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  1. Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160033.html Pain Raises Risk of Opioid Addiction Men and younger people had higher odds of ... had a 41 percent higher risk of opioid addiction than those with no pain. That increased risk ...

  2. Comparison of risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction and Internet addiction

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai-Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok; Ahn, Heejune; Choi, Eun-Jeung; Song, Won-Young; Kim, Seohee; Youn, Hyunchul

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Smartphone addiction is a recent concern that has resulted from the dramatic increase in worldwide smartphone use. This study assessed the risk and protective factors associated with smartphone addiction in college students and compared these factors to those linked to Internet addiction. Methods College students (N = 448) in South Korea completed the Smartphone Addiction Scale, the Young’s Internet Addiction Test, the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, the Beck Depression Inventory I, the State–Trait Anxiety Inventory (Trait Version), the Character Strengths Test, and the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale. The data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. Results The risk factors for smartphone addiction were female gender, Internet use, alcohol use, and anxiety, while the protective factors were depression and temperance. In contrast, the risk factors for Internet addiction were male gender, smartphone use, anxiety, and wisdom/knowledge, while the protective factor was courage. Discussion These differences may result from unique features of smartphones, such as high availability and primary use as a tool for interpersonal relationships. Conclusions Our findings will aid clinicians in distinguishing between predictive factors for smartphone and Internet addiction and can consequently be utilized in the prevention and treatment of smartphone addiction. PMID:26690626

  3. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  4. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  5. Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160358.html Addiction Risk Low for Seniors Taking Post-Op Opioids: ... many worry that post-surgical use might trigger addiction. But a new study suggests that painkiller abuse ...

  6. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet.

    PubMed

    Northrup, Jason C; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-07-28

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term "Internet addiction" is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed.

  7. Work stress and subsequent risk of internet addiction among information technology engineers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Sung-Wei; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Chen, Shih-Tse; Tsai, Ming-Chen

    2014-08-01

    Work stress, as defined by the Demand-Control-Support (DCS) model and the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) model, has been found to predict risks for depression, anxiety, and substance addictions, but little research is available on work stress and Internet addiction. The aims of this study are to assess whether the DCS and ERI models predict subsequent risks of Internet addiction, and to examine whether these associations might be mediated by depression and anxiety. A longitudinal study was conducted in a sample (N=2,550) of 21-55 year old information technology engineers without Internet addiction. Data collection included questionnaires covering work stress, demographic factors, psychosocial factors, substance addictions, Internet-related factors, depression and anxiety at wave 1, and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) at wave 2. Ordinal logistic regression was used to assess the associations between work stress and IAT; path analysis was adopted to evaluate potentially mediating roles of depression and anxiety. After 6.2 months of follow-up, 14.0% of subjects became problematic Internet users (IAT 40-69) and 4.1% pathological Internet users (IAT 70-100). Job strain was associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction (odds ratio [OR] of having a higher IAT outcome vs. a lower outcome was 1.53); high work social support reduced the risk of Internet addiction (OR=0.62). High ER ratio (OR=1.61) and high overcommitment (OR=1.68) were associated with increased risks of Internet addiction. Work stress defined by the DCS and ERI models predicted subsequent risks of Internet addiction.

  8. The Internet Process Addiction Test: Screening for Addictions to Processes Facilitated by the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Northrup, Jason C.; Lapierre, Coady; Kirk, Jeffrey; Rae, Cosette

    2015-01-01

    The Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) was created to screen for potential addictive behaviors that could be facilitated by the internet. The IPAT was created with the mindset that the term “Internet addiction” is structurally problematic, as the Internet is simply the medium that one uses to access various addictive processes. The role of the internet in facilitating addictions, however, cannot be minimized. A new screening tool that effectively directed researchers and clinicians to the specific processes facilitated by the internet would therefore be useful. This study shows that the Internet Process Addiction Test (IPAT) demonstrates good validity and reliability. Four addictive processes were effectively screened for with the IPAT: Online video game playing, online social networking, online sexual activity, and web surfing. Implications for further research and limitations of the study are discussed. PMID:26226007

  9. Impulsivity, Frontal Lobes and Risk for Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Crews, Fulton Timm; Boettiger, Charlotte Ann

    2009-01-01

    Alcohol and substance abuse disorders involve continued use of substances despite negative consequences, i.e. loss of behavioral control of drug use. The frontal cortical areas of brain oversee behavioral control through executive functions. Executive functions include abstract thinking, motivation, planning, attention to tasks and inhibition of impulsive responses. Impulsiveness generally refers to premature, unduly risky, poorly conceived actions. Dysfunctional impulsivity includes deficits in attention, lack of reflection and/or insensitivity to consequences, all of which occur in addiction (Evenden, 1999; (de Wit, 2009). Binge drinking models indicate chronic alcohol damages corticolimbic brain regions (Crews et al., 2000) causing reversal learning deficits indicative of loss of executive function (Obernier et al., 2002b). Genetics and adolescent age are risk factors for alcoholism that coincide with sensitivity to alcohol induced neurotoxicity. Cortical degeneration from alcohol abuse may increase impulsivity contributing to the development, persistence and severity of alcohol use disorders. Interestingly, abstinence results in bursts of neurogenesis and brain regrowth (Crews and Nixon, 2009). Treatments for alcoholism, including naltrexone pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy may work through improving executive functions. This review will examine the relationships between impulsivity and executive function behaviors to changes in cortical structure during alcohol dependence and recovery. PMID:19410598

  10. Molecular Genetic Testing in Pain and Addiction: Facts, Fiction and Clinical Utility

    PubMed Central

    Blum, Kenneth; Hauser, Mary; Fratantonio, James; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.

    2015-01-01

    The Brain Reward Cascade (BRC) is an interaction of neurotransmitters and their respective genes to control the amount of dopamine released within the brain. Any variations within this pathway, whether genetic or environmental (epigenetic), may result in addictive behaviors as well as altered pain tolerance. While there are many studies claiming a genetic association with addiction and other behavioral infractions, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), not all are scientifically accurate and in some case just wrong. Albeit our bias, we discuss herein the facts and fictions behind molecular genetic testing in RDS (including pain and addiction) and the significance behind the development of the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARSPREDX™), the first test to accurately predict one's genetic risk for RDS. PMID:26807291

  11. The characteristics of decision making, potential to take risks, and personality of college students with Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chih-Hung; Hsiao, Sigmund; Liu, Gin-Chung; Yen, Ju-Yu; Yang, Ming-Jen; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2010-01-30

    This study aimed to identify risk factors involved in Internet addiction. A total of 216 college students (132 males and 84 females) were given the following: (a) the diagnostic interview for Internet addiction, (b) the Iowa gambling test for decision-making deficits, (c) the Balloon Analog Risk Test (BART) to assess risk-taking tendencies, and (d) the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) for personality characteristics. The results revealed the following: (a) 49% of males and 17% of females were addicted, (b) the addicted students tended to select more advantageous cards in the last 40 cards of the Iowa test, indicating better decision making, (c) no difference was found for the BART, indicating that addicted subjects were not more likely to engage in risk-taking behaviors and (d) TPQ scores showed lower reward dependence (RD) and higher novelty seeking (NS) for the addicts. Their higher performance on the Iowa gambling test differentiates the Internet addiction group from the substance use and pathologic gambling groups that have been shown to be deficient in decision making on the Iowa test. Thus, students that fit these characteristics should be closely monitored to prevent Internet addiction. PMID:19962767

  12. Buprenorphine Treatment for Narcotic Addiction: Not Without Risks

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2015-01-01

    While most clinicians will never prescribe buprenorphine or combined buprenorphine/naloxone, familiarity with the risks of these pharmacological approaches to the treatment of narcotic addiction remains relevant. Overall, medication-assisted treatment has clearly resulted in meaningful gains for a number of individuals who are addicted to narcotics (i.e., opiates and opioids). However, a certain level of risk is inherent with these approaches. For example, both buprenorphine and buprenorphine/naloxone may be diverted and misused (e.g., intravenously injected, intranasally administered), particularly buprenorphine. Likewise, when illicitly injected, both can cause infectious complications as well as result in death from overdose. The risk of death with buprenorphine overdose appears to be heightened with the coadministration of either benzodiazepines or sedative/hypnotics. To conclude, as with all interventions in medicine, buprenorphine treatment for narcotic addiction has a clinically fluctuating risk/benefit equation that must be continually monitored. PMID:25973324

  13. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Eap, C B; Khazaal, Y; Montagrin, Y; Rihs-Middel, M; Simon, O; Tissot, H; Tomei, A; Zumwald, C; Zullino, D

    2008-01-01

    This year review emphasizes four aspects coming from addiction psychiatry: 1. Initiation and maintenance of cannabis use. 2. Methadone and heart toxicity. 3. Suicidal behaviour in gambling. 4. Treatment of addictive disorders via internet: present and future perspectives. PMID:18251208

  14. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Gothuey, I; Andronicos, M; Babel, H; Nunweiler, S

    2013-01-01

    What's new in addiction medicine in 2012? The news are presented according three axes: first, in the field of neuroscience, the process of extinction of addiction memories. Then in the clinical field, a reflexion is reported on how to treat addiction in psychiatric hospitals. At last, in the area of teaching, an e-learning development with a virtual patient shows a great interest in addiction psychiatry. PMID:23367696

  15. Reliability of a Personality Test for Narcotic Addicts in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaestner, Elisabeth; Goldstein, Marvin

    1977-01-01

    The Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) was used to determine retest reliability (7-day interval) and motivational distortion for a sample of narcotic addicts (N=141) legally committed to treatment and tested by staff for routine diagnostic purposes. (Author)

  16. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, Jacques; Grivel, Jeremy; Tomei, Alexander; Falcheri, Jean-Phillipe; Rougemont-Bücking, Ansgar; Khazaal, Yasser

    2014-01-15

    The news in addiction medicine in 2013 are presented according to the new version of the DSM (DSM-5); new data on cannabinoid, highlight hypotheses on self-medication; a current status about treatment of the addiction via the internet is shown; and new therapeutic perspectives emerge from the knowledge on traumatic antecedents in addictive populations.

  17. The risk factors of Internet addiction--a survey of university freshmen.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsing Fang; Cheng, Shu Hui; Yeh, Tzung Lieh; Shih, Chi-Chen; Chen, Kao Ching; Yang, Yi Ching; Yang, Yen Kuang

    2009-05-30

    This study was designed to explore the risk factors of Internet addiction in 1360 freshmen of the National Cheng Kung University in Taiwan in 2003. The test battery included a self-administrated structured questionnaire, the Chinese Internet Addiction Scale-Revision (CIAS-R), the 12-item Chinese Health Questionnaire (CHQ-12), the Measurement of Support Functions (MSF), and the neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI). Of the total study population, there were 680 college freshmen (17.9%) in the Internet addiction group, as defined by high CIAS-R scores. Using logistic regression analyses, we found positive relationships between Internet addiction and male gender, neuroticism scores and the CHQ score. In addition, the freshmen who skipped breakfast and those who had poorer social support also had a higher probability of Internet addiction. Internet addiction is prevalent among university freshmen in Taiwan. Risk factors included male gender, habit of skipping breakfast, mental health morbidity, deficient social support; and neurotic personality characteristics. PMID:19395052

  18. Risk Factors for Addiction and Their Association with Model-Based Behavioral Control

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Andrea M. F.; Deserno, Lorenz; Wilbertz, Tilmann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Addiction shows familial aggregation and previous endophenotype research suggests that healthy relatives of addicted individuals share altered behavioral and cognitive characteristics with individuals suffering from addiction. In this study we asked whether impairments in behavioral control proposed for addiction, namely a shift from goal-directed, model-based toward habitual, model-free control, extends toward an unaffected sample (n = 20) of adult children of alcohol-dependent fathers as compared to a sample without any personal or family history of alcohol addiction (n = 17). Using a sequential decision-making task designed to investigate model-free and model-based control combined with a computational modeling analysis, we did not find any evidence for altered behavioral control in individuals with a positive family history of alcohol addiction. Independent of family history of alcohol dependence, we however observed that the interaction of two different risk factors of addiction, namely impulsivity and cognitive capacities, predicts the balance of model-free and model-based behavioral control. Post-hoc tests showed a positive association of model-based behavior with cognitive capacity in the lower, but not in the higher impulsive group of the original sample. In an independent sample of particularly high- vs. low-impulsive individuals, we confirmed the interaction effect of cognitive capacities and high vs. low impulsivity on model-based control. In the confirmation sample, a positive association of omega with cognitive capacity was observed in highly impulsive individuals, but not in low impulsive individuals. Due to the moderate sample size of the study, further investigation of the association of risk factors for addiction with model-based behavior in larger sample sizes is warranted. PMID:27013998

  19. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  20. Direct-to-consumer genetic testing for addiction susceptibility: a premature commercialisation of doubtful validity and value.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Rebecca; Hall, Wayne; Carter, Adrian

    2012-12-01

    Genetic research on addiction liability and pharmacogenetic research on treatments for addiction have identified some genetic variants associated with disease risk and treatment. Genetic testing for addiction liability and treatment response has not been used widely in clinical practice because most of the genes identified only modestly predict addiction risk or treatment response. However, many of these genetic tests have been commercialized prematurely and are available direct to the consumer (DTC). The easy availability of DTC tests for addiction liability and lack of regulation over their use raises a number of ethical concerns. Of paramount concern is the limited predictive power and clinical utility of these tests. Many DTC testing companies do not provide the consumer with the necessary genetic counselling to assist them in interpreting and acting on their test results. They may also engage in misleading marketing to entice consumers to purchase their products. Consumers' genetic information may be vulnerable to misuse by third parties, as there are limited standards to protect the privacy of the genetic information. Non-consensual testing and inappropriate testing of minors may also occur. The United States Food and Drug Administration plans to regulate DTC genetic tests. Based on the ethical concerns we discuss below, we believe there is a strong case for regulation of DTC genetic tests for addiction liability and treatment response. We argue that until this occurs, these tests have more potential to cause harm than to contribute to improved prevention and treatment of addiction. PMID:22510165

  1. Children of Alcoholics/Addicts: Children at Risk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, F. Jill

    Children of alcoholics/addicts (COAs) are at a greater risk to develop alcohol and drug dependency, eating disorders, attention deficit disorders, stress-related illness, and suicidal behavior. Children become part of a conspiracy of silence by being told not to talk about the drug problem. The family members assume different roles which…

  2. Differentiation of Internet addiction risk level based on autonomic nervous responses: the Internet-addiction hypothesis of autonomic activity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong Wei; Wang, Jenn Wu; Huang, Andrew Chih Wei

    2010-08-01

    How high-risk Internet addiction (IA) abusers respond to different autonomic nervous activities compared with low-risk subjects may be a critical research goal with prevention and treatment implications. The aim of the present study was to address this issue by observing differences between high- and low-risk IA abusers in four physiological assessments when surfing the Internet: blood volume pulse (BVP), skin conductance (SC), peripheral temperature (PTEMP), and respiratory response (RESPR). Forty-two male and ten female participants aged 18-24 years were screened with the Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS, 2003), and then separated into high- and low-risk IA groups. Using psychophysiology equipment, participants encountered a 3-minute adaptation period followed by a 6-minute testing period for surfing the Internet on baseline and testing phases. The present results indicate that: (a) the CIAS scores were positively and negatively correlated with the RESPR and the PTEMP; (b) the PTEMP and RESPR of high-risk IA abusers were respectively weaker and stronger than those of low-risk IA abusers; the BVP and SC of high-risk IA abusers were respectively augmented and decreased relative to low-risk IA abusers. Thus we suggest that four autonomic responses may be differentially sensitive to abusers' potency in terms of the IA hypothesis of autonomic activity. The stronger BVP and RESPR responses and the weaker PTEMP reactions of the high-risk IA abusers indicate the sympathetic nervous system was heavily activated in these individuals. However, SC activates parasympathetic responses at the same time in the high-risk IA abusers. The paradoxical responses between the sympathetic and parasympathetic actions are addressed in the discussion.

  3. Risk of Opioid Addiction Up 37 Percent Among Young U.S. Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_161306.html Risk of Opioid Addiction Up 37 Percent Among Young U.S. Adults Study ... study was that the odds for an opioid addiction among younger teens remained stable. Teenagers and young ...

  4. Replication of ZNF804A gene variant associations with risk of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Hancock, D B; Levy, J L; Gaddis, N C; Glasheen, C; Saccone, N L; Page, G P; Bierut, L J; Kral, A H; Johnson, E O

    2015-11-01

    Heroin addiction is heritable, but few specific genetic variants have been reproducibly associated with this disease. The zinc finger protein 804A (ZNF804A) gene is a biologically plausible susceptibility gene for heroin addiction, given its function as a transcription factor in human brain. Novel associations of two common ZNF804A single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), rs7597593 and rs1344706, with heroin addiction have been reported in Han Chinese. Both SNPs have also been implicated for regulating ZNF804A expression in human brain, including the addiction-relevant dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. In this independent replication study, we tested the rs7597593 and rs1344706 SNP genotypes and their corresponding haplotypes for association with heroin addiction using cases drawn from the Urban Health Study and population controls: total N = 10 757 [7095 European Americans (EAs) and 3662 African Americans (AAs)]. We independently replicated both ZNF804A SNP associations in EAs: the rs7597593-T (P = 0.016) and rs1344706-A (P = 0.029) alleles both being associated with increased risk of heroin addiction, consistent with the prior report. Neither SNP was associated in AAs alone, but meta-analysis across both ancestry groups resulted in significant associations for rs1344706-A [P = 0.016, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.13 (1.02-1.25)] and its haplotype with rs7597593-T [P = 0.0067, odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 1.16 (1.04-1.29)]. By showing consistent associations across independent studies and diverse ancestry groups, our study provides evidence that these two ZNF804A SNPs and their risk haplotype are among the few replicable genetic associations with heroin addiction. PMID:26382569

  5. Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS): molecular neurogenetic evidence for predisposition to Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS).

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Barh, Debmalya; Gold, Mark S

    2014-12-01

    We have published extensively on the neurogenetics of brain reward systems with reference to the genes related to dopaminergic function in particular. In 1996, we coined "Reward Deficiency Syndrome" (RDS), to portray behaviors found to have gene-based association with hypodopaminergic function. RDS as a useful concept has been embraced in many subsequent studies, to increase our understanding of Substance Use Disorder (SUD), addictions, and other obsessive, compulsive, and impulsive behaviors. Interestingly, albeit others, in one published study, we were able to describe lifetime RDS behaviors in a recovering addict (17 years sober) blindly by assessing resultant Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS™) data only. We hypothesize that genetic testing at an early age may be an effective preventive strategy to reduce or eliminate pathological substance and behavioral seeking activity. Here, we consider a select number of genes, their polymorphisms, and associated risks for RDS whereby, utilizing GWAS, there is evidence for convergence to reward candidate genes. The evidence presented serves as a plausible brain-print providing relevant genetic information that will reinforce targeted therapies, to improve recovery and prevent relapse on an individualized basis. The primary driver of RDS is a hypodopaminergic trait (genes) as well as epigenetic states (methylation and deacetylation on chromatin structure). We now have entered a new era in addiction medicine that embraces the neuroscience of addiction and RDS as a pathological condition in brain reward circuitry that calls for appropriate evidence-based therapy and early genetic diagnosis and that requires further intensive investigation.

  6. Motivational Effects of Methylphenidate are Associated with GABRA2 Variants Conferring Addiction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Duka, Theodora; Dixon, Claire I.; Trick, Leanne; Crombag, Hans S.; King, Sarah L.; Stephens, David N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Variations in the GABRA2 gene, encoding α2 subunits of GABAA receptors, have been associated with risk for addiction to several drugs, but the mechanisms by which variations in non-coding regions of GABRA2 increase risk for addictions are not understood. Mice with deletion of GABRA2 show deficits in the ability of psychostimulants to facilitate responding for conditioned reinforcers, offering a potential explanation. Methods: We report human and mouse studies investigating a potential endophenotype underlying this association. Healthy human volunteers carrying either cocaine-addiction “risk” or “protective” GABRA2 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) were tested for their subjective responses to methylphenidate, and methylphenidate’s ability to facilitate conditioned reinforcement (CRf) for visual stimuli (CS+) associated with monetary reward. In parallel, methylphenidate’s ability to facilitate responding for a visual CRf was studied in wildtype and α2 knockout (α2−/−) mice. Results: Methylphenidate increased the number of CS+ presentations obtained by human subjects carrying protective, but not risk SNPs. In mice, methylphenidate increased responding for a CS+ in wildtype, but not α2−/− mice. Human subjects carrying protective SNPs felt stimulated, aroused and restless following methylphenidate, while individuals carrying risk SNPs did not. Conclusion: Human risk SNP carriers were insensitive to methylphenidate’s effects on mood or in facilitating CRf. That mice with the gene deletion were also insensitive to methylphenidate’s ability to increase responding for CRf, suggests a potential mechanism whereby low α2-subunit levels increase risk for addictions. Circuits employing GABAA-α2 subunit-containing receptors may protect against risk for addictions. PMID:26635556

  7. Addressing the question of disorder-specific risk factors of internet addiction: a comparison of personality traits in patients with addictive behaviors and comorbid internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Koch, A; Dickenhorst, U; Beutel, M E; Duven, E; Wölfling, K

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled use of the internet has been reported to affect the lives of some users in a negative way. According to epidemiological studies, about 1% of the general population is showing signs of internet addiction. Since internet addiction is becoming a growing health concern, research on potential risk factors is becoming more important in order to develop strategies for prevention and to adopt therapeutic treatment. Although there are some studies investigating personality traits in internet addiction, most of these studies are based on samples of healthy subjects. In this research project, we compared personality profiles of a sample of patients in different rehabilitation centers. 70 patients with an addiction disorder that additionally met the criteria for internet addiction were compared to 48 patients suffering from alcohol dependence. Besides Big Five personality traits, we also assessed depressive symptoms. It was shown that patients with comorbid internet addiction can be discriminated from other patients by higher neuroticism and lower extraversion as well as lower conscientiousness. After controlling for depressive symptoms, lower conscientiousness especially turned out to be a disorder-specific risk factor. As internet addiction is related to unique patterns of personality traits and can be discriminated from alcohol dependence, treatment approaches are needed that meet the specific requirements of patients with internet addiction.

  8. Stress as a common risk factor for obesity and addiction.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Jastreboff, Ania M

    2013-05-01

    Stress is associated with obesity, and the neurobiology of stress overlaps significantly with that of appetite and energy regulation. This review will discuss stress, allostasis, the neurobiology of stress and its overlap with neural regulation of appetite, and energy homeostasis. Stress is a key risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse. High levels of stress changes eating patterns and augments consumption of highly palatable (HP) foods, which in turn increases incentive salience of HP foods and allostatic load. The neurobiological mechanisms by which stress affects reward pathways to potentiate motivation and consumption of HP foods as well as addictive drugs is discussed. With enhanced incentive salience of HP foods and overconsumption of these foods, there are adaptations in stress and reward circuits that promote stress-related and HP food-related motivation as well as concomitant metabolic adaptations, including alterations in glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and other hormones related to energy homeostasis. These metabolic changes in turn might also affect dopaminergic activity to influence food motivation and intake of HP foods. An integrative heuristic model is proposed, wherein repeated high levels of stress alter the biology of stress and appetite/energy regulation, with both components directly affecting neural mechanisms contributing to stress-induced and food cue-induced HP food motivation and engagement in overeating of such foods to enhance risk of weight gain and obesity. Future directions in research are identified to increase understanding of the mechanisms by which stress might increase risk of weight gain and obesity.

  9. Video game addiction test: validity and psychometric characteristics.

    PubMed

    van Rooij, Antonius J; Schoenmakers, Tim M; van den Eijnden, Regina J J M; Vermulst, Ad A; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-09-01

    The study explores the reliability, validity, and measurement invariance of the Video game Addiction Test (VAT). Game-addiction problems are often linked to Internet enabled online games; the VAT has the unique benefit that it is theoretically and empirically linked to Internet addiction. The study used data (n=2,894) from a large-sample paper-and-pencil questionnaire study, conducted in 2009 on secondary schools in Netherlands. Thus, the main source of data was a large sample of schoolchildren (aged 13-16 years). Measurements included the proposed VAT, the Compulsive Internet Use Scale, weekly hours spent on various game types, and several psychosocial variables. The VAT demonstrated excellent reliability, excellent construct validity, a one-factor model fit, and a high degree of measurement invariance across gender, ethnicity, and learning year, indicating that the scale outcomes can be compared across different subgroups with little bias. In summary, the VAT can be helpful in the further study of video game addiction, and it contributes to the debate on possible inclusion of behavioral addictions in the upcoming DSM-V.

