Science.gov

Sample records for addiction equity act

  1. How the affordable care act and mental health parity and addiction equity act greatly expand coverage of behavioral health care.

    PubMed

    Beronio, Kirsten; Glied, Sherry; Frank, Richard

    2014-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) will expand coverage of mental health and substance use disorder benefits and federal parity protections to over 60 million Americans. The key to this expansion is the essential health benefit provision in the ACA that requires coverage of mental health and substance use disorder services at parity with general medical benefits. Other ACA provisions that should improve access to treatment include requirements on network adequacy, dependent coverage up to age 26, preventive services, and prohibitions on annual and lifetime limits and preexisting exclusions. The ACA offers states flexibility in expanding Medicaid (primarily to childless adults, not generally eligible previously) to cover supportive services needed by those with significant behavioral health conditions in addition to basic benefits at parity. Through these various new requirements, the ACA in conjunction with Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) will expand coverage of behavioral health care by historic proportions.

  2. Final rules under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; technical amendment to external review for multi-state plan program. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2013-11-13

    This document contains final rule implementing the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, which requires parity between mental health or substance use disorder benefits and medical/surgical benefits with respect to financial requirements and treatment limitations under group health plans and group and individual health insurance coverage. This document also contains a technical amendment relating to external review with respect to the multi-state plan program administered by the Office of Personnel Management.

  3. Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Programs; Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008; the Application of Mental Health Parity Requirements to Coverage Offered by Medicaid Managed Care Organizations, the Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP), and Alternative Benefit Plans. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-03-30

    This final rule will address the application of certain requirements set forth in the Public Health Service Act, as amended by the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008, to coverage offered by Medicaid managed care organizations, Medicaid Alternative Benefit Plans, and Children’s Health Insurance Programs.

  4. 75 FR 5452 - Regulations Under the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... on December 22, 1997 (REG-109704- 97, 62 FR 66967). DATES: Written or electronic comments and... rulemaking (REG-109704-97) that was published in the Federal Register on Monday, December 22, 1997 (62 FR... Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury....

  5. Pay Equity Act, 19 May 1989.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the 1989 Pay Equity Act of the Province of New Brunswick, Canada. This Act implements pay equity to public service employees. The Act sets out the conditions which may prevail and cause differences in pay between a female-dominated class and a male-dominated class. These include a formal seniority system which does not discriminate on the basis of gender, a temporary employee training assignment, a merit pay plan that does not discriminate, a gender-neutral reevaluation process to down-grade a position, or a temporary increase in pay due to a skills shortage. The Act provides that comparisons be made between female-dominated classes and male-dominated classes in terms of pay on an hourly basis and the value of the work performed. No employee is to have pay reduced in order to implement this Act.

  6. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  7. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act may be released on parole in the discretion of the Commission after completion of at least...

  8. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  9. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  10. 28 CFR 2.3 - Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. 2.3 Section 2.3 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND... § 2.3 Same: Narcotic Addict Rehabilitation Act. A Federal prisoner committed under the Narcotic...

  11. Retirement Equity Act of 1984: Its Impact on Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This booklet was written to help readers understand how the Retirement Equity Act of 1984 makes it easier for both women and men to collect retirement benefits under private pension plans. Since women have had special problems in the pension area, it emphasizes how the retirement law works to their advantage by preventing loss of coverage during…

  12. 77 FR 61620 - Privacy Act of 1974; Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT)-Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Privacy Act of 1974; Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT... system, Home Equity Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT). The modifications for the existing... Reverse Mortgage Information Technology (HERMIT) Service Provider formerly HUD/HS-10, Home...

  13. 20 CFR 1002.314 - May a court use its equity powers in an action or proceeding under the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a court use its equity powers in an... Enforcement of Rights and Benefits Against A State Or Private Employer § 1002.314 May a court use its equity powers in an action or proceeding under the Act? Yes. A court may use its full equity powers,...

  14. 20 CFR 1002.314 - May a court use its equity powers in an action or proceeding under the Act?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a court use its equity powers in an... Enforcement of Rights and Benefits Against A State Or Private Employer § 1002.314 May a court use its equity powers in an action or proceeding under the Act? Yes. A court may use its full equity powers,...

  15. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Eap, C B; Khazaal, Y; Montagrin, Y; Rihs-Middel, M; Simon, O; Tissot, H; Tomei, A; Zumwald, C; Zullino, D

    2008-01-01

    This year review emphasizes four aspects coming from addiction psychiatry: 1. Initiation and maintenance of cannabis use. 2. Methadone and heart toxicity. 3. Suicidal behaviour in gambling. 4. Treatment of addictive disorders via internet: present and future perspectives. PMID:18251208

  16. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Gothuey, I; Andronicos, M; Babel, H; Nunweiler, S

    2013-01-01

    What's new in addiction medicine in 2012? The news are presented according three axes: first, in the field of neuroscience, the process of extinction of addiction memories. Then in the clinical field, a reflexion is reported on how to treat addiction in psychiatric hospitals. At last, in the area of teaching, an e-learning development with a virtual patient shows a great interest in addiction psychiatry. PMID:23367696

  17. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy; Tomei, Alexander; Falcheri, Jean-Phillipe; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-15

    The news in addiction medicine in 2013 are presented according to the new version of the DSM (DSM-5); new data on cannabinoid, highlight hypotheses on self-medication; a current status about treatment of the addiction via the internet is shown; and new therapeutic perspectives emerge from the knowledge on traumatic antecedents in addictive populations.

  18. 26 CFR 301.9100-5T - Time and manner of making certain elections under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. 301.9100-5T Section 301.9100-5T Internal... manner of making certain elections under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. (a... elections provided under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. Section of act Section...

  19. 26 CFR 301.9100-5T - Time and manner of making certain elections under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. 301.9100-5T Section 301.9100-5T Internal... manner of making certain elections under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. (a... elections provided under the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982. Section of act Section...

  20. The Retirement Equity Act, Survivor Benefits Protections, and Public Employee Retirement Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liebig, Phoebe S.

    The Retirement Equity Act (REA) sets out requirements for joint and survivor annuity coverage for married individuals who participate in federally regulated retirement plans. REA-mandated provisions do not apply to state and local government retirement systems. Because state and local government employees constitute a significant part of the work…

  1. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-8 - Five consecutive 1-year breaks in service, transitional rules under the Retirement Equity Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., transitional rules under the Retirement Equity Act of 1984. 1.410(a)-8 Section 1.410(a)-8 Internal Revenue... service, transitional rules under the Retirement Equity Act of 1984. Sections 410(a)(5)(D) and 411(a)(6)(D), as amended by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984 (REA 1984), permit a plan to disregard years...

  2. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-8 - Five consecutive 1-year breaks in service, transitional rules under the Retirement Equity Act of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., transitional rules under the Retirement Equity Act of 1984. 1.410(a)-8 Section 1.410(a)-8 Internal Revenue..., transitional rules under the Retirement Equity Act of 1984. Sections 410(a)(5)(D) and 411(a)(6)(D), as amended by the Retirement Equity Act of 1984 (REA 1984), permit a plan to disregard years of service...

  3. Caffeine addiction? Caffeine for youth? Time to act!

    PubMed

    Budney, Alan J; Emond, Jennifer A

    2014-11-01

    While data accumulate and discussion evolves on the clinical importance of caffeine addiction and its classification, the growing practices of (i) adding increasing amounts of caffeine to drinks and other consumables, (ii) promoting these as performance enhancers and (iii) targeting youth as the consumer raise concerns that require immediate action.

  4. Long-acting cocaine hydrolase for addiction therapy

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiabin; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Jin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine abuse is a world-wide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication. An ideal anticocaine medication would accelerate cocaine metabolism, producing biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine-specific exogenous enzyme. Our recent studies have led to the discovery of the desirable, highly efficient cocaine hydrolases (CocHs) that can efficiently detoxify and inactivate cocaine without affecting normal functions of the CNS. Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated that these CocHs are safe for use in humans and are effective for accelerating cocaine metabolism. However, the actual therapeutic use of a CocH in cocaine addiction treatment is limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). Here we demonstrate a novel CocH form, a catalytic antibody analog, which is a fragment crystallizable (Fc)-fused CocH dimer (CocH-Fc) constructed by using CocH to replace the Fab region of human IgG1. The CocH-Fc not only has a high catalytic efficiency against cocaine but also, like an antibody, has a considerably longer biological half-life (e.g., ∼107 h in rats). A single dose of CocH-Fc was able to accelerate cocaine metabolism in rats even after 20 d and thus block cocaine-induced hyperactivity and toxicity for a long period. Given the general observation that the biological half-life of a protein drug is significantly longer in humans than in rodents, the CocH-Fc reported in this study could allow dosing once every 2–4 wk, or longer, for treatment of cocaine addiction in humans. PMID:26712009

  5. Long-acting cocaine hydrolase for addiction therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Jin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-12

    Cocaine abuse is a world-wide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication. An ideal anticocaine medication would accelerate cocaine metabolism, producing biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine-specific exogenous enzyme. Our recent studies have led to the discovery of the desirable, highly efficient cocaine hydrolases (CocHs) that can efficiently detoxify and inactivate cocaine without affecting normal functions of the CNS. Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated that these CocHs are safe for use in humans and are effective for accelerating cocaine metabolism. However, the actual therapeutic use of a CocH in cocaine addiction treatment is limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). Here we demonstrate a novel CocH form, a catalytic antibody analog, which is a fragment crystallizable (Fc)-fused CocH dimer (CocH-Fc) constructed by using CocH to replace the Fab region of human IgG1. The CocH-Fc not only has a high catalytic efficiency against cocaine but also, like an antibody, has a considerably longer biological half-life (e.g., ∼107 h in rats). A single dose of CocH-Fc was able to accelerate cocaine metabolism in rats even after 20 d and thus block cocaine-induced hyperactivity and toxicity for a long period. Given the general observation that the biological half-life of a protein drug is significantly longer in humans than in rodents, the CocH-Fc reported in this study could allow dosing once every 2-4 wk, or longer, for treatment of cocaine addiction in humans.

  6. Long-acting cocaine hydrolase for addiction therapy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiabin; Xue, Liu; Hou, Shurong; Jin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Ting; Zheng, Fang; Zhan, Chang-Guo

    2016-01-12

    Cocaine abuse is a world-wide public health and social problem without a US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication. An ideal anticocaine medication would accelerate cocaine metabolism, producing biologically inactive metabolites by administration of an efficient cocaine-specific exogenous enzyme. Our recent studies have led to the discovery of the desirable, highly efficient cocaine hydrolases (CocHs) that can efficiently detoxify and inactivate cocaine without affecting normal functions of the CNS. Preclinical and clinical data have demonstrated that these CocHs are safe for use in humans and are effective for accelerating cocaine metabolism. However, the actual therapeutic use of a CocH in cocaine addiction treatment is limited by its short biological half-life (e.g., 8 h or shorter in rats). Here we demonstrate a novel CocH form, a catalytic antibody analog, which is a fragment crystallizable (Fc)-fused CocH dimer (CocH-Fc) constructed by using CocH to replace the Fab region of human IgG1. The CocH-Fc not only has a high catalytic efficiency against cocaine but also, like an antibody, has a considerably longer biological half-life (e.g., ∼107 h in rats). A single dose of CocH-Fc was able to accelerate cocaine metabolism in rats even after 20 d and thus block cocaine-induced hyperactivity and toxicity for a long period. Given the general observation that the biological half-life of a protein drug is significantly longer in humans than in rodents, the CocH-Fc reported in this study could allow dosing once every 2-4 wk, or longer, for treatment of cocaine addiction in humans. PMID:26712009

  7. The Great Balancing Act: Financial Equity and Local Control. Can Vermont's Act 60 Do It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Vermont's Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1997 (Act 60) has attracted attention because of its funding and quality components, and the highly publicized responses to its implementation. A key feature is its "recapture" provision in which property-wealthy towns contribute to a state educational fund that helps support education in poorer…

  8. Organ procurement and transplantation: implementation of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-05-01

    This final rule amends the regulations implementing the National Organ Transplant Act of 1984, as amended, (NOTA) pursuant to statutory requirements of the HIV Organ Policy Equity Act (HOPE Act), enacted in 2013. In accordance with the mandates of the HOPE Act, this regulation removes the current regulatory provision that requires the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network (OPTN) to adopt and use standards for preventing the acquisition of organs from individuals known to be infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In its place, this regulation includes new requirements that organs from individuals infected with HIV may be transplanted only into individuals who are infected with HIV before receiving such organs and who are participating in clinical research approved by an institutional review board, as provided by regulation. The only exception to this requirement of participation in such clinical research is if the Secretary publishes a determination in the future that participation in such clinical research, as a requirement for transplants of organs from individuals infected with HIV, is no longer warranted. In addition, this regulatory change establishes that OPTN standards must ensure that any HIV-infected transplant recipients are participating in clinical research in accordance with the research criteria to be published by the Secretary. Alternately, if and when the Secretary determines that participation in such clinical research should no longer be a requirement for transplants with organs from donors infected with HIV to individuals infected with HIV, the regulation mandates that the OPTN adopt and use standards of quality, as directed by the Secretary, consistent with the law and in a way that ensures the changes will not reduce the safety of organ transplantation.

  9. Differential profile and treatment development of drug-addicted patients depending on violent behaviours and/or criminal acts.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent and/or criminal behaviors in drug-addicted patients. A sample of 252 drug-addicted patients who sought treatment was assessed. Information was collected on violent behaviors, criminal acts, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of violence and/or criminal behaviors. There were significant differences between the groups on some variables. In general, patients associated with both violence and criminal behaviors showed a greater severity in drug consumption and maladjustment variables, as well as a higher rate of treatment dropout and re-entry.

  10. Differential profile and treatment development of drug-addicted patients depending on violent behaviours and/or criminal acts.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent and/or criminal behaviors in drug-addicted patients. A sample of 252 drug-addicted patients who sought treatment was assessed. Information was collected on violent behaviors, criminal acts, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of violence and/or criminal behaviors. There were significant differences between the groups on some variables. In general, patients associated with both violence and criminal behaviors showed a greater severity in drug consumption and maladjustment variables, as well as a higher rate of treatment dropout and re-entry. PMID:25774971

  11. H.R. 3821, The Equity and Choice Act Hearing. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This document presents the proceedings of a House of Representatives hearing on the Equity and Choices Act, a proposed amendment to the Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, Chapter 1. The Equity and Choices Act would provide the parents of educationally disadvantaged children with a voucher and the permission to use it at any public or…

  12. Mathematics as Filter of Equity -- An "Old" Story and a New Telling. Response to Michael Kahn: A Class Act--Mathematics as Filter of Equity in South Africa's Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adler, Jill; Setati, Mamokgethi

    2005-01-01

    In his article, A class act -- Mathematics as filter of equity in South African schools, Michael Kahn analyses South African data from matriculation examinations and draws on and re-examines previous analyses he himself has done. This document highlights the important insights into participation and performance in mathematics in South Africa that…

  13. Review of the Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act and the Pediatric Research Equity Act: What can the obstetric community learn from the pediatric experience?

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhaoxia; Zajicek, Anne

    2015-11-01

    Children have been called therapeutic orphans as they have been excluded from drug research and new drug development resulting in the lack of proper labels for majority of the drugs for pediatric use. The Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act (BPCA) and the Pediatric Research Equity Act (PREA) are two legislative mandates to improve pediatric drug labeling. The BPCA legislation authorizes the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to implement research programs through funding clinical trials to study off-patent drugs in pediatric population. Obstetric pharmacology research gaps are in many ways similar to those in pediatrics, including off-label use of common medications, and lack of knowledge of appropriate dosing, safety, and efficacy of drugs. Much research is needed to define mechanisms of disease and drug actions in pregnant women to fill the knowledge gaps. PMID:26455383

  14. Fiscal Equity in Kansas under the School District Equalization Act: Consultants' Analysis on Behalf of Turner USD 202 in Mock v State of Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.; And Others

    Updated information is provided in this addendum to an original report that assessed the equity of the Kansas School District Equalization Act (SDEA) from 1973 to 1988. This consultants' analysis on behalf of Turner School District in "Mock v. State of Kansas" consists of five parts. Following an introduction, section 2 reviews the initial…

  15. The School-to-Work Opportunities Act: An Opportunity To Serve All Students. Women's Educational Equity Act Publishing Center Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiberg, Mary

    This digest consists of two brief articles. The lead article, "The School-to-Work Opportunities Act: An Opportunity To Serve All Students" (Mary Wiberg) tells how the STW Act differs from vocational education by expanding the traditional programs and reflecting the constructivist model of education reform and how STW meets the needs of all…

  16. Training the next generation of providers in addiction medicine.

    PubMed

    Rasyidi, Ernest; Wilkins, Jeffery N; Danovitch, Itai

    2012-06-01

    Within the United States there exists a profound discrepancy between the significant public health problem of substance abuse and the access to treatment for addicted individuals. Part of the insufficient access to treatment is a function of relatively low levels or professional experts in addiction medicine. Part of the low levels of professional addiction experts is the result of inadequate addiction medicine training of medical students and residents. This article outlines deficits in addiction medicine training among medical students and residents, yet real change in the addiction medicine training process will always be subject to the complexity of producing alterations across multiple credentialing institutions as well as the keen competition between educators for “more time” for their particular subject. Other hurdles include the broad-based issue of stigma regarding alcoholism and other substance abuse that likely impact all systems that regulate physician addiction medicine training. As noted in the discussion of psychiatry residency, even psychiatry residents manifest stigma regarding substance abusing patients. Five currently active processes may allow for fundamental change to the inertia in physician addiction medicine training while also potentially impacting stigma: 1. We appear to be at the beginning of the integration of addiction into traditional medicine through the formation of a legitimized addiction medicine subspecialty. 2. The training of primary care trainees and practitioners in the use of SBIRT is accelerating, thus creating another process of addiction integration into traditional medicine. 3. The PCMH is being established as a model for primary care 4. The Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 (MHPAEA) became effective for group health care plan years beginning on or after July 1, 2010; thereby, substance abuse benefits and cost are to be the same as general medical or surgical

  17. Dispossessing Educational Equity: A Critical Exploration of California's Community College Student Success Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grigorieff, Matt

    2016-01-01

    As a result of the economic recession, the State of California has set in motion new policies for its community college system known as the Student Success Act, fundamentally altering open-access (Yamagata-Noji, 2014; Bennett et. al. 2013). Individuals most vulnerable to the policy shift are under-represented college students who constitute the…

  18. Equity Considerations in the Assessment of the Bayh-Dole Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdivia, Walter D.

    2011-01-01

    Extant evaluation studies of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 have focused primarily on its effects on the pace of innovation and on the norms and practices of academic research but neglected other public values. Seeking to redress this shortcoming, I begin by examining Bayh-Dole with respect to other relevant public values following the "Public Value…

  19. 24 CFR 4001.118 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equity sharing. 4001.118 Section... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.118 Equity sharing. (a) Initial Equity. For purposes of section 257(k)(1) of the Act, the initial equity created as a direct result of the origination of a...

  20. 24 CFR 4001.118 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equity sharing. 4001.118 Section... Requirements and Underwriting Procedures § 4001.118 Equity sharing. (a) Initial Equity. For purposes of section 257(k)(1) of the Act, the initial equity created as a direct result of the origination of a...

  1. [Heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    Heroin is an illicit, highly addictive drug. It is either the most abused or the most rapidly acting member of opioids. Abusers describe a feeling of a surge of pleasurable sensation, named as "rush" or "high". Repeated administration of high doses of heroin results in the induction of physical dependence. Physical dependence refers to an altered physiological state produced by chronic administration of heroin which necessitates the continued administration of the drug to prevent the appearance of a characteristic syndrome, the opioid withdrawal or abstinence syndrome. Withdrawal symptoms may occur within a few hours after the last administration of heroin. Symptoms of the withdrawal include restlessness, insomnia, drug craving, diarrhea, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, and leg movements. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose of heroin and subside after about a week. At this time, weakness and depression are pronounced and nausea and vomiting are common. Nevertheless, some chronic addicts have shown persistent withdrawal signs for many months or even years. Heroin addiction is considered as a behavioural state of compulsive drug use and a high tendency to relapse after periods of abstinence. It is generally accepted that compulsive use and relapse are typically associated with the status of heroin craving or heroin hunger that are difficult to define but appear to be powerful motivational significance in the addiction process. The route of administering heroin varies largely and may indicate the degree of seriousness of the individual's addiction. Intravenous administration seems to be the predominant method of heroin use, but recently a shift in heroin use pattern has been found, i.e. from injection to sniffing and smoking. Frequent injections coupled with widespread sharing of syringes increase the risk of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, C and other blood-borne infectious diseases. Long-term use of heroin

  2. Contraceptive Equity

    PubMed Central

    Temkin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    The Equity in Prescription Insurance and Contraceptive Coverage Act, introduced in Congress in 1997 and still unpassed, seeks to redress health insurers’ failure to pay for birth control as they pay for other prescription drugs, most paradoxically Viagra. In 1936 the International Workers Order (IWO), a fraternal society, became the first insurer to include contraception in its benefits package. A forerunner in the movement for prepaid medical care, the IWO offered its members primary care and contraceptive services for annual flat fees. Founded at a time when the legal status of contraception was in flux, the IWO’s Birth Control Center was the only such clinic to operate on an insurance system. Recent state laws and judicial actions have revived the IWO’s groundbreaking view of contraception as a basic preventive service deserving of insurance coverage. PMID:17761562

  3. Narcotic Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Fern, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the major features of narcotic addictions, focusing on the role of methadone as a means of controlling or removing the addiction. It concludes with some observations on society's attitude towards addicts, addictions and programs for control of addiction. PMID:21308103

  4. Federal Pay Equity Act of 1984. Part 1. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Compensation and Employee Benefits of the Committee on Post Office and Civil Service, House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 4599...and H.R. 5092. (April 3-4, 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Post Office and Civil Service.

    This document contains two congressional hearings on H.R. 4599, the Federal Pay Equity Act of 1984, and H.R. 5092, the Pay Equity Act of 1984. These bills would mandate the Office of Personnel Management to study wage discrepancies in the Federal classification structure and to devise a more equitable job evaluation program and would require…

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF THE PM 2.5 FEDERAL REFERENCE METHOD TO DIFFERENTIATE FINE AND COARSE MODE AEROSOL (A RESPONSE TO SECTION 6102(E) OF THE TRANSPORTATION EQUITY ACT FOR THE 21ST CENTURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report is submitted in response to Section 6102(e) of the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century, which states:

    "The Administrator shall conduct a field study of the ability of the PM2.5 Federal Reference Method to differentiate those particles that ...

  6. Interest Group Influences in Advancing and Inhibiting Educational Finance Reform: The Politics of Equity in Vermont's Act 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, William J.

    This paper analyzes educational-finance reform in Vermont, which culminated in the passage of Act 60, a comprehensive education and tax reform measure, and the subsequent political furor the act engendered. It outlines the pre-reform background focusing on early civil-society organizations and the unique political landscape in Vermont. The article…

  7. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. PMID:27623834

  8. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  9. Equity and extramarital sexuality.

    PubMed

    Walster, E; Traupmann, J; Walster, G W

    1978-03-01

    Equity theory has recently been found to be a useful framework for understanding the effects of imbalances in intimate "contractual" relationships such as marriage. Equitable couples seem to be happier, more satisfied with their relationship, and more confident that it will last than are their more mismatched, i.e., inequitable, counterparts. Furthermore, inequitable couples predictably act to "set things right" in their marriage. They either restore actual equity to the relationship or psychologically set their relationship in balance. If neither works, they may "leave the field." Extramarital sex may be viewed as an equity restoration mechanism in that (1) it may be used by the deprived partner to achieve actual equity, (2) it may indicate a partner's readiness to leave the relationship because he feels he can "do better," or (3) it may represent a desire to achieve equity in an alternative relationship(s) when inequity pervades the primary one. The hypothesis that the inequitable/underbenefited group should be more likely than the equitable group or the inequitable/overbenefited group to have engaged in extramarital sex was tested using data from a large-scale Psychology Today questionnaire. The results indicated that men and women in inequitable/underbenefited relationships had more extramarital affairs and began their extramarital activities earlier than did men and women in equitable and inequitable/overbenefited relationships. Alternative explanations of this finding, sex-role demands and length of the relationship, are explored and discarded as untenable.

  10. Equity in community care.

    PubMed Central

    Challis, L.; Henwood, M.

