly lowered the postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses, and significantly prolonged the duration of satiety compared with all other breads. When subjects consumed the breads baked with sourdough, lactic acid and Na-propionate, their glucose and insulin responses were reduced compared with the wholemeal bread alone. The rate of in vitro amylolysis was reduced only by ingestion of the breads containing lactic acid, suggesting that the beneficial impact of Na-propionate on metabolic responses and satiety was related to effects other than a reduced rate of starch hydrolysis. All bread products had a similar concentration of in vitro resistant starch of 1.3-2.1 g/100 g (starch basis). It is concluded that sourdough baking and other fermentation processes may improve the nutritional features of starch. The results also demonstrate that certain salts of organic acids may have metabolic effects.

  19. The role of low molecular weight organic acids on controlling pH in coastal sea water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    Series investigation of the Jiaozhou Bay, China, observed existences of three low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs), including lactic acid, acetic acid and formic acid, with high concentration in the sea water. Generally, their amount accounted for about 20% of DOC in the sea water of the bay. Human activities around the bay were considered as the major source of the LMWOAs. Also, long term detection showed that the pH value in the Jiaozhou Bay was lower than that in the adjacent Yellow Sea. On average, the difference of pH values between the bay and the Yellow was about 0.2. Due to higher concentrations of the LMWOAs, their contribution to lower pH value of the bay should not be ignored. To validate the effect of LMWOAs on the pH value of the bay, a new software was developed to calculate the pH value in the sea water samples based on alkalinity by adding three items of the three organic acids in the expression. Compared to the traditional pH calculating software, the new software could improve the calculating results significantly. Our results confirmed that LMWOAs was an important control factor to adjust pH values in coastal area.

  20. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: Implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yan-Lin; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Cao, Fang; Lee, Meehye

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls, and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C values of particle phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly larger than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors. The values are consistently less negative in oxalic acid (C2, average -14.1‰), glyoxylic acid (-13.8‰), pyruvic acid (-19.4‰), glyoxal (-13.5‰), and methylglyoxal (-18.6‰) compared to other organic species (e.g., palmitic acid, -26.3‰), which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during atmospheric oxidation of pre-aged precursors (e.g., isoprene) and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after the evaporation of clouds or wet aerosols. The δ13C values of C2 is positively correlated with C2 to organic carbon ratio, indicating that photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation during long-range atmospheric transport. The isotopic results also suggest that aqueous phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is a major formation process of oxalic acid via the intermediates such as glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photochemically aged in the western North Pacific rim.

  1. Toxicity of select organic acids to the slightly thermophilic acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus.

    PubMed

    Aston, John E; Apel, William A; Lee, Brady D; Peyton, Brent M

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 microM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 microM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  2. Toxicity of Select Organic Acids to the Slightly Thermophilic Acidophile Acidithiobaccillus Caldus

    SciTech Connect

    John E Aston; William A Apel; Brady D Lee; Brent M Peyton

    2009-02-01

    Acidithiobacillus caldus is a thermophilic acidophile found in commercial biomining, acid mine drainage systems, and natural environments. Previous work has characterized A. caldus as a chemolithotrophic autotroph capable of utilizing reduced sulfur compounds under aerobic conditions. Organic acids are especially toxic to chemolithotrophs in low-pH environments, where they diffuse more readily into the cell and deprotonate within the cytoplasm. In the present study, the toxic effects of oxaloacetate, pyruvate, 2-ketoglutarate, acetate, malate, succinate, and fumarate on A. caldus strain BC13 were examined under batch conditions. All tested organic acids exhibited some inhibitory effect. Oxaloacetate was observed to inhibit growth completely at a concentration of 250 µM, whereas other organic acids were completely inhibitory at concentrations of between 1,000 and 5,000 µM. In these experiments, the measured concentrations of organic acids decreased with time, indicating uptake or assimilation by the cells. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses indicated an effect of organic acids on the cellular envelope. Notable differences included an increase in cyclic fatty acids in the presence of organic acids, indicating possible instability of the cellular envelope. This was supported by field emission scanning-electron micrographs showing blebbing and sluffing in cells grown in the presence of organic acids.

  3. Characteristics of organic acids in the fruit of different pumpkin species.

    PubMed

    Nawirska-Olszańska, Agnieszka; Biesiada, Anita; Sokół-Łętowska, Anna; Kucharska, Alicja Z

    2014-04-01

    The aim of the research was to determine the composition of organic acids in fruit of different cultivars of three pumpkin species. The amount of acids immediately after fruit harvest and after 3 months of storage was compared. The content of organic acids in the examined pumpkin cultivars was assayed using the method of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Three organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, and fumaric acid) were identified in the cultivars, whose content considerably varied depending on a cultivar. Three-month storage resulted in decreased content of the acids in the case of cultivars belonging to Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita pepo species, while a slight increase was recorded for Cucurbita moschata species.

  4. [Determination of organic acids in rice wine by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojie; Wei, Wei; He, Zhigang; Lin, Xiaozi

    2014-03-01

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in rice wine was developed. An IC-Pak Ion Exclusion column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 7 microm) was used at 50 degrees C. The mobile phases were H2SO4 (phase A) and acetonitrile (phase B) (98:2, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The gradient elution program was as follows: 0-40 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 to 0.02 mol/L H2SO4; 40-50 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4. The injection volume was 10 microL. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The results showed that oxalic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, succinic acid, lactic, fumaric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid and butyric acid were completely separated and determined in 30 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 7 in the range of 0.001- 1.000 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of organic acids in rice wine were in the range of 93.4% - 103.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 0.1% - 1.5%. This method is feasible, convenient, fast, accurate and applicable for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids in rice wine.

  5. [Determination of organic acids in rice wine by ion-exclusion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaojie; Wei, Wei; He, Zhigang; Lin, Xiaozi

    2014-03-01

    An ion-exclusion chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids in rice wine was developed. An IC-Pak Ion Exclusion column (300 mm x 7.8 mm, 7 microm) was used at 50 degrees C. The mobile phases were H2SO4 (phase A) and acetonitrile (phase B) (98:2, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The gradient elution program was as follows: 0-40 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4 to 0.02 mol/L H2SO4; 40-50 min, 0.01 mol/L H2SO4. The injection volume was 10 microL. The detection wavelength was set at 210 nm. The results showed that oxalic acid, maleic acid, citric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid, ascorbic acid, succinic acid, lactic, fumaric acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, isobutyric acid and butyric acid were completely separated and determined in 30 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 7 in the range of 0.001- 1.000 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of organic acids in rice wine were in the range of 93.4% - 103.8% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 5) of 0.1% - 1.5%. This method is feasible, convenient, fast, accurate and applicable for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids in rice wine. PMID:24984473

  6. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, M. R.; Elrod, M. J.; Garland, R. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2006-03-01

    Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10) and ketones (C3 and C9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s) at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point) were found to play a dominant role in determining the mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous) and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures) nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  7. Ice nucleation in sulfuric acid/organic aerosols: implications for cirrus cloud formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaver, M. R.; Elrod, M. J.; Garland, R. M.; Tolbert, M. A.

    2006-08-01

    Using an aerosol flow tube apparatus, we have studied the effects of aliphatic aldehydes (C3 to C10) and ketones (C3 and C9) on ice nucleation in sulfuric acid aerosols. Mixed aerosols were prepared by combining an organic vapor flow with a flow of sulfuric acid aerosols over a small mixing time (~60 s) at room temperature. No acid-catalyzed reactions were observed under these conditions, and physical uptake was responsible for the organic content of the sulfuric acid aerosols. In these experiments, aerosol organic content, determined by a Mie scattering analysis, was found to vary with the partial pressure of organic, the flow tube temperature, and the identity of the organic compound. The physical properties of the organic compounds (primarily the solubility and melting point) were found to play a dominant role in determining the inferred mode of nucleation (homogenous or heterogeneous) and the specific freezing temperatures observed. Overall, very soluble, low-melting organics, such as acetone and propanal, caused a decrease in aerosol ice nucleation temperatures when compared with aqueous sulfuric acid aerosol. In contrast, sulfuric acid particles exposed to organic compounds of eight carbons and greater, of much lower solubility and higher melting temperatures, nucleate ice at temperatures above aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Organic compounds of intermediate carbon chain length, C4-C7, (of intermediate solubility and melting temperatures) nucleated ice at the same temperature as aqueous sulfuric acid aerosols. Interpretations and implications of these results for cirrus cloud formation are discussed.

  8. Structural organization of fatty acid desaturase loci in linseed lines with contrasting linolenic acid contents.

    PubMed

    Thambugala, Dinushika; Ragupathy, Raja; Cloutier, Sylvie

    2016-07-01

    Flax (Linum usitatissimum L.), the richest crop source of omega-3 fatty acids (FAs), is a diploid plant with an estimated genome size of ~370 Mb and is well suited for studying genomic organization of agronomically important traits. In this study, 12 bacterial artificial chromosome clones harbouring the six FA desaturase loci sad1, sad2, fad2a, fad2b, fad3a and fad3b from the conventional variety CDC Bethune and the high linolenic acid line M5791 were sequenced, analysed and compared to determine the structural organization of these loci and to gain insights into the genetic mechanisms underlying FA composition in flax. With one gene every 3.2-4.6 kb, the desaturase loci have a higher gene density than the genome's average of one gene per 7.8-8.2 kb. The gene order and orientation across the two genotypes were generally conserved with the exception of the sad1 locus that was predicted to have additional genes in CDC Bethune. High sequence conservation in both genic and intergenic regions of the sad and fad2b loci contrasted with the significant level of variation of the fad2a and fad3 loci, with SNPs being the most frequently observed mutation type. The fad2a locus had 297 SNPs and 36 indels over ~95 kb contrasting with the fad2b locus that had a mere seven SNPs and four indels in ~110 kb. Annotation of the gene-rich loci revealed other genes of known role in lipid or carbohydrate metabolic/catabolic pathways. The organization of the fad2b locus was particularly complex with seven copies of the fad2b gene in both genotypes. The presence of Gypsy, Copia, MITE, Mutator, hAT and other novel repeat elements at the desaturase loci was similar to that of the whole genome. This structural genomic analysis provided some insights into the genomic organization and composition of the main desaturase loci of linseed and of their complex evolution through both tandem and whole genome duplications. PMID:27142663

  9. Aqueous Suzuki Coupling Reactions of Basic Nitrogen-Containing Substrates in the Absence of Added Base and Ligand: Observation of High Yields under Acidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Gelbaum, Carol; Fisk, Jason S; Holden, Bruce; Jaganathan, Arvind; Whiteker, Gregory T; Pollet, Pamela; Liotta, Charles L

    2016-09-16

    A series of aqueous heterogeneous Suzuki coupling reactions of substrates containing basic nitrogen centers with phenylboronic acid in the absence of added base and ligand is presented. High yields of products were obtained by employing aryl bromides containing aliphatic 1°, 2°, and 3° amine substituents, and good to high yields were obtained by employing a variety of substituted bromopyridines. In the former series, the pH of the aqueous phase changed from basic to acidic during the course of the reaction, while in the latter series the aqueous phase was on the acidic side of the pH scale throughout the entire course of reaction. A mechanistic interpretation for these observations, which generally preserves the oxo palladium catalytic cycle widely accepted in the literature, is presented. PMID:27559749

  10. Aqueous Suzuki Coupling Reactions of Basic Nitrogen-Containing Substrates in the Absence of Added Base and Ligand: Observation of High Yields under Acidic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao; Gelbaum, Carol; Fisk, Jason S; Holden, Bruce; Jaganathan, Arvind; Whiteker, Gregory T; Pollet, Pamela; Liotta, Charles L

    2016-09-16

    A series of aqueous heterogeneous Suzuki coupling reactions of substrates containing basic nitrogen centers with phenylboronic acid in the absence of added base and ligand is presented. High yields of products were obtained by employing aryl bromides containing aliphatic 1°, 2°, and 3° amine substituents, and good to high yields were obtained by employing a variety of substituted bromopyridines. In the former series, the pH of the aqueous phase changed from basic to acidic during the course of the reaction, while in the latter series the aqueous phase was on the acidic side of the pH scale throughout the entire course of reaction. A mechanistic interpretation for these observations, which generally preserves the oxo palladium catalytic cycle widely accepted in the literature, is presented.

  11. Low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids produced from hydrothermal treatment of organic wastes.

    PubMed

    Quitain, Armando T; Faisal, Muhammad; Kang, Kilyoon; Daimon, Hiroyuki; Fujie, Koichi

    2002-07-22

    This article reports production of low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids from the hydrothermal treatment of representative organic wastes and compounds (i.e. domestic sludge, proteinaceous, cellulosic and plastic wastes) with or without oxidant (H(2)O(2)). Organic acids such as acetic, formic, propionic, succinic and lactic acids were obtained in significant amounts. At 623 K (16.5 MPa), acetic acid of about 26 mg/g dry waste fish entrails was obtained. This increased to 42 mg/g dry waste fish entrails in the presence of H(2)O(2). Experiments on glucose to represent cellulosic wastes were also carried out, getting acetic acid of about 29 mg/g glucose. The study was extended to terephthalic acid and glyceraldehyde, reaction intermediates of hydrothermal treatment of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic wastes and glucose, respectively. In addition, production of lactic acid, one of the interesting low-molecular-weight carboxylic acids, was discussed on the viewpoint of resources recovery. Studies on temperature dependence of formation of organic acids showed thermal stability of acetic acid, whereas, formic acid decomposed readily under hydrothermal conditions. In general, results demonstrated that the presence of oxidants favored formation of organic acids with acetic acid being the major product.

  12. Arabinose fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum in sourdough with added pentosans and alphaalpha-L-arabinofuranosidase: a tool to increase the production of acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Gobbetti, M; Lavermicocca, P; Minervini, F; de Angelis, M; Corsetti, A

    2000-02-01

    Sixty-five strains of obligately and facultatively heterofermentative sourdough lactic acid bacteria were screened for their capacity to grow optimally in the presence of arabinose, ribose and xylose as carbon sources. Lactobacillus alimentarius 15F, Lact. brevis 10A, Lact. fermentum 1F and Lact. plantarum 20B showed higher growth rate, cell yield, acidification rate and production of acetic acid when some pentoses instead of maltose were added to the SDB medium. Lactobacillus plantarum 20B used arabinose also in a synthetic medium where complex growth factors such as yeast extract were omitted. Other Lact. plantarum strains did not show the same property. Pentosan extract was treated with alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase from Aspergillus niger or endo-xylanase from Bacillus subtilis to produce hydrolysates containing mainly arabinose and xylose, respectively. In particular, the hydrolysate containing arabinose substantiated the growth and the production of lactic acid and, especially, of acetic acid by Lact. plantarum 20B. Sourdough fermentation by Lact. plantarum 20B with addition of pentosan extract and alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase increased the acidification rate, titratable acidity and acetic acid content compared with traditional sourdough. A facultatively heterofermentative strain, Lact. plantarum 20B, also produced a sourdough with an optimal fermentation quotient.

  13. Formic and Acetic Acid Observations over Colorado by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry and Organic Acids' Role in Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treadaway, V.; O'Sullivan, D. W.; Heikes, B.; Silwal, I.; McNeill, A.

    2015-12-01

    Formic acid (HFo) and acetic acid (HAc) have both natural and anthropogenic sources and a role in the atmospheric processing of carbon. These organic acids also have an increasing importance in setting the acidity of rain and snow as precipitation nitrate and sulfate concentrations have decreased. Primary emissions for both organic acids include biomass burning, agriculture, and motor vehicle emissions. Secondary production is also a substantial source for both acids especially from biogenic precursors, secondary organic aerosols (SOAs), and photochemical production from volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs). Chemical transport models underestimate organic acid concentrations and recent research has sought to develop additional production mechanisms. Here we report HFo and HAc measurements during two campaigns over Colorado using the peroxide chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PCIMS). Iodide clusters of both HFo and HAc were recorded at mass-to-charge ratios of 173 and 187, respectively. The PCIMS was flown aboard the NCAR Gulfstream-V platform during the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Experiment (DC3) and aboard the NCAR C-130 during the Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE). The DC3 observations were made in May and June 2012 extending from the surface to 13 km over the central and eastern United States. FRAPPE observations were made in July and August 2014 from the surface to 7 km over Colorado. DC3 measurements reported here are focused over the Colorado Front Range and complement the FRAPPE observations. DC3 HFo altitude profiles are characterized by a decrease up to 6 km followed by an increase either back to boundary layer mixing ratio values or higher (a "C" shape). Organic acid measurements from both campaigns are interpreted with an emphasis on emission sources (both natural and anthropogenic) over Colorado and in situ photochemical production especially ozone precursors.

  14. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of low-molecular-weight dicarboxylic acids, oxocarboxylic acids, α-dicarbonyls, and fatty acids: implications for atmospheric processing of organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Kawamura, K.; Cao, F.; Lee, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) were measured for 23 individual organic species including 9 dicarboxylic acids, 7 oxocarboxylic acids, 1 tricarboxylic acid, 2 α-dicarbonyls and 4 fatty acids in the aerosols from Gosan background site in East Asia. δ13C of particle-phase glyoxal and methylglyoxal are significantly higher than those previously reported for isoprene and other precursors, associated with isotope fractionation during atmospheric oxidation. 13C is consistently more enriched for oxalic acid (C2), glyoxylic acid, pyruvic acid, glyoxal and methylglyoxal compared to other organic compounds identified, which can be explained by the kinetic isotope effects during aqueous-phase processing and the subsequent gas-particle partitioning after clouds or wet aerosols evaporation δ13C of C2 is positively correlated with C2 and organic carbon ratio, indicating that a photochemical production of C2 is more pronounced than its degradation process during long-range transport. The 13C results also suggest that aqueous-phase oxidation of glyoxal and methylglyoxal is major formation process of oxalic acid production via the major intermediates glyoxylic acid and pyruvic acid. This study provides evidence that organic aerosols are intensively photo-chemically aged in this region.

  15. Collection and analysis of organic acids in exhaust gas. Comparison of different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zervas, E.; Montagne, X.; Lahaye, J.

    This paper reports the development of a specific method to identify organic acids in exhaust gases. The organic acids are collected in two impingers containing liquids (pure water or Na 2CO 3 1% aqueous solution) and four cartridges containing solids (silica, fluorisil, alumina B and alumina N). Once collected, the acids are eluted of the solids by a hot water stream. These traps performances, in terms of organic acids collection and elution efficiency, are evaluated and compared. Two sources are used to produce the gas flow containing organic acids: one generates a flow whose concentration is known and stable, the other produces organic acids among other combustion products. For eluted solutions analysis, two methods are used: isocratic ionic chromatography/conductivity detection and GC/FID. Their efficiency in separating 10 aliphatic acids are compared. Their characteristics such as detection limits, detection linearity, repeatability and possible interferences with other components found in exhaust gases are determined. The stability of the organic acids solutions is also studied. Lastly, the use of these methods is illustrated by the analysis of the gas-phase organic acids exhausted by a spark ignition and by a diesel engine.

  16. [Compositions of organic acids in PM10 emission sources in Xiamen urban atmosphere].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing-Yu; Huang, Xing-Xing; Zheng, An; Liu, Bi-Lian; Wu, Shui-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The possible organic acid emission sources in PM10 in Xiamen urban atmosphere such as cooking, biomass burning, vehicle exhaust and soil/dust were obtained using a re-suspension test chamber. A total of 15 organic acids including dicarboxylic acids, fatty acids and aromatic acids were determined using GC/MS after derivatization with BF3/n-butanol. The results showed that the highest total concentration of 15 organic acids (53%) was found in cooking emission and the average concentration of the sum of linoleic acid and oleic acid was 24% +/- 14%. However, oxalic acid was the most abundant species followed by phthalic acid in gasoline vehicle exhaust. The ratios of adipic to azelaic acid in gasoline combustion emissions were significantly higher than those in other emission sources, which can be used to qualitatively differentiate anthropogenic and biological source of dicarboxylic acids in atmospheric samples. The ratios of malonic to succinic acid in source emissions (except gasoline generator emissions) were lower (0.07-0.44) than ambient PM10 samples (0.61-3.93), which can be used to qualitatively differentiate the primary source and the secondary source of dicarboxylic acids in urban PM10.

  17. Arachidonate and docosahexaenoate added to infant formula influence fatty acid composition and subsequent eicosanoid production in neonatal pigs.

    PubMed

    Huang, M C; Craig-Schmidt, M C

    1996-09-01

    As natural components of human milk, arachdonic and docosahexaenoic acids play important roles in neonatal development; thus, addition of these fatty acids to infant formula has been suggested. This study examined the effects of supplementation of infant formula with microbial sources of either arachidonate or docosahexaenoate or both on accretion of these fatty acids in phospholipids and subsequent modulation of eicosanoid production in neonatal pig lung. One-day-old piglets received for 25 d one of four diets (n = 5): 1) standard diet containing a fat blend similar to that of conventional infant formula, 2) diet containing 0.9 g/100 g of total fatty acids as arachidonate, 3) diet containing 0.7 g/100 g as docosahexaenoate, or 4) a diet containing both 1.0 g/100 g as arachidonate and 0.8 g/100 g as docosahexaenoate. Arachidonate supplementation resulted in 30-60% significantly greater arachidonate in lung phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. In phosphatidylinositol, however, arachidonate was resistant to dietary manipulation. Accretion of docosahexaenoate in all three phospholipid classes was 2.6- to 4.7-fold greater in docosahexaenoate-supplemented groups than in the standard group. Inclusion of arachidonate in the diet augmented both prostacyclin and thromboxane production by 25 to 35%. Docosahexaenoate supplementation resulted in the least eicosanoid production among the treatments, and significant suppression was observed for thromboxane when supplementation with both fatty acids was compared with supplementation with arachidonate alone. Thus, dietary arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid at concentrations only slightly greater than those found in human milk tended to exercise opposing effects on lung eicosanoid production.

  18. Dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kursunoglu, Sait; Kaya, Muammer

    2015-11-01

    The dissolution behavior of Caldag lateritic nickel ore subjected to a sequential organic acid leaching method was investigated. The effects of the type of organic acid, acid concentration, leaching time, and leaching temperature on the lateritic nickel ore were examined. Organic acids were used individually prior to sequential leaching. Citric acid was more effective than the other two acids for the selective leaching of nickel and cobalt. An increase in the citric acid concentration negligibly affected the dissolution of the metals, whereas temperature exhibited a strong beneficial effect. Oxalic acid was determined to be the most appropriate organic acid for the second leaching step. After 8 h (4 h + 4 h) of leaching with organic acids (0.5 M citric + 0.5 M oxalic) in sequence at 90°C, 89.63% Ni, 82.89% Co, and 69.63% Fe were leached from the lateritic nickel ore. A sequential citric + oxalic acid leaching method could represent a viable alternative for the dissolution of metals from lateritic nickel ore.

  19. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  20. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  1. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  2. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  3. 40 CFR 747.195 - Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agency, at 40 CFR 747.195, as published in the Federal Register of June 14, 1984. A copy of the... organic acid. 747.195 Section 747.195 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Substances § 747.195 Triethanolamine salt of a substituted organic acid. This section identifies...

  4. Effect of KOH added to ethylene glycol electrolyte on the self-organization of anodic ZrO2 nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozana, Monna; Soaid, Nurul Izza; Kawamura, Go; Kian, Tan Wai; Matsuda, Atsunori; Lockman, Zainovia

    2016-07-01

    ZrO2 nanotube arrays were formed by anodizing zirconium sheet in ethylene glycol (EG) and EG added to it KOH (EG/KOH) electrolytes. The effect of KOH addition into EG electrolyte to the morphology of nanotubes and their crystallinity was investigated. It was observed that the tubes with diameter of ˜80 nm were formed in EG electrolyte with <0.1 vol % water, but the wall smoothness is rather poor. When KOH was added into EG, the wall smoothness of the nanotubes improve, but the diameter of tubes is smaller (˜40 nm). Despite smoother wall and small tube diameter, the degradation of methyl orange (MO) on the tubes made in EG/KOH is less compared to the tubes made in EG only. This could be due to the less tetragonal ZrO2 presence in the tubes made in EG/KOH.

  5. Production of organic acid esters from biomass - novel processes and concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, R.

    1981-01-01

    After low cost, low energy pretreatment, lignocellulose can be converted directly to volatile (C/sub 2/-C/sub 6/) organic acids by mixed-culture acidogenic fermentation. The principal components of lignocellulose (pectins, hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin) are all converted to organic acids in high yields. Esterification from dilute aqueous solutions using novel techniques based on adsorption, solvent extraction, or biochemical conversion could be an important method for recovering these acids and simultaneously producing liquid fuels or chemical feedstocks. Uses of organic acid esters and conceptual biomass conversion processes are outlined. The significance of these processes for substantially increasing liquid fuel productivity from biomass feedstocks are discussed.

  6. Production of a value added compound from the H-acid waste water-Bioflocculants by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Wang, Buyun; Yang, Xianghui; Hong, Wentao; Yang, Baokun; Chen, Changhong; Liu, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as ZCY-7) which could convert H-acid into bioflocculants was isolated from H-acid wastewater sludge. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 9.65%, initial pH 7.0, and CODCr of the H-acid wastewater 520mg/L. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for kaolin suspension was 95.1%, after 60h cultivation. The yielded bioflocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide (82.4%) and protein (14.2%), and maintained its flocculating activity in 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 2-8 and 20-80°C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. A viable alternative treatment technology of H-acid wastewater using this novel strain is suggested, which could largely reduce bioflocculants costs. In addition, flocculating mechanism investigation reveals that the bioflocculant could cause kaolin suspension instability by means of charge neutralization firstly and then promoted the aggregation of suspension particles by adsorption and bridge. It is evident from the results that H-acid wastewater could be used as a source to manufacture bioflocculants. PMID:25127749

  7. Production of a value added compound from the H-acid waste water-Bioflocculants by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Chunying; Xu, Aihua; Wang, Buyun; Yang, Xianghui; Hong, Wentao; Yang, Baokun; Chen, Changhong; Liu, Hongtao; Zhou, Jiangang

    2014-10-01

    A novel strain (designated as ZCY-7) which could convert H-acid into bioflocculants was isolated from H-acid wastewater sludge. Conditions for bioflocculants production were optimized by response surface methodology (RSM) and determined to be inoculum size 9.65%, initial pH 7.0, and CODCr of the H-acid wastewater 520mg/L. The highest flocculating efficiency achieved for kaolin suspension was 95.1%, after 60h cultivation. The yielded bioflocculant was mainly composed of polysaccharide (82.4%) and protein (14.2%), and maintained its flocculating activity in 0.4% (w/w) kaolin suspensions over pH 2-8 and 20-80°C. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed that amino, amide and hydroxyl groups were present in the bioflocculant molecules. A viable alternative treatment technology of H-acid wastewater using this novel strain is suggested, which could largely reduce bioflocculants costs. In addition, flocculating mechanism investigation reveals that the bioflocculant could cause kaolin suspension instability by means of charge neutralization firstly and then promoted the aggregation of suspension particles by adsorption and bridge. It is evident from the results that H-acid wastewater could be used as a source to manufacture bioflocculants.

  8. Hydrogen bonded supramolecular structures of eight organic salts based on 2,6-diaminopyridine, and organic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Bin; Jin, Xiunan; Zhang, Huan; Wen, Xianhong; Liu, Hui; Jin, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2015-11-01

    Here anhydrous and hydrated multi-component organic acid-base salts of 2,6-diaminopyridine have been prepared with the organic acids as trichloroacetic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, m-phthalic acid, naphthalene-1,5-disulfonic acid, and glutaric acid. The eight crystalline compounds were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, infrared (IR), melting point (mp), and elemental analysis. Except salt 4, all structures adopted the hetero R22(8) supramolecular synthon. There were extensive N-H···O/O-H···O/N-H···N/N-H···S hydrogen bonds as well as CH···O, CH-N, CH-π, NH-π, π-π, C-π, Cl-O, and O-O interactions in the supramolecular architectures. The combination of these weak and strong hydrogen bonding associations in the crystal packing led to the formation of the 2D/3D structures.

  9. Effects of simulated acid precipitation on decomposition and leaching of organic carbon in forest soils

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, F.H.; Alexander, M.

    1984-09-01

    Soil samples from three watersheds of New York State were treated with simulated rain at pH 3.5, 4.1, and 5.6 daily for 14 d, at 12 3-d intervals in three separate tests, or at 22 7-d intervals. Except for one system of treating the three forest soils, simulated acid rain reduced the amount of organic matter leached from samples of soil from which more than 0.05% of the organic carbon was leached during the exposure period. In the soil samples representing the exceptions, acid rain enhanced the leaching of organic matter. Samples from the organic layer of the treated samples of acid soil were taken at two equal depths, and the rates of organic matter decomposition in the two layers were studied. As compared with simulated rain at pH 5.6, simulated acid rain reduced the decomposition of organic matter in the three soils at both depths in three of the five tests and at both depths of two of the soils in the fourth test. In some instances, organic matter decomposition was enhanced by the simulated acid rain. Except for the sample of soil at the highest initial pH, carbon mineralization was inhibited in soils and treatments in which simulated acid rain reduced the amount of organic carbon leached, and it was stimulated in soils and treatments in which the quantity of organic carbon leached was increased by the simulated acid rain. 12 references, 3 figures, 8 tables.

  10. Predicting the pKa and stability of organic acids and bases at an oil-water interface.

    PubMed

    Andersson, M P; Olsson, M H M; Stipp, S L S

    2014-06-10

    We have used density functional theory and the implicit solvent model, COSMO-RS, to investigate how the acidity constant, pKa, of organic acids and bases adsorbed at the organic compound-aqueous solution interface changes, compared to its value in the aqueous phase. The pKa determine the surface charge density of the molecules that accumulate at the fluid-fluid interface. We have estimated the pKa by comparing the stability of the protonated and unprotonated forms of a series of molecules in the bulk aqueous solution and at an interface where parts of each molecule reside in the hydrophobic phase and the rest remains in the hydrophilic phase. We found that the pKa for acids is shifted by ∼1 pH unit to higher values compared to the bulk water pKa, whereas they are shifted to lower values by a similar amount for bases. Because this pKa shift is similar in magnitude for each of the molecules studied, we propose that the pKa for molecules at a water-organic compound interface can easily be predicted by adding a small shift to the aqueous pKa. This shift is general and correlates with the functional group. We also found that the relative composition of molecules at the fluid-fluid interface is not the same as in the bulk. For example, species such as carboxylic acids are enriched at the interface, where they can dominate surface properties, even when they are a modest component in the bulk fluid. For high surface concentrations of carboxylic acid groups at an interface, such as a self-assembled monolayer, we have demonstrated that the pKa depends on the degree of deprotonation through direct hydrogen bonding between protonated and deprotonated acidic headgroups.