  10. Development of Social Media Addiction Test (SMAT17)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esgi, Necmi

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a test for assessing individuals' social media addiction; and conducting a reliability and validity study of this scale. Sample for this study was composed of 285 college students between the ages of 18 and 25. Reliability coefficients Cronbach's alpha value was 0.94 and Spearman Brown value was 0.91 for our…

  11. Preliminary study of Internet addiction and cognitive function in adolescents based on IQ tests.

    PubMed

    Park, Min-Hyeon; Park, E-Jin; Choi, Jeewook; Chai, Sukhi; Lee, Ji-Han; Lee, Chul; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2011-12-30

    The potential relationship between Internet addiction and certain cognitive function problems has been suggested by several studies. However, few or no studies have examined the differences in cognitive functioning between persons addicted to the Internet and persons not addicted using a standard neuropsychological test. This study screened 253 middle school students and 389 high school students for Internet addiction and compared 59 Internet-addicted students with 43 non-addicted students using an IQ test. The Internet-addicted group had comprehension sub-item scores that were significantly lower than those of the non-addicted group. As the comprehension item reflects ethical judgement and reality testing, there may be a relationship between Internet addiction and weak social intelligence. Earlier onset of Internet addiction and longer addiction duration were associated with lower participant performance in areas related to attention. As this study is a cross-sectional study, it is not clear whether the persons who display weak cognitive functioning are susceptible to Internet addiction or if Internet addiction causes cognitive problems. However, as brain development remains active during adolescence, the possibility that Internet addiction adversely affects the cognitive functioning of adolescents cannot be ruled out.

  12. The Addiction-Stroop Test: Theoretical Considerations and Procedural Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, W. Miles; Fadardi, Javad Salehi; Pothos, Emmanuel M.

    2006-01-01

    Decisions about using addictive substances are influenced by distractions by addiction-related stimuli, of which the user might be unaware. The addiction-Stroop task is a paradigm used to assess this distraction. The empirical evidence for the addiction-Stroop effect is critically reviewed, and meta-analyses of alcohol-related and smoking-related…

  13. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions.

  14. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students.

  15. The impact of sensation seeking on the relationship between attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms and severity of Internet addiction risk.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Taymur, Ibrahim; Evren, Bilge; Topcu, Merve

    2015-07-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of attention deficit/hyperactivity symptoms (ADHS) with severity of Internet addiction risk (SIAR), while controlling the effects of variables such as depression, anxiety, anger, sensation seeking and lack of assertiveness among university students. Cross-sectional online self-report survey was conducted in two universities among a representative sample of 582 Turkish university students. The students were assessed through the Addiction Profile Index Internet Addiction Form Screening Version (BAPINT-SV), the Psychological Screening Test for Adolescents (PSTA) and the Adult Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS). The participants were classified into the two groups as those with high risk of Internet addiction (HRIA) (11%) and those with low risk of Internet addiction (IA) (89%). The mean age was lower in the group with HRIA, whereas depression, anxiety, sensation seeking, anger, lack of assertiveness and ADHS scores were higher in this group. Lastly, a hierarchical regression analysis suggested that severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficiency, predicted SIAR. The severity of sensation seeking and ADHS, particularly attention deficit symptoms, are important for SIAR. Awareness of sensation seeking among those with high ADHS may be important in prevention and management of IA among university students. PMID:25962354

  16. Greek version of the Internet Addiction Test: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kokkali, Stamatia; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Young, Kimberly S; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this project was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Greek adults. Twenty-one post-graduate medical students participated in the cultural adaptation procedure and 151 both post- and under-graduate medical students in the validation process. The internal consistency shown by a Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Two-week test-retest reliability was rtt = 0.84, p < 0.001. Face validity was affirmed by 83.6 % of the students. In terms of convergent validity, the hours of daily internet use were positively correlated with IAT score (rho = 0.48, p < 0.001). Moreover, IAT scores were higher in students that reported use of online gambling (40.5 vs 29.2, p = 0.004), pornographic sites (36.5 vs 28.0, p = 0.003) and online games (35.6 vs 28.2, p = 0.009). Exploratory factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors for the IAT, "Psychological/Emotional Conflict", "Time Management" and "Neglect Work", that showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity, explaining 55.3 % of the variance. The Greek version of IAT has shown good psychometric properties, comparable with the original IAT and the previously published translated versions, and can be a useful tool in future studies on internet addiction.

  17. Greek version of the Internet Addiction Test: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Tsimtsiou, Zoi; Haidich, Anna-Bettina; Kokkali, Stamatia; Dardavesis, Theodoros; Young, Kimberly S; Arvanitidou, Malamatenia

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this project was to translate, culturally adapt and validate the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Greek adults. Twenty-one post-graduate medical students participated in the cultural adaptation procedure and 151 both post- and under-graduate medical students in the validation process. The internal consistency shown by a Cronbach's alpha was 0.91. Two-week test-retest reliability was rtt = 0.84, p < 0.001. Face validity was affirmed by 83.6 % of the students. In terms of convergent validity, the hours of daily internet use were positively correlated with IAT score (rho = 0.48, p < 0.001). Moreover, IAT scores were higher in students that reported use of online gambling (40.5 vs 29.2, p = 0.004), pornographic sites (36.5 vs 28.0, p = 0.003) and online games (35.6 vs 28.2, p = 0.009). Exploratory factor analysis revealed three interpretable factors for the IAT, "Psychological/Emotional Conflict", "Time Management" and "Neglect Work", that showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity, explaining 55.3 % of the variance. The Greek version of IAT has shown good psychometric properties, comparable with the original IAT and the previously published translated versions, and can be a useful tool in future studies on internet addiction. PMID:24307176

  18. Self-rated Health and Internet Addiction in Iranian Medical Sciences Students; Prevalence, Risk Factors and Complications

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Mirshojaee, Seyede Roqaie; Ahmadli, Robabeh; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Ahmadi, Ali; Rezaei, Heshmatollah; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Self-rated health is a brief measure for general health. It is a comprehensive and sensitive index for prediction of health in future. Due to the high internet usage in medical students, the current study designed to evaluate the self-rated health (SRH) in relationship with internet addiction risk factors in medical students. Methods: This cross sectional study conducted on 254 students of Qom University of Medical Sciences 2014. Participants selected by two stage sampling method including stratified and simple random sampling. The Young’s questionnaire of internet addiction and SRH question used for data collection. Chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression used in data analysis. Results: More than 79.9% of students reported their general health good and very good. The student’s mean score of general health was higher than the average. In addition, the prevalence of internet addiction was 28.7%. An inverse significant correlation observed between SRH and internet addiction score (r=-0.198, p=0.002). Using internet for Entertainment, using private Email and chat rooms were the most important predictors of affecting to internet addiction. Moreover, internet addiction is the most predictors of SRH and increased the odds of bad SRH. Conclusion: The good SRH of medical students was higher than general population but in health faculty’ students were lower than others. Due to the effect of internet addiction on SRH and increasing trend of internet use in medical students, as well as low age of participants, attention to psychological aspects and the job expectancy in future, can effective on increasing the good SRH. PMID:27493592

  19. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    PubMed

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions. PMID:26026385

  20. Implicit associations in cybersex addiction: Adaption of an Implicit Association Test with pornographic pictures.

    PubMed

    Snagowski, Jan; Wegmann, Elisa; Pekal, Jaro; Laier, Christian; Brand, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies show similarities between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies and argue to classify cybersex addiction as a behavioral addiction. In substance dependency, implicit associations are known to play a crucial role, and such implicit associations have not been studied in cybersex addiction, so far. In this experimental study, 128 heterosexual male participants completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT; Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) modified with pornographic pictures. Further, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation, tendencies towards cybersex addiction, and subjective craving due to watching pornographic pictures were assessed. Results show positive relationships between implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions and tendencies towards cybersex addiction, problematic sexual behavior, sensitivity towards sexual excitation as well as subjective craving. Moreover, a moderated regression analysis revealed that individuals who reported high subjective craving and showed positive implicit associations of pornographic pictures with positive emotions, particularly tended towards cybersex addiction. The findings suggest a potential role of positive implicit associations with pornographic pictures in the development and maintenance of cybersex addiction. Moreover, the results of the current study are comparable to findings from substance dependency research and emphasize analogies between cybersex addiction and substance dependencies or other behavioral addictions.

  1. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940

  2. The Role of Social Novelty in Risk Seeking and Exploratory Behavior: Implications for Addictions.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Simon; Gao, Jennifer; Hallett, Mark; Voon, Valerie

    2016-01-01

    Novelty preference or sensation seeking is associated with disorders of addiction and predicts rodent compulsive drug use and adolescent binge drinking in humans. Novelty has also been shown to influence choice in the context of uncertainty and reward processing. Here we introduce a novel or familiar neutral face stimuli and investigate its influence on risk-taking choices in healthy volunteers. We focus on behavioural outcomes and imaging correlates to the prime that might predict risk seeking. We hypothesized that subjects would be more risk seeking following a novel relative to familiar stimulus. We adapted a risk-taking task involving acceptance or rejection of a 50:50 choice of gain or loss that was preceded by a familiar (pre-test familiarization) or novel face prime. Neutral expression faces of males and females were used as primes. Twenty-four subjects were first tested behaviourally and then 18 scanned using a different variant of the same task under functional MRI. We show enhanced risk taking to both gain and loss anticipation following novel relative to familiar images and particularly for the low gain condition. Greater risk taking behaviour and self-reported exploratory behaviours was predicted by greater right ventral putaminal activity to novel versus familiar contexts. Social novelty appears to have a contextually enhancing effect on augmenting risky choices possibly mediated via ventral putaminal dopaminergic activity. Our findings link the observation that novelty preference and sensation seeking are important traits predicting the initiation and maintenance of risky behaviours, including substance and behavioural addictions. PMID:27427940

  3. Risk and resilience: the family experience of adolescents with an addicted parent.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Haimoff-Ayali, Ronit

    2010-06-01

    The family relationships of adolescents brought up by an addicted parent were studied in a qualitative research. The authors interviewed 19 adolescents, all of whom had a parent either actively addicted to drugs or else recovering addicts. The participants were assigned to one of two groups based on the degree to which they maintained normative lives or descended into addiction. It was found that the relative strength of the adolescents within the triad of forces (mother, father, self) had great significance for their development. Younger siblings awakened a desire to protect them from a life of addiction. The extended family was also found to have a potential to influence, in keeping with the significance the young people attributed to these relatives. The results indicate a definition, the first of its kind, of subjective risk and protective factors representing subjective perceptions of the reality of the lives of the participants. PMID:19270268

  4. Sleep Disturbance as a Universal Risk Factor for Relapse in Addictions to Psychoactive Substances

    PubMed Central

    Brower, Kirk J.; Perron, Brian E.

    2009-01-01

    Relapse to uncontrolled use of a psychoactive substance is arguably the single most defining characteristic of an addiction. Relapse following addiction treatment is very common with serious consequences to individuals, families, and the public system of care, making predictors of relapse a highly significant area of study. Before the turn of the century, most of the addiction treatment outcome literature focused on psychosocial predictors of relapse. More recently, investigating biological predictors of relapse specifically and treatment outcome broadly has gained momentum. This line of research has linked sleep disturbances to the risk of relapse among persons who are recovering from an alcohol addiction. Given common neurobiological and psychosocial processes in sleep and addictive behaviors, we hypothesize that the link between sleep disturbance and relapse risk observed among alcohol addiction generalizes to all other types of psychoactive substances. This hypothesis has the potential for helping develop more effective and targeted treatment approaches for persons with addiction. As initial support for the hypothesis, this paper reviews evidence on common neurobiological processes among various types of psychoactive substances that suggests sleep is a universal risk factor for relapse. A conceptual framework is also presented to articulate causal mechanisms. The paper concludes with implications for research and practice. PMID:19910125

  5. A prospective cohort study of cutaneous leishmaniasis risk and opium addiction in south eastern Iran.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by χ(2) and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction.

  6. Psychological risk factors of addiction to social networking sites among Chinese smartphone users

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Cheung, Vivi I.; Ku, Lisbeth; Hung, Eva P. W.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Smartphones allow users to access social networking sites (SNSs) whenever and wherever they want. Such easy availability and accessibility may increase their vulnerability to addiction. Based on the social cognitive theory (SCT), we examined the impacts of outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and impulsivity on young Chinese smartphone users' addictive tendencies toward SNSs. Methods: Two hundred seventy-seven Macau young smartphone users (116 males and 161 females; mean age = 26.62) filled out an online Chinese questionnaire concerning their usage of social networking sites via smartphones, addiction tendencies toward SNSs, impulsivity trait, outcome expectancies toward the use, and Internet self-efficacy. Results: The findings revealed that those who spent more time on SNSs also reported higher addictive tendencies. Addictive tendencies were positively correlated with both outcome expectancies and impulsivity, but negatively associated with Internet self-efficacy. These three psychological variables explained 23% of the variance in addictive tendencies. Conclusions: The findings of this study suggest that, compared to demographics, psychological factors provide a better account for addictive tendencies towards SNSs among Chinese smartphone users in Macau. The three psychological risk factors were low Internet self-efficacy, favorable outcome expectancies, and high impulsivity trait. Educational campaigns with screening procedures for high-risk groups are recommended for effective prevention and treatment. PMID:25215198

  7. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation. PMID:25528919

  8. Psychoactive substances use experience and addiction or risk of addiction among by Polish adolescents living in rural and urban areas.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska, Beata; Zygo, Maciej; Potembska, Emilia; Kapka-Skrzypczak, Lucyna; Dreher, Piotr; Kędzierski, Zbigniew

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the similarities and differences between adolescents with psychoactive substances use experience living in urban and rural areas as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms as well as the evaluation of prevalence of psychoactive substances use among adolescents depending on the place of residence. The examined group consisted of 1 860 people (1 320 girls and 540 boys) their average age being 17 years. In the study the following research methods were used: the Sociodemographic Questionnaire designed by the authors, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire by Potembska, the Internet Addiction test by Young, the Internet Addiction Questionnaire (KBUI) designed by Pawłowska and Potembska. Statistically significant differences were found as regards the prevalence of psychoactive substances use by the adolescents living in urban and rural areas and as regards the intensity of Internet addiction symptoms in adolescents, both from the urban and rural areas, who use and do not use illegal drugs. Significantly more adolescents living in urban areas as compared to their peers living in rural areas use psychoactive substances, mainly marihuana. The adolescents who use psychoactive substances, as compared to the adolescents with no experience using illegal drugs, living both in urban and rural areas significantly more often play online violent games and use web pornography. The adolescents living in rural areas who use psychoactive substances significantly more often as compared to the adolescents who do not use these substances claim that it is only thanks to the interactions established on the Internet that they can get acceptance, understanding and appreciation.

  9. ["Food addiction" as a possible risk factor for obesity].

    PubMed

    Frey, Letizia; Riva, Martina; Grosshans, Martin; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-03-30

    The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are, internationally as well as in Switzerland, increasing in recent years. The neurobiology tries to explore an improved understanding of the central nervous causes of obesity. Findings from addiction research seem very useful because there are certain similarities between addiction and obesity in terms of neurobiological causes. An improved understanding of the disease of obesity could help to develop more effective therapies for obese patients in the future. Further research, e. g. in the field of stress regulation, is thus urgently needed. PMID:27005734

  10. ["Food addiction" as a possible risk factor for obesity].

    PubMed

    Frey, Letizia; Riva, Martina; Grosshans, Martin; Mutschler, Jochen

    2016-03-30

    The prevalence rates of overweight and obesity are, internationally as well as in Switzerland, increasing in recent years. The neurobiology tries to explore an improved understanding of the central nervous causes of obesity. Findings from addiction research seem very useful because there are certain similarities between addiction and obesity in terms of neurobiological causes. An improved understanding of the disease of obesity could help to develop more effective therapies for obese patients in the future. Further research, e. g. in the field of stress regulation, is thus urgently needed.

  11. Examining the Application of the DC-IA-A Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction Disorder in At-Risk College Students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Chang, Shan-Mei; Chiu, Nan-Ying; Lin, Sunny S J; Tseng, Yin-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder is a relatively new condition, and the criteria for its diagnosis have been developed only over the last several years. The criteria for Internet addiction remain controversial. We strive to further elucidate the clinical validity of the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction. To test items of the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction among adolescents, we conducted a clinical interview study of college students based on longitudinal data on their risky use of the Internet. Forty-one high-risk cases were selected from a 3-year 5-time point longitudinal survey of 716 college freshmen. We examined disputes relevant to symptoms and impairment in the DC-IA-A (Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction among Taiwanese Adolescents). Of the 41 cases, 21 were diagnosed with Internet addiction via a psychiatric interview. In the Internet addiction disorder group, 23.8% of cases had a diagnosis of depression, whereas only 15.0% of the cases in the non-Internet addiction group had a diagnosis of depression. Two major criteria (A8 and A3) had low incidences in these high-risk college students and thus did not help provide a differential diagnosis between the groups. We suggest that A8, 'excessive effort spent on activities necessary to obtain access to the Internet', should be omitted, and that A3, 'tolerance: a marked increase in the duration of Internet use needed to achieve satisfaction', should be modified. A1 and A9 should be discussed regarding their role in the diagnosis of Internet addiction disorder. Additional well-designed studies examining the diagnostic criteria and the relationship between factors are needed.

  12. Examining the Application of the DC-IA-A Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction Disorder in At-Risk College Students.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wen-Yu; Chang, Shan-Mei; Chiu, Nan-Ying; Lin, Sunny S J; Tseng, Yin-Hsing

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction disorder is a relatively new condition, and the criteria for its diagnosis have been developed only over the last several years. The criteria for Internet addiction remain controversial. We strive to further elucidate the clinical validity of the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction. To test items of the diagnostic criteria for Internet addiction among adolescents, we conducted a clinical interview study of college students based on longitudinal data on their risky use of the Internet. Forty-one high-risk cases were selected from a 3-year 5-time point longitudinal survey of 716 college freshmen. We examined disputes relevant to symptoms and impairment in the DC-IA-A (Diagnostic Criteria for Internet Addiction among Taiwanese Adolescents). Of the 41 cases, 21 were diagnosed with Internet addiction via a psychiatric interview. In the Internet addiction disorder group, 23.8% of cases had a diagnosis of depression, whereas only 15.0% of the cases in the non-Internet addiction group had a diagnosis of depression. Two major criteria (A8 and A3) had low incidences in these high-risk college students and thus did not help provide a differential diagnosis between the groups. We suggest that A8, 'excessive effort spent on activities necessary to obtain access to the Internet', should be omitted, and that A3, 'tolerance: a marked increase in the duration of Internet use needed to achieve satisfaction', should be modified. A1 and A9 should be discussed regarding their role in the diagnosis of Internet addiction disorder. Additional well-designed studies examining the diagnostic criteria and the relationship between factors are needed. PMID:26609702

  13. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits.

  14. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaoying S; Chen, Jessica S; Adelman, Ron A

    2015-09-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits. PMID:26339215

  15. Video Game Use in the Treatment of Amblyopia: Weighing the Risks of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.

    2015-01-01

    Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature supports both the identification of video game addiction as a disease, as well as the therapeutic potential of video games in clinical trials. We show the need for clinicians to be aware of the dangers associated with video game overuse and the need for future studies to examine the risks associated with their health care benefits. PMID:26339215

  16. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women.

  17. Family Risk Factors Among Women With Addiction-Related Problems: An Integrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Abasi, Imaneh; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    Context Recent years have produced many articles about women’s addiction and its risk factors and the consequences of substance use and misuse in the emotional, social, psychological, and economic domains of life. Family vulnerabilities are one of the most important variables contributing to addiction among women. Thus, the purpose of this article is to investigate areas of family life that lead to women’s taking up and maintaining drug and alcohol abuse. Evidence Acquisition A database search of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Springer, and Google Scholar was conducted using the following keywords: “women and addiction”, “women addiction and family”, “addiction”, “substance abuse” and “family”. For the first step, we chose studies that were conducted between 2000 and 2015, and for the second step, studies conducted before 2000. We categorized all search results into three main groups: processes related to family disturbances, factors related to parenting styles, and variables related to partners. Results Partners, parenting styles, and family disturbances are three main factors affecting children growing up in a family and their inclination toward addiction. Some of these pathways are complicated and indirect, and some are straightforward. Conclusions Future research should pay more attention to the mechanisms and pathways mediating or moderating the relationship between family risk factors and addiction in women. Clinicians and researchers should keep in mind these vulnerabilities and take into consideration factors special to processes related to addiction in women. PMID:27622169

  18. Suicide Risk in College Students: The Effects of Internet Addiction and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genctanirim Kurt, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the factors in suicide risk among college students by examining the direct and indirect effects of drug use, internet addiction, gender, and alcohol use on suicide risk. The sample of the study is composed of 975 students studying at different faculties of Ahi Evran University during the academic year 2011-2012. They…

  19. Sweat testing in addicts under methadone treatment: an Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Fucci, N; De Giovanni, N; Scarlata, S

    2008-01-30

    In the last years the interest in monitoring drug exposure with human sweat as alternative biological fluid, is increasing. Sweat collection is convenient, less invasive and difficult to adulterate compared to traditional specimens. The objective of this study was to determine the excretion profile of methadone and other drugs into human sweat. Pharmscope sweat patches (Medical Europe Diagnostic, Madrid, Spain) were used on heroin abusers under methadone treatment. Sweat patches were applied to 10 heroin addicts and 3 drug free volunteers admitted into the study. Sweat patches were worn for about 1 week; urine, saliva and hair samples were collected at the time of the removal of patches. After the extraction, sweat eluates were directly analyzed by GC/MS for the presence of nicotine, cotinine, caffeine, methadone, EDDP and cocaine. The extracts were subsequently derivatized to detect benzoylecgonine, ecgonine methyl ester, morphine, codeine and 6-acetylmorphine. No false positive results were obtained on the drug free samples. All the patches showed positive results for methadone. Cocaine was detected in two cases. Mainly the parent drug was identified rather than the metabolites. The results obtained show the usefulness of sweat as complementary specimen to saliva and urine providing a longer detection window. Moreover, sweat testing offers the advantage of being a non-invasive means of obtaining information about drug exposure.

  20. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Addiction Test Among Hong Kong, Japanese, and Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cheng, Cecilia; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Bahar, Norharlina; Young, Kimberly S; Ko, Huei-Chen; Kim, Dongil; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations. PMID:26468915

  1. Measurement Invariance of the Internet Addiction Test Among Hong Kong, Japanese, and Malaysian Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ching-Man; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Cheng, Cecilia; Watanabe, Hiroko; Nomachi, Shinobu; Bahar, Norharlina; Young, Kimberly S; Ko, Huei-Chen; Kim, Dongil; Griffiths, Mark D

    2015-10-01

    There has been increased research examining the psychometric properties on the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in different populations. This population-based study examined the psychometric properties and measurement invariance of the IAT in adolescents from three Asian countries. In the Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS), 2,535 secondary school students (55.9% girls) aged 12-18 years from Hong Kong (n=844), Japan (n=744), and Malaysia (n=947) completed a survey in 2012-2013 school year. A nested hierarchy of hypotheses concerning the IAT cross-country invariance was tested using multigroup confirmatory factor analyses. Replicating past findings in Hong Kong adolescents, the construct of the IAT is best represented by a second-order three-factor structure in Malaysian and Japanese adolescents. Configural, metric, scalar, and partial strict factorial invariance was established across the three samples. No cross-country differences on Internet addiction were detected at the latent mean level. This study provided empirical support for the IAT as a reliable and factorially stable instrument, and valid to be used across Asian adolescent populations.