    1994-01-01

    The implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990 made local authority social services departments responsible for the organisation and funding of support and care in the community. This development took effect at the same time as a blurring of the boundaries between health and social care. One consequence is that the relevance of equity (a guiding principle of the 1946 National Health Service Act, but relatively lacking from the 1948 National Assistance Act, the foundation of many social services) has come to be more keenly appreciated within personal social services. Equity questions arise in community care over the distribution of public resources between different client groups, income groups, generations, and localities. Moreover, no mechanisms exist to monitor the trends that emerge from different ways that people get access to care. Yet there is a risk that substantial divisive consequences may occur, particularly between generations. PMID:8019286

  11. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  12. [Food addiction].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, L; Correia, J C; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Food addiction is a common term used in everyday language by obese patients. Although the neurobiological evidence points to some similarities between addictive mechanisms and the consumption of certain foods, this diagnosis is not yet officially recognized. After a brief history of food addiction compared to other eating disorders, we review the neurobiological processes underlying this concept. A food addiction assessment tool is presented and discussed with the current literature and new classifications of the DSM-5. The concept of food addiction needs to be rethought and requires further research.

  13. Addictive sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1994-01-01

    Case material is presented from two patients suffering from addictive sexual behavior. The term addiction is used because of the intense, driven quality of the behavior and because of its mood-elevating effects. Psychodynamically, the patients' sexual acts helped to undo feelings of rejection at the hands of their mothers and to enhance feelings of lovability and of self-esteem. The behavior also helped to neutralize powerful feelings of rage toward the mother. In one patient, the acts also helped to ease inner turmoil related to an underlying attention deficit disorder. I speculate that some adults with addictive sexual behavior may have underlying attention deficit disorders. In both my patients, the sexual behaviors served the self-regulatory function of alleviating inner feelings of anhedonia and depression. When they decreased their sexual activities during the course of the treatment, they required adjunctive antidepressant medication. The underlying meaning of the medication and countertransference attitudes toward such patients are explored.

  14. Behavioral addictions.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders.

  15. "Chicks and Hunks:" Teenagers and Sex Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novogrodsky, Myra; Wells, Margaret

    1989-01-01

    Looks at issues of gender equity that are important to teenagers, showing how students' thoughts and feelings can be used as reference points in the social studies classroom. Suggests class discussions on work equity, gender communication, and intervention strategies. Reminds teachers that they must act as positive role models. (LS)

  16. Buprenorphine for opioid addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Torrington, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist of the µ-receptor, and is used as a daily dose sublingual tablet or filmstrip for managing opioid addiction. In the USA, the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 made buprenorphine the only opioid medication for opioid addiction that can be prescribed in an office-based setting. Owing to its high affinity for the µ-receptor, buprenorphine inhibits the reinforcing effect of exogenous opioids. The ceiling effect of buprenorphine's µ-agonist activity reduces the potential for drug overdose and confers low toxicity even at high doses. Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has proven to be a treatment approach that supports recovery from addiction while reducing or curtailing the use of opioids. This article examines buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction, focusing on the situation in the USA, and is based on a review of pertinent literature, and the authors’ research and clinical experience. The references in this paper were chosen according to the authors’ judgment of quality and relevance, and with respect to their familiarity and involvement in related research. PMID:24654720

  17. Law Enforcement Officers Equity Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Filner, Bob [D-CA-51

    2011-01-19

    02/08/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy . (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Federal Firefighter Pay Equity Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2009-07-13

    07/31/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Federal Firefighter Pay Equity Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Connolly, Gerald E. [D-VA-11

    2011-03-14

    04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Rebuilding Equity Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2012-05-08

    05/08/2012 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 112-677. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. National Guard Technician Equity Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Andrews, Robert E. [D-NJ-1

    2011-03-17

    04/01/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, U.S. Postal Service, and Labor Policy. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. National Guard Technician Equity Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reed, Jack [D-RI

    2011-11-17

    11/17/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Armed Services. (text of measure as introduced: CR S7709-7710) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. HIV Organ Policy Equity Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Capps, Lois [D-CA-24

    2013-02-14

    07/30/2013 Placed on the Union Calendar, Calendar No. 129. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see S.330, which became Public Law 113-51 on 11/21/2013. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Rebuilding Equity Act of 2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Langevin, James R. [D-RI-2

    2012-09-20

    10/23/2012 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  6. Using Data to Promote Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shum, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    Data plays a starring role in promoting educational equity, and data-driven decision making begins with good state policies. With the recent passage of the Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) and a proposed federal rule to address racial disproportionality in special education, states will shoulder increased responsibility for eliminating…

  7. Heroin Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sharing of contaminated injection equipment. TODAY Our knowledge of the opioid system has led to new medications for treating pain—and for treating opioid addiction. The discovery of opiate receptors by NIH-supported researchers, along ...

  8. Interoception and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Stewart, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an “embodied” experience of drug uses together with the individual’s predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. PMID:23855999

  9. [Therapy in heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sáandor; Fürst, Zsuzsanna

    2014-09-01

    Heroin addiction is one of the most devastating and expensive of public health problems. The most effective treatment is opioid replacement therapy. Replacement of heroin, a short-acting euphoriant with methadone or other opioids that have significantly longer duration of action provides a number of therapeutic benefits. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Opioid-based detoxification is based on the principle of cross-tolerance, in which one opioid is replaced with another one that is slowly tapered. For the treatment of heroin addicts a wide range of psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are available; of these, methadone maintenance therapy has the most evidence of benefit. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rate and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. Buprenorphine which is a long-acting partial agonist was also approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence. Opioid antagonists can reduce heroin self-administration and opioid craving in detoxified addicts. Naltrexone, which is a long-acting competitive antagonist at the opioid receptors, blocks the subjective and objective responses produced by intravenous opioids. Naltrexone is employed to accelerate opioid detoxification by displacing heroin and as a maintenance agent for detoxified formerly heroin-dependent patients who want to

  10. Federal Parity In The Evolving Mental Health And Addiction Care Landscape.

    PubMed

    Barry, Colleen L; Goldman, Howard H; Huskamp, Haiden A

    2016-06-01

    The intent of the Paul Wellstone and Pete Domenici Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act of 2008 is to eliminate differences between health insurance coverage of mental health and substance use disorder benefits and coverage of medical or surgical benefits. The Affordable Care Act significantly extended the reach of the Wellstone-Domenici law by applying it to new insurance markets. We summarize the evolution of legislative and regulatory actions to bring about federal insurance parity. We also summarize available evidence on how the Wellstone-Domenici law has contributed to addressing insurance discrimination; rectifying market inefficiencies due to adverse selection; and altering utilization, spending, and health outcomes for people with mental health and substance use disorders. In addition, we highlight important gaps in knowledge about how parity has been implemented, describe the groups still lacking parity-level coverage, and make recommendations on steps to improve the likelihood that the Wellstone-Domenici law will fulfill the aims of its architects.

  11. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  12. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  13. 75 FR 20870 - Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Montreux Equity Partners II SBIC, L.P.; Montreux Equity Partners III SBIC, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Montreux Equity Partners II...

  14. Hearings on Reauthorization of the Vocational Education Act of 1963. Part 11: Sex Equity in Vocational Education. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session on H.R. 66 (December 16-17, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This is a report of hearings on December 16 and 17, 1981, before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, to extend the authorization of appropriations under the Vocational Education Act of 1963. The focus is the issue of sex equity in vocational…

  15. Hearing on Women's Educational Equity Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 11 To Extend through Fiscal Year 1989 the Authorization of Appropriations for Certain Education Programs, and for Other Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Testimony and research studies supporting the reauthorization of the 1983 Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) program are presented. WEEA funds projects which promote quality education for females at all school levels. Statements of the following persons are included: Robert Funk, Disability Rights Education and Defense Fund; Patricia A. Jensen,…

  16. Science Education and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Percy; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This double issue of "Equity Coalition" deals with issues related to the need for inclusive science training and encouraging the interest of women and minorities groups in science. The following articles are included: (1) "Say Yes to Science" (Percy Bates); (2) "Science and Equity: Why This Issue Is Important" (Eleanor Linn); (3) "Race Equity and…

  17. Equity Assessment Study. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fadale, LaVerna M.; Zhao, Peisheng

    This assessment study is a culminating activity of an eight-year initiative to facilitate gender equity and more equitable campus environments - Mentoring Institutional Equity in New York State Two-Year Colleges. Eighteen two-year colleges participated in the application and implementation of an educational equity model designed to enhance gender…

  18. [Game addiction].

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  19. Dealing with Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... more addictive than others: Drugs like crack or heroin are so addictive that they might only be used once or twice before the user loses control. Addiction means a person has no control over whether ...

  20. Pharmacology and anti-addiction effects of the novel κ opioid receptor agonist Mesyl Sal B, a potent and long-acting analogue of salvinorin A

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, B; Morani, A S; Ewald, A W M; Walker, L; Kumar, N; Simpson, D; Miller, J H; Prisinzano, T E; Kivell, B M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute activation of κ opioid (KOP) receptors results in anticocaine-like effects, but adverse effects, such as dysphoria, aversion, sedation and depression, limit their clinical development. Salvinorin A, isolated from the plant Salvia divinorum, and its semi-synthetic analogues have been shown to have potent KOP receptor agonist activity and may induce a unique response with similar anticocaine addiction effects as the classic KOP receptor agonists, but with a different side effect profile. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We evaluated the duration of effects of Mesyl Sal B in vivo utilizing antinociception assays and screened for cocaine-prime induced cocaine-seeking behaviour in self-administering rats to predict anti-addiction effects. Cellular transporter uptake assays and in vitro voltammetry were used to assess modulation of dopamine transporter (DAT) function and to investigate transporter trafficking and kinase signalling pathways modulated by KOP receptor agonists. KEY RESULTS Mesyl Sal B had a longer duration of action than SalA, had anti-addiction properties and increased DAT function in vitro in a KOP receptor-dependent and Pertussis toxin-sensitive manner. These effects on DAT function required ERK1/2 activation. We identified differences between Mesyl Sal B and SalA, with Mesyl Sal B increasing the Vmax of dopamine uptake without altering cell-surface expression of DAT. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS SalA analogues, such as Mesyl Sal B, have potential for development as anticocaine agents. Further tests are warranted to elucidate the mechanisms by which the novel salvinorin-based neoclerodane diterpene KOP receptor ligands produce both anti-addiction and adverse side effects. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24641310

  1. 20 CFR 255.13 - When recovery is against equity or good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false When recovery is against equity or good... RAILROAD RETIREMENT ACT RECOVERY OF OVERPAYMENTS § 255.13 When recovery is against equity or good conscience. (a) Recovery is considered to be against equity or good conscience if a person, in reliance...

  2. 77 FR 76292 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Regulations for Equity in Athletics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-27

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Regulations for Equity in Athletics Disclosure... of Collection: Regulations for Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act (EADA). OMB Control Number: 1840... Responses: 2,074. Total Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 11,407. Abstract: The Equity in...

  3. The Equity of Public Education Funding in Georgia, 1988-1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Ross; Doering, Dwight; Gess, Larry

    2000-01-01

    Employs school funding formulas enacted under Georgia's Quality Basic Education Act to explore changes in interdistrict equity over time. Regarding overall distribution of per-pupil resources across districts (horizontal equity) and for special- needs students (vertical equity), dispersion measures approach Odden and Picus' suggested equity…

  4. The Impact of New Funding Formula on School Finance Equity in Missouri

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Jang Wan

    2006-01-01

    Missouri implemented a new statewide funding formula based on the Outstanding Schools Act in 1993 to increase equity in school finance. This study examined the impacts of the new foundation funding formula on finance equity compared with the selected equity indices including range, restricted range, coefficient of variation, federal range ratio,…

  5. Addiction to internet replies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook

    2009-01-01

    This research introduces a new addictive behavior in cyberspace, which is called Internet Reply Addiction. This phenomenon was found and empirically investigated in Korea where addictive behavior on Internet reply is common. This research suggests that the cause of this kind of addiction can be inferred from the Confucian cultural tradition that oppresses free expressions of individuals in real life settings. PMID:19592737

  6. The shame of addiction.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as "choice" and "responsibility" to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  7. The Shame of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  8. Combined liquid chromatography-coulometric detection and microextraction by packed sorbent for the plasma analysis of long acting opioids in heroin addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Somaini, Lorenzo; Saracino, Maria Addolorata; Marcheselli, Chiara; Zanchini, Silvia; Gerra, Gilberto; Raggi, Maria Augusta

    2011-09-30

    The sublingual combination of buprenorphine and naloxone (Suboxone(®)) and Methadone Maintenance Therapy have been found effective in treating heroin addiction. A new analytical method suitable for the simultaneous determination of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, methadone and naloxone in human plasma by means of liquid chromatography with coulometric detection has been developed. The chromatographic separation was achieved with a phosphate buffer-acetonitrile mixture as the mobile phase on a cyano column. The monitoring cell of the coulometric detector was set at an oxidation potential of +0.600 V. A rapid clean-up procedure of the biological samples using a microextraction by packed sorbent technique has been implemented, employing a C8 sorbent inserted into a syringe needle. The extraction yield values were satisfactory for all analytes (>85%). The calibration curves were linear over a range of 0.25-20.0 ng mL(-1) for buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, 3.0-1000.0 ng mL(-1) for methadone and 0.13-10.0 ng mL(-1) for naloxone. The sensitivity was also high with limits of detection of 0.08 ng mL(-1) for both buprenorphine and norbuprenorphine, 0.9 ng mL(-1) for methadone and 0.04 ng mL(-1) for naloxone. The intraday and interday precision data were always satisfactory. The method was successfully applied to plasma samples obtained from former heroin addicts treated with opioid replacement therapy. PMID:21839210

  9. Fiscal Equity in Kansas under the School District Equalization Act: Consultants' Analysis on Behalf of Turner U.S.D. 202 in "Mock v. State of Kansas."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, David C.; And Others

    The effect of the School District Equalization Act (SDEA) on school financing in Kansas is analyzed in this report. Included is a discussion of the context of the present legal action, a description of the present statutory scheme and evaluation framework, a longitudinal statistical assessment of the SDEA in relation to the entire state and…

  10. Equity of Higher Educational Opportunity for Women, Black, Hispanic, and Low Income Students. ACT Student Financial Aid Research Report Series 91-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortenson, Thomas G.

    This report presents the results of a study that was conducted concerning the progress through the educational system, since the enactment of the Higher Education Act of 1965, of four large groups of Americans: women, Blacks, Hispanics, and low family income students. The study found that women have made steady and substantial progress over the…

  11. The role of flow experience in cyber-game addiction.

    PubMed

    Chou, Ting-Jui; Ting, Chih-Chen

    2003-12-01

    Consumer habit, an important key to repetitive consumption, is an interesting yet puzzling phenomenon. Sometimes this consumption becomes obsessive--consumers will continue to act a certain way even when they feel it is not in their best interests. However, not all consumers develop such addictions. This study uses cyber-game addiction syndrome as an analogue to trace the possible causes of consumer addiction. Results from structure equation modeling show that repetition of favorite activities has a moderate effect upon addiction, which is in line with the assertion of rational addiction theory. However, flow experience--the emotional state embracing perceptional distortion and enjoyment--shows a much stronger impact on addiction. This suggests that consumers who have experienced flow are more likely to be addicted.

  12. Impulsivity and emotion dysregulation as predictors of food addiction.

    PubMed

    Pivarunas, Bernadette; Conner, Bradley T

    2015-12-01

    Food addiction is the clinical occurrence in which individuals develop physical and psychological dependencies on high fat, high sugar, and highly palatable foods. Past research has demonstrated a number of similarities between food addiction and drug use disorders including the activation of specific brain regions and neurotransmitters, disrupted neuronal circuitry, and behavioral indicators of addiction such as continued use despite negative consequences. The present study examined the role of impulsivity and emotion dysregulation in food addiction as both play salient roles in drug use disorders. Poisson regression analyses using data from 878 undergraduate students revealed negative urgency, the tendency to act impulsively when under distress, and emotion dysregulation positively predicted symptom count on the Yale Food Addiction Scale (Gearhardt, Corbin, & Brownell, 2009) whereas a lack of premeditation negatively predicted symptom count (all ps<0.05). Future research is needed to confirm precursors to eating episodes in food addiction, elucidate causal mechanisms, and support an explanatory model of food addiction.

  13. Melding Excellence and Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David A.

    1983-01-01

    This document examines the issues of educational excellence and equity. The Milwaukee Public School System, Wisconsin, is cited as an example of a desegregation program that both exceeded court requirements of equity and also made a substantial contribution to the goals of excellence in education. The school effectiveness movement, like…

  14. Gender Equity. IDRA Forum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter contains six articles on issues of gender equity for Chicanas and other women. "Recognizing Chicana Contributions: Cultural History & Gender Equity on the Line" (Mikki Symonds) discusses the invisibility of Mexican Americans in general and of Chicanas in particular in U.S. history books, school curricula, and pop culture, and…

  15. Men, Women, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Rhona; Rapoport, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of equity is proposed as having advantages over that of equality. By equity, we mean a fair allocation both of opportunity and of constraints. It is put forward as a concept which goes beyond that of equality; it acknowledges differences between men and women and the need to think in terms of variations of patterns. Paper presented at…

  16. H.R. 1992, the Internet Equity and Education Act of 2001. Hearing before the Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness of the Committee on Education and the Workforce. House of Representatives, One Hundred Seventh Congress, First Session (June 20, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    The Subcommittee on 21st Century Competitiveness, Committee on Education and the Workforce, U.S. House of Representatives met at 10:33 a.m. on Wednesday, June 20, 2001, in Room 2175, Rayburn House Office Building to hear testimony on H.R. 1992, the Internet Equity and Education Act of 2001. Chairman of the Subcommittee, Hon. Howard P. "Buck"…

  17. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  18. The Pueblo Superfund program -- a Native American perspective on cultural impacts and environmental equity under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez, C.M.; Garcia, T.L.; Chavez, E.F.; Tso, K.; Francisco, C.L.; Allison, A.; Tso, D.

    1996-12-31

    The All Indian Pueblo Council (AIPC) through the Pueblo Office of Environmental Protection (POEP) implements and provides a variety of environmental programs and services to the 19 Indian Pueblos of New Mexico. Specifically, the POEP Superfund Program investigates and evaluates potential hazardous waste sites within Pueblo lands. The POEP Superfund Program began in September 1991 when the 19 Pueblo Governors signed a Superfund Memorandum of Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 6. The goal of the POEP Superfund Program is to determine those sites that are eligible for Superfund-financed remedial action by placing those sites on the National Priorities List (NPL), while including the Pueblo perspective. Because the 19 Pueblos are each unique, sovereign nations, several differences and gaps associated with the current Superfund law and EPA methodologies exist. Currently, the Superfund Hazard Ranking System (HRS) model does not account for Indian religious and ceremonial impacts from these sites. Due to their importance in Pueblo life, culturally significant plants, animals, ceremonial surface water use, and sacred areas should be considered as critical impacts when evaluating the various pathways of exposure of the HRS. Tribal environmental equality is an aspect that will be included into all environmental laws. AIPC and POEP are working to address this issue under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA).

  19. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  20. Social equity and environmental risk

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, R. )

    1993-12-01

    Social equity has become an important concern of the environmental movement over the past decade. The equity issue is analyzed here for practically all of the inactive hazardous waste disposal sites on the National Priorities List (NPL) regulated under the Comprehensive Response Compensation and Liability Act and its 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (CERCLA/SARA). Two dimensions of equity are emphasized, namely, site location relative to the location of minority population and the distribution of cleanup plans or Records of Decision (ROD) across communities with NPL sites that have different socioeconomic characteristics. With respect to site location, the percentage of Blacks and Hispanics aggregated at the Census Place or MCD level in communities with NPL sites was greater than is typical nationwide (largely attributable to the concentration of minority populations in a few large urban areas with NPL sites). The percentage of the population below the poverty line in communities with NPL sites largely matched that of the nation as a whole. With respect to site cleanup, communities with relatively higher percentages of racial minority population have fewer cleanup plans than other communities with NPL site. Whether a ROD exists is influenced by when the site was designated for the NPL: sites designated earlier are more likely to have RODs and less likely to have high proportions of racial minority populations than sites designated later. This implies that initially the designation process may have resulted in NPL sites being located disproportionately in minority areas, but this pattern seems to be reversing itself in more recently designated sites. Racial and ethnic disproportionalities with respect to inactive hazardous waste site location seem to be concentrated in a relatively few areas. 35 refs., 12 tabs.

  1. NARCOTIC DRUG ADDICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAHRAES, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    MUCH HAS BEEN LEARNED IN RECENT YEARS ABOUT THE NATURE OF DRUG ADDICTION, THE FACTORS WHICH LEAD A PERSON INTO ADDICTION, AND THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF PERSONS WHO HAVE BECOME ADDICTED. THIS PAMPHLET SURVEYS THE NEW FINDINGS AND IS INTENDED PRIMARILY FOR (1) THOSE WHO IN THE COURSE OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES COME IN CONTACT WITH ADDICTED…

  2. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  3. 77 FR 76586 - Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... ADMINISTRATION Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P., 711 Fifth... Equity SBIC I, L.P. proposes to provide debt security financing to Richardson Foods, Inc., 101 Erie...

  4. Confronting Equity Issues on Campus: Implementing the Equity Scorecard in Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensimon, Estela Mara, Ed.; Malcom, Lindsey, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    How can it be that 50 years after the passage of the Civil Rights Act, our institutions of higher education have still not found ways of reducing the higher education gaps for racial and ethnic groups? That is the question that informs and animates the Equity Scorecard model of organizational change. It shifts institutions' focus from what…

  5. A review of addiction.

    PubMed

    Clay, Steven W; Allen, Jason; Parran, Theorore

    2008-07-01

    Addiction to drugs and alcohol is often undiagnosed and untreated. Physicians are often unaware or have negative attitudes regarding these patients, such as the perception that treatment is ineffective. Addiction--psychological dependence with or without tolerance and withdrawal--is essentially compulsive uncontrolled substance use despite physical, psychological, or social consequences. We now have an understanding of the 2 major neurological pathways involved in addiction. First, the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which is essential for survival, can be physically altered by drug abuse to result in uncontrolled cravings. Second, the decision-making prefrontal cortex, which suppresses inappropriate reward response, can also be altered by drug abuse. Thus, accelerated "go" signals and impaired "stop" signals result in uncontrolled use despite severe consequences. Further, addicts can be predisposed to addiction by genetic defects in reward pathway neurotransmission and stress-related developmental brain abnormalities. Relapse to drug use can occur because of stress or cue-related reward pathway stimulation or even by a single drug dose. Individualized treatment of addiction, including pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions, can be as successful as treatment of other chronic diseases. Several pharmaceuticals are available or under study for these disorders. Waiting for the addict to "be ready" for treatment can be dangerous and detoxification alone is often ineffective. The physician's role in treating addiction includes prevention, diagnosis, brief intervention, motivational interviewing, referral, and follow-up care. An understanding of the biological reality of addiction allows physicians to understand addicts as having a brain disease. Further, the reality of effective pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for addiction allows physicians to be more optimistic in treating addicts. The challenge to the physician is to embrace the

  6. "Addiction Proneness" and Personality in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerome J.