  11. Production and stability of chlorine dioxide in organic acid solutions as affected by pH, type of acid, and concentration of sodium chlorite, and its effectiveness in inactivating Bacillus cereus spores.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hoikyung; Kang, Youngjee; Beuchat, Larry R; Ryu, Jee-Hoon

    2008-12-01

    We studied the production and stability of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)) in organic acid solutions and its effectiveness in killing Bacillus cereus spores. Sodium chlorite (5000, 10,000, or 50,000 microg/ml) was added to 5% acetic, citric, or lactic acid solution, adjusted to pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0, and held at 21 degrees C for up to 14 days. The amount of ClO(2) produced was higher as the concentration of sodium chlorite was increased and as the pH of the acid solutions was decreased. However, the stability in production of ClO(2) was enhanced by increasing the pH of the organic acid solutions. To evaluate the lethal activity of ClO(2) produced in various acid solutions as affected by acidulant and pH, suspensions of B. cereus spores were treated at 21 degrees C for 1, 3, 5, or 10 min in hydrochloric acid or organic acid solutions (pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, or 6.0) containing ClO(2) at concentrations of 100, 50, or 25 microg/ml. Populations of viable spores treated with ClO(2) at concentrations of 100 or 50 microg/ml in organic acid solutions decreased more rapidly than populations treated with the same concentrations of ClO(2) in HCl. Rates of inactivation tended to increase with higher pH of ClO(2) solutions. Results show that ClO(2) formed in organic acid solutions has higher stability and is more lethal to B. cereus spores than ClO(2) formed at the same concentration in HCl solution. This finding emphasizes the benefits of using organic acid solutions to prepare ClO(2) intended for use as an antimicrobial.

  12. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  13. Field and Laboratory Studies of Reactions between Atmospheric Water Soluble Organic Acids and Inorganic Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Bingbing; Kelly, Stephen T.; Sellon, Rachel E.; Shilling, John E.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2013-06-25

    Atmospheric inorganic particles undergo complex heterogeneous reactions that change their physicochemical properties. Depletion of chloride in sea salt particles was reported in previous field studies and was attributed to the acid displacement of chlorides with inorganic acids, such as nitric and sulfuric acids [1-2]. Recently, we showed that NaCl can react with water soluble organic acids (WSOA) and release gaseous hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulting in formation of organic salts [3]. A similar mechanism is also applicable to mixed WSOA/nitrate particles where multi-phase reactions are driven by the volatility of nitric acid. Furthermore, secondary organic material, which is a complex mixture of carboxylic acids, exhibits the same reactivity towards chlorides and nitrates. Here, we present a systematic study of reactions between atmospheric relevant WSOA, SOM, and inorganic salts including NaCl, NaNO3, and Ca(NO3)2 using complementary micro-spectroscopy analysis.

  14. Structure of six organic acid-base adducts from 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine and acidic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Daqi; Tao, Lin; Zhou, Mengjian; Shen, Yinyan; Chen, Quan; Lin, Zhanghui; Gao, Xingjun

    2014-05-01

    Six anhydrous organic acid-base adducts of 6-bromobenzo[d]thiazol-2-amine were prepared with organic acids as 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, salicylic acid, 3,5-dinitrobenzoic acid, 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, malonic acid and sebacic acid. The compounds 1-6 were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, IR, and elemental analysis. The melting points of all the adducts were given. Of the six adducts, 1, 3, 4, and 5 are organic salts, while 2, and 6 are cocrystals. The supramolecular arrangement in the crystals 2-6 is based on the R22(8) synthon. Analysis of the crystal packing of 1-6 suggests that there are strong NH⋯O, OH⋯N, and OH⋯O hydrogen bonds (charge assisted or neutral) between acid and base components in the supramolecular assemblies. When the hydroxyl group is present in the ortho position of the carboxy, the intramolecular S6 synthon is present, as expected. Besides the classical hydrogen bonding interactions, other noncovalent interactions also play important roles in structure extension. Due to the synergetic effect of these weak interactions, compounds 1-6 display 1D-3D framework structure.

  15. Spicing Things up by Adding Color and Relieving Pain: The Use of "Napoleon's Buttons" in Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucholtz, Kevin M.

    2011-01-01

    For some students, organic chemistry can be a distant subject and unrelated to any courses they have seen in their college careers. To develop a more contextual learning experience in organic chemistry, an additional text, "Napoleon's Buttons: 17 Molecules That Changed History," by Penny Le Couteur and Jay Burreson, was incorporated as a…

  16. Looking inside the Black Box: The Value Added by Career and Technical Student Organizations to Students' High School Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alfeld, Corinne; Stone, James R., III; Aragon, Steven R.; Hansen, David M.; Zirkle, Christopher; Connors, James; Spindler, Matt; Romine, Rebecca Swinburne; Woo, Hui-Jeong

    2007-01-01

    In addition to hands-on learning in classrooms and work-related activities such as co-op, many CTE programs offer a career-focused student organization, known as a Career and Technical Student Organization, or CTSO. CTSOs have been touted as developing such characteristics as leadership and employability skills in students; however, there is…

  17. Production of a value-added hydroxy fatty acid, 7,10-dihydroxy-8(E)-octadecenoic acid from high oleic safflower oil by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydroxy fatty acids (HFA), originally found in small amount mainly from plant systems, are good examples of the structurally modified lipids, rendering special properties such as higher viscosity and reactivity compared to normal fatty acids. Based on these properties, HFAs possess high industrial ...

  18. [Cd uptake in rice cultivars and Cd fractions in soil treated with organic acids and EDTA].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Bo; Li, Yang-Rui; Xu, Wei-Hong; Chen, Gui-Qing; Wang, Hui-Xian; Han, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Xiao-Jing; Xiong, Zhi-Ting; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Xie, De-Ti

    2011-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to examine the yield, quality and cadmium (Cd) uptake in different rice cultivars, and Cd speciation in soil after exposing to Cd (0, 1 and 5 mg x kg(-1)) in the presence of organic acids and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The results showed that general increase in the yield for cultivars Xiushui63 and II you527 was observed. Yield of two rice cultivars were in order of organic acids treatment or organic acids + 1/2EDTA treatment > EDTA treatment. The exchangeable, carbonate related and ferric-manganese oxidation related Cd increased; while organic complexation Cd and residules decreased in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Cadmium concentrations in grain, straw and roots of both cultivars markedly reduced in the presence of organic acids and EDTA. Grain Cd concentration was the lowest for plants treated with EDTA, followed by organic acids + 1/2EDTA, and the highest Cd concentration in grain was found in the treatment with organic acids. Grain Cd concentration decreased by 9.0% to 49.3% and 16.5% to 30.6% at 1 mg x kg(-1) Cd in the presence of organic acids and EDTA, and by 12.7% to 28.5% and 4.3% to 19.1% at 5 mg x kg(-1) Cd. Cadmium concentration and accumulation in plants and total Cd content in soil were higher in Xiushui63 than in that in II you527. Grain Cd concentration decreased, and yield and quality of two rice cultivars increased at the same time in the presence of organic acids + 1/2EDTA.

  19. Borage or primrose oil added to standardized diets are equivalent sources for gamma-linolenic acid in rats.

    PubMed

    Raederstorff, D; Moser, U

    1992-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses and sources of dietary gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) on the tissue phospholipid fatty acid composition. Rats fed four different levels of GLA (2.3, 4.6, 6.4 and 16.2 g of GLA/kg diet) in the form of either borage oil or evening primrose oil during 6 wk were compared with animals fed corn oil. The levels of dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DHLA) and GLA showed a significant dose-related increase in liver, erythrocyte and aorta phospholipids. Moreover, the arachidonic acid/DHLA ratios in tissues decreased with increasing intake of dietary GLA. There was no significant difference in tissue GLA and DHLA levels within groups given equal amounts of dietary GLA either as borage oil or evening primrose oil. The amount of dietary GLA administered did not significantly influence prostaglandin E2 production in stimulated aortic rings and thromboxane B2 levels in serum; however, an increase in prostaglandin E1 derived from DHLA was observed in the supernatants of stimulated aorta.

  20. Organic Acid Metabolism by Isolated Rhizobium japonicum Bacteroids

    PubMed Central

    Stovall, Iris; Cole, Michael

    1978-01-01

    Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids isolated from soybean (Glycine max L.) nodules oxidized 14C-labeled succinate, pyruvate, and acetate in a manner consistent with operation of the tricarboxylic acid cycle and a partial glyoxylate cycle. Substrate carbon was incorporated into all major cellular components (cell wall + membrane, nucleic acids, and protein). PMID:16660386

  1. Concentration and fractionation of hydrophobic organic acid constituents from natural waters by liquid chromatography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thurman, E.M.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A scheme is presented which used adsorption chromatography with pH gradient elution and size-exclusion chromatography to concentrate and separate hydrophobic organic acids from water. A review of chromatographic processes involved in the flow scheme is also presented. Organic analytes which appear in each aqueous fraction are quantified by dissolved organic carbon analysis. Hydrophobic organic acids in a water sample are concentrated on a porous acrylic resin. These acids usually constitute approximately 30-50 percent of the dissolved organic carbon in an unpolluted water sample and are eluted with an aqueous eluent (dilute base). The concentrate is then passed through a column of polyacryloylmorpholine gel, which separates the acids into high- and low-molecular-weight fractions. The high- and low-molecular-weight eluates are reconcentrated by adsorption chromatography, then are eluted with a pH gradient into strong acids (predominately carboxylic acids) and weak acids (predominately phenolic compounds). For standard compounds and samples of unpolluted waters, the scheme fractionates humic substances into strong and weak acid fractions that are separated from the low molecular weight acids. A new method utilizing conductivity is also presented to estimate the acidic components in the methanol fraction.

  2. Phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acid constituents of wild oat (Avena fatua L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, R S; Ananth, R; Granger, K; Bradley, B; Anderson, J V; Fuerst, E P

    2010-01-13

    The objective of this research was to identify and quantify the phenolic and short-chained aliphatic organic acids present in the seeds of three wild-type populations of wild oat and compare these results to the chemical composition of seeds from two commonly utilized wild oat isolines (M73 and SH430). Phenolic acids have been shown to serve as germination inhibitors, as well as protection for seeds from biotic and abiotic stress factors in other species, whereas aliphatic organic acids have been linked to germination traits and protection against pathogens. Wild oat populations were grown under a "common garden" environment to remove maternal variation, and the resulting seeds were extracted to remove the readily soluble and chemically bound phenolic and aliphatic organic acid components. Compounds were identified and quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ferulic and p-coumaric acid comprised 99% of the total phenolic acids present in the seeds, of which 91% were contained in the hulls and 98% were in the chemically bound forms. Smaller quantities of OH benzoic and vanillic acid were also detected. Soluble organic acids concentrations were higher in the M73 isoline compared to SH430, suggesting that these chemical constituents could be related to seed dormancy. Malic, succinic, fumaric and azelaic acid were the dominant aliphatic organic acids detected in all seed and chemical fractions.

  3. Sorption of vapors of some organic liquids on soil humic acid and its relation to partitioning of organic compounds in soil organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chlou, G.T.; Kile, D.E.; Malcolm, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    Vapor sorption of water, ethanol, benzene, hexane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, and 1,2-dibromoethane on (Sanhedron) soil humic acid has been determined at room temperature. Isotherms for all organic liquids are highly linear over a wide range of relative pressure (P/P??), characteristic of the partitioning (dissolution) of the organic compounds in soil humic acid. Polar liquids exhibit markedly greater sorption capacities on soil humic acid than relatively nonpolar liquids, in keeping with the polar nature of the soil humic acid as a partition medium. The limiting sorption (partition) capacities of relatively non-polar liquids are remarkably similar when expressed in terms of volumes per unit weight of soil humic acid. The soil humic acid is found to be about half as effective as soil organic matter in sorption of relatively nonpolar organic compounds. The nearly constant limiting sorption capacity for nonpolar organic liquids with soil humic acid on a volume-to-weight basis and its efficiency in sorption relative to soil organic matter provide a basis for predicting the approximate sorption (partition) coefficients of similar compounds in uptake by soil in aqueous systems.

  4. Desorption of copper and cadmium from soils enhanced by organic acids.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Songhu; Xi, Zhimin; Jiang, Yi; Wan, Jinzhong; Wu, Chan; Zheng, Zhonghua; Lu, Xiaohua

    2007-07-01

    The adsorption/desorption behavior of copper and cadmium on soils was investigated in this study. The adsorption isotherm of copper and cadmium conformed to Langmuir equation better than Freundlich equation. The effect of ionic strength, pH, and organic acid, including ethylenediamine tetraacetic disodium acid salt (EDTA), citric acid, oxalic acid and tartaric acid, on the desorption of copper and cadmium was studied. The desorption of copper and cadmium increased with the increase of ionic strength, while the desorption decreased with the rise of pH. The desorption of copper and cadmium enhanced by organic acids was influenced by pH. EDTA showed excellent enhancement on the desorption of both copper and cadmium; citric acid demonstrated great enhancement on the desorption of copper but negligible enhancement on the desorption of cadmium; oxalic acid enhanced the desorption of copper only at pH around 6.4 and enhanced the desorption of cadmium in the pH range from 6.4 to 10.7; tartaric acid slightly enhanced the desorption of copper but negligibly enhanced the desorption of cadmium. The desorption mechanism in the presence of organic acids were explained as the competition of complexation, adsorption and precipitation. The net effect determined the desorption efficiency. This study provided guidance for the selection of organic acids to enhance the electrokinetic (EK) remediation of copper and cadmium from contaminated soils. PMID:17349675

  5. Anandamide Externally Added to Lipid Vesicles Containing-Trapped Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) Is Readily Hydrolyzed in a Sterol-Modulated Fashion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We show that anandamide (AEA) externally added to model membrane vesicles containing trapped fatty acid amide hydrolyase (FAAH) can be readily hydrolyzed, demonstrating facile, rapid anandamide movement across the lipid bilayer. The rate of hydrolysis is significantly facilitated by cholesterol and coprostanol, but not by cholesterol sulfate. The effects of sterol upon hydrolysis by FAAH bound to the outer surface of the bilayer were much smaller, although they followed the same pattern. We propose the facilitation of hydrolysis is a combination of the effects of sterol on accessibility of membrane-inserted endocannabinoids to surface protein, and on the rate of endocannabinod transport across the membrane bilayer. PMID:22860204

  6. [Simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass using high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Ma, Rui; Ouyang, Jia; Li, Xin; Lian, Zhina; Cai, Cong

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A high performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of organic acids and saccharides in lactic acid fermentation broth from biomass was developed. A Bio-Rad Aminex HPX-87H column was used at 55 degrees C. The mobile phase was 5 mmol/L sulfuric acid solution at a flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. The samples were detected by a refractive index detector (RID). The results showed that six organic acids and three saccharides in fermentation broth were completely separated and determined in 17 min. The linear correlation coefficients were above 0.999 8 in the range of 0.15-5.19 g/L. Under the optimized conditions, the recoveries of the organic acids and saccharides in Rhizopus oryzae fermentation broth at two spiked levels were in the range of 96.91%-103.11% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) of 0.81%-4.61%. This method is fast and accurate for the quantitative analysis of the organic acids and saccharides in microbial fermentation broths.

  7. Detection of trace amino acid biomarkers in ice from extreme environments with the Mars Organic Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayarajah, Christine; Jayarajah, Christine; Botta, Oliver; Aubrey, Andrew; Parker, Eric; Bada, Jeffrey; Mathies, Richard

    A portable microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) system named the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA) has been developed to analyze fluorescently-labeled biomarkers including amino acids, amines, nucleobases, and amino sugars with the goal of life detection on Mars (1,2). This system consists of a multilayer microfabricated glass wafer containing electrophoresis channels as well as microfluidic valves and pumps for sample manipulation, a confocal laser excitation and fluorescence detection system, and integrated CE power supplies. The MOA has been successfully field tested in the Panoche Valley, CA and in the Atacama Desert, Chile, detecting amino acids at the ppb levels (3). In addition, this technology has been shown to be effective in screening the formation of biogenic amines during fermentation (4). The MOA is a part of the Urey instrument package that has been selected for the 2013 European ExoMars mission by ESA. The identification of recent gully erosion sites, observations of ice on and beneath the surface of Mars, and the discovery of large reservoirs of sub-surface ice on Mars point to water-ice as an important target for astrobiological analyses (5). In addition, the ice moons Europa and Enceladus are of astrobiological interest due to the possibility that they may contain liquid water under their ice crusts. Consequently, we explore here the use of the MOA instrument for the analysis of amino acids in polar ice samples. Soil extracts as well as concentrated icecore samples tend to be highly saline and inhomogeneous. Furthermore, brine pockets in ice form potential refugia for extant extra-terrestrial life, rendering near surface ice a key target for the search for a record of past life on the planet (6). Therefore, we have determined the effect of salinity on sample injection parameters in ice-core samples retrieved from Greenland. The amino acids valine, alanine/serine, glycine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid were found in the parts

  8. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    PubMed Central

    Mnasri, Mejda; Ghabriche, Rim; Fourati, Emna; Zaier, Hanen; Sabally, Kebba; Barrington, Suzelle; Lutts, Stanley; Abdelly, Chedly; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2015-01-01

    The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 μM Cd, 100 μM Ni and the combination of 50 μM Cd + 100 μM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants subjected to individual metal application than those subjected to the combined effect of Cd and Ni suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However, a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic, and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species. PMID:25821455

  9. Determination of electroactive organic acids by anion-exchange chromatography using a copper modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Casella, I G; Gatta, M

    2001-04-01

    An ion-chromatographic method combined with electrochemical detection at a copper-based chemically modified glassy carbon electrode (Cu-GC) has been shown to provide a simple analytical approach for the determination of some common organic acids in alkaline medium. Under the optimized isocratic chromatographic conditions (i.e. 0.1 M NaOH plus 80 mM CH3COONa), organic acids such as gallic, ascorbic, gluconic, lactobionic, galacturonic and glucuronic acid could be separated in less than 20 min. Under constant potential amperometric detection (i.e. 0.55 V vs. Ag-AgCl) the Cu-GC modified electrode allowed detection limits between 2 and 5 pmol for all investigated organic acids while the linear dynamic range spanned generally over three orders of magnitude. Examples of applications included the separation and quantitation of some common organic acids in vinegar, honey and tea samples, are given.

  10. In vitro antilisterial effects of citrus oil fractions in combination with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Friedly, E C; Crandall, P G; Ricke, S C; Roman, M; O'Bryan, C; Chalova, V I

    2009-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to screen activity of citrus essential oil fractions (EOs) alone and in combination with organic acids against 2 species of Listeria. Five citrus EOs were initially screened by disc diffusion assay for antibacterial activity. Cold pressed terpeneless Valencia orange oil (CP terpeneless oil) had the strongest bacteriostatic (MIC) and bactericidal (MBC) properties at 0.55% and 1.67%, respectively. Four organic acids were tested for effectiveness against Listeria. Citric and malic acids proved to be the most effective with MBC of 1.1% alone. Assays were conducted to determine synergistic effects of EOs and citric or malic acids. There was a significant decrease in MIC and MBC to 0.04% EO plus 0.12% malic or citric acid. EOs from citrus paired with organic acids offer the potential as an all-natural antimicrobial for improving the safety of all-natural foods. PMID:19323760

  11. Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate large-scale systems organization in the rhesus macaque brain.

    PubMed

    Grayson, David S; Kroenke, Christopher D; Neuringer, Martha; Fair, Damien A

    2014-02-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids are essential for healthy brain and retinal development and have been implicated in a variety of neurodevelopmental disorders. This study used resting-state functional connectivity MRI to define the large-scale organization of the rhesus macaque brain and changes associated with differences in lifetime ω-3 fatty acid intake. Monkeys fed docosahexaenoic acid, the long-chain ω-3 fatty acid abundant in neural membranes, had cortical modular organization resembling the healthy human brain. In contrast, those with low levels of dietary ω-3 fatty acids had decreased functional connectivity within the early visual pathway and throughout higher-order associational cortex and showed impairment of distributed cortical networks. Our findings illustrate the similarity in modular cortical organization between the healthy human and macaque brain and support the notion that ω-3 fatty acids play a crucial role in developing and/or maintaining distributed, large-scale brain systems, including those essential for normal cognitive function.

  12. Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beppu, T

    Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and characterized. Spontaneous mutations at high frequencies in the acetic acid bacteria to cause the deficiency in ethanol oxidation were analyzed. A new insertion sequence element, IS1380, was identified as a major factor of the genetic instability, which causes insertional inactivation of the gene encoding cytochrome c, an essential component of the functional alcohol dehydrogenase complex. Several genes including the citrate synthase gene of A. aceti were identified to confer acetic acid resistance, and the histidinolphosphate aminotransferase gene was cloned as a multicopy suppressor of an ethanol sensitive mutant. Improvement of the acetic acid productivity of an A. aceti strain was achieved through amplification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene with a multicopy vector. In addition, spheroplast fusion of the Acetobacter strains was developed and applied to improve their properties.

  13. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.; Chendrayan, K.; Quinby, H.L.

    1987-04-16

    The present invention related to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rat of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 ..mu..moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 ..mu..moles m1/sup /-/1/ hr/sup /-/1/. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of the strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  15. Ice core profiles of saturated fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) from southern Alaska since 1734 AD: A link to climate change in the Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Seki, Osamu; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2015-01-01

    An ice core drilled at Aurora Peak in southeast Alaska was analyzed for homologous series of straight chain fatty acids (C12:0-C30:0) including unsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) using gas chromatography (GC/FID) and GC/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Molecular distributions of fatty acids are characterized by even carbon number predominance with a peak at palmitic acid (C16:0, av. 20.3 ± SD. 29.8 ng/g-ice) followed by oleic acid (C18:1, 19.6 ± 38.6 ng/g-ice) and myristic acid (C14:0, 15.3 ± 21.9 ng/g-ice). The historical trends of short-chain fatty acids, together with correlation analysis with inorganic ions and organic tracers suggest that short-chain fatty acids (except for C12:0 and C15:0) were mainly derived from sea surface micro layers through bubble bursting mechanism and transported over the glacier through the atmosphere. This atmospheric transport process is suggested to be linked with Kamchatka ice core δD record from Northeast Asia and Greenland Temperature Anomaly (GTA). In contrast, long-chain fatty acids (C20:0-C30:0) are originated from terrestrial higher plants, soil organic matter and dusts, which are also linked with GTA. Hence, this study suggests that Alaskan fatty acids are strongly influenced by Pacific Decadal Oscillation/North Pacific Gyre Oscillation and/or extra tropical North Pacific surface climate and Arctic oscillation. We also found that decadal scale variability of C18:1/C18:0 ratios in the Aurora Peak ice core correlate with the Kamchatka ice core δD, which reflects climate oscillations in the North Pacific. This study suggests that photochemical aging of organic aerosols could be controlled by climate periodicity.

  16. Reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids in the presence of Al (III).

    PubMed

    Chen, Na; Lan, Yeqing; Wang, Bo; Mao, Jingdong

    2013-09-15

    The effects of Al (III) on the reduction of Cr (VI) by three α-hydroxy acids, tartaric, malic and citric acids, were investigated through batch experiments at pH from 2.5 to 4.0 and temperatures from 25 °C to 35 °C. These reactions could be described as pseudo-zero-order with respect to Cr (VI) when the concentrations of α-hydroxy acids were greatly in excess. The transformation rates of Cr (VI) to Cr (III) in the presence of Al (III) without light were in the decreasing order of tartaric acid>malic acid>citric acid. This order suggested that the two α-hydroxyl groups in tartaric acid could play an important role in the reduction of Cr (VI) by organic acids. The possible mechanism was that the formed complex between organic acids and Al (III) significantly enhanced the reductivity of α-hydroxy acids and further led to the more complicated Cr (VI)-tartaric acid-Al (III) cyclic ester which greatly accelerated the reduction rate. The Cr (VI) reduction reaction rate increased with the decrease of pH but with the increase of Al (III) concentration, tartaric acid concentration, and temperature. As the pH decreased, the increase of [H(+)] led to an increase in {Al(III)H₂Tar₂}(+), the most active species, and thus the enhanced reduction rate.

  17. Increased brain uptake of targeted nanoparticles by adding an acid-cleavable linkage between transferrin and the nanoparticle core.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Davis, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Most therapeutic agents are excluded from entering the central nervous system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Receptor mediated transcytosis (RMT) is a common mechanism used by proteins, including transferrin (Tf), to traverse the BBB. Here, we prepared Tf-containing, 80-nm gold nanoparticles with an acid-cleavable linkage between the Tf and the nanoparticle core to facilitate nanoparticle RMT across the BBB. These nanoparticles are designed to bind to Tf receptors (TfRs) with high avidity on the blood side of the BBB, but separate from their multidentate Tf-TfR interactions upon acidification during the transcytosis process to allow release of the nanoparticle into the brain. These targeted nanoparticles show increased ability to cross an in vitro model of the BBB and, most important, enter the brain parenchyma of mice in greater amounts in vivo after systemic administration compared with similar high-avidity nanoparticles containing noncleavable Tf. In addition, we investigated this design with nanoparticles containing high-affinity antibodies (Abs) to TfR. With the Abs, the addition of the acid-cleavable linkage provided no improvement to in vivo brain uptake for Ab-containing nanoparticles, and overall brain uptake was decreased for all Ab-containing nanoparticles compared with Tf-containing ones. These results are consistent with recent reports of high-affinity anti-TfR Abs trafficking to the lysosome within BBB endothelium. In contrast, high-avidity, Tf-containing nanoparticles with the acid-cleavable linkage avoid major endothelium retention by shedding surface Tf during their transcytosis. PMID:26392563

  18. Increased brain uptake of targeted nanoparticles by adding an acid-cleavable linkage between transferrin and the nanoparticle core.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew J; Davis, Mark E

    2015-10-01

    Most therapeutic agents are excluded from entering the central nervous system by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Receptor mediated transcytosis (RMT) is a common mechanism used by proteins, including transferrin (Tf), to traverse the BBB. Here, we prepared Tf-containing, 80-nm gold nanoparticles with an acid-cleavable linkage between the Tf and the nanoparticle core to facilitate nanoparticle RMT across the BBB. These nanoparticles are designed to bind to Tf receptors (TfRs) with high avidity on the blood side of the BBB, but separate from their multidentate Tf-TfR interactions upon acidification during the transcytosis process to allow release of the nanoparticle into the brain. These targeted nanoparticles show increased ability to cross an in vitro model of the BBB and, most important, enter the brain parenchyma of mice in greater amounts in vivo after systemic administration compared with similar high-avidity nanoparticles containing noncleavable Tf. In addition, we investigated this design with nanoparticles containing high-affinity antibodies (Abs) to TfR. With the Abs, the addition of the acid-cleavable linkage provided no improvement to in vivo brain uptake for Ab-containing nanoparticles, and overall brain uptake was decreased for all Ab-containing nanoparticles compared with Tf-containing ones. These results are consistent with recent reports of high-affinity anti-TfR Abs trafficking to the lysosome within BBB endothelium. In contrast, high-avidity, Tf-containing nanoparticles with the acid-cleavable linkage avoid major endothelium retention by shedding surface Tf during their transcytosis.

  19. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations. PMID:25844464

  20. [Formation of organic acids by fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments].

    PubMed

    Sazanova, K V; Shchiparev, S M; Vlasov, D Iu

    2014-01-01

    Capacity of the fungi isolated from the surface of stone monuments for acid formation was studied in cultures under various carbon sources and cultivation conditions. The composition of organic nutrients was adjusted according to the results of investigation of the surface layers from the monuments in urban environment. The primary soil formed at the surface of the stone monuments under urban conditions was shown to contain a variety of carbon and nitrogen sources and is a rich substrate for fungal growth. Oxalic acid was produced by fungi grown on media with various concentrations of sugars, sugar alcohols, and organic acids. Malic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids were identified only at elevated carbohydrate concentrations, mostly in liquid cultures. Oxalic acid was the dominant among the acids produced by Aspergillus niger at all experimental setups. Unlike A. niger, the relative content of oxalic acid produced by Penicillium citrinum decreased at high carbohydrate concentrations.

  1. Thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid (PLA) and bagasse carboxymethyl cellulose (CMCB) composite by adding isosorbide diesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamthai, Suthaphat; Magaraphan, Rathanawan

    2015-05-01

    An isosorbide diesters is one of isororbide types used as a plasticizer. The influence of this plasticizer on thermal and mechanical properties of polylactic acid and bagasse carboxymethyl cellulose (PLA/CMCB) composites was studied. PLA was blended with CMCB at 1%wt using various contents of isosorbide diesters (5, 10, 15 and 20%wt of PLA). The differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) and thermogravimetric (TGA) analyses indicated that the increment of isosorbide diesters concentration resulted in decreasing glass transition, melting and decomposition temperatures, as well as the reduction of storage modulus of PLA/CMCB composites. Moreover, the elongation of PLA/CMCB composites was significantly improved with increasing plasticizer content.

  2. The electrooxidation mechanism of formic acid on platinum and on lead ad-atoms modified platinum studied with the kinetic isotope effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bełtowska-Brzezinska, M.; Łuczak, T.; Stelmach, J.; Holze, R.

    2014-04-01

    Kinetics and mechanism of formic acid (FA) oxidation on platinum and upd-lead ad-atoms modified platinum electrodes have been studied using unlabelled and deuterated compounds. Poisoning of the electrode surface by CO-like species was prevented by suppression of dissociative chemisorption of FA due to a fast competitive underpotential deposition of lead ad-atoms on the Pt surface from an acidic solution containing Pb2+ cations. Modification of the Pt electrode with upd lead induced a catalytic effect in the direct electrooxidation of physisorbed FA to CO2. With increasing degree of H/D substitution, the rate of this reaction decreased in the order: HCOOH > DCOOH ≥ HCOOD > DCOOD. HCOOH was oxidized 8.5-times faster on a Pt/Pb electrode than DCOOD. This primary kinetic isotope effect proves that the C-H- and O-H-bonds are simultaneously cleaved in the rate determining step. A secondary kinetic isotope effect was found in the dissociative chemisorption of FA in the hydrogen adsorption-desorption range on a bare Pt electrode after H/D exchange in the C-H bond, wherein the influence of deuterium substitution in the O-H group was negligibly small. Thus the C-H bond cleavage is accompanied by the C-OH and not the O-H bond split in the FA decomposition, producing CO-like species on the Pt surface sites.