  2. Fear of AIDS and Risk Reduction among Heroin-Addicted Female Street Prostitutes: Personal Interviews with 72 Southern California Subjects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Interviewed 72 heroin-addicted female street prostitutes and assessed fear of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS risk reduction behavior, and prostitutes' recommendations for AIDS risk reduction programs. Self-reported data showed that, although subjects were afraid of AIDS, irrationality produced by addiction compelled risky…

  3. Psychometric Validation of Internet Addiction Test with Indian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dhir, Amandeep; Chen, Sufen; Nieminen, Marko

    2015-01-01

    The past few years have witnessed great developments in Internet infrastructure, which have led to increased Internet usage among people of various age groups. However, at the same time, there have been some negative implications associated with increased Internet usage for some individuals. "Internet addiction" (IA) is one such negative…

  4. Neurogenetic and Epigenetic Correlates of Adolescent Predisposition to and Risk for Addictive Behaviors as a Function of Prefrontal Cortex Dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Febo, Marcelo; Smith, David E.; Roy, A. Kenison; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Cronjé, Frans J.; Femino, John; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L.; Pandey, Subhash C.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population. We are further proposing that early genetic testing for addiction risk alleles will offer important information that could potentially be utilized by their parents and caregivers prior to use of psychoactive drugs by these youth. Understandably, family history, parenting styles, and attachment may be modified by various reward genes, including the known bonding substances oxytocin/vasopressin, which effect dopaminergic function. Well-characterized neuroimaging studies continue to reflect region-specific differential responses to drugs and food (including other non-substance-addictive behaviors) via either “surfeit” or “deficit.” With this in mind, we hereby propose a “reward deficiency solution system” that combines early genetic risk diagnosis, medical monitoring, and nutrigenomic dopamine agonist modalities to combat this significant global dilemma that is preventing our youth from leading normal productive lives, which will in turn make them happier. PMID:25919973

  5. Neurogenetic and epigenetic correlates of adolescent predisposition to and risk for addictive behaviors as a function of prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; Smith, David E; Roy, A Kenison; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Cronjé, Frans J; Femino, John; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Pandey, Subhash C; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Gold, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population. We are further proposing that early genetic testing for addiction risk alleles will offer important information that could potentially be utilized by their parents and caregivers prior to use of psychoactive drugs by these youth. Understandably, family history, parenting styles, and attachment may be modified by various reward genes, including the known bonding substances oxytocin/vasopressin, which effect dopaminergic function. Well-characterized neuroimaging studies continue to reflect region-specific differential responses to drugs and food (including other non-substance-addictive behaviors) via either "surfeit" or "deficit." With this in mind, we hereby propose a "reward deficiency solution system" that combines early genetic risk diagnosis, medical monitoring, and nutrigenomic dopamine agonist modalities to combat this significant global dilemma that is preventing our youth from leading normal productive lives, which will in turn make them happier.

  6. Neurogenetic and epigenetic correlates of adolescent predisposition to and risk for addictive behaviors as a function of prefrontal cortex dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Blum, Kenneth; Febo, Marcelo; Smith, David E; Roy, A Kenison; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Cronjé, Frans J; Femino, John; Agan, Gozde; Fratantonio, James L; Pandey, Subhash C; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Gold, Mark S

    2015-05-01

    As addiction professionals, we are becoming increasingly concerned about preteenagers and young adults' involvement with substance abuse as a way of relieving stress and anger. The turbulent underdeveloped central nervous system, especially in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), provides impetus to not only continue important neuroimaging studies in both human and animal models, but also to encourage preventive measures and cautions embraced by governmental and social media outlets. It is well known that before people reach their 20s, PFC development is undergoing significant changes and, as such, hijacks appropriate decision making in this population. We are further proposing that early genetic testing for addiction risk alleles will offer important information that could potentially be utilized by their parents and caregivers prior to use of psychoactive drugs by these youth. Understandably, family history, parenting styles, and attachment may be modified by various reward genes, including the known bonding substances oxytocin/vasopressin, which effect dopaminergic function. Well-characterized neuroimaging studies continue to reflect region-specific differential responses to drugs and food (including other non-substance-addictive behaviors) via either "surfeit" or "deficit." With this in mind, we hereby propose a "reward deficiency solution system" that combines early genetic risk diagnosis, medical monitoring, and nutrigenomic dopamine agonist modalities to combat this significant global dilemma that is preventing our youth from leading normal productive lives, which will in turn make them happier. PMID:25919973

  7. A Cross-Sectional Study on the Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Ill Effects of Internet Addiction Among Medical Students in Northeastern India

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Kamal; Naskar, Subrata; Victor, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate Internet addiction among medical students in northeastern India and gain detailed knowledge about the prevalence, risk factors, and ill effects commonly associated with the disorder. Method The cross-sectional study sample comprised 188 medical students from Silchar Medical College and Hospital (Silchar, Assam, India). Students completed a sociodemographic form and an Internet use questionnaire, both created for this study, and the Young’s 20-Item Internet Addiction Test after they received brief instructions. Data were collected during a10-day period in June 2015. Results Of the 188 medical students, 46.8% were at increased risk of Internet addiction. Those who were found to be at increased risk had longer years of Internet exposure (P = .046) and always online status (P = .033). Also, among this group, the men were more prone to develop an online relationship. Excessive Internet usage also led to poor performance in college (P < .0001) and feeling moody, anxious, and depressed (P < .0001). Conclusions The ill effects of Internet addiction include withdrawal from real-life relationships, deterioration in academic activities, and a depressed and nervous mood. Internet use for nonacademic purposes is increasing among students, thus there is an immediate need for strict supervision and monitoring at the institutional level. The possibility of becoming addicted to the Internet should be emphasized to students and their parents through awareness campaigns so that interventions and restrictions can be implemented at the individual and family levels. PMID:27486546

  8. Heroin addiction and the Wechsler Digit Span test.

    PubMed

    Keiser, T W; Lowy, D

    1980-01-01

    There is some evidence that a Wechsler Digit Span scaled score well above the means of an individual's other WAIS subtest scores is diagnostically significant. Such positive Digit Span scatter seems to be a correlate of an interpersonal detachment syndrome characterized by superficial relationships and anhedonia. Negative scatter of Digit Span scaled scores considerably below the mean of other WAIS subtest scores have been viewed by some investigators as indicating depressive symptoms. Forty-two heroin addicts were compared with 41 neurotic depressive patients. The former group attained significantly higher average positive Digit Span scatter. Since heroin addicts appear more interpersonally distant and anhedonic for non-drug-related experiences, this finding was according to expectation. Digit Span scaled scores alone did not differentiate the groups. Digit Span scatter scores are clearly more desirable than scaled scores in the search for cognitive correlates of personality variables.

  9. ["Epinephrine-addiction" and risk-seeking behaviour in athletes: what realities?].

    PubMed

    Rougemont-Buecking, Ansgar; Rougemont, Estelle; Toth, Richard; Simon, Olivier; Besson, Jacques

    2007-06-13

    This article resumes the psychobiologic mechanisms involved in risk-seeking behaviour. The question is discussed whether some forms of high risk sports meet the diagnostic criteria of dependency. The intensive activation of the adrenocorticotropic pathway may yield to addiction: according to the model of emotion-focussed coping of stress, unpleasant emotion is "overwritten" by intense stress and hence better tolerated emotionally, leading to an addictive repetition of risk-seeking behaviour. In addition, pharmacologic mimicry seems possible as the perception of effects of catecholamines may imitate some of the effects of stimulating drugs. Finally, the current concept of risk and harm reduction is transferred to sports. This would mean to apply appropriate preventive interventions for a large variety of possibly dangerous activities.

  10. Risk and Protective Factors of Internet Addiction: A Meta-Analysis of Empirical Studies in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hoon Jung

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A meta-analysis of empirical studies performed in Korea was conducted to systematically investigate the associations between the indices of Internet addiction (IA) and psychosocial variables. Materials and Methods Systematic literature searches were carried out using the Korean Studies Information Service System, Research Information Sharing Service, Science Direct, Google Scholar, and references in review articles. The key words were Internet addiction, (Internet) game addiction, and pathological, problematic, and excessive Internet use. Only original research papers using Korean samples published from 1999 to 2012 and officially reviewed by peers were included for analysis. Ninety-five studies meeting the inclusion criteria were identified. Results The magnitude of the overall effect size of the intrapersonal variables associated with internet addiction was significantly higher than that of interpersonal variables. Specifically, IA demonstrated a medium to strong association with "escape from self" and "self-identity" as self-related variables. "Attention problem", "self-control", and "emotional regulation" as control and regulation-relation variables; "addiction and absorption traits" as temperament variables; "anger" and "aggression" as emotion and mood and variables; "negative stress coping" as coping variables were also associated with comparably larger effect sizes. Contrary to our expectation, the magnitude of the correlations between relational ability and quality, parental relationships and family functionality, and IA were found to be small. The strength of the association between IA and the risk and protective factors was found to be higher in younger age groups. Conclusion The findings highlight a need for closer examination of psychosocial factors, especially intrapersonal variables when assessing high-risk individuals and designing intervention strategies for both general IA and Internet game addiction. PMID:25323910

  11. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  12. Brain Reward Pathway Dysfunction in Maternal Depression and Addiction: A Present and Future Transgenerational Risk

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Murgatroyd, Christopher; Pittet, Florent; Febo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Two research areas that could benefit from a greater focus on the role of the reward pathway are maternal depression and maternal addiction. Both depression and addiction in mothers are mediated by deficiencies in the reward pathway and represent substantial risks to the health of offspring and future generations. This targeted review discusses maternal reward deficits in depressed and addicted mothers, neural, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the transgenerational transmission of these deficits from mother to offspring. Postpartum depression and drug use disorders may entail alterations in the reward pathway, particularly in striatal and prefrontal areas, which may affect maternal attachment to offspring and heighten the risk of transgenerational effects on the oxytocin and dopamine systems. Alterations may involve neural circuitry changes, genetic factors that impact monoaminergic neurotransmission, as well as growth factors such as BDNF and stress-associated signaling in the brain. Improved maternal reward-based preventative measures and treatments may be specifically effective for mothers and their offspring suffering from depression and/or addiction. PMID:27617302

  13. Brain Reward Pathway Dysfunction in Maternal Depression and Addiction: A Present and Future Transgenerational Risk

    PubMed Central

    Nephew, Benjamin C.; Murgatroyd, Christopher; Pittet, Florent; Febo, Marcelo

    2016-01-01

    Two research areas that could benefit from a greater focus on the role of the reward pathway are maternal depression and maternal addiction. Both depression and addiction in mothers are mediated by deficiencies in the reward pathway and represent substantial risks to the health of offspring and future generations. This targeted review discusses maternal reward deficits in depressed and addicted mothers, neural, genetic, and epigenetic mechanisms, and the transgenerational transmission of these deficits from mother to offspring. Postpartum depression and drug use disorders may entail alterations in the reward pathway, particularly in striatal and prefrontal areas, which may affect maternal attachment to offspring and heighten the risk of transgenerational effects on the oxytocin and dopamine systems. Alterations may involve neural circuitry changes, genetic factors that impact monoaminergic neurotransmission, as well as growth factors such as BDNF and stress-associated signaling in the brain. Improved maternal reward-based preventative measures and treatments may be specifically effective for mothers and their offspring suffering from depression and/or addiction.

  14. Neuroimaging and Genetic Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease and Addiction-Related Degenerative Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Here we describe how multimodal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear. PMID:24142306

  15. Neuroimaging and genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease and addiction-related degenerative brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Roussotte, Florence F; Daianu, Madelaine; Jahanshad, Neda; Leonardo, Cassandra D; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-06-01

    Neuroimaging offers a powerful means to assess the trajectory of brain degeneration in a variety of disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we describe how multi-modal imaging can be used to study the changing brain during the different stages of AD. We integrate findings from a range of studies using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), positron emission tomography (PET), functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). Neuroimaging reveals how risk genes for degenerative disorders affect the brain, including several recently discovered genetic variants that may disrupt brain connectivity. We review some recent neuroimaging studies of genetic polymorphisms associated with increased risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD). Some genetic variants that increase risk for drug addiction may overlap with those associated with degenerative brain disorders. These common associations offer new insight into mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration and addictive behaviors, and may offer new leads for treating them before severe and irreversible neurological symptoms appear.

  16. High Risk Situations Predicting Relapse in Self-Referred Addicts to Bushehr Province Substance Abuse Treatment Centers

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Ebrahim; Hoseini, Agha Fatemeh; Bibak, Alireza; Azmal, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Relapse prevention is a medical intervention designed for educating cognitive and behavioral skills to avoid continued drug abuse and relapse. Objectives: This study examined high risk situations for relapse for self-referred addicts are related in Bushehr province substance abuse treatment centers. Patients and Methods: The present study is descriptive cross-sectional. The sample size consisted of 609 self-referred addicts to Bushehr province substance abuse centers. IDTS Marlatt questionnaire was used. Analytical and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data. Results: The findings showed that 73.1% of addicts have used substance during the past 12 months, and 72% have experienced a full relapse. Unpleasant emotions and physical discomfort was the most important reason for relapse and testing personal control and pleasure emotions the least important reason. Interpersonal factors have also a great role in this regard. Conclusions: Considering the high rates of relapse, more attention should be paid to reasons for relapse. It seems necessary that both clinical and psychological approaches would be undertaken simultaneously. PMID:25032159

  17. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Dana M; McGinn, M Adrienne; Itoga, Christy A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a devastating psychiatric disease composed of multiple elemental features. As a biobehavioral disorder, escalation of drug and/or alcohol intake is both a cause and consequence of molecular neuroadaptations in central brain reinforcement circuitry. Multiple mesolimbic areas mediate a host of negative affective and motivational symptoms that appear to be central to the addiction process. Brain stress- and reinforcement-related regions such as the central amygdala (CeA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) also serve as central processors of ascending nociceptive input. We hypothesize that a sensitization of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of persistent and maladaptive pain contributes to a composite negative affective state to drive the enduring, relapsing nature of addiction, particularly in the case of alcohol and opioid use disorder. At the neurochemical level, pain activates central stress-related neuropeptide signaling, including the dynorphin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, and by this process may facilitate negative affect and escalated drug and alcohol use over time. Importantly, the widespread prevalence of unresolved pain and associated affective dysregulation in clinical populations highlights the need for more effective analgesic medications with reduced potential for tolerance and dependence. The burgeoning epidemic of prescription opioid abuse also demands a closer investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of how pain treatment could potentially represent a significant risk factor for addiction in vulnerable populations. Finally, the continuing convergence of sensory and affective neuroscience fields is expected to generate insight into the critical balance between pain relief and addiction liability, as well as provide more effective therapeutic strategies for chronic pain and addiction.

  18. Alcohol and Other Addictive Disorders Following Bariatric Surgery: Prevalence, Risk Factors and Possible Etiologies.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Kristine J; Engel, Scott G; Wonderlich, Joseph A; Pollert, Garrett A; Sondag, Cindy

    2015-11-01

    Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective intervention for significant and sustained weight loss in obese individuals. While patients often realize numerous improvements in obesity-related comorbidities and health-related quality of life, a small minority of patients have less optimal outcomes following bariatric surgery. The literature on the emergence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) following bariatric surgery has grown in the past several years and collectively provides convincing evidence that a significant minority of patients develop new-onset AUDs following bariatric surgery. Rouxen-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has generally been associated with the risk of developing an AUD, while laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding generally has not, in several large studies. One theory that has been discussed at some length is the idea of 'addiction transfer' wherein patients substitute one 'addiction' (food) for a new 'addiction' (alcohol) following surgery. Animal work suggests a neurobiological basis for increased alcohol reward following RYGB. In addition, several pharmacokinetic studies have shown rapid and dramatically increased peak alcohol concentrations following RYGB. The prevalence of alcohol and other addictive disorders and potential etiological contributors to post-operative AUDs will be explored.

  19. Familial risk for alcohol dependence and developmental changes in BMI: the moderating influence of addiction and obesity genes

    PubMed Central

    Lichenstein, Sarah D; Jones, Bobby L; O’Brien, Jessica W; Zezza, Nicholas; Stiffer, Scott; Holmes, Brian; Hill, Shirley Y

    2014-01-01

    Aim Familial loading for alcohol dependence (AD) and variation in genes reported to be associated with AD or BMI were tested in a longitudinal study. Materials & methods Growth curve analyses of BMI data collected at approximately yearly intervals and obesity status (BMI > 30) were examined. Results High-risk males were found to have higher BMI than low-risk males, beginning at age 15 years (2.0 kg / m2 difference; p = 0.046), persisting through age 19 years (3.3 kg/m2 difference; p = 0.005). CHRM2 genotypic variance predicted longitudinal BMI and obesity status. Interactions with risk status and sex were also observed for DRD2 and FTO gene variation. Conclusion Variation at loci implicated in addiction may be influential in determining susceptibility to increased BMI in childhood and adolescence. PMID:25155933

  20. Risk Factors for Attempting Suicide in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Alec

    2010-01-01

    In order to examine risk factors for attempting suicide in heroin dependent patients, a group of 527 abstinent opiate dependent patients had a psychiatric interview and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Patients who had or had never attempted suicide were compared on putative suicide risk factors. It was found that 207 of the 527…

  1. Risk-taking and decision-making in youth: relationships to addiction vulnerability

    PubMed Central

    Balogh, Kornelia N.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Decision-making and risk-taking behavior undergo developmental changes during adolescence. Disadvantageous decision-making and increased risk-taking may lead to problematic behaviors such as substance use and abuse, pathological gambling and excessive internet use. Methods Based on MEDLINE searches, this article reviews the literature on decision-making and risk-taking and their relationship to addiction vulnerability in youth. Results Decision-making and risk-taking behaviors involve brain areas that undergoing developmental changes during puberty and young adulthood. Individual differences and peer pressure also relate importantly to decision-making and risk-taking. Conclusions Brain-based changes in emotional, motivational and cognitive processing may underlie risk-taking and decision-making propensities in adolescence, making this period a time of heightened vulnerability for engagement in additive behaviors. PMID:24294500

  2. [New risks of addiction for new populations: the example of hackers].

    PubMed

    Tisserand, I N

    2000-10-01

    Our purpose was to examine recent social and technical habits related to high-tech environments. Our goal was to show that the prevention of risk behaviors due to training in data processing, requires an interdisciplinary approach where medical anthropology could benefit from and exchange of complementary information sources (particularly from psychiatrics and psychoanalysis). We used this approach to search for solutions regarding new kinds of addiction. When identifying pathological conditions and proposing appropriate care, these solutions must take into consideration the progressive loss of human nature in data processing environments and the very important and highly sophisticated relationship established between the human being and the computer. We looked at the hacker population as a modern tribe and marginal group. Our analysis led to a better understanding of this kind of artificial culture, sometimes called a "high-tech" or "cyber" culture. The hacker population is integrating new rituals, languages and special rhythms which induce addictions. We show how high-tech environments operating in e-time and e-life induce addictions. This work illustrates a classical anthropological approach to the question (ethnological fields, interviews, literature analysis). The major challenge is to explain how high-tech environments present high risks for dependency in the hacker population and other, unwarned, computer (ab)users. PMID:11104946

  3. [New risks of addiction for new populations: the example of hackers].

    PubMed

    Tisserand, I N

    2000-10-01

    Our purpose was to examine recent social and technical habits related to high-tech environments. Our goal was to show that the prevention of risk behaviors due to training in data processing, requires an interdisciplinary approach where medical anthropology could benefit from and exchange of complementary information sources (particularly from psychiatrics and psychoanalysis). We used this approach to search for solutions regarding new kinds of addiction. When identifying pathological conditions and proposing appropriate care, these solutions must take into consideration the progressive loss of human nature in data processing environments and the very important and highly sophisticated relationship established between the human being and the computer. We looked at the hacker population as a modern tribe and marginal group. Our analysis led to a better understanding of this kind of artificial culture, sometimes called a "high-tech" or "cyber" culture. The hacker population is integrating new rituals, languages and special rhythms which induce addictions. We show how high-tech environments operating in e-time and e-life induce addictions. This work illustrates a classical anthropological approach to the question (ethnological fields, interviews, literature analysis). The major challenge is to explain how high-tech environments present high risks for dependency in the hacker population and other, unwarned, computer (ab)users.

  4. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Min-Pei; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Yung-Wei

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of Internet addiction in a nationally representative sample of college students and to identify any associated psychosocial risk factors. The present study was constructed using a cross-sectional design with 3,616 participants. Participants were surveyed during the middle of the spring and fall semesters and recruited from colleges around Taiwan using stratified and cluster random sampling methods. Associations between Internet addiction and psychosocial risk factors were examined using stepwise logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of Internet addiction was found to be 15.3 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14.1 percent to 16.5 percent). More depressive symptoms, higher positive outcome expectancy of Internet use, higher Internet usage time, lower refusal self-efficacy of Internet use, higher impulsivity, lower satisfaction with academic performance, being male, and insecure attachment style were positively correlated with Internet addiction. The prevalence of Internet addiction among college students in Taiwan was high, and the variables mentioned were independently predictive in the logistic regression analysis. This study can be used as a reference for policy making regarding the design of Internet addiction prevention programs and can also aid in the development of strategies designed to help Internet-addicted college students.

  5. Risk factors of Internet addiction and the health effect of internet addiction on adolescents: a systematic review of longitudinal and prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Lam, Lawrence T

    2014-11-01

    Internet gaming addiction was included in the latest version of the DSM-V as a possible disorder recently, while debate is still on-going as to whether the condition called "Internet Addiction" (IA) could be fully recognised as an established disorder. The major contention is how well IA could fulfil the validation criteria as a psychiatric disorder as in other well-established behavioural addictions. In addition to various proposed validation criteria, evidence of risk and protective factors as well as development of outcomes from longitudinal and prospective studies are suggested as important. A systematic review of available longitudinal and prospective studies was conducted to gather epidemiological evidence on risk and protective factors of IA and the health effect of IA on adolescents. Nine articles were identified after an extensive search of the literature in accordance to the PRISMA guidelines. Of these, eight provided data on risk or protective factors of IA and one focused solely on the effects of IA on mental health. Information was extracted and analysed systematically from each study and tabulated. Many exposure variables were studied and could be broadly classified into three main categories: psychopathologies of the participants, family and parenting factors, and others such as Internet usage, motivation, and academic performance. Some were found to be potential risk or protective factors of IA. It was also found that exposure to IA had a detrimental effect on the mental health of young people. These results were discussed in light of their implications to the fulfilment of the validation criteria.

  6. Validity of the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test: a study on a group of medical students in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Ng Chong; Isa, Saramah Mohammed; Hashim, Aili Hanim; Pillai, Subash Kumar; Harbajan Singh, Manveen Kaur

    2015-03-01

    The use of the Internet has been increasing dramatically over the decade in Malaysia. Excessive usage of the Internet has lead to a phenomenon called Internet addiction. There is a need for a reliable, valid, and simple-to-use scale to measure Internet addiction in the Malaysian population for clinical practice and research purposes. The aim of this study was to validate the Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test, using a sample of 162 medical students. The instrument displayed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α = .91), parallel reliability (intraclass coefficient = .88, P < .001), and concurrent validity with the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (Pearson's correlation = .84, P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that 43 was the optimal cutoff score to discriminate students with and without Internet dependence. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation identified a 5-factor model. The Malay version of the Internet Addiction Test appeared to be a valid instrument for assessing Internet addiction in Malaysian university students.

  7. The Internet Addiction Test: assessing its psychometric properties in Bangladeshi culture.

    PubMed

    Rezaul Karim, A K M; Nigar, Naima

    2014-08-01

    There is growing importance of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) in Internet addiction research around the world. Since the development of the IAT (Young, 1996, 1998), a number of validation studies have been done in various cultures. The aim of this study was to translate the instrument into Bangla and validate in Bangladeshi culture, a culture vulnerable to Internet addiction. A total of 177 Internet users (77 females and 100 males) participated in the study. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) of the data from 172 participants (who provided complete responses) identified a four factor structure of the IAT with 18 items. The four factors namely 'Neglect of duty', 'Online dependence', 'Virtual fantasies', and 'Privacy and self-defense' together explained 55.68% of the total variance. Problematic (moderate/excessive) users on the IAT scored, on average, higher on each of the four IAT factors as compared to average or non-problematic (minimal) users consistently across genders. The IAT and its factors showed good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=.89 for the IAT, and .60-.84 for the factors), strong convergent and discriminant validity. Thus, the Bangla version IAT appears to be valid and reliable and therefore may be used in further research on Internet addiction in the country.

  8. Addictive behaviors and addiction-prone personality traits: associations with a dopamine multilocus genetic profile.

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine reward-related genetic risk for addictive behaviors in a healthy community sample (n=217) of men and women. We tested a mediation model predicting that a quantitative multilocus genetic profile score - reflecting the additive effects of alleles known to confer relatively increased dopamine signaling in the ventral striatum - would relate positively to a composite measure of addictive behaviors, and that this association would be mediated by personality traits consistently associated with addiction disorders. Our model was strongly supported by the data, and accounted for 24% of the variance in addictive behaviors. These data suggest that brain reward processes tend to exert their influence on addiction risk by their role in the development of relatively stable personality traits associated with addictive behaviors.