    1975-01-01

    A carefully controlled comparison of the personality characteristics of heroin addict (n=27) and nonaddict (n=20) offenders was carried out so as to avoid methodological problems associated with earlier studies. (Editor)

  7. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  8. Gender Equity Expert Panel: Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    The U.S. Department of Education developed the Gender Equity Expert Panel to identify promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education. This panel of experts reviewed self-nominated programs to determine whether they met four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity; quality of the…

  9. Naltrexone: A Pan-Addiction Treatment?

    PubMed

    Aboujaoude, Elias; Salame, Wael O

    2016-08-01

    Addiction is a major public health problem with few efficacious and safe treatments. The goal of this review is to provide an evidence-based assessment of the therapeutic role of the opioid antagonist naltrexone across the addiction spectrum-substance-based and behavioral. The PubMed database was searched for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials that investigated the oral or intramuscular long-acting formulation of naltrexone in substance use disorders or behavioral addictions such as pathological gambling, kleptomania, and trichotillomania. Thirty-nine efficacy studies were retrieved, covering alcohol use disorder (n = 22), opioid use disorder (n = 6), nicotine use disorder (n = 5), stimulant use disorder (n = 2), gambling disorder (n = 2), trichotillomania (n = 1), and kleptomania (n = 1). Despite the very different presentations within and between both addiction categories, the data, as a whole, show consistency in favor of naltrexone's relative efficacy and safety. Given the potential benefit and good tolerability revealed in the studies, the high morbidity associated with addiction, and the dearth of alternate treatments, naltrexone would seem like an underutilized treatment option. Further, naltrexone's seemingly broad anti-addiction efficacy supports a shared role for brain opioid pathways in the pathophysiology of addiction, broadly defined. More studies investigating the efficacy and tolerability of naltrexone and other opioid modulators are warranted. Studies should also further examine the effect of combining psychotherapy with naltrexone, as well as the potential role of naltrexone in treating comorbid addictions. PMID:27401883

  10. The genetic basis of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David

    2012-06-01

    Addictions are common, chronic, and relapsing diseases that develop through a multistep process. The impact of addictions on morbidity and mortality is high worldwide. Twin studies have shown that the heritability of addictions ranges from 0.39 (hallucinogens) to 0.72 (cocaine). Twin studies indicate that genes influence each stage from initiation to addiction, although the genetic determinants may differ. Addictions are by definition the result of gene × environment interaction. These disorders, which are in part volitional, in part inborn, and in part determined by environmental experience, pose the full range of medical, genetic, policy, and moral challenges. Gene discovery is being facilitated by a variety of powerful approaches, but is in its infancy. It is not surprising that the genes discovered so far act in a variety of ways: via altered metabolism of drug (the alcohol and nicotine metabolic gene variants), via altered function of a drug receptor (the nicotinic receptor, which may alter affinity for nicotine but as discussed may also alter circuitry of reward), and via general mechanisms of addiction (genes such as monoamine oxidase A and the serotonin transporter that modulate stress response, emotion, and behavioral control). Addiction medicine today benefits from genetic studies that buttress the case for a neurobiologic origin of addictive behavior, and some general information on familially transmitted propensity that can be used to guide prevention. A few well-validated, specific predictors such as OPRM1, ADH1B, ALDH2, CHRNA5, and CYP26 have been identified and can provide some specific guidance, for example, to understand alcohol-related flushing and upper GI cancer risk (ADH1B and AKLDH2), variation in nicotine metabolism (CYP26), and, potentially, naltrexone treatment response (OPRM1). However, the genetic predictors available are few in number and account for only a small portion of the genetic variance in liability, and have not been integrated

  11. What is addiction?

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  12. What is addiction?

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines.

  13. Current considerations regarding food addiction.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Joyner, Michelle A; Potenza, Marc N; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2015-04-01

    "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating.

  14. Current considerations regarding food addiction.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Joyner, Michelle A; Potenza, Marc N; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2015-04-01

    "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating. PMID:25749750

  15. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  16. Addiction and will

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  17. Locality Pay Equity Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Casey, Robert P., Jr. [D-PA

    2011-07-21

    07/21/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Health Equity and Accountability Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Christensen, Donna M. [D-VI-At Large

    2009-06-26

    06/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Rural Development, Biotechnology, Specialty Crops, and Foreign Agriculture. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Career and Technical Education Equity Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Heck, Joseph J. [R-NV-3

    2013-08-02

    09/13/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. United States Postal Service Shipping Equity Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Speier, Jackie [D-CA-14

    2013-04-24

    06/14/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, and Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Wounded Warrior Tax Equity Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cornyn, John [R-TX

    2014-07-30

    07/30/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5137) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Equity for Visual Artists Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2011-12-15

    12/15/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on the Judiciary. (text of measure as introduced: CR S8681-8682) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Career and Technical Education Equity Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Heck, Joseph J. [R-NV-3

    2016-04-29

    09/19/2016 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Genetics of opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Brian; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; Randesi, Matthew; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-11-01

    Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.

  5. Anti-addiction vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  6. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  7. Individual Differences in Equity Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmans, Joeri

    2012-01-01

    In the present paper, we (1) study whether people differ in the equity models they use, and (2) test whether individual differences in equity models relate to individual differences in equity sensitivity. To achieve this goal, an Information Integration experiment was performed in which participants were given information on the performance of two…

  8. Categorising methadone: Addiction and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Keane, Helen

    2013-11-01

    While methadone was first developed as an analgesic, and used for this purpose before it was adopted as a therapy for drug dependence, it is this latter use which has saturated its identity. Most of the literature and commentary on methadone discusses it in the context of methadone maintenance therapy (MMT). But one of the effects of the liberalization of opiate prescription for chronic pain which took place in the 1990s was the re-emergence of methadone as a painkiller. This article examines the relationship between methadone the painkiller and methadone the addiction treatment as it is constituted in recent medical research literature and treatment guidelines. It highlights the way medical discourse separates methadone into two substances with different effects depending on the problem that is being treated. Central to this separation is the classification of patients into addicts and non-addicts; and pain sufferers and non-pain sufferers. The article argues that despite this work of making and maintaining distinctions, the similarities in the way methadone is used and acts in these different medical contexts complicates these categories. The difficulties of keeping the 'two methadones' separate becomes most apparent in cases of MMT patients also being treated for chronic pain.

  9. Equity, by what measure?

    PubMed

    Houston, Shane

    2006-12-01

    Equity has in many instances been framed around the notion of fairness. But the metric used to determine what is fair leaves some people at a disadvantage because the things that they value are not always taken properly into account. If I value mangoes and you value oranges is a measure of fairness based on how many oranges I seek appropriate? If I am expected to give up my love of mangoes in order to get ahead is that fair? The debate about judging equity - about measuring fairness - needs to find the conceptual and methodological space to allow the voices and claims of the other to be heard. PMID:17176236

  10. Pleasure and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Jeanette; Matthews, Steve; Snoek, Anke

    2013-01-01

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu (1) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as “strong appetites toward pleasure” and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers) reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value, and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction. PMID:24093020

  11. Counseling Compulsive Resume Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Marshall J.

    Compulsive Resume Addiction (CRA) is a condition where applicants become dependent on their written credentials to get new employment. It is similar to other addictions in that the person manifests short-term, gratification-seeking behavior with the long term cost in self-esteem and self-confidence. Applicants get stuck in thinking that a better…

  12. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  13. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  14. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  15. Teacher Communities for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran-Smith, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    Teachers working together in learning communities is a popular aspect of school reform projects in countries around the world. However, teacher communities vary greatly from one another. This article describes two communities whose purpose is to help teachers work for equity by focusing on questions that emerge from practice and from genuine…

  16. Student Equity Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus

    Following a decrease in minority student enrollment within the California Community Colleges (CCC), the Board of Governors (BOG) convened a special statewide symposium to examine issues of minority student enrollment, retention, and transfer, and established a standing Board Committee on Equity and Diversity. Over the past 2 years, a system policy…

  17. Equity Literacy for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorski, Paul C.; Swalwell, Katy

    2015-01-01

    If the authors have learned anything working with schools across the United States, they've learned this: When it comes to educational equity, the trouble is not a lack of multicultural programs or diversity initiatives in schools. Nor is it a lack of educators who appreciate and even champion diversity. The trouble lies in how so many diversity…

  18. Sex Equity Coordinator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubenstein, Dorothy; Sillman, Donna

    This guidebook was designed to assist sex equity coordinators in the Los Angeles Community College District in promoting the recruitment, retention, and placement of students in vocational programs that are non-traditional for their sex. The guidebook's first ten chapters present: (1) outlines of relevant legislation and legal guidelines for…

  19. Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on equity in children's literature, public funding for private schools, women in educational fields, female dropouts, and the relationship between school violence and family and community violence. "Violence in Our Schools" (Bradley Scott) explores reasons for school violence (media violence, isolation from family, racial…

  20. Global Equity Gauge Alliance.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, Antoinette

    2007-01-01

    The lack of attention to equity in health, health care and determinants of health is a burden to the attainment of good health in many countries. With this underlying problem as a basis, a series of meetings took place between 1999 and 2000, culminating in the creation the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA). G EGA is an international network of groups in developing countries, mainly Asia, Africa and Latin America, which develop projects designed to confront and mitigate inequities in health, know as Equity Gauges. Equity Gauges aim to contribute towards the sustained decline in inequities in both the broad sociopolitical determinants of health, as well as inequities in the health system. Their approach is based on three broad spheres of action, known as "pillars": 1) measurement and monitoring, 2) advocacy, and 3) community empowerment. Through a series of examples from local or national level gauges, this paper showcases their work promoting the interaction between research and evidence-based policy formulation and implementation, and the interaction between the community and policy makers. PMID:17665716

  1. Gender Equity. IDRA Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    IDRA Newsletter, 1996

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter includes five articles on gender equity and related issues in education, with particular reference to the education of Hispanic girls. "IDRA's MIJA Program Expands" (Aurora Yanez-Perez) describes a program for sixth-grade Hispanic girls that promotes awareness of science- and math-related careers, provides training in science and…

  2. Computer Equity @ School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Equity Coalition for Race, Gender, and National Origin, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This edition of "Equity Coalition" is designed to be a resource to assist those who have responsibility for technology in the schools. The authors of these articles discuss a variety of issues related to computer uses in education and equal access to educational technology. The issue contains the following articles: (1) "Technology--A New Kind of…

  3. Redressing School Finance Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crampton, Faith E.

    1997-01-01

    Outlines trends in school finance litigation. Examines definitions of fiscal equity, reviews 20 years of litigation, and analyzes recent legal activity. Recent litigation has challenged some states' school finance systems. Court decisions have split evenly regarding permissible disparities in per-pupil operating expenditures, a measure of…

  4. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  5. [Functional neuroimaging of addiction].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-09-01

    Positron emission tomography studies investigating dopamine release by drug or reward demonstrated blunted dopamine release in relation to addiction to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. However, recent studies reported that nicotine and gambling addiction showed opposite results. Several factors such as illness stage or neurotoxicity of substances could be considered for this discrepancy. Behavioral addiction such as gambling disorder is a good target of neuroimaging because it is free from overt neurotoxicity. However, even in gambling disorder, the results of fMRI studies investigating neural response to reward are mixed. Neuroimaging together with taking the various backgrounds of patients into account should contribute not only to a better understanding of the neurobiology of addiction but also to the development of more effective and individually tailored treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:26394506

  6. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  7. If private equity sized up your business.

    PubMed

    Pozen, Robert C

    2007-11-01

    As the dust settles on the recent frenzy of private equity deals (including transactions topping $20 billion), what lessons can companies glean? Directors and executives of public companies may now be slightly less fearful of imminent takeover, yet the pressure remains: They face shareholders who wonder why they aren't getting private-equity-level returns. Rather than dismiss the value private equity has created as manipulated or aberrant, public company leaders should recognize the disciplined management that often underlies it. Pozen, a longtime leader in the financial services industry, finds that in the aftermath of buyouts, companies undergo five major thrusts of reform. These translate into five key questions that directors should pose to senior management: Have we left too much cash on our balance sheet instead of raising our cash dividends or buying back shares? Do we have the optimal capital structure, with the lowest weighted after-tax cost of total capital, including debt and equity? Do we have an operating plan that will significantly increase shareholder value, with specific metrics to monitor performance? Are the compensation rewards for our top executives tied closely enough to increases in shareholder value, with real penalties for nonperformance? Finally, does our board have enough industry experts who have made the time commitments and been given the financial incentives necessary to maximize shareholder value? The era of private equity is far from over - the top funds have become very large and are likely to play an influential role in future market cycles. Boards that ask these questions, and act on them, won't just beat the takeover artists to the punch. They will build stronger businesses.

  8. Wisconsin Vocational Equity Leadership Cadre Support Project. Final Report. FY96.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Linda L.

    A project provided technical assistance and support to the Wisconsin Vocational Equity Leadership Cadre to enable them to assist local districts in meeting the equity assurances in the Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Applied Technology Education Act of 1990. Approximately 80 members of the cadre, educators responsible for providing regional…

  9. State Gender Equity Law & Athletic Participation among Community Colleges in Washington State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jennifer L.; Horton, David, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of partial tuition waivers for athletic participation among community colleges in Washington State and its implications for state and federal gender equity policy and legislation. Using a mixed-methods approach, this article presents findings from Equity in Athletics Disclosure Act data, document analysis, and…

  10. 17 CFR 1.21 - Care of money and equities accruing to customers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Care of money and equities... COMMISSION GENERAL REGULATIONS UNDER THE COMMODITY EXCHANGE ACT Customers' Money, Securities, and Property § 1.21 Care of money and equities accruing to customers. All money received directly or indirectly...

  11. [Involuntary admission of addict during early pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Hondius, Adger J K; Stikker, Tineke E; Wennink, J M B Hanneke; Honig, Adriaan

    2012-01-01

    A 30-year-old cocaine-dependent woman was 16 weeks pregnant. Because of possible endangerment of the fetus, an involuntary provisional admission was authorized. Of particular interest is the application of the Dutch Act on Formal Admissions to Psychiatric Hospitals for the primary diagnosis 'addiction' and the fact that the fetus was regarded as a legal 'other'. In severe cases of addiction combined with pregnancy an earlier intervention is needed and arrangement of accelerated legal custody of the newborn before birth should be considered. For the protection of the unborn, we advocate a stricter application of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Information for addicted women with preconception counselling can help prevent a compulsory admission. PMID:22258443

  12. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  13. In What Sense Are Addicts Irrational?

    PubMed Central

    Rachlin, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Rationality is here considered from a functional viewpoint: How may the concept of rationality be best used in talking about addictive behavior? The article considers rationality in terms of overt behavioral patterns rather than as a smoothly operating logic mechanism in the head. The economic notion of rationality as consistency in choice - the property of exponential time discount functions - is examined and rejected. Addicts are not irrational because of the type of time discount function that governs their choices - or even because of the steepness of that function. Instead, rationality is here conceived as a pattern of predicting your own future behavior and acting upon those predictions to maximize reinforcement in the long run. Addicts are irrational to the extent that they fail to make such predictions and to take such actions. PMID:16956732

  14. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions.

  15. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. PMID:24769267

  16. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control.

    PubMed

    Grasman, Johan; Grasman, Raoul P P P; van der Maas, Han L J

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of addiction as a dynamical system in the way this is done in the natural and technological sciences. The dynamics of the addictive behaviour is described by a mathematical model consisting of two coupled difference equations. They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues. The latter are formulated as events that are Poisson distributed in time. With the model it is shown how a person can get addicted when changing lifestyle. Although craving is the dominant variable in the process of addiction, the moment of getting dependent is clearly marked by a switch in a variable that fits the definition of addiction vulnerability in the literature. Furthermore, the way chance affects a therapeutic addiction intervention is analysed by carrying out a Monte Carlo simulation. Essential in the dynamical model is a nonlinear component which determines the configuration of the two stable states of the system: being dependent or not dependent. Under identical external conditions both may be stable (hysteresis). With the dynamical systems approach possible switches between the two states are explored (repeated relapses). PMID:27352037

  17. Role of Self-help Group in Substance Addiction Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Prangya Paramita Priyadarshini

    2012-11-01

    Background: The Narcotics Anonymous (NA)/Alcoholic Anonymous(AA) is based on the philosophy of self-help, where the former addicts and recovering addicts share experiences, provide emotional support and do active monitoring through mentoring. In mentoring, a former addict with longer duration of drug-free life acts as a guide to the newly recovering addict. Objective: The objective was to study the effect of involvement in self help group upon addictís level of depression, functional social support, and anxiety. Method: The size of the sample was 60. 30 addicts were taken from rehabilitation centre and 30 were taken from self-help groups. ANOVA was used to analyze the result. Result: In all the criteria it was found that there exists a significant impact of Self-help group. Conclusion: Self-help group provide clients with a social network of individuals with similar problems and experiences, since most of these individuals may be isolated from society due to the social stigma attached to their addictions. The transition from being help recipients to being helpers enables recovering addicts to build their self-confidence and feelings of being wanted and desired in society, which facilitates their self-confidence and positive self-esteem.

  18. The Dynamics of Addiction: Craving versus Self-Control

    PubMed Central

    Grasman, Johan

    2016-01-01

    This study deals with addictive acts that exhibit a stable pattern not intervening with the normal routine of daily life. Nevertheless, in the long term such behaviour may result in health damage. Alcohol consumption is an example of such addictive habit. The aim is to describe the process of addiction as a dynamical system in the way this is done in the natural and technological sciences. The dynamics of the addictive behaviour is described by a mathematical model consisting of two coupled difference equations. They determine the change in time of two state variables, craving and self-control. The model equations contain terms that represent external forces such as societal rules, peer influences and cues. The latter are formulated as events that are Poisson distributed in time. With the model it is shown how a person can get addicted when changing lifestyle. Although craving is the dominant variable in the process of addiction, the moment of getting dependent is clearly marked by a switch in a variable that fits the definition of addiction vulnerability in the literature. Furthermore, the way chance affects a therapeutic addiction intervention is analysed by carrying out a Monte Carlo simulation. Essential in the dynamical model is a nonlinear component which determines the configuration of the two stable states of the system: being dependent or not dependent. Under identical external conditions both may be stable (hysteresis). With the dynamical systems approach possible switches between the two states are explored (repeated relapses). PMID:27352037

  19. 78 FR 77770 - Ironwood Equity Fund, LP; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Ironwood Equity Fund, LP, 45 Nod Road, Avon... Act and Section 107.730, Financings which Constitute Conflicts of Interest of the Small...

  20. Still "A Reasonably Equal Share." Update on Educational Equity in Vermont, Year 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Vermont's Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1997, "Act 60," was designed to rectify inequities in the state's funding of public education, as determined by the Vermont Supreme Court. This report examines the degree to which Act 60 has improved conditions over the last 5 years, focusing on the 3 main equity goals of Act 60 and the court's…

  1. Promoting equity in health.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Skov Jensen, M; Norris, A; Evans, T

    1998-06-01

    There is evidence that widening income gaps are a global phenomenon; that in many advanced industrialised countries unemployment rates are rising; that globalisation of the world economy has led to several countries becoming marginalised with a concomitant increase in poverty; and that the absolute number of poor has steadily increased over the last decade. All of these phenomena emphasise the need to focus on equity as a global concern. PMID:9672961

  2. Promoting equity in health.

    PubMed

    Yach, D; Skov Jensen, M; Norris, A; Evans, T

    1998-06-01

    There is evidence that widening income gaps are a global phenomenon; that in many advanced industrialised countries unemployment rates are rising; that globalisation of the world economy has led to several countries becoming marginalised with a concomitant increase in poverty; and that the absolute number of poor has steadily increased over the last decade. All of these phenomena emphasise the need to focus on equity as a global concern.

  3. Developing Agency for Equity-Minded Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felix, Eric R.; Bensimon, Estela Mara; Hanson, Debbie; Gray, James; Klingsmith, Libby

    2015-01-01

    This chapter highlights the use of the Equity Scorecard with the Community College of Aurora. The Equity Scorecard is a theory-based strategy that assists community colleges in embedding equity into their institutional norms, practices, and policies.

  4. [Online addictive disease].

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  5. [Online addictive disease].

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  6. Stress and addiction.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction.

  7. Stress and addiction.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. PMID:23849597

  8. Biological substrates of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Max E.; Grueter, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse, however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. PMID:24999377

  9. Lessons From Medicaid’s Divergent Paths On Mental Health And Addiction Services

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christina; Grogan, Colleen M.; Brennan, Marianne; Pollack, Harold A.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past fifty years Medicaid has taken divergent paths in financing mental health and addiction treatment. In mental health, Medicaid became the dominant source of funding and had a profound impact on the organization and delivery of services. But it played a much more modest role in addiction treatment. This is poised to change, as the Affordable Care Act is expected to dramatically expand Medicaid’s role in financing addiction services. In this article we consider the different paths these two treatment systems have taken since 1965 and identify strategic lessons that the addiction treatment system might take from mental health’s experience under Medicaid. These lessons include leveraging optional coverage categories to tailor Medicaid to the unique needs of the addiction treatment system, providing incentives to addiction treatment programs to create and deliver high-quality alternatives to inpatient treatment, and using targeted Medicaid licensure standards to increase the quality of addiction services. PMID:26153307

  10. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  11. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  12. [Neurobiology of addictive behavior].

    PubMed

    Ivlieva, N Iu

    2011-01-01

    Addictive behavior developes after repeated substance use and it typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to the drug use than to other activities. Relapse, the resumption of drug taking after periods of abstinence, remains the major problem for the treatment of addiction. The process of drug addiction shares striking commonalities with neural plasticity associated with natural reward learning and memory and is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. The switch from controlled to compulsive drug seeking represents a transition at the neural level from prefrontal cortical to striatal control. Current neurophysiologic evidence suggests that the development of addiction is to some extent due to neurochemical stimulation of the midbrain dopaminergic system that is traditionally considered as a 'common neural currency' for rewards of most kinds. Addictions are a result of the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. They are characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity as well as polygenicity. Environmental factors are crucial in addiction vulnerability and resistese too.

  13. Operationalizing Equity: The Complexities of Equity in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreasson, Ingela; Ohlsson, Lisbeth; Assarson, Inger

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to offer some reflections on the relationship between meanings of equity at the national level and those working with these questions in local schools. We argue that meanings of equity at the national level are in strong contrast to the range complexity identified in local schools. The article draws from case study…

  14. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  15. The Special Education Paradox: Equity as the Way to Excellence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skrtic, Thomas M.

    1991-01-01

    Critiques special education as a professional and institutional practice and public education as social practice. Compares the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and the Regular Education Initiative. Argues that school organization and specialized professional culture are not conducive to educational excellence and equity and proposes…

  16. Gender Equity and the Year 2000. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Development Center, Inc., Newton, MA.

    During the past 17 years, the Women's Educational Equity Act (WEEA) program has accomplished the following: funded programs to open math, science, and technology courses and careers to women and girls; helped females gain access to nontraditional vocational education; funded projects to eliminate bias against females in school and the workplace;…

  17. Civil Wrongs: Federal Equity Initiative Promotes Paperwork, Not Equality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, R. Shep

    2016-01-01

    In October 2014, U.S. secretary of education Arne Duncan announced the Obama administration's new "education equity initiative," explaining that the president could not "continue to wait" for Congress to act "on behalf of vulnerable children." The centerpiece of this initiative was a 37-page "Dear Colleague"…

  18. Transforming Equity-Oriented Leaders: Principal Residency Network Program Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Donna; Billups, Felice D.; Gable, Robert K.

    2013-01-01

    After 12 years focused on developing school leaders who act as change agents for educational equity, the Principal Residency Network (PRN) partnered with Johnson and Wales University's Center for Research and Evaluation to conduct a utilization-focused (Patton, 2002) program evaluation funded by a grant from the Rhode Island Foundation. The…

  19. Equity in Dance Education Where Are We Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Risner, Doug

    2006-01-01

    As issues of equity consistently surface as a fundamental concern for dance education's past, present, and future, this commentary is the first of a number of pieces that will focus on root common goals, new ways of seeing the field, and acting upon both of these realizations in one's own site. In this initial commentary, the author discusses…

  20. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

  1. Technology and Equity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuman, Delia

    This examination of the relationship that exists between technology and students warns that, although technology is routinely touted as a potentially powerful agent of educational reform, technology and equity are not inevitable partners. A review of the literature on computer equity reveals that many students--not only minority, disadvantaged,…

  2. Leadership, Equity, and School Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, H. Prentice, Jr., Ed.; And Others

    This collection of essays focuses on the intersection between equity and excellence in educational leadership and urges a reconceptualization that gives appropriate consideration to women and ethnic and racial minorities. The book begins with an introductory chapter, entitled "Equity and Excellence in Educational Leadership: A Necessary Nexus," by…

  3. Screening Educational Equity: A Filmography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Susan Morris, Comp.

    The more than 300 films and videos listed in this annotated filmography for use by educators and their students are presented in 14 categories: (1) Biases in Early Childhood Education; (2) Career and Vocational Opportunities; (3) Curriculum Equity; (4) Discrimination in Employment; (5) Equity in Sports; (6) A Legal Context; (7) Male Sex Role…

  4. Sex Equity: Is It Feasible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shocklee, Georgia

    This guide presents a model and plan to expedite implementation of sex equity in vocational education through the elimination of sex stereotyping and sex bias. Aimed at vocational education administrators, the guide is organized into the four steps of the plan. Step 1 provides a rationale for the decision to implement a model sex equity program,…

  5. The Addict in Us all

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Brendan; Holton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1–3) entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these “incentive salience” desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account, the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents – though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways in which it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action. PMID:25346699

  6. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  7. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    2000-05-02

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  8. Addiction, the Addict, and Career: Considerations for the Employment Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Matthew D.