  3. Evaluation of different approaches to quantify strong organic acidity and acid-base buffering of organic-rich surface waters in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Stephan; Hruska, Jakub; Jönsson, Jörgen; Lövgren, Lars; Lofts, Stephen

    2002-11-01

    The role of organic acids in buffering pH in surface waters has been studied using a small brownwater stream (26mg L(-1) TOC) draining a forested catchment in Northern Sweden. Under the conditions of elevated pressure of CO2 stream field pH was changed between 3.5 and 6.1 during the acidification and alkalinization experiment. Acid-base characteristics of the natural organic matter were also determined using a high precision potentiometric method for a concentrated sample from the same stream. We compared the predictions from the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM Model V), a model derived from the potentiometric titration (diprotic/monoprotic acid model) and a previously derived triprotic acid model which only uses alkalinity and TOC as input variables. The predicted buffering characteristics of all three models are very similar in the pH range 4.5-7 which suggests that during routine analysis alkalinity and TOC are sufficient to give a good estimate of organic acid anion charge contribution in a large range of surface waters. A slightly adjusted version of WHAM V successfully describes the organic charge contribution in a large number of sampled surface water lakes, which were previously used to calibrate the triprotic model.

  4. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F. K.; He, K. B.; Ma, Y. L.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-11-01

    A solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment procedure allowing organic acids to be separated from methyl esters in fine aerosol has been developed. The procedure first separates the organic acids from fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) and other nonacid organic compounds by aminopropyl-based SPE cartridge and then quantifies them by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The procedure prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated, and so allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic acids (DCAs) and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids (MCAs). Results for the extraction of DCAs, MCAs, and AMAs in eluate and FAMEs in effluate by SAX and NH2 SPE cartridges exhibited that the NH2 SPE cartridge gave higher extraction efficiency than the SAX cartridge. The recoveries of analytes ranged from 67.5 to 111.3 %, and the RSD ranged from 0.7 to 10.9 %. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and FAMEs suggest that the FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. Through extraction and cleanup using this procedure, 17 aromatic acids in eluate were identified and quantified by gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, including five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH): acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids suggested that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were secondary atmospheric photochemistry products and the last two mainly primary.

  5. [Effects of low molecular weight organic acids on redox reactions of mercury].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shi-Bo; Sun, Rong-Guo; Wang, Ding-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Wen; Zhang, Cheng

    2014-06-01

    To study the effects of the main component of vegetation root exudates-low molecular weight organic acids on the redox reactions of mercury, laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the roles of tartaric, citric, and succinic acid in the redox reactions of mercury, and to analyze their interaction mechanism. The results indicated that tartaric acid significantly stimulated the mercury reduction reaction, while citric acid had inhibitory effect. Succinic acid improved the reduction rate at low concentration, and inhibited the reaction at high concentration. The mercury reduction rate by tartaric acid treatment was second-order with respect to Hg2+ concentration, ranging from 0.0014 L x (ng x min)(-1) to 0.005 6 L x (ng x min)(-1). All three organic acids showed a capacity for oxidating Hg(0) in the early stage, but the oxidized Hg(0) was subsequently reduced. The oxidation capacity of the three organic acids was in the order of citric acid > tartaric acid > succinic acid.

  6. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken

    PubMed Central

    Bagal, Vikrant Laxman; Khatta, Vinod Kumar; Tewatia, Bachu Singh; Sangwan, Sandeep Kumar; Raut, Subhash Shamrao

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10). Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1%) along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline) without affecting growth performance of birds. PMID:27182133

  7. trans fatty acids. 5. Fatty acid composition of lipids of the brain and other organs in suckling piglets.

    PubMed

    Pettersen, J; Opstvedt, J

    1992-10-01

    The effects of dietary trans fatty acids on the fatty acid composition of the brain in comparison with other organs were studied in 3-wk-old suckling piglets. In Experiment (Expt.) 1 the piglets were delivered from sows fed partially hydrogenated fish oil (PHFO) (28% trans), partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSBO) (36% trans) or lard (0% trans). In Expt. 2 the piglets were delivered from sows fed PHFO, hydrogenated fish oil (HFO) (19% trans) or coconut fat (CF) (0% trans) with two levels of dietary linoleic acid (1 and 2.7%) according to factorial design. In both experiments the mother's milk was the piglets' only food. The level of incorporation of trans fatty acids in the organs was dependent on the levels in the diets and independent of fat source (i.e., PHSBO, PHFO or HFO). Incorporation of trans fatty acids into brain PE (phosphatidylethanolamine) was non-detectable in Expt. 1. In Expt. 2, small amounts (less than 0.5%) of 18:1 trans isomers were found in the brain, the level being slightly more on the lower level of dietary linoleic acid compared to the higher. In the other organs the percentage of 18:1 trans increased in the following order: heart PE, liver mitochondria PE, plasma lipids and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Small amounts of 20:1 trans were found in adipose tissue and plasma lipids. Other very long-chain fatty acids from PHFO or HFO (i.e., 20:1 cis and 22:1 cis + trans) were found in all organ lipids except for brain PE. Dietary trans fatty acids increased the percentage of 22:5n-6 in brain PE.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1435095

  8. Phase equilibria and distribution constants of metal ions in diantipyryl alkane-organic acid-hydrochloric acid-water systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Degtev, M. I.; Popova, O. N.; Yuminova, A. A.

    2014-08-01

    The ability of antipyrine and its derivatives (diantipyryl alkanes) to form separating systems in the presence of salicylic (sulfosalicylic) acid and hydrochloric acid and water is studied. The optimum volume of the organic phase, the composition of complexes, and the mechanism for the distribution of metal ions are determined, depending on the concentrations of the main components and the salting-out agent. The complex distribution and extraction constants are calculated.

  9. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation. PMID:26360870

  10. Top value platform chemicals: bio-based production of organic acids.

    PubMed

    Becker, Judith; Lange, Anna; Fabarius, Jonathan; Wittmann, Christoph

    2015-12-01

    Driven by the quest for sustainability, recent years have seen a tremendous progress in bio-based production routes from renewable raw materials to commercial goods. Particularly, the production of organic acids has crystallized as a competitive and fast-evolving field, related to the broad applicability of organic acids for direct use, as polymer building blocks, and as commodity chemicals. Here, we review recent advances in metabolic engineering and industrial market scenarios with focus on organic acids as top value products from biomass, accessible through fermentation and biotransformation.

  11. Effects on transthyretin in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by DHA-rich n - 3 fatty acid supplementation in patients with Alzheimer's disease: the OmegAD study.

    PubMed

    Faxén-Irving, Gerd; Freund-Levi, Yvonne; Eriksdotter-Jönhagen, Maria; Basun, Hans; Hjorth, Erik; Palmblad, Jan; Vedin, Inger; Cederholm, Tommy; Wahlund, Lars-Olof

    2013-01-01

    Transthyretin (TTR) binds amyloid-β (Aβ) and may reduce brain Aβ, a pathological feature in Alzheimer's disease (AD). N - 3 fatty acids (FA), docosahexaenoic (DHA), and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) may increase TTR transcription in rat hippocampus. We studied effects of n - 3 FA supplementation on TTR-levels in patients with AD. Outpatients were randomized to receive 1.7 g DHA and 0.6 g EPA (n - 3/n - 3 group) or placebo (placebo/n - 3 group) during 6 months. After 6 months, all patients received n - 3 FA for another 6 months. TTR and FA were measured in plasma in all subjects, whereas TTR in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was measured in a subgroup. The study was completed by 89 patients in the n - 3/n - 3 group (75 y, 57% w) and 85 in the placebo/n - 3 group (75 y, 46% w). Baseline plasma-TTR was within normal range in both groups. After 6 months, plasma-TTR decreased in the placebo/n - 3 group (p < 0.001 within and p < 0.015 between the groups). No changes were observed in CSF TTR. From 6 to 12 months when both groups were supplemented, plasma-TTR increased significantly in both groups. Repeated measures ANOVA indicated an increase in TTR over time (p = 0.04) in those receiving n - 3 FA for 12 months. By linear regression analyses, n - 3 FA treatment was independently associated with increased plasma-TTR at 6 months (β = -0.172, p = 0.028). Thus, n - 3 FA treatment appeared to increase plasma-TTR in patients with AD. Since TTR may influence Aβ deposition in the brain, the results warrant further exploration. PMID:23563245

  12. Development and quality of a Brazilian semi-hard goat cheese (coalho) with added probiotic lactic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Estefânia Fernandes; de Oliveira, Maria Elieidy Gomes; Queiroga, Rita de Cássia Ramos Do Egypto; Machado, Tamires Alcântara Dourado; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-12-01

    The effects of the addition of different strains of lactic acid bacteria on different quality parameters of a Brazilian goat semi-hard cheese (coalho) were assessed during 7 days of storage (10°C) as follows: Control, Lactobacillus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris (standard); C2, L. acidophilus; C3, L. paracasei; C4, Bifidobacterium lactis; and C5, L. acidophilus, L. paracasei and B. lactis. There were no differences for the proteolysis index and depth of proteolysis among the assessed cheeses. The cheeses presented increase in hardness, gumminess and chewiness during the storage. Regarding the ability to melt, all evaluated cheeses showed a reduction in diameter. Cheeses presented high luminosity with predominance of the yellow component; and number of lactic bacteria greater than 10⁶-10⁷ cfu/g during the 7 days of storage. C5 had better sensory scores in the acceptance test, purchase intention and preference ranking test. Coalho goat cheese could be a potential carrier of probiotic lactic acid bacteria. PMID:22574688

  13. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Piper, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell. PMID:22050823

  14. Anaerobic microbial dissolution of lead and production of organic acids

    DOEpatents

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland; Chendrayan, Krishnachetty; Quinby, Helen L.

    1988-01-01

    The present invention relates to an anaerobic bacterial culture of Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 which solubilizes lead oxide under anaerobic conditions in coal and industrial wastes and therefore presents a method of removing lead from such wastes before they are dumped into the environment. The rate of lead dissolution during logarithmic growth of the bacteria in 40 ml medium containing 3.32 .mu.moles of lead as lead oxide was 0.042 .mu.moles ml.sup.-1 hr.sup.-1. Dissolution of lead oxide by the bacterial isolate is due to the production of metabolites and acidity in the culture medium. The major metabolites are acetic, butyric and lactic acid. Clostridium sp. ATCC No. 53464 can be used in the recovery of strategic metals from ores and wastes and also for the production of lactic acid for commercial purposes. The process yields large quantities of lactic acid as well as lead complexed in a stable form with said acids.

  15. Resistance of yeasts to weak organic acid food preservatives.

    PubMed

    Piper, Peter W

    2011-01-01

    Carboxylate weak acids are invaluable for large-scale food and beverage preservation. However, in response to safety concerns, there is now desire to reduce the use of these additives. The resistance to these compounds displayed by spoilage yeasts and fungi is a major reason why these preservatives often have to be used in millimolar levels. This chapter summarizes the mechanisms whereby yeasts are rendered resistant to acetate, propionate, sorbate, and benzoate. In baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), resistance to high acetic acid is acquired partly by loss of the plasma membrane aquaglyceroporin that facilitates the passive diffusional entry of undissociated acid into cells (Fps1), and partly through a transcriptional response mediated by the transcription factor Haa1. Other carboxylate preservatives are too large to enter cells through the Fps1 channel but instead penetrate at appreciable rates by passive diffusion across the plasma membrane. In Saccharomyces and Candida albicans though not, it seems, in the Zygosaccharomyces, resistance to the latter acids involves activation of the War1 transcription factor, which in turn generates strong induction of a specific plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette transporter (Pdr12). The latter actively pumps the preservative anion from the cell. Other contributors to weak acid resistance include enzymes that allow preservative degradation, members of the Tpo family of major facilitator superfamily transporters, and changes to the cell envelope that minimize the diffusional entry of the preservative into the cell.

  16. Aliphatic, Cyclic, and Aromatic Organic Acids, Vitamins, and Carbohydrates in Soil: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research. PMID:24319374

  17. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil: a review.

    PubMed

    Vranova, Valerie; Rejsek, Klement; Formanek, Pavel

    2013-11-10

    Organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates represent important organic compounds in soil. Aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids play important roles in rhizosphere ecology, pedogenesis, food-web interactions, and decontamination of sites polluted by heavy metals and organic pollutants. Carbohydrates in soils can be used to estimate changes of soil organic matter due to management practices, whereas vitamins may play an important role in soil biological and biochemical processes. The aim of this work is to review current knowledge on aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic organic acids, vitamins, and carbohydrates in soil and to identify directions for future research. Assessments of organic acids (aliphatic, cyclic, and aromatic) and carbohydrates, including their behaviour, have been reported in many works. However, knowledge on the occurrence and behaviour of D-enantiomers of organic acids, which may be abundant in soil, is currently lacking. Also, identification of the impact and mechanisms of environmental factors, such as soil water content, on carbohydrate status within soil organic matter remains to be determined. Finally, the occurrence of vitamins in soil and their role in biological and biochemical soil processes represent an important direction for future research.

  18. In vitro ruminal fermentation of organic acids common in forage.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B; Van Soest, P J

    1984-01-01

    Mixed rumen bacteria from cows fed either timothy hay or a 60% concentrate were incubated with 7.5 mM citrate, trans-aconitate, malate, malonate, quinate, and shikimate. Citrate, trans-aconitate, and malate were fermented at faster rates than malonate, quinate, and shikimate. Acetate was the primary fermentation product for all six acids. Quinate and shikimate fermentations gave rist to butyrate, whereas malate and malonate produced significant amounts of propionic acid. High-pressure liquid chromatography of fermentation products from trans-aconitate incubations revealed a compound that was subsequently identified as tricarballylate. As much as 40% of the trans-aconitate acid was converted to tricarballylate, and tricarballylate was fermented slowly. The slow rate of tricarballylate metabolism by mixed rumen bacteria and its potential as a magnesium chelator suggest that tricarballylate formation could be an important factor in the hypomagnesemia that leads to grass tetany. PMID:6696413

  19. Screening of organic halogens and identification of chlorinated benzoic acids in carbonaceous meteorites.

    PubMed

    Schöler, Heinz F; Nkusi, Gerard; Niedan, Volker W; Müller, German; Spitthoff, Bianca

    2005-09-01

    The occurrence of halogenated organic compounds measured as a sum parameter and the evidence of chlorinated benzoic acids in four carbonaceous meteorites (Cold Bokkeveld, Murray, Murchison and Orgueil) from four independent fall events is reported. After AOX (Adsorbable organic halogen) and EOX (Extractable organic halogen) screening to quantify organically bound halogens, chlorinated organic compounds were analyzed by gas chromatography. AOX concentrations varying from 124 to 209 microg Cl/g d.w. were observed in carbonaceous meteorites. Ion chromatographic analysis of the distribution of organically bound halogens performed on the Cold Bokkeveld meteorite revealed that chlorinated and brominated organic compounds were extractable, up to 70%, whereas only trace amounts of organofluorines could be extracted. Chlorinated benzoic acids have been identified in carbonaceous meteorite extracts. Their presence and concentrations raise the question concerning the origin of halogenated, especially chlorinated, organic compounds in primitive planetary matter.

  20. Role of organic acids in promoting colloidal transport of mercury from mine tailings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slowey, A.J.; Johnson, S.B.; Rytuba, J.J.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2005-01-01

    A number of factors affect the transport of dissolved and paniculate mercury (Hg) from inoperative Hg mines, including the presence of organic acids in the rooting zone of vegetated mine waste. We examined the role of the two most common organic acids in soils (oxalic and citric acid) on Hg transport from such waste by pumping a mixed organic acid solution (pH 5.7) at 1 mL/min through Hg mine tailings columns. For the two total organic acid concentrations investigated (20 ??M and 1 mM), particle-associated Hg was mobilized, with the onset of paniculate Hg transport occurring later for the lower organic acid concentration. Chemical analyses of column effluent indicate that 98 wt % of Hg mobilized from the column was paniculate. Hg speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing that HgS minerals are dominant in the mobilized particles. Hg adsorbed to colloids is another likely mode of transport due to the abundance of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, Fe-sulfides, alunite, and jarosite in the tailings to which Hg(II) adsorbs. Organic acids produced by plants are likely to enhance the transport of colloid-associated Hg from vegetated Hg mine tailings by dissolving cements to enable colloid release. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  1. Microgravity Compatible Reagentless Instrumentation for Detection of Dissolved Organic Acids and Alcohols in Potable Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Jan, Darrell L. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Organic Acid and Alcohol Monitor (OAAM) program has resulted in the successful development of a computer controlled prototype analyzer capable of accurately determining aqueous organic acids and primary alcohol concentrations over a large dynamic range with high sensitivity. Formic, acetic, and propionic acid were accurately determined at concentrations as low as 5 to 10 micrograms/L in under 20 minutes, or as high as 10 to 20 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were determined at concentrations as low as 20 to 100 micrograms/L, or as high as 10 mg/L in under 30 minutes. Importantly for space based application, the OAAM requires no reagents or hazardous chemicals to perform these analyses needing only power, water, and CO2 free purge gas. The OAAM utilized two membrane processes to segregate organic acids from interfering ions. The organic acid concentration was then determined based upon the conductiometric signal. Separation of individual organic acids was accomplished using a chromatographic column. Alcohols are determined in a similar manner after conversion to organic acids by sequential biocatalytic and catalytic oxidation steps. The OAAM was designed to allow the early diagnosis of under performing or failing sub-systems within the Water Recovery System (WRS) baselined for the International Space Station (ISS). To achieve this goal, several new technologies were developed over the course of the OAAM program.

  2. Role of organic acids in promoting colloidal transport of mercury from mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Slowey, Aaron J; Johnson, Stephen B; Rytuba, James J; Brown, Gordon E

    2005-10-15

    A number of factors affect the transport of dissolved and particulate mercury (Hg) from inoperative Hg mines, including the presence of organic acids in the rooting zone of vegetated mine waste. We examined the role of the two most common organic acids in soils (oxalic and citric acid) on Hg transport from such waste by pumping a mixed organic acid solution (pH 5.7) at 1 mL/min through Hg mine tailings columns. For the two total organic acid concentrations investigated (20 microM and 1 mM), particle-associated Hg was mobilized, with the onset of particulate Hg transport occurring later for the lower organic acid concentration. Chemical analyses of column effluent indicate that 98 wt % of Hg mobilized from the column was particulate. Hg speciation was determined using extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, showing that HgS minerals are dominant in the mobilized particles. Hg adsorbed to colloids is another likely mode of transport due to the abundance of Fe-(oxyhydr)oxides, Fe-sulfides, alunite, and jarosite in the tailings to which Hg(II) adsorbs. Organic acids produced by plants are likely to enhance the transport of colloid-associated Hg from vegetated Hg mine tailings by dissolving cements to enable colloid release.

  3. Pattern of aluminum-induced secretion of organic acids differs between rye and wheat.

    PubMed

    Li, X F; Ma, J F; Matsumoto, H

    2000-08-01

    Al-Induced secretion of organic acids from the roots has been considered as a mechanism of Al tolerance, but the processes leading to the secretion of organic acids are still unknown. In this study, the secretion pattern and alteration in the metabolism of organic acids under Al stress were examined in rye (Secale cereale L. cv King) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Atlas 66). Al induced rapid secretion of malate in the wheat, but a lag (6 and 10 h for malic and citric acids, respectively) between the exposure to Al and the secretion of organic acids was observed in the rye. The activities of isocitrate dehydrogenase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malate dehydrogenase were not affected by Al in either plant. The activity of citrate synthase was increased by the exposure to Al in the rye, but not in the wheat. The secretion of malate was not suppressed at low temperature in the wheat, but that of citrate was stopped in the rye. The Al-induced secretion of citrate from roots of the rye was inhibited by the inhibitors of a citrate carrier, which transports citrate from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm. All of these results suggest that alteration in the metabolism of organic acids is involved in the Al-induced secretion of organic acids in rye, but only activation of an anion channel seems to be responsible for the rapid secretion of malate in the wheat.

  4. Mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common organic acids: Dosage and time effects.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common low-molecular-weight organic acids with a focus on dosage and time effects. The results show that oxalic acid behaved differently from citric acid and malic acid in terms of mobilizing As that was bound to iron compounds. At an equivalent molar concentration, reactions between oxalic acid and soil-borne Fe were kinetically more favourable, as compared to those between either citric acid or malic acid and the soil-borne Fe. It was found that reductive dissolution of soil-borne Fe played a more important role in liberating As, as compared to non-reductive reactions. Prior to the 7th day of the experiment, As mobility increased with increasing dose of oxalic acid while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in mobilized As among the treatments with different doses of citric acid or malic acid. The dosage effect on soil-borne As mobilization in the citric acid and malic acid treatments became clear only after the 7th day of the experiment. Soluble Ca present in the soils could cause re-immobilization of As by competing with solution-borne Fe for available organic ligands to form practically insoluble organic compounds of calcium (i.e. calcium oxalate). This resulted in transformation of highly soluble organic complexes of iron (i.e. iron oxalate complexes) into slightly soluble organic compounds of iron (i.e. iron oxalate) or free ferric ion, which then reacted with the solution-borne arsenate ions to form practically insoluble iron arsenates in the latter part of the experiment.

  5. Mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common organic acids: Dosage and time effects.

    PubMed

    Onireti, Olaronke O; Lin, Chuxia

    2016-03-01

    A batch experiment was conducted to investigate the mobilization of soil-borne arsenic by three common low-molecular-weight organic acids with a focus on dosage and time effects. The results show that oxalic acid behaved differently from citric acid and malic acid in terms of mobilizing As that was bound to iron compounds. At an equivalent molar concentration, reactions between oxalic acid and soil-borne Fe were kinetically more favourable, as compared to those between either citric acid or malic acid and the soil-borne Fe. It was found that reductive dissolution of soil-borne Fe played a more important role in liberating As, as compared to non-reductive reactions. Prior to the 7th day of the experiment, As mobility increased with increasing dose of oxalic acid while there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in mobilized As among the treatments with different doses of citric acid or malic acid. The dosage effect on soil-borne As mobilization in the citric acid and malic acid treatments became clear only after the 7th day of the experiment. Soluble Ca present in the soils could cause re-immobilization of As by competing with solution-borne Fe for available organic ligands to form practically insoluble organic compounds of calcium (i.e. calcium oxalate). This resulted in transformation of highly soluble organic complexes of iron (i.e. iron oxalate complexes) into slightly soluble organic compounds of iron (i.e. iron oxalate) or free ferric ion, which then reacted with the solution-borne arsenate ions to form practically insoluble iron arsenates in the latter part of the experiment. PMID:26774299

  6. An enhanced procedure for measuring organic acids and methyl esters in PM2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; Duan, F.; He, K.; Ma, Y.; Rahn, K. A.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-03-01

    We have developed an enhanced analytical procedure to measure organic acids and methyl esters in fine aerosol with much greater specificity and sensitivity than previously available. This capability is important because of these species and their low concentrations, even in highly polluted atmospheres like Beijing, China. The procedure first separates the acids and esters from the other organic compounds with anion-exchange solid- phase extraction (SPE), then, quantifies them by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. This allows us to accurately quantify the C4-C11 dicarboxylic and the C8-C30 monocarboxylic acids. Then the acids are separated from the esters on an aminopropyl SPE cartridge, whose weak retention isolates and enriches the acids from esters prevents the fatty acids and dimethyl phthalate from being overestimated. The resulting correlations between the aliphatic acids and fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) suggest that FAMEs had sources similar to those of the carboxylic acids, or were formed by esterifying carboxylic acids, or that aliphatic acids were formed by hydrolyzing FAMEs. In all, 17 aromatic acids were identified and quantified using this procedure coupled with gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, including the five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) acids 2-naphthoic, biphenyl-4-carboxylic, 9-oxo-9H-fluorene-1-carboxylic, biphenyl-4,4´-dicarboxylic, and phenanthrene-1-carboxylic acid, plus 1,8-naphthalic anhydride. Correlations between the PAH-acids and the dicarboxylic and aromatic acids indicated that the first three acids and 1,8-naphthalic anhydride were mainly secondary, the last two mainly primary.

  7. Adsorption of Small Weak Organic Acids on Goethite: Modeling of Mechanisms

    PubMed

    Filius; Hiemstra; Van Riemsdijk WH

    1997-11-15

    The adsorption of lactate, oxalate, malonate, phthalate, and citrate has been determined experimentally as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data have been described with the CD-MUSIC model of Hiemstra and Van Riemsdijk [J. Colloid Interface Sci. 179, 488-508 (1996)] which allows a distribution of charge of the organic molecule over the surface and the Stern layer. Simultaneously, the concentration, pH, and salt dependency as well as the basic charging behavior of goethite could be described well. On the basis of model calculations, a distinction is made between inner and outer sphere complexation of weak organic acids by goethite. The results indicate that the affinity of the organic acids is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. The intrinsic affinity constants for the exchange reaction of surface water groups and organic acids, expressed per bond, increases with increasing number of reactive groups on the organic molecule. Ion pair formation between noncoordinated carboxylic groups of adsorbed organic acids and cations of the background electrolyte proved to be important for the salt dependency. The knowledge obtained may contribute to the interpretation of the binding of larger organic acids like fulvic and humic acids. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press PMID:9441638

  8. Adsorption of small weak organic acids on goethite: Modeling of mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Filius, J.D.; Hiemstra, T.; Riemsdijk, W.H. Van

    1997-11-15

    The adsorption of lactate, oxalate, malonate, phthalate, and citrate has been determined experimentally as a function of concentration, pH, and ionic strength. The data have been described with the CD-MUSIC model of Hiemstra and Van Riemsdijk which allows a distribution of charge of the organic molecule over the surface and the Stern layer. Simultaneously, the concentration, pH, and salt dependency as well as the basic charging behavior of goethite could be described well. On the basis of model calculations, a distinction is made between inner and outer sphere complexation of weak organic acids by goethite. The results indicate that the affinity of the organic acids is dominated by the electrostatic attraction. The intrinsic affinity constants for the exchange reaction of surface water groups and organic acids, expressed per bond, increases with increasing number of reactive groups on the organic molecule. Ion pair formation between noncoordinated carboxylic groups of adsorbed organic acids and cations of the background electrolyte proved to be important for the salt dependency. The knowledge obtained may contribute to the interpretation of the binding of larger organic acids like fulvic and humic acids.

  9. Voluntary feed intake, acid-base balance and partitioning of urinary nitrogen in lambs fed corn silage with added sodium bicarbonate or sodium sesquicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Phillip, L E; Hidalgo, V

    1989-08-01

    An experiment with growing lambs was designed to test the hypothesis that alterations in blood acid-base status would influence intake of corn silage. Six wethers (29 kg) were fed a diet of corn silage (36% DM, 8% CP) supplemented with 1.25% urea and .2% sulfur. At feeding time, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and sodium sesquicarbonate (NaSC) were added to the silage at levels of 0, 2% or 4% of diet DM. The treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, and the study was conducted as a 6 x 4 incomplete latin square with four 17-d periods. Voluntary intake of OM was not different (P greater than .05) between NaHCO3 (1,008 g/d) and NaSC (1,041 g/d). There was no significant interaction between type of buffer (NaHCO3 or NaSC) and level of buffer on any of the variables measured. The progressive increase in buffer load did not alter feed intake (P greater than .05), although there was a quadratic response (P less than .05) in urine pH and a linear increase (P less than .01) in blood HCO3- 2 h after feeding. There was no evidence that lambs fed corn silage experienced metabolic acid stress. Urinary excretion of ammonia and urea were indicative of changes, although not pronounced, in ammoniuria and ureapoiesis in response to bicarbonate loading. This study implies that corn silage imposes no "acid stress" on lambs and, consequently, that there is no nutritional benefit in adding buffers to corn silage for sheep. PMID:2551870

  10. Effect of heavy metals and organic matter on root exudates (low molecular weight organic acids) of herbaceous species: An assessment in sand and soil conditions under different levels of contamination.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Rozas, M M; Madejón, E; Madejón, P

    2016-09-01

    Bioavailability of heavy metals can be modified by different root exudates. Among them, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) play an important role in this process. Three plant species (Poa annua, Medicago polymorpha and Malva sylvestris), potentially used for phytoremediation, have been assessed for both metal uptake and LMWOAs excretion in contaminated environments with different concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn. The experiments have been carried out in washed sand and in three contaminated soils where two organic amendments were added (biosolid compost and alperujo compost). The most abundant LMWOAs excreted by all studied plants were oxalic and malic acids, although citric and fumaric acids were also detected. The general tendency was that plants responded to an increase of heavy metal stress releasing higher amounts of LMWOAs. This is an efficient exclusion mechanism reducing the metal uptake and allowing the plant growth at high levels of contamination. In the experiment using wash sand as substrate, the organic acids composition and quantity depended mainly on plant species and metal contamination. M. polymorpha was the species that released the highest concentrations of LMWOAs, both in sand and in soils with no amendment addition, whereas a decrease of these acids was observed with the addition of amendments. Our results established a clear effect of organic matter on the composition and total amount of LMWOAs released. The increase of organic matter and nutrients, through amendments, improved the soil quality reducing phytotoxicity. As a result, organic acids exudates decreased and were solely composed of oxalic acid (except for M. polymorpha). The release of LMWOAs has proved to be an important mechanism against heavy metal stress, unique to each species and modifiable by means of organic amendment addition. PMID:27267743

  11. (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of organic acids, glucose and fructose determined by HPLC-co-IRMS for lemon juices authenticity.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; Auberger, Pauline; Gaillard, Laetita; Loublanches, Caroline; Viateau, Maryse; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Médina, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids and sugars concentrations, the experimental protocol was optimised by applying a "current jump" to the IRMS device. The filament current is increased of 300μA during elution in order to enhance IRMS sensitivity. Then, analysis were performed on 35 lemon and lime fruits from various geographical origins and squeezed in the laboratory. An overall average δ(13)C values of -25.40±1.62‰, -23.83±1.82‰ and -25.67±1.72‰ is found for organic acids mixture mainly made up of citric acid, glucose and fructose, respectively. These authentic samples allowed the definition of a confidence domain to which have been confronted 30 commercial juices (24 "pure juices" and 6 coming from concentrate). Among these 30 samples, 10 present δ(13)C values outside the defined range revealing an added "C4" type organic acids or sugars, addition not specified on the label that is not in agreement with EU regulation. PMID:24176310

  12. (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of organic acids, glucose and fructose determined by HPLC-co-IRMS for lemon juices authenticity.