  9. Personal characteristics related to the risk of adolescent internet addiction: a survey in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Paralleling the rapid growth in computers and internet connections, adolescent internet addiction (AIA) is becoming an increasingly serious problem, especially in developing countries. This study aims to explore the prevalence of AIA and associated symptoms in a large population-based sample in Shanghai and identify potential predictors related to personal characteristics. Methods In 2007, 5,122 adolescents were randomly chosen from 16 high schools of different school types (junior, senior key, senior ordinary and senior vocational) in Shanghai with stratified-random sampling. Each student completed a self-administered and anonymous questionnaire that included DRM 52 Scale of Internet-use. The DRM 52 Scale was adapted for use in Shanghai from Young’s Internet Addiction Scale and contained 7 subscales related to psychological symptoms of AIA. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were both used to analyze the data. Results Of the 5,122 students, 449 (8.8%) were identified as internet addicts. Although adolescents who had bad (vs. good) academic achievement had lower levels of internet-use (p < 0.0001), they were more likely to develop AIA (odds ratio 4.79, 95% CI: 2.51-9.73, p < 0.0001) and have psychological symptoms in 6 of the 7 subscales (not in Time-consuming subscale). The likelihood of AIA was higher among those adolescents who were male, senior high school students, or had monthly spending >100 RMB (all p-values <0.05). Adolescents tended to develop AIA and show symptoms in all subscales when they spent more hours online weekly (however, more internet addicts overused internet on weekends than on weekdays, p < 0.0001) or when they used the internet mainly for playing games or real-time chatting. Conclusions This study provides evidence that adolescent personal factors play key roles in inducing AIA. Adolescents having aforementioned personal characteristics and online behaviors are at high-risk of developing AIA that may compound

  10. Testing the Drug Substitution Switching-Addictions Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Okuda, Mayumi; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Shang-Min; Olfson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Adults who remit from a substance use disorder (SUD) are often thought to be at increased risk for developing another SUD. A greater understanding of the prevalence and risk factors for drug substitution would inform clinical monitoring and management. OBJECTIVE To determine whether remission from an SUD increases the risk of onset of a new SUD after a 3-year follow-up compared with lack of remission from an SUD and whether sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric disorders, including personality disorders, independently predict a new-onset SUD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study where data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of 34 653 adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants were interviewed twice, 3 years apart (wave 1, 2001–2002; wave 2, 2004–2005). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We compared new-onset SUDs among individuals with at least 1 current SUD at wave 1 who did not remit from any SUDs at wave 2 (n = 3275) and among individuals with at least 1 current SUD at wave 1 who remitted at wave 2 (n = 2741). RESULTS Approximately one-fifth (n = 2741) of the total sample had developed a new-onset SUD at the wave 2 assessment. Individuals who remitted from 1 SUD during this period were significantly less likely than those who did not remit to develop a new SUD (13.1% vs 27.2%, P < .001). Results were robust to sample specification. An exception was that remission from a drug use disorder increased the odds of a new SUD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11–1.92). However, after adjusting for the number of SUDs at baseline, remission from drug use disorders decreased the odds of a new-onset SUD (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46–0.95) whereas the number of baseline SUDs increased those odds (OR=1.68; 95% CI, 1.43–1.98). Being male, younger in age, never married, having an earlier age at substance use onset, and psychiatric comorbidity significantly increased

  11. [Addiction and personality traits: sensation seeking, anhedonia, impulsivity].

    PubMed

    Sarramon, C; Verdoux, H; Schmitt, L; Bourgeois, M

    1999-01-01

    This study presents the evaluation of three dimensional traits of personality (Sensation Seeking, Anhedonia, Impulsivity) among 65 patients admitted in a psychiatric ward, with or without addictive behaviors. Our objective is to establish that these personality traits are commun to all addictive behaviors and to test the hypothesis that high scores on the three scales are linked to a greater probability of presenting with addictive behaviors. The two most frequent types of addiction were alcoholism and drug abuse. The subjects presenting with one or several addictive behaviors had higher average scores on the three scales. Our results printed in the same direction for the subjects having shown an addictive behavior in their past history. The risk to present with an addictive behavior increased with the total scores of these self-report questionnaires. There was a significant relationship between 3 sub-dimensions on the Sensation Seeking Scale and addictive behavior. Each time sub-scores of boredom susceptibility, disinhibition and thrill and adventure rise by one, the risk to present with an addictive behavior is multiplied by 1.4 for the first two and by 1.3 for the third one. Subjects with high scores on the anhedonia and impulsivity scales respectively show a risk multiplied by 1.6 and 3.3 of developing an addictive behavior. These results of this transverse study confirm the link between addiction behavior and these three personality traits.

  12. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Prevents Morphine-Induced Addictive Behaviors in Conditioned Place Preference Test in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Torkzadeh-Mahani, Shima; Nasri, Sima; Esmaeili-Mahani, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Background Consumption of chronic morphine induces neuro-inflammation and addictive seeking behavior. Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe), a well-known spice plant, has been used traditionally in the treatment of a wide variety of ailments. It has been shown that ginger has anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and antinociceptive properties. However, its influences on morphine-induced addictive behaviors have not yet been clarified. The aim of the present study was the inhibition of exploratory behavior of morphine addiction in the conditioned place preference test in male desert rats through ginger. Methods For conditioning to the morphine, the male Wistar rats received morphine (12 mg/kg intraperitoneally or i.p.) for 6 consecutive days and treatment groups were given different doses of ginger (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg intragastrically or i.g.) 30 min before morphine injection. For investigating addictive seeking behavior, conditioned place preference test (CPP) was used. Findings Our result demonstrated that injection of morphine for 6 days induces dependency to morphine and creates addictive seeking behavior and ginger (100 mg/kg) could decrease time spend in conditioning box (addictive seeking behavior). Conclusion The data indicated that ginger extract has a potential anti-addictive property against chronic usage of morphine. PMID:25140219

  13. The Short French Internet Addiction Test Adapted to Online Sexual Activities: Validation and Links With Online Sexual Preferences and Addiction Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wéry, Aline; Burnay, Jonathan; Karila, Laurent; Billieux, Joël

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a French version of the short Internet Addiction Test adapted to online sexual activities (s-IAT-sex). The French version of the s-IAT-sex was administered to a sample of 401 men. The participants also completed a questionnaire that screened for sexual addiction (PATHOS). The relationships of s-IAT-sex scores with time spent online for online sexual activities (OSAs) and the types of OSAs favored were also considered. Confirmatory analyses supported a two-factor model of s-IAT-sex, corresponding to the factorial structure found in earlier studies that used the short IAT. The first factor regroups loss of control and time management, whereas the second factor regroups craving and social problems. Internal consistency for each factor was evaluated with Cronbach's α coefficient, resulting in .87 for Factor 1, .76 for Factor 2, and .88 for the global scale. Concurrent validity was supported by relationships with symptoms of sexual addiction, types of OSAs practiced, and time spent online for OSAs. The prevalence of sexual addiction (measured by PATHOS) was 28.1% in the current sample of self-selected male OSA users. The French version of the s-IAT-sex presents good psychometric properties and constitutes a useful tool for researchers and practitioners.

  14. Current considerations regarding food addiction.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Joyner, Michelle A; Potenza, Marc N; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2015-04-01

    "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating.

  15. Current considerations regarding food addiction.

    PubMed

    Schulte, Erica M; Joyner, Michelle A; Potenza, Marc N; Grilo, Carlos M; Gearhardt, Ashley N

    2015-04-01

    "Food addiction" is an emerging area, and behavioral and biological overlaps have been observed between eating and addictive disorders. Potential misconceptions about applying an addiction framework to problematic eating behavior may inhibit scientific progress. Critiques of "food addiction" that focus on descriptive differences between overeating and illicit drugs are similar to early criticisms of the addictiveness of tobacco. Although food is necessary for survival, the highly processed foods associated with addictive-like eating may provide little health benefit. Individual differences are important in determining who develops an addiction. If certain foods are addictive, the identification of possible risk factors for "food addiction" is an important next step. Not all treatments for addiction require abstinence. Addiction interventions that focus on moderation or controlled use may lead to novel approaches to treating eating-related problems. Finally, addiction-related policies that focus on environmental (instead of educational) targets may have a larger public health impact in reducing overeating. PMID:25749750

  16. Simple construct evaluation with latent class analysis: An investigation of Facebook addiction and the development of a short form of the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT).

    PubMed

    Dantlgraber, Michael; Wetzel, Eunike; Schützenberger, Petra; Stieger, Stefan; Reips, Ulf-Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    In psychological research, there is a growing interest in using latent class analysis (LCA) for the investigation of quantitative constructs. The aim of this study is to illustrate how LCA can be applied to gain insights on a construct and to select items during test development. We show the added benefits of LCA beyond factor-analytic methods, namely being able (1) to describe groups of participants that differ in their response patterns, (2) to determine appropriate cutoff values, (3) to evaluate items, and (4) to evaluate the relative importance of correlated factors. As an example, we investigated the construct of Facebook addiction using the Facebook Addiction Test (F-AT), an adapted version of the Internet Addiction Test (I-AT). Applying LCA facilitates the development of new tests and short forms of established tests. We present a short form of the F-AT based on the LCA results and validate the LCA approach and the short F-AT with several external criteria, such as chatting, reading newsfeeds, and posting status updates. Finally, we discuss the benefits of LCA for evaluating quantitative constructs in psychological research.

  17. Risk Factors of Internet Addiction among Internet Users: An Online Questionnaire Survey

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Yi; Lee, Ming-Been; Liao, Shih-Cheng; Chang, Li-Ren

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds Internet addiction (IA) has become a major public health issue worldwide and is closely linked to psychiatric disorders and suicide. The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence of IA and its associated psychosocial and psychopathological determinants among internet users across different age groups. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey initiated by the Taiwan Suicide Prevention Center. The participants were recruited from the general public who responded to the online questionnaire. They completed a series of self-reported measures, including Chen Internet Addiction Scale-revised (CIAS-R), Five-item Brief Symptom Rating Scale (BSRS-5), Maudsley Personality Inventory (MPI), and questions about suicide and internet use habits. Results We enrolled 1100 respondents with a preponderance of female subjects (85.8%). Based on an optimal cutoff for CIAS-R (67/68), the prevalence rate of IA was 10.6%. People with higher scores of CIAS-R were characterized as: male, single, students, high neuroticism, life impairment due to internet use, time for internet use, online gaming, presence of psychiatric morbidity, recent suicide ideation and past suicide attempts. Multiple regression on IA showed that age, gender, neuroticism, life impairment, internet use time, and BSRS-5 score accounted for 31% of variance for CIAS-R score. Further, logistic regression showed that neuroticism, life impairment and internet use time were three main predictors for IA. Compared to those without IA, the internet addicts had higher rates of psychiatric morbidity (65.0%), suicide ideation in a week (47.0%), lifetime suicide attempts (23.1%), and suicide attempt in a year (5.1%). Conclusion Neurotic personality traits, psychopathology, time for internet use and its subsequent life impairment were important predictors for IA. Individuals with IA may have higher rates of psychiatric morbidity and suicide risks. The findings provide important information for further

  18. Prevalence of HCV Infections and Co-Infection With HBV and HIV and Associated Risk Factors Among Addicts in Drug Treatment Centers, Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Hossein; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Shakib, Pegah; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Ghobadian Diali, Hamze; Rezvani, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by blood-borne pathogen, hepatitis C virus (HCV). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors among addicts in drug treatment centers in Lorestan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey was given to drug addicts in the drug treatment centers of Khorramabad, Lorestan Province, Iran during June 2012 - March 2013. Drug addicts were interviewed using a standard questionnaire including demographic, imprisonment history, and HCV-related risk behavior items. Thereafter, the sera drawn from the participants were tested for anti-HCV antibody (Ab), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ab, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Results: The mean age of the cohorts was 31.7. Up to 60.2% of drug users had educational levels less than high school, 67.5% were self-employed, and 32.5% were office workers. The mean duration of drug injection was 6.8 years. Statistical analyses indicated that the prevalence of HCV among drug addicts was positively associated with age, past incarceration, drug injection history, the duration of drug use, and tattooing. In addition, 16.23% of volunteers were HCV-positive. Of those infected with HCV, 1.10% was co-infected with HBV, 2.95% were positive for HIV, and 0.36% of HCV-positive cases were infected with all three viruses. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HCV infection among this group implies a high rate of transmission and exposure to the risk of serious diseases. It is important that the high prevalence of HCV infection be taken into consideration to control further transmission of this infection. PMID:27162762

  19. The risk of multiple addictions. Guidelines for assessing a woman's alcohol and drug use.

    PubMed Central

    Matteo, S

    1988-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs have been overly prescribed for women of all ages for all manner of symptoms. Patients' and physicians' expectations about appropriate diagnosis and treatment, combined with the relative invisibility of women's alcohol and legal and illicit drug use, can lead to quick but temporary prescription solutions that may put women at risk for multiple addictions. This is a special problem for adolescent, minority, and elderly women, about whom we know little yet hold strong stereotypes. Moreover, while prescriptions may alleviate patients' symptoms, they do little to correct the underlying situation. Physicians are encouraged to review their prescribing habits and to learn more about their women patients' use of alcohol, cigarettes, previously prescribed medications, and recreational drugs, as well as a tendency to self-medicate. Physicians should also have available alternative strategies to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Images PMID:3074574

  20. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  1. [Risk behaviour in association with addictive drugs - data and insights on treatment].

    PubMed

    Böning, J

    2004-02-01

    About one third of the economical costs, which are due to death, sickness and life quality deficits in higher developed industrial countries, are caused by pollutants such as nicotine, alcohol and false eating habits. Within a period of one year 183,000 people in Germany die on tobacco associated sickness effects, 73,000 on direct or indirect aftermath of alcohol usage and a proportional amount of mostly adipoptic people on the hereoff resulting sickness effects. These risk trias, decided by every person mainly for himself by his own behaviour or mis-behaviour, are even aggravated by the free enterprise sanctioned drug politics of the highly profitable mega markets of the tobacco-, alcohol- and fast-food-industry. Health orientated drug politic, which is based on independence and solidarity and an exhaustive primary prevention within the scope of early nationalization authorities can therefore only have a limited effect. Even though, standardized, therapeutic short interventions used by hazardous alcohol- and drug usage, the qualified detoxification on addiction illness and an way to little used meanwhile time- and cost optimized withdrawal treatment have been proven to be quite effective. Exhaustive established ambulant smoking-withdrawal treatment programs are of special importance, because with continuously sinking of first contact, nicotine is know to be the "gate way drug" with the strongest addiction potential among all legalized and non-legalized drugs. In canon of mean while worldwide (except for Germany) started drug-control politics one will be able to start a health orientated drug politic in the future, which is including especially the drug economic aspects for the benefit of all as well as for the national budgets.

  2. Evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Italian Internet Addiction Test.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Casale, Silvia

    2015-02-01

    Since the diffusion of Internet addiction has emerged in several cultural contexts, it seems relevant to study the properties of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT)-the most widely used screening instrument-across various cultures. In Italy, only one study has examined the IAT factor validity, and a comprehensive investigation of its psychometric characteristics is so far lacking. The purpose of this study was to perform a psychometric analysis of the Italian IAT. A total of 840 students (Mage=18.65 years, SD=3.85 years; 59% female) were recruited. Pertaining to scale dimensionality, the best-fit measurement model includes two factors: "Emotional and cognitive preoccupations with the Internet and social consequences" and "Loss of control and interference with daily duties" (χ(2)/df=3.38; comparative fit index=0.88; Tucker-Lewis Index=0.87; root mean square error of approximation=0.07), which together explained 45.59% of the variance. Internal consistency Cronbach's alpha values ranged from 0.83 to 0.86. Convergent validity was demonstrated, with significant correlations between IAT and Generalized Problematic Internet Use Scale 2 scores. The Italian version of the IAT was found to have good psychometric properties and a two-factorial structure. Identification of the IAT dimensions may help to define the construct better and develop intervention strategies.

  3. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions.

  4. Sex differences in addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam; Fadda, Paola; Fratta, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Gender-dependent differences in the rate of initiation and frequency of misuse of addicting drugs have been widely described. Yet, men and women also differ in their propensity to become addicted to other rewarding stimuli (e.g., sex, food) or activities (e.g., gambling, exercising). The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for gender differences not only in drug addiction, but also in other forms of addictive behaviours. Thus, we first reviewed studies showing gender-dependent differences in drug addiction, food addiction, compulsive sexual activity, pathological gambling, Internet addiction and physical exercise addiction. Potential risk factors and underlying brain mechanisms are also examined, with particular emphasis given to the role of sex hormones in modulating addictive behaviours. Investigations on factors allowing the pursuit of non-drug rewards to become pathological in men and women are crucial for designing gender-appropriate treatments of both substance and non-substance addictions. PMID:24769267

  5. Internet Addiction among Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargin, Nurten

    2012-01-01

    Each innovation brings along many risks. One of the risks related with the Internet use is Internet addiction. The aim of this study is to examine Internet addiction in adolescence in terms of gender, Internet access at home and grades. The research design used was survey method. The study population consisted of second stage students attending…

  6. Different levels in orexin concentrations and risk factors associated with higher orexin levels: comparison between detoxified opiate and methamphetamine addicts in 5 Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haoran; Lian, Zhi; Yan, Shiyan; Bao, Yanping; Liu, Zhimin

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to explore the degree of orexin levels in Chinese opiate and methamphetamine addicts and the differences between them. The cross-sectional study was conducted among detoxified drug addicts from Mandatory Detoxification Center (MDC) in five Chinese cities. Orexin levels were assayed with radioimmunoassay (RIA). Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to detect differences across groups, and logistic regression was used to explore the association between orexin levels and characteristics of demographic and drug abuse. Between November 2009 and January 2011, 285 opiates addicts, 112 methamphetamine addicts, and 79 healthy controls were enrolled. At drug withdrawal period, both opiate and methamphetamine addicts had lower median orexin levels than controls, and median orexin levels in opiate addicts were higher than those in methamphetamine addicts (all above P < 0.05). Adjusted odds of the above median concentration of orexin were higher for injection than "chasing the dragon" (AOR = 3.1, 95% CI = 1.2-7.9). No significant factors associated with orexin levels of methamphetamine addicts were found. Development of intervention method on orexin system by different administration routes especially for injected opiate addicts at detoxification phase may be significant and was welcome. PMID:24102051

  7. TARV: Tree-based Analysis of Rare Variants Identifying Risk Modifying Variants in CTNNA2 and CNTNAP2 for Alcohol Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2014-01-01

    Since the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers have been extending their efforts on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from common variants to rare variants to find the missing inheritance. Although various statistical methods have been proposed to analyze rare variants data, they generally face difficulties for complex disease models involving multiple genes. In this paper, we propose a Tree-based Analysis of Rare Variants (TARV) that adopts a non-parametric disease model and is capable of exploring gene-gene interactions. We found that TARV outperforms the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) in most of our simulation scenarios, and by notable margins in some cases. By applying TARV to the Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment (SAGE) data, we successfully detected gene CTNNA2 and its 43 specific variants that increase the risk of alcoholism in women, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94. This gene has not been detected in the SAGE data. Post hoc literature search also supports the role of CTNNA2 as a likely risk gene for alcohol addiction. In addition, we also detected a plausible protective gene CNTNAP2, whose 97 rare variants can reduce the risk of alcoholism in women, with an OR of 0.55. These findings suggest that TARV can be effective in dissecting genetic variants for complex diseases using rare variants data. PMID:25041903

  8. TARV: tree-based analysis of rare variants identifying risk modifying variants in CTNNA2 and CNTNAP2 for alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Song, Chi; Zhang, Heping

    2014-09-01

    Since the development of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, researchers have been extending their efforts on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) from common variants to rare variants to find the missing inheritance. Although various statistical methods have been proposed to analyze rare variants data, they generally face difficulties for complex disease models involving multiple genes. In this paper, we propose a tree-based analysis of rare variants (TARV) that adopts a nonparametric disease model and is capable of exploring gene-gene interactions. We found that TARV outperforms the sequence kernel association test (SKAT) in most of our simulation scenarios, and by notable margins in some cases. By applying TARV to the study of addiction: genetics and environment (SAGE) data, we successfully detected gene CTNNA2 and its 43 specific variants that increase the risk of alcoholism in women, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.94. This gene has not been detected in the SAGE data. Post hoc literature search also supports the role of CTNNA2 as a likely risk gene for alcohol addiction. In addition, we also detected a plausible protective gene CNTNAP2, whose 97 rare variants can reduce the risk of alcoholism in women, with an OR of 0.55. These findings suggest that TARV can be effective in dissecting genetic variants for complex diseases using rare variants data.

  9. A Pattern of Perseveration in Cocaine Addiction May Reveal Neurocognitive Processes Implicit in the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woicik, Patricia A.; Urban, Catherine; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Henry, Ashley; Maloney, Thomas; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to adapt behavior in a changing environment is necessary for humans to achieve their goals and can be measured in the lab with tests of rule-based switching. Disease models, such as cocaine addiction, have revealed that alterations in dopamine interfere with adaptive set switching, culminating in perseveration. We explore perseverative…

  10. Narcotic Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Fern, B. J.

    1976-01-01

    This article presents the major features of narcotic addictions, focusing on the role of methadone as a means of controlling or removing the addiction. It concludes with some observations on society's attitude towards addicts, addictions and programs for control of addiction. PMID:21308103

  11. [Heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sándor

    2011-01-01

    Heroin is an illicit, highly addictive drug. It is either the most abused or the most rapidly acting member of opioids. Abusers describe a feeling of a surge of pleasurable sensation, named as "rush" or "high". Repeated administration of high doses of heroin results in the induction of physical dependence. Physical dependence refers to an altered physiological state produced by chronic administration of heroin which necessitates the continued administration of the drug to prevent the appearance of a characteristic syndrome, the opioid withdrawal or abstinence syndrome. Withdrawal symptoms may occur within a few hours after the last administration of heroin. Symptoms of the withdrawal include restlessness, insomnia, drug craving, diarrhea, muscle and bone pain, cold flashes with goose bumps, and leg movements. Major withdrawal symptoms peak between 48 and 72 hours after the last dose of heroin and subside after about a week. At this time, weakness and depression are pronounced and nausea and vomiting are common. Nevertheless, some chronic addicts have shown persistent withdrawal signs for many months or even years. Heroin addiction is considered as a behavioural state of compulsive drug use and a high tendency to relapse after periods of abstinence. It is generally accepted that compulsive use and relapse are typically associated with the status of heroin craving or heroin hunger that are difficult to define but appear to be powerful motivational significance in the addiction process. The route of administering heroin varies largely and may indicate the degree of seriousness of the individual's addiction. Intravenous administration seems to be the predominant method of heroin use, but recently a shift in heroin use pattern has been found, i.e. from injection to sniffing and smoking. Frequent injections coupled with widespread sharing of syringes increase the risk of contracting HIV, hepatitis B, C and other blood-borne infectious diseases. Long-term use of heroin

  12. The German version of the internet addiction test: a validation study.

    PubMed

    Barke, Antonia; Nyenhuis, Nele; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2012-10-01

    Reports about excessive Internet use, possibly amounting to an addiction, have increased. Progress with research and treatment of this phenomenon requires valid standardized assessment instruments. A frequently used questionnaire is the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) by Kimberly Young. The 20-item questionnaire is well established in a number of languages, but a German validation was lacking so far. An online (ON) sample (n=1,041, age 24.2±7.2 years, 46.7 percent men) completed an Internet version of the IAT and a student sample (offline [OF] sample, n=841, age: 23.5±3.0 years, 46.8 percent men) filled in a paper/pencil version. The participants also answered questions regarding their Internet use habits. A further sample of 108 students (21.5±2.0 years, 25.7 percent men) completed the questionnaire twice to determine the 14-day retest reliability. The internal consistencies were α=0.91 (ON) and α=0.89 (OF). Item-whole correlations ranged from r=0.23 to r=0.65 (ON) and from r=0.30 to r=0.64 (OF). Two-week retest reliability was r(tt)=0.83. Factor analyses with Varimax rotation yielded the same two factors in both samples, which explained 46.7 percent (ON) and 42.0 percent (OF) of the variance. The IAT score correlated with the time spent in the Internet in a typical week (ON: r=0.44; OF: r=0.38). The German version of the IAT was shown to have good psychometric properties and a stable two-factorial structure. Correlations with online time were in line with those reported for the IAT in other languages.

  13. Maternal addiction, child maladjustment and socio-demographic risks: implications for parenting behaviors

    PubMed Central

    SUCHMAN, NANCY E.; LUTHAR, SUNIYA S.