    2006-01-01

    Employment counselors have been resistant to working with persons in recovery from addiction except under the strictest of criteria. This article examines the relationship between this resistance and the concepts of addiction and addict. Following this is an examination of substance abuse recovery and practical suggestions on incorporating…

  9. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  10. Intergenerational equity and conservation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoole, R. P.; Walton, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of integenerational equity in the use of natural resources is discussed in the context of coal mining conversion. An attempt to determine if there is a clear-cut benefit to future generations in setting minimum coal extraction efficiency standards in mining is made. It is demonstrated that preserving fossil fuels beyond the economically efficient level is not necessarily beneficial to future generations even in terms of their own preferences. Setting fossil fuel conservation targets for intermediate products (i.e. energy) may increase the quantities of fossil fuels available to future generations and hence lower the costs, but there may be serious disadvantages to future generations as well. The use of relatively inexpensive fossil fuels in this generation may result in more infrastructure development and more knowledge production available to future generations. The value of fossil fuels versus these other endowments in the future depends on many factors which cannot possibly be evaluated at present. Since there is no idea of whether future generations are being helped or harmed, it is recommended that integenerational equity not be used as a factor in setting coal mine extraction efficiency standards, or in establishing requirements.

  11. Trimebutine: abuse, addiction and overdose.

    PubMed

    2013-10-01

    Trimebutine, an antispasmodic drug, is used to relieve pain associated with irritable bowel syndrome, despite a lack of proven efficacy. Trimebutine has been shown to act on peripheral opioid receptors. Cases of trimebutine abuse and addiction have been reported in young adults, especially with the injectable form. Cases of serious accidental or intentional trimebutine overdose have been reported in infants and young adults, leading to neurological disorders (loss of consciousness, coma, drowsiness and convulsions) and cardiac disorders (bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, arterial hypertension). Time to symptom onset was less than 3 hours after trimebutine intake. In practice, trimebutine is by no means a harmless drug, contrary to the impression given by the limited safety data available. Patients with pain due to irritable bowel syndrome should be informed of the adverse effects of trimebutine, and the harm-benefit balance should be reassessed in patients already taking this drug. PMID:24298588

  12. Rethinking Equity--There Are Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picus, Lawrence O.

    1998-01-01

    Defines "equity" in terms of three concepts (horizontal equity, vertical equity, and fiscal neutrality), summarizes school finance litigation history, and presents alternative distribution formats to improve student achievement. Enhancing equity and efficiency requires reallocation of existing resources, incentives for improved performance, a more…

  13. 75 FR 48661 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission. SUMMARY: The U.S. Secretary of Education (Secretary) announces the establishment of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Equity Commission...

  14. 75 FR 48662 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-11

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Request for Nominations to Serve on the Equity and Excellence Commission. SUMMARY: The Secretary of... Equity and Excellence Commission. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Equity and Excellence Commission...

  15. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  16. Attitudes of Former Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudouris, James

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of addicts (N=222) and their own appraisal of which treatment modality they found most successful based upon their own experiences are of primary importance in prescribing a treatment for the addict. For the long-term addict continually in and out of prisons, perhaps methadone maintenance is the solution. (Author)

  17. Psychostimulant addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. PMID:24727297

  18. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  19. Addiction and free will

    PubMed Central

    VOHS, KATHLEEN D.; BAUMEISTER, ROY F.

    2009-01-01

    Whether people believe that they have control over their behaviors is an issue that is centrally involved in definitions of addiction. Our research demonstrates that believing in free will – that is, believing that one has control over one's actions – has societal implications. Experimentally weakening free will beliefs led to cheating, stealing, aggression, and reduced helping. Bolstering free will beliefs did not change participants’ behavior relative to a baseline condition, suggesting that most of the time people possess a belief in free will. We encourage a view of addiction that allows people to sustain a belief in free will and to take responsibility for choices and actions. PMID:19812710

  20. Nicotinic Cholinergic Synaptic Mechanisms in the Ventral Tegmental Area Contribute to Nicotine Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pidoplichko, Volodymyr I.; Noguchi, Jun; Areola, Oluwasanmi O.; Liang, Yong; Peterson, Jayms; Zhang, Tianxiang; Dani, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco use is a major health problem that is estimated to cause 4 million deaths a year worldwide. Nicotine is the main addictive component of tobacco. It acts as an agonist to activate and desensitize nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). A component of nicotine's addictive power is attributable to actions on the mesolimbic dopaminergic…

  1. Health equity and social justice.

    PubMed

    Peter, F

    2001-01-01

    There is consistent and strong empirical evidence for social inequalities in health, as a vast and growing literature shows. In recent years, these findings have helped to move health equity high on international research and policy agendas. This paper examines how the empirical identification of social inequalities in health relates to a normative judgment about health inequities and puts forward an approach which embeds the pursuit of health equity within the general pursuit of social justice. It defends an indirect approach to health equity, which views social inequalities in health as unjust in so far as they are the result of an unjust basic structure of society in Rawls' sense.

  2. 76 FR 35263 - Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P.; Notice Seeking Exemption Under Section 312 of the Small Business Investment Act, Conflicts of Interest Notice is hereby given that Founders Equity SBIC I, L.P., 711 Fifth Avenue, 5th Floor, New York, NY 10022,...

  3. Addiction and dependence in DSM-V.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Charles

    2011-05-01

    As preparations for the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) are under way, this paper focuses upon changes proposed for the substance use disorders section. It briefly outlines the history behind the current nomenclature, and the selection of the term 'dependence' over 'addiction' in earlier versions of the DSM. The term 'dependence', while used in past decades to refer to uncontrolled drug-seeking behavior, has an alternative meaning--the physiological adaptation that occurs when medications acting on the central nervous system are ingested with rebound when the medication is abruptly discontinued. These dual meanings have led to confusion and may have propagated current clinical practices related to under-treatment of pain, as physicians fear creating an 'addiction' by prescribing opioids. In part to address this problem, a change proposed for DSM-V is to alter the chapter name to 'Addiction and Related Disorders', which will include disordered gambling. The specific substance use disorders may be referred to as 'alcohol use' or 'opioid use' disorders. The criteria for the disorders are likely to remain similar, with the exception of removal of the 'committing illegal acts' criterion and addition of a 'craving' criterion. The other major change relates to the elimination of the abuse/dependence dichotomy, given the lack of data supporting an intermediate stage. These changes are anticipated to improve clarification and diagnosis and treatment of substance use and related disorders.

  4. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment.

  5. Religion and addiction.

    PubMed

    Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Mateja; Poljak, Saša; Repič, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  6. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  7. Food addiction and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; von Rezori, Vittoria; Blechert, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED), eating patterns can show addictive qualities, with similarities to substance use disorders on behavioural and neurobiological levels. Bulimia nervosa (BN) has received less attention in this regard, despite their regular binge eating symptoms. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders, and food addiction can be diagnosed when at least three addiction symptoms are endorsed and a clinically significant impairment or distress is present. Although the prevalence of food addiction diagnoses is increased in individuals with obesity and BED, recent studies which used the YFAS showed that there are also individuals with normal weight who can be classified as being 'food addicted'. Based on self-reported eating disorder symptoms, women with current (n=26) or remitted (n=20) BN, and a control group of women matched for age and body mass index (n=63) completed the YFAS and other measures. Results revealed that all patients with current BN received a food addiction diagnosis according to the YFAS while only six (30%) women with remitted BN did. None of the women in the control group received a food addiction diagnosis. Results provide support for the notion that BN can be described as addiction-like eating behaviour and suggest that food addiction most likely improves when BN symptoms remit.

  8. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    PubMed

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain.

  9. Social Identities as Pathways into and out of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Cruwys, Tegan; Frings, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There exists a predominant identity loss and "redemption" narrative in the addiction literature describing how individuals move from a "substance user" identity to a "recovery" identity. However, other identity related pathways influencing onset, treatment seeking and recovery may exist, and the process through which social identities unrelated to substance use change over time is not well understood. This study was designed to provide a richer understanding of such social identities processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults residing in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community (TC) and thematic analysis revealed two distinct identity-related pathways leading into and out of addiction. Some individuals experienced a loss of valued identities during addiction onset that were later renewed during recovery (consistent with the existing redemption narrative). However, a distinct identity gain pathway emerged for socially isolated individuals, who described the onset of their addiction in terms of a new valued social identity. Almost all participants described their TC experience in terms of belonging to a recovery community. Participants on the identity loss pathway aimed to renew their pre-addiction identities after treatment while those on the identity gain pathway aimed to build aspirational new identities involving study, work, or family roles. These findings help to explain how social factors are implicated in the course of addiction, and may act as either motivations for or barriers to recovery. The qualitative analysis yielded a testable model for future research in other samples and settings. PMID:26648882

  10. Social Identities as Pathways into and out of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Dingle, Genevieve A; Cruwys, Tegan; Frings, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There exists a predominant identity loss and "redemption" narrative in the addiction literature describing how individuals move from a "substance user" identity to a "recovery" identity. However, other identity related pathways influencing onset, treatment seeking and recovery may exist, and the process through which social identities unrelated to substance use change over time is not well understood. This study was designed to provide a richer understanding of such social identities processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults residing in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community (TC) and thematic analysis revealed two distinct identity-related pathways leading into and out of addiction. Some individuals experienced a loss of valued identities during addiction onset that were later renewed during recovery (consistent with the existing redemption narrative). However, a distinct identity gain pathway emerged for socially isolated individuals, who described the onset of their addiction in terms of a new valued social identity. Almost all participants described their TC experience in terms of belonging to a recovery community. Participants on the identity loss pathway aimed to renew their pre-addiction identities after treatment while those on the identity gain pathway aimed to build aspirational new identities involving study, work, or family roles. These findings help to explain how social factors are implicated in the course of addiction, and may act as either motivations for or barriers to recovery. The qualitative analysis yielded a testable model for future research in other samples and settings.

  11. Social Identities as Pathways into and out of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Dingle, Genevieve A.; Cruwys, Tegan; Frings, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There exists a predominant identity loss and “redemption” narrative in the addiction literature describing how individuals move from a “substance user” identity to a “recovery” identity. However, other identity related pathways influencing onset, treatment seeking and recovery may exist, and the process through which social identities unrelated to substance use change over time is not well understood. This study was designed to provide a richer understanding of such social identities processes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 21 adults residing in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community (TC) and thematic analysis revealed two distinct identity-related pathways leading into and out of addiction. Some individuals experienced a loss of valued identities during addiction onset that were later renewed during recovery (consistent with the existing redemption narrative). However, a distinct identity gain pathway emerged for socially isolated individuals, who described the onset of their addiction in terms of a new valued social identity. Almost all participants described their TC experience in terms of belonging to a recovery community. Participants on the identity loss pathway aimed to renew their pre-addiction identities after treatment while those on the identity gain pathway aimed to build aspirational new identities involving study, work, or family roles. These findings help to explain how social factors are implicated in the course of addiction, and may act as either motivations for or barriers to recovery. The qualitative analysis yielded a testable model for future research in other samples and settings. PMID:26648882

  12. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  13. Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Luke; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H

    2013-08-01

    Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use.

  14. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    PubMed

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors. PMID:25257111

  15. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    PubMed

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors.

  16. [Environment and addictive behaviors].

    PubMed

    Touzeau, Didier; Raynal, Marie-Line

    2012-12-01

    Consumer society creates the emergence of addictive behaviors and environments of the subject "shape" the use of psychoactive substances. The family approach is to search out a guilt of members to understand family dynamics and enable young people to emancipate themselves from the family model. The social environment contributes to the marginalization of drug users "pathologizing" his conduct. Offer help without preconditions and a relationship based on a therapeutic alliance can contribute decisively to the recovery of an addict. The prison is a place of initiation of use and consumption of psychoactive substances despite the offer of specialized treatment. Measures of risk reduction of HCV/HIV infection and alternatives to incarceration should complete it. At workplace, consumption can be considered as a mean of doping to be more "efficient", but also as an attempt to withstand the stresses and changes in working conditions in the context of individualization and a loss of marks related to the new way of organizing work.

  17. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen People who are trying ... Español English Español PDF Version Download "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  18. Treatment of internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  19. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  20. The instrumental rationality of addiction.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Hanna

    2011-12-01

    The claim that non-addictive drug use is instrumental must be distinguished from the claim that its desired ends are evolutionarily adaptive or easy to comprehend. Use can be instrumental without being adaptive or comprehensible. This clarification, together with additional data, suggests that Müller & Schumann's (M&S's) instrumental framework may explain addictive, as well as non-addictive consumption. PMID:22074973

  1. What is sexual addiction?

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  2. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  3. Racism and perinatal addiction.

    PubMed

    Neuspiel, D R

    1996-01-01

    Recent publicity and policy have targeted drug use by non-white women, particularly during pregnancy and parenthood. This emphasis on women of color is discordant with the population demographics of substance use and addiction, although morbidity and mortality related to drugs is often greater among nonwhites. Women with addictive disorders that are exacerbated by their social environments are blamed for their behavior. Meanwhile, drug treatment and primary health care services for these women are woefully inadequate. Among newborns testing positive for cocaine, those with black mothers are more likely to be discharged to non-maternal care, which may perpetuate family disruption. There are multiple reasons for true and perceived ethnic differences in substance use, addiction, and related social and medical harm. Such harm may be worsened by the racism inherent in U.S. drug policy. The scapegoating of non-white drug-using women and the paucity of treatment for them may be related to political and economic imperatives of society in maintaining and pacifying exploited groups.

  4. Reducing the nicotine content to make cigarettes less addictive.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Neal L; Henningfield, Jack E

    2013-05-01

    Nicotine is highly addictive and is primarily responsible for the maintenance of cigarette smoking. In 1994, Benowitz and Henningfield proposed the idea of federal regulation of the nicotine content of cigarettes such that the nicotine content of cigarettes would be reduced over time, resulting in lower intake of nicotine and a lower level of nicotine dependence. When nicotine levels get very low, cigarettes would be much less addictive. As a result, fewer young people who experiment with cigarettes would become addicted adult smokers and previously addicted smokers would find it easier to quit smoking when they attempt to do so. The regulatory authority to promulgate such a public health strategy was provided by the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act. Although it precludes 'reducing nicotine to zero', the act does not prohibit the Food and Drug Administration from setting standards for cigarette nicotine content that would prevent them from being capable of causing addiction. This paper reviews the assumptions implicit in a nicotine reduction strategy, examines the available data on the feasibility and safety of nicotine reduction, and discusses the public education, surveillance and support services that would be needed for the implementation of such a policy.

  5. Addictions and the quest to control the object.

    PubMed

    Waska, Robert

    2006-03-01

    Most patients come into psychoanalytic treatment engaged in some form of repetitive, destructive behavior that is an externalization or projection of their internal struggles. One form of this object relational acting-out is the addictions, be they to alcohol, gambling, drugs, sex, procrastination, or other variations. The patient's experience is a "must do-can't stop" one that leaves them both desperate and relieved. Patients come to us wanting help in refraining from these addictive patterns. Sometimes, they are attending a 12-step program or are in a day treatment recovery program but need additional assistance in remaining free from their addictive behaviors. Others seek out psychoanalytic treatment while still involved in their addiction, but wish to stop the behavior and build a more positive plan for their lives. This paper examines the deeper object relational issues that lie behind the addictive process. The transference is often colored by acting-out, by sadomasochistic dynamics, by projective identification, and by fantasies of persecution and loss. Case material is used to explore these specific problems as well as the patient's general difficulties with paranoid-schizoid and depressive functioning. PMID:16544198

  6. Bridging Literacy and Equity: The Essential Guide to Social Equity Teaching. Language & Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazar, Althier M.; Edwards, Patricia A.; McMillon, Gwendolyn Thompson

    2012-01-01

    "Bridging Literacy and Equity" synthesizes the essential research and practice of social equity literacy teaching in one succinct, user-friendly volume. Extraordinary K-12 teachers show us what social equity literacy teaching looks like and how it advances children's achievement. Chapters identify six key dimensions of social equity teaching that…

  7. Advocacy for Health Equity: A Synthesis Review

    PubMed Central

    Farrer, Linden; Marinetti, Claudia; Cavaco, Yoline Kuipers; Costongs, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    -termism also act as barriers. These barriers could be tackled through long-term actions to raise public awareness and understanding of the SDH and through training of health professionals in advocacy. Advocates need to take advantage of “windows of opportunity,” which open and close quickly, and demonstrate expertise and credibility. Conclusions This article brings together for the first time evidence from the academic and the gray literature and provides a building block for efforts to advocate for health equity. Evidence regarding many of the dimensions is scant, and additional research is merited, particularly concerning the applicability of findings outside the English-speaking world. Advocacy organizations have a central role in advocating for health equity, given the challenges bridging the worlds of civil society, research, and policy. PMID:26044634

  8. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nadia S

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early life stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors in addiction thus plays an important role in the understanding of processes of addiction and origins of differential vulnerabilities and treatment responses. PMID:18286803

  9. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... assistance granted on the account. (b) Miscellaneous provisions—(1) Changes in terms. Shared equity will not... section. (c) Affordable housing proposals. Shared equity under an affordable housing innovation (such...

  10. Neurobiology of addiction: a neurocircuitry analysis.

    PubMed

    Koob, George F; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction represents a dramatic dysregulation of motivational circuits that is caused by a combination of exaggerated incentive salience and habit formation, reward deficits and stress surfeits, and compromised executive function in three stages. The rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, development of incentive salience, and development of drug-seeking habits in the binge/intoxication stage involve changes in dopamine and opioid peptides in the basal ganglia. The increases in negative emotional states and dysphoric and stress-like responses in the withdrawal/negative affect stage involve decreases in the function of the dopamine component of the reward system and recruitment of brain stress neurotransmitters, such as corticotropin-releasing factor and dynorphin, in the neurocircuitry of the extended amygdala. The craving and deficits in executive function in the so-called preoccupation/anticipation stage involve the dysregulation of key afferent projections from the prefrontal cortex and insula, including glutamate, to the basal ganglia and extended amygdala. Molecular genetic studies have identified transduction and transcription factors that act in neurocircuitry associated with the development and maintenance of addiction that might mediate initial vulnerability, maintenance, and relapse associated with addiction. PMID:27475769

  11. The Pursuit of Race and Sex Equity in the Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venditti, Frederick P.

    1982-01-01

    Until recently the federal courts (Brown vs. Board of Education of Topeka) and Congressional action (Civil Rights Act of 1964, Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, Title IX of the Educational Amendments of 1972) have spurred efforts to bring race and sex equity to the schools. (LC)

  12. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.

  13. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  14. Interstellar Sweat Equity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. H.; Becker, R. E.; O'Donnell, D. J.; Brody, A. R.

    So, you have just launched aboard the Starship, headed to an exoplanet light years from Earth. You will spend the rest of your natural life on this journey in the expectation and hope that your grandchildren will arrive safely, land, and build a new settlement. You will need to govern the community onboard the Starship. This system of governance must meet unique requirements for participation, representation, and decision-making. On a spaceship that can fly and operate by itself, what will the crewmembers do for their generations in transit? Certainly, they will train and train again to practice the skills they will need upon arrival at a new world. However, this vicarious practice neither suffices to prepare the future pioneers for their destiny at a new star nor will it provide them with the satisfaction in their own work. To hone the crewmembers' inventive and technical skills, to challenge and prepare them for pioneering, the crew would build and expand the interstellar ship in transit. This transstellar ``sweat equity'' gives a stake in the enterprise to all the people, providing meaningful and useful activity to the new generations of crewmembers. They build all the new segments of the vessel from raw materials - including atmosphere - stored on board. Construction of new pressure shell modules would be one option, but they also reconstruct or fill-in existing pressurized volumes. The crew makes new life support system components and develops new agricultural modules in anticipation of their future needs. Upon arrival at the new star or planet, the crew shall apply these robustly developed skills and self-sufficient spirit to their new home.

  15. 7 CFR 930.60 - Equity holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity holders. 930.60 Section 930.60 Agriculture... Regulations § 930.60 Equity holders. (a) Inventory reserve ownership. The inventory reserve shall be the sole responsibility of the handlers who place products into the inventory reserve. A handler's equity in the...

  16. 7 CFR 1980.391 - Equity sharing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity sharing. 1980.391 Section 1980.391 Agriculture... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Rural Housing Loans § 1980.391 Equity sharing. The policy of RHS is to collect... described in paragraph (a) of this section occur, if any equity exists in the security. (a) Determining...

  17. Understanding Equity Strategies of Training Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, John; Volkoff, Veronica; Egg, Mez; Solomon, Nicky

    2004-01-01

    Limited research has been undertaken to identify and examine systemic issues associated with the provision of vocational education and training (VET) to equity groups. This report focuses on the institutional relationships and policies that determine equity provision, and proposes three principles for framing equity practices. The principles are:…

  18. Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bexley, Emmaline; Harris, Kerri-Lee; James, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The Framework for Evaluation of Equity Initiatives has been prepared to support the Go8 Equity Strategy. Its purpose is to assist Group of Eight (Go8) universities to evaluate the effectiveness of their equity initiatives and interventions in the context of federal policies and the distinctive missions and responsibilities of the individual Go8…

  19. Exemplary & Promising Gender Equity Programs, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This report identifies promising and exemplary programs that promote gender equity in and through education during the 1996-99 Gender Equity Expert Panel review cycle. These programs need to meet four criteria: evidence of success/effectiveness in promoting gender equity, quality of program, educational significance, and usefulness to others or…

  20. 77 FR 31605 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...- ] coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington,...

  1. 76 FR 41233 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Chen, Designated Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission,...

  2. 76 FR 55059 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Auditorium. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jim Eichner, Designated Federal Official, Equity and...

  3. 77 FR 484 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the..., Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW, Washington,...

  4. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice... meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of... Chen, Designated Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education,...

  5. 76 FR 27034 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION... upcoming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Auditorium. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Stephen Chen, Designated Federal Official, Equity and...

  6. Drug addiction as drive satisfaction ("antidrive") dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kostowski, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex brain disorder, characterized by the loss of control over drug seeking and drug taking behavior, and by the risk of relapse, even after a prolonged period of abstinence. This disorder may have its source in a disturbed balance of drive-related behaviors, which control appetitive reactions aimed at seeking contact with an addictive substance. The act of consumption becomes more and more attractive, and the behavior takes on compulsive character. We suppose that drug addiction may involve a change in the mechanism of satisfaction of drives and states of satiation as well. To understand how the motivational processes are changed with the development of dependence, one must consider the mechanism of drive satisfaction and satiation states that occur in relation to the consumatory reflex. When a given drive is satisfied a state of fulfillment occurs. This state may be a result of a so-called "antidrive" mechanism (Konorski 1967). While a drive activity is characterized by general activation and tension, the drive satisfaction state ("antidrive") is characterized by relaxation and relief. When a particular drive is satisfied, the operation of other drives become possible. Therefore, we postulate that dysfunction of drive satisfaction leads to the sustained activation related to the current drug-related drive, which blocks the operation of other drives. In effect, uncontrolled compulsive appetitive behavior is released, and the operation of other drives is restrained, thus forcing the organism to focus on drug-related drive. The reason for an "antidrive" dysfunction may be related to adaptive changes which develop during a contact with an addictive substance.

  7. Making equity a value in value-based health care.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Philip M; Bonham, Ann C; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Equity in health and health care in America continues to be a goal unmet. Certain demographic groups in the United States-including racial and ethnic minorities and individuals with lower socioeconomic status-have poorer health outcomes across a wide array of diseases, and have higher all-cause mortality. Yet despite growing understanding of how social-, structural-, and individual-level factors maintain and create inequities, solutions to reduce or eliminate them have been elusive. In this article, the authors envision how disparities-related provisions in the Affordable Care Act and other recent legislation could be linked with new value-based health care requirements and payment models to create incentives for narrowing health care disparities and move the nation toward equity.Specifically, the authors explore how recent legislative actions regarding payment reform, health information technology, community health needs assessments, and expanding health equity research could be woven together to build an evidence base for solutions to health care inequities. Although policy interventions at the clinical and payer levels alone will not eliminate disparities, given the significant role the social determinants of health play in the etiology and maintenance of inequity, such policies can allow the health care system to better identify and leverage community assets; provide high-quality, more equitable care; and demonstrate that equity is a value in health. PMID:24072123

  8. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  9. [Exercise addiction: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kurimay, Tamás

    2008-01-01

    Exercise in appropriate quantity and of proper quality contributes significantly to the preserve our health. On the contrary, excessive exercise may be harmful to health. The term 'exercise addiction' has been gaining increasing recognition to describe the latter phenomenon. The exact definition of exercise addiction and its potential associations with other disorders is still under study, although according to the authors this phenomenon can be primarily described as a behavioral addiction. Accordingly, exercise addiction, among other behavioral and mental disorders, can be well describe within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum suggested by Hollander (1993). There are several tools used to assess exercise addiction. The authors here present the Hungarian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (Hausenblas és Downs, 2002) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo és Griffiths, 2004). Exercise addiction has many symptoms in common and also shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders and body image disorders. It may be more closely associated with certain sports but more data is needed to demonstrate this specificity with more certainty. Sel-evaluation problems seem to have a central role in the etiology from a psychological aspect. The relevance of neurohormonal mechanisms is less clear. The authors emphasize the importance of further research on exercise addiction. One important question to be answered is if this disorder is an independent entity to be classified as a distinct clinical disorder or is it rather a subgroup of another disorder.