    PubMed

    Guyon, Francois; Auberger, Pauline; Gaillard, Laetita; Loublanches, Caroline; Viateau, Maryse; Sabathié, Nathalie; Salagoïty, Marie-Hélène; Médina, Bernard

    2014-03-01

    High performance liquid chromatography linked to isotope ratio mass spectrometry via an interface allowing the chemical oxidation of organic matter (HPLC-co-IRMS) was used to simultaneously determine carbon 13 isotope ratio (δ(13)C) of organic acids, glucose and fructose in lime and lemon juices. Because of the significant difference between organic acids and sugars concentrations, the experimental protocol was optimised by applying a "current jump" to the IRMS device. The filament current is increased of 300μA during elution in order to enhance IRMS sensitivity. Then, analysis were performed on 35 lemon and lime fruits from various geographical origins and squeezed in the laboratory. An overall average δ(13)C values of -25.40±1.62‰, -23.83±1.82‰ and -25.67±1.72‰ is found for organic acids mixture mainly made up of citric acid, glucose and fructose, respectively. These authentic samples allowed the definition of a confidence domain to which have been confronted 30 commercial juices (24 "pure juices" and 6 coming from concentrate). Among these 30 samples, 10 present δ(13)C values outside the defined range revealing an added "C4" type organic acids or sugars, addition not specified on the label that is not in agreement with EU regulation.

  13. Students' Understanding of Acids/Bases in Organic Chemistry Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartrette, David P.; Mayo, Provi M.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding key foundational principles is vital to learning chemistry across different contexts. One such foundational principle is the acid/base behavior of molecules. In the general chemistry sequence, the Bronsted-Lowry theory is stressed, because it lends itself well to studying equilibrium and kinetics. However, the Lewis theory of…

  14. Sensitive Amino Acid Composition and Chirality Analysis with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skelley, Alison M.; Scherer, James R.; Aubrey, Andrew D.; Grover, William H.; Ivester, Robin H. C.; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Grunthaner, Frank J.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Mathies, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    Detection of life on Mars requires definition of a suitable biomarker and development of sensitive yet compact instrumentation capable of performing in situ analyses. Our studies are focused on amino acid analysis because amino acids are more resistant to decomposition than other biomolecules, and because amino acid chirality is a well-defined biomarker. Amino acid composition and chirality analysis has been previously demonstrated in the lab using microfabricated capillary electrophoresis (CE) chips. To analyze amino acids in the field, we have developed the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA), a portable analysis system that consists of a compact instrument and a novel multi-layer CE microchip.

  15. [Rapid determination of eight organic acids in plant tissue by sequential extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tianzhi; Wang, Shijie; Liu Xiuming; Liu, Hong; Wu, Yanyou; Luo Xuqiang

    2014-12-01

    A sequential extraction method was developed to determine different forms of oxalate and seven oxalate-metabolism-related organic acids (glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, succinic acid) in plant tissue. The ultra-pure water was used as the extraction medium to obtain water-soluble oxalic acid and the other seven water-soluble organic acids. After the extraction of the water-soluble organic acids, the residues were extracted by dilute hydrochloric acid successively to get the acid-soluble oxalate which entered the liquid phase. A Hypersil ODS column was used with 5 mmol/L potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer solution (pH 2. 8) as the mobile phase. The diode array detector was set at 210 nm and the column temperature at 30 °C with the injection volume of 5 µL. The flow rate was controlled at different times which allowed a good and rapid separation of the organic acids and hydrochloric acid. Under these conditions, the linear ranges of the method were 1-2000 mg/L for oxalic acid, 25-2,000 mg/L for acetic acid, and 10-2,000 mg/L for glyoxylic acid, tartaric acid, glycolic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid, with the correlation coefficients of the eight organic acids ≥ 0. 9996. The average recoveries of the eight organic acids in leaves and roots were 93. 5%-104. 4% and 85. 3%-105. 4% with RSDs of 0. 15% -2.43% and 0. 31%-2. 9% (n=7), respectively. The limits of detection ranged from 1 to 10 ng (S/N=3). The results indicated that the method is accurate, rapid and reproducible for the determination of organic acids in plant samples.

  16. Structural and functional organization of the animal fatty acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stuart; Witkowski, Andrzej; Joshi, Anil K

    2003-07-01

    The entire pathway of palmitate synthesis from malonyl-CoA in mammals is catalyzed by a single, homodimeric, multifunctional protein, the fatty acid synthase. Each subunit contains three N-terminal domains, the beta-ketoacyl synthase, malonyl/acetyl transferase and dehydrase separated by a structural core from four C-terminal domains, the enoyl reductase, beta-ketoacyl reductase, acyl carrier protein and thiosterase. The kinetics and specificities of the substrate loading reaction catalyzed by the malonyl/acetyl transferase, the condensation reaction catalyzed by beta-ketoacyl synthase and chain-terminating reaction catalyzed by the thioesterase ensure that intermediates do not leak off the enzyme, saturated chains exclusively are elongated and palmitate is released as the major product. Only in the fatty acid synthase dimer do the subunits adopt conformations that facilitate productive coupling of the individual reactions for fatty acid synthesis at the two acyl carrier protein centers. Introduction of a double tagging and dual affinity chromatographic procedure has permitted the engineering and isolation of heterodimeric fatty acid synthases carrying different mutations on each subunit. Characterization of these heterodimers, by activity assays and chemical cross-linking, has been exploited to map the functional topology of the protein. The results reveal that the two acyl carrier protein domains engage in substrate loading and condensation reactions catalyzed by the malonyl/acetyl transferase and beta-ketoacyl synthase domains of either subunit. In contrast, the reactions involved in processing of the beta-carbon atom, following each chain elongation step, together with the release of palmitate, are catalyzed by the cooperation of the acyl carrier protein with catalytic domains of the same subunit. These findings suggest a revised model for the fatty acid synthase in which the two polypeptides are oriented such that head-to-tail contacts are formed both between

  17. Protected Organic Acid Blends as an Alternative to Antibiotics in Finishing Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Upadhaya, S. D.; Lee, K. Y.; Kim, I. H.

    2014-01-01

    A total of 120 finishing pigs ([Yorkshire×Landrace]×Duroc) with an average body weight (BW) of 49.72 ±1.72 kg were used in 12-wk trial to evaluate the effects of protected organic acids on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, fecal micro flora, meat quality and fecal gas emission. Pigs were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (10 replication pens with 4 pigs per pen) in a randomly complete block design based on their initial BW. Each dietary treatment consisted of: Control (CON/basal diet), OA1 (basal diet+0.1% organic acids) and OA2 (basal diet+0.2% organic acids). Dietary treatment with protected organic acid blends linearly improved (p<0.001) average daily gain during 0 to 6 week, 6 to 12 week as well as overall with the increase in their inclusion level in the diet. The dry matter, N, and energy digestibility was higher (linear effect, p<0.001) with the increase in the dose of protected organic acid blends during 12 week. During week 6, a decrease (linear effect, p = 0.01) in fecal ammonia contents was observed with the increase in the level of protected organic acid blends on d 3 and d 5 of fermentation. Moreover, acetic acid emission decreased linearly (p = 0.02) on d7 of fermentation with the increase in the level of protected organic acid blends. During 12 weeks, linear decrease (p<0.001) in fecal ammonia on d 3 and d 5 and acetic acid content on d 5 of fermentation was observed with the increase in the level of protected organic acid blends. Supplementation of protected organic acid blends linearly increased the longissimus muscle area with the increasing concentration of organic acids. Moreover, color of meat increased (linear effect, quadratic effect, p<0.001, p<0.002 respectively) and firmness of meat showed quadratic effect (p = 0.003) with the inclusion of increasing level of protected organic acid in the diet. During the 6 week, increment in the level of protected organic acid blends decreased (linear effect, p = 0

  18. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H+ contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g-1 of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  19. Amino Acids Hydrolyzed from Animal Carcasses Are a Good Additive for the Production of Bio-organic Fertilizer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongjun; Chen, Dandan; Zhang, Ruifu; Hang, Xinnan; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    High-quality bio-organic fertilizers (BIOs) cannot be produced without the addition of some proteins. In this study, compound liquid amino acids (CLAA) from animal carcasses were utilized as additives into matured composts to create novel BIOs containing plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). The results showed that adding CLAA and inoculating bacteria meanwhile resulted in failed solid-state fermentation (SSF) due to the higher H(+) contents. While after pre-compost for 4 days before PGPR inoculation, treatments of matured chicken or pig manure added with 0.2 ml g(-1) of CLAA resulted in a maximum biomass of functional strains. Illumine-MiSeq sequencing and Real-Time PCR results showed that the CLAA addition decreased the bacterial abundance and richness, altered the bacterial community structure and changed the relative abundance of some microbial groups. This study offers a high value-added utilization of waste protein resources for producing economical, high-quality BIO. PMID:27574521

  20. Determination of organic acid impurities in lactic acid obtained by fermentation of sugarcane juice.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohd Shadbar; Bhongale, Sunil S; Thorave, Archana K

    2011-10-01

    Lactic acid produced by fermentation process mostly contains a number of aliphatic carboxylic acids as impurities. In this work, carboxylic acid impurities in lactic acid samples from a number of sources were determined at ppm levels. A simple HPLC method was developed that utilized a new generation polar embedded reverse phase, 20mM phosphate buffer at pH 2.20 (±0.05) and UV detection at 210 nm. The method enabled quantitative analysis of the above acids in lactic acid matrix. The experimental conditions for column temperature, mobile phase pH and flow rate were optimized. A detailed validation of the method was performed for linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), ruggedness and repeatability and reproducibility (R&R).

  1. Determination of organic acids during the fermentation and cold storage of yogurt.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Garcia, E; McGregor, J U

    1994-10-01

    The objective of the present study was the separation and quantification of orotic, citric, pyruvic, lactic, uric, formic, acetic, propionic, butyric, and hippuric acids in a single isocratic analysis by HPLC. Two methods of extraction were compared: 1) acetonitrile and water and 2) .01N H2SO4. Recoveries of orotic, lactic, acetic, and propionic acids were 90% for both methods. Recoveries of citric, pyruvic, uric, butyric, and hippuric acids were not satisfactory with the acetonitrile method, but were acceptable using the H2SO4 extraction procedure. Yogurts were manufactured under laboratory-scale conditions, and samples were analyzed during fermentation and after storage at 4 degrees C. Samples were analyzed for pH and organic acids. All of the organic acids exhibited varying degrees of increases and decreases during fermentation and storage. Formic and butyric acids were not detected under the conditions of this study.

  2. Production of starch with antioxidative activity by baking starch with organic acids.

    PubMed

    Miwa, Shoji; Nakamura, Megumi; Okuno, Michiko; Miyazaki, Hisako; Watanabe, Jun; Ishikawa-Takano, Yuko; Miura, Makoto; Takase, Nao; Hayakawa, Sachio; Kobayashi, Shoichi

    2011-01-01

    A starch ingredient with antioxidative activity, as measured by the DPPH method, was produced by baking corn starch with an organic acid; it has been named ANOX sugar (antioxidative sugar). The baking temperature and time were fixed at 170 °C and 60 min, and the organic acid used was selected from preliminary trials of various kinds of acid. The phytic acid ANOX sugar preparation showed the highest antioxidative activity, but the color of the preparation was almost black; we therefore selected L-tartaric acid which had the second highest antioxidative activity. The antioxidative activity of the L-tartaric acid ANOX sugar preparation was stable against temperature, light, and enzyme treatments (α-amylase and glucoamylase). However, the activity was not stable against variations in water content and pH value. The antioxidative activity of ANOX sugar was stabilized by treating with boiled water or nitrogen gas, or by pH adjustment.

  3. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite.

  4. Volatile organic acid adsorption and cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite for enhancing hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fan; Li, Ming; Li, Dawei; Chen, Ling; Jiang, Weizhong; Kitamura, Yutaka; Li, Baoming

    2010-07-01

    Volatile organic acid adsorption, cation dissociation by porphyritic andesite, and their effects on the hydrolysis and acidogenesis of solid food wastes were evaluated through batch experiments. The acetic acid adsorption experiments show that pH was mainly regulated by H(+) adsorption. The mono-layer and multi-layer adsorption were found under the low (8.3-83.2 mmol/L) and high (133.22-532.89 mmol/L) initial acetic acid concentration, respectively. The dissociated cations concentration in acidic solution showed the predominance of Ca(2+). Porphyritic andesite addition elevated the pH levels and accelerated hydrolysis and acidogenesis in the batch fermentation experiment. Leachate of porphyritic andesite addition achieved the highest hydrolysis constant of 22.1 x 10(-3)kgm(-2)d(-1) and VS degradation rates of 3.9 g L(-1)d(-1). The highest activity of microorganisms represented by specific growth rate of ATP, 0.16d(-1), and specific consumption rate of Ca(2+), 0.18d(-1), was obtained by adding leachate of porphyritic andesite. PMID:20156676

  5. Bioavailability of magnesium from inorganic and organic compounds is similar in rats fed a high phytic acid diet.

    PubMed

    Bertinato, Jesse; Plouffe, Louise J; Lavergne, Christopher; Ly, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    A large section of the North American population is not meeting recommended intakes for magnesium (Mg). Supplementation and consumption of Mg-fortified foods are ways to increase intake. Currently, information on Mg bioavailability from different compounds and their efficacy in improving Mg status is scant. This study compared the relative ability of inorganic and organic Mg compounds to preserve the Mg status of rats when fed at amounts insufficient to retain optimal Mg status. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=12/diet group) were fed one of eight test diets supplemented with phytic acid (5 g/kg diet) and low levels of Mg (155 mg elemental Mg/kg diet) from Mg oxide, Mg sulphate, Mg chloride, Mg citrate, Mg gluconate, Mg orotate, Mg malate or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium Mg salt for five weeks. Rats were also fed three control diets that did not contain added phytic acid but were supplemented with 500 (NMgO, normal), 155 (LMgO, low) or 80 (DMgO, deficient) mg of Mg per kg diet as Mg oxide. Mg concentrations in femur, serum and urine showed a graded decrease in rats fed the control diets with lower Mg. Mg concentrations did not differ (P≥0.05) between rats fed the different test diets. Addition of phytic acid to the diet did not affect the Mg status of the rats. The results indicate that any differences in the Mg bioavailability of the compounds were small and physiologically irrelevant.

  6. Effectiveness of hand sanitizers with and without organic acids for removal of rhinovirus from hands.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ronald B; Fuls, Janice L; Rodgers, Nancy D

    2010-03-01

    These studies evaluated the effectiveness of ethanol hand sanitizers with or without organic acids to remove detectable rhinovirus from the hands and prevent experimental rhinovirus infection. Ethanol hand sanitizers were significantly more effective than hand washing with soap and water. The addition of organic acids to the ethanol provided residual virucidal activity that persisted for at least 4 h. Whether these treatments will reduce rhinovirus infection in the natural setting remains to be determined.

  7. Effects of the storage time on the folic acid added to ready-to-eat meat products manufactured by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galán, I.; García, M. L.; Selgas, M. D.

    2013-04-01

    Three different meat products enriched with folic acid (FA) (2.4 mg/100 g) were manufactured: hamburgers, cooked and dry fermented sausages. They were prepared as ready-to-eat (RTE) products using E-beam radiation (2 and 3 kGy) to ensure their safety. The stability of FA and sensory properties of the irradiated meat products were studied during three months of storage under freezing conditions for hamburgers and refrigeration conditions for cooked and dry fermented sausages. FA content was stable in non-irradiated and irradiated hamburgers and cooked sausages over the storage period, whereas it decreased 20% in non-irradiated dry fermented sausages and 12-8% in irradiated samples at 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. Nevertheless, the final amount remained sufficient to provide the recommended daily intake. Panelists rated the sensory properties of the hamburger as satisfactory even after irradiation and 90 days of storage. The overall acceptability of RTE cooked and dry fermented sausages improved slightly with storage (P>0.05).

  8. Synthesis of no carrier added F-18 16-fluorohexadecanoic acid (FHDA) and investigation of its labeled metabolites and its kinetics in the heart

    SciTech Connect

    DeGrado, T.R.; Bernstein, D.R.; Gatley, S.J.; Ng, C.K.; Holden, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    No carrier added FHDA was prepared via saponification of the product of silver oxide assisted reaction of near-anhydrous tetraethylammonium fluoride with methyl 16-iodohexadecanoate. The labeled fatty acid was injected into isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary perfusate was collected for 4-9 minutes, when hearts were chilled and homogenized. F-18 in perfusate was analysed by HPLC (NH column; 50mM amm. acetate in 50% acetonitrile). Material with the same retention time as F-18 fluoroacetate (prepared by F-for-I exchange with ethyl iodoacetate) was found. Some F-18 stuck permanently to the column and was assigned as fluoride since the same fraction of label in perfusate was retained on alumina columns eluted with water. Anion exchange HPLC (SAX column; 20mM pot. phosphate, pH 7) of homogenates gave peaks corresponding to fluoroacetate plus fluoride and minor peaks which could be fluoroacetylCoA and fluorocitrate. The authors interpret their data as follows. Beta-oxidation of FHDA results in fluoroacetylCoA which either undergoes ''lethal synthesis'' to fluorocitrate or is hydrolysed to fluoroacetate which diffuses out of the heart. The source of the fluoride is not yet clear, but could complicate interpretation of FHDA kinetics measured in vivo with positron tomography. Clearance of label from FHDA in isolated perfused hearts was faster than for labeled 16-iodohexadecanoic acid, indicating that the F-18 tracer may be a more sensitive probe of myocardial fatty acid metabolism.

  9. Isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from water using nonionic macroporous resins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, G.R.; McKnight, Diane M.; Thorn, K.A.; Thurman, E.M.

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for the isolation of hydrophilic organic acids from aquatic environments using Amberlite* * Use of trade names in this report is for identification purposes only and does not constitute endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey. XAD-4 resin. The method uses a two column array of XAD-8 and XAD-4 resins in series. The hydrophobic organic acids, composed primarily of aquatic fulvic acid, are removed from the sample on XAD-8, followed by the isolation of the more hydrophilic organic acids on XAD-4. For samples from a number of diverse environments, more of the dissolved organic carbon was isolated on the XAD-8 resin (23-58%) than on the XAD-4 resin (7-25%). For these samples, the hydrophilic acids have lower carbon and hydrogen contents, higher oxygen and nitrogen contents, and are lower in molecular weight than the corresponding fulvic acids. 13C NMR analyses indicate that the hydrophilic acids have a lower concentration of aromatic carbon and greater heteroaliphatic, ketone and carboxyl content than the fulvic acid. ?? 1992.

  10. Usnic Acid and the Intramolecular Hydrogen Bond: A Computational Experiment for the Organic Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Thomas K.; Lane, Charles A.

    2006-01-01

    A computational experiment is described for the organic chemistry laboratory that allows students to estimate the relative strengths of the intramolecular hydrogen bonds of usnic and isousnic acids, two related lichen secondary metabolites. Students first extract and purify usnic acid from common lichens and obtain [superscript 1]H NMR and IR…

  11. Phenolic compounds and fatty acid composition of organic and conventional grown pecan kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, differences in contents of phenolic compounds and fatty acids in pecan kernels of organically versus conventionally grown pecan cultivars (‘Desirable’, ‘Cheyenne’, and ‘Wichita’) were evaluated. Although we were able to identify nine phenolic compounds (gallic acid, catechol, catechin...

  12. The effect of low solubility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-10-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be investigated in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide sub-micrometre particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion, whereas the organic surfactant has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles experience appreciable shifts in their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  13. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings.

  14. The effect of low solublility organic acids on the hygroscopicity of sodium halide aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miñambres, L.; Méndez, E.; Sánchez, M. N.; Castaño, F.; Basterretxea, F. J.

    2014-02-01

    In order to accurately assess the influence of fatty acids on the hygroscopic and other physicochemical properties of sea salt aerosols, hexanoic, octanoic or lauric acid together with sodium halide salts (NaCl, NaBr and NaI) have been chosen to be performed in this study. The hygroscopic properties of sodium halide submicrometer particles covered with organic acids have been examined by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in an aerosol flow cell. Covered particles were generated by flowing atomized sodium halide particles (either dry or aqueous) through a heated oven containing the gaseous acid. The obtained results indicate that gaseous organic acids easily nucleate onto dry and aqueous sodium halide particles. On the other hand, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images indicate that lauric acid coating on NaCl particles makes them to aggregate in small clusters. The hygroscopic behaviour of covered sodium halide particles in deliquescence mode shows different features with the exchange of the halide ion: whereas the organic covering has little effect in NaBr particles, NaCl and NaI covered particles change their deliquescence relative humidities, with different trends observed for each of the acids studied. In efflorescence mode, the overall effect of the organic covering is to retard the loss of water in the particles. It has been observed that the presence of gaseous water in heterogeneously nucleated particles tends to displace the cover of hexanoic acid to energetically stabilize the system.

  15. Forest floor leaching: contributions from mineral, organic, and carbonic acids in new hampshire subalpine forests.

    PubMed

    Cronan, C S; Reiners, W A; Reynolds, R C; Lang, G E

    1978-04-21

    Analyses of soil water and groundwater samples from a high-elevation coniferous ecosystem in New England indicate that sulfate anions supply 76 percent of the electrical charge balance in the leaching solution. This result implies that atmospheric inputs of sulfuric acid provide the dominant source of both H(+) for cation replacement and mobile anions for cation transport in subalpine soils of the northeastern region affected by acid precipitation. In soils of relatively unpolluted regions, carbonic and organic acids dominate the leaching processes.

  16. Oxidative degradation of organic acids conjugated with sulfite oxidation in flue gas desulfurization

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.I.

    1986-01-01

    Organic acid degradation conjugated with sulfite oxidation has been studied under flue gas desulfurization (EGD) conditions. The oxidative degradation constant, k/sub 12/, is defined as the ratio of organic acid degradation rate and sulfite oxidation rate after being normalized by the concentrations of organic acid and dissolved S(IV). K/sub 12/, not significantly affected by pH or dissolved oxygen, is around 10/sup -3/ in the absence of manganese or iron. However, k/sub 12/ is increased by certain transition metals such as Co, Ni, and Fe and is decreased by Mn and halides. Lower dissolved S(IV) magnified these effects. No k/sub 12/ greater than 4 x 10/sup -3/ or smaller than 0.1 x 10/sup -3/ has been observed. A free radical mechanism was proposed to describe the kinetics: (1) sulfate free radical is the major radical responsible to the degradation of organic acid; (2) ferrous generates sulfate radical by reacting with monoxypersulfate to enhance k/sub 12/; (3) manganous consumes sulfate radical to decrease k/sub 12/; (4) dissolved S(IV) competes with ferrous for monoxypersulfate and with manganous for sulfate radical to demonstrate the effects of dissolved S(IV) on k/sub 12/. Hydroxy and sulfonated carboxylic acids degrade approximately three times slower than saturated dicarboxylic acids; while maleic acid, an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, degraded an order of magnitude faster. A wide spectrum of degradation products of adipic acid were found, including carbon dioxide - the major product, glutaric semialdehyde - the major retained product with low manganese, glutaric acid and valeric acids - the major retained product with high manganese, lower molecular weight mono- and dicarboxylic acids, other carbonyl compounds, and hydrocarbons.

  17. Structural organization of the multifunctional animal fatty-acid synthase.

    PubMed

    Witkowski, A; Rangan, V S; Randhawa, Z I; Amy, C M; Smith, S

    1991-06-15

    The amino acid sequence of the multifunctional fatty-acid synthase has been examined to investigate the exact location of the seven functional domains. Good agreement in predicting the location of interdomain boundaries was obtained using three independent methods. First, the sites of limited proteolytic attack that give rise to relatively stable, large polypeptide fragments were identified; cryptic sites for protease attack at the subunit interface were unmasked by first dissociating the dimer into its component subunits. Second, polypeptide regions exhibiting higher-than-average rates of non-conservative mutation were identified. Third, the sizes of putative functional domains were compared with those of related monofunctional proteins that exhibit similar primary or secondary structure. Residues 1-406 were assigned to the oxoacyl synthase, residues 430-802 to the malonyl/acetyl transferase, residues 1630-1850 to the enoyl reductase, residues 1870-2100 to the oxyreductase, residues 2114-2190 to the acyl-carrier protein and residues 2200-2505 to the thioesterase. The 47-kDa transferase and 8-kDa acyl-carrier-protein domains, which are situated at opposite ends of the multifunctional subunit, were nevertheless isolated from tryptic digests as a non-covalently associated complex. Furthermore, a centrally located domain encompassing residues 1160-1545 was isolated as a nicked dimer. These findings, indicating that interactions between the head-to-tail juxtaposed subunits occur in both the polar and equatorial regions, are consistent with previously derived electron-micrograph images that show subunit contacts in these areas. The data permit refinement of the model for the fatty-acid synthase dimer and suggest that the malonyl/acetyl transferase and oxoacyl synthase of one subunit cooperate with the reductases, acyl carrier protein and thioesterase of the companion subunit in the formation of a center for fatty-acid synthesis.

  18. Microbial production of organic acids in aquitard sediments and its role in aquifer geochemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMahon, P.B.; Chapelle, F.H.

    1991-01-01

    MICROBIAL activity in aquifers plays an important part in the chemical evolution of ground water1-5. The most important terminal electron-accepting microbial processes in deeply buried anaerobic aquifers are iron reduction, sulphate reduction and methanogenesis5-8, each of which requires simple organic compounds or hydrogen (H2) as electron donors. Until now, the source of these compounds was unknown because the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and sedimentary organic carbon in aquifers are extremely low9-11. Here we show that rates of microbial fermentation exceed rates of respiration in organic-rich aquitards (low-permeability sediments stratigraphically adjacent to higher-permeability aquifer sediments), resulting in a net accumulation of simple organic acids in pore waters. In aquifers, however, respiration outpaces fermentation, resulting in a net consumption of organic acids. The concentration gradient that develops in response to these two processes drives a net diffusive flux of organic acids from aquitards to aquifers. Diffusion calculations demonstrate that rates of organic acid transport are sufficient to account for observed rates of microbial respiration in aquifers. This overall process effectively links the large pool of sedimentary organic carbon in aquitards to microbial respiration in aquifers, and is a principal mechanism driving groundwater chemistry changes in aquifers.

  19. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  20. Extraction of medium chain fatty acids from organic municipal waste and subsequent production of bio-based fuels.

    PubMed

    Kannengiesser, Jan; Sakaguchi-Söder, Kaori; Mrukwia, Timo; Jager, Johannes; Schebek, Liselotte

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides an overview on investigations for a new technology to generate bio-based fuel additives from bio-waste. The investigations are taking place at the composting plant in Darmstadt-Kranichstein (Germany). The aim is to explore the potential of bio-waste as feedstock in producing different bio-based products (or bio-based fuels). For this investigation, a facultative anaerobic process is to be integrated into the normal aerobic waste treatment process for composting. The bio-waste is to be treated in four steps to produce biofuels. The first step is the facultative anaerobic treatment of the waste in a rotting box namely percolate to generate a fatty-acid rich liquid fraction. The Hydrolysis takes place in the rotting box during the waste treatment. The organic compounds are then dissolved and transferred into the waste liquid phase. Browne et al. (2013) describes the hydrolysis as an enzymatically degradation of high solid substrates to soluble products which are further degraded to volatile fatty acids (VFA). This is confirmed by analytical tests done on the liquid fraction. After the percolation, volatile and medium chain fatty acids are found in the liquid phase. Concentrations of fatty acids between 8.0 and 31.5 were detected depending on the nature of the input material. In the second step, a fermentation process will be initiated to produce additional fatty acids. Existing microorganism mass is activated to degrade the organic components that are still remaining in the percolate. After fermentation the quantity of fatty acids in four investigated reactors increased 3-5 times. While fermentation mainly non-polar fatty acids (pentanoic to octanoic acid) are build. Next to the fermentation process, a chain-elongation step is arranged by adding ethanol to the fatty acid rich percolate. While these investigations a chain-elongation of mainly fatty acids with pair numbers of carbon atoms (acetate, butanoic and hexanoic acid) are demonstrated. After

  1. Organic acids and selected nitrogen species for ABLE-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment (GTE) executed airborne science missions aboard the NASA Wallops Electra (NA429) in the North American high latitude (greater than 45 deg North) atmosphere during Jul. to Aug. 1988 and Jul. to Aug. 1990. These missions were part of GTE's Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (ABLE). The 1988 mission , ABLE-3A, examined the ecosystems of Alaska as a source and/or sink for important tropospheric gases and particles, and gained new information on the chemical composition of the Arctic atmosphere during the summertime. During 1990 the second high latitude mission, ABLE-3B, focused on the Hudson Bay Lowland and Labrador regions of Canada. Both of these missions provided benchmark data sets on atmosphere biosphere exchange and atmospheric chemistry over largely uninhabited regions of North America. In support of the GTE/ABLE-3A and -3B field missions, the University of New Hampshire flew instrumentation aboard the Wallops Electra research aircraft to provide measurements of the trace gases nitric (HNO3), formic (HCOOH), and acetic (CH3COOH) acid. In addition, measurements were conducted to determine the major water soluble ionic composition of the atmospheric aerosol. For ABLE-3B, groundbased measurements of the acidic trace gases were also performed from the NASA micrometerological tower situated at Schefferville, Laborador. These measurements were aimed at assessing dry deposition of acidic gases to the taiga ecosystem in the Laborador region of Canada.

  2. Recovery of nickel and cobalt from organic acid complexes: adsorption mechanisms of metal-organic complexes onto aminophosphonate chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Deepatana, A; Valix, M

    2006-09-21

    This study examined the recovery of nickel and cobalt from organic acid complexes using a chelating aminophosphonate Purolite S950 resin. These metal complexes are generated by bioleaching nickel laterite ores, a commercial nickel and cobalt mineral oxide, with heterotrophic organism and their metabolites or organic acid products. Equilibrium adsorption tests were conducted as a function of Ni and Co concentrations (15-2000 mg/L), solution pH (0.01 and 0.1 M acids) and three metabolic complexing agents (citrate, malate and lactate). It was shown that the adsorption of the various Ni- and Co-complexes on Purolite were quite low, 16-18 and 5.4-9 mg/g of resin, respectively, in comparison to the smaller nickel ions and nickel sulfate. This was attributed to the bulky organic ligands which promoted crowding effect or steric hindrance. The adsorption of these complexes was further hampered by the strong affinity of the resin to H+ ions under acidic conditions. Mechanisms of adsorption, as inferred from the fitted empirical Langmuir and Freundlich models, were correlated to the proposed steric hindrance and competitive adsorption effects. Nickel and cobalt elution from the resin were found be effective and were independent of the type of metal complexes and metal concentrations. This study demonstrated the relative challenges involved in recovering nickel and cobalt from bioleaching solutions. PMID:16698178

  3. Recovery of nickel and cobalt from organic acid complexes: adsorption mechanisms of metal-organic complexes onto aminophosphonate chelating resin.