    2007-01-01

    Aims In this study we examined three parenting dimensions (involvement, autonomy, and limit-setting) and three potential determinants (maternal addiction, low SES and its correlates, and mothers’ perceptions of their children’s maladjustment) in order to disentangle features of parenting that are uniquely related to maternal addiction from those related to contextual determinants. We also examined conditional effects of low SES and its correlates on parenting. Design Based on a literature review and predictions arising from an ecological model of parenting, we expected that maternal addiction would be related with problems in parental involvement, but that the other parenting dimensions would be related with mothers’ perceptions of children’s maladjustment and low SES. Accordingly, we examined variance in each parenting dimensions accounted for by each of the three determinants, respectively. Participants Subjects included 120 (69 opiate-addicted and 51 SES-matched comparison) mothers with children under 16 years of age. Measurements Children’s maladaptive behavior was assessed with the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and parental adjustment with the Parent Child Relationship Inventory. Findings Direct effect predictions were confirmed and two conditional effects involving single status and family size were also found. Conclusions Although many parenting problems have previously been attributed to maternal addiction, only parental involvement is directly related to being an addict; other parenting dimensions may be better explained by contextual factors. PMID:11048359

  14. Predicting Internet risks: a longitudinal panel study of gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use among children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Louis

    2014-01-01

    This study used longitudinal panel survey data collected from 417 adolescents at 2 points in time 1 year apart. It examined relationships between Internet risks changes in Time 2 and social media gratifications-sought, Internet addiction symptoms, and social media use all measured at Time 1. By controlling for age, gender, education, and criterion variable scores in Internet addiction at Time 1, entertainment and instant messaging use at Time 1 significantly predicted increased Internet addiction measured at Time 2. The study also controlled for demographics and scores of criterion variables in Internet risks: targeted for harassment, privacy exposed, and pornographic or violent content consumed in Time 1. Gratifications-sought (including status-gaining, expressing opinions, and identity experimentation), Internet addiction symptoms (including withdrawal and negative life consequences), and social media use (in particular, blogs, and Facebook) significantly predicted Internet risk changes in Time 2. These findings suggest that, with their predictive power, these predictors at Time 1 could be used to identify those adolescents who are likely to develop Internet addiction symptoms and the likelihood of experiencing Internet risks based on their previous gratifications-sought, previous addiction symptoms, and their habits of social media use at Time 1. PMID:25750792

  15. Pre-incarceration police harassment, drug addiction and HIV risk behaviours among prisoners in Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan: results from a nationally representative cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Polonsky, Maxim; Azbel, Lyuba; Wegman, Martin P; Izenberg, Jacob M; Bachireddy, Chethan; Wickersham, Jeffrey A; Dvoriak, Sergii; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The expanding HIV epidemic in Azerbaijan and Kyrgyzstan is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), who comprise a third of prisoners there. Detention of PWID is common but its impact on health has not been previously studied in the region. We aimed to understand the relationship between official and unofficial (police harassment) detention of PWID and HIV risk behaviours. Methods In a nationally representative cross-sectional study, soon-to-be released prisoners in Kyrgyzstan (N=368) and Azerbaijan (N=510) completed standardized health assessment surveys. After identifying correlated variables through bivariate testing, we built multi-group path models with pre-incarceration official and unofficial detention as exogenous variables and pre-incarceration composite HIV risk as an endogenous variable, controlling for potential confounders and estimating indirect effects. Results Overall, 463 (51%) prisoners reported at least one detention in the year before incarceration with an average of 1.3 detentions in that period. Unofficial detentions (13%) were less common than official detentions (41%). Optimal model fit was achieved (X2=5.83, p=0.44; Goodness of Fit Index (GFI) GFI=0.99; Comparative Fit Index (CFI) CFI=1.00; Root Mean Square Error of Approximation (RMSEA) RMSEA=0.00; PCLOSE=0.98) when unofficial detention had an indirect effect on HIV risk, mediated by drug addiction severity, with more detentions associated with higher addiction severity, which in turn correlated with increased HIV risk. The final model explained 35% of the variance in the outcome. The effect was maintained for both countries, but stronger for Kyrgyzstan. The model also holds for Kyrgyzstan using unique data on within-prison drug injection as the outcome, which was frequent in prisoners there. Conclusions Detention by police is a strong correlate of addiction severity, which mediates its effect on HIV risk behaviour. This pattern suggests that police may target drug

  16. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. PMID:26976342

  17. The Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale: reliability and validity of a brief screening test

    PubMed Central

    Andreassen, Cecilie S.; Griffiths, Mark D.; Pallesen, Ståle; Bilder, Robert M.; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Aboujaoude, Elias

    2015-01-01

    Although excessive and compulsive shopping has been increasingly placed within the behavioral addiction paradigm in recent years, items in existing screens arguably do not assess the core criteria and components of addiction. To date, assessment screens for shopping disorders have primarily been rooted within the impulse-control or obsessive-compulsive disorder paradigms. Furthermore, existing screens use the terms ‘shopping,’ ‘buying,’ and ‘spending’ interchangeably, and do not necessarily reflect contemporary shopping habits. Consequently, a new screening tool for assessing shopping addiction was developed. Initially, 28 items, four for each of seven addiction criteria (salience, mood modification, conflict, tolerance, withdrawal, relapse, and problems), were constructed. These items and validated scales (i.e., Compulsive Buying Measurement Scale, Mini-International Personality Item Pool, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale) were then administered to 23,537 participants (Mage = 35.8 years, SDage = 13.3). The highest loading item from each set of four pooled items reflecting the seven addiction criteria were retained in the final scale, The Bergen Shopping Addiction Scale (BSAS). The factor structure of the BSAS was good (RMSEA = 0.064, CFI = 0.983, TLI = 0.973) and coefficient alpha was 0.87. The scores on the BSAS converged with scores on the Compulsive Buying Measurement Scale (CBMS; 0.80), and were positively correlated with extroversion and neuroticism, and negatively with conscientiousness, agreeableness, and intellect/imagination. The scores of the BSAS were positively associated with anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem and inversely related to age. Females scored higher than males on the BSAS. The BSAS is the first scale to fully embed shopping addiction within an addiction paradigm. A recommended cutoff score for the new scale and future research directions are discussed. PMID:26441749

  18. Internet Addiction and Other Behavioral Addictions.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, Alicia Grattan; Hsiao, Ray Chih-Jui; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2016-07-01

    The Internet is increasingly influential in the lives of adolescents. Although there are many positives, there are also risks related to excessive use and addiction. It is important to recognize clinical signs and symptoms of Internet addiction (compulsive use, withdrawal, tolerance, and adverse consequences), treat comorbid conditions (other substance use disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and hostility), and initiate psychosocial interventions. More research on this topic will help to provide consensus on diagnostic criteria and further clarify optimal management. PMID:27338971

  19. Validity of the Internet Addiction Test for Adolescents and Older Children (IAT-A): Tests of Measurement Invariance and Latent Mean Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teo, Timothy; Kam, Chester

    2014-01-01

    Following the call to ensure the validity of instruments used to assess users' level of Internet usage, this study examined the factor structure of the Internet Addiction Test-Adolescence version (IAT-A) when applied to a sample of young children in a multicultural society and assessed whether the items in the IAT-A were invariant by gender…

  20. A novel caries risk test.

    PubMed

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Galligan, Joyce; Navazesh, Mahvash

    2007-03-01

    A diagnostic test is particularly beneficial if it reveals the level of susceptibility prior to onset of a disease process. In the case of childhood caries, such a diagnostic test affords the opportunity for preventive measures to be implemented before caries begins. Salivary glycoproteins contain a wealth of individually specific oligosaccharide motifs. Depending on microbial compatibilities and individual genotypes, the glycoproteins that form the pellicle coating of teeth may provide attachment sites that foster colonization leading to cariogenesis. Alternatively, certain oligosaccharides, when present in nonpellicle glycoproteins, can interact with planktonic bacteria and lower their ability to interact with the tooth surface. We have found that in young adults the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides present in resting saliva exhibits a strong correlation with caries history (DFT: number of decayed and filled teeth). Oligosaccharide moieties associated with the test are quantitated in dried spots of whole saliva on nitrocellulose using commercially available biotinylated lectins with a variety of reporters. A combination of multiple linear regression and neural net analyses were used to develop the algorithms that describe the relationship between oligosaccharide patterns and DFT. During test development several different groups of adults and children have been studied. The correlation algorithms routinely exceed an R(2) (coefficient of determination) of 0.96. When the test is applied to the saliva of children, it yields a projection of their future caries history. Modifying the test result metric to reflect the groups of teeth with caries in young adults, the test identifies those teeth at risk for future caries in children. This test outcome can then be accompanied with suggested specific preventive measures for each tooth group-based risk level.

  1. Engagement & Disengagement in Mutual-Help Addiction Recovery Housing: A Test of Affective Events Theory

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Christopher R.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Engagement and disengagement in addiction recovery settings are important for these communities and their members. This study tested an Affective Events Theory (AET) model of these constructs in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents’ congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents—citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and how intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory. PMID:25791917

  2. Factor Structure of the Internet Addiction Test in Online Gamers and Poker Players

    PubMed Central

    Achab, Sophia; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel; Zullino, Daniele; Dufour, Magali; Rothen, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Background The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) is the most widely used questionnaire to screen for problematic Internet use. Nevertheless, its factorial structure is still debated, which complicates comparisons among existing studies. Most previous studies were performed with students or community samples despite the probability of there being more problematic Internet use among users of specific applications, such as online gaming or gambling. Objective To assess the factorial structure of a modified version of the IAT that addresses specific applications, such as video games and online poker. Methods Two adult samples—one sample of Internet gamers (n=920) and one sample of online poker players (n=214)—were recruited and completed an online version of the modified IAT. Both samples were split into two subsamples. Two principal component analyses (PCAs) followed by two confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) were run separately. Results The results of principal component analysis indicated that a one-factor model fit the data well across both samples. In consideration of the weakness of some IAT items, a 17-item modified version of the IAT was proposed. Conclusions This study assessed, for the first time, the factorial structure of a modified version of an Internet-administered IAT on a sample of Internet gamers and a sample of online poker players. The scale seems appropriate for the assessment of such online behaviors. Further studies on the modified 17-item IAT version are needed. PMID:26543917

  3. MicroRNAs Modulate Interactions between Stress and Risk for Cocaine Addiction.

    PubMed

    Doura, Menahem B; Unterwald, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress increases vulnerability to drug abuse, as well as relapse liability in addicted individuals. Chronic drug use alters stress response in a manner that increases drug seeking behaviors and relapse. Drug exposure and withdrawal have been shown to alter stress responses, and corticosteroid mediators of stress have been shown to impact addiction-related brain function and drug-seeking behavior. Despite the documented interplay between stress and substance abuse, the mechanisms by which stress exposure and drug seeking interact remain largely unknown. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNA) play a significant role in stress modulation as well as addiction-related processes including neurogenesis, synapse development, plasticity, drug acquisition, withdrawal and relapse. MiRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that function as bidirectional epigenetic modulators of gene expression through imperfect sequence targeted degradation and/or translational repression of mRNAs. They serve as dynamic regulators of CNS physiology and pathophysiology, and facilitate rapid and long-lasting changes to complex systems and behaviors. MiRNAs function in glucocorticoid signaling and the mesolimbic dopamine reward system, as well as mood disorders related to drug withdrawal. The literature suggests miRNAs play a pivotal role in the interaction between exposures to stress, addiction-related processes, and negative affective states resulting from extended drug withdrawal. This manuscript reviews recent evidence for the role of miRNAs in the modulation of stress and cocaine responses, and discusses potential mediation of the interaction of these systems by miRNAs. Uncovering the mechanism behind the association of stress and drug taking has the potential to impact the treatment of drug abuse and prevention of relapse. Further comprehension of these complex interactions may provide promising new targets for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:27303265

  4. MicroRNAs Modulate Interactions between Stress and Risk for Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Doura, Menahem B.; Unterwald, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to stress increases vulnerability to drug abuse, as well as relapse liability in addicted individuals. Chronic drug use alters stress response in a manner that increases drug seeking behaviors and relapse. Drug exposure and withdrawal have been shown to alter stress responses, and corticosteroid mediators of stress have been shown to impact addiction-related brain function and drug-seeking behavior. Despite the documented interplay between stress and substance abuse, the mechanisms by which stress exposure and drug seeking interact remain largely unknown. Recent studies indicate that microRNAs (miRNA) play a significant role in stress modulation as well as addiction-related processes including neurogenesis, synapse development, plasticity, drug acquisition, withdrawal and relapse. MiRNAs are short non-coding RNAs that function as bidirectional epigenetic modulators of gene expression through imperfect sequence targeted degradation and/or translational repression of mRNAs. They serve as dynamic regulators of CNS physiology and pathophysiology, and facilitate rapid and long-lasting changes to complex systems and behaviors. MiRNAs function in glucocorticoid signaling and the mesolimbic dopamine reward system, as well as mood disorders related to drug withdrawal. The literature suggests miRNAs play a pivotal role in the interaction between exposures to stress, addiction-related processes, and negative affective states resulting from extended drug withdrawal. This manuscript reviews recent evidence for the role of miRNAs in the modulation of stress and cocaine responses, and discusses potential mediation of the interaction of these systems by miRNAs. Uncovering the mechanism behind the association of stress and drug taking has the potential to impact the treatment of drug abuse and prevention of relapse. Further comprehension of these complex interactions may provide promising new targets for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:27303265

  5. Risk effectiveness evaluation of surveillance testing

    SciTech Connect

    Martorell, S.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Vesely, W.E.

    1992-07-20

    In nuclear power plants surveillance tests are required to detect failures in standby safety system components as a means of assuring their availability in case of an accident. However, the performance of surveillance tests at power may have adverse impact on safety as evidenced by the operating experience of the plants. The risk associated with a test includes two different aspects: (1) a positive aspect, i.e., risk contribution detected by the test, that results from the detection of failures which occur between tests and are detected by the test, and (2) a negative aspect, i.e., risk contribution caused by the test, that includes failures and degradations which are caused by the test or are related to the performance of the test. In terms of the two different risk contributions, the risk effectiveness of a test can be simply defined as follows: a test is risk effective if the risk contribution detected by the test is greater than the risk contribution caused by the test; otherwise it is risk ineffective. The methodology presentation will focus on two important kinds of negative test risk impacts, that is, the risk impacts of test-caused transients and equipment wear-out. The evaluation results of the risk effectiveness of the test will be presented in the full paper along with the risk assessment methodology and the insights from the sensitivity analysis. These constitute the core of the NUREG/CR-5775.

  6. [The Dutch Cancer Society Cancer Risk Test].

    PubMed

    Elias, Sjoerd G; Grooters, Hilda G; Bausch-Goldbohm, R A Sandra; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kampman, Ellen; van Leeuwen, Flora E; Peeters, Petra H M; de Vries, Esther; Wigger, Stefan; Kiemeney, L A L M Bart

    2012-01-01

    The Dutch Cancer Society developed the 'KWF Kanker Risico Test' (Cancer Risk Test) to improve the information available to the Dutch population regarding cancer risk factors. This Internet test, based under licence on the American 'Your Disease Risk' test, informs users about risk factors for 12 common types of cancer. The test provides an estimate of individual risk of a specific type of cancer and gives specific lifestyle advice that could lower that risk. This paper describes the development of the test, how it works, and its strengths and limitations.

  7. Development of Korean Smartphone addiction proneness scale for youth.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006

  8. Development of Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale for Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dongil; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Juyoung; Nam, JeeEun Karin; Chung, Yeoju

    2014-01-01

    This study developed a Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale (SAPS) based on the existing internet and cellular phone addiction scales. For the development of this scale, 29 items (1.5 times the final number of items) were initially selected as preliminary items, based on the previous studies on internet/phone addiction as well as the clinical experience of involved experts. The preliminary scale was administered to a nationally representative sample of 795 students in elementary, middle, and high schools across South Korea. Then, final 15 items were selected according to the reliability test results. The final scale consisted of four subdomains: (1) disturbance of adaptive functions, (2) virtual life orientation, (3) withdrawal, and (4) tolerance. The final scale indicated a high reliability with Cronbach's α of .880. Support for the scale's criterion validity has been demonstrated by its relationship to the internet addiction scale, KS-II (r  =  .49). For the analysis of construct validity, we tested the Structural Equation Model. The results showed the four-factor structure to be valid (NFI  =  .943, TLI  =  .902, CFI  =  .902, RMSEA  =  .034). Smartphone addiction is gaining a greater spotlight as possibly a new form of addiction along with internet addiction. The SAPS appears to be a reliable and valid diagnostic scale for screening adolescents who may be at risk of smartphone addiction. Further implications and limitations are discussed. PMID:24848006

  9. Cannabis use, addiction risk and functional impairment in youth seeking treatment for primary mood or anxiety concerns.

    PubMed

    Osuch, Elizabeth; Vingilis, Evelyn; Ross, Erin; Forster, Christeen; Summerhurst, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is common in youth and there is evidence that the co-occurrence of cannabis use (and other substance use) with mental illnesses predicts poorer outcomes, including suicide. The main purposes of this study were to: (i) identify rates of cannabis use and substance use disorder risk, and (ii) predictors for cannabis use among youth seeking help for mood and/or anxiety concerns in a sample population prescreened to exclude primary substance use disorders; and (iii) to determine if there was an association between cannabis use and functional impairment in this sample. We investigated substance use risk as well as hypothesized predictors of cannabis use and functional impairment including demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, trait coping style, age of onset of several risk behaviors, current use of common addictive substances, level of functional impairment, and current psychiatric symptom severity. Results showed that approximately half of the participants were at moderate to high risk for a substance use disorder, and just over 4% appeared to have a primary substance use disorder. They also suggested an association between cannabis use and gender (male), age of first cannabis use, recent cigarette use, and functional impairment. Independently, functional impairment was predicted by inattentive coping style, depression severity, and total cannabis use score. These results confirm a high risk for addictive disorders and an association between cannabis use and functional impairment in this sample. These results support the need for substance use treatment programs to optimize care wherever youth with primary mood and/or anxiety concerns are seen. PMID:23839811

  10. Gambling Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Gambling Addiction KidsHealth > For Teens > Gambling Addiction Print A ... So what's the story with gambling? What Is Gambling? Gambling means taking part in any activity or ...

  11. Behavioural addictions in adolescents and young adults: results from a prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Villella, Corrado; Martinotti, Giovanni; Di Nicola, Marco; Cassano, Maria; La Torre, Giuseppe; Gliubizzi, Maria Daniela; Messeri, Immacolata; Petruccelli, Filippo; Bria, Pietro; Janiri, Luigi; Conte, Gianluigi

    2011-06-01

    Our study aims to assess the prevalence of behavioural addictions in an adolescent population, evaluating the effects of gender and age, and to assess the correlations among different behavioural addictions. 2853 high school students were assessed in order to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural addictions such as Pathological Gambling (PG), Compulsive Buying (CB), Exercise Addiction (EA), Internet Addiction (IA), and Work Addiction (WA), in a population of Italian adolescents. The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised Adolescent (SOGS-RA), the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS), the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), and the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART), were compiled anonymously by the students. Overall prevalence was 7.0% for PG, 11.3% for CB, 1.2% for IA, 7.6% for WA, 8.5% for EA. PG and EA were more common among boys, while gender had no effect on the other conditions. CB was more common among younger (<18 years old) students. The scores of all of these scales were significantly correlated. The strong correlation among different addictive behaviours is in line with the hypothesis of a common psychopathological dimension underlying these phenomena. Further studies are needed to assess personality traits and other clinical disorders associated with these problems behaviours.

  12. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. PMID:27623834

  13. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544.

  14. Addicted to the Risk, Recognition and Respect that the Graffiti Lifestyle Provides: Towards an Understanding of the Reasons for Graffiti Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Myra Frances

    2012-01-01

    This paper, details from an educational perspective the reasons graffitists give for their involvement in graffiti. Data gathered from interviews, web-blogs and newspaper reports were analysed within the grounded theory tradition allowing the core category of, "addicted to the risk, recognition and respect that the graffiti lifestyle provides" to…

  15. Evaluating the fakability of a conditional reasoning test of addiction proneness.

    PubMed

    Bowler, Jennifer L; Bowler, Mark C

    2014-10-01

    The quest to assess personality objectively is riddled with challenges. However, conditional reasoning (CR) methodology takes an innovative approach to personality measurement by indirectly evaluating the cognitive biases associated with specific dispositional traits. In addition to demonstrating strong criterion-related validities, the CR format has been shown to be more resistant to response distortion than traditional self-report measures so long as indirect measurement is maintained. The present study evaluated the necessity of maintaining the indirect nature of a CR-based measure of addiction proneness. Results indicated that disclosing the purpose of assessment yielded significant mean shifts on a CR-based measure of addiction proneness compared to those of an uninformed group. Specifically, when the construct of interest was made explicit, participants could identify the keyed response options when instructed to do so. These findings further underscore the necessity of maintaining indirect measurement when administering CR measures. PMID:25178965

  16. Risk-Based Object Oriented Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Linda H.; Stapko, Ruth; Gallo, Albert

    2000-01-01

    Software testing is a well-defined phase of the software development life cycle. Functional ("black box") testing and structural ("white box") testing are two methods of test case design commonly used by software developers. A lesser known testing method is risk-based testing, which takes into account the probability of failure of a portion of code as determined by its complexity. For object oriented programs, a methodology is proposed for identification of risk-prone classes. Risk-based testing is a highly effective testing technique that can be used to find and fix the most important problems as quickly as possible.

  17. [Food addiction].

    PubMed

    Locatelli, L; Correia, J C; Golay, A

    2015-03-25

    Food addiction is a common term used in everyday language by obese patients. Although the neurobiological evidence points to some similarities between addictive mechanisms and the consumption of certain foods, this diagnosis is not yet officially recognized. After a brief history of food addiction compared to other eating disorders, we review the neurobiological processes underlying this concept. A food addiction assessment tool is presented and discussed with the current literature and new classifications of the DSM-5. The concept of food addiction needs to be rethought and requires further research.

  18. Neuroscience research on the addictions: a prospectus for future ethical and policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Carter, Lucy; Morley, Katherine I

    2004-09-01

    The increasing evidence that many addictive phenomena have a genetic and neurobiological basis promises improvements in societal responses to addiction that raise important ethical and social policy issues. One of the major potential benefits of such research is improved treatment of drug addiction, but in order to do the research required to realize this promise, it will be necessary to address ethical doubts raised about the capacity of addicted persons to give free and informed consent to participate in studies that involve the administration of drugs of dependence. Neuroscience research on addiction promises to transform the long running debate between moral and medical models of addiction by providing a detailed causal explanation of addiction in terms of brain processes. We must avoid causal models of addiction being misinterpreted as supporting simple-minded social policies, e.g., that we identify the minority of the community that is genetically and biologically vulnerable to addiction and hence can neglect social policy options for reducing addiction, including drug control policies. Causal accounts of addiction supplied by neuroscience and genetic research may also be seen to warrant the use of pharmacotherapies and drug vaccines under legal coercion. Neuroscientists also need to anticipate the ethical issues that may arise if the knowledge that they produce delivers interventions that enhance human cognitive and other capacities. Advances in neuroimaging that enable us to identify "addicts" or predict future risk of addiction will raise concerns about invasion of privacy, third-party use of neuroimaging data, the powers of courts to coerce defendants to undergo such tests, and consumer protection against the overinterpretation of test results. Given the strong public and media interest in the results of their research, neuroscientists and geneticists have a moral obligation, and a professional interest, to minimize popular misunderstandings of their work

  19. Neuroscience research on the addictions: a prospectus for future ethical and policy analysis.

    PubMed

    Hall, Wayne; Carter, Lucy; Morley, Katherine I

    2004-09-01

    The increasing evidence that many addictive phenomena have a genetic and neurobiological basis promises improvements in societal responses to addiction that raise important ethical and social policy issues. One of the major potential benefits of such research is improved treatment of drug addiction, but in order to do the research required to realize this promise, it will be necessary to address ethical doubts raised about the capacity of addicted persons to give free and informed consent to participate in studies that involve the administration of drugs of dependence. Neuroscience research on addiction promises to transform the long running debate between moral and medical models of addiction by providing a detailed causal explanation of addiction in terms of brain processes. We must avoid causal models of addiction being misinterpreted as supporting simple-minded social policies, e.g., that we identify the minority of the community that is genetically and biologically vulnerable to addiction and hence can neglect social policy options for reducing addiction, including drug control policies. Causal accounts of addiction supplied by neuroscience and genetic research may also be seen to warrant the use of pharmacotherapies and drug vaccines under legal coercion. Neuroscientists also need to anticipate the ethical issues that may arise if the knowledge that they produce delivers interventions that enhance human cognitive and other capacities. Advances in neuroimaging that enable us to identify "addicts" or predict future risk of addiction will raise concerns about invasion of privacy, third-party use of neuroimaging data, the powers of courts to coerce defendants to undergo such tests, and consumer protection against the overinterpretation of test results. Given the strong public and media interest in the results of their research, neuroscientists and geneticists have a moral obligation, and a professional interest, to minimize popular misunderstandings of their work

  20. Hearing Test May Predict Autism Risk Sooner

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160181.html Hearing Test May Predict Autism Risk Sooner: Study Researchers identify inner-ear problem ... may help identify young children at risk for autism before they're old enough to speak, a ...