  10. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  11. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders. PMID:21287493

  12. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders.

  13. Making Way for Equity: Elementary Principals' Interpretations of Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Christine A.

    2010-01-01

    Treating education as a socially transformative and morally conscious enterprise calls for educators to expose and improve social conditions related to oppression. These beliefs herald a different kind of practice for teachers and administrators in public schools, a practice that deals directly with dilemmas of equity and pluralism. Limited…

  14. Shareowners' Equity at Campbell Soup: How Can Equity Be Negative?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohrman, Mary Beth; Stuerke, Pamela S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an instructional case based on the 2001 annual report of the Campbell Soup Company (CPB). During that year, CPB's shareowners' equity went from a surplus of USD137 million to a deficit of USD247 million. The analysis will allow students to determine that the change resulted from borrowing to purchase treasury stock. Students…

  15. Internet addiction in young people.

    PubMed

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  16. Personality dimensions of opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Vukov, M; Baba-Milkic, N; Lecic, D; Mijalkovic, S; Marinkovic, J

    1995-02-01

    A survey of 80 opiate addicts included in a detoxification program was conducted at the Institute on Addictions in Belgrade. In addition to a dependence diagnosis and mental disorders based on DSM-III-R, we applied a Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that measures the 3 major personality dimensions: novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). When compared with a control group (a sample of Yugoslav undergraduate students), the opiate addicts demonstrate significantly high NS dimension as well as significant divergences of HA and RD subscales. The surveyed opiate addicts demonstrate a high percentage of personality disorders specifically in cluster B. The personality dimensions of opiate addicts showed certain temperament traits, such as: impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fear of uncertainty and dependence. NS, HA and RD determined by temperament specifics may be an etiological factor in forming of a personality disorder, an affective disorder as well as of a drug choice.

  17. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  18. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  19. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  20. Strategic operating indicators point to equity growth.

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O

    1988-07-01

    As healthcare managers become more business-like in their behavior, they are becoming increasingly concerned with the equity growth rate of their organizations. Strong equity growth means a financially healthy organization. Equity growth can be expressed as a product of five financial ratios--the most important ratio being the operating margin. Improvements in operating margins will lead to improvements in equity growth. Thirty indicators, called strategic operating indicators, have been developed to monitor operating margins. These indicators, when compared with values from other peer groups, can help point to strategies for improvement of operating margins, and hence equity growth.

  1. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  2. [Pharmacopsychoses during drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Cottereau, M J; Lôo, H; Poirier, M F; Deniker, P

    1975-01-01

    Widespread use of certain drugs (amphetamines, L.S.D., hypnotics) in France, allowed us to observe more than 200 cases of acute or chronic psychoses among addicts. Sometimes these are transitory outburst but the occurrence of a delusional psychosis with long range evolution raises a difficult diagnosis problem in relation to functional psychoses. The emphasis should be put on respective roles of the drug and of a predisposed mental state. Circumstances of beginning, apparently direct relationship between drug taking and pathological symptoms, therapy efficiency, absence of earlier pathological traits (as in many of our patients) and relapse when intoxication starts again, are in favour of a pharmacological origin of the troubles.

  3. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  4. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  5. Reducing the distance: equity issues in distance learning in public education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Patricia B.; Storo, Jennifer

    1996-12-01

    Distance learning and educational equity both began with an emphasis on access, on providing underserved students with an increased access to education. Today definitions of equity have gone beyond simple access to include equal or equivalent treatment and outcomes while definitions of underserved students have expanded to include girls, children of color, children with limited English proficiency and children with disabilities. At the same time the definition of distance learning has expanded to include new technologies, new audiences and new roles. Based on these new definitions and roles, the article raises a number of equity challenges for distance learning educators centering around who is taught, what is taught and how the teaching is done. To answer these challenges, a series of recommendations are suggested that educators can implement to make distance learning a leader in increasing educational equity for all students. The time to act is now.

  6. Carrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Gillan, Claire M; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Ward, Laetitia H E; Luijten, Maartje; de Wit, Sanne; Sahakian, Barbara J; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-06-17

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-addicted patients to act purposefully toward a given goal and on the influence of extended training on their behavior. When patients were rewarded for their behavior, prolonged training improved their response rate toward the goal but simultaneously rendered them insensitive to the consequences of their actions. By contrast, overtraining of avoidance behavior had no effect on patient performance. Our findings illustrate the ineffectiveness of punitive approaches and highlight the potential for interventions that focus on improving goal-directed behavior and implementing more desirable habits to replace habitual drug-taking. PMID:27313048

  7. Carrots and sticks fail to change behavior in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Ersche, Karen D; Gillan, Claire M; Jones, P Simon; Williams, Guy B; Ward, Laetitia H E; Luijten, Maartje; de Wit, Sanne; Sahakian, Barbara J; Bullmore, Edward T; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-06-17

    Cocaine addiction is a major public health problem that is particularly difficult to treat. Without medically proven pharmacological treatments, interventions to change the maladaptive behavior of addicted individuals mainly rely on psychosocial approaches. Here we report on impairments in cocaine-addicted patients to act purposefully toward a given goal and on the influence of extended training on their behavior. When patients were rewarded for their behavior, prolonged training improved their response rate toward the goal but simultaneously rendered them insensitive to the consequences of their actions. By contrast, overtraining of avoidance behavior had no effect on patient performance. Our findings illustrate the ineffectiveness of punitive approaches and highlight the potential for interventions that focus on improving goal-directed behavior and implementing more desirable habits to replace habitual drug-taking.

  8. Zoning, equity, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Maantay, J

    2001-01-01

    Zoning, the most prevalent land use planning tool in the United States, has substantial implications for equity and public health. Zoning determines where various categories of land use may go, thereby influencing the location of resulting environmental and health impacts. Industrially zoned areas permit noxious land uses and typically carry higher environmental burdens than other areas. Using New York City as a case study, the author shows that industrial zones have large residential populations within them or nearby. Noxious uses tend to be concentrated in poor and minority industrial neighborhoods because more affluent industrial areas and those with lower minority populations are rezoned for other uses, and industrial zones in poorer neighborhoods are expanded. Zoning policies, therefore, can have adverse impacts on public health and equity. The location of noxious uses and the pollution they generate have ramifications for global public health and equity; these uses have been concentrated in the world's poorer places as well as in poorer places within more affluent countries. Planners, policymakers, and public health professionals must collaborate on a worldwide basis to address these equity, health, and land use planning problems. PMID:11441726

  9. Cuesta College Student Equity Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Frank S.; Hayner, Claudia

    Presenting the Student Equity Plan developed at Cuesta College, in California, this document provides background to the development of the plan, reviews plan components, and discusses implementation and evaluation. Introductory materials indicate that the plan was intended to create a campus environment that assures that enrollment, retention, and…

  10. Designing Exhibits for Gender Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancu, Toni Nicole

    2010-01-01

    Gender equity has been a national and global aim for over half a century (Ceci & Williams, 2007; National Center for Education Statistics, 2003; National Science Board, 2008). While gains have been made, one area where inequity remains is spatial reasoning ability, where a large gender gap in favor of males has persisted over the years…

  11. Access & Equity Newsletter. Volume 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Included in this edition of the "In-the-Know" Access & Equity Newsletter are: (1) State Losing Black Instructors (Gina Smith); (2) Time to Join Together to Seek "Economic Rights" (Darla Moore); and (3) "Advancing Diversity in Higher Education--Diversity Digest" (Mark Giles, Ed.), which is a reprint of an article originally published in…

  12. Lessons on Leading for Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Rob; Barton, Rhonda

    2013-01-01

    Leading for equity is hard, yet inspiring, work. It requires thoughtful and bold conversations about race and poverty; close examination of policies and practices; and astute attention paid to a variety of data and evidence of student achievement, progress, and success. Above all, it requires a willingness to look deeply at one's beliefs and…

  13. Mathematics Equity. A Resource Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyree, Eddy; And Others

    Provided in this document is a brief summary of current research on equity in mathematics, readings on the topic, and lists of selected programs and resource materials. Readings presented include: "Teaching Mathematics in a Multicultural Setting: Some Considerations when Teachers and Students are of Differing Cultural Backgrounds" (Willis N.…

  14. Digital Equity and Intercultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resta, Paul; Laferrière, Thérèse

    2015-01-01

    Digital equity and intercultural education continue to be areas of concern in the emerging knowledge-based society. The digital divide is present across the globe as the result of a complex of factors such as the inequality in: access to hardware and connectivity; autonomy of use; digital and literacy skills; availability of technical and social…

  15. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  16. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories. PMID:11177517

  17. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  18. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  19. Compulsivity in obsessive-compulsive disorder and addictions.

    PubMed

    Figee, Martijn; Pattij, Tommy; Willuhn, Ingo; Luigjes, Judy; van den Brink, Wim; Goudriaan, Anneke; Potenza, Marc N; Robbins, Trevor W; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-05-01

    Compulsive behaviors are driven by repetitive urges and typically involve the experience of limited voluntary control over these urges, a diminished ability to delay or inhibit these behaviors, and a tendency to perform repetitive acts in a habitual or stereotyped manner. Compulsivity is not only a central characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but is also crucial to addiction. Based on this analogy, OCD has been proposed to be part of the concept of behavioral addiction along with other non-drug-related disorders that share compulsivity, such as pathological gambling, skin-picking, trichotillomania and compulsive eating. In this review, we investigate the neurobiological overlap between compulsivity in substance-use disorders, OCD and behavioral addictions as a validation for the construct of compulsivity that could be adopted in the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC). The reviewed data suggest that compulsivity in OCD and addictions is related to impaired reward and punishment processing with attenuated dopamine release in the ventral striatum, negative reinforcement in limbic systems, cognitive and behavioral inflexibility with diminished serotonergic prefrontal control, and habitual responding with imbalances between ventral and dorsal frontostriatal recruitment. Frontostriatal abnormalities of compulsivity are promising targets for neuromodulation and other interventions for OCD and addictions. We conclude that compulsivity encompasses many of the RDoC constructs in a trans-diagnostic fashion with a common brain circuit dysfunction that can help identifying appropriate prevention and treatment targets. PMID:26774279

  20. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  1. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  2. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  3. Equity Index in the School Systems of Selected OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozmusul, Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analysis the equity in the school systems of selected OECD countries. For this purpose, the international data for selected OECD countries was analyzed in terms of four dimensions of equity as learning equity, school resource equity, participating in education, and digital equity. When analyzing data, the equity…

  4. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  5. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  6. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N D; Prabhat, K C

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  7. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue. PMID:25377376

  8. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  9. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  10. [Symptoms related to addiction: elements for the differential diagnosis with personality disorders].

    PubMed

    Badii, Franco

    2013-01-01

    Some manifestations, observed in situations of addiction, are often interpreted as symptoms of a personality disorder. On the contrary, they may not be referable to personality structural aspects, but they hold rather a functional aspect, linked to the implications of the relationship between the individual and the object of addiction. In particular, the personal meaning given to addiction holds an important role as regards the intensity of this relationship. This recalls the necessity of a thorough examination for differential diagnosis. The awareness of intervening in behaviour modalities, due to the process of addiction and not to preexistent personality features, modifies the perspective of action. As a result, generic modalities of treatment, leading to confused therapeutic routes, would be overcome, presuming that acting on other aspects interferes in addiction phenomena. In that way, it would be possible to pick out specific routes to act from the therapeutic point of view on the focus of addiction. The recovery of the meaning the patient gives to it and a following elaboration can bring to the awareness of different emotional and behavioural options to face moments that can reestablish the individual emotional process at the basis of addiction. From an organizational point of view, it would be possible to reserve the articulated and complex interventions for cases of comorbidity to those who really require.

  11. Addiction and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained abstinence. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to the effects of drugs of abuse; prenatal, childhood, and adolescent exposures produce long-lasting changes in cognition. Patients with mental illness are at high risk for substance abuse, and the adverse impact on cognition may be particularly deleterious in combination with cognitive problems related to their mental disorders. PMID:22002448

  12. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    2002-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain's reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain's reward system.

  13. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    2009-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain’s reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain’s reward system.

  14. Cigarette Smoking in Indonesia: Examination of a Myopic Model of Addictive Behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Hidayat, Budi; Thabrany, Hasbullah

    2010-01-01

    Using aggregated panel data taken from three waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993–2000), this article tests the myopic addiction behaviour of cigarette demand. Sensitivity analysis is done by examining a rational addiction behavior of cigarette demand. The results provide support for myopic addiction. The short- and long-run price elasticities of cigarette demand are estimated at −0.28 and −0.73 respectively. Excise taxes are more likely to act as an effective tobacco control in the long-run rather than a major source of government revenue. PMID:20644684

  15. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Scientists are developing other medications to treat stimulant (cocaine, methamphetamine) and cannabis (marijuana) addiction. People who use ...

  16. Optogenetics: potentials for addiction research.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Burdakov, Denis; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2011-10-01

    Research on the biology of addiction has advanced significantly over the last 50 years expanding our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying reward, reinforcement and craving. Novel experimental approaches and techniques have provided an ever increasing armory of tools to dissect behavioral processes, neural networks and molecular mechanisms. The ultimate goal is to reintegrate this knowledge into a coherent, mechanistic framework of addiction to help identify new treatment. This can be greatly facilitated by using tools that allow, with great spatial and temporal specificity, to link molecular changes with altered activation of neural circuits and behavior. Such specificity can now be achieved by using optogenetic tools. Our review describes the general principles of optogenetics and its use to understand the links between neural activity and behavior. We also provide an overview of recent studies using optogenetic tools in addiction and consider some outstanding questions of addiction research that are particularly amenable for optogenetic approaches.

  17. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.

  18. Racial equity or racial equality.

    PubMed

    Daymont, T N

    1980-11-01

    This study examines the relationship between racial equity in labor market processes and racial equality in future labor market rewards. In particular, a regression standardization procedure is used to project the degree of racial inequality in earnings that would exist among men at various future points in time based on three different sets of assumptions about attainment processes in labor market and educational institutions. The most important results suggest that even if racial discrimination were eliminated immediately in labor market and educational institutions, it would take almost 50 years for the black-white earnings ratio to reach .95. This incompatibility between equity and equality needs to be considered more explicitly both by those who advocate a color-blind labor market and those who advocate preferential treatment for blacks.

  19. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  20. Imaging the Addicted Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kassed, Cheryl A.; Chang, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques enable researchers to observe drug actions and consequences as they occur and persist in the brains of abusing and addicted individuals. This article presents the five most commonly used techniques, explains how each produces images, and describes how researchers interpret them. The authors give examples of key findings illustrating how each technique has extended and deepened our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of drug abuse and addiction, and they address potential clinical and therapeutic applications. PMID:17514067

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  2. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  3. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  4. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  5. Voices of Equity: Beginning Teachers Are Crucial Partners and Emerging Leaders of Equity Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West-Burns, Nicole; Murray, Karen; Watt, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    This article describes an equity education program established in 2009 by Ontario's (Canada) Ministry of Education to improve outcomes for students at risk and create the conditions needed for student success. Beginning teachers were crucial partners and emerging leaders of equity education. Some of the equity concerns these teachers faced…

  6. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  7. Predictors of addiction treatment providers' beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Christopher; Davies, John B; Hunter, Simon C

    2011-03-01

    Addiction treatment providers working in the United States (n = 219) and the United Kingdom (n = 372) were surveyed about their beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction, as assessed by the 18-item Addiction Belief Scale of J. Schaler (1992). Factor analysis of item scores revealed a three-factor structure, labeled "addiction is a disease," "addiction is a choice," and "addiction is a way of coping with life," and factor scores were analyzed in separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Controlling for demographic and addiction history variables, treatment providers working in the United States more strongly believe addiction is a disease, whereas U.K.-based providers more strongly believe that addiction is a choice and a way of coping with life. Beliefs that addiction is a disease were stronger among those who provide for-profit treatment, have stronger spiritual beliefs, have had a past addiction problem, are older, are members of a group of addiction professionals, and have been treating addiction longer. Conversely, those who viewed addiction as a choice were more likely to provide public/not-for-profit treatment, be younger, not belong to a group of addiction professionals, and have weaker spiritual beliefs. Additionally, treatment providers who have had a personal addiction problem in the past were significantly more likely to believe addiction is a disease the longer they attend a 12-step-based group and if they are presently abstinent. PMID:21036516

  8. H.R. 2400, Report number 105-467, Parts 1, 2 and 3: This act may be cited as the Building Efficient Surface Transportation and Equity Act of 1998, introduced in the House of Representatives, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, March 27, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This act is to authorize funds for Federal-aid highways, highway safety programs, and transit programs, and for other purposes. The topics of the act include Federal-aid highways, highway safety, federal transit administration programs, motor carrier safety, programmatic reforms and streamlining, transportation research, recreational boating safety program and railroads.

  9. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  10. 12 CFR 225.173 - How are investments in private equity funds treated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inconsistent with the authority granted under section 4(k)(4)(H) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(k)(4)(H)) or evading the limitations governing merchant banking investments contained in this... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false How are investments in private equity...

  11. 12 CFR 225.173 - How are investments in private equity funds treated under this subpart?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inconsistent with the authority granted under section 4(k)(4)(H) of the Bank Holding Company Act (12 U.S.C. 1843(k)(4)(H)) or evading the limitations governing merchant banking investments contained in this... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false How are investments in private equity...

  12. 20 CFR 410.561d - Against equity and good conscience; defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Against equity and good conscience; defined. 410.561d Section 410.561d Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561d...

  13. 20 CFR 410.561d - Against equity and good conscience; defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Against equity and good conscience; defined. 410.561d Section 410.561d Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- ) Payment of Benefits § 410.561d...

  14. A Model Research Program to Provide Equity for Women Entering Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckert, Bonnie L.; And Others

    Under a grant funded under the Women's Educational Equity Act, the Department of Freshman Engineering at Purdue has developed a model program for freshmen women entering engineering. The program focuses on an experimental course that provides beginning engineering women and men with: (1) hands-on laboratory experiences; (2) discussions by various…

  15. An Action Research Proposal To Provide Educational Equity Opportunities For Women in Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Blaine R.; And Others

    A plan at Purdue University to develop a model program for women in engineering is described. The Purdue Department of Freshman Engineering received a grant from the U.S. Department of Education through the Women's Education Equity Act to help overcome some of the problems faced by women who enter engineering. The program focuses on an…

  16. Equity of Care Is a Part of Everything You Do--and Should Do.

    PubMed

    Raju, Ram

    2016-04-01

    For hospitals, ending disparities in health care should be both a business imperative and a critical means for improving quality. One powerful tool is the #123forEquity Pledge to Act. Here's why--and how you can sign up. PMID:27220162

  17. Is binge eating experienced as an addiction?

    PubMed

    Cassin, Stephanie E; von Ranson, Kristin M

    2007-11-01

    To ascertain to what degree binge eating is experienced as an addiction, this study examined the proportion of women with binge-eating disorder (BED) whose symptoms met criteria for an addiction. Women (N = 79) with current BED completed a structured telephone interview to assess for symptoms of a modified version of DSM-IV substance dependence and Goodman's [(1990). Addiction: Definition and implications. British Journal of Addiction, 85, 1403-1408] proposed diagnosis of 'addictive disorder'. Most binge eaters (92.4%) met modified DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence, whereas many fewer (40.5%) met Goodman's more restrictive criteria for addictive disorder. Women meeting criteria for addictive disorder had more frequent eating binges than those who did not. Despite certain observed similarities between binge eating and addictions, we argue that BED should remain classified as an eating disorder.

  18. Neurobiology of addiction. An integrative review.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Aviel

    2008-01-01

    Evidence that psychoactive substance use disorders, bulimia nervosa, pathological gambling, and sexual addiction share an underlying biopsychological process is summarized. Definitions are offered for addiction and addictive process, the latter being the proposed designation for the underlying biopsychological process that addictive disorders are hypothesized to share. The addictive process is introduced as an interaction of impairments in three functional systems: motivation-reward, affect regulation, and behavioral inhibition. An integrative review of the literature that addresses the neurobiology of addiction is then presented, organized according to the three functional systems that constitute the addictive process. The review is directed toward identifying candidate neurochemical substrates for the impairments in motivation-reward, affect regulation, and behavioral inhibition that could contribute to an addictive process. PMID:17764663

  19. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  20. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...

  1. Signs of Cocaine Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Signs of Cocaine Use and Addiction Listen After the "high" of ... Version Download "My life was built around getting cocaine and getting high." Stacey is recovering from her ...

  2. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  3. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking. PMID:23241714

  4. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  5. The addictive dimensionality of obesity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D

    2013-05-01

    Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek immediate rewards. Thus, it is not surprising that many people overeat, which in some can result in obesity, whereas others take drugs, which in some can result in addiction. Though food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, when highly palatable food is available, the ability to resist the urge to eat hinges on self-control. There is no homeostatic regulator to check the intake of drugs (including alcohol); thus, regulation of drug consumption is mostly driven by self-control or unwanted effects (i.e., sedation for alcohol). Disruption in both the neurobiological processes that underlie sensitivity to reward and those that underlie inhibitory control can lead to compulsive food intake in some individuals and compulsive drug intake in others. There is increasing evidence that disruption of energy homeostasis can affect the reward circuitry and that overconsumption of rewarding food can lead to changes in the reward circuitry that result in compulsive food intake akin to the phenotype seen with addiction. Addiction research has produced new evidence that hints at significant commonalities between the neural substrates underlying the disease of addiction and at least some forms of obesity. This recognition has spurred a healthy debate to try and ascertain the extent to which these complex and dimensional disorders overlap and whether or not a deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the homeostatic and reward systems will usher in unique opportunities for prevention and treatment of both obesity and drug addiction.

  6. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  7. 7 CFR 1735.18 - Additional equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional equity. 1735.18 Section 1735.18 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... Basic Policies § 1735.18 Additional equity. If determined by the Administrator to be necessary for...

  8. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equity. 548.15 Section 548.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious...

  9. Elementary Mathematics Teachers' Knowledge of Equity Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Christa

    2013-01-01

    Currently, mathematics instruction in U.S. classrooms is far from achieving equity for African American students. This qualitative study reports the results of eight successful elementary mathematics teachers' knowledge of equity pedagogy, specifically their knowledge of culturally relevant pedagogy, cultural competence, and critical…

  10. 28 CFR 548.15 - Equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity. 548.15 Section 548.15 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT RELIGIOUS PROGRAMS Religious Beliefs and Practices of Committed Offenders § 548.15 Equity. No one may disparage the religious...

  11. Orwell and the Politics of Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Richard G.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews three general themes--each related to contemporary situations affecting educational equity--in the works of George Orwell. These include (1) that it is difficult for the weak to preserve their "inner core"; (2) that revolutions for equality can fail; and (3) that all people, including those who work for educational equity, are attracted to…

  12. 7 CFR 930.60 - Equity holders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity holders. 930.60 Section 930.60 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Regulations § 930.60 Equity holders. (a) Inventory reserve ownership. The inventory reserve shall be the...

  13. Learning Equity in a University Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Westhuizen, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1994, education policy documents in South Africa have prioritised the goal of equity in education, understood as increased access to programmes, more equitable staff and student profiles, and curricula that are more responsive to the needs of all students. The challenge of effecting the goal of equity at levels of teaching and learning in…

  14. Teacher Education and Gender Equity. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Jo

    To ensure that future generations of girls as well as boys fulfill their potential without restriction, it is important that gender equity be taught in teacher education programs as a matter of course. Gender equity is defined as the set of behaviors and knowledge that permits educators to recognize inequality in educational opportunities, to…

  15. Examining Equity in Texas Public School Funding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Wayne; Jones, Timothy B.; Jackson, Sherion H.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined the level of equity of the public school funding system in Texas that in September of 2004 was held to be unconstitutional by a state district judge. The study also introduces a mechanism, referred to as the Revenue-to-Population Index or RTP Index, which compares funding equity within the unconstitutional system among 1031…

  16. Educational Equity: Challenges for Educator Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, Jane; Winslow, Emily

    2015-01-01

    With increasingly diverse student populations, educational equity is a bigger challenge than ever for public schools across the United States. While federal government, states, and school districts work to identify and address the root causes of equity gaps, efforts are often hampered by a limited body of research-based strategies and approaches…

  17. Multicriteria approaches for a private equity fund

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tammer, Christiane; Tannert, Johannes

    2012-09-01

    We develop a new model for a Private Equity Fund based on stochastic differential equations. In order to find efficient strategies for the fund manager we formulate a multicriteria optimization problem for a Private Equity Fund. Using the e-constraint method we solve this multicriteria optimization problem. Furthermore, a genetic algorithm is applied in order to get an approximation of the efficient frontier.