    PubMed

    Deepatana, A; Valix, M

    2006-09-21

    This study examined the recovery of nickel and cobalt from organic acid complexes using a chelating aminophosphonate Purolite S950 resin. These metal complexes are generated by bioleaching nickel laterite ores, a commercial nickel and cobalt mineral oxide, with heterotrophic organism and their metabolites or organic acid products. Equilibrium adsorption tests were conducted as a function of Ni and Co concentrations (15-2000 mg/L), solution pH (0.01 and 0.1 M acids) and three metabolic complexing agents (citrate, malate and lactate). It was shown that the adsorption of the various Ni- and Co-complexes on Purolite were quite low, 16-18 and 5.4-9 mg/g of resin, respectively, in comparison to the smaller nickel ions and nickel sulfate. This was attributed to the bulky organic ligands which promoted crowding effect or steric hindrance. The adsorption of these complexes was further hampered by the strong affinity of the resin to H+ ions under acidic conditions. Mechanisms of adsorption, as inferred from the fitted empirical Langmuir and Freundlich models, were correlated to the proposed steric hindrance and competitive adsorption effects. Nickel and cobalt elution from the resin were found be effective and were independent of the type of metal complexes and metal concentrations. This study demonstrated the relative challenges involved in recovering nickel and cobalt from bioleaching solutions.

  4. Interaction between common organic acids and trace nucleation species in the Earth's atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yisheng; Nadykto, Alexey B; Yu, Fangqun; Herb, J; Wang, Wei

    2010-01-14

    Atmospheric aerosols formed via nucleation in the Earth's atmosphere play an important role in the aerosol radiative forcing associated directly with global climate changes and public health. Although it is well-known that atmospheric aerosol particles contain organic species, the chemical nature of and physicochemical processes behind atmospheric nucleation involving organic species remain unclear. In the present work, the interaction of common organic acids with molecular weights of 122, 116, 134, 88, 136, and 150 (benzoic, maleic, malic, pyruvic, phenylacetic, and tartaric acids) with nucleation precursors and charged trace species has been investigated. We found a moderate strong effect of the organic species on the stability of neutral and charged ionic species. In most cases, the free energies of the mixed H(2)SO(4)-organic acid dimer formation are within 1-1.5 kcal mol(-1) of the (H(2)SO(4))(NH(3)) formation energy. The interaction of the organic acids with trace ionic species is quite strong, and the corresponding free energies far exceed those of the (H(3)O(+))(H(2)SO(4)) and (H(3)O(+))(H(2)SO(4))(2) formation. These considerations lead us to conclude that the aforementioned organic acids may possess a substantial capability of stabilizing both neutral and positively charged prenucleation clusters, and thus, they should be studied further with regard to their involvement in the gas-to-particle conversion in the Earth's atmosphere.

  5. Studies of Nondefective Adenovirus 2-Simian Virus 40 Hybrid Viruses IV. Characterization of the Simian Virus 40 Ribonucleic Acid Species Induced by Wild-Type Simian Virus 40 and by the Nondefective Hybrid Virus, Ad2+ND1

    PubMed Central

    Oxman, Michael N.; Levine, Arthur S.; Crumpacker, Clyde S.; Levin, Myron J.; Henry, Patrick H.; Lewis, Andrew M.

    1971-01-01

    Ad2+ND1, a nondefective adenovirus 2 (Ad2)-simian virus 40 (SV40) hybrid virus, has been previously shown to contain a small segment of the SV40 genome covalently linked to Ad2 deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The SV40 portion of this hybrid virus has been characterized by relating the SV40-specific ribonucleic acid (RNA) sequences transcribed from the Ad2+ND1 DNA to those transcribed from the DNA of SV40 itself. RNA-DNA hybridization-competition studies indicate that the SV40 component of Ad2+ND1 consists of some, but not all, of that part of the SV40 genome which is transcribed early, i.e., prior to viral DNA replication, in SV40 lytic infection. PMID:4329969

  6. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree by high hydrostatic pressure with/without added ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay; Sites, Joseph; Cassidy, Jennifer

    2016-10-17

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and develop a method for inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree (CP) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Cantaloupe being the most netted varieties of melons presents a greater risk of pathogen transmission. Freshly prepared CP with or without 0.1% ascorbic acid (AA) was inoculated with a bacterial cocktail composed of a three serotype mixture of S. enterica (S. Poona, S. Newport H1275 and S. Stanley H0558) and a mixture of three strains of L. monocytogenes (Scott A, 43256 and 51742) to a population of ca. 10(8)CFU/g. Double sealed and double bagged inoculated CP (ca. 5g) were pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Data indicated increased inactivation of both Salmonella and Listeria spp. with higher pressure. Log reduction for CP at 300MPa, 8°C for 5min was 2.4±0.2 and 1.6±0.5logCFU/g for Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. Survivability of the pathogens was significantly compromised at 400MPa and 8°C, inactivating 4.5±0.3logCFU/g of Salmonella and 3.0±0.4logCFU/g of Listeria spp. Complete inactivation of the pathogens in the puree (log reduction >6.7logCFU/g), with or without AA, was achieved when the pressure was further increased to 500MPa, except that for Listeria containing no AA at 8°C. Listeria presented higher resistance to pressure treatment compared to Salmonella spp. Initial temperatures (8 and 15°C) had no significant influence on Salmonella log reductions. Log reduction of pathogens increased but not significantly with increase of temperature. AA did not show any significant antimicrobial activity. Viable counts were about 0.2-0.4logCFU/g less in presence of 0.1% AA. These data validate that HHP can be used as an effective method for decontamination of cantaloupe puree.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree by high hydrostatic pressure with/without added ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudarsan; Sokorai, Kimberly; Ukuku, Dike; Fan, Xuetong; Juneja, Vijay; Sites, Joseph; Cassidy, Jennifer

    2016-10-17

    The objective of this research was to evaluate and develop a method for inactivation of Salmonella enterica and Listeria monocytogenes in cantaloupe puree (CP) by high hydrostatic pressure (HHP). Cantaloupe being the most netted varieties of melons presents a greater risk of pathogen transmission. Freshly prepared CP with or without 0.1% ascorbic acid (AA) was inoculated with a bacterial cocktail composed of a three serotype mixture of S. enterica (S. Poona, S. Newport H1275 and S. Stanley H0558) and a mixture of three strains of L. monocytogenes (Scott A, 43256 and 51742) to a population of ca. 10(8)CFU/g. Double sealed and double bagged inoculated CP (ca. 5g) were pressure treated at 300, 400 and 500MPa at 8°C and 15°C for 5min. Data indicated increased inactivation of both Salmonella and Listeria spp. with higher pressure. Log reduction for CP at 300MPa, 8°C for 5min was 2.4±0.2 and 1.6±0.5logCFU/g for Salmonella and Listeria, respectively. Survivability of the pathogens was significantly compromised at 400MPa and 8°C, inactivating 4.5±0.3logCFU/g of Salmonella and 3.0±0.4logCFU/g of Listeria spp. Complete inactivation of the pathogens in the puree (log reduction >6.7logCFU/g), with or without AA, was achieved when the pressure was further increased to 500MPa, except that for Listeria containing no AA at 8°C. Listeria presented higher resistance to pressure treatment compared to Salmonella spp. Initial temperatures (8 and 15°C) had no significant influence on Salmonella log reductions. Log reduction of pathogens increased but not significantly with increase of temperature. AA did not show any significant antimicrobial activity. Viable counts were about 0.2-0.4logCFU/g less in presence of 0.1% AA. These data validate that HHP can be used as an effective method for decontamination of cantaloupe puree. PMID:27441819

  8. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data.

  9. Isotherm-Based Thermodynamic Models for Solute Activities of Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Nandy, Lucy; Ohm, Peter B; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-23

    Organic acids make up a significant fraction of the organic mass in atmospheric aerosol particles. The calculation of gas-liquid-solid equilibrium partitioning of the organic acid is therefore critical for accurate determination of atmospheric aerosol physicochemical properties and processes such as new particle formation and activation to cloud condensation nuclei. Previously, an adsorption isotherm-based statistical thermodynamic model was developed for capturing solute concentration-activity relationships for multicomponent aqueous solutions over the entire concentration range (Dutcher et al. J. Phys. Chem. C/A 2011, 2012, 2013), with model parameters for energies of adsorption successfully related to dipole-dipole electrostatic forces in solute-solvent and solvent-solvent interactions for both electrolytes and organics (Ohm et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2015). However, careful attention is needed for weakly dissociating semivolatile organic acids. Dicarboxylic acids, such as malonic acid and glutaric acid are treated here as a mixture of nondissociated organic solute (HA) and dissociated solute (H(+) + A(-)). It was found that the apparent dissociation was greater than that predicted by known dissociation constants alone, emphasizing the effect of dissociation on osmotic and activity coefficient predictions. To avoid additional parametrization from the mixture approach, an expression was used to relate the Debye-Hückel hard-core collision diameter to the adjustable solute-solvent intermolecular distance. An improved reference state treatment for electrolyte-organic aqueous mixtures, such as that observed here with partial dissociation, has also been proposed. This work results in predictive correlations for estimation of organic acid and water activities for which there is little or no activity data. PMID:27222917

  10. A review of the effects of dietary organic acids fed to swine.

    PubMed

    Suiryanrayna, Mocherla V A N; Ramana, J V

    2015-01-01

    Animal production depends on nutrient utilization and if done there is an accelerated momentum towards growth with a low cost to feed ratio Public concern over the consumption of pork with antibiotic residues of the animals fed with antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) has paved the way to use other additives like herbs and their products, probiotics, prebiotics etc. Numerous feed additives are in vogue for achieving this target and one such classical example is the usage of organic acids and their salts. Usage of organic acids was in progress for over four decades. Early weaned piglets are (3-4 weeks age) exposed to stress with a reduced feed intake, little or no weight gain. This post weaning lag period is due to a limited digestive and absorptive capacity due to insufficient production of hydrochloric acid, pancreatic enzymes and sudden changes in feed consistency and intake. Lowering dietary pH by weak organic acids was found to overcome these problems. The main activity of organic acids is associated with a reduction in gastric pH converting the inactive pepsinogen to active pepsin for effective protein hydrolysis. Organic acids are both bacteriostatic and bactericidal. Lactic acid has been reported to reduce gastric pH and delay the multiplication of an enterotoxigenic E. coli. These acids are the intermediary products in Kreb's cycle and thus act as an energy source preventing the tissue breakdown resulting from gluconeogenesis and lipolysis. Excretion of supplemental minerals and nitrogen are minimized with organic acids as these form complexes with minerals and aids for their bio-availability. Short chain fatty cids like acetic, propionic and n-butyric acid produced by microbial fermentation of dietary fibre in the large intestines may increase the proliferation of epithelial cells and have stimulatory effects on both endocrine and exocrine pancreatic secretions in pigs. Organic acids also enhances apparent total tract digestibility and improves growth

  11. Organic compounds in lunar samples: pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons, amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Drew, D M; Hamilton, P B; Modzeleski, V E; Murphy, M E; Scott, W M; Urey, H C; Young, M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines and a chip from inside a rock pyrolyzed in helium at 700 degrees C gave methane, other gases, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene/methanol extracts of fines yielded traces of high molecular weight alkanes and sulfur. Traces of glycine, alanine, ethanolamine, and urea were found in aqueous extracts. Biological controls and a terrestrial rock, dunite, subjected to exhaust from the lunar module descent engine showed a different amino acid distribution. Interpretation of the origin of the carbon compounds requires extreme care, because of possible contamination acquired during initial sample processing.

  12. Organic compounds in lunar samples: pyrolysis products, hydrocarbons, amino acids.

    PubMed

    Nagy, B; Drew, D M; Hamilton, P B; Modzeleski, V E; Murphy, M E; Scott, W M; Urey, H C; Young, M

    1970-01-30

    Lunar fines and a chip from inside a rock pyrolyzed in helium at 700 degrees C gave methane, other gases, and aromatic hydrocarbons. Benzene/methanol extracts of fines yielded traces of high molecular weight alkanes and sulfur. Traces of glycine, alanine, ethanolamine, and urea were found in aqueous extracts. Biological controls and a terrestrial rock, dunite, subjected to exhaust from the lunar module descent engine showed a different amino acid distribution. Interpretation of the origin of the carbon compounds requires extreme care, because of possible contamination acquired during initial sample processing. PMID:5410553

  13. High molecular weight β-poly(L-malic acid) produced by A. pullulans with Ca²⁺ added repeated batch culture.

    PubMed

    Cao, Weifeng; Chen, Xiangrong; Luo, Jianquan; Yin, Junxiang; Qiao, Changsheng; Wan, Yinhua

    2016-04-01

    β-Poly(malic acid) (PMLA) has attracted increasing attentions because of its potential application in medicine and other industries. In this study, the variation of PMLA molecular weight (Mw) in the batch culture and the strategies to enhance PMLA Mw were studied. Adding exogenous Ca(2+) (0.1g/L CaCl2) to the medium caused a significant increase in both PMLA concentration and Mw (11.38% and 26.3%, respectively) when Na2CO3 was used as the neutralizer. The Mw of PMLA during the process of batch culture, which associated with the specific PMLA production per unit cell mass (Yp/x) before glucose was depleted, increased from 12.522 KDa to its maximum 18.693 KDa and then kept decreasing until the end of the culture. Compared with the results in batch culture, Mw increased by 84.4% (up to 19.51 kDa) with a productivity of 1.1 gh(-1)L(-1) when the cells were maintained in exponential growth phase during Ca(2+) added repeated batch culture. The present work provides an efficient approach to obtain superior quality PMLA product with high Mw.

  14. Effects of added surfactant on swelling and molecular transport in drug-loaded tablets based on hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid).

    PubMed

    Knöös, Patrik; Wahlgren, Marie; Topgaard, Daniel; Ulvenlund, Stefan; Piculell, Lennart

    2014-08-14

    A combination of NMR chemical shift imaging and self-diffusion experiments is shown to give a detailed molecular picture of the events that occur when tablets of hydrophobically modified poly(acrylic acid) loaded with a drug (griseofulvin) swell in water in the presence or absence of surfactant (sodium octylbenzenesulfonate). The hydrophobic substituents on the polymer bind and trap the surfactant molecules in mixed micelles, leading to a slow effective surfactant transport that occurs via a small fraction of individually dissolved surfactant molecules in the water domain. Because of the efficient binding of surfactant, the penetrating water is found to diffuse past the penetrating surfactant into the polymer matrix, pushing the surfactant front outward as the matrix swells. The added surfactant has little effect on the transport of drug because both undissolved solid drug and surfactant-solubilized drug function as reservoirs that essentially follow the polymer as it swells. However, the added surfactant nevertheless has a strong indirect effect on the release of griseofulvin, through the effect of the surfactant on the solubility and erosion of the polymer matrix. The surfactant effectively solubilizes the hydrophobically modified polymer, making it fully miscible with water, leading to a more pronounced swelling and a slower erosion of the polymer matrix.

  15. Capture and release of mixed acid gasses with binding organic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Yonker, Clement R.

    2010-09-21

    Reversible acid-gas binding organic liquid systems that permit separation and capture of one or more of several acid gases from a mixed gas stream, transport of the liquid, release of the acid gases from the ionic liquid and reuse of the liquid to bind more acid gas with significant energy savings compared to current aqueous systems. These systems utilize acid gas capture compounds made up of strong bases and weak acids that form salts when reacted with a selected acid gas, and which release these gases when a preselected triggering event occurs. The various new materials that make up this system can also be included in various other applications such as chemical sensors, chemical reactants, scrubbers, and separators that allow for the specific and separate removal of desired materials from a gas stream such as flue gas.

  16. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-10-22

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molecules and then form growing clusters of one to three sulfuric acid molecules plus one to four oxidized organics. Most of these organic compounds retain 10 carbon atoms, and some of them are remarkably highly oxidized (oxygen-to-carbon ratios up to 1.2). The average degree of oxygenation of the organic compounds decreases while the clusters are growing. Our measurements therefore connect oxidized organics directly, and in detail, with the very first steps of new particle formation and their growth between 1 and 2 nm in a controlled environment. Thus, they confirm that oxidized organics are involved in both the formation and growth of particles under ambient conditions.

  17. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern. PMID:27267477

  18. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids: A new class of organic micropollutants in the water cycle.

    PubMed

    Zahn, Daniel; Frömel, Tobias; Knepper, Thomas P

    2016-09-15

    Mobile and persistent organic micropollutants may impact raw and drinking waters and are thus of concern for human health. To identify such possible substances of concern nineteen water samples from five European countries (France, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Spain and Germany) and different compartments of the water cycle (urban effluent, surface water, ground water and drinking water) were enriched with mixed-mode solid phase extraction. Hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry non-target screening of these samples led to the detection and structural elucidation of seven novel organic micropollutants. One structure could already be confirmed by a reference standard (trifluoromethanesulfonic acid) and six were tentatively identified based on experimental evidence (chloromethanesulfonic acid, dichloromethanesulfonic acid, trichloromethanesulfonic acid, bromomethanesulfonic acid, dibromomethanesulfonic acid and bromochloromethanesulfonic acid). Approximated concentrations for these substances show that trifluoromethanesulfonic acid, a chemical registered under the European Union regulation REACH with a production volume of more than 100 t/a, is able to spread along the water cycle and may be present in concentrations up to the μg/L range. Chlorinated and brominated methanesulfonic acids were predominantly detected together which indicates a common source and first experimental evidence points towards water disinfection as a potential origin. Halogenated methanesulfonic acids were detected in drinking waters and thus may be new substances of concern.

  19. Effect of organic acids on the growth and fermentation of ethanologenic Escherichia coli LY01

    SciTech Connect

    Zaldivar, J.; Ingram, L.O.

    1999-07-01

    Hemicellulose residues can be hydrolyzed into a sugar syrup using dilute mineral acids. Although this syrup represents a potential feedstock for biofuel production, toxic compounds generated during hydrolysis limit microbial metabolism. Escherichia coli LY01, an ethanologenic biocatalyst engineered to ferment the mixed sugars in hemicellulose syrups, has been tested for resistance to selected organic acids that re present in hemicellulose hydrolysates. Compounds tested include aromatic acids derived from lignin (ferulic, gallic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, syringic, and vanillic acids), acetic acid from the hydrolysis of acetylxylan, and others derived from sugar destruction (furoic, formic, levulinic, and caproic acids). Toxicity was related to hydrophobicity. Combinations of acids were roughly additive as inhibitors of cell growth. When tested at concentrations that inhibited growth by 80%, none appeared to strongly inhibit glycolysis and energy generation, or to disrupt membrane integrity. Toxicity was not markedly affected by inoculum size or incubation temperature. The toxicity of all acids except gallic acid was reduced by an increase in initial pH (from pH 6.0 to pH 7.0 to pH 8.0). Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that both aliphatic and mononuclear organic acids inhibit growth and ethanol production in LY01 by collapsing ion gradients and increasing internal anion concentrations.

  20. Acid-Base Learning Outcomes for Students in an Introductory Organic Chemistry Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanovich, Carlee; Gandhi, Aneri; Flynn, Alison B.

    2015-01-01

    An outcome-based approach to teaching and learning focuses on what the student demonstrably knows and can do after instruction, rather than on what the instructor teaches. This outcome-focused approach can then guide the alignment of teaching strategies, learning activities, and assessment. In organic chemistry, mastery of organic acid-base…

  1. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities...

  2. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities...

  3. 40 CFR 747.115 - Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for product containing P-84-529) has been regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency, at 40 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mixed mono and diamides of an organic... Substances § 747.115 Mixed mono and diamides of an organic acid. This section identifies activities...

  4. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2011-04-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid dihydrate, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or Nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves and critical supersaturations, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the aqueous solutions containing cis-pinonic acid and fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining solutions the effect on surface tension was negligible at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic salts are predicted to have a smaller Raoult term than the studied organic acids. Increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic salt led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors. The correspondence between measurements and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on measured water activity and surface tension, but not accounting for surface

  5. Yearly trend of dicarboxylic acids in organic aerosols from south of Sweden and source attribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyder, Murtaza; Genberg, Johan; Sandahl, Margareta; Swietlicki, Erik; Jönsson, Jan Åke

    2012-09-01

    Seven aliphatic dicarboxylic acids (C3-C9) along with phthalic acid, pinic acid and pinonic acid were determined in 35 aerosol (PM10) samples collected over the year at Vavihill sampling station in south of Sweden. Mixture of dichloromethane and methanol (ratio 1:3) was preferred over water for extraction of samples and extraction was assisted by ultrasonic agitation. Analytes were derivatized using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) containing 1% trimethylsilyl chloride and analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Among studied analytes, azelaic acid was found maximum with an average concentration of 6.0 ± 3.6 ng m-3 and minimum concentration was found for pimelic acid (1.06 ± 0.63 ng m-3). A correlation coefficients analysis was used for defining the possible sources of analytes. Higher dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9) showed a strong correlation with each other (correlation coefficients (r) range, 0.96-0.97). Pinic and pinonic acids showed an increase in concentration during summer. Lower carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C3-C6) and phthalic acid were found strongly correlated, but showed a poor correlation with higher carbon number dicarboxylic acids (C7-C9), suggesting a different source for them. Biomass burning, vehicle exhaust, photo-oxidation of volatile organic compounds (natural and anthropogenic emissions) were possible sources for dicarboxylic acids.

  6. In vitro susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae to organic acids and essential oil components.

    PubMed

    Vande Maele, Lien; Heyndrickx, Marc; Maes, Dominiek; De Pauw, Nele; Mahu, Maxime; Verlinden, Marc; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Martel, An; Pasmans, Frank; Boyen, Filip

    2016-02-01

    The antibacterial potential of organic acids and essential oil components against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative pathogen of swine dysentery, was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15 compounds were determined at pH 7.2 and pH 6.0, using a broth microdilution assay. In addition, possible synergism was determined. MIC values for the three tested strains were similar. For organic acids, MIC values at pH 6.0 were lower than at pH 7.2. B. hyodysenteriae was most sensitive to cinnamaldehyde and lauric acid, with MIC values <1.5 mM. Most antibacterial effects of binary combinations were additive, however, for thymol and carvacrol, synergism could be observed. In vitro results demonstrate the antibacterial action of certain essential oil components and organic acids against B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:26369432

  7. In vitro susceptibility of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae to organic acids and essential oil components

    PubMed Central

    VANDE MAELE, Lien; HEYNDRICKX, Marc; MAES, Dominiek; DE PAUW, Nele; MAHU, Maxime; VERLINDEN, Marc; HAESEBROUCK, Freddy; MARTEL, An; PASMANS, Frank; BOYEN, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial potential of organic acids and essential oil components against Brachyspira hyodysenteriae, the causative pathogen of swine dysentery, was evaluated. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 15 compounds were determined at pH 7.2 and pH 6.0, using a broth microdilution assay. In addition, possible synergism was determined. MIC values for the three tested strains were similar. For organic acids, MIC values at pH 6.0 were lower than at pH 7.2. B. hyodysenteriae was most sensitive to cinnamaldehyde and lauric acid, with MIC values <1.5 mM. Most antibacterial effects of binary combinations were additive, however, for thymol and carvacrol, synergism could be observed. In vitro results demonstrate the antibacterial action of certain essential oil components and organic acids against B. hyodysenteriae. PMID:26369432

  8. Water-enhanced solubility of carboxylic acids in organic solvents and its application to extraction processes

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, J.N. ); King, C.J. )

    1992-11-01

    This paper reports on solubilities of carboxylic acids in certain organic solvents which increase sharply as the concentration of water in the solvent increases. This phenomenon leads to a method of regeneration for solvent-extraction processes whereby coextracted water is selectively removed from the extract, such as by stripping, thereby precipitating the acid. The removal of a minor constituent to cause precipitation reduces energy consumption, in contrast with bulk removal of solvent. Solubilities of fumaric acid were measured in a number of organic solvents, with varying amounts of water in the organic phase. Cyclohexanone and methylcyclohexanone were chosen as solvents for which detailed solid-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria were measured for adipic, fumaric, and succinic acids in the presence of varying concentrations of water, at both 25 and 45[degrees]C. Batch precipitation experiments were performed to demonstrate the processing concept and determine the relative volatility of water to solvent in the presence of carbon.

  9. Five organic salts assembled from carboxylic acids and bis-imidazole derivatives through collective noncovalent interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Guo, Jianzhong; Liu, Li; Wang, Daqi

    2011-10-01

    Five multicomponent crystals of bis(imidazole) derivatives have been prepared with 5-nitrosalicylic acid, 5-sulfosalicylic acid, and phthalic acid. The five crystalline forms reported are organic salts of which the crystal structures have all been determined by X-ray diffraction. The results presented herein indicate that the strength and directionality of the N sbnd H⋯O, O sbnd H⋯O, and N sbnd H⋯N hydrogen bonds (ionic or neutral) between carboxylic acids and ditopic imidazoles are sufficient to bring about the formation of binary organic salts. All supramolecular architectures of the organic salts 1- 5 involve extensive O sbnd H⋯O, and N sbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds as well as other noncovalent interactions. The role of weak and strong noncovalent interactions in the crystal packing is ascertained. These noncovalent interactions combined, all the complexes displayed 3D framework structure.

  10. Effect of organic acids found in cottonseed hull hydrolysate on the xylitol fermentation by Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Wu, Dapeng; Tang, Pingwah; Yuan, Qipeng

    2013-08-01

    Five organic acids (acetic, ferulic, 4-hydroxybenzoic, formic and levulinic acids) typically associated in the hemicellulose hydrolysate were selected to study their effects on the xylitol fermentation. The effects of individual and combined additions were independently evaluated on the following parameters: inhibitory concentration; initial cell concentration; pH value; and membrane integrity. The results showed that the toxicities of organic acids were related to their hydrophobility and significantly affected by the fermentative pH value. In addition, it was revealed that the paired combinations of organic acids did not impose synergetic inhibition. Moreover, it was found that the fermentation inhibition could be alleviated with the simple manipulations by increasing the initial cell concentration, raising the initial pH value and minimizing furfural levels by evaporation during the concentration of hydrolysates. The proposed strategies for minimizing the negative effects could be adopted to improve the xylitol fermentation in the industrial applications.

  11. Biomass and organic acids in sandstone of a weathering building: Production by bacterial and fungal isolates.

    PubMed

    Palmer, R J; Siebert, J; Hirsch, P

    1991-12-01

    Ten fungal and nine bacterial strains were isolated from a weathering sandstone building. Their growth, organic acid production, and acidification capacity were assessed in culture under nutritional conditions similar to those in situ. Biomass (10-50 nmol phospholipid-PO4g(-1)) within the rock was small compared to soils. The isolated organisms were able to produce high amounts of those acids found in the sandstone, but acid production did not cause a drastic reduction in culture pH. It is suggested that the importance of acidification in microbial degradation of sandstone has been overestimated and that, under in situ pH and nutritional conditions, cation chelation by microbially produced organic acid anions may be more relevant to the weathering process.

  12. Six hydrogen-bonded supramolecular frameworks assembled from organic acids and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Shouwen; Wang, Lanqing; Lou, Yulei; Liu, Li; Li, Bin; Li, Linyu; Feng, Chao; Liu, Hui; Wang, Daqi

    2016-03-01

    Cocrystallization of the commonly available organic compound, p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, with a series of organic acids gave a total of six molecular adducts with the compositions: p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) [(L) · (Hdsa), Hdsa = 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid] (1), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (3-nitrophthalic acid) [(L) · (3-H2npa), 3-H2npa = 3-nitrophthalic acid] (2), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (4-nitrophthalic acid) [(L) · (4-H2npa), 4-H2npa = 4-nitrophthalic acid] (3), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (1,5-naphthalenedisulfonic acid) : (NH3)2 [NH4 · (HL) · (nds2-) · NH3, nds- = 1,5-naphthalenedisulfonate] (4), p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (oxalic acid)0.5 [(L) · (H2oa)0.5, H2oa = oxalic acid] (5), and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde : (fumaric acid)0.5 [(L) · (H2fum)0.5, H2fum = fumaric acid] (6). The six molecular adducts have been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, IR, and elemental analysis, and the melting points of all adducts were also reported. And their structural and supramolecular aspects are fully analyzed. Of the six adducts, only 4 is an organic salt and the other five are cocrystals. The crystal packing is interpreted in terms of the strong classical hydrogen bonds as well as other weak non-classical hydrogen bonds. The different families of non-covalent bonds contribute to the stabilization and expansion of the total high-dimensional (2D-3D) frameworks.

  13. Identification and characterization of component organic and glycosidic acids of crude resin glycoside fraction from Calystegia soldanella.

    PubMed

    Takigawa, Ayako; Setoguchi, Hiroaki; Okawa, Masafumi; Kinjo, Junei; Miyashita, Hiroyuki; Yokomizo, Kazumi; Yoshimitsu, Hitoshi; Nohara, Toshihiro; Ono, Masateru

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline hydrolysis of the crude resin glycoside fraction of the leaves, stems, and roots of Calystegia soldanella ROEM. et SCHULT. (Convolvulaceae) gave four new glycosidic acids, named calysolic acids A, B, C, and D, along with one known glycosidic acid, soldanellic acid B, and three organic acids, 2S-methylbutyric, tiglic, and 2S,3S-nilic acids. The structures of the new glycosidic acids were characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data and chemical evidence.

  14. Amphiphilic calixresorcinarene associates as effective solubilizing agents for hydrophobic organic acids: construction of nano-aggregates.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Ju E; Syakaev, V V; Kazakova, E Kh; Shalaeva, Ya V; Nizameev, I R; Kadirov, M K; Voloshina, A D; Zobov, V V; Konovalov, A I

    2016-07-01

    Here we represent the first example of the formation of mixed nanoscale associates, constructed from amphiphilic calixresorcinarenes and hydrophobic carboxylic acids including drugs. The amidoamino-calixresorcinarene self-associates effectively solubilize hydrophobic carboxylic acids - drugs such as naproxen, ibuprofen, ursodeoxycholic acid and aliphatic dodecanoic acid - with the formation of the mixed aggregates with the macrocycle/substrate stoichiometry from 1/1 to 1/7. The ionization of organic acids and the peripheral nitrogen atoms of the macrocycles with the subsequent inclusion of hydrophobic acids into the macrocycle self-associates is the driving force of solubilization. In some cases, this leads to the co-assembly of the macrocycle polydisperse associates into supramolecular monodisperse nanoparticles with the diameter of about 100 nm. The efficiency of drug loading into the nanoparticles is up to 45% and depends on the structure of organic acid. The dissociation of the mixed aggregates and release of organic acid are attained by decreasing pH. PMID:27252123

  15. Microbial production of specialty organic acids from renewable and waste materials.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Saúl; Rendueles, Manuel; Díaz, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Microbial production of organic acids has become a fast-moving field due to the increasing role of these compounds as platform chemicals. In recent years, the portfolio of specialty fermentation-derived carboxylic acids has increased considerably, including the production of glyceric, glucaric, succinic, butyric, xylonic, fumaric, malic, itaconic, lactobionic, propionic and adipic acid through innovative fermentation strategies. This review summarizes recent trends in the use of novel microbial platforms as well as renewable and waste materials for efficient and cost-effective bio-based production of emerging high-value organic acids. Advances in the development of robust and efficient microbial bioprocesses for producing carboxylic acids from low-cost feedstocks are also discussed. The industrial market scenario is also reviewed, including the latest information on the stage of development for producing these emerging bio-products via large-scale fermentation.