  1. Risk for exercise dependence, eating disorder pathology, alcohol use disorder and addictive behaviors among clients of fitness centers

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Astrid; Loeber, Sabine; Söchtig, Johanna; Te Wildt, Bert; De Zwaan, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise dependence (EXD) is considered a behavioral addiction that is often associated with eating disorders. To date, only few studies examined the potential overlap between EXD and other addictive behaviors. Therefore, the present study aimed at investigating the relationship of EXD with pathological buying, pathological video gaming (offline and online), hypersexual behavior, and alcohol use disorder in a sample of clients of fitness centers. Methods The following questionnaires were answered by 128 individuals (age M = 26.5, SD = 6.7 years; 71.7% men, 74.2% university students): Exercise Dependence Scale, Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, Compulsive Buying Scale, Pathological Computer-Gaming Scale, Hypersexual Behavior Inventory, and Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Results 7.8% of the sample were at-risk for EXD, 10.9% reported eating disorder pathology, 2.3% pathological buying, 3.1% hypersexual behavior, and none of the participants suffered from pathological video gaming. The criteria for severe alcohol disorder pathology (AUDIT ≥ 16) were fulfilled by 10.2%. With regard to continuous symptom scores, EXD symptoms were positively correlated with both eating disorder pathology and pathological buying but not with pathological video gaming, hypersexuality or alcohol use disorder. It is noteworthy that more symptoms of pathological buying corresponded with more symptoms of hypersexual behavior. The correlation pattern did not differ by gender. Discussion The co-occurrence of EXD, pathological buying and hypersexual behavior on a subclinical level or in the early stage of the disorders should be taken into account when assessing and treating patients. More research is warranted in order to investigate possible interactions between these conditions. PMID:26690622

  2. [Online addictive disease].

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality.

  3. [Online addictive disease].

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Martin

    2014-10-01

    Digital media are indispensable in school, profession, family and leisure time. 1 to 6 % of all users show dsyfunctional ans addictive patterns, first of all in online and "social" media. In Switzerland over 80 % of young people own a smartphone and "pocket internet". Time of interaction with online-media (hours/day), as well as peer group pattern are markers for risk of addiction. Active music making and sports are protective factors. Family physicians are important in early recognition of "internet addictive disease". Care-givers with special experience in this field are often successful in reducing time of harmful interaction with the internet. Internet addictive disease is not yet classified in ICD and DSM-5 lists, even though it is an increasing reality. PMID:25257114

  4. Stress and addiction.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction.

  5. Stress and addiction.

    PubMed

    Hildebrandt, Tom; Greif, Rebecca

    2013-09-01

    Appetitive behaviors such as substance use and eating are under significant regulatory control by the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axes. Recent research has begun to examine how these systems interact to cause and maintain poor regulation of these appetitive behaviors. A range of potential molecular, neuroendocrine, and hormonal mechanisms are involved in these interactions and may explain individual differences in both risk and resilience to a range of addictions. This manuscript provides a commentary on research presented during the International Society of Psychoneuroendocrinology's mini-conference on sex differences in eating and addiction with an emphasis on how HPG and HPA axis interactions affect appetitive behaviors in classic addictions and may be used to help inform the ongoing debate about the validity of food addiction. PMID:23849597

  6. [Strive for excellence and addiction to body movement: a risk model in high-level athletes].

    PubMed

    Carrier, C

    2000-04-01

    Champion athletes strive to attain a personal goal defined by a socially constructed image of psychomotor performance to be accomplished at the moment of the championship celebration. This intrapsychic process is initiated by a transformation of the body, programmed and controlled by repeated training. The athlete's body becomes accustomed to ritualized obsessive movements, favoring the feeling of self-fulfillment solely during muscular effort (contraction/relaxation, displacement). This social goal of excellence implies personal adaptation involving an addictive link to movement: a mechanism uniquely valid in high level sports. Twelve years experience in psychological support of high-level athletes participating in Olympic sports has led to an analysis of this adaptive mechanism and a proposed psychopathological model of its invasion of the athlete's psychic economy.

  7. Long-Term High-dose Oral Morphine in Phantom Limb Pain with No Addiction Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Garg, Rakesh; Bharati, Sachidanand Jee; Gupta, Nishkarsh; Bhatanagar, Sushma; Mishra, Seema; Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) is a type of neuropathic pain, which is located in the missing/amputated limb. Phantom pain is difficult to treat as the exact basis of pain mechanism is still unknown. Various methods of treatment for PLP have been described, including pharmacological (NSAIDs, opioids, antiepileptic, antidepressants) and non-pharmacological (TENS, sympathectomy, deep brain stimulation and motor cortex stimulation). Opioids are used for the treatment of neuropathic pain and dose of opioid is determined based on its effect and thus there is no defined ceiling dose for opioids. We report a case where a patient receiving high-dose oral morphine for chronic cancer pain did not demonstrate signs of addiction. PMID:25709194

  8. Genetic Testing for Lung Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Marcy, Theodore W; Stefanek, Michael; Thompson, Kimberly M

    2002-01-01

    Advances in genetics have increased our ability to assess an individual's genetic risk for disease. There is a hypothesis that genetic test results will motivate high-risk individuals to reduce harmful exposures, to increase their surveillance for disease, or to seek preventive treatments. However, genetic testing for genes associated with an increased risk of lung cancer would not change physicians' recommendations regarding smoking cessation. Limited studies suggest that test results that demonstrate an increased risk of lung cancer do not improve smoking cessation success. These test results may even distort an individual's risk perceptions. Before recommending genetic testing to assess risk for disease, physicians need to consider whether knowledge about genetic susceptibility will alter patient management. PMID:12472931

  9. Type 2 Diabetes Risk Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day Diabetes Basics Home Symptoms Diagnosis America's Diabetes ... Volunteer Center American Diabetes Month® American Diabetes Association Alert Day® Become a Member Advocacy Home Take Action ...

  10. Validation of the exercise addiction inventory in a Danish sport context.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M B; Christiansen, E; Bilenberg, N; Støving, R K

    2014-04-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise behavior with potential negative consequences. The symptoms consist of salience, mood modification, tolerance, withdrawal symptoms, conflicts, and relapse. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the exercise addiction inventory (EAI) and to estimate the prevalence of exercise addiction in a Danish normal weight sport population. A sample of 780 habitual fitness and football exercisers were contacted and 590 completed the EAI and an in-house questionnaire containing questions about variables related to exercise addiction: (a) exercise frequency; (b) continuance despite injuries; and (c) personal perception of addiction. The results demonstrated an overall prevalence of exercise addiction of 5.8%. There was no significant difference between fitness and football prevalences. The internal reliability of EAI was acceptable with a Cronbach's α of 0.66. The criterion validity was tested toward the three variables related to exercise addiction. The dependent group had significantly higher scores on the three variables than the non-dependent group. Exercise addiction seems to exist in both fitness and football. The EAI is a useful screening tool and might be applicable in future screening and prevention of exercise addiction. However, further investigation about the population is needed to understand the phenomenon and to identify the risk group.

  11. Behavioral addictions.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W; Clark, L

    2015-02-01

    Behavioral addictions are slowly becoming recognized as a valid category of psychiatric disorder as shown by the recent allocation of pathological gambling to this category in DSM-5. However, several other types of psychiatric disorder proposed to be examples of behavioral addictions have yet to be accorded this formal acknowledgment and are dispersed across other sections of the DSM-5. This brief review marks this important point in the evolution of this concept and looks to future investigation of behavioral addictions with the theoretical frameworks currently being used successfully to investigate substance addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder, in a potentially new spectrum of impulsive-compulsive disorders.

  12. Internet addiction and its determinants among medical students

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Bhushan; Menon, Preethi; Saldanha, Daniel; Tewari, Abhinav; Bhattacharya, Labhanya

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exponential use of internet has resulted in internet addiction in recent times. Students are particularly at risk because of their unique personal, social, and academic needs. Objectives: The study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of internet addiction and its determinants among medical students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 282 medical students with the help of semi-structured questionnaire consisting of questions related to demographic information, information related to internet use, and Young's internet addiction test. Results: We found prevalence of internet addiction among medical students to be 58.87% (mild – 51.42%, moderate –7.45%) and significantly associated factors with internet addiction being male gender, staying in private accommodation, lesser age of first internet use, using mobile for internet access, higher expenditure on internet, staying online for longer time, and using internet for social networking, online videos, and watching website with sexual content. Conclusion: Medical students are vulnerable for internet addiction and efforts should be taken to increase awareness and prevent the problem of internet addiction in them. PMID:27212820

  13. Assessing research risks systematically: the net risks test.

    PubMed

    Wendler, D; Miller, F G

    2007-08-01

    Dual-track assessment directs research ethics committees (RECs) to assess the risks of research interventions based on the unclear distinction between therapeutic and non-therapeutic interventions. The net risks test, in contrast, relies on the clinically familiar method of assessing the risks and benefits of interventions in comparison to the available alternatives and also focuses attention of the RECs on the central challenge of protecting research participants. PMID:17664310

  14. Women & Addiction: Gender Issues in Abuse and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Susan Merle

    This report reviews findings of research and clinical experience, which demonstrate clearly that addictive disorders differ in important ways between males and females. Addiction issues for women are highlighted including the prevalence of addiction, risk factors for women, and consequences of addiction. Also included are descriptions of womens…

  15. Risk factors for opioid overdose and awareness of overdose risk among veterans prescribed chronic opioids for addiction or pain

    PubMed Central

    Wilder, Christine M.; Miller, Shannon C.; Tiffany, Elizabeth; Winhusen, Theresa; Winstanley, Erin L.; Stein, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Rising overdose fatalities among US veterans suggest veterans taking prescription opioids may be at risk for overdose. However, it is unclear whether veterans prescribed chronic opioids are aware of this risk. Objectives The objective of this study was to identify risk factors and determine awareness of risk for opioid overdose in veterans treated with opioids for chronic pain, using veterans treated with methadone or buprenorphine for opioid use disorder as a high-risk comparator group. Methods Ninety veterans on chronic opioid medication for either opioid use disorder or pain management completed a questionnaire assessing risk factors, knowledge, and self-estimate of risk for overdose. Results Nearly all veterans in both groups had multiple overdose risk factors although individuals in the pain management group had on average a significantly lower total number of risk factors than did individuals in the opioid use disorder group (5.9 v. 8.5, p<0.0001). On average, participants treated for pain management scored slightly but significantly lower on knowledge of opioid overdose risk factors (12.1 v. 13.5, p<0.01). About 70% of participants, regardless of group, believed their overdose risk was below that of the average American adult. There was no significant relationship between self-estimate of overdose risk and either number or knowledge of opioid overdose risk factors. Discussion Our results suggest that veterans in both groups underestimated their risk for opioid overdose. Expansion of overdose education to include individuals on chronic opioids for pain management and a shift in educational approaches to overdose prevention may be indicated. PMID:26566771

  16. Engagement and Substance Dependence in a Primary Care-Based Addiction Treatment Program for People Infected with HIV and People at High-Risk for HIV Infection.

    PubMed

    Walley, Alexander Y; Palmisano, Joseph; Sorensen-Alawad, Amy; Chaisson, Christine; Raj, Anita; Samet, Jeffrey H; Drainoni, Mari-Lynn

    2015-12-01

    To improve outcomes for people with substance dependence and HIV infection or at risk for HIV infection, patients were enrolled in a primary care-based addiction treatment program from 2008-2012 that included a comprehensive substance use assessment, individual and group counseling, addiction pharmacotherapy and case management. We examined whether predisposing characteristics (depression, housing status, polysubstance use) and an enabling resource (buprenorphine treatment) were associated with engagement in the program and persistent substance dependence at 6 months. At program enrollment 61% were HIV-infected, 53% reported heroin use, 46% reported alcohol use, 37% reported cocaine use, and 28% reported marijuana use in the past 30 days, 72% reported depression, 19% were homeless, and 53% had polysubstance use. Within 6-months 60% had been treated with buprenorphine. Engagement (defined as 2 visits in first 14 days and 2 additional visits in next 30 days) occurred in 64%; 49% had substance dependence at 6-months. Receipt of buprenorphine treatment was associated with engagement (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) 8.32 95% CI: 4.13-16.77). Self-reported depression at baseline was associated with substance dependence at 6-months (AOR 3.30 95% CI: 1.65-6.61). Neither housing status nor polysubstance use was associated with engagement or substance dependence. The FAST PATH program successfully engaged and treated patients in a primary care-based addiction treatment program. Buprenorphine, a partial opioid agonist, was a major driver of addiction treatment engagement. Given depression's association with adverse outcomes in this clinical population, including mental health treatment as part of integrated care holds potential to improve addiction treatment outcomes. PMID:26298399

  17. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

  18. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    PubMed

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. PMID:25023365

  19. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Korkeila, Jyrki

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction is defined as uncontrolled and harmful use of Internet, which manifests in three forms: gaming, various sexual activities and excessive use of emails, chats or SMS messaging. Several studies have found that abuse of alcohol and other substances, depression and other health problems are associated with Internet addiction. In boys and men depression may be more a consequence of the addiction than a cause for it. ADHD seems to be a significant background factor for developing the condition. Because it is almost impossible to lead a life without Internet and computers nowadays, it is unrealistic to aim towards full abstinence. Treatment has generally followed the guidelines adapted for pathological gambling.

  20. Heroin Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the sharing of contaminated injection equipment. TODAY Our knowledge of the opioid system has led to new medications for treating pain—and for treating opioid addiction. The discovery of opiate receptors by NIH-supported researchers, along ...

  1. Psychological motives and online games addiction: a test of flow theory and humanistic needs theory for Taiwanese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chin-Sheng; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2006-06-01

    Obviously, the negative impact of online games has received much attention as well as having become a popular research topic. This research explored, from flow theory and humanistic needs theory, the psychological motivations of Taiwanese adolescents who are addicted to online games. The purpose of Study 1 was to investigate the relationship between players' flow state and their online games addiction. The results indicated that flow state was negatively correlated with addictive inclination and it was not a significant predictor for players' subsequent additive inclination. Findings also revealed that the addicts' flow state was significantly lower than the nonaddicts. Thus, flow state might not be the key psychological mechanism of players' addiction. In Study 2, the results showed that the psychological needs of players of online games were close to the two-factor theory which depicts satisfaction and dissatisfaction dimensions. Addicted players' need-gratification was similar to the feature of dissatisfactory factor. That is, the absence of playing online games is more likely to generate sense of dissatisfaction; the addicts' compulsive use of online games seems to stem from the relief of dissatisfaction rather than the pursuit of satisfaction. In contrast, online games tend to provide the nonaddicts with a sense of satisfaction rather than a sense of dissatisfaction.

  2. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about patients’ characteristics and addiction history. The T-test, ANOVA, and a linear regression model served for statistical analysis. Results Of the patients, 48% reported brushing their teeth less than once a day, more than 90% used fluoride toothpaste almost or always, and 81% flossed their teeth rarely or never. Eating sugary products twice a day or more was reported by 57% of the patients and 85% of them were current smokers. Poor OHB was associated with male gender, lower education, being addicted mainly to crystalline heroin, starting drug abuse at a younger age, and having a longer history of addiction (p < .05). Conclusion Poor OHB was found among the participants in drug withdrawal treatment. Preventive strategies on oral health should be planned and be integrated into other health promotion programs for addicts along with their withdrawal treatment taking into account special groups at higher risk. PMID:23368406

  3. Substance abuse precedes Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Sik; Han, Doug Hyun; Kim, Sun Mi; Renshaw, Perry F

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to evaluate possible overlapping substance abuse and internet addiction in a large, uniformly sampled population, ranging in age from 13 to 18 years. Participants (N=73,238) in the current study were drawn from the 6th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBWS-V) for students from 400 middle schools and 400 high schools in 16 cities within South Korea. Of adolescent internet users, 85.2% were general users (GU), 11.9% were users with potential risk for internet addiction (PR), and 3.0% were users with high risk for internet addiction (HR). There was a difference in the number of students with alcohol drinking among the GU, PR, and HR groups (20.8% vs 23.1% vs 27.4%). There was a difference in the number of students who smoked among the GS, PR, and HR groups (11.7% vs 13.5% vs 20.4%). There was a difference in the number of students with drug use among the GU, PR, and HR groups (1.7% vs 2.0% vs 6.5%). After adjusting for sex, age, stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation, smoking may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=1.203, p=0.004). In addition, drug use may predict a high risk for internet addiction (OR=2.591, p<0.001). Because students with a high risk for internet addiction have vulnerability for addictive behaviors, co-morbid substance abuse should be evaluated and, if found, treated in adolescents with internet addiction.

  4. Affective temperaments in alcohol and opiate addictions.

    PubMed

    Khazaal, Yasser; Gex-Fabry, Marianne; Nallet, Audrey; Weber, Béatrice; Favre, Sophie; Voide, Raphael; Zullino, Daniele; Aubry, Jean-Michel

    2013-12-01

    Temperament is considered as a biological disposition reflected by relatively stable features related to mood and reactivity to external and internal stimuli, including variability in emotional reactions. The aim of the present study is to test the hypothesis that affective temperaments might differ according to co-occurring mood disorders among patients with alcohol and/or opiate dependence; to explore the relationship between temperaments and dual substance use disorders (SUDs, alcohol and other drugs). Ninety-two patients attending an alcohol addiction treatment facility and 47 patients in an opiate addiction treatment facility were assessed for SUDs, mood disorders and affective temperaments using the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris and San Diego 39-item auto-questionnaire. Comparison of patients with bipolar disorder, depressive unipolar disorder and no (or substance-induced) mood disorder revealed significant differences for the cyclothymic subscale, with highest scores among patients with bipolar disorder. No difference was observed for the depressive, irritable, hyperthymic and anxious subscales. After adjustment for age, gender and bipolar disorder, irritable temperament was a significant risk factor for past or present history of drug use disorders in patients treated for alcohol addiction (odds ratio [OR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.93). Anxious temperament was a significant risk factor for history of alcohol use disorders in patients treated for opiate addiction (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.36-7.99), whereas the hyperthymic subscale appeared as a significant protective factor (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.42-0.99). The results highlight the need to consider temperamental aspects in further research to improve the long-term outcome of patient with addictive disorders, who often present complex comorbidity patterns.

  5. Organizational Climate and Work Addiction in Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, 2014: a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Rafiee, Noora; Bahrami, Mohammad Amin; Zare, Vahid; Mohammadi, Mahan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The occupational nature of employees in headquarters units of the University requires them to deal with support issues. Thus, there is some pressure on these employees to complete their assignments on time so that employees in the line units can accurately and expeditiously perform their duties. As a result, work addiction behaviors are sometimes observed among the headquarters personnel. Considering the importance of work addiction and recognizing the factors that intensify it, this study investigated the relationship between organizational climate and the work addiction of headquarters personnel at the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences. Methods This descriptive-analytic study was conducted using stratified random sampling of 151 University employees in 2014. The data collection tool was an organizational climate questionnaire, which was supplemented by the Work Addiction Risk Test (WART). The data were analyzed using the Pearson test, Spearman test, independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the Kruskal-Wallis test using IBM-SPSS version 20. Results The findings of this study showed that the organizational climate was at a moderate level, and employees were in the danger level in terms of work addiction. In addition, among the dimensions of organizational climate, the risk dimension had a significant relationship with work addiction (p<0.05), and the dimensions of structure and responsibility were significantly different from occupational group and monthly salary (p<0.05). Single employees showed a significant difference from married employees in the two dimensions of criteria and conflict (p<0.05). Conclusion Since the organizational climate score was low and the work addiction score was at the high-risk level, this issue demands more attention of senior managers and human resource officers of organizations to improve the organizational climate and increase employees’ awareness of work addiction

  6. Investigating risk factors for Internet gaming disorder: a comparison of patients with addictive gaming, pathological gamblers and healthy controls regarding the big five personality traits.

    PubMed

    Müller, K W; Beutel, M E; Egloff, B; Wölfling, K

    2014-01-01

    Engaging in online games has become increasingly important as a part of leisure activity in adolescents and adults. While the majority of people use these games in a healthy way, epidemiological studies show that some develop excessive use and symptoms that are related to those of substance-related addictions. Despite increasing research concerning the epidemiology of internet gaming disorder (IGD), predisposing factors have been examined to a lesser extent. Knowing about specific risk factors would help clarify the nosological features of IGD and enhance prevention and intervention. This study aimed to evaluate the relationships between personality traits and IGD. A total of 115 patients meeting the criteria for IGD were compared to 167 control subjects displaying either regular or intense use of online games. Additionally, 115 patients meeting diagnostic criteria for pathological gambling were included. IGD was associated with higher neuroticism, decreased conscientiousness and low extraversion. The comparisons to pathological gamblers indicate that low conscientiousness and low extraversion in particular are characteristic of IGD. An integration of personality variables into an etiopathological model describing presumable mechanisms fostering and maintaining addictive online gaming is proposed. This model could be helpful for the theoretical understanding of addictive gaming, public health campaigns and psychoeducation within therapeutic settings.

  7. What Are the Risks and Limitations of Genetic Testing?

    MedlinePlus

    ... testing? What are the risks and limitations of genetic testing? The physical risks associated with most genetic ... more information about the risks and limitations of genetic testing: The American College of Medical Genetics and ...

  8. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors.

  9. Epidemiology of internet behaviors and addiction among adolescents in six Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Mak, Kwok-Kei; Lai, Ching-Man; Watanabe, Hiroko; Kim, Dong-Il; Bahar, Norharlina; Ramos, Milen; Young, Kimberly S; Ho, Roger C M; Aum, Na-Rae; Cheng, Cecilia

    2014-11-01

    Internet addiction has become a serious behavioral health problem in Asia. However, there are no up-to-date country comparisons. The Asian Adolescent Risk Behavior Survey (AARBS) screens and compares the prevalence of Internet behaviors and addiction in adolescents in six Asian countries. A total of 5,366 adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited from six Asian countries: China, Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea, Malaysia, and the Philippines. Participants completed a structured questionnaire on their Internet use in the 2012-2013 school year. Internet addiction was assessed using the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Revised Chen Internet Addiction Scale (CIAS-R). The variations in Internet behaviors and addiction across countries were examined. The overall prevalence of smartphone ownership is 62%, ranging from 41% in China to 84% in South Korea. Moreover, participation in online gaming ranges from 11% in China to 39% in Japan. Hong Kong has the highest number of adolescents reporting daily or above Internet use (68%). Internet addiction is highest in the Philippines, according to both the IAT (5%) and the CIAS-R (21%). Internet addictive behavior is common among adolescents in Asian countries. Problematic Internet use is prevalent and characterized by risky cyberbehaviors. PMID:25405785

  10. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual's context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  11. Internet gaming addiction: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Kuss, Daria J

    2013-01-01

    In the 2000s, online games became popular, while studies of Internet gaming addiction emerged, outlining the negative consequences of excessive gaming, its prevalence, and associated risk factors. The establishment of specialized treatment centers in South-East Asia, the US, and Europe reflects the growing need for professional help. It is argued that only by understanding the appeal of Internet gaming, its context, and neurobiologic correlates can the phenomenon of Internet gaming addiction be understood comprehensively. The aim of this review is to provide an insight into current perspectives on Internet gaming addiction using a holistic approach, taking into consideration the mass appeal of online games, the context of Internet gaming addiction, and associated neuroimaging findings, as well as the current diagnostic framework adopted by the American Psychiatric Association. The cited research indicates that the individual’s context is a significant factor that marks the dividing line between excessive gaming and gaming addiction, and the game context can gain particular importance for players, depending on their life situation and gaming preferences. Moreover, the cultural context is significant because it embeds the gamer in a community with shared beliefs and practices, endowing their gaming with particular meaning. The cited neuroimaging studies indicate that Internet gaming addiction shares similarities with other addictions, including substance dependence, at the molecular, neurocircuitry, and behavioral levels. The findings provide support for the current perspective of understanding Internet gaming addiction from a disease framework. The benefits of an Internet gaming addiction diagnosis include reliability across research, destigmatization of individuals, development of efficacious treatments, and the creation of an incentive for public health care and insurance providers. The holistic approach adopted here not only highlights empirical research that

  12. A psycho-genetic study of hedonic responsiveness in relation to "food addiction".

    PubMed

    Davis, Caroline; Loxton, Natalie J

    2014-10-16

    While food addiction has no formally-recognized definition, it is typically operationalized according to the diagnostic principles established by the Yale Food Addiction Scale-an inventory based on the symptom criteria for substance dependence in the DSM-IV. Currently, there is little biologically-based research investigating the risk factors for food addiction. What does exist has focused almost exclusively on dopaminergic reward pathways in the brain. While brain opioid signaling has also been strongly implicated in the control of food intake, there is no research examining this neural circuitry in the association with food addiction. The purpose of the study was therefore to test a model predicting that a stronger activation potential of opioid circuitry-as indicated by the functional A118G marker of the mu-opioid receptor gene-would serve as an indirect risk factor for food addiction via a heightened hedonic responsiveness to palatable food. Results confirmed these relationships. In addition, our findings that the food-addiction group had significantly higher levels of hedonic responsiveness to food suggests that this bio-behavioral trait may foster a proneness to overeating, to episodes of binge eating, and ultimately to a compulsive and addictive pattern of food intake.