  18. Implementation and Innovation: The Route to Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Carol; Milton, Penny

    2011-01-01

    "If we are really serious about equity in education, what will it take to achieve improvements?" This question became the focus of a project between the Canadian Education Association and the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education to foster dialogue about equity and educational improvement. Although the two countries have different…

  19. Leisure Today: Equity Issues in Leisure Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dustin, Daniel L., Ed.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Seven articles on equity issues in leisure services focus on conservation for the future, resource allocation inequities in wildland recreation, leisure services for people of color and people with disabilities, serving all children in community recreation, women and leisure services, and equity in public sector resource allocations. (JD)

  20. Equity, Equal Opportunities, Gender and Organization Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Hilary; Baume, Elaine

    The issues of equity, equal opportunities, gender, and organization performance in the health care sector worldwide was examined. Information was gathered from the available literature and from individuals in 17 countries. The analysis highlighted the facts that employment equity debates and policies refer largely to high-income countries and…

  1. Gender Equity for Males. WEEA Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, Craig, Ed.; Bates, Percy, Ed.; Potter, Julia, Ed.

    Traditionally, the term "gender equity" is associated with equalizing the playing field for girls. However, gender equity by definition applies to both genders. This digest states that, in the best possible scenario, gender equitable education provides equal opportunities and enables each student to reach his or her potential, reducing the gender…

  2. Toward a Pluralistic Perspective on Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollard, Diane S.; Avery, Maria-Paz Beltran

    1992-01-01

    This digest deals with the challenges of living in a pluralistic society. Comprised of three articles, the first (by Diane S. Pollard) is a discussion of the problems resulting from the fragmented effort of the equity movement, as many different groups working for equity in gender, race, class, and other concerns, have sought independence from…

  3. Inclusive Education: Examining Equity on Five Continents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J., Ed.; Kozleski, Elizabeth B., Ed.; Waitoller, Federico R., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the impressive growth of inclusive education around the world, questions and considerations about equity have been neglected. This edited volume makes a major contribution to the field of inclusive education by analyzing equity concerns that have emerged from the implementation of inclusive education models in nine nations on five…

  4. Handbook for Achieving Sex Equity through Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Susan S., Ed.

    This handbook of collected papers is intended to aid in the achievement of sex equity in education, and in society through education. It is divided into six parts, each with a separate editor (or editors) and contains the following chapters: (1) Examining the Achievement of Sex Equity in and through Education (S. S. Klein, and others); (2)…

  5. Implementing Sex Equity in Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shocklee, Georgia

    This publication contains five teaching units for implementing sex equity into vocational education. The units, prepared for preservice or inservice teacher education courses, can be adapted to various teacher situations. Units cover sex equity legislation and definitions; facts and figures about women in the workforce; methods of recruiting male…

  6. Poverty, equity, human rights and health.

    PubMed Central

    Braveman, Paula; Gruskin, Sofia

    2003-01-01

    Those concerned with poverty and health have sometimes viewed equity and human rights as abstract concepts with little practical application, and links between health, equity and human rights have not been examined systematically. Examination of the concepts of poverty, equity, and human rights in relation to health and to each other demonstrates that they are closely linked conceptually and operationally and that each provides valuable, unique guidance for health institutions' work. Equity and human rights perspectives can contribute concretely to health institutions' efforts to tackle poverty and health, and focusing on poverty is essential to operationalizing those commitments. Both equity and human rights principles dictate the necessity to strive for equal opportunity for health for groups of people who have suffered marginalization or discrimination. Health institutions can deal with poverty and health within a framework encompassing equity and human rights concerns in five general ways: (1) institutionalizing the systematic and routine application of equity and human rights perspectives to all health sector actions; (2) strengthening and extending the public health functions, other than health care, that create the conditions necessary for health; (3) implementing equitable health care financing, which should help reduce poverty while increasing access for the poor; (4) ensuring that health services respond effectively to the major causes of preventable ill-health among the poor and disadvantaged; and (5) monitoring, advocating and taking action to address the potential health equity and human rights implications of policies in all sectors affecting health, not only the health sector. PMID:12973647

  7. 76 FR 62394 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Excellence Commission, ] U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue, SW., Washington, DC 20202....

  8. 77 FR 29621 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education, Office for Civil Rights. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC...

  9. 77 FR 18798 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; Advisory Committee... of the Equity and Excellence Commission scheduled for March 29, 2012 and announced in the Federal... Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20202....

  10. 77 FR 2711 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ... Register (FR Doc. 2011-33800 Filed 1-4-12; 8:45 a.m.) a notice of open meeting on January 23, 2012 for the Equity and Excellence Commission. This notice amends the January 5, 2012 notice by providing notice of a... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, Education. ACTION: Notice of...

  11. 77 FR 49441 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ... Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: Office for Civil Rights, U.S. Department of Education. ACTION...-coming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the... Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW., Washington, DC 20202....

  12. The hyper-sentient addict: an exteroception model of addiction

    PubMed Central

    DeWitt, Samuel J.; Ketcherside, Ariel; McQueeny, Tim M.; Dunlop, Joseph P.; Filbey, Francesca M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Exteroception involves processes related to the perception of environmental stimuli important for an organism's ability to adapt to its environment. As such, exteroception plays a critical role in conditioned response. In addiction, behavioral and neuroimaging studies show that the conditioned response to drug-related cues is often associated with alterations in brain regions including the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, an important node within the default mode network dedicated to processes such as self-monitoring. Objective This review aimed to summarize the growing, but largely fragmented, literature that supports a central role of exteroceptive processes in addiction. Methods We performed a systematic review of empirical research via PubMed and Google Scholar with keywords including ‘addiction’, ‘exteroception’, ‘precuneus’, and ‘self-awareness’, to identify human behavioral and neuroimaging studies that report mechanisms of self-awareness in healthy populations, and altered selfawareness processes, specifically exteroception, in addicted populations. Results Results demonstrate that exteroceptive processes play a critical role in conditioned cue response in addiction and serve as targets for interventions such as mindfulness training. Further, a hub of the default mode network, namely, the precuneus, is (i) consistently implicated in exteroceptive processes, and (ii) widely demonstrated to have increased activation and connectivity in addicted populations. Conclusion Heightened exteroceptive processes may underlie cue-elicited craving, which in turn may lead to the maintenance and worsening of substance use disorders. An exteroception model of addiction provides a testable framework from which novel targets for interventions can be identified. PMID:26154169

  13. Endocannabinoids and striatal function: implications for addiction-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabricio A; Jupp, Bianca; Belin, David; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2015-02-01

    Since the identification and cloning of the major cannabinoid receptor expressed in the brain almost 25 years ago research has highlighted the potential of drugs that target the endocannabinoid system for treating addiction. The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, are lipid-derived metabolites found in abundance in the basal ganglia and other brain areas innervated by the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists reduce reinstatement of responding for cocaine, alcohol and opiates in rodents. However, compounds acting on the endocannabinoid system may have broader application in treating drug addiction by ameliorating associated traits and symptoms such as impulsivity and anxiety that perpetuate drug use and interfere with rehabilitation. As a trait, impulsivity is known to predispose to addiction and facilitate the emergence of addiction to stimulant drugs. In contrast, anxiety and elevated stress responses accompany extended drug use and may underlie the persistence of drug intake in dependent individuals. In this article we integrate and discuss recent findings in rodents showing selective pharmacological modulation of impulsivity and anxiety by cannabinoid agents. We highlight the potential of selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism, directed at fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, to reduce anxiety and stress responses, and discuss novel mechanisms underlying the modulation of the endocannabinoid system, including the attenuation of impulsivity, anxiety, and drug reward by selective CB2 receptor agonists.

  14. Endocannabinoids and striatal function: implications for addiction-related behaviours.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabricio A; Jupp, Bianca; Belin, David; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2015-02-01

    Since the identification and cloning of the major cannabinoid receptor expressed in the brain almost 25 years ago research has highlighted the potential of drugs that target the endocannabinoid system for treating addiction. The endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, are lipid-derived metabolites found in abundance in the basal ganglia and other brain areas innervated by the mesocorticolimbic dopamine systems. Cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonists/inverse agonists reduce reinstatement of responding for cocaine, alcohol and opiates in rodents. However, compounds acting on the endocannabinoid system may have broader application in treating drug addiction by ameliorating associated traits and symptoms such as impulsivity and anxiety that perpetuate drug use and interfere with rehabilitation. As a trait, impulsivity is known to predispose to addiction and facilitate the emergence of addiction to stimulant drugs. In contrast, anxiety and elevated stress responses accompany extended drug use and may underlie the persistence of drug intake in dependent individuals. In this article we integrate and discuss recent findings in rodents showing selective pharmacological modulation of impulsivity and anxiety by cannabinoid agents. We highlight the potential of selective inhibitors of endocannabinoid metabolism, directed at fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, to reduce anxiety and stress responses, and discuss novel mechanisms underlying the modulation of the endocannabinoid system, including the attenuation of impulsivity, anxiety, and drug reward by selective CB2 receptor agonists. PMID:25369747

  15. [The place of cyber addiction in teenagers' addictive behavior].

    PubMed

    Valleur, Marc

    2013-01-01

    The easy access which modern teenagers have to new technologies favours their excessive use of video games, as they seek to escape potential existential difficulties. This harmful aspect should not mask the creative potential of games for the majority of teenagers. Treatment for young people with a gaming addiction is based on psychotherapy and takes into account the family dimension of the problem. This article presents an interview with Marc Valleur, a psychiatrist and head physician at Marmottan hospital specialising in the care and support of people with addictions.

  16. Equity - some theory and its policy implications

    PubMed Central

    Culyer, A.

    2001-01-01

    This essay seeks to characterise the essential features of an equitable health care system in terms of the classical Aristotelian concepts of horizontal and vertical equity, the common (but ill-defined) language of "need" and the economic notion of cost-effectiveness as a prelude to identifying some of the more important issues of value that policy-makers will have to decide for themselves; the characteristics of health (and what determines it) that can cause policy to be ineffective (or have undesired consequences); the information base that is required to support a policy directed at securing greater equity, and the kinds of research (theoretical and empirical) that are needed to underpin such a policy. Key Words: Health care systems • equity • horizontal equity • vertical equity • cost-effectiveness PMID:11479360

  17. Vertical equity: weighting outcomes? or establishing procedures?

    PubMed

    Mooney, G; Jan, S

    1997-01-01

    Considerations of equity in the health policy literature have in the main focussed on horizontal equity (the equal treatment of equals) and as a consequence have tended to overlook vertical equity (the unequal, but equitable, treatment of unequals). There is evidence from earlier, if preliminary, work carried out by the authors and a colleague that health care decision makers may well want to embrace concerns for vertical equity in the allocation of health service resources. This paper examines some possibilities for incorporating vertical equity into health care policy through distributive and/or procedural justice. While no firm solutions are offered, it is suggested that the idea of fitting John Broome's notion of 'claims' within a communitarian framework holds promise.

  18. School Programming for the Prevention of Addictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Marilyn A.

    1992-01-01

    Defines "addiction" and discusses models of addiction. Discusses implications for school prevention programs. Discusses role of school counselor in implementation of a comprehensive addiction prevention program, including assessment, curricular components, intervention programs, and staff development. Presents questions and criteria to assist…

  19. Tobacco Addiction: 'Why Do I Smoke?' Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tobacco Addiction | “Why do I smoke?" Quiz Why do I smoke? If you learn the answer to this question, it will be easier to ... m hooked." In addition to having a psychological addiction to smoking, you may also be physically addicted ...

  20. The Dynamics of a Heroin Addiction Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.; Greene, Mark H.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses recent trends in heroin addiction in Washington, D.C. In 1969 a comprehensive, multimodal treatment program for addicts was introduced and a major law enforcement commitment was made to reduce the heroin supply. These factors, together with changing community attitudes, may be responsible for a remarkable decline in heroin addiction. (JR)

  1. A Meaning-Centered Therapy for Addictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a treatment for addictions, based on the idea that addiction is a response to living a life that has little personal meaning. First, it presents the theory of Meaning-Centered Therapy (MCT) as developed by Paul Wong, particularly the need to understand intoxication from the addict's perspective. Next, it presents the…

  2. Insulin signaling and addiction

    PubMed Central

    Daws, Lynette C.; Avison, Malcolm J.; Robertson, Sabrina D.; Niswender, Kevin D.; Galli, Aurelio; Saunders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Across species, the brain evolved to respond to natural rewards such as food and sex. These physiological responses are important for survival, reproduction and evolutionary processes. It is no surprise, therefore, that many of the neural circuits and signaling pathways supporting reward processes are conserved from Caenorhabditis elegans to Drosophilae, to rats, monkeys and humans. The central role of dopamine (DA) in encoding reward and in attaching salience to external environmental cues is well recognized. Less widely recognized is the role of reporters of the “internal environment”, particularly insulin, in the modulation of reward. Insulin has traditionally been considered an important signaling molecule in regulating energy homeostasis and feeding behavior rather than a major component of neural reward circuits. However, research over recent decades has revealed that DA and insulin systems do not operate in isolation from each other, but instead, work together to orchestrate both the motivation to engage in consummatory behavior and to calibrate the associated level of reward. Insulin signaling has been found to regulate DA neurotransmission and to affect the ability of drugs that target the DA system to exert their neurochemical and behavioral effects. Given that many abused drugs target the DA system, the elucidation of how dopaminergic, as well as other brain reward systems, are regulated by insulin will create opportunities to develop therapies for drug and potentially food addiction. Moreover, a more complete understanding of the relationship between DA neurotransmission and insulin may help to uncover etiological bases for “food addiction” and the growing epidemic of obesity. This review focuses on the role of insulin signaling in regulating DA homeostasis and DA signaling, and the potential impact of impaired insulin signaling in obesity and psychostimulant abuse. PMID:21420985

  3. Addiction, ethics and public policy.

    PubMed

    West, R

    1997-09-01

    Addiction affects the lives of all of human kind, either directly or indirectly. The cost to individuals and societies is immense and tackling the problem is as much one for policy makers as clinicians, counsellors and scientists. Ethical issues permeate much of the work of all these groups. The issue of what is right and wrong, morally defensible or morally unacceptable arises at both an individual and societal level. This special issue contains 21 commissioned articles from leading figures in addiction research. To set the scene for these in-depth analyses, this article reports the results of an expert panel survey on addiction, ethics and public policy. A total of 199 people from 24 countries identified as first authors of research papers abstracted in Addiction Abstracts in 1994 and 1995 completed a postal questionnaire asking their views on a range of issues. They were asked to state their position on the issue and to identify what they considered to be the most important factors in the decision. Among the findings of interest were: a majority believed that possession of cannabis should be legal but that possession of 'hard drugs' should be illegal. An overwhelming majority believed that tobacco advertising should be banned, that smoking should be prohibited in public buildings and offices and that the legal age for tobacco sales should be 18 or more. A majority believed that researchers should not accept backing from tobacco companies; opinion on accepting backing from the alcohol industry was more evenly divided. An overwhelming majority believed that drug addicts should be able to attend treatment centres on demand and that some form of methadone maintenance should be available to addicts who want it. The survey should prove a useful resource when debating the issues in policy and research arenas.

  4. Addiction and temporary certification. A proposed change to legislation and it's possible implication for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Burke, G; Walshe, D G

    1995-01-01

    The Mental Treatment Act (1945) is currently undergoing review to enable Ireland to meet it's international obligations. The Green Paper on Mental Health (1992) makes a number of suggestions regarding this. One such is the deletion of Addiction as sufficient grounds for involuntary admission to a psychiatric hospital or unit. This study looked at the possible impact such a proposal might have on the doctor's clinical choice in the management of addiction. The casenotes and temporary certificates of 191 involuntary admissions to St. Brendan's Hospital were examined. 9 cases (4.7%) were admitted for the direct effect of addiction, i.e., intoxication or uncomplicated withdrawal. The conclusion of this study is that the deletion of the addiction criterion from future mental health legislation would, in itself, have little impact on the number of committals. This is because the majority of those with evidence of Substance Abuse have a concurrent disorder that would be covered by the remaining criteria. PMID:8575925

  5. Use of Photovoice in addiction.

    PubMed

    Miller Heery, Gretchen Hope

    2013-09-01

    The addiction to narcotic substances is an increasing public health problem. Addiction relapse is preventable. Photovoice may increase the success rate by offering a deeper perspective, insight, dimension of feeling, and perception connecting with those who feel disconnected. This process uses cameras, discussion groups, storyboards, and interaction to thread through difficult discussion points created by the participant. Understanding the process of recovery from opioid substance abuse creates an opportunity to maintain socially acceptable behaviors and decreases the risk of participating in illegal activities and making poor choices. Photovoice allows for creative expression of thought by bypassing cognitive defenses.

  6. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a) Except..., participation certificates, equity reserves, or other allocated equities of an institution in receivership...

  7. 12 CFR 627.2797 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2797 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Voluntary Liquidation § 627.2797 Preservation of equity. (a) Immediately... institution, the capital stock, participation certificates, equity reserves, and allocated equities of...

  8. 12 CFR 627.2730 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2730 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Receivers and Receiverships § 627.2730 Preservation of equity. (a) Except..., participation certificates, equity reserves, or other allocated equities of an institution in receivership...

  9. 12 CFR 627.2797 - Preservation of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of equity. 627.2797 Section 627..., AND VOLUNTARY LIQUIDATIONS Voluntary Liquidation § 627.2797 Preservation of equity. (a) Immediately... institution, the capital stock, participation certificates, equity reserves, and allocated equities of...

  10. 17 CFR 190.07 - Calculation of allowed net equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... equity. 190.07 Section 190.07 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION BANKRUPTCY § 190.07 Calculation of allowed net equity. Allowed net equity shall be computed as follows: (a) Allowed claim. The allowed net equity claim of a customer shall be equal to the aggregate of the...

  11. 12 CFR 615.5270 - Retirement of other equities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Retirement of other equities. 615.5270 Section..., LOAN POLICIES AND OPERATIONS, AND FUNDING OPERATIONS Retirement of Equities and Payment of Dividends § 615.5270 Retirement of other equities. (a) Equities other than eligible borrower stock shall...

  12. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increases central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of drugs of abuse. The composition includes GVG, gabapentin, valproic acid, progabide, gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, fengabine, cetylGABA, topiramate or tiagabine or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof.

  13. Housing Opportunity and Mortgage Equity Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Cardoza, Dennis A. [D-CA-18

    2011-01-20

    03/23/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Capital Markets and Government Sponsored Enterprises. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Craig Thomas Rural Hospital and Provider Equity Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2014-05-20

    05/20/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.4067, which became Public Law 113-198 on 12/4/2014. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  15. Impact Aid Fairness and Equity Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Mullin, Markwayne [R-OK-2

    2013-06-14

    07/08/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Law Enforcement Officers Retirement Equity Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Mikulski, Barbara A. [D-MD

    2013-06-18

    06/18/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Law Enforcement Officers Retirement Equity Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Mikulski, Barbara A. [D-MD

    2011-05-12

    05/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Impact Aid Fairness and Equity Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Boren, Dan [D-OK-2

    2011-01-26

    02/25/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Equity for Our Nation's Self Employed Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Bingaman, Jeff [D-NM

    2009-03-26

    03/26/2009 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S3925) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Retirement Equity for Pentagon Police Heroes Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Akaka, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2011-09-12

    09/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (text of measure as introduced: CR S5503-5504) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Part-Time Federal Employees Equity Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Moran, James P. [D-VA-8

    2009-02-25

    06/26/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Federal Workforce, Post Office, and the District of Columbia. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Core Opportunity Resources for Equity and Excellence Act of 2014

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Fudge, Marcia L. [D-OH-11

    2014-06-26

    11/17/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  3. Tax Equity for School Teachers Act of 2010

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Hatch, Orrin G. [R-UT

    2010-05-27

    05/27/2010 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S4546-4547) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Monitoring Federal Money: Equity Under the Community Development Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guggenheim, Joe

    1977-01-01

    The Coordinator for the Coalition for Block Grant Compliance in Detroit and Executive Director of the Michigan Committee on Law and Housing discusses his organization's involvement in the federal community development block grant programs and the need for other individuals and citizen organizations to become so involved. (JM)

  5. Phenomenology and treatment of behavioural addictions.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jon E; Schreiber, Liana R N; Odlaug, Brian L

    2013-05-01

    Behavioural addictions are characterized by an inability to resist an urge or drive resulting in actions that are harmful to oneself or others. Behavioural addictions share characteristics with substance and alcohol abuse, and in areas such as natural history, phenomenology, and adverse consequences. Behavioural addictions include pathological gambling, kleptomania, pyromania, compulsive buying, compulsive sexual behaviour, Internet addiction, and binge eating disorder. Few studies have examined the efficacy of pharmacological and psychological treatment for the various behavioural addictions, and therefore, currently, no treatment recommendations can be made.

  6. 42 CFR 440.345 - EPSDT services requirement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... coverage for family planning services and supplies. (c) Mental health parity. Alternative Benefit Plans..., must comply with the Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act. (d) Essential health...

  7. Association between morningness/eveningness, addiction severity and psychiatric disorders among individuals with addictions.

    PubMed

    Kervran, Charlotte; Fatséas, Mélina; Serre, Fuschia; Taillard, Jacques; Beltran, Virginie; Leboucher, Juliette; Debrabant, Romain; Alexandre, Jean-Marc; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Philip, Pierre; Auriacombe, Marc

    2015-10-30

    Studies have shown that Evening-Type (ET) subjects used more stimulating and sedative substances, and presented more psychiatric disorders than Morning-Type (MT) subject. However, there is a lack of data on the chronotype of patients with addiction. The aim of our study was to describe chronotype and associated factors in a sample of outpatients beginning treatment for addiction. Subjects were assessed with the Morningness-Eveningness questionnaire of Hörne & Ostberg, the Addiction Severity Index and the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. In the 333 subjects with an addiction, 20% were MT and 32% were ET. When comparing ET to MT, multivariate analysis showed that ET was significantly associated with poly-problematic addiction, non-substance addictions, cannabis addiction, and mood disorders, but not with severity of addiction. MT was associated with antisocial personality disorder. Results suggested that chronotype was associated with specific addiction pattern and psychiatric disorders.

  8. Behavioral addictions: a novel challenge for psychopharmacology.

    PubMed

    Marazziti, Donatella; Presta, Silvio; Baroni, Stefano; Silvestri, Stefano; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-12-01

    Although addictive syndromes have been traditionally related to substance-use disorders, during the last few decades a novel addictive group, including the so-called "behavioral or no-drug addictions," has been recognized and has attracted increasing attention for its relevant social impact. This group includes pathological gambling, compulsive shopping, TV/Internet/social network/videogame addictions, workaholism, sex and relationship addictions, orthorexia, and overtraining syndrome. Substance and behavioral addictions show similar phenomenological features, such as craving, dependence, tolerance, and abstinence, and perhaps they share a common possible pathophysiology. It is, however, controversial whether all or at least some of them should be considered real disorders or just normal, albeit extreme, behaviors. The aim of this article is to review current data on pharmacological treatment of behavioral addictions. As no specific and validated treatment algorithms are currently available, only an improved knowledge on their psychopathological, clinical, and neurobiological features may have relevant implications for more focused preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  9. [Internet addiction--a case report].

    PubMed

    Pejović-Milovancević, Milica; Popović-Deusić, Smiljka; Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Lecić-Tosevski, Dusica

    2009-01-01

    Some addictions cannot be connected with substance abuse (pathological gambling, video games playing, binge eating, compulsive physical activity, emotional relationship addiction, TV addiction). Since 1995, Internet addiction has been accepted as a clinical entity with profound negative effect on social, familial, educational and economical personal functioning. The diagnosis of Internet addiction could be established if the person spends more than 38 hours per week on the Internet exempting online professional needs. Basic symptoms are the increased number of hours spent in front of the computer along with the Internet use, development of abstinent syndrome if the Internet access is prohibited, sleep inversion, neglect of basic social requirements and personal hygiene, many somatic symptoms developed due to prolonged sitting or monitor watching, dissocial behaviour. In this paper, data about the Internet addiction are presented and a case report of an adolescent with developed Internet addiction. PMID:19370973

  10. Neurophysiological mechanisms in acceptance and commitment therapy in opioid-addicted patients with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Rachel F; Potter, Jennifer S; Robin, Donald A

    2016-04-30

    Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) has been effectively utilized to treat both chronic pain and substance use disorder independently. Given these results and the vital need to treat the comorbidity of the two disorders, a pilot ACT treatment was implemented in individuals with comorbid chronic pain and opioid addiction. This pilot study supported using neurophysiology to characterize treatment effects and revealed that, following ACT, participants with this comorbidity exhibited reductions in brain activation due to painful stimulus and in connectivity at rest.