  16. Polycarboxylic acids as network modifiers for water durability improvement of inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate low-melting glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Menaa, Bouzid . E-mail: bouzidmenaa@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Mizuno, Megumi; Takahashi, Masahide . E-mail: masahide@noncry.kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Tokuda, Yomei; Yoko, Toshinobu

    2006-02-15

    We investigated the water durability of the inorganic-organic hybrid tin-silico-phosphate glasses Me{sub 2}SiO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} (Me designs the organic methyl group) doped with organic acids (salicylic acid (SA), tartaric acid (TA), citric acid (Canada) and butane tetracarboxylic acid (BTCA)) containing one or more of carboxylic groups per molecule. The structure, thermal properties and durability of the final glasses obtained via a non-aqueous acid-base reaction were discussed owing to the nature and the concentration of the acid added. {sup 29}Si magic angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 31}P MAS NMR spectra, respectively, showed clearly a modification of the network in the host glass matrix of the Me{sub 2}SiO-SnO-P{sub 2}O{sub 5} system. The polycondensation enhancement to form -P-O-Si-O-P- linkages (PSP) and the increase of the Q {sup 2} unit (two bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) over the Q {sup 3} unit (three bridging oxygens per phosphorus atom) as a function of the acid in the order SAacids containing a large number of carboxylic groups per molecule. The presence of carboxylic groups of the acid acting as network modifier may retard the movement of water molecules through the glasses due to the steric hindrance strengthening the PSP connections in a chain-like structure.

  17. Effects of large doses of arachidonic acid added to docosahexaenoic acid on social impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorders: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Yui, Kunio; Koshiba, Mamiko; Nakamura, Shun; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2012-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are a neurodevelopmental disorders with reduced cortical functional connectivity relating to social cognition. Polyunsaturated fatty acids arachidonic acid (ARA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) may have key role in brain network maturation. In particularly, ARA is important in signal transduction related to neuronal maturation. Supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA may therefore mitigate social impairment. In a 16-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, we evaluated the efficacy of supplementation with large doses of ARA added to DHA (n = 7) or placebo (n = 6) in 13 participants (mean age, 14.6 [SD, 5.9] years). To examine underlying mechanisms underlying the effect of our supplementation regimen, we examined plasma levels of antioxidants transferrin and superoxide dismutase, which are useful markers of signal transduction. The outcome measures were the Social Responsiveness Scale and the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community. Repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that our supplementation regimen significantly improved Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community-measured social withdrawal and Social Responsiveness Scale-measured communication. Treatment effect sizes were more favorable for the treatment group compared with the placebo group (communication: treatment groups, 0.87 vs, placebo, 0.44; social withdrawal: treatment groups, 0.88, vs placebo, 0.54). There was a significant difference in the change in plasma transferrin levels and a trend toward a significant difference in the change in plasma superoxide dismutase levels between the 2 groups. This preliminary study suggests that supplementation with larger ARA doses added to DHA improves impaired social interaction in individuals with autism spectrum disorder by up-regulating signal transduction.

  18. Uric Acid Spherulites in the Reflector Layer of Firefly Light Organ

    PubMed Central

    Goh, King-Siang; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hua, Tzu-En; Kang, Mei-Hua; Li, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background In firefly light organs, reflector layer is a specialized tissue which is believed to play a key role for increasing the bioluminescence intensity through reflection. However, the nature of this unique tissue remains elusive. In this report, we investigated the role, fine structure and nature of the reflector layer in the light organ of adult Luciola cerata. Principal Findings Our results indicated that the reflector layer is capable of reflecting bioluminescence, and contains abundant uric acid. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the cytosol of the reflector layer's cells is filled with densely packed spherical granules, which should be the uric acid granules. These granules are highly regular in size (∼700 nm in diameter), and exhibit a radial internal structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that an intense single peak pattern with a d-spacing value of 0.320 nm is specifically detected in the light organ, and is highly similar to the diffraction peak pattern and d-spacing value of needle-formed crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate. However, the molar ratio evaluation of uric acid to various cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the light organ deduced that only a few uric acid molecules were in the form of urate salts. Thus, non-salt uric acid should be the source of the diffraction signal detected in the light organ. Conclusions In the light organ, the intense single peak diffraction signal might come from a unique needle-like uric acid form, which is different from other known structures of non-salt uric acid form. The finding of a radial structure in the granules of reflector layer implies that the spherical uric acid granules might be formed by the radial arrangement of needle-formed packing matter. PMID:23441187

  19. A note on the prebiotic synthesis of organic acids in carbonaceous meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerridge, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Strong similarities between monocarboxylic and hydrocarboxylic acids in the Murchison meteorite suggest corresponding similarities in their origins. However, various lines of evidence apparently implicate quite different precursor compounds in the synthesis of the different acids. These seeming inconsistencies can be resolved by postulating that the apparent precursors also share a related origin. Pervasive D enrichment indicates that this origin was in a presolar molecular cloud. The organic acids themselves were probably synthesized in an aqueous environment on an asteroidal parent body, the hydroxy (and amino) acids by means of the Strecker cyanohydrin reaction.

  20. Characterization of an organic acid analog model in Adirondack, New York, surface waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraei, H.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2013-12-01

    Natural waters include a variety of organic matter that differs in composition and functional groups. Dissolved organic matter is important but difficult to characterize acidic and metal binding (e.g., Al) functional groups in chemical equilibrium models. In this study data from Adirondack Lake Survey were used to calibrate an organic acid analog model in order to quantify the influence of organic acids on surface water chemistry. The study sites in the Adirondack region of New York have diverse levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), used as a surrogate for organic acids. DOC in 55 Adirondack surface waters varies from 180 μmol C/l (in Little Echo Pond) to 1263 μmol C/l (in Sunday Pond). To reduce the variability inherited in the large raw data set, suite of mean observations was constructed by grouping and averaging measured data into pH intervals of 0.05 pH units from pH 4.15 to 7.3. A chemical equilibrium model, which includes major solutes in natural waters, was linked to an optimization algorithm (genetic algorithm) to calibrate a triprotic organic analog model which includes proton and aluminum binding by adjusting the dissociation constants and site density of DOC. The object of fitting procedure was to simultaneously minimize the discrepancy between observed and simulated pH, acid neutralizing capacity (ANC), organic monomeric aluminum and inorganic monomeric aluminum. A sensitivity analysis on calibrated values indicate that the speciation of the modeled solutes are most responsive to the dissociation constant of AlOrg= Al3+ + Org3- reaction (Org3- represents organic anion), the site density of DOC and the second H+ dissociation constant of the triprotic organic analog (i.e. H2Org- = 2H+ + Org3- reaction).

  1. Effects of acid-washing filter treatment on quantification of aerosol organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Liming; Lim, Jaehyun; Yu, Liya E.

    The tests of standard mixtures and four sets of atmospheric particulate samples showed that an acid-wash (AW) pretreatment of fluorocarbon-coated glass fiber filters prior to aerosol sampling enhanced the quantifiable organic compounds for more than 29% (or 66 ng m -3); in particular, 47-273 ng m -3 (21-366%) more water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were measured. When the acid-pretreated filters were employed, up to nine more organic species were measured in the individual daily samples. Because the acid pretreatment reduced the metal contaminants in the glass fiber filters, using the AW filters for aerosol sampling allows higher extraction recoveries of organic compounds. Since the fingerprinting compounds were more accurately determined when the aerosol samples were collected on the AW filters, better assessment of emission sources and toxicity of air pollutants can be obtained.

  2. Transport and cycling of iron and hydrogen peroxide in a freshwater stream: Influence of organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.T.; Runkel, R.L.; McKnight, Diane M.; Voelker, B.M.; Kimball, B.A.; Carraway, E.R.

    2003-01-01

    An in-stream injection of two dissolved organic acids (phthalic and aspartic acids) was performed in an acidic mountain stream to assess the effects of organic acids on Fe photoreduction and H2O2 cycling. Results indicate that the fate of Fe is dependent on a net balance of oxidative and reductive processes, which can vary over a distance of several meters due to changes in incident light and other factors. Solution phase photoreduction rates were high in sunlit reaches and were enhanced by the organic acid addition but were also limited by the amount of ferric iron present in the water column. Fe oxide photoreduction from the streambed and colloids within the water column resulted in an increase in the diurnal load of total filterable Fe within the experimental reach, which also responded to increases in light and organic acids. Our results also suggest that Fe(II) oxidation increased in response to the organic acids, with the result of offsetting the increase in Fe(II) from photoreductive processes. Fe(II) was rapidly oxidized to Fe(III) after sunset and during the day within a well-shaded reach, presumably through microbial oxidation. H2O 2, a product of dissolved organic matter photolysis, increased downstream to maximum concentrations of 0.25 ??M midday. Kinetic calculations show that the buildup of H2O2 is controlled by reaction with Fe(III), but this has only a small effect on Fe(II) because of the small formation rates of H2O2 compared to those of Fe(II). The results demonstrate the importance of incorporating the effects of light and dissolved organic carbon into Fe reactive transport models to further our understanding of the fate of Fe in streams and lakes.

  3. Growth and characterization of organic ferroelectric croconic acid thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xuanyuan; Lu, Haidong; Yin, Yuewei; Enders, Axel; Gruverman, Alexei; Xu, Xiaoshan

    Using vapor phase evaporation, we have studied the growth of the croconic acid (CCA) thin films, at various conditions such as temperature, thickness, growth speed, and substrates. The morphology of thin film was measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM); the ferroelectric property was confirmed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). A critical thickness of 40 nm and optimal temperature of -30 celsius were found for continuous films, while the substrate and growth speed are found to play a minimal role. According to the reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED), the CCA films are polycrystalline. For a 40 nm continuous film, the roughness is about 3 nm, while the coercive voltage for the ferroelectric domain switching is approximately 7V. This is the first molecule ferroelectric thin film. The successful growth of continuous CCA films enhances the applications potential of CCA, which is a molecular crystal of ferroelectricity. Supported by NSF through UNL MRSEC (DMR-1420645).

  4. Isolation and characterization of hyaluronic acid from marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Giji, Sadhasivam; Arumugam, Muthuvel

    2014-01-01

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) being a viscous slippery substance is a multifunctional glue with immense therapeutic applications such as ophthalmic surgery, orthopedic surgery and rheumatology, drug delivery systems, pulmonary pathology, joint pathologies, and tissue engineering. Although HA has been isolated from terrestrial origin (human umbilical cord, rooster comb, bacterial sources, etc.) so far, the increasing interest on this polysaccharide significantly aroused the alternative search from marine sources since it is at the preliminary level. Enthrallingly, marine environments are considered more biologically diverse than terrestrial environments. Although numerous methods have been described for the extraction and purification of HA, the hitch on the isolation methods which greatly influences the yield as well as the molecular weight of the polymer still exists. Adaptation of suitable method is essential in this venture. Stimulated by the developed technology, to sketch the steps involved in isolation and analytical techniques for characterization of this polymer, a brief report on the concerned approach has been reviewed.

  5. Role of Organic Acids in Bioformation of Kaolinite: Results of Laboratory Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, T. R. R.; Vasconcelos, C.; McKenzie, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Clay minerals and other solid silica phases have a broad distribution in the geological record and greatly affect fundamental physicochemical properties of sedimentary rocks, including porosity. An increasing number of studies suggests that microbial activity and microbially produced organic acids might play an important role in authigenic clay mineral formation, at low temperatures and under neutral pH conditions. In particular, early laboratory experiments (Linares and Huertas, 1971) reported the precipitation of kaolinite in solutions of SiO2 and Al2O3 with different molar ratios SiO2/Al2O3, together with fulvic acid (a non-characterized mixture of many different acids containing carboxyl and phenolate groups) that was extracted from peat soil. Despite many attempts, these experiments could not be reproduced until recently. Fiore et al. (2011) hypothesized that the non-sterile fulvic acid might have contained microbes that participated in the formation of kaolinite. Using solutions saturated with Si and Al and containing oxalate and/or mixed microbial culture extracted from peat-moss soil, they performed incubation experiments, which produced kaolinite exclusively in solutions containing oxalate and microbes. We proposed to test the role of specific organic acids for kaolinite formation, conducting laboratory experiments at 25˚C, with solutions of sodium silicate, aluminum chloride and various organic compounds (i.e. EDTA, citric acid, succinic acid and oxalic acid). Specific organic acids may stabilize aluminum in octahedral coordination positions, which is crucial for the initial nucleation step. In our experiments, a poorly crystalline mineral that is possibly a kaolinite precursor formed exclusively in the presence of succinic acid. In experiments with other organic compounds, no incorporation of Al was observed, and amorphous silica was the only precipitated phase. In natural environments, succinic acid is produced by a large variety of microbes as an

  6. Spatially-Interactive Biomolecular Networks Organized by Nucleic Acid Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Jinglin; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yan; Yan, Hao

    2013-01-01

    Conspectus Living systems have evolved a variety of nanostructures to control the molecular interactions that mediate many functions including the recognition of targets by receptors, the binding of enzymes to substrates, and the regulation of enzymatic activity. Mimicking these structures outside of the cell requires methods that offer nanoscale control over the organization of individual network components. Advances in DNA nanotechnology have enabled the design and fabrication of sophisticated one-, two- and three-dimensional (1D, 2D and 3D) nanostructures that utilize spontaneous and sequence specific DNA hybridization. Compared to other self-assembling biopolymers, DNA nanostructures offer predictable and programmable interactions, and surface features to which other nanoparticles and bio-molecules can be precisely positioned. The ability to control the spatial arrangement of the components while constructing highly-organized networks will lead to various applications of these systems. For example, DNA nanoarrays with surface displays of molecular probes can sense noncovalent hybridization interactions with DNA, RNA, and proteins and covalent chemical reactions. DNA nanostructures can also align external molecules into well-defined arrays, which may improve the resolution of many structural determination methods, such as X-ray diffraction, cryo-EM, NMR, and super-resolution fluorescence. Moreover, by constraining target entities to specific conformations, self-assembled DNA nanostructures can serve as molecular rulers to evaluate conformation-dependent activities. This Account describes the most recent advances in the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of biomolecular networks and explores the possibility of applying this technology to other fields of study. Recently, several reports have demonstrated the DNA nanostructure directed assembly of spatially-interactive biomolecular networks. For example, researchers have constructed synthetic multi-enzyme cascades

  7. Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-11-10

    Current chemical CO2 scrubbing technology is primarily aqueous alkanolamine based. These systems rapidly bind CO2 (forming water-soluble carbamate and bicarbonate salts) however, the process has serious disadvantages. The concentration of monoethanolamine rarely exceeds 30 wt % due to the corrosive nature of the solution, and this reduces the maximum CO2 volumetric (≤108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (≤7 wt%) of the CO2 scrubber. The ≤30 wt % loading of ethanolamine also means that a large excess of water must be pumped and heated during CO2 capture and release, and this greatly increases the energy requirements especially considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1). Our approach is to switch to organic systems that chemically bind CO2 as liquid alkylcarbonate salts. Our CO2-binding organic liquids have higher CO2 solubility, lower specific heats, potential for less corrosion and lower binding energies for CO2 than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs also reversibly bind and release mixed sulfur oxides. Furthermore the CO2BOL system can be direct solvent replacements for any solvent based CO2 capture systems because they are commercially available reagents and because they are fluids they would not require extensive process re-engineering.

  8. Effects of organic acids on thermal inactivation of acid and cold stressed Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ana; Alvarez-Ordóñez, Avelino; López, Mercedes; Bernardo, Ana

    2009-08-01

    In this study the adaptative response to heat (70 degrees C) of Enterococcus faecium using fresh and refrigerated (at 4 degrees C for up to 1 month) stationary phase cells grown in Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) buffered at pH 7.4 (non-acid-adapted cells) and acidified BHI at pH values of 6.4 and 5.4 with acetic, ascorbic, citric, lactic, malic and hydrochloric acids (acid-adapted cells) was evaluated. In all cases, the survival curves obtained were concave upward. A mathematical model based on the Weibull distribution accurately described the inactivation kinetic. The results indicate that previous adaptation to a low pH increased the bacterial heat resistance, whereas the subsequent cold storage of cells reduced E. faecium thermal tolerance. Fresh acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values (time needed to obtain an inactivation level of 2.5 log10 cycles) ranging from 2.57 to 9.51 min, while non-acid-adapted cells showed t(2.5)-values of 1.92 min. The extent of increased heat tolerance varied with the acid examined, resulting in the following order: citric > or = acetic > malic > or = lactic > hydrochloric > or = ascorbic. In contrast, cold storage progressively decreased E. faecium thermal resistance. The t(2.5) values found at the end of the period studied were about 2-3-fold lower than those corresponding to non-refrigerated cells, although this decrease was more marked (about 5-fold) when cells were grown in buffered BHI and BHI acidified at pH 5.4 with hydrochloric acid. These findings highlight the need for a better understanding of microbial response to various preservation stresses in order to increase the efficiency of thermal processes and to indicate the convenience of counterbalancing the benefits of the hurdle concept.

  9. Isotopic composition of Murchison organic compounds: Intramolecular carbon isotope fractionation of acetic acid. Simulation studies of cosmochemical organic syntheses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yuen, G. U.; Cronin, J. R.; Blair, N. E.; Desmarais, D. J.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    Recently, in our laboratories, samples of Murchison acetic acid were decarboxylated successfully and the carbon isotopic composition was measured for the methane released by this procedure. These analyses showed significant differences in C-13/C-12 ratios for the methyl and carboxyl carbons of the acetic acid molecule, strongly suggesting that more than one carbon source may be involved in the synthesis of the Murchison organic compounds. On the basis of this finding, laboratory model systems simulating cosmochemical synthesis are being studied, especially those processes capable of involving two or more starting carbon sources.

  10. Role of Organic Solutes in the Chemistry Of Acid-Impacted Bog Waters of the Western Czech Republic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HrušKa, Jakub; Johnson, Chris E.; KráM, Pavel

    1996-04-01

    In many regions, naturally occurring organic acid anions can effectively buffer mineral acid inputs from atmospheric deposition, moderating their effect on surface water pH. We studied the effect of chronically high inputs of acid rain on the chemistry of three brown-water streams in the western Czech Republic. The dissolved organic acids in the streams were similar in character to those of other systems in Europe and North America. The site densities (the carboxyl group content per mass of C) were similar to values reported from Fenno-Scandia, and the relationship between the apparent pKa and pH conformed to those from two North American studies. Sulfate and organic acid anions (OA-) were the dominant anions in all three streams, yet despite high dissolved organic carbon and total organic acid concentrations, OA - comprised only 21-32% of total anion charge. This pattern was due to very high sulfate concentrations and, in two of the streams, a low degree of dissociation of the organic acids, probably the results of high long-term inputs of strong acids. Stream water pH was highly correlated to sulfate concentration, but uncorrelated with OA-, suggesting that free acidity is controlled by strong mineral acids rather than organic acids. Thus future reductions in strong acid inputs should result in increased pH and a return to organic control over acid-base chemistry.

  11. Joint effect of organic acids and inorganic salts on cloud droplet activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, M.; Prisle, N. L.; Bilde, M.; Varga, Z.; Kiss, G.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated CCN properties of internally mixed particles composed of one organic acid (oxalic acid, succinic acid, adipic acid, citric acid, cis-pinonic acid, or nordic reference fulvic acid) and one inorganic salt (sodium chloride or ammonium sulphate). Surface tension and water activity of aqueous model solutions with concentrations relevant for CCN activation were measured using a tensiometer and osmometry, respectively. The measurements were used to calculate Köhler curves, which were compared to measured critical supersaturations of particles with the same chemical compositions, determined with a cloud condensation nucleus counter. Surfactant surface partitioning was not accounted for. For the mixtures containing cis-pinonic acid or fulvic acid, a depression of surface tension was observed, but for the remaining mixtures the effect on surface tension was negligle at concentrations relevant for cloud droplet activation, and water activity was the more significant term in the Köhler equation. The surface tension depression of aqueous solutions containing both organic acid and inorganic salt was approximately the same as or smaller than that of aqueous solutions containing the same mass of the corresponding pure organic acids. Water activity was found to be highly dependent on the type and amount of inorganic salt. Sodium chloride was able to decrease water activity more than ammonium sulphate and both inorganic compounds had a higher effect on water activity than the studied organic acids, and increasing the mass ratio of the inorganic compound led to a decrease in water activity. Water activity measurements were compared to results from the E-AIM model and values estimated from both constant and variable van't Hoff factors to evaluate the performance of these approaches. The correspondence between measuments and estimates was overall good, except for highly concentrated solutions. Critical supersaturations calculated with Köhler theory based on

  12. Effect of permeation enhancers and organic acids on the skin permeation of indapamide.

    PubMed

    Ren, Changshun; Fang, Liang; Li, Ting; Wang, Manli; Zhao, Ligang; He, Zhonggui

    2008-02-28

    The aim of present study was to investigate the transdermal properties of indapamide and to explore the efficacy of various permeation enhancers and organic acids with regard to the percutaneous absorption of indapamide. Permeation experiments were performed in vitro, using rat abdominal skin as a barrier. In the permeation studies, 2-chamber diffusion cells were used. The results obtained indicate that N-dodecylazepan-2-one, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone, menthol and oleic acid had a strong enhancing effect on the permeation of indapamide and N-dodecylazepan-2-one exhibited the most potent enhancing effect. All eight of the organic acids chosen had a potent enhancing effect on the permeation of indapamide across rat abdominal skin. Among the organic acids examined, lactic acid had the greatest enhancing effect. The formation of an ion-pair between indapamide and organic acids may be responsible for the enhanced skin permeation of indapamide. Although the exact reason remains unknown, it is worth carrying out further investigations.

  13. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  14. Benzyl- and 2- and 4-nitrobenzylcyclopropanes and their reaction with organic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A.N.; Trofimova, E.V.; Mochalov, S.S.; Shabarov, Yu.S.

    1988-12-10

    The nitration of benzylcyclopropane and its transformations in organic acids were studied. Under the conditions of electrophilic nitration the small ring is preserved while the ratio of the o- and p-nitrophenyl derivatives amount to 1.1:1. The reaction of benzylcyclopropane with formic and acetic acids takes place with the addition of the fragments of the acid at the 1,2-bond of the three-carbon ring; o- and p-nitrobenzylcyclopropanes do not react with formic and acetic acids, with trifluoroacetic acid they form trifluoroacetates, and in the case of the ortho-substituted isomer nucleophilic assistance from the nitro group is observed. Significant differences in the behavior of phenylcyclopropane and benzylcyclopropane due to the destruction of the conjugation between the fragments in the molecule are observed in the acid-catalyzed reactions.

  15. Statistical Thermodynamic Model for Surface Tension of Aqueous Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Hallie C; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-30

    With statistical mechanics, an isotherm-based surface tension model for single solute aqueous solutions was derived previously (Wexler et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013) for the entire concentration range, from infinite dilution to pure liquid solute, as a function of solute activity. In recent work (Boyer et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015), empirical model parameters were reduced through physicochemical interpretations of both electrolyte and organic solutes, enabling surface tension predictions for systems where there is little or no data. The prior binary model is extended in the current work for the first time to treat multicomponent systems to predict surface tensions of partially dissociating organic acids (acetic, butyric, citric, formic, glutaric, maleic, malic, malonic, oxalic, propionic, and succinic acids). These organic acids are especially applicable to the study of atmospheric aqueous aerosols, due to their abundance in the atmosphere. In the model developed here, surface tension depends explicitly on activities of both the neutral organic and deprotonated components of the acid. The relative concentrations of the nondissociated and dissociated mole fractions are found using known dissociation constants. Model parameters strongly depend on molecular size, number of functional groups, O:C ratio, and number of carbons. For all organic acids in this study, fully predictive modeling of surface tensions is demonstrated.

  16. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25 degree C

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, P.C.; Melcer, M.E.; Siegel, D.I.; Hassett, J.P. )

    1988-06-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25{degree}C and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 {mu}mole/Kg compared to 50 {mu}mole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH. The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  17. The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, P. C.; Melcer, M. E.; Siegel, D. I.; Hassett, J. P.

    1988-06-01

    The dissolution of quartz in dilute aqueous solutions of organic acids at 25° and standard pressure was investigated by the batch dissolution method. The bulk dissolution rate of quartz in 20 mmole/Kg citrate solutions at pH 7 was 8 to 10 times faster than that in pure water. After 1750 hours the concentration of dissolved silica in the citrate solution was 167 μmole/Kg compared to 50 μmole/Kg in water and a 20 mmole/Kg solution of acetate at pH 7. Solutions of salicylic, oxalic, and humic acids also accelerated the dissolution of quartz in aqueous solution at pH 7. The rate of dissolution in organic acids decreased sharply with decreasing pH. The possibility of a silica-organic acid complex was investigated using UV-difference spectroscopy. Results suggest that dissolved silica is complexed by citrate, oxalate and pyruvate at pH 7 by an electron-donor acceptor complex, whereas no complexation occurs between silica and acetate, lactate, malonate, or succinate. Three models are proposed for the solution and surface complexation of silica by organic acid anions which result in the accelerated dissolution and increased solubility of quartz in organic rich water.

  18. Statistical Thermodynamic Model for Surface Tension of Aqueous Organic Acids with Consideration of Partial Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Hallie C; Dutcher, Cari S

    2016-06-30

    With statistical mechanics, an isotherm-based surface tension model for single solute aqueous solutions was derived previously (Wexler et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2013) for the entire concentration range, from infinite dilution to pure liquid solute, as a function of solute activity. In recent work (Boyer et al. J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 2015), empirical model parameters were reduced through physicochemical interpretations of both electrolyte and organic solutes, enabling surface tension predictions for systems where there is little or no data. The prior binary model is extended in the current work for the first time to treat multicomponent systems to predict surface tensions of partially dissociating organic acids (acetic, butyric, citric, formic, glutaric, maleic, malic, malonic, oxalic, propionic, and succinic acids). These organic acids are especially applicable to the study of atmospheric aqueous aerosols, due to their abundance in the atmosphere. In the model developed here, surface tension depends explicitly on activities of both the neutral organic and deprotonated components of the acid. The relative concentrations of the nondissociated and dissociated mole fractions are found using known dissociation constants. Model parameters strongly depend on molecular size, number of functional groups, O:C ratio, and number of carbons. For all organic acids in this study, fully predictive modeling of surface tensions is demonstrated. PMID:27219322

  19. Relationship between cadmium, zinc, Cd-peptide, and organic acid in tobacco suspension cells

    SciTech Connect

    Krotz, R.M.; Evangelou, B.P.; Wagner, G.J. )

    1989-10-01

    Responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells to Cd and Zn were studied in the presence and absence of ligand of Cd-peptide in order to understand the role of this peptide versus other mechanisms in Cd and Zn accumulation and accommodation in plants. With 45 micromolar Cd and 300 micromolar Zn (non-growth-inhibiting levels), metals appeared rapidly within cells, and intracellular Cd and Zn reached medium concentrations after 6 to 10 hours. Cd-peptide was observed in response to Cd after 2 hours, but this form only accounted for {approximately}30% of soluble Cd after 24 hours. Peptide was not observed in cells exposed to 300 micromolar Zn for up to 7 days. Organic acid-to-metal stoichiometry indicated that endogenous organic acid content of cells was more than sufficient to complex absorbed metals and no evidence was found for stimulation of organic acid biosynthesis by Cd or Zn. Metal-complexing potential of organic acids for Cd and Zn versus endogenous cations is discussed as is vacuolar-extravacuolar distribution of metals. The absence of Cd-peptide does not limit Cd-accumulation in the system studied. Results suggest that tobacco suspension cells accommodte the presence of non-growth-inhibiting and growth-inhibiting levels of Cd and Zn by sequestration in the vacuole as complexes with endogenous organic acids and that this may be a principal means for accommodation of Cd as well as Zn in the presence and absence of Cd-peptide.

  20. Analysis of carbonaceous biomarkers with the Mars Organic Analyzer microchip capillary electrophoresis system: carboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Stockton, Amanda M; Tjin, Caroline Chandra; Chiesl, Thomas N; Mathies, Richard A

    2011-01-01

    The oxidizing surface chemistry on Mars argues that any comprehensive search for organic compounds indicative of life requires methods to analyze higher oxidation states of carbon with very low limits of detection. To address this goal, microchip capillary electrophoresis (μCE) methods were developed for analysis of carboxylic acids with the Mars Organic Analyzer (MOA). Fluorescent derivatization was achieved by activation with the water soluble 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide (EDC) followed by reaction with Cascade Blue hydrazide in 30 mM borate, pH 3. A standard containing 12 carboxylic acids found in terrestrial life was successfully labeled and separated in 30 mM borate at pH 9.5, 20 °C by using the MOA CE system. Limits of detection were 5-10 nM for aliphatic monoacids, 20 nM for malic acid (diacid), and 230 nM for citric acid (triacid). Polyacid benzene derivatives containing 2, 3, 4, and 6 carboxyl groups were also analyzed. In particular, mellitic acid was successfully labeled and analyzed with a limit of detection of 300 nM (5 ppb). Analyses of carboxylic acids sampled from a lava tube cave and a hydrothermal area demonstrated the versatility and robustness of our method. This work establishes that the MOA can be used for sensitive analyses of a wide range of carboxylic acids in the search for extraterrestrial organic molecules.