  13. [Exercise addiction].

    PubMed

    Petit, A; Lejoyeux, M

    2013-01-01

    Socially valorised, sport like other forms of behaviour, can take on an addictive aspect. A review of the English and French literatures from 1979 to 2012 was conducted, using PubMed, Google Scholar, EMBASE, and PsycInfo, using the following key words alone or combined :sport, dependence, exercise, addiction. Exercise dependence is defined as a craving for physical activity that leads to extreme exercise intensity and generates physiological and psychological symptoms. Measurement scales have been proposed to make the diagnosis. No epidemiological studies have examined the prevalence of exercise dependence in the general population, although some studies suggest a frequency ranging from 10 to 80%. Disorders begin with a search for pleasure in physical effort, which then gives way to an obsession for sport resulting in a need to practice a sport more and more frequently and intensely. This addiction is more common among alcohol and illicit drug addicts than among the general population, while the rate of eating disorders can reach 40%. Personality traits most often associated are perfectionism, extraversion, and sensation seeking, while possible links between sporting activity and intensive doping will be discussed.

  14. Exercise addiction.

    PubMed

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  15. The effects of Internet addiction on the lifestyle and dietary behavior of Korean adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yeonsoo; Park, Jin Young; Kim, Sung Byuk; Jung, In-Kyung; Lim, Yun Sook

    2010-01-01

    We performed this study to examine lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior based on the level of Internet addiction of Korean adolescents. Data were collected from 853 Korean junior high school students. The level of Internet addiction was determined based on the Korean Internet addiction self-scale short form for youth, and students were classified as high-risk Internet users, potential-risk Internet users, and no risk Internet users. The associations between the students' levels of Internet addiction and lifestyle patterns and dietary behavior were analyzed using a chi-square test. Irregular bedtimes and the use of alcohol and tobacco were higher in high-risk Internet users than no risk Internet users. Moreover, in high-risk Internet users, irregular dietary behavior due to the loss of appetite, a high frequency of skipping meals, and snacking might cause imbalances in nutritional intake. Diet quality in high-risk Internet users was also worse than in potential-risk Internet users and no risk Internet users. We demonstrated in this study that high-risk Internet users have inappropriate dietary behavior and poor diet quality, which could result in stunted growth and development. Therefore, nutrition education targeting high-risk Internet users should be conducted to ensure proper growth and development. PMID:20198209

  16. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. PMID:26432911

  17. [Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Rodríguez Monje, María Teresa; Ruiz Sánchez De León, José María

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone is a relatively new technological tool, versatile and accessible, and very attractive, especially for young people, but whose use involves a risk of abuse and addictive behavior. In recent years there has been increasing interest in this problem, especially in view of the fact that it involves an increasingly younger population. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of scientific knowledge about cell phone addiction/abuse. To this end, a search was carried out in international databases, using the descriptors "mobile phone", "cellular telephones", "addiction" and "abuse", and focusing on prevalence studies, diagnostic tests, associations with psychological variables and gender differences. There is a conceptual vagueness about the concepts of abuse and addiction in relation to mobile phones, and wide disparity in the adoption of diagnostic criteria; moreover, there are numerous instruments for the assessment of these concepts. As a result, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0-38%, depending on the scale used and the characteristics of the population studied. Surprisingly, self-attribution of cell phone addiction exceeds the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The personality trait most consistently associated with addiction is low self-esteem, though extraversion is associated with more intense use. Women with low self-esteem are the most vulnerable group, and the most commonly associated psychopathological symptom was depression. In short, while the evidence suggests a problem in relation to mobile phone use, the vagueness of the cell phone addiction concept and the poor quality of the studies make it difficult to generalize the results. It is necessary to define and unify criteria with a view to carrying out quality studies that permit appropriate comparisons.

  18. Engagement and disengagement in mutual-help addiction recovery housing: a test of affective events theory.

    PubMed

    Beasley, Christopher R; Jason, Leonard A

    2015-06-01

    This study tested an affective events theory (AET) model in the Oxford House network of recovery homes. Residents' congruence with their home (P-E fit) was hypothesized to directly influence behavior that supported the house and other residents-citizenship behavior. We further hypothesized P-E fit would be related to member intentions to leave, with attitudes toward the home mediating that relationship. To assess this, we administered a cross-sectional national survey to 296 residents of 83 randomly selected Oxford Houses. Although the AET model demonstrated good fit with the data, an alternative model fit better. This alternative model suggested an additional indirect relationship between P-E fit and citizenship mediated by attitudes. Results suggested affective experiences such as feeling like one fits with a community may influence engagement and disengagement. There appears to be a direct influence of fit on citizenship behavior and an indirect influence of fit through recovery home attitudes on both citizenship and intentions to leave the home. We conclude affective experiences could be important for community engagement and disengagement but AET may need to integrate cognitive dissonance theory.

  19. [Game addiction].

    PubMed

    Mori, Akio; Iwadate, Masako; Minakawa, Nahoko T; Kawashima, Satoshi

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the South Korea and China of computer game research, and the current state of research in Japan. Excessive game actions were analyzed by PET-MRI, MRI, fMRI, NIRS, EEG. These results showed that the prefrontal cortical activity decreased during game play. Also, game addiction causes damage to the prefrontal cortex. The NIRS-EEG and simultaneous recording, during game play correspond well with the decrease of β band and oxygen-hemoglobin. The α band did not change with game play. However, oxygen-hemoglobin decreased during game play. South Korea, game addiction measures have been analyzed since 2002, but in Japan the research is recent.

  20. Dealing with Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... more addictive than others: Drugs like crack or heroin are so addictive that they might only be used once or twice before the user loses control. Addiction means a person has no control over whether ...

  1. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TESTING IN HUMAN RISK ASSESSMENT

    PubMed Central

    Rohlman, Diane S.; Lucchini, Roberto; Anger, W. Kent; Bellinger, David C.; van Thriel, Christoph

    2008-01-01

    Neurobehavioral tests are being increasingly used in human risk assessment and there is a strong need for guidance. The field of neurobehavioral toxicology has evolved from research which initially focused on using traditional neuropsychological tests to identify “abnormal cases” to include methods used to detect sub-clinical deficits, to further incorporate the use of neurosensory assessment, and to expand testing from occupational populations to vulnerable populations including older adults and children. Even as exposures in the workplace are reduced, they have been increasing in the environment and research on exposure has now expanded to cross the entire lifetime. These neurobehavioral methods are applied in research and the findings used for regulatory purposes to develop preventative action for exposed populations. This paper reflects a summary of the talks presented at the symposium presented at the 11th meeting of the International Neurotoxicology Association. PMID:18539229

  2. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    PubMed

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors. PMID:25257111

  3. [Neuroscientific basic in addiction].

    PubMed

    Johann-Ridinger, Monika

    2014-10-01

    The growing evidence of Neuroscience leads to a better understanding of cerebral processes in cases of acute or chronic intake of psychotropic substances (ps). Predominantly, structures of the "reward system" contributed to the development of addiction. Chronic consumption of ps provides changing in brain equilibrium and leads to adaptations in the brain architecture. In this article, the complex responses of neurons and neuronal networks are presented in cases of chronic intake of ps. The alterations affect the cognitive, emotional and behavioral processings and influence learning and stress regulation. In summary, all cerebral adaptations are integrated in a complex model of biological, psychological and social factors and therefore, addiction arises as a consequence of combination of individual protecting and risk factors.

  4. [Environment and addictive behaviors].

    PubMed

    Touzeau, Didier; Raynal, Marie-Line

    2012-12-01

    Consumer society creates the emergence of addictive behaviors and environments of the subject "shape" the use of psychoactive substances. The family approach is to search out a guilt of members to understand family dynamics and enable young people to emancipate themselves from the family model. The social environment contributes to the marginalization of drug users "pathologizing" his conduct. Offer help without preconditions and a relationship based on a therapeutic alliance can contribute decisively to the recovery of an addict. The prison is a place of initiation of use and consumption of psychoactive substances despite the offer of specialized treatment. Measures of risk reduction of HCV/HIV infection and alternatives to incarceration should complete it. At workplace, consumption can be considered as a mean of doping to be more "efficient", but also as an attempt to withstand the stresses and changes in working conditions in the context of individualization and a loss of marks related to the new way of organizing work.

  5. Nurses' perception of the quality of care they provide to hospitalized drug addicts: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    PubMed

    Natan, Merav Ben; Beyil, Valery; Neta, Okev

    2009-12-01

    A correlational design was used to examine nursing staff attitudes and subjective norms manifested in intended and actual care of drug users based on the Theory of Reasoned Action. One hundred and thirty-five nursing staff from three central Israeli hospitals completed a questionnaire examining theory-based variables as well as sociodemographic and professional characteristics. Most respondents reported a high to very high level of actual or intended care of drug users. Nurses' stronger intentions to provide quality care to drug users were associated with more positive attitudes. Nursing staff members had moderately negative attitudes towards drug users. Nurses were found to hold negative stereotypes of drug addict patients and most considered the management of this group difficult. Positive attitudes towards drug users, perceived expectations of others and perceived correctness of the behaviour are important in their effect on the intention of nurses to provide high-quality care to hospitalized patients addicted to drugs.

  6. The Effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification Interventions for Substance Addictions: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kok, Robin N.; Cuijpers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions, presumably targeting automatic processes, are considered particularly promising for addictions. We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBM for substance addiction outcomes. Methods Studies were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases. We included RCTs of CBM interventions, alone or in combination with other treatments, for any type of addiction. We examined trial risk of bias, publication bias and possible moderators. Effects sizes were computed for post-test and follow-up, using a random-effects model. We grouped outcome measures and reported results for addiction (all related measures), craving and cognitive bias. Results We identified 25 trials, 18 for alcohol problems, and 7 for smoking. At post-test, there was no significant effect of CBM for addiction, g = 0.08 (95% CI -0.02 to 0.18) or craving, g = 0.05 (95% CI -0.06 to 0.16), but there was a significant, moderate effect on cognitive bias, g = 0.60 (95% CI 0.39 to 0.79). Results were similar for alcohol and smoking outcomes taken separately. Follow-up addiction outcomes were reported in 7 trials, resulting in a small but significant effect of CBM, g = 0.18 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.32). Results for addiction and craving did not differ by substance type, sample type, delivery setting, bias targeted or number of sessions. Risk of bias was high or uncertain in most trials, for most criteria considered. Meta-regression analyses revealed significant inverse relationships between risk of bias and effect sizes for addiction outcomes and craving. The relationship between cognitive bias and respectively addiction ESs was not significant. There was consistent evidence of publication bias in the form of funnel plot asymmetry. Conclusions Our results cast serious doubts on the clinical utility of CBM interventions for addiction problems, but sounder methodological trials are necessary before

  7. Assessment and treatment of addictions in primary care.

    PubMed

    Ravetti, L M

    2000-01-01

    Most clinicians are faced with the challenge of providing care and treatment for patients who experience the chronic relapsing brain disease known as addiction. The purpose of this article is to increase awareness of techniques and tools available to primary care clinicians (PCCs) for assessing and treating addictions in the office or clinic setting. A review of the history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostics relevant to addictive illness will help PCCs to hone their skills in addiction management. Addiction screening instruments and brief interventions used in primary care are presented. Adjunct therapies designed to promote the biopsychosocial and spiritual well-being of patients who are addicted have shown promise. PMID:11271125

  8. Targeting Cognitive-Affective Risk Mechanisms in Stress-Precipitated Alcohol Dependence: An Integrated, Biopsychosocial Model of Automaticity, Allostasis, and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Garland, Eric L.; Boettiger, Charlotte A.; Howard, Matthew O.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  9. Targeting cognitive-affective risk mechanisms in stress-precipitated alcohol dependence: an integrated, biopsychosocial model of automaticity, allostasis, and addiction.

    PubMed

    Garland, Eric L; Boettiger, Charlotte A; Howard, Matthew O

    2011-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel hypothetical model integrating formerly discrete theories of stress appraisal, neurobiological allostasis, automatic cognitive processing, and addictive behavior to elucidate how alcohol misuse and dependence are maintained and re-activated by stress. We outline a risk chain in which psychosocial stress initiates physiological arousal, perseverative cognition, and negative affect that, in turn, triggers automatized schema to compel alcohol consumption. This implicit cognitive process then leads to attentional biases toward alcohol, subjective experiences of craving, paradoxical increases in arousal and alcohol-related cognitions due to urge suppression, and palliative coping through drinking. When palliative coping relieves distress, it results in negative reinforcement conditioning that perpetuates the cycle by further sensitizing the system to future stressful encounters. This model has implications for development and implementation of innovative behavioral interventions (such as mindfulness training) that disrupt cognitive-affective mechanisms underpinning stress-precipitated dependence on alcohol. PMID:21354711

  10. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking. PMID:23241714

  11. [Does really sex addiction exist?].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique

    2012-01-01

    Hypersexual Disorder has been proposed as a new psychiatric disorder for DSM-V, characterized by an increased frequency and intensity of sexually motivated fantasies, arousal, urges, and enacted behavior in association with an impulsivity component. Excessive appetitive and consummatory behaviors, including hypersexuality, can become a non-chemical addiction. Sexual addiction afflicts people having paraphilic or nonparaphilic behaviors associated with progressive risk-taking sexual behaviors, escalation or progression of sexual behaviors (tolerance), loss of control and significant adverse psychosocial consequences, such as unplanned pregnancy, pair-bond dysfunction, marital separation, financial problems and sexually transmitted diseases including HIV. The most common behaviors involved in sexual addiction are fantasy sex, compulsive masturbation, pornography, cybersex, voyeuristic sex, anonymous sex and multiple sexual partners. These behaviors are intended to reduce anxiety and other dysphoric affects (e.g., shame and depression). Axis I psychiatric diagnosis, especially mood disorders, psychoactive substance abuse disorders and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders, are common comorbid disorders with sexual addiction. There are significant gaps in the current scientific knowledge base regarding the clinical course, development risk factors and family history and data on women with sexual addiction are lacking.

  12. Addiction to internet replies.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ook

    2009-01-01

    This research introduces a new addictive behavior in cyberspace, which is called Internet Reply Addiction. This phenomenon was found and empirically investigated in Korea where addictive behavior on Internet reply is common. This research suggests that the cause of this kind of addiction can be inferred from the Confucian cultural tradition that oppresses free expressions of individuals in real life settings. PMID:19592737

  13. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  14. The shame of addiction.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as "choice" and "responsibility" to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  15. The Shame of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Owen

    2013-01-01

    Addiction is a person-level phenomenon that involves twin normative failures. A failure of normal rational effective agency or self-control with respect to the substance; and shame at both this failure, and the failure to live up to the standards for a good life that the addict himself acknowledges and aspires to. Feeling shame for addiction is not a mistake. It is part of the shape of addiction, part of the normal phenomenology of addiction, and often a source of motivation for the addict to heal. Like other recent attempts in the addiction literature to return normative concepts such as “choice” and “responsibility” to their rightful place in understanding and treating addiction, the twin normative failure model is fully compatible with investigation of genetic and neuroscientific causes of addiction. Furthermore, the model does not re-moralize addiction. There can be shame without blame. PMID:24115936

  16. A Narrative Review of Binge Eating and Addictive Behaviors: Shared Associations with Seasonality and Personality Factors

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Binge-eating disorder and seasonal affective disorder were first described as clinically relevant conditions in very close temporal proximity a few decades ago. Both disorders have a higher prevalence rate in woman than in men, are characterized by a high proneness-to-stress and manifest heightened responsiveness to high-calorie, hyper-palatable foods. In recent years, a compelling body of evidence suggests that foods high in sugar and fat have the potential to alter brain reward circuitry in a manner similar to that seen when addictive drugs like alcohol and heroin are consumed in excess. These findings have led to suggestions that some cases of compulsive overeating may be understood as an addiction to sweet, fatty, and salty foods. In this paper, it is proposed that high seasonality is a risk factor for binge eating, especially in those characterized by anxious and impulsive personality traits – associations that could only occur in an environment with a superfluity of, and easy access to, rich and tasty foods. Given the well-established links between binge eating and addiction disorders [Ref. (1–3) for reviews], it is also suggested that seasonality, together with the same high-risk psychological profile, exacerbates the likelihood of engaging in a broad range of addictive behaviors. Data from a community sample (n = 412) of adults tested these models using linear regression procedures. Results confirmed that symptoms of binge eating and other addictive behaviors were significantly inter-correlated, and that seasonality, gender, and addictive personality traits were strong statistical predictors of the variance in binge-eating scores. Seasonality and addictive personality traits also accounted for a significant proportion of the variance in the measure of addictive behaviors. Conclusions are discussed in the context of brain reward mechanisms, motivational alternations in response to chronic over-consumption, and their relevance for the treatment of

  17. Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents. Methods In October 2007, a total of 5122 adolescents were investigated from 16 high schools via stratified-random sampling in Shanghai. Self-reported and anonymous questionnaires were used to assess parent-adolescent interaction and family environments. AIA was assessed by DRM-52 Scale, developed from Young’s Internet-addiction Scale, using seven subscales to evaluate psychological symptoms of AIA. Results Adjusting for adolescents’ ages, genders, socio-economic status, school performances and levels of the consumption expenditure, strong parental disapproval of internet-use was associated with AIA (vs. parental approval, OR = 2.20, 95% CI: 1.24-3.91). Worse mother-adolescent relationships were more significantly associated with AIA (OR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.22-6.48) than worse father-adolescent relationships (OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.10-2.80). Marital status of “married-but-separated” and family structure of “left-behind adolescents” were associated with symptoms of some subscales. When having high monthly allowance, resident students tended to develop AIA but commuter students did not. Family social-economic status was not associated with the development of AIA. Conclusions The quality of parent-adolescent relationship/communication was closely associated with the development of AIA, and maternal factors were more significantly associated with development of AIA than paternal factors. Family social-economic status moderated adolescent internet-use levels but not the development of AIA. PMID:24731648

  18. Using fire tests for quantitative risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, W.C.T.; Williamson, R.B.

    1980-03-01

    Fires can be considered a causal chain-of-events in which the growth and spread of fire may cause damage and injury if it is rapid enough to overcome the barriers placed in its way. Fire tests for fire resistance of the barriers can be used in a quantitative risk assessment. The fire growth and spread is modelled in a State Transition Model (STM). The fire barriers are presented as part of the Fire Protection Model (FPM) which is based on a portion of the NFPA Decision Tree. An Emergency Equivalent Network is introduced to couple the Fire Growth Model (FGM) and the FPM so that the spread of fire beyond the room-of-origin can be computed. An example is presented in which a specific building floor plan is analyzed to obtain the shortest expected time for fire to spread between two points. To obtain the probability and time for each link in the network, data from the results of fire tests were used. These results were found to be lacking and new standards giving better data are advocated.

  19. Use of Photovoice in addiction.

    PubMed

    Miller Heery, Gretchen Hope

    2013-09-01

    The addiction to narcotic substances is an increasing public health problem. Addiction relapse is preventable. Photovoice may increase the success rate by offering a deeper perspective, insight, dimension of feeling, and perception connecting with those who feel disconnected. This process uses cameras, discussion groups, storyboards, and interaction to thread through difficult discussion points created by the participant. Understanding the process of recovery from opioid substance abuse creates an opportunity to maintain socially acceptable behaviors and decreases the risk of participating in illegal activities and making poor choices. Photovoice allows for creative expression of thought by bypassing cognitive defenses.

  20. Racism and perinatal addiction.

    PubMed

    Neuspiel, D R

    1996-01-01

    Recent publicity and policy have targeted drug use by non-white women, particularly during pregnancy and parenthood. This emphasis on women of color is discordant with the population demographics of substance use and addiction, although morbidity and mortality related to drugs is often greater among nonwhites. Women with addictive disorders that are exacerbated by their social environments are blamed for their behavior. Meanwhile, drug treatment and primary health care services for these women are woefully inadequate. Among newborns testing positive for cocaine, those with black mothers are more likely to be discharged to non-maternal care, which may perpetuate family disruption. There are multiple reasons for true and perceived ethnic differences in substance use, addiction, and related social and medical harm. Such harm may be worsened by the racism inherent in U.S. drug policy. The scapegoating of non-white drug-using women and the paucity of treatment for them may be related to political and economic imperatives of society in maintaining and pacifying exploited groups.

  1. Cortical and sub-cortical effects in primate models of cocaine use: implications for addiction and the increased risk of psychiatric illness.

    PubMed

    Bradberry, Charles W

    2011-02-01

    Drug abuse is a serious risk factor for the incidence and severity of multiple psychiatric illnesses. Understanding the neurobiological consequences of repeated exposure to abused drugs can help to inform how those risks are manifested in terms of specific neurochemical mechanisms and brain networks. This review examines selective studies in non-human primates that employed a cocaine self-administration model. Neurochemical consequences of chronic exposure appear to differ from observations in rodent studies. Whereas chronic intermittent exposure in the rodent is usually associated with a dose-dependent increase in dopaminergic response to a cocaine challenge, in the rhesus monkey, high cumulative exposure was not observed to cause a sensitized dopamine response. These non-human primate observations are concordant with clinical findings in human users. The results of cue exposure studies on dopaminergic transmission are also reviewed. Direct microdialysis measurements indicate that there is not a sustained increase in dopamine associated with cocaine-linked cues. As an alternative to striatal dopaminergic mechanisms mediating cue effects, single unit studies in prefrontal cortex during self-administration in monkeys suggests the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortex are strongly engaged by cocaine cues. Based on the strong clinical imaging literature on cortical and cognitive dysfunction associated with addiction, it is proposed that the strong engagement of cortical systems during repeated cocaine reinforcement results in maladaptive changes that contribute to the risks of drug use for exacerbation of other psychiatric disorders. PMID:20151242

  2. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  3. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  4. X Chromosome Inactivation in Opioid Addicted Women

    PubMed Central

    Vousooghi, Nasim; Shirazi, Mitra-Sadat Sadat; Goodarzi, Ali; Abharian, Peyman Hassani; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: X chromosome inactivation (XCI) is a process during which one of the two X chromosomes in female human is silenced leading to equal gene expression with males who have only one X chromosome. Here we have investigated XCI ratio in females with opioid addiction to see whether XCI skewness in women could be a risk factor for opioid addiction. Methods: 30 adult females meeting DSM IV criteria for opioid addiction and 30 control females with no known history of addiction were included in the study. Digested and undigested DNA samples which were extracted from blood were analyzed after amplification of the polymorphic androgen receptor (AR) gene located on the X chromosome. XCI skewness was studied in 3 ranges: 50:50–64:36 (random inactivation), 65:35–80:20 (moderately skewed) and >80:20 (highly skewed). Results: XCI from informative females in control group was 63% (N=19) random, 27% (N=8) moderately skewed and 10% (N=3) highly skewed. Addicted women showed 57%, 23% and 20%, respectively. The distribution and frequency of XCI status in women with opioid addiction was not significantly different from control group (P=0.55). Discussion: Our data did not approve our hypothesis of increased XCI skewness among women with opioid addiction or unbalanced (non-random) expression of genes associated with X chromosome in female opioid addicted subjects. PMID:26904175

  5. Development of a brief instrument to measure smartphone addiction among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sumi; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-05-01

    Interruptions and distractions due to smartphone use in healthcare settings pose potential risks to patient safety. Therefore, it is important to assess smartphone use at work, to encourage nursing students to review their relevant behaviors, and to recognize these potential risks. This study's aim was to develop a scale to measure smartphone addiction and test its validity and reliability. We investigated nursing students' experiences of distractions caused by smartphones in the clinical setting and their opinions about smartphone use policies. Smartphone addiction and the need for a scale to measure it were identified through a literature review and in-depth interviews with nursing students. This scale showed reliability and validity with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In testing the discriminant and convergent validity of the selected (18) items with four factors, the smartphone addiction model explained approximately 91% (goodness-of-fit index = 0.909) of the variance in the data. Pearson correlation coefficients among addiction level, distractions in the clinical setting, and attitude toward policies on smartphone use were calculated. Addiction level and attitude toward policies of smartphone use were negatively correlated. This study suggests that healthcare organizations in Korea should create practical guidelines and policies for the appropriate use of smartphones in clinical practice. PMID:25636040

  6. Development of a brief instrument to measure smartphone addiction among nursing students.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sumi; Lee, Eunjoo

    2015-05-01

    Interruptions and distractions due to smartphone use in healthcare settings pose potential risks to patient safety. Therefore, it is important to assess smartphone use at work, to encourage nursing students to review their relevant behaviors, and to recognize these potential risks. This study's aim was to develop a scale to measure smartphone addiction and test its validity and reliability. We investigated nursing students' experiences of distractions caused by smartphones in the clinical setting and their opinions about smartphone use policies. Smartphone addiction and the need for a scale to measure it were identified through a literature review and in-depth interviews with nursing students. This scale showed reliability and validity with exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In testing the discriminant and convergent validity of the selected (18) items with four factors, the smartphone addiction model explained approximately 91% (goodness-of-fit index = 0.909) of the variance in the data. Pearson correlation coefficients among addiction level, distractions in the clinical setting, and attitude toward policies on smartphone use were calculated. Addiction level and attitude toward policies of smartphone use were negatively correlated. This study suggests that healthcare organizations in Korea should create practical guidelines and policies for the appropriate use of smartphones in clinical practice.