  11. Loss-Grief Addiction Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beechem, Michael H.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This group study features a loss-grief inventory in the treatment of 98 substance abusers in an outpatient treatment facility. The inventory designed in this study serves both assessment (helps counselor and client identify unresolved loss-grief issues which may contribute to addiction) and treatment (assists the client through the grieving…

  12. Internet Addiction: Stability and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiungjung

    2010-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined five indices of stability and change in Internet addiction: structural stability, mean-level stability, differential stability, individual-level stability, and ipsative stability. The study sample was 351 undergraduate students from end of freshman year to end of junior year. Convergent findings revealed stability…

  13. Pharmacogenetic Treatments for Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Haile, Colin N.; Kosten, Thomas R.; Kosten, Therese A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Pharmacogenetics uses genetic variation to predict individual differences in response to medications and holds much promise to improve treatment of addictive disorders. Objectives To review how genetic variation affects responses to cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine and how this information may guide pharmacotherapy. Methods We performed a cross-referenced literature search on pharmacogenetics, cocaine, amphetamine, and methamphetamine. Results We describe functional genetic variants for enzymes dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DβH), catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), and dopamine transporter (DAT1), dopamine D4 receptor, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C-1021T) in the DβH gene is relevant to paranoia associated with disulfiram pharmacotherapy for cocaine addiction. Individuals with variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) of the SLC6A3 gene 3′-untranslated region polymorphism of DAT1 have altered responses to drugs. The 10/10 repeat respond poorly to methylphenidate pharmacotherapy and the 9/9 DAT1 variant show blunted euphoria and physiological response to amphetamine. COMT, D4 receptor, and BDNF polymorphisms are linked to methamphetamine abuse and psychosis. Conclusions Disulfiram and methylphenidate pharmacotherapies for cocaine addiction are optimized by considering polymorphisms affecting DβH and DAT1 respectively. Altered subjective effects for amphetamine in DAT1 VNTR variants suggest a ‘protected’ phenotype. Scientific Significance Pharmacogenetic-based treatments for psychostimulant addiction are critical for successful treatment. PMID:19462300

  14. Using Meditation in Addiction Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark E.; DeLorenzi, Leigh de Armas; Cunningham, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Meditation has been studied as a way of reducing stress in counseling clients since the 1960s. Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, and new wave behavior therapies incorporate meditation techniques in their programs. This article identifies meditation's curative factors and limitations when using meditation in addiction settings.

  15. Private equity investment in health care services.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Catherine J; Rudsenske, Todd; Vaughan, James S

    2008-01-01

    Sophisticated private equity investors in health services provide venture capital for early-stage companies, growth capital for mid-stage companies, and equity capital for buyouts of mid-stage and mature companies. They pursue opportunities in provider sectors that are large and have a stable reimbursement environment, such as acute care services; sectors with room to execute consolidation strategies, such as labs; alternative-site sectors, such as "storefront" medicine; and clinical services, such as behavioral health, that are subject to profitably increasing quality and lowering costs. The innovations created through private equity investments could challenge established health services organizations.

  16. Equity trees and graphs via information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harré, M.; Bossomaier, T.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the similarities and differences between two measures of the relationship between equities traded in financial markets. Our measures are the correlation coefficients and the mutual information. In the context of financial markets correlation coefficients are well established whereas mutual information has not previously been as well studied despite its theoretically appealing properties. We show that asset trees which are derived from either the correlation coefficients or the mutual information have a mixture of both similarities and differences at the individual equity level and at the macroscopic level. We then extend our consideration from trees to graphs using the "genus 0" condition recently introduced in order to study the networks of equities.

  17. Equity in health and economic globalisation.

    PubMed

    Schuftan, C

    1999-11-01

    This article proposes that equity in health is inseparable from social equity in its broadest sense. An equitable system allows the lowest income sectors to have access to an acceptable level of basic goods and services. Equity in health thus entails decreasing the differences in access to, and use of all health services. Globalization, on the other hand, means the process by which economic power is expanding and increasingly concentrated in the hands of corporations that are progressively entering national economies worldwide through the international free-market ideology. Explored in this article were some ways in which globalization leads to inequities.

  18. Implications of circadian rhythm and stress in addiction vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Becker-Krail, Darius; McClung, Colleen

    2016-01-01

    In the face of chronic stress, some individuals can maintain normal function while others go on to develop mental illness. Addiction, affecting one in every twelve people in America, is a substance use disorder long associated with stressful life events and disruptions in the sleep/wake cycle. The circadian and stress response systems have evolved to afford adaptability to environmental changes and allow for maintenance of functional stability, or homeostasis. This mini-review will discuss how circadian rhythms and stress individually affect drug response, affect each other, and how their interactions may regulate reward-related behavior. In particular, we will focus on the interactions between the circadian clock and the regulation of glucocorticoids by the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Determining how these two systems act on dopaminergic reward circuitry may not only reveal the basis for vulnerability to addiction, but may also illuminate potential therapeutic targets for future investigation. PMID:26913197

  19. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  20. Vocational Education: Access, Equity, and Consequence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul B.

    1986-01-01

    Describes five patterns of student participation in vocational courses: (1) concentrators, (2) limited concentrators, (3) concentrators/explorers, (4) explorers, and (5) incidental/personals. Highlights some equity issues. (Author/CH)

  1. New Directions For Foundations In Health Equity.

    PubMed

    Doykos, Patricia; Gray-Akpa, Kristina; Mitchell, Faith

    2016-08-01

    Rising income inequality and pessimism about the current and future status of race relations in the United States make this both a challenging time for the pursuit of health equity and also an important opportunity for action. We glean lessons from past and ongoing philanthropic investments in health equity and recommend approaches that can guide future work by foundations. Improving health equity is a complex process that must take into account a variety of factors that affect health, of which access to high-quality health care is just one element. Accordingly, improving health equity will require the combined forces of philanthropy, the public sector, and sectors that have not traditionally been identified with health. PMID:27503980

  2. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  3. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  4. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Alexios; Hantzi, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes. PMID:27594846

  5. Health equity in humanitarian emergencies: a role for evidence aid.

    PubMed

    Pottie, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    Humanitarian emergencies require a range of planned and coordinated actions: security, healthcare, and, as this article highlights, health equity responses. Health equity is an evidence-based science that aims to address unfair and unjust health inequality outcomes. New approaches are using health equity to guide the development of community programs, equity methods are being used to identify disadvantaged groups that may face health inequities in a humanitarian emergency, and equity is being used to prevent unintended harms and consequences in interventions. Limitations to health equity approaches include acquiring sufficient data to make equity interpretations, integrating disadvantage populations in to the equity approach, and ensuring buy-in from decision-makers. This article uses examples from World Health Organization, Refugee Health Guidelines and Health Impact Assessment to demonstrate the emerging role for health equity in humanitarian emergencies. It is based on a presentation at the Evidence Aid Symposium, on 20 September 2014, at Hyderabad, India.

  6. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Henningfield, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T.; Davis, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of relevant journal articles, other government publications, and presentations made at scientific conferences.
DATA SYNTHESIS—The role of nicotine in causing and sustaining tobacco use was evaluated to project the impact of a nicotine reduction strategy on initiation and maintenance of, and relapse to, tobacco use. A range of potential concerns and barriers was addressed, including the technical feasibility of reducing cigarette nicotine content to non-addictive levels, the possibility that compensatory smoking would reduce potential health benefits, and whether such an approach would foster illicit ("black market") tobacco sales. Education, treatment, and research needs to enable a nicotine reduction strategy were also addressed. The Council on Scientific Affairs came to the following conclusions: (a) gradually eliminating nicotine from cigarettes is technically feasible; (b) a nicotine reduction strategy holds great promise in preventing adolescent tobacco addiction and assisting the millions of current cigarette smokers in their efforts to quit using tobacco products; (c) potential problems such as compensatory over-smoking of denicotinised cigarettes and black market sales could be minimised by providing alternate forms of nicotine delivery with less or little risk to health, as part of expanded access to treatment; and (d) such a strategy would need to be accompanied by relevant research and increased efforts to educate consumers and health professionals about

  7. Kappa opioid receptor/dynorphin system: Genetic and pharmacotherapeutic implications for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Butelman, Eduardo R.; Yuferov, Vadim; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Addictions to cocaine or heroin/prescription opioids [short-acting mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) agonists] involve relapsing cycles, with experimentation/escalating use, withdrawal/abstinence, and relapse/re-escalation. Kappa-opioid receptors (KOPr; encoded by OPRK1), and their endogenous agonists, the dynorphins (encoded by PDYN) have counter-modulatory effects on reward caused by cocaine or MOPr agonist exposure, and exhibit plasticity in addictive-like states. KOPr/dynorphin activation is implicated in depression/anxiety, often co-morbid with addictions. In this Opinion article, we propose that particular stages of the addiction cycle are differentially affected by KOPr/dynorphin systems. Vulnerability and resilience can be due to pre-existing (e.g., genetic) factors, or epigenetic modifications of the OPRK1 or PDYN genes during the addiction cycle. Pharmacotherapeutic approaches limiting changes in KOPr/dynorphin tone, especially with KOPr partial agonists, may hold potential for the treatment of specific drug addictions and psychiatric co-morbidity. PMID:22709632

  8. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  9. Opium addiction in assam : a trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahantra, J; Chaturvedi, H K; Phukan, R K

    1997-04-01

    A survey on opium use was earned out in Tinsukia district of upper Assam to assess the present prevalence and pattern of opium abuse and compared with earlier findings of the year 1981 (Baruah et al., 1995). A total of 75 addicts could be detected during the survey and 61 were interviewed using structured questionnaire. The results indicate significant decline in prevalence in opium use over the years in all the villages under high prevalence area. Out of 61 addicts, 51 addicts had started taking opium before 1980 and only 10 new addicts were added by 1990. The trend analysis of opium user's from 1979 to 1995 indicates a linear trend with high rate of decline in opium addicts statistical analyses, supports the hypothesis that linear declining trend is the best fit. By 1995, only four addicts were found having continued taking of opium. PMID:21584061

  10. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  11. The Neural Rejuvenation Hypothesis of Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Nestler, Eric J.

    2014-01-01

    A leading hypothesis guiding current molecular and cellular research of drug addiction conceptualizes key aspects of addiction as a form of memory, in which common neuroplasticity mechanisms that mediate normal learning and memory processes are “hijacked” by exposure to drugs of abuse to produce pathologic addiction-related memories. Such addiction-related memories are particularly robust and long-lasting and once formed, less amenable to updating. Here, we propose the Neural Rejuvenation Hypothesis of Cocaine Addiction: that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces some plasticity mechanisms that are normally associated with brain development within the brain’s reward circuitry, which mediate the highly efficient and unusually stable memory abnormalities that characterize addiction. PMID:24958329

  12. Obesity and Its Relationship to Addictions: Is Overeating a Form of Addictive Behavior?

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity. PMID:19874165

  13. Obesity and its relationship to addictions: is overeating a form of addictive behavior?

    PubMed

    Barry, Danielle; Clarke, Megan; Petry, Nancy M

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health problem and notoriously difficult to treat. There are many parallels between obesity/overeating and addictions to alcohol and drugs. This paper discusses similarities between obesity and addictive disorders, including common personality characteristics, disruptive behavior syndromes, and brain mechanisms. Although there are important differences between overeating and other addictive behaviors, an addiction model of overeating may effectively inform prevention and treatment of obesity.

  14. [Safety of nicotine addiction treatment].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Cieślewicz, Artur; Jabłecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Not all smoking addicts can succeed in quitting smoking with willpower only. These people may use nicotine replacement therapy (patches, gums, lozenges, sublingual tablets, inhalers), medicines (bupropion, varenicline and cytisine) and psychological aid. Each drug, besides its therapeutic effect, creates the risk of adverse reactions which number and severity is not always accepted by the patient. The aim of the study was to analyze adverse effects of bupropion, varenicline and cytisine formulations reported by patients. From July 2011 to June 2013 Regional Centre for Monitoring Adverse Drug Reactions (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Cardiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences) recorded 32 suspected adverse reactions to the use of drugs for the treatment of nicotine addiction (12 after the preparation of cytisine and varenicline, 8 after preparations of bupropion). High determination caused that none of the patients withdrew from the therapy because of adverse effects.

  15. Test Equity for Individuals Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing. PEPNet Test Equity Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PEPNet-West, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the highlights of the 2008 Test Equity Summit held in Bloomfield, Colorado last August 6-8, 2008. The 2008 Test Equity Summit convened by the Postsecondary Education Programs Network (PEPNet) identified and examined problems, challenges, and issues that academic and psychoeducational tests pose for individuals who are deaf or…

  16. Students as Policy Actors: The TDSB Equity Foundation Statement and Commitments to Equity Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferfolja, Tania

    2013-01-01

    Discrimination on the basis of homophobia/transphobia in many schools is an internationally recognised problem. The Toronto District School Board's (TDSB) Equity Foundation Statement and Commitments to Equity Policy (EFS) provides an explicit mandate to schools in its jurisdiction to address such discrimination and educate about sexual and…

  17. Biology of Addiction: Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Biology of Addiction Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your ... scientists are working to learn more about the biology of addiction. They’ve shown that addiction is ...

  18. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    PubMed

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  19. Keynes, population, and equity prices.

    PubMed

    Tarascio, V J

    1985-01-01

    Keynes in 1937 examined the phenomenon of the Great Depression from a longrun perspective in contradiction to the "General Theory," where the focus was on the shortrun. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population," Keynes' article, reveals the context in which the "General Theory" was written. In the "General Theory," the focus is on short-term fluctuations, i.e., business cycles, but Keynes fails to provide any theoretical explanation as to why the depression of the 1930s was so severe and intractable. In the 1937 article, the depression is seen as the result of the combined effects of a decline in longrun growth due to population growth decline and a shortrun cyclical decline, together producing severe economic consequences. What is important for the purposes of this discussion is the implication, within the context of the 1937 article, that not only was the stock market crash of 1929 related to population change (with its accompanying collapse in expectations) but that, in general, changes in the rate of growth of population are accompanied by stock price movements in the same direction. The remainder of the discussion is devoted to a simple empirical test of this relationship. The data used are population size (POP), defined as the total residential population in the US from 1870-1979, and the Standard and Poor 500 Stock index (SP) for the corresponding 109-year period. In addition, a 3rd series was constructed, a price deflated Standard and Poor index (RSP) with a base period of 1870, to account for possible inflationary distortion of the index. The empirical results do not invalidate the hypothesis that population growth rates affect equity markets. In fact, there seems to be strong evidence that they are related in a manner suggestive of Keynes' intutition, namely, that the stock market crash of 1929 was due to factors more fundamental than those often perceived from a shortrun perspective. According to Keynes (1937), population is the most

  20. [Liquid modernity and internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Doi, Takayoshi

    2015-09-01

    We are afraid that we are not always connected to somebody. There are such strong feelings to human relations in the background of internet addiction. It is reflection of today's social fluidity, and it is also reflection of the strength of the approval desire to occur from there. The feeling of fear in being off human relations in this society directs us to always-on connection by the internet.

  1. [Internet addiction - between enter and escape].

    PubMed

    Poppe, Hubert

    2014-12-01

    Internet addiction, a non-substantial addiction, is to be regarded as a highly complex mental disorder which requires complex and diverse treatment options. Initially smiled at, it shows, if it were severe, a typical addictive behaviour pattern, similar to pathological gambling, oniomanie and workaholism. In the International Classification of mental disorders (ICD-10) only pathological gambling in the category of impulse control disorders (F63.0) is specified.

  2. Drug addiction finds its own niche.

    PubMed

    Reid, Alastair

    2011-12-01

    The evolutionary framework suggested by Müller & Schumann (M&S) can be extended further by considering drug-taking in terms of Niche Construction Theory (NCT). It is suggested here that genetic and environmental components of addiction are modified by cultural acceptance of the advantages of non-addicted drug taking and the legitimate supply of performance-enhancing drugs. This may then reduce the prevalence of addiction.

  3. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments. PMID:27053944

  4. Nicotinic receptors in addiction pathways.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Frances M; Mojica, Celina Y; Reynaga, Daisy D

    2013-04-01

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ligand-gated ion channels that consist of pentameric combinations of α and β subunits. These receptors are widely distributed throughout the brain and are highly expressed in addiction circuitry. The role of nAChRs in regulating neuronal activity and motivated behavior is complex and varies both in and among brain regions. The rich diversity of central nAChRs has hampered the characterization of their structure and function with use of classic pharmacological techniques. However, recent molecular approaches using null mutant mice with specific regional lentiviral re-expression, in combination with neuroanatomical and electrophysiological techniques, have allowed the elucidation of the influence of different nAChR types on neuronal circuit activity and behavior. This review will address the influence of nAChRs on limbic dopamine circuitry and the medial habenula-interpeduncular nucleus complex, which are critical mediators of reinforced behavior. Characterization of the mechanisms underlying regulation of addiction pathways by endogenous cholinergic transmission and by nicotine may lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for treating tobacco dependence and other addictions. PMID:23247824

  5. Evaluation and treatment of sex addiction.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Kenneth Paul; Carnes, Patrick; O'Connor, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    There have been several diagnostic labels for persistent, excessive sexual behaviors, often referred in the popular media as sex addiction. Two related diagnoses, Internet addictive disorder and hypersexual disorder, were considered for, but not included in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. However, most clinicians, even those trained in sexual disorders or addiction medicine, have little to no training in treating sexual compulsivity and cybersex addiction. The authors present the historical context, proposed diagnostic criteria, evaluation protocols, comorbid disorders, speculations about the neuroscience, and treatment recommendations.

  6. Optogenetics in animal model of alcohol addiction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalberczak, Maria; Radwanska, Kasia

    2014-11-01

    Our understanding of the neuronal and molecular basis of alcohol addiction is still not satisfactory. As a consequence we still miss successful therapy of alcoholism. One of the reasons for such state is the lack of appropriate animal models which would allow in-depth analysis of biological basis of addiction. Here we will present our efforts to create the animal model of alcohol addiction in the automated learning device, the IntelliCage setup. Applying this model to optogenetically modified mice with remotely controlled regulation of selected neuronal populations by light may lead to very precise identification of neuronal circuits involved in coding addiction-related behaviors.

  7. Equity of health care in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lairson, D R; Hindson, P; Hauquitz, A

    1995-08-01

    This paper examines the equity characteristics of health care financing and delivery in Australia and compares its performance with recent findings on systems in Europe and the United States. Vertical equity of finance is evaluated with income and payment concentration indices derived from published survey data on taxes and expenditure by income decile. Horizontal equity of health care delivery is assessed with standardized expenditure concentration coefficients for three measures of health status and four types of health services, derived from household survey data on health care utilization, health status, income and demographics. Health cover is available to the entire population. Results show the financing system is slightly progressive despite the fact that 30% of payment comes from private sources, which are regressive. The equity index compares favorably to many European countries and is much better than the U.S. which has a regressive financing system. The Australian system fares less well in terms of equity of health care delivery. Several features favor privately insured higher income persons in use of health care and this is reflected, for some health status measures and types of service, in inequity favoring the better off. This contrasts with inequity favoring the less well off in many European countries and the U.S. This analysis provides a benchmark for monitoring the equity of the Australian system and provides information on the equity of a mixed private and public financing system that covers the entire population. This is relevant to the U.S. which is moving in this direction by extending private cover to the uninsured and to European countries that are increasing private sector involvement in health care financing. PMID:7481941

  8. 75 FR 16529 - Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust, et al.; Notice of Application March 26, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... group of investment companies. APPLICANTS: Legg Mason Partners Equity Trust (``LMP Equity Trust''), Legg Mason Partners Variable Equity Trust (``LMP Variable Equity Trust,'' and together with LMP Equity...

  9. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:26594139

  10. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:26594139

  11. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse.

  12. Addiction in adolescents.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, M A

    1990-01-01

    Some symptoms seen in adolescents with the disease of chemical dependence are similar to those seen in adults. Because of their age, lack of personality development, dependent family role, immaturity, and acting out of age-related behavioral tendencies, however, symptoms specific to this population occur. These may become exacerbated and telescope--intensify and shorten--the progression of the disease. A plan to solve the problem of adolescent chemical dependence must focus on education, demonstration, cooperation, prevention, intervention, habilitation, treatment, and recovery. The phenomenon of denial in a chemically dependent adolescent yields a more complex delusional system that dictates age-specific intervention approaches. Habilitation is necessary for successful adolescent treatment and recovery because what is needed is an initial process of learning, not relearning or rehabilitation. If specific adolescent issues are addressed through comprehensive, multimodality treatment approaches, then treatment and recovery outcomes for chemically dependent adolescents and their families are substantially improved. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of drug use in their young patients and aware of treatment options. PMID:2349798

  13. The Need for National Credentialing Standards for Addiction Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Scarborough, Jim; Clark, Catherine; Leonard, Justin C.; Keziah, Tyler B.

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the current state of credentialing for addiction counselors in the United States and provide recommendations to the addiction counseling field regarding national standards for credentialing.

  14. Vermont's Act 60: Early Effects of Comprehensive School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathis, William J.

    A unanimous 1997 state Supreme Court decision declaring Vermont's educational funding system unconstitutional prompted the legislature to pass Act 60 establishing state block grants and a guaranteed tax-yield system. Act 60 is working to provide equity in tax burdens and in tax rates. A variety of transitional features have helped to buffer…

  15. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples. PMID:24001298

  16. Social network site addiction - an overview.

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Cecilie Schou; Pallesen, Ståle

    2014-01-01

    Research into frequent, excessive, and compulsive social network activity has increased the last years, in which terms such as "social network site addiction" and "Facebook addiction" have been used interchangeably. The aim of this review is to offer more knowledge and better understanding of social network site addiction (SNS-addiction) among researchers as well as clinicians by presenting a narrative overview of the research field in terms of definition, measurement, antecedents, consequences, and treatment as well as recommendations for future research efforts. Seven different measures of SNS-addiction have been developed, although they have to a very little extent been validated against each other. The small number of studies conducted so far on this topic suggests that SNS-addiction is associated with health-related, academic, and interpersonal problems/issues. However such studies have relied on a simple cross-sectional study design. It is therefore hard to draw any conclusions about potential causality and long-term effects at this point, beyond hypothetical speculations. Empirical studies suggest that SNS-addiction is caused by dispositional factors (e.g., personality, needs, self-esteem), although relevant explanatory socio-cultural and behavioral reinforcement factors remain to be empirically explored. No well-documented treatment for SNS-addiction exists, but knowledge gained from Internet addiction treatment approaches might be transferable to SNS-addiction. Overall, the research on this topic is in its infancy, and as such the SNS-addiction construct needs further conceptual and empirical exploration. There is a great demand for studies using careful longitudinal designs and studies which include objective measures of both behavior and health based on broad representative samples.