  1. Stable carbon isotopic compositions of organic acids in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-10-01

    Stable carbon isotopic compositions of individual organic acids were determined in total suspended particles and dusts from Guangzhou. The δ 13C values of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 20-C 28) varied from -34.1‰ to -32.4‰ and tended to be heavier in summer and lighter in winter. These δ 13C values indicate that high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids were derived mainly from emission by C 3 plants. Reduced biological synthesis of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids in winter may be the reason for the light carbon isotopic composition. The δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids (C 10-C 18) changed from -31.7‰ to -30.3‰ and exhibited a reverse seasonal trend, i.e., heavier in winter and lighter in summer. Slightly heavier δ 13C values of low molecular weight n-alkanoic acids than those of high molecular weight n-alkanoic acids suggested that they may be emitted from blended sources, e.g., anthropogenic sources and vegetation waxes. Lighter δ 13C values in summer may be attributed to relatively low anthropogenic sources and high botanic sources in summer. Dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids have been proposed as secondary products from photochemical degradation. The average δ 13C values of dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids were heavier, and ranged from -25.2‰ to -22.9‰ and from -30.0‰ to -27.6‰, respectively. Both dicarboxylic acids and aromatic acids displayed the same temporal variations in the δ 13C values, i.e., negative δ 13C in the summer samples and positive in the winter samples, which may be controlled by photochemical reactions; they are generally severe in winter in Guangzhou under the monsoon weather system. The heaviest δ 13C values were observed in dicarboxylic acids, indicating that dicarboxylic acids were formed by fast and more complete oxidation reactions. These results indicate that the stable carbon isotopic composition of organic acids may provide important information about sources and

  2. Metabolic engineering of carbon and redox flow in the production of small organic acids.

    PubMed

    Thakker, Chandresh; Martínez, Irene; Li, Wei; San, Ka-Yiu; Bennett, George N

    2015-03-01

    The review describes efforts toward metabolic engineering of production of organic acids. One aspect of the strategy involves the generation of an appropriate amount and type of reduced cofactor needed for the designed pathway. The ability to capture reducing power in the proper form, NADH or NADPH for the biosynthetic reactions leading to the organic acid, requires specific attention in designing the host and also depends on the feedstock used and cell energetic requirements for efficient metabolism during production. Recent work on the formation and commercial uses of a number of small mono- and diacids is discussed with redox differences, major biosynthetic precursors and engineering strategies outlined. Specific attention is given to those acids that are used in balancing cell redox or providing reduction equivalents for the cell, such as formate, which can be used in conjunction with metabolic engineering of other products to improve yields. Since a number of widely studied acids derived from oxaloacetate as an important precursor, several of these acids are covered with the general strategies and particular components summarized, including succinate, fumarate and malate. Since malate and fumarate are less reduced than succinate, the availability of reduction equivalents and level of aerobiosis are important parameters in optimizing production of these compounds in various hosts. Several other more oxidized acids are also discussed as in some cases, they may be desired products or their formation is minimized to afford higher yields of more reduced products. The placement and connections among acids in the typical central metabolic network are presented along with the use of a number of specific non-native enzymes to enhance routes to high production, where available alternative pathways and strategies are discussed. While many organic acids are derived from a few precursors within central metabolism, each organic acid has its own special requirements for high

  3. [Relationships between cadmium accumulation and organic acids in leaves of Solanum nigrum L. as a cadmium-hyperaccumulator].

    PubMed

    Sun, Rui-lian; Zhou, Qi-xing; Wang, Xin

    2006-04-01

    The influence of different cadmium concentrations on the organic acid level in leaves of the Cd hyperaccumulator, Solanum nigrum L., in particular, the relationship of organic acids with Cd accumulation in S. nigrum was investigated based on the pot-culture experiment. The results showed that the Cd concentration in S. nigrum leaves exceeded 100 microg x g(-1), the threshold value used to define Cd-hyperaccumulators, and the bioaccumulation coefficient of cadmium in shoots of S. nigrum was higher than 1 when Cd concentration in soil was 25 microg x g(-1). The level of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum had significant differences between the seedling stage and the mature stage. At the seedling stage, the sequence of organic acids in leaves of S. nigrum was acetic acid> tartaric acid> malic acid> citric acid. On the contrary, the accumulation of organic acids in S. nigrum at the mature stage was approximately in the following sequence malic acid> tartaric acid, acetic acid> citric acid. The significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and the concentration of tartaric acid in leaves of S. nigrum was observed at the seedling stage, whereas there was a significant positive correlation between Cd accumulation in leaves of S. nigrum and both acetic and citric acid concentrations at the mature stage. These results indicated that tartaric, acetic and citric acids in leaves of S. nigrum might act as the indication of Cd hyperaccumulation. PMID:16768003

  4. Fractionation of Fe isotopes by soil microbes and organic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brantley, Susan L.; Liermann, Laura; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2001-01-01

    Small natural variations in Fe isotopes have been attributed to biological cycling. However, without understanding the mechanism of fractionation, it is impossible to interpret such variations. Here we show that the δ56Fe of Fe dissolved from a silicate soil mineral by siderophore-producing bacteria is as much as 0.8% lighter than bulk Fe in the mineral. A smaller isotopic shift is observed for Fe released abiotically by two chelates, and the magnitude of the shift increases with affinity of the ligand for Fe, consistent with a kinetic isotope effect during hydrolysis of Fe at the mineral surface. Fe dissolved abiotically without chelates shows no isotopic shift. The δ56Fe of the exchange fraction on soil grains is also lighter by ~0.6%-1% than Fe from both hornblende and iron oxyhydroxides. The kinetic isotope effect is therefore preserved in open systems such as soils. when recorded in the rock record, Fe isotopic fractionation could document Fe transport by organic molecules or by microbes where such entities were present in the geologic past.

  5. Antimony leaching release from brake pads: Effect of pH, temperature and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xingyun; He, Mengchang; Li, Sisi

    2015-03-01

    Metals from automotive brake pads pollute water, soils and the ambient air. The environmental effect on water of antimony (Sb) contained in brake pads has been largely untested. The content of Sb in one abandoned brake pad reached up to 1.62×10(4) mg/kg. Effects of initial pH, temperature and four organic acids (acetic acid, oxalic acid, citric acid and humic acid) on Sb release from brake pads were studied using batch reactors. Approximately 30% (97 mg/L) of the total Sb contained in the brake pads was released in alkaline aqueous solution and at higher temperature after 30 days of leaching. The organic acids tested restrained Sb release, especially acetic acid and oxalic acid. The pH-dependent concentration change of Sb in aqueous solution was best fitted by a logarithmic function. In addition, Sb contained in topsoil from land where brake pads were discarded (average 9×10(3) mg/kg) was 3000 times that in uncontaminated soils (2.7±1 mg/kg) in the same areas. Because potentially high amounts of Sb may be released from brake pads, it is important that producers and environmental authorities take precautions.

  6. Hydroxydicarboxylic acids: markers for secondary organic aerosol from the photooxidation of alpha-pinene.

    PubMed

    Claeys, Magda; Szmigielski, Rafal; Kourtchev, Ivan; van der Veken, Pieter; Vermeylen, Reinhilde; Maenhaut, Willy; Jaoui, Mohammed; Kleindienst, Tadeusz E; Lewandowski, Michael; Offenberg, John H; Edney, Edward O

    2007-03-01

    Detailed organic analysis of fine (PM2.5) rural aerosol collected during summer at K-puszta, Hungary from a mixed deciduous/coniferous forest site shows the presence of polar oxygenated compounds that are also formed in laboratory irradiated alpha-pinene/NOx/air mixtures. In the present work, two major photooxidation products of alpha-pinene were characterized as the hydroxydicarboxylic acids, 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, and 2-hydroxy-4-isopropyladipic acid, based on chemical, chromatographic, and mass spectral data. Different types of volatile derivatives, including trimethylsilyl ester/ether, methyl ester trimethylsilyl ether, and ethyl ester trimethylsilyl ether derivatives were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and their electron ionization (El) spectra were interpreted in detail. The proposed structures of the hydroxydicarboxylic acids were confirmed or supported with reference compounds. 2-Hydroxy-4-isopropyladipic acid formally corresponds to a further reaction product of pinic acid involving addition of a molecule of water and opening of the dimethylcyclobutane ring; this proposal is supported by a laboratory irradiation experiment with alpha-pinene/NOJ0 air. In addition, we report the presence of a structurally related minor alpha-pinene photooxidation product, which was tentatively identified as the C7 homolog of 3-hydroxyglutaric acid, 3-hydroxy-4,4-dimethylglutaric acid. The detection of 2-hydroxy-4-isopropyladipic acid in ambient aerosol provides an explanation for the relatively low atmospheric concentrations of pinic acid found during daytime in forest environments.

  7. Infants fed formula with added long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids have reduced incidence of respiratory illnesses and diarrhea during the first year of life

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) may influence the immune system. Our objective was to compare the frequency of common illnesses in infants who received formula with or without added LCPUFAs. Methods In this observational, multi-center, prospective study, infants consumed formula with 17 mg DHA and 34 mg ARA/100 kcal (n = 233) or with no added DHA or ARA (n = 92). Pediatricians recorded respiratory illnesses, otitis media, eczema, and diarrhea through 1 year of age. Results Infants who consumed formula with DHA/ARA had lower incidence of bronchitis/bronchiolitis (P = 0.004), croup (P = 0.044), nasal congestion (P = 0.001), cough (P = 0.014), and diarrhea requiring medical attention (P = 0.034). The odds ratio (OR) of having at least one episode of bronchitis/bronchiolitis (0.41, 95% CI 0.24, 0.70; P = 0.001), croup (0.23, 95% CI 0.05, 0.97; P = 0.045), nasal congestion (0.37, 95% CI 0.20, 0.66; P = 0.001), cough (0.52, 95% CI 0.32, 0.86; P = 0.011), and diarrhea requiring medical attention (0.51, 95% CI 0.28, 0.92; P = 0.026) was lower in infants fed DHA/ARA. The OR of an increased number of episodes of bronchitis/bronchiolitis, croup, nasal congestion, cough, and diarrhea, as well as the hazard ratio for shorter time to first episode of bronchitis/bronchiolitis, nasal congestion, cough, and diarrhea were also significantly lower in the DHA/ARA group. Conclusions In healthy infants, formula with DHA/ARA was associated with lower incidence of common respiratory symptoms and illnesses, as well as diarrhea. PMID:24989353

  8. Laying hens can convert high doses of folic acid added to the feed into natural folates in eggs providing a novel source of food folate.

    PubMed

    Hoey, Leane; McNulty, Helene; McCann, Elizabeth M E; McCracken, Kelvin J; Scott, John M; Marc, Barbara Blaznik; Molloy, Anne M; Graham, Ciaren; Pentieva, Kristina

    2009-01-01

    There are few good sources of natural food folates apart from green leafy vegetables and these may have a limited potential to increase folate status because of substantial losses that can occur during cooking. Fortified foods can overcome this but are controversial because of safety concerns regarding chronic exposure to high-dose folic acid (FA; the synthetic form). The aim of the present study was to develop eggs with an enriched natural folate content and minimal unmetabolised FA. Forty-eight, 30-week-old laying hens were randomised to receive the basal feed (formulated to provide 1 mg folate/kg feed) to which had been added one of the following FA levels (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 mg/kg feed). Total folate was measured in eggs collected throughout the 12-week study period and the FA content estimated at 12 weeks. Results showed that the maximal egg folate content was achieved by adding 16 mg FA/kg feed. At this optimal dose, the total folate content per egg was 75 microg (compared with 32 microg in a regular egg) of which FA represented at most 10%, a level which would probably be converted into natural folates by humans after ingestion. The results demonstrate that it is possible to use synthetic FA at high doses to produce novel animal foods enriched with natural folates in a cost-efficient process. Such foods may be particularly relevant to European populations without access to FA fortification and therefore dependent on natural food folate sources for the primary prevention of folate-related disease.

  9. Uptake of Small Organic Compounds by Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: Dissolution and Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Staton, S. J. R.

    2003-01-01

    To assess the role of oxygenated volatile organic compounds in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere, the interactions of a series of small organic compounds with low-temperature aqueous sulfuric acid will be evaluated. The total amount of organic material which may be taken up from the gas phase by dissolution, surface layer formation, and reaction during the particle lifetime will be quantified. Our current results for acetaldehyde uptake on 40 - 80 wt% sulfuric acid solutions will be compared to those of methanol, formaldehyde, and acetone to investigate the relationships between chemical functionality and heterogeneous activity. Where possible, equilibrium uptake will be ascribed to component pathways (hydration, protonation, etc.) to facilitate evaluation of other species not yet studied in low temperature aqueous sulfuric acid.

  10. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey.

  11. Potential for in situ chemical oxidation of acid extractable organics in oil sands process affected groundwater.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, V; Ross, M S; Martin, J W; Barker, J F

    2013-11-01

    The process of bitumen extraction from oil sands in Alberta, Canada leads to an accumulation of toxic acid-extractable organics (AEOs) in oil sands process water (OSPW). Infiltration of OSPW from tailings ponds and from their retaining sand dykes and subsequent transport towards surface water has occurred. Given the apparent lack of significant natural attenuation of AEOs in groundwater, remediation may be required. This laboratory study evaluates the potential use of unactivated persulfate and permanganate as in situ oxidation agents for remediation of AEOs in groundwater. Naphthenic acids (NAs; CnH2n+zO2), which are a component of the acutely toxic AEOs, were degraded by both oxidants in OSPW samples. Permanganate oxidation yielded some residual dissolved organic carbon (DOC) whereas persulfate mineralized the AEO compounds with less residual DOC. Acid-extractable organics from oxidized OSPW had essentially no Microtox toxicity.

  12. Gas chromatographic organic acid profiling analysis of brandies and whiskeys for pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Park, Y J; Kim, K R; Kim, J H

    1999-06-01

    An efficient gas chromatographic profiling and pattern recognition method is described for brandy and whiskey samples according to their organic acid contents. It involves solid-phase extraction of organic acids using Chromosorb P with subsequent conversion to stable tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives for the direct analysis by capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A total of 12 organic acids were reproducibly identified in liquor samples (1 mL). When the GC profiles were simplified to their retention index spectra, characteristic patterns were obtained for each liquor sample as well as for each group average. Stepwise discriminant analysis provided star symbols characteristic for each liquor sample and group average. As expected, canonical discriminant analysis correctly classified 23 liquor samples studied into two groups of either brandy or whiskey. PMID:10794629

  13. [Determination of organic acids in cane vinasse by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography with indirect ultraviolet detection].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuanjin; Xu, Guiping; Wei, Yuanan

    2006-01-01

    Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MECC) with indirect ultraviolet (UV) detection method for the separation and determination of several organic acids in cane vinasse, including malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acids, were developed. Electrophoretic conditions were as follows: uncoated fused silica capillary (56 cm/ 64 cm (effective/total length), 50 microm i. d. ), 7.5 mmol/L potassium acid phthalate-1. 5 mmol/L cetyltrimethyl-ammonium bromide (CTAB) at pH = 6.50 as buffer solution, applied voltage -25 kV, temperature 25 degrees C, detection wavelength 300 nm, reference wavelength 210 nm. Good linearities were obtained for nine organic acids, and the detection limits were 0.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 1.5 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.3 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L, 0.4 mg/L for malonic, formic, tartaric, malic, succinic, glutaric, acetic, lactic and glutamic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for migration times and peak areas of nine organic acids within a day were 0.4% - 0.6% and 2.3% - 4.8%, respectively. The corresponding data for five days were 0.5% -0.7% and 3.3% - 5.2%. The recoveries of acid standards were above 93%. The method can be applied to determine the organic acids in cane vinasse with satisfactory results. PMID:16827307

  14. Chromatographic profile of high boiling point organic acids in human urine.

    PubMed

    Brown, G K; Stokke, O; Jellum, E

    1978-03-01

    The profile of high boiling point organic acids in urine samples from both normal subjects and patients suspected of having some form of metabolic disorder has been determined by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Fifteen different compounds eluting after hippuric acid have been identified, including two, cinnamoylglycine and acetyltributylcitrate, which have not been recognised previously. Relative retention times and abbreviated mass spectra of the identified compounds are presented.

  15. Effects of organic acids on cadmium and copper sorption and desorption by two calcareous soils.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Sarvenaz; Jalali, Mohsen

    2015-09-01

    Low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) present in soil alter equilibrium pH of soil, and consequently, affect heavy metal sorption and desorption on soil constitutes. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different concentrations (0.1, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 40, 50, 70, and 100 mM) of citric, malic, and oxalic acids on sorption and desorption of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in two calcareous soils. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs decreased the equilibrium pH of soil solutions. The results indicated that increase in organic acids concentrations generally reduced Cd and Cu sorption in soils. Increase concentrations of LMWOAs generally promoted Cd and Cu desorption from soils. A valley-like curve was observed for desorption of Cu after the citric acid concentration increment in soil 2. Increasing the concentrations of three LMWOAs caused a marked decrease in Kd(sorp) values of Cd and Cu in soils. In general, citric acid was the most effective organic acid in reducing sorption and increasing desorption of both metals, and oxalic acid had the minimal impact. The results indicated that LMWOAs had a greater impact on Cu sorption and desorption than Cd, which can be attributed to higher stability constants of organic acids complexes with Cu compared to Cd. It can be concluded that by selecting suitable type and concentration of LMWOAs, mobility, and hence, bioavailability of heavy metals can be changed. So, environmental implications concerning heavy metals mobility might be derived from these findings. PMID:26298186

  16. The secretion of organic acids is also regulated by factors other than aluminum.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haiyan; Wen, Danni; Fu, Zhengwei; Qian, Haifeng

    2014-02-01

    As a result of natural processes and human activities, aluminum (Al) toxicity is recognized as a major limiting factor for plant productivity, and the secretion of organic acids facilitated by channel proteins is one of the most important Al resistance mechanisms in plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several types of stress, including herbicide (imazethapyr (IM) and diclofop-methyl (DM)), heavy metal (Al and Cu), salt stress (NaCl), and proton stress (HCl), on the release of organic acids in rice. The results showed that 0.05 mg/L IM, 0.1 mg/L DM, 4680 mg/L NaCl, 0.5 mg/L CuSO4, and 18 mg/L AlCl3 significantly inhibited rice root elongation and the root fresh weight. In contrast, no significant inhibitory effects on rice growth were found with HCl (pH = 4.5). Similar to the effect of AlCl3 on organic acid induction, treatment with IM, DM, NaCl, and CuSO4 also induced the synthesis of endogenous citric acid and oxalic acid but decreased endogenous malic acid synthesis in the seedlings, though only citric acid was released into the environment after these treatments. We also analyzed the transcripts of three citrate channel proteins and found they were up-regulated by NaCl, CuSO4, and AlCl3 but not by IM or DM. This study clarified that organic acid secretion in plants might be a common phenomenon when plants are exposed to environmental stress other than Al toxicity.

  17. Rapid simultaneous determination of amines and organic acids in citrus using high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Uckoo, Ram M; Jayaprakasha, Guddadarangavvanahally K; Nelson, Shad D; Patil, Bhimanagouda S

    2011-01-15

    Rapid analytical method for the simultaneous separation and determination of amines and organic acids is a vital interest for quality control of citrus and their products. In the present study, a simultaneous high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method for the rapid separation of three amines and two organic acids was developed. Chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved using Xbridge C(18) column at ambient temperature, with an isocratic mobile phase of 3mM phosphoric acid at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1). A photodiode array (PDA) detector was used to monitor the eluent at 223 nm and 254 nm with a total analysis time of 10 min. Extraction of amines and organic acids from citrus juice was optimized. The method was validated by tests of linearity, recovery, precision and ruggedness. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) for amines and ascorbic acid were determined to be 5 ng and 9.8 ng, respectively. All calibration curves showed good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9999) within the test ranges. The recoveries of the amines and organic acids ranged between 84% and 117%. The identity of each peak was confirmed by mass spectral (MS) analysis. The developed method was successfully applied to analyze the content of amines and organic acids in six different species and two varieties of citrus. Results indicate that mandarin and Marrs sweet orange contain high level of amines, while pummelo and Rio Red grapefruit had high content of ascorbic acid (137-251 μg mL(-1)) and citric acid (5-22 mg mL(-1)). Synephrine was the major amine present in Clementine (114 μg mL(-1)) and Marrs sweet orange (85 μg mL(-1)). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on simultaneous separation and quantification of amines and organic acids in Marrs sweet orange, Meyer lemon, Nova tangerine, Clementine, Ugli tangelo and Wekiwa tangelo.

  18. Water solubility enhancement of some organic pollutants and pesticides by dissolved humic and fulvic acids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Malcolm, R.L.; Brinton, T.I.; Kile, D.E.

    1986-01-01

    Water solubility enhancements by dissolved humic and fulvic acids from soil and aquatic origins and by synthetic organic polymers have been determined for selected organic pollutants and pesticides (p,p???-DDT, 2,4,5,2???,5???-PCB, 2,4,4???-PCB, 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene, and lindane). Significant solubility enhancements of relatively water-insoluble solutes by dissolved organic matter (DOM) of soil and aquatic origins may be described in terms of a partition-like interaction of the the solutes with the microscopic organic environment of the high-molecular-weight DOM species; the apparent solute solubilities increase linearly with DOM concentration and show no competitive effect between solutes. With a given DOM sample, the solute partition coefficient (Kdom) increases with a decrease of solute solubility (Sw) or with an increase of the solute's octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow). The Kdom values of solutes with soil-derived humic acid are approximately 4 times greater than with soil fulvic acid and 5-7 times greater than with aquatic humic and fulvic acids. The effectiveness of DOM in enhancing solute solubility appears to be largely controlled by the DOM molecular size and polarity. The relative inability of high-molecular-weight poly(acrylic acids) to enhance solute solubility is attributed to their high polarities and extended chain structures that do not permit the formation of a sizable intramolecular nonpolar environment.

  19. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China. PMID:26657252

  20. Prolonged acid rain facilitates soil organic carbon accumulation in a mature forest in Southern China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jianping; Liang, Guohua; Hui, Dafeng; Deng, Qi; Xiong, Xin; Qiu, Qingyan; Liu, Juxiu; Chu, Guowei; Zhou, Guoyi; Zhang, Deqiang

    2016-02-15

    With the continuing increase in anthropogenic activities, acid rain remains a serious environmental threat, especially in the fast developing areas such as southern China. To detect how prolonged deposition of acid rain would influence soil organic carbon accumulation in mature subtropical forests, we conducted a field experiment with simulated acid rain (SAR) treatments in a monsoon evergreen broadleaf forest at Dinghushan National Nature Reserve in southern China. Four levels of SAR treatments were set by irrigating plants with water of different pH values: CK (the control, local lake water, pH ≈ 4.5), T1 (water pH=4.0), T2 (water pH=3.5), and T3 (water pH=3.0). Results showed reduced pH measurements in the topsoil exposed to simulated acid rains due to soil acidification. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass and litter decomposition rates were significantly decreased by the SAR treatments. As a result, T3 treatment significantly increased the total organic carbon by 24.5% in the topsoil compared to the control. Furthermore, surface soil became more stable as more recalcitrant organic matter was generated under the SAR treatments. Our results suggest that prolonged acid rain exposure may have the potential to facilitate soil organic carbon accumulation in the subtropical forest in southern China.

  1. Selective removal of phosphate for analysis of organic acids in complex samples.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Sandeep; Frolov, Andrej; Marcillo, Andrea; Birkemeyer, Claudia

    2015-04-01

    Accurate quantitation of compounds in samples of biological origin is often hampered by matrix interferences one of which occurs in GC-MS analysis from the presence of highly abundant phosphate. Consequently, high concentrations of phosphate need to be removed before sample analysis. Within this context, we screened 17 anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) materials for selective phosphate removal using different protocols to meet the challenge of simultaneous recovery of six common organic acids in aqueous samples prior to derivatization for GC-MS analysis. Up to 75% recovery was achieved for the most organic acids, only the low pKa tartaric and citric acids were badly recovered. Compared to the traditional approach of phosphate removal by precipitation, SPE had a broader compatibility with common detection methods and performed more selectively among the organic acids under investigation. Based on the results of this study, it is recommended that phosphate removal strategies during the analysis of biologically relevant small molecular weight organic acids consider the respective pKa of the anticipated analytes and the detection method of choice.

  2. High concentrations of furan fatty acids in organic butter samples from the German market.

    PubMed

    Wendlinger, Christine; Vetter, Walter

    2014-08-27

    Furan fatty acids (F-acids) are valuable antioxidants containing a furan moiety in the central part of the molecule. They occur in the lipids of different foodstuffs and plants, with grass being the main source for their presence in milk fat and butter. Because cows from organic farming receive higher portions of grass-based feed, it was tested whether organic butter samples (n = 26) contain more F-acids than conventional ones (n = 25) in Germany. For this purpose, samples were melted, and the lipid phase was separated and transesterified into methyl esters, which were enriched using silver ion chromatography and analyzed by GC-EI/MS in the selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Levels of F-acids in butter were higher in summer than in winter, and in both seasons, organic samples contained significantly higher levels of F-acids than conventional ones (one-way ANOVA: p < 0.001). Furthermore, the daily intake of F-acids via milk fat and other foodstuffs was calculated.

  3. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P < 0.05) higher than that in neutral (pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively.

  4. [Effects of simulated acid rain on decomposition of soil organic carbon and crop straw].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xue-Zhu; Huang, Yao; Yang, Xin-Zhong

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of acid rain on the organic carbon decomposition in different acidity soils, a 40-day incubation test was conducted with the paddy soils of pH 5.48, 6.70 and 8.18. The soils were amended with 0 and 15 g x kg(-1) of rice straw, adjusted to the moisture content of 400 g x kg(-1) air-dried soil by using simulated rain of pH 6.0, 4.5, and 3.0, and incubated at 20 degrees C. The results showed that straw, acid rain, and soil co-affected the CO2 emission from soil system. The amendment of straw increased the soil CO2 emission rate significantly. Acid rain had no significant effects on soil organic carbon decomposition, but significantly affected the straw decomposition in soil. When treated with pH 3.0 acid rain, the amount of decomposed straw over 40-day incubation in acid (pH 5.48) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils was 8% higher, while that in neutral soil (pH 6.70) was 15% lower, compared to the treatment of pH 6.0 rain. In the treatment of pH 3.0 acid rain, the decomposition rate of soil organic C in acid (pH 5.48) soil was 43% and 50% (P < 0.05) higher than that in neutral (pH 6.70) and alkaline (pH 8.18) soils, while the decomposition rate of straw in neutral soil was 17% and 16% (P < 0.05) lower than that in acid and alkaline soils, respectively. PMID:19459394

  5. [Low-molecular-weight organic acids in precipitation in Zunyi City, Guizhou province].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei; Lee, Xin-qing; Zeng, Yong; Huang, Rong-sheng; Tan, Ling; Xu, Gang; Wang, Bing

    2008-09-01

    Formic (HCOOH) and acetic (CH3COOH) acids are ubiquitous in troposphere. Studies on the low-molecular carboxylic acids help shed light on the biogeochemical cycles of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, as well as on the formation of acid precipitation. As a city with severe acid precipitation, the city Zunyi in north Guizhou province, provide a typical background for gaining insight into the organic geochemistry in the heavily polluted atmospheric environment. We collected the precipitation in the downtown city for a whole year on the event basis, and measured inorganic and organic anions with ion chromatograph and cations with atomic absorption spectroscopy. The data demonstrate an annual average pH of 4.11, a clear indication of the acid atmosphere. The volume-weighted mean concentrations of [HCOO-]T and [CH3COO-]T were 9.29 micromol x L(-1) (ranged from 0.15 micromol x L(-1) to 46.14 micromol x L(-1)) and 6.47 micromol x L(-1) (ranged from 0.02 micromol x L(-1) to 19.11 micromol x L(-1)) respectively, accounting for 4.10% of the total anions. With a coefficient of 0.86, formic is significantly correlated with acetic acid, suggesting that both acids share common sources. The acids often decrease with time in a precipitation event, with occasional increases in the middle and last stages, indicating that the organic acids are primarily scavenged from blow cloud, with limited amount from the long distance transportation. The close range provenance of organic acids is facilitated by the local environmental condition, which is characterized by the mountain-enclosed valley with high humidity, low wind speed, and high atmospheric dust content. Based on the Henry's Law, we proposed the ratio of formic and acetic acids in the precipitation (F/A)aq as the indicator of the sources, and thus found that the anthropogenic sources are responsible for the organic compounds in the Spring and Winter, while vegetation emissions claim the sources in the Summer and Autumn.

  6. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    SciTech Connect

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  7. Highly efficient inverted organic solar cells using amino acid modified indium tin oxide as cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Aiyuan; Nie, Riming; Deng, Xianyu; Wei, Huaixin; Li, Yanqing; Tang, Jianxin; Zheng, Shizhao; Wong, King-Young

    2014-03-24

    In this paper, we report that highly efficient inverted organic solar cells were achieved by modifying the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) using an amino acid, Serine (Ser). With the modification of the ITO surface, device efficiency was significantly enhanced from 0.63% to 4.17%, accompanied with an open circuit voltage (Voc) that was enhanced from 0.30 V to 0.55 V. Ultraviolet and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies indicate that the work function reduction induced by the amino acid modification resulting in the decreased barrier height at the ITO/organic interface played a crucial role in the enhanced performances.

  8. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application. PMID:26403818

  9. Poly(isophthalic acid)(ethylene oxide) as a Macromolecular Modulator for Metal-Organic Polyhedra.

    PubMed

    Chen, Teng-Hao; Wang, Le; Trueblood, Jonathan V; Grassian, Vicki H; Cohen, Seth M

    2016-08-01

    A new strategy was developed by using a polymer ligand, poly(isophthalic acid)(ethylene oxide), to modulate the growth of metal-organic polyhedra (MOP) crystals. This macromolecular modulator can effectively control the crystal habit of several different Cu24L24 (L = isophthalic acid derivatives) MOPs. The polymer also directed the formation of MOP structures under reaction conditions that only produce metal-organic frameworks in the absence of modulator. Moreover, the polymer also enabled the deposition of MOP crystals on glass surfaces. This macromolecular modulator strategy provides an innovative approach to control the morphology and assembly of MOP particles. PMID:27400759

  10. Recovery Processes of Organic Acids from Fermentation Broths in the Biomass-Based Industry.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian-Zhu; Jiang, Xing-Lin; Feng, Xin-Jun; Wang, Ji-Ming; Sun, Chao; Zhang, Hai-Bo; Xian, Mo; Liu, Hui-Zhou

    2016-01-01

    The new movement towards green chemistry and renewable feedstocks makes microbial production of chemicals more competitive. Among the numerous chemicals, organic acids are more attractive targets for process development efforts in the renewable-based biorefinery industry. However, most of the production costs in microbial processes are higher than that in chemical processes, among which over 60% are generated by separation processes. Therefore, the research of separation and purification processes is important for a promising biorefinery industry. This review highlights the progress of recovery processes in the separation and purification of organic acids, including their advantages and disadvantages, current situation, and future prospects in terms of recovery yields and industrial application.