  7. Addictive Disorders after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, James E.; Steffen, Kristine; Engel, Scott; King, Wendy C.; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Winters, Ken; Sogg, Stephanie; Sondag, Cindy; Kalarchian, Melissa; Elder, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Background Recent literature suggests that some patients may develop addictive disorders after bariatric surgery, in particular following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These may include traditional addictions and so called “behavioral addictions”, although prevalence data on the latter have not been published. Objectives To establish prevalence of addictive behaviors in adults following RYGB. Setting 2 university hospitals and 1 not-for-profit research institute in the U.S. Methods Participants from a large observational study of bariatric surgery who had undergone RYGB were recruited to complete additional measures. Of 241 consented participants, 201 provided data (i.e., Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I [SCID], additional Impulsive Control Disorder Modules, and various self-report measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test [AUDIT]) to assess status prior to surgery and in the first three post-operative years.). Results Based on the SCID, 16 (8.0%) developed alcohol use disorder [AUD] within three years post-RYGB, 7 (43.8%) of whom had no history of AUD. When both the SCID and AUDIT were used to identify AUD, the corresponding numbers/percentages were 32 (18.4%) and 13 (40.6%). Data on other behavioral addictive disorders indicated 19 (9.5%) had a post-surgery disorder, 6 (31.6%) of whom had no history. Conclusions These data add to a growing literature suggesting there is a substantial risk for the development of AUD after bariatric surgery. Understanding the risk for non-drug related addictive disorders requires more data from larger studies before clear conclusions can be drawn. PMID:25862182

  8. A new insight into food addiction in childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Keser, Alev; Yüksel, Ayşegül; Yeşiltepe-Mutlu, Gül; Bayhan, Asuman; Özsu, Elif; Hatun, Şükrü

    2015-01-01

    Uncontrolled eating behavior in obese subjects is very similar to behavior in food addiction, suggesting a relationship. This study was designed to evaluate the relationship between childhood obesity and food addiction and to determine the frequency of food addiction among obese children and adolescents. The study included 100 overweight and obese children. Food addiction was evaluated by the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS). The cutoff value for food addiction was defined as the presence of 3 or more symptoms. Participants were between 10 and 18 years of age; 63% were girls. Of the participants, 71% had food addiction. The most addictive foods were chocolate, ice cream, carbonated beverages, French fries, white bread, rice, candy, chips and pasta, in decreasing order of frequency. Experiencing a frequent feeling of hunger was associated with a 2.2-fold increase in food addiction risk, while consumption of French fries ≥1-2 times per week was associated with a 2.3-fold increase in risk (p<0.05). The high YFAS scores in obese and overweight adolescents suggest that food addiction plays an important role in childhood obesity. Evaluation of food addiction in more detail may open a new perspective on the prevention and treatment of obesity.

  9. [Psychophysiology of sports addiction (exercises addiction)].

    PubMed

    Krivoshchekov, S G; Lushnikov, O N

    2011-01-01

    Addiction is a prevalent and growing concern in all aspects of our modern society. There are considerable concerns for the growing frequency of addictions to drugs, alcohol, gambling, eating, and even sex. Though exercise is generally accepted as a positive behaviour that has many benefits associated with enhanced physical and psychological wellbeing, there is an increasing awareness that exercise addiction is becoming a common phenomenon. Theories regarding how exercise can become addictive, and studies of withdrawal from exercise are reviewed. Several physiological mechanisms, including endogenous opioids, catecholamines, functional asymmetry of brain activity and thermoregulation have been implicated in exercise dependence.

  10. [Drugs used to treat nicotine addiction].

    PubMed

    Zieleń, Iwona; Sliwińska-Mossoń, Mariola; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking in Poland is fairly widespread on a large scale. Research suggests that the early twenty-first century, the percentage of female daily smokers aged 20 and above was 26%, and men the same age 43%. In addition, epidemiological studies have shown that smoking was the cause of approximately sixty-nine thousand deaths in Poland (including fifty-seven thousand men and twelve thousand women). It is common ground that cigarette smoking has a negative effect on our body. It represents one of the main and most commonly defined risk factors for many diseases that can be eliminated. Smoking often leads to addiction, and nicotine is an addictive drug. Nicotine addiction is characterized by symptoms such as: "hunger" smoking, difficulty in controlling behavior on smoking or the number of cigarettes smoked, nicotine withdrawal, the occurrence of tolerance, neglect of interests, as well as devoting more time on activities related to smoking, follow-up smoking despite knowledge of its dangers. The most commonly used in Poland, a questionnaire to identify nicotine dependence is a test Fagerstöma. Currently assigned some importance, "the doctor a conversation the patient" and motivating him to stop smoking and maintain abstinence as long as possible. But beyond the "conversation" is also used as an aid to medical treatment for the patient to stop smoking, especially to alleviate withdrawal symptoms. The first attempts of pharmacological help in the effort to weaning from smoking began in the thirties. Were conducted fairly successful, although uncontrolled trials with lobeline, an alkaloid of action similar to nicotine. In Poland, the drugs of first choice in the treatment of nicotine dependence are nicotine replacement therapies (nicotine gum and patches that contain nicotine) and bupropion SR. Quite a popular drugs to help in the fight against addiction are also cytisine and varenicline. The choice of the drug is usually the result of medical experience in the use

  11. [Internet addiction].

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Hideki; Higuchi, Susumu

    2015-09-01

    Internet technologies have made a rapid progress, bringing convenience to daily life. On the other hand, internet use disorder and internet addiction (IA) have become reportedly serious health and social problems. In 2013, internet gaming disorder criteria have been proposed in the section of Conditions for Further Study of DSM-5. Existing epidemiological studies by questionnaire methods have reported that the prevalence of IA ranges between 2.8% and 9.9% among youths in Japan. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), sleeping disorders, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, and phobic anxiety disorder are extremely common comorbid mental disorders with IA. Some psychotherapies (e.g., cognitive behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medical treatments (e.g., antidepressant drugs, methylphenidate) for comorbid mental disorders as well as rehabilitation (e.g., treatment camp) are effective for IA remission. However, some serious cases of IA may be difficult to treat, and prevention is very important. In future, the prevention, rehabilitations and treatments for IA will be more required in Japan.

  12. HIV testing, risk perception, and behaviour in the British population

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Soazig; Nardone, Anthony; Field, Nigel; Mercer, Catherine H.; Tanton, Clare; Macdowall, Wendy; Johnson, Anne M.; Sonnenberg, Pam

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between HIV risk behaviour, risk perception and testing in Britain. Design: A probability sample survey of the British population. Methods: We analyzed data on sexual behaviour, self-perceived HIV risk and HIV testing (excluding testing because of blood donation) from 13 751 sexually experienced men and women aged 16–74, interviewed between 2010 and 2012 using computer-assisted face-to-face and self-interviewing. Results: Altogether, 3.5% of men and 5.4% of women reported having an HIV test in the past year. Higher perceived risk of HIV was associated with sexual risk behaviours and with HIV testing. However, the majority of those rating themselves as ‘greatly’ or ‘quite a lot’ at risk of HIV (3.4% of men, 2.5% of women) had not tested in the past year. This was also found among the groups most affected by HIV: MSM and black Africans. Within these groups, the majority reporting sexual risk behaviours did not perceive themselves as at risk and had not tested for HIV. Overall, 29.6% of men and 39.9% of women who tested for HIV in the past year could be classified as low risk across a range of measures. Conclusion: Most people who perceive themselves as at risk of HIV have not recently tested, including among MSM and black Africans. Many people tested in Britain are at low risk, reflecting current policy that aims to normalize testing. Strategies to further improve uptake of testing are needed, particularly in those at greatest risk, to further reduce undiagnosed HIV infection at late diagnoses. PMID:26963528

  13. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders.

  14. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  15. Genetic Variants in Nicotine Addiction and Alcohol Metabolism Genes, Oral Cancer Risk and the Propensity to Smoke and Drink Alcohol: A Replication Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Anantharaman, Devasena; Chabrier, Amélie; Gaborieau, Valérie; Franceschi, Silvia; Herrero, Rolando; Rajkumar, Thangarajan; Samant, Tanuja; Mahimkar, Manoj B.; Brennan, Paul; McKay, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Genetic variants in nicotinic acetylcholine receptor and alcohol metabolism genes have been associated with propensity to smoke tobacco and drink alcohol, respectively, and also implicated in genetic susceptibility to head and neck cancer. In addition to smoking and alcohol, tobacco chewing is an important oral cancer risk factor in India. It is not known if these genetic variants influence propensity or oral cancer susceptibility in the context of this distinct etiology. Methods We examined 639 oral and pharyngeal cancer cases and 791 controls from two case-control studies conducted in India. We investigated six variants known to influence nicotine addiction or alcohol metabolism, including rs16969968 (CHRNA5), rs578776 (CHRNA3), rs1229984 (ADH1B), rs698 (ADH1C), rs1573496 (ADH7), and rs4767364 (ALDH2). Results The CHRN variants were associated with the number of chewing events per day, including in those who chewed tobacco but never smoked (P =  0.003, P =  0.01 for rs16969968 and rs578776 respectively). Presence of the variant allele contributed to approximately 13% difference in chewing frequency compared to non-carriers. While no association was observed between rs16969968 and oral cancer risk (OR =  1.01, 95% CI =  0.83– 1.22), rs578776 was modestly associated with a 16% decreased risk of oral cancer (OR =  0.84, 95% CI =  0.72– 0.98). There was little evidence for association between polymorphisms in genes encoding alcohol metabolism and oral cancer in this population. Conclusion The association between rs16969968 and number of chewing events implies that the effect on smoking propensity conferred by this gene variant extends to the use of smokeless tobacco. PMID:24505444

  16. NARCOTIC DRUG ADDICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAHRAES, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    MUCH HAS BEEN LEARNED IN RECENT YEARS ABOUT THE NATURE OF DRUG ADDICTION, THE FACTORS WHICH LEAD A PERSON INTO ADDICTION, AND THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF PERSONS WHO HAVE BECOME ADDICTED. THIS PAMPHLET SURVEYS THE NEW FINDINGS AND IS INTENDED PRIMARILY FOR (1) THOSE WHO IN THE COURSE OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES COME IN CONTACT WITH ADDICTED…

  17. Related Addictive Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Tina; Sales, Amos

    This paper provides an overview of addiction related to substance abuse. It provides basic information, prevalence, diagnostic criteria, assessment tools, and treatment issues for eating disorders, compulsive gambling, sex addictions, and work addictions. Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa, especially affect adolescents.…

  18. Rational Development of Addiction Pharmacotherapies: Successes, Failures, and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Christopher Pierce, R.; O’Brien, Charles P.; Kenny, Paul J.; Vanderschuren, Louk J. M. J.

    2012-01-01

    There are currently effective, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapies for alcohol, nicotine, and opioid addiction. In some cases these therapeutics were rationally designed and tested using a combination of various animal models of addiction. In many cases, however, effective drug therapies for addiction were derived from the testing of compounds developed for other CNS disorders (e.g., analgesics and antidepressants), which were tested clinically in the absence of prior animal research using addiction models. This article will review the development of eight compounds that are currently most effective in the treatment of alcohol, opioid, and nicotine addiction with an emphasis on pharmacological mechanisms as well as the utility of animal models of addiction in the development of these therapeutics. In contrast to these successes, animal research has identified a number of promising medications for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction, none of which have proven to be effective clinically. This raises questions about the validity of current animal models of psychostimulant addiction. A specific example of an apparently promising pharmacotherapeutic for cocaine addiction (the D1 dopamine receptor antagonist ecopipam) that failed clinically will be examined to determine if this truly represents a challenge to the predictive validity of current models of cocaine addiction. In addition, the development of promising cocaine addiction therapeutics derived from animal research will be reviewed. PMID:22675669

  19. Take Action against Hepatitis C (for People in Recovery from Mental Illness or Addiction)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For People in Recovery From Mental Illness or Addiction Attention treatment providers in behavioral health programs! This ... hepatitis C. If you have a history of addiction, you are at higher risk for hepatitis C. ...

  20. Addictive behavior among young people in Ukraine: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Linskiy, Igor V; Minko, Aleksandr I; Artemchuk, Anatoliy Ph; Grinevich, Eugenia G; Markova, Marianna V; Musienko, Georgiy A; Shalashov, Valeriy V; Markozova, Lyubov M; Samoilova, Elena S; Kuzminov, Valeriy N; Shalashova, Ilona V; Ponomarev, Vladimir I; Baranenko, Aleksey V; Minko, Aleksey A; Goltsova, Svetlana V; Sergienko, Oksana V; Linskaya, Ekaterina I; Vyglazova, Olga V; Zhabenko, Nataliya; Zhabenko, Olena

    2012-08-01

    The AUDIT-like tests system was created for complex assessment and evaluation of the addictive status of adolescents in a Ukrainian population. The AUDIT-like tests system has been created from the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) developed by the World Health Organization. The AUDIT-like tests were minimally modified from the original AUDIT. Attention was brought to similarities between stages of different addictions (TV, computer games, the Internet, etc.) and alcohol addiction. Seventeen AUDIT-like tests were created to detect the different types of chemical and non-chemical addictions.

  1. Contrast of medical and nonmedical use of stimulant drugs, basis for the distinction, and risk of addiction: comment on Smith and Farah (2011).

    PubMed

    Swanson, James M; Wigal, Timothy L; Volkow, Nora D

    2011-09-01

    Smith and Farah (2011) presented a scholarly review of critical areas related to their intriguing title "Are Prescription Stimulants 'Smart Pills'?" We contend that they accomplished the main goal of the article, to get the facts straight about possible cognitive enhancement via the nonmedical use of stimulant drugs by individuals without a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). At the same time, they justified their main conclusions that (a) individuals are seeking and engaging in nonmedical use of stimulant drugs with the expectations of cognitive enhancement despite uncertainty whether such expectations are valid and (b) on some tasks, there are small average benefits of nonmedical use, but the overall pattern is not clear (e.g., small beneficial effects across most individuals or large beneficial effects only in a few individuals, both of which result in small average effects). We offer comments in 3 areas to amplify key topics mentioned but not emphasized by Smith and Farah: (a) characterization of the cognitive effects of medical use of stimulants to contrast with the cognitive effects of nonmedical use; (b) justification of medical use of stimulants by placement on a normally distributed dimension of behavior rather than categorical diagnosis of ADHD, which varies widely across countries; and (c) evaluation of the potential risks of nonmedical use to individuals and to society (e.g., the likelihood of addiction to stimulant drugs in a small minority of the population) rather than just the potential benefits of cognitive enhancement. PMID:21859175

  2. High Stakes Testing: Our Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddell, Samantha

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research paper was to examine the effects of standardized testing on the youth of America. It was intended to point out the shortcomings of the usage of such tests. There were comparisons of the effects testing has on different cultures of students as well as different socioeconomic classes. Court cases were brought into play…

  3. Antibody Testing and Lyme Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lacombe, Eleanor H.; Rand, Peter W.

    2005-01-01

    Lyme disease test results for >9,000 dogs were collected from participating veterinary clinics. Testing was conducted by using the IDEXX 3Dx kit, used widely by Maine veterinarians to screen clinically normal dogs during heartworm season. This study demonstrates how this test can be a valuable public health disease surveillance tool. PMID:15890128

  4. Behavioral risk factors among women presenting for genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Emmons, K M; Kalkbrenner, K J; Klar, N; Light, T; Schneider, K A; Garber, J E

    2000-01-01

    Considerable research attention has been given to the impact of genetic testing on psychological outcomes. Participation in genetic testing also may impact on health behaviors that increase the risk of cancer and other chronic diseases. The purpose of this study is to describe behavioral cancer risk factors of women who requested genetic testing for breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility (BRCA1, BRCA2). Before participation in a genetic testing program, 119 women completed a series of questionnaires designed to assess their health behaviors, perception of risk, and depressive symptomatology. Eight percent of participants were current smokers, 27% did not engage in at least moderate exercise, 46% did not regularly protect themselves from the sun, 39% did not consume at least five servings of fruits and vegetables per day, and 9% drank at least one alcoholic beverage per day. Poisson regression analysis revealed that age was the only predictor of behavioral risk profiles, with older women having fewer cancer risk behaviors. These patients who presented for genetic testing generally had better health behaviors than the general population. However, given their possible high-risk status, these patients should consider further improving their preventable cancer risk factors and, in particular, their diet, sun protection, and physical activity levels. Inclusion of behavioral risk factor counseling in the context of the genetic testing process may be an important opportunity to reach this at-risk population.

  5. Genetic susceptibility to heroin addiction; a candidate-gene association study

    PubMed Central

    Levran, O.; Londono, D.; O’Hara, K.; Nielsen, D. A.; Peles, E.; Rotrosen, J.; Casadonte, P.; Linzy, S.; Randesi, M.; Ott, J.; Adelson, M.; Kreek, M. J.

    2010-01-01

    Heroin addiction is a chronic complex disease with a substantial genetic contribution. This study was designed to identify genetic variants that are associated with susceptibility to develop heroin addiction, by analyzing 1350 variants in 130 candidate genes. All subjects had Caucasian ancestry. The sample consisted of 412 former severe heroin addicts in methadone treatment, and 184 healthy controls with no history of drug abuse. Nine variants, in six genes, showed the lowest nominal P values in the association tests (P < 0.01). These variants were in non-coding regions of the genes encoding the mu (OPRM1; rs510769, rs3778151), kappa (OPRK1; rs6473797), and delta opioid receptors, (OPRD1; rs2236861, rs2236857 and rs3766951), the neuropeptide galanin (GAL; rs694066), the serotonin receptor subtype 3B (HTR3B; rs3758987) and the casein kinase 1 isoform epsilon (CSNK1E; rs1534891). Several haplotypes and multi-locus genotype patterns showed nominally significant associations (e.g. OPRM1; P = 0.0006 and CSNK1E; P = 0.0007). Analysis of a combined effect of OPRM1 and OPRD1 showed that rs510769 and rs2236861 increase the risk of heroin addiction (P = 0.0005). None of these associations remained significant after adjustment for multiple testing. This study suggests the involvement of several genes and variants in heroin addiction that is worthy of future study. PMID:18518925

  6. Radon Risk Perception and Testing: Sociodemographic Correlates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Michael T.; Warner, Kenneth E.

    1994-01-01

    Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey, examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. Results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and little testing, within the survey population. Significantly less knowledge was observed among female and…

  7. Differentiation of personality types among opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Blatt, S J; Berman, W H

    1990-01-01

    A wide range of studies indicate that although sociopathic characteristics are predominant in opiate addiction, depressive and psychotic features are also frequently observed. To test the hypothesis that there are really three types of individuals who become addicted to opiates (rather than a single, predominant personality style), fifty-three opiate addicts were given the Loevinger Sentence Completion Test, the Bellak Ego Functions Interview, and the Rorschach. Variables derived from these three procedures were submitted to cluster and discriminant function analyses. Three groups of addicts were identified--those primarily with impaired interpersonal relationships and affective lability (42%), those primarily characterized by thought disorder and impaired ego functioning (30%), and a group with diminished ideational and verbal activity (28%). Comparison of the assessment of these three groups with independently defined normal, neurotic, and schizophrenic samples provided support for three opiate-addicted personality types, each respectively characterized as character disordered, borderline psychotic, and depressed. Although there seems to be a predominance of character-disordered individuals who become addicted to opiates, the data indicate several additional types of opiate addicts with different types of psychopathology who may require different approaches to management and treatment.

  8. Failing to diagnose and failing to treat an addicted client: Two potentially life-threatening clinical errors.

    PubMed

    Liese, Bruce S; Reis, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Psychotherapists risk making 2 types of errors with clients who struggle with addictive behaviors: failure to addictive behaviors and failure to effectively addictive behaviors. Given the high prevalence of addictive behaviors in clinical populations, therapists are in a unique position to assist individuals with these problems. It is assumed that therapists possess general diagnostic and treatment skills and yet many do not diagnose or do not treat addictive behaviors. Reasons for making these errors include prohibitive beliefs and limited knowledge about addictive behaviors. We offer specific recommendations to reduce these psychotherapy errors. These include: (a) more deliberate screening and diagnosis of addictive behaviors, (b) increased application of empirically supported addiction treatments, (c) required education and training in addictive behaviors, (d) modification of prohibitive attitudes about addressing addictive behaviors, and (e) increased attention paid to the addictive behaviors by professional psychotherapy organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27631864

  9. Failing to diagnose and failing to treat an addicted client: Two potentially life-threatening clinical errors.

    PubMed

    Liese, Bruce S; Reis, Daniel J

    2016-09-01

    Psychotherapists risk making 2 types of errors with clients who struggle with addictive behaviors: failure to addictive behaviors and failure to effectively addictive behaviors. Given the high prevalence of addictive behaviors in clinical populations, therapists are in a unique position to assist individuals with these problems. It is assumed that therapists possess general diagnostic and treatment skills and yet many do not diagnose or do not treat addictive behaviors. Reasons for making these errors include prohibitive beliefs and limited knowledge about addictive behaviors. We offer specific recommendations to reduce these psychotherapy errors. These include: (a) more deliberate screening and diagnosis of addictive behaviors, (b) increased application of empirically supported addiction treatments, (c) required education and training in addictive behaviors, (d) modification of prohibitive attitudes about addressing addictive behaviors, and (e) increased attention paid to the addictive behaviors by professional psychotherapy organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. Radon risk perception and testing: Sociodemographic correlates

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, M.T.; Warner, K.E. . Technology Assessment and Policy Research Center)

    1994-03-01

    While numerous health education campaigns have been carried out to alert the public to radon's potential dangers and to encourage testing and mitigation, there has been little follow-up to determine which segments of the public are now most aware of the possible hazards of radon. Using information from the 1990 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), the authors have examined beliefs regarding radon and radon-testing activities among different sociodemographic groups. They used logistic regression to determine the relationship between these beliefs and actions and age, gender, education, income, minority status, and smoking status. The results suggest relatively superficial knowledge regarding radon, and very little testing, within the survey population. In particular, significantly less knowledge was observed among female and minority respondents, while less testing behavior was seen among older respondents. Lower educational levels and lower family income were associated with both decreased knowledge and testing. Recommendations for future education campaigns are discussed.

  11. Addiction and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    The brain regions and neural processes that underlie addiction overlap extensively with those that support cognitive functions, including learning, memory, and reasoning. Drug activity in these regions and processes during