  17. The readiness of addiction treatment agencies for health care reform.

    PubMed

    Molfenter, Todd; Capoccia, Victor A; Boyle, Michael G; Sherbeck, Carol K

    2012-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) aims to provide affordable health insurance and expanded health care coverage for some 32 million Americans. The PPACA makes provisions for using technology, evidence-based treatments, and integrated, patient-centered care to modernize the delivery of health care services. These changes are designed to ensure effectiveness, efficiency, and cost-savings within the health care system.To gauge the addiction treatment field's readiness for health reform, the authors developed a Health Reform Readiness Index (HRRI) survey for addiction treatment agencies. Addiction treatment administrators and providers from around the United States completed the survey located on the http://www.niatx.net website. Respondents self-assessed their agencies based on 13 conditions pertinent to health reform readiness, and received a confidential score and instant feedback.On a scale of "Needs to Begin," "Early Stages," "On the Way," and "Advanced," the mean scores for respondents (n = 276) ranked in the Early Stages of health reform preparation for 11 of 13 conditions. Of greater concern was that organizations with budgets of < $5 million (n = 193) were less likely than those with budgets > $5 million to have information technology (patient records, patient health technology, and administrative information technology), evidence-based treatments, quality management systems, a continuum of care, or a board of directors informed about PPACA.The findings of the HRRI indicate that the addiction field, and in particular smaller organizations, have much to do to prepare for a future environment that has greater expectations for information technology use, a credentialed workforce, accountability for patient care, and an integrated continuum of care. PMID:22551101

  18. Nanotherapeutic approach for opiate addiction using DARPP-32 gene silencing in an animal model of opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Ignatowski, T A; Aalinkeel, R; Reynolds, J L; Nair, B B; Sykes, D E; Gleason, C P K; Law, W C; Mammen, M J; Prasad, P N; Schwartz, S A; Mahajan, Supriya D

    2015-03-01

    Opiates act on the dopaminergic system of the brain and perturb 32 kDa dopamine and adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate-regulated phosphoprotein (DARPP-32) function. The DARPP-32 mediated inhibition of protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1) and modulation of transcriptional factor CREB is critical to the changes in neuronal plasticity that result in behavioral responses during drug abuse. To investigate the role of DARPP-32 mediated signaling on withdrawal behavior in a rat model of opiate addiction, we used intracerebral administration of gold nanorods (GNR) complexed to DARPP-32 siRNA to silence DARPP-32 gene expression and measure its effects on the opiate withdrawal syndrome. We hypothesized that DARPP-32 siRNA will suppress the neurochemical changes underlying the withdrawal syndrome and therefore prevent conditioned place aversion by suppressing or removing the constellation of negative effects associated with withdrawal, during the conditioning procedure. Our results showed that opiate addicted animals treated with GNR-DARPP-32 siRNA nanoplex showed lack of condition place aversive behavior consequent to the downregulation of secondary effectors such as PP-1 and CREB which modify transcriptional gene regulation and consequently neuronal plasticity. Thus, nanotechnology based delivery systems could allow sustained knockdown of DARPP-32 gene expression which could be developed into a therapeutic intervention for treating drug addiction by altering reward and motivational systems and interfere with conditioned responses.

  19. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY FUND UNDER THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM (FSRDS) AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  20. Equity in the Distribution of HELB Loans in Kenya in Relation to Students Characteristics: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebero, Stephen O.; Bosire, Joseph N.; Sang, Anthony K.; Ngala, Fredrick B. J.; Ngware, Moses W.

    2007-01-01

    Public funding of higher education in Kenya has gone through various stages all buffeted by myriad equity challenges. This prompted the government of Kenya (GoK) to create the Higher Education Loans Board (HELB), through an Act of parliament in the year 1995. GoK guidelines on loan provision to university students emphasise that deserving cases…

  1. The Equity Practice of Secondary Mathematics Teachers in a School Committed to College Preparation, Community Connection, and Social Justice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregson, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    This case study investigates the equity practice of secondary mathematics teachers in an urban secondary school specifically structured to support students becoming critical citizens; able to analyze the world; and empowered to act, individually and collectively, for the good of their communities and the larger society. The study is framed by two…

  2. A Comparison of Equity Outcomes in Kentucky: Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson Plaintiff & Non-Plaintiff School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haselton, W. Blake; Wells, William

    This report compares plaintiff and nonplaintiff school districts in "Council for Better Education v. Wilkinson" and "Rose v. Council for Better Education" as regards the equity and adequacy outcomes resulting from rulings of the Kentucky Supreme Court and subsequent implementation of the Kentucky Reform Act (KERA) of 1990. Descriptive statistics…

  3. 17 CFR 229.201 - (Item 201) Market price of and dividends on the registrant's common equity and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... graph comparing the yearly percentage change in the registrant's cumulative total shareholder return on....14a-3) or Exchange Act Rule 14c-3 (17 CFR 240.14c-3) that precedes or accompanies a registrant's proxy... dividends on the registrant's common equity and related stockholder matters. 229.201 Section...

  4. 17 CFR 229.201 - (Item 201) Market price of and dividends on the registrant's common equity and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... graph comparing the yearly percentage change in the registrant's cumulative total shareholder return on....14a-3) or Exchange Act Rule 14c-3 (17 CFR 240.14c-3) that precedes or accompanies a registrant's proxy... dividends on the registrant's common equity and related stockholder matters. 229.201 Section...

  5. 17 CFR 229.201 - (Item 201) Market price of and dividends on the registrant's common equity and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... graph comparing the yearly percentage change in the registrant's cumulative total shareholder return on....14a-3) or Exchange Act Rule 14c-3 (17 CFR 240.14c-3) that precedes or accompanies a registrant's proxy... dividends on the registrant's common equity and related stockholder matters. 229.201 Section...

  6. 17 CFR 229.201 - (Item 201) Market price of and dividends on the registrant's common equity and related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... graph comparing the yearly percentage change in the registrant's cumulative total shareholder return on....14a-3) or Exchange Act Rule 14c-3 (17 CFR 240.14c-3) that precedes or accompanies a registrant's proxy... dividends on the registrant's common equity and related stockholder matters. 229.201 Section...

  7. Health care and equity in India.

    PubMed

    Balarajan, Y; Selvaraj, S; Subramanian, S V

    2011-02-01

    In India, despite improvements in access to health care, inequalities are related to socioeconomic status, geography, and gender, and are compounded by high out-of-pocket expenditures, with more than three-quarters of the increasing financial burden of health care being met by households. Health-care expenditures exacerbate poverty, with about 39 million additional people falling into poverty every year as a result of such expenditures. We identify key challenges for the achievement of equity in service provision, and equity in financing and financial risk protection in India. These challenges include an imbalance in resource allocation, inadequate physical access to high-quality health services and human resources for health, high out-of-pocket health expenditures, inflation in health spending, and behavioural factors that affect the demand for appropriate health care. Use of equity metrics in monitoring, assessment, and strategic planning; investment in development of a rigorous knowledge base of health-systems research; development of a refined equity-focused process of deliberative decision making in health reform; and redefinition of the specific responsibilities and accountabilities of key actors are needed to try to achieve equity in health care in India. The implementation of these principles with strengthened public health and primary-care services will help to ensure a more equitable health care for India's population.

  8. The Experience of Addiction as Told by the Addicted: Incorporating Biological Understandings into Self-Story

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Rachel R; Dingel, Molly J; Ostergren, Jenny E; Nowakowski, Katherine E; Koenig, Barbara A

    2012-01-01

    How do the addicted view addiction against the framework of formal theories that attempt to explain the condition? In this empirical paper, we report on the lived experience of addiction based on 63 semi-structured, open-ended interviews with individuals in treatment for alcohol and nicotine abuse at five sites in Minnesota. Using qualitative analysis, we identified four themes that provide insights into understanding how people who are addicted view their addiction, with particular emphasis on the biological model. More than half of our sample articulated a biological understanding of addiction as a disease. Themes did not cluster by addictive substance used; however, biological understandings of addiction did cluster by treatment center. Biological understandings have the potential to become dominant narratives of addiction in the current era. Though the desire for a “unified theory” of addiction seems curiously seductive to scholars, it lacks utility. Conceptual “disarray” may actually reflect a more accurate representation of the illness as told by those who live with it. For practitioners in the field of addiction, we suggest the practice of narrative medicine with its ethic of negative capability as a useful approach for interpreting and relating to diverse experiences of disease and illness. PMID:23081782

  9. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-07-28

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  10. Clarifying exercise addiction: differential diagnosis, co-occurring disorders, and phases of addiction.

    PubMed

    Freimuth, Marilyn; Moniz, Sandy; Kim, Shari R

    2011-10-01

    This paper sets out to clarify the unique features of exercise addiction. It begins by examining how this addiction can be distinguished from compulsions and impulse control disorders both of which, like an addiction, involve excessive behavior that creates adverse effects. Assessment of exercise addiction also requires that clinicians be attuned to other forms of excessive behavior, especially eating disorders that can co-occur with exercise. Finally in an effort to clarify exercise addiction, this paper uses the four phases of addiction to examine the attributes of exercise that define it as a healthy habit distinct from an addiction. The paper ends with a discussion of the implications of these topics for effective assessment and treatment.

  11. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for addiction susceptibility: a premature commercialisation of doubtful validity and value.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Rebecca; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Genetic research on addiction liability and pharmacogenetic research on treatments for addiction have identified some genetic variants associated with disease risk and treatment. Genetic testing for addiction liability and treatment response has not been used widely in clinical practice because most of the genes identified only modestly predict addiction risk or treatment response. However, many of these genetic tests have been commercialized prematurely and are available direct to the consumer (DTC). The easy availability of DTC tests for addiction liability and lack of regulation over their use raises a number of ethical concerns. Of paramount concern is the limited predictive power and clinical utility of these tests. Many DTC testing companies do not provide the consumer with the necessary genetic counselling to assist them in interpreting and acting on their test results. They may also engage in misleading marketing to entice consumers to purchase their products. Consumers' genetic information may be vulnerable to misuse by third parties, as there are limited standards to protect the privacy of the genetic information. Non-consensual testing and inappropriate testing of minors may also occur. The United States Food and Drug Administration plans to regulate DTC genetic tests. Based on the ethical concerns we discuss below, we believe there is a strong case for regulation of DTC genetic tests for addiction liability and treatment response. We argue that until this occurs, these tests have more potential to cause harm than to contribute to improved prevention and treatment of addiction. PMID:22510165

  12. Despite Resources From The ACA, Most States Do Little To Help Addiction Treatment Programs Implement Health Care Reform.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Christina; Abraham, Amanda; Grogan, Colleen M; Pollack, Harold A; Bersamira, Clifford; Humphreys, Keith; Friedmann, Peter

    2015-05-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) dramatically expands health insurance for addiction treatment and provides unprecedented opportunities for service growth and delivery model reform. Yet most addiction treatment programs lack the staffing and technological capabilities to respond successfully to ACA-driven system change. In light of these challenges, we conducted a national survey to examine how Single State Agencies for addiction treatment--the state governmental organizations charged with overseeing addiction treatment programs--are helping programs respond to new requirements under the ACA. We found that most Single State Agencies provide little assistance to addiction treatment programs. Most agencies are helping programs develop collaborations with other health service programs. However, fewer than half reported providing help in modernizing systems to support insurance participation, and only one in three provided assistance with enrollment outreach. In the absence of technical assistance, it is unlikely that addiction treatment programs will fully realize the ACA's promise to improve access to and quality of addiction treatment. PMID:25941285

  13. Despite Resources From The ACA, Most States Do Little To Help Addiction Treatment Programs Implement Health Care Reform

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Christina; Abraham, Amanda; Grogan, Colleen M.; Pollock, Harold A.; Bersamira, Clifford; Humphreys, Keith; Friedmann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) dramatically expands health insurance for addiction treatment and provides unprecedented opportunities for service growth and delivery model reform. Yet most addiction treatment programs lack the staffing and technological capabilities to respond successfully to ACA-driven system change. In light of these challenges, we conducted a national survey to examine how Single State Agencies for addiction treatment—the state governmental organizations charged with overseeing addiction treatment programs—are helping programs respond to new requirements under the ACA. We found that most Single State Agencies provide little assistance to addiction treatment programs. Most agencies are helping programs develop collaborations with other health service programs. However, fewer than half reported providing help in modernizing systems to support insurance participation, and only one in three provided assistance with enrollment outreach. In the absence of technical assistance, it is unlikely that addiction treatment programs will fully realize the ACA’s promise to improve access to and quality of addiction treatment. PMID:25941285

  14. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  15. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions. PMID:26585600

  16. Behavioural addiction-A rising tide?

    PubMed

    Chamberlain, Samuel R; Lochner, Christine; Stein, Dan J; Goudriaan, Anna E; van Holst, Ruth Janke; Zohar, Joseph; Grant, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    The term 'addiction' was traditionally used in relation to centrally active substances, such as cocaine, alcohol, or nicotine. Addiction is not a unitary construct but rather incorporates a number of features, such as repetitive engagement in behaviours that are rewarding (at least initially), loss of control (spiralling engagement over time), persistence despite untoward functional consequences, and physical dependence (evidenced by withdrawal symptoms when intake of the substance diminishes). It has been suggested that certain psychiatric disorders characterized by maladaptive, repetitive behaviours share parallels with substance addiction and therefore represent 'behavioural addictions'. This perspective has influenced the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), which now has a category 'Substance Related and Addictive Disorders', including gambling disorder. Could other disorders characterised by repetitive behaviours, besides gambling disorder, also be considered 'addictions'? Potential examples include kleptomania, compulsive sexual behaviour, 'Internet addiction', trichotillomania (hair pulling disorder), and skin-picking disorder. This paper seeks to define what is meant by 'behavioural addiction', and critically considers the evidence for and against this conceptualisation in respect of the above conditions, from perspectives of aetiology, phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurobiology, and treatment. Research in this area has important implications for future diagnostic classification systems, neurobiological models, and novel treatment directions.

  17. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Drug Addiction and Alcoholism AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for Comments... persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our... than March 30, 2010. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments by any one of three methods-- Internet, fax,...

  18. Internet Addiction among High Schoolers in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Sunny S. J.; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    The purpose of this study was to develop a reliable and valid measurement for the identification of Internet addictive high school students. There were 615 subjects selected by a stratified sampling from the population of Taiwanese 10th to 12th graders. The final version of the Internet Addiction Scale for Taiwan High Schoolers (IAST) contained 20…

  19. Advocacy on Issues Related to Addictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taleff, Michael J.

    Advocating for a population with an addictive disorder holds extraordinary challenges, but it also offers extraordinary rewards. The challenge is to embrace a cause with which most people in the United States hold little sympathy. The primary reward is that once advocacy has begun it can help ignite an addicted person's self-respect. This paper…

  20. Prevention of addiction in pain management

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-09-06

    The present invention provides a composition for treating pain. The composition includes a pharmaceutically acceptable analgesic and a GABAergic agent, such as gamma vinyl GABA, effective in reducing or eliminating the addictive liability of the analgesic. The invention also includes a method for reducing or eliminating the addictive

  1. Maternal Cocaine Addiction: Correlates and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa Lawton

    This study investigated the effects of cocaine addiction on mothers' ability to care for their children. The population interviewed included 25 cocaine-addicted mothers in a drug treatment center and a comparison group of 25 mothers of children in a Head Start program. Each mother was questioned about: (1) her pregnancy with a specific child…

  2. Exploring Children's Conceptions of Smoking Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C.; Henley, N.; Donovan, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco addiction is a major health problem for both adults and young people--between 20 and 60% of adolescents are dependent on nicotine and more than two-thirds who attempt to quit experience withdrawal symptoms. Yet, anti-smoking efforts targeted at children emphasize primary prevention and ignore addiction education, which is generally…

  3. The Role of Meditation in Addiction Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruett, James M.; Nishimura, Nancy J.; Priest, Ronnie

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined the role of meditation as an important component in addiction recovery. Successful addiction recovery is often related to an individual's ability to develop and use a repertoire of coping behaviors, including the ability to maintain an ongoing awareness of one's vulnerability. These learned behaviors serve as reliable…

  4. Factors of Addiction: New Jersey Correctional Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtowicz, James P.; Liu, Tongyin; Hedgpeth, G. Wayne

    2007-01-01

    Most state inmates incarcerated under the jurisdiction of the New Jersey Department of Corrections are driven to crimes by drug abuse. Understanding the factors contributing to addiction is the first step in developing strategies for successful inmate reintegration. This study presents an analysis of inmate addiction and factor association using…

  5. Attributions and Relapse in Opiate Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Brendan P.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated whether attributions of opiate addicts would predict abstinence and reactions to abstinence violations. Found that addicts who at admission attributed to themselves greater responsibility for negative outcomes and who attributed relapse episodes to more personally controllable factors were subsequently more likely either to be…

  6. Addictive Substances: Textbook Approaches from 16 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Graca S.; Jourdan, Didier; Goncalves, Artur; Dantas, Catarina; Berger, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Schools have been identified as one of the appropriate settings for addiction prevention since this is the place where pupils may come into contact with drugs for the first time and experiment with them, with the possibility of becoming addicted. To be effective, school-based drug education must be firmly based on knowledge of oneself and…

  7. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Narcotic Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, R. Renee

    Nearly 150 abstracts have been included in this annotated bibliography; its purpose has been to scan the voluminous number of documents on the problem of drug addiction in order to summarize the present state of knowledge on narcotic addiction and on methods for its treatment and control. The literature reviewed has been divided into the following…

  8. [Vaccines for the treatment of drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, Ermanno; Marino, Maria Giulia; Bagnato, Barbara; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of drug addiction is a very wide-ranging sector within modern medicine. The use of immunotherapy in this context represents an innovative approach. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a literature review, the main avenues of research and the results obtained with immunotherapy in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:27077562

  9. Training in Addiction Medicine in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Paul S.; Murnion, Bridin P.

    2011-01-01

    Barriers to entering addiction medicine (AM) have led to a persisting workforce shortage. To address this problem, the Chapter of Addiction Medicine (AChAM) was formed in 2001 as a subdivision of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP). Through consultation, AChAM has identified the scope of practice and offered fellowship to suitable…

  10. Methadone Maintenance: The Addict's Family Recreated.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, John; Bokos, Peter

    1979-01-01

    A study of four methadone clinics, the addicts treated at these clinics, and their families, reveals basic dissonances in treatment ideology and professional-paraprofessional relationships which, combined with the addict's particular mode of functioning, make significant change in his behavior improbable. (Author)

  11. X Chromosome Inactivation in Opioid Addicted Women

    PubMed Central

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat; Goodarzi, Ali; Abharian, Peyman Hassani; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a process during which one of the two X chromosomes in female human is silenced leading to equal gene expression with males who have only one X chromosome. Here we have investigated XCI ratio in females with opioid addiction to see whether XCI skewness in women could be a risk factor for opioid addiction. Methods: 30 adult females meeting DSM IV criteria for opioid addiction and 30 control females with no known history of addiction were included in the study. Digested and undigested DNA samples which were extracted from blood were analyzed after amplification of the polymorphic androgen receptor (AR) gene located on the X chromosome. XCI skewness was studied in 3 ranges: 50:50–64:36 (random inactivation), 65:35–80:20 (moderately skewed) and >80:20 (highly skewed). Results: XCI from informative females in control group was 63% (N=19) random, 27% (N=8) moderately skewed and 10% (N=3) highly skewed. Addicted women showed 57%, 23% and 20%, respectively. The distribution and frequency of XCI status in women with opioid addiction was not significantly different from control group (P=0.55). Discussion: Our data did not approve our hypothesis of increased XCI skewness among women with opioid addiction or unbalanced (non-random) expression of genes associated with X chromosome in female opioid addicted subjects. PMID:26904175

  12. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  13. Sex Equity Ideabook for the District of Columbia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grady, Walteen; And Others

    This publication contains lesson plans and classroom activities to assist K-12 teachers develop sex equity themes. It supplements the "Sex Equity Resource Directory" (SO 013 579) which is a guide to sex equity resources available through the District of Columbia Public Schools. The "Ideabook" has several major sections each containing materials…

  14. Conceptions of Equity: How Influential Actors View a Contested Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulkley, Katrina E.

    2013-01-01

    Discussions of educational equity have played an important role in educational policy in the United States over the past 50 years, and advocates with a broad range of perspectives on reform have sought to claim the equity mantle. In this article, I examine aspects of equity, including the distribution of "inputs" to public education, the…

  15. The Sublime Objects of Education Policy: Quality, Equity and Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Quality and equity are touchstones of education policy in the twenty-first century in a range of global contexts. On the surface, this seems fitting: after all, who could object to more quality and greater equity in education? Yet what do we mean by quality and equity, and how are they related? This paper draws on Lacanian psychoanalytic theory to…

  16. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  17. Pursuing Equity in and through Teacher Education Program Admissions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childs, Ruth A.; Broad, Kathryn; Gallagher-Mackay, Kelly; Sher, Yael; Escayg, Kerry-Ann; McGrath, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    This case study investigated equity in teacher education admissions. Through document analysis and structured interviews with ten past or current members of the admissions committee in a large initial teacher education program in Ontario, we developed an understanding of equity in teacher education admissions as encompassing two foci: equity in…

  18. Principals Leading for Educational Equity: Social Justice in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eldridge, Cynthia Marie

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study examined how principals promote educational equity in schools. The study examined the experiences of three principals in a school district that mandated that principals lead for equity. The school system defined equity as the elimination of racial predictability in student achievement. To conduct this examination, the…

  19. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  20. 5 CFR 831.1403 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 831.1403... REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 831.1403 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (1) It would cause...

  1. 22 CFR 17.4 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equity and good conscience. 17.4 Section 17.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL OVERPAYMENTS FROM THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND... PENSION SYSTEM (FSPS) § 17.4 Equity and good conscience. (a) Defined. Recovery is against equity and...

  2. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523 Section 29.523 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity...

  3. 47 CFR 65.301 - Cost of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost of equity. 65.301 Section 65.301... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.301 Cost of equity. The cost of equity shall be determined in represcription proceedings after giving full consideration to...

  4. 5 CFR 845.303 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Equity and good conscience. 845.303 Section 845.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE... Overpayments § 845.303 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity and good conscience when— (a)...

  5. 24 CFR 241.1068 - Renegotiation of an equity loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Renegotiation of an equity loan... AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1068 Renegotiation of an equity loan. The Commissioner...

  6. 24 CFR 241.1068 - Renegotiation of an equity loan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Renegotiation of an equity loan... AUTHORITIES SUPPLEMENTARY FINANCING FOR INSURED PROJECT MORTGAGES Insurance for Equity Loans and Acquisition Loans-Eligibility Requirements § 241.1068 Renegotiation of an equity loan. The Commissioner...

  7. 7 CFR 1773.43 - Capital and equity accounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Capital and equity accounts. 1773.43 Section 1773.43... § 1773.43 Capital and equity accounts. (a) Capital stock. For privately owned companies, the workpapers... earnings, margins, and other equities. The workpapers must include an analysis of the patronage...

  8. 47 CFR 65.301 - Cost of equity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost of equity. 65.301 Section 65.301... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.301 Cost of equity. The cost of equity shall be determined in represcription proceedings after giving full consideration to...

  9. 31 CFR 29.523 - Equity and good conscience.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equity and good conscience. 29.523 Section 29.523 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury FEDERAL BENEFIT... Standards for Waiver of Overpayments § 29.523 Equity and good conscience. Recovery is against equity...

  10. What Is Equity in Education? Reflections from the Capability Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unterhalter, Elaine

    2009-01-01

    While there is a substantial conceptual literature on equality in education, there has been little clarificatory discussion on the term equity, despite its frequent use in policy and planning documents. The article draws out some different ways in which equity can be understood in education. It distinguishes three forms of equity, looking at the…

  11. Aspects of Student Equity and Higher Education in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckmann, J.

    2008-01-01

    Badat (2004, 4) refers to the triple challenge facing higher education: to promote equity and growth within a democratic framework and to consolidate a fledgling democracy. In higher education there is inherent tension between growth (access to education) and equity. The article argues that the vagueness in which the term "equity" is generally…

  12. School Facilities Equity in California: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Davison Duane

    This is an equity study, focusing on the crowdedness and adequacy of California's public school facilities. Facilities data are from a 1988 state survey and include information about building space, age of facilities, air conditioning, and construction type. The research focuses on two equity principles: horizontal equity and facilities…

  13. Fiscal Equity in the United States, 1984-85.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Myron; Moskowitz, Jay

    This paper contributes to the recovery of finance reform by providing a rough gauge that will allow individual states to evaluate their positions among their peers regarding several basic equity principles and measures. Changes in these equity measures over an 8-year period are assessed, and some of the correlates of equity at the state level are…

  14. Intradistrict Equity of Public Education Resources and Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iatarola, P.; Stiefel, L.

    2003-01-01

    Presents empirical evidence on input and output equity of expenditures, teacher resources, and performance across 840 elementary and middle schools in New York City. Finds that horizontal equity distributions are more disparate than what would be expected relative to results of other studies, vertical equity is lacking, and equality of opportunity…

  15. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  16. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  17. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  18. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes the amount of...

  19. 26 CFR 1.809-10 - Computation of equity base.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computation of equity base. 1.809-10 Section 1... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Gain and Loss from Operations § 1.809-10 Computation of equity base. (a) In general. For purposes of section 809, the equity base of a life insurance company includes...

  20. As Endowment Managers Turn to Private Equity, Questions Arise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Andrea; Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2012-01-01

    Endowment growth in 2011 came in no small part because universities have increasingly invested in private equity--the same private equity that has become a hot-button issue on the 2012 campaign trail, with some candidates and commentators calling into question its social value. Private equity is "of increasing significance" for endowments. It made…