  11. Seasonal and spatial changes of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shexia; Peng, Ping'an; Song, Jianzhong; Bi, Xinhui; Zhao, Jinping; He, Lulu; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo

    2010-12-01

    The concentrations and compositions of free and bound organic acids in total suspended particles from typical urban, suburban and forest park sites of Guangzhou were determined in this study. The free form of organic acids (solvent extractable) in aerosols in Guangzhou varied with site and season. The suburban samples contained the highest contents of alkanoic, alkenoic and dicarboxylic acids. These findings were consistent with a higher supply of hydrocarbons and NOx in the suburban area. However, concentrations of aromatic acids were similar in the urban, suburban and forest park sites. Generally, winter season samples of the acids from anthropogenic sources contained more organic acids than summer season samples due to stronger removal by wet deposition in the summer. For the acids from botanic sources, the summer season samples were higher. In addition to the free acids, bound acids (solvent non-extractable) mainly formed by esterification of free acids were also found in the samples. In general, bound acids were higher than free acids. Esterification is mainly controlled by the pKa of organic acids and the atmospheric pH value. This explains why aromatic and dicarboxylic acids occur mainly as bound forms and why the samples from urban sites contained high levels of bound acids as the pH of rain water can reach 4.53. Concentrations of alkanoic and alkenoic acids in the aerosols of Guangzhou were much higher than those in the other areas studied.

  12. Organic acids and aldehydes in throughfall and dew in a Japanese pine forest.

    PubMed

    Chiwa, Masaaki; Miyake, Takayuki; Kimura, Nobuhito; Sakugawa, Hiroshi

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed low molecular weight organic acids and aldehydes in throughfall under pine forest, and organic acids in dew on chemically inert surfaces and pine needle surfaces at urban- and mountain-facing sites of pine forest in western Japan. Low molecular weight organic acids and aldehydes accounted for less than 5% of the dissolved organic carbon in throughfall at both sites. Formaldehyde at both sites and formate at the mountain-facing site were found at significantly lower concentrations in throughfall than in rainfall, which may be explained by the degradation and/or retention of these components by the pine canopy as the incident precipitation passed through it. The oxalate concentration in throughfall was significantly higher than those in rainfall at both sites, suggesting that oxalate was derived from leaching from the pine foliage. At both sites, organic acid concentrations were higher in dew on the pine needles than in throughfall or dew on chemically inert surfaces. This could be due to the long contact time of dew on pine needles, during which leached substances from pine needles and dry deposits accumulated on their surfaces can dissolve into the small volume of dew. The role of enhanced concentrations of oxalate in an aqueous phase on the plant surfaces (e.g., dew) is discussed in relation to hydroxyl radical formation via the photo-Fenton reaction.

  13. Biotechnological production of caffeic acid derivatives from cell and organ cultures of Echinacea species.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Hosakatte Niranjana; Kim, Yun-Soo; Park, So-Young; Paek, Kee-Yoeup

    2014-09-01

    Caffeic acid derivatives (CADs) are a group of bioactive compounds which are produced in Echinacea species especially Echinacea purpurea, Echinacea angustifolia, and Echinacea pallida. Echinacea is a popular herbal medicine used in the treatment of common cold and it is also a prominent dietary supplement used throughout the world. Caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid (5-O-caffeoylquinic acid), caftaric acid (2-O-caffeoyltartaric acid), cichoric acid (2, 3-O-dicaffeoyltartaric acid), cynarin, and echinacoside are some of the important CADs which have varied pharmacological activities. The concentrations of these bioactive compounds are species specific and also they vary considerably with the cultivated Echinacea species due to geographical location, stage of development, time of harvest, and growth conditions. Due to these reasons, plant cell and organ cultures have become attractive alternative for the production of biomass and caffeic acid derivatives. Adventitious and hairy roots have been induced in E. pupurea and E. angustifolia, and suspension cultures have been established from flask to bioreactor scale for the production of biomass and CADs. Tremendous progress has been made in this area; various bioprocess methods and strategies have been developed for constant high-quality productivity of biomass and secondary products. This review is aimed to discuss biotechnological methods and approaches employed for the sustainable production of CADs.

  14. Crystallization and immersion freezing ability of oxalic and succinic acid in multicomponent aqueous organic aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Robert; Höhler, Kristina; Möhler, Ottmar; Saathoff, Harald; Schnaiter, Martin

    2015-04-01

    This study reports on heterogeneous ice nucleation efficiency of immersed oxalic and succinic acid crystals in the temperature range from 245 to 215 K, as investigated with expansion cooling experiments using suspended particles. In contrast to previous laboratory work with emulsified solution droplets where the precipitation of solid inclusions required a preceding freezing/evaporation cycle, we show that immersed solids readily form by homogeneous crystallization within aqueous solution droplets of multicomponent organic mixtures, which have noneutonic compositions with an excess of oxalic or succinic acid. Whereas succinic acid crystals did not act as heterogeneous ice nuclei, immersion freezing by oxalic acid dihydrate crystals led to a reduction of the ice saturation ratio at freezing onset by 0.066-0.072 compared to homogeneous freezing, which is by a factor of 2 higher than previously reported laboratory data. These observations emphasize the importance of oxalic acid in heterogeneous ice nucleation.

  15. Salicylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes Acting as the Photosensitizer for Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungjun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Han, Ah-Reum; Ko, Kwan-Woo; Eom, Jin Hee; Namgoong, Sung Keon; Lo, Alvie S V; Gordon, Keith C; Yoon, Sungho; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A D-π-A metal-free organic dye, featuring salicylic acid as a novel acceptor/anchoring unit, has been designed, synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. The detailed photophysical, electrochemical, photovoltaic and sensitizing properties of the organic dye were investigated, in addition to the computational studies of the dye and dye-(TiO2)6 system. A solar cell device using this new organic dye as a sensitizer produced a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.49% (J(sc) = 6.69 mAcm-2, V(oc) = 0.74 V and ff = 0.70) under 100 mWcm(-2) simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation, demonstrating that the salicylic acid-based organic dye is a suitable alternative to currently used organometallic dyes.

  16. Salicylic Acid-Based Organic Dyes Acting as the Photosensitizer for Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sungjun; Park, Jae-Hyeong; Han, Ah-Reum; Ko, Kwan-Woo; Eom, Jin Hee; Namgoong, Sung Keon; Lo, Alvie S V; Gordon, Keith C; Yoon, Sungho; Han, Chi-Hwan

    2016-05-01

    A D-π-A metal-free organic dye, featuring salicylic acid as a novel acceptor/anchoring unit, has been designed, synthesized and applied to dye-sensitized solar cell. The detailed photophysical, electrochemical, photovoltaic and sensitizing properties of the organic dye were investigated, in addition to the computational studies of the dye and dye-(TiO2)6 system. A solar cell device using this new organic dye as a sensitizer produced a solar to electric power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.49% (J(sc) = 6.69 mAcm-2, V(oc) = 0.74 V and ff = 0.70) under 100 mWcm(-2) simulated AM 1.5 G solar irradiation, demonstrating that the salicylic acid-based organic dye is a suitable alternative to currently used organometallic dyes. PMID:27483839

  17. The Production of Amino Acids in Interstellar Ices: Implications for Meteoritic Organics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, A.; Bernstein, M. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Cooper, G. W.; Allamandola, L. J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Indigenous amino acids have been detected in a number of meteorites, over 70 in the Murchison meteorite alone. It has been generally accepted that the amino acids in meteorites formed in liquid water on an asteroid or comet parent-body. However, the water in the Murchison meteorite, for example, was depleted of deuterium, making the distribution of deuterium in organic acids in Murchison difficult to explain. Similarly, occasional but consistent meteoritic biases for non-terrestrial L amino acids cannot be reasonably rationalized by liquid water parent-body reactions. We will present the results of a laboratory demonstration showing that the amino acids glycine, alanine, and serine should result from the UV (ultraviolet) photolysis of interstellar ice grains. This suggests that some meteoritic amino acids may be the result of interstellar ice photochemistry, rather than having formed by reactions in liquid water. We will describe some of the potential implications of these findings for the organic materials found in primitive meteorites, in particular how interstellar ice synthesis might more easily accommodate the presence and distribution of deuterium, and the meteoritic bias for L amino acids.

  18. Adsorption behavior of antimony(III) oxyanions on magnetite surface in aqueous organic acid environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittal, Vinit K.; Bera, Santanu; Narasimhan, S. V.; Velmurugan, S.

    2013-02-01

    Antimony(III) adsorption is observed on magnetite (Fe3O4) surface under acidic and reducing condition through surface hydroxyl (SOH) groups bonding on Fe3O4 surface. Desorption of adsorbed Sb(III) is observed from Fe3O4 surface along with iron release in organic acid at 85 °C after 5 h of experiment. Tartaric acid (TA) shows minimum Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4 among the organic acid studied. The reason is TA having two sets of adjacent functional groups viz. Odbnd Csbnd OH and Csbnd OH which are responsible for the formation of five-membered bidendate chelate with Sb(III). Other oxyanions, cations or complexing agents along with TA influences the Sb(III) adsorption on Fe3O4. The surface of magnetite is modified by the addition of fatty acids viz. Lauric acid, benzoic acid to bind the Ssbnd OH groups present on the surface. This results in delaying the process of adsorption without changing the quantity of saturation adsorption of Sb(III) on Fe3O4 surface.

  19. Effect of flaxseed lignans added to milk or fed to cows on oxidative degradation of dairy beverages enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Matumoto-Pintro, Paula T; Petit, Hélène V; Giroux, Hélène J; Côrtes, Cristiano; Gagnon, Nathalie; Britten, Michel

    2011-02-01

    Nutritional value is a priority in new product development. Using vegetable or marine oils, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, in dairy beverage formulations is an option to provide the consumers with healthier products. However, these formulations are prone to oxidation, which is responsible for rapid flavour degradation and the development of potentially toxic reaction products during storage. Flaxseed lignans, secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), and its mammalian metabolites have antioxidant activity and could be used in beverage formulations to prevent oxidation. Commercially available SDG extract was added to the formulation of dairy beverages enriched with flaxseed oil. As an alternative approach, dairy beverages were produced from milk naturally rich in SDG metabolites obtained through the alteration of cow diet. Resistance to oxidation was determined from the kinetics of hexanal and propanal production during heat and light exposure treatments. Increasing SDG concentration in dairy beverage slightly reduced redox potential but had no effect on oxygen consumption during oxidation treatments. The presence of SDG in dairy beverage significantly improved resistance to heat- and light-induced oxidation. However, purified enterolactone, a mammalian metabolite from SDG, prevented oxidation at much lower concentrations. The use of milk from dairy cow fed flaxseed meal did not improve resistance to oxidation in dairy beverage. Enterolactone concentration in milk was increased by the experimental diet but it remained too low to observe any significant effect on dairy beverage oxidation.

  20. Improvement of the thermostability and activity of halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 by engineering C-terminal amino acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong; Han, Shaoqiang; Yang, Zujun; Tang, Lixia

    2015-10-20

    In the current study, a three-tiered mutagenesis strategy was employed to simultaneously improve the thermostability and activity of halohydrin dehalogenase from Agrobacterium radiobacter AD1 (HheC) by engineering the last ten amino acids (Met245∼Glu254) of its C-terminal region. Initially, truncated mutagenesis results displayed that C-terminal deletions decreased the thermostability and/or activity of HheC. Then ten residues were subjected to single-site saturation mutagenesis, resulting in 20 beneficial single-point variants related to the thermostability or activity of HheC. The results clearly indicated that residues Met252∼Glu254 and Trp249 are crucial for regulating enzyme thermostability and activity, respectively. Finally, the beneficial substitutions were combined using efficient multi-site combinatorial mutagenesis approaches, leading to an outstanding variant PX14 (Trp249Pro/Met252Leu/Pro253Asp), which had a 17.8-fold higher half-life and a 4.0-fold higher kcat value than that of wild-type HheC. These results indicated that the C-terminal residues play an important role in modulating both the thermostability and activity of HheC.

  1. Understanding the effect low molecular weight organic acids on the desorption and availability of soil phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackburn, Daniel; Zhang, Hao; Stutter, Marc; Giles, Courtney; George, Timothy; Shand, Charles; Lumsdon, David; Cooper, Pat; Wendler, Renate; Brown, Lawrie; Blackwell, Martin; Darch, Tegan; Wearing, Catherine; Haygarth, Philip

    2016-04-01

    The mobility and resupply of inorganic phosphorus (P) from the soil solid phase after equilibration with increasing doses of citric acid (CA) and oxalic acid (OA) were studied in 2 soils with contrasting P status. The combined methods of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT), diffusive equilibration in thin films (DET) and the DGT-induced fluxes in sediments model (DIFS) were used as tools to evaluate the changes in solid-to-solution interchange kinetics. A significant effect of CA and OA in soil solution P was observed only for doses over 1 mMol kg-1. Curiously, low organic acid doses (0.5-1 mMol kg-1) were associated with a steep increase in microbial biomass P, which was not seen for doses over 2 mMol kg-1. The trivalent CA was able to promote a higher increase in soil solution P than the bivalent OA for both soils. Organic phosphorus was only significantly mobilized by organic acids in the low P soil, possibly because in the high P soil these P forms were less labile than inorganic P. Both CA and OA promoted a decrease in the adsorbed-to-solution distribution coefficient, desorption rate constants and an increase in the response time of solution P equilibration. The extent of this effect was shown to be both soil specific and organic acid specific. Since both organic acids negatively affected the kinetics of P interchange between the soil matrix and the soil solution, their net effect on P bioavailability is expected to be much lower than the observed increase in solution concentration.

  2. Amino acid diagenesis, organic carbon and nitrogen mineralization in surface sediments from the inner Oslofjord, Norway

    SciTech Connect

    Haugen, J.E. ); Lichtentaler, R. )

    1991-06-01

    Total hydrolyzed amino acids (THAA), total organic carbon (TOC), and total nitrogen (TN) have been measured in an oxic and anoxic surface sediment from the inner Oslofjord. Downcore variations of these parameters are ascribed to both diagenesis and changes in organic matter supply, the latter being most important. These changes are most prominent in the anoxic sediment, which reflects the eutrophication history of the innermost part of the fjord. Downcore, THAA content decreased from 3.8 to 2.0 mg/g (salt-free dry weight) in the oxic sediment and from 22.3 to 3.8 mg/g in the anoxic sediment. Total amino acid nitrogen varied between 17 and 34% of total nitrogen in the oxic, and 25 and 54% in the anoxic, sediment. Organic carbon and organic nitrogen accumulation rates and depth integrated mineralization rates are about three times higher in the anoxic sediment than in the oxic sediment. Recycling of amino acids accounted for 4 to 12% of the total organic carbon and 13 to 40% of the total organic nitrogen regenerated in these sediments.

  3. Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation of solid and liquid organic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pierce, R.A.; Smith, J.R.; Poprik, D.C.

    1995-02-01

    Nitric-phosphoric acid oxidation has been developed specifically to address issues that face the Savannah River Site, other defense-related facilities, private industry, and small-volume generators such as university and medical laboratories. Initially tested to destroy and decontaminate SRS solid, Pu-contaminated job-control waste, the technology has also exhibited potential for remediating hazardous and mixed-hazardous waste forms. The process is unique to Savannah River and offers a valuable alternative to other oxidation processes that require extreme temperatures and/or elevated pressures. To address the broad categories of waste, many different organic compounds which represent a cross-section of the waste that must be treated have been successfully oxidized. Materials that have been quantitatively oxidized at atmospheric pressure below 180{degrees}C include neoprene, cellulose, EDTA, tributylphosphate, and nitromethane. More stable compounds such as benzoic acid, polyethylene, oils, and resins have been completely decomposed below 200{degrees}C and 10 psig. The process uses dilute nitric acid in a concentrated phosphoric acid media as the main oxidant for the organic compounds. Phosphoric acid allow nitric acid to be retained in solution well above its normal boiling point. The reaction forms NOx vapors which can be reoxidized and recycled using air and water. The addition of 0.001M Pd(II) reduces CO generation to near 1% of the released carbon gases. The advantages of this process are that it is straightforward, uses relatively inexpensive reagents, operates at relatively low temperature and pressure, and produces final solutions which are compatible with stainless steel equipment. For organic wastes, all carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen are converted to gaseous products. If interfaced with an acid recovery system which converts NOx back to nitric acid, the net oxidizer would be oxygen from air.

  4. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  5. Microbiologically produced carboxylic acids used as building blocks in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Aurich, Andreas; Specht, Robert; Müller, Roland A; Stottmeister, Ulrich; Yovkova, Venelina; Otto, Christina; Holz, Martina; Barth, Gerold; Heretsch, Philipp; Thomas, Franziska A; Sicker, Dieter; Giannis, Athanassios

    2012-01-01

    Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building blocks. Thereby, our biotechnological goal was the development of process fundamentals regarding the variable use of renewable raw materials, the development of a multi purpose bioreactor and application of a pilot plant with standard equipment for organic acid production to minimize the technological effort. Furthermore the development of new product isolation procedures, with the aim of direct product recovery, capture of products or single step operation, was necessary. The application of robust and approved microorganisms, also genetically modified, capable of using a wide range of substrates as well as producing a large spectrum of products, was of special importance. Microbiologically produced acids, like 2-oxo-glutaric acid and 2-oxo-D-gluconic acid, are useful educts for the chemical synthesis of hydrophilic triazines, spiro-connected heterocycles, benzotriazines, and pyranoic amino acids. The chiral intermediate of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, (2R,3S)-isocitric acid, is another promising compound. For the first time our process provides large quantities of enantiopure trimethyl (2R,3S)-isocitrate which was used in subsequent chemical transformations to provide new chiral entities for further usage in total synthesis and pharmaceutical research.Oxo- and hydroxy-carboxylic acids are of special interest in organic synthesis. However, their introduction by chemical reactions tends to be troublesome especially with regard to stereoselectivity. We describe herein the biotechnological preparation of selected oxo- and hydroxycarboxylic acids under "green" conditions and their use as promising new building

  6. Forward osmosis filtration for removal of organic foulants: Effects of combined tannic and alginic acids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Zhang, Wanzhu; Chu, Huaqiang; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-03-15

    The filtration performance of combined organic foulants by forward osmosis (FO) in active-layer-facing-the-draw-solution (AL-facing-DS) orientation was investigated systematically. Tannic acid and alginate were used as model organic foulants for polysaccharides and humic dissolved organic matters, respectively. The FO could reject combined and single tannic acid and alginate foulants effectively. The more severe fouling flux decline, accompanied with lower combined foulants' retention, was observed with increasing proportions of tannic acid in the combined foulants-containing feed, which was ascribed mainly to the more severe fouling resulting from tannic acid adsorption within the porous support layer of the FO membrane compared to minor alginate deposition on the membrane surface. It was found that the higher the initial flux level and cross flow velocity, the faster the flux decline with lower mixed foulants retention. It was also revealed that the calcium ions in a basic solution enhanced the combined fouling flux reduction and combined foulants retention. As the major constituent of the combined fouling layer, the adsorption of tannic acid might play a more significant role in the mixed fouling of the FO membrane, which was probably influenced by permeation drag caused by water flux and chemical interactions induced by feed solution pH and calcium ion concentration.

  7. Sulfation of metal-organic framework: Opportunities for acid catalysis and proton conductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Goesten, M.G.; Stavitski, E.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Ramos-Fernandez, E.V.; Sai Sankar Gupta, K.B.; van Bekkum, H.; Gascon, J. and Kapteijn, F.

    2011-05-24

    A new post-functionalization method for metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been developed to introduce acidity for catalysis. Upon treatment with a mixture of triflic anhydride and sulfuric acid, chemically stable MOF structures MIL-101(Cr) and MIL-53(Al) can be sulfated, resulting in a Broensted sulfoxy acid group attached to up to 50% of the aromatic terephthalate linkers of the structure. The sulfated samples have been extensively characterized by solid-state NMR, XANES, and FTIR spectroscopy. The functionalized acidic frameworks show catalytic activity similar to that of acidic polymers like Nafion{reg_sign} display in the esterification of n-butanol with acetic acid (TOF {approx} 1 min{sup -1} {at} 343 K). Water adsorbs strongly up to 4 molecules per sulfoxy acid group, and an additional 2 molecules are taken up at lower temperatures in the 1-D pore channels of S-MIL-53(Al). The high water content and Broensted acidity provide the structure S-MIL-53(Al) a high proton conductivity up to moderate temperatures.

  8. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves-de-Albuquerque, Cassiano Felippe; Medeiros-de-Moraes, Isabel Matos; Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire de

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  9. Determination of organic acids in biological fluids by ion chromatography: plasma lactate and pyruvate and urinary vanillylmandelic acid.

    PubMed

    Rich, W; Johnson, E; Lois, L; Kabra, P; Stafford, B; Marton, L

    1980-09-01

    We describe the general aspects of ion chromatography and how on-line counted ion-exchange techniques can be utilized to determine pyruvic and lactic acids in plasma and vanillymandelic acid in urine. Pyruvate and lactate are extracted from deproteinized plasma by use of an ion-exclusion resin. After elution from the resin, the plasma extract is chromatographed on an anion-exchange column, with 0.66 mmol/L sodium bicarbonate as the mobile phase. The effluent is detected with an electrical conductivity cell. Vanillylmandelic acid is extracted from diluted urine by use of an anion-exchange resin. After elution from resin, the urine extract is chromatographed on an ion-exclusion column, followed by electrochemical detection. We evaluated the procedures for precision, linearity, analytical recovery, intefering substances, and correlation with an established procedure. the combination of a preliminary resin extraction, an ion chromatographic separation, and a conductivity or electrochemical detector results in rapid, specific methods that can be adapted for use in the clinical laboratory. Preliminary data for other organic acids are presented.

  10. 1-Acetylpyrene-salicylic acid: photoresponsive fluorescent organic nanoparticles for the regulated release of a natural antimicrobial compound, salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    Barman, Shrabani; Mukhopadhyay, Sourav K; Behara, Krishna Kalyani; Dey, Satyahari; Singh, N D Pradeep

    2014-05-28

    Photoresponsive 1-acetylpyrene-salicylic acid (AcPy-SA) nanoparticles (NPs) were developed for the regulated release of a natural antimicrobial compound, salicylic acid. The strong fluorescent properties of AcPy-SA NPs have been extensively used for potential in vitro cell imaging. The phototrigger capability of our newly prepared AcPy-SA NPs was utilized for the efficient release of an antimicrobial compound, salicylic acid. The photoregulated drug release of AcPy-SA NPs has been shown by the subsequent switching off and on of a visible-light source. In vitro biological studies reveal that AcPy-SA NPs of ∼68 nm size deliver the antimicrobial drug salicylic acid into the bacteria cells (Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and efficiently kill the cells upon exposure to visible light (≥410 nm). Such photoresponsive fluorescent organic NPs will be highly beneficial for targeted and regulated antimicrobial drug release because of their biocompatible nature, efficient cellular uptake, and light-induced drug release ability.

  11. Omega-9 Oleic Acid Induces Fatty Acid Oxidation and Decreases Organ Dysfunction and Mortality in Experimental Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Flora Magno de Jesus; Burth, Patrícia; Bozza, Patrícia Torres; Castro Faria, Mauro Velho; Silva, Adriana Ribeiro; de Castro-Faria-Neto, Hugo Caire

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis is characterized by inflammatory and metabolic alterations, which lead to massive cytokine production, oxidative stress and organ dysfunction. In severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome, plasma non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) are increased. Several NEFA are deleterious to cells, activate Toll-like receptors and inhibit Na+/K+-ATPase, causing lung injury. A Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil is beneficial. The main component of olive oil is omega-9 oleic acid (OA), a monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA). We analyzed the effect of OA supplementation on sepsis. OA ameliorated clinical symptoms, increased the survival rate, prevented liver and kidney injury and decreased NEFA plasma levels in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). OA did not alter food intake and weight gain but diminished reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and NEFA plasma levels. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase IA (CPT1A) mRNA levels were increased, while uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) liver expression was enhanced in mice treated with OA. OA also inhibited the decrease in 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) expression and increased the enzyme expression in the liver of OA-treated mice compared to septic animals. We showed that OA pretreatment decreased NEFA concentration and increased CPT1A and UCP2 and AMPK levels, decreasing ROS production. We suggest that OA has a beneficial role in sepsis by decreasing metabolic dysfunction, supporting the benefits of diets high in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). PMID:27078880

  12. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples.

  13. Analysis of Organic Acids, Deacetyl Asperulosidic Acid and Polyphenolic Compounds as a Potential Tool for Characterization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Products.

    PubMed

    Bittová, Miroslava; Hladůkova, Dita; Roblová, Vendula; Krácmar, Stanislav; Kubán, Petr; Kubán, Vlastimil

    2015-11-01

    Organic acids, deacetyl asperulosidic acid (DAA) and polyphenolic compounds in various noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) products (4 juices, 4 dry fruit powders and 2 capsules with dry fruit powder) were analyzed. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a variable wavelength detector (VWD) and electrospray ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-TOF MS) was applied for simultaneous analysis of organic acids (malic, lactic, citric and succinic acid) and DAA. An RP-HPLC method with diode-array detector (DAD) was developed for the analysis of polyphenolic compound content (rutin, catechin, quercitrin, kaempferol, gallic acid, caffeic acid and p-coumaric acid). The developed methods can contribute to better characterization of available noni products that is required from the consumers. In our study, we discovered significant dissimilarities in the content of DAA, citric acid and several phenolic compounds in some samples. PMID:26749805

  14. [Dynamic change of four triterpenic acids contents in different organs of loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) and phenology].

    PubMed

    Li, Ji-yang; Xie, Xiao-mei; Li, Qian-wen; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Sheng-lin; Wang, He-qun; Yu, Wen-xia; Yang, Mo

    2015-03-01

    The loquat is widely cultivated in China, its succulent fruits, leaves and flower are used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. The study is aimed to analyse the content of the four triterpene compounds ( ursolic acid, corosolic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid) in different organs, and investigate the dynamic changes in different phenological period. The triterpenic acids content in the samples was measured by HPLC based on the plant phenological observations. The results showed that order of four triterpenic acids content in different organs from high to low was defoliation (23.2 mg x g(-1)) > mature leaves (21.7 mg x g(-1)) > young leaves (17.5 mg x g(-1)) > fruits (7.36 mg x g(-1)) > flowers (6.40 mg x g(-1)). The triterpenic acids were not detected in the seeds. The total amount of the four triterpenic acids in the loquat leaves collected in the different phenological stages of sprout, flower bud, blossom and fruit varied between 17.8 and 26.2 mg x g(-1) (defoliation), 16.5 and 23.5 mg x g(-1) (mature leaves), 14.7 and 21.5 mg x g(-1) (young leaves), respectively. The content increased progressively with the leaf development, maturation and aging. There was a higher level of the dry material and triterpenic acids accumulation in the mature leaves during fruit enlargement. This paper attempts to present the case for medicinal plants of a broad geographical distribution to study on the secondary metabolites and harvesting time.

  15. Adsorption of short-chain organic acids onto nearshore marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Sansone, F.J.; Andrews, C.C.; Okamoto, M.

    1987-07-01

    The adsorption of acetate, butyrate, lactate, and stearate was measured using a clastic mud from Cape Lookout Bight, N.C. (CLB), a lateritic muddy sand from Kahana Stream, Oahu, Hawaii (KS), and a fine carbonate sand from Waimanalo Beach, Oahu, (WB). Partition coefficients (K/sub d/, moles adsorbed per g of solid phasemoles dissolved per ml of pore water) ranged from 10/sup 2.3/ to less than or equal to 10/sup -3.0/, and displayed the following trends: CLB > KS > WB, and stearate >> acetate similarly ordered butyrate > lactate. The percent adsorption of the sediment organic acid pools showed similar trends: stearate, 99%; acetate, 9-23%; butyrate, 5-23%; lactate, less than or equal to 0.2-7%. These results reflected the relatively nonpolar nature of the sand surfaces in WB and KS sediments, and the polarities of the organic acids. K/sub d/ was approximately constant for each organic acid-sediment combination over a dissolved organic acid concentration range of 10/sup 7/, using concentrations between 1M and 10/sup -14/ M. This constancy over a wide pore water concentration range suggested that adsorption was not limited by the availability of surface adsorption sites.

  16. Nitric acid-organic mixtures surveyed for use in separation by anion exchange methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. A. A.; Faris, J. P.; Stewart, D. C.

    1968-01-01

    Column elution-spectrographic analysis technique compares certain solvents directly to the methanol system, using inert rare earths instead of actinides. Distribution ratios for americium between 90 percent solvent, 10 percent 5 M nitric acid and Dowex 1 nitrate form resin for a large group of organics miscible in water was determined.

  17. Effects of organic acid-surfactant mixtures on levels of bacteria and beef quality traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Organic acid efficacy as an antimicrobial treatment of beef carcass surfaces may be increased through the addition of surfactants. However, the effects of antimicrobial-surfactant mixtures on beef quality traits such as flavor and color stability may make their use unacceptable. Purp...

  18. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  19. Chirality organization of aniline oligomers through hydrogen bonds of amino acid moieties.

    PubMed

    Ohmura, Satoshi D; Moriuchi, Toshiyuki; Hirao, Toshikazu

    2010-11-19

    Aniline oligomers bearing amino acid moieties were designed by the introduction of L/D-Ala-OMe into aniline oligomers to induce chirality organization of the π-conjugated aniline oligomer moieties, wherein the formation of intramolecular hydrogen bonds was demonstrated to play an important role to regulate the aniline oligomer moieties conformationally.

  20. SEMIVOLATILE ORGANIC ACIDS AND LEVOGLUCOSAN IN NEW YORK CITY AIR FOLLOWING 9/11/2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic acid compounds and levoglucosan, an important molecular marker of burning cellulose, are detected in New York City air collected between 9/26/01 and 10/24/01 500 m from Ground Zero. Sampling of Ground Zero emissions at our site is commensurate with a southwesterly wind f...

  1. Organic acids and thymol: unsuitable alternative control of Aethina tumida Murray (Coleoptera: Nitidulidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To explore alternative small hive beetle control strategies, established Varroa destructor and Galleria mellonella treatments with organic acids (formic, lactic, oxalic and acetic) and thymol were investigated in the laboratory against eggs, larvae and adult small hive beetle (SHB). As formic and ox...

  2. Control of Listeria monocytogenes in Ham Deli Loaves using Organic Acids as Formulation Ingredients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic acids are popular preservatives and are utilized in the industry to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) in ready-to-eat (RTE) products. In this study, sodium lactate (SL), potassium lactate (PL) and sodium diacetate (SD) were utilized alone or in combination in the raw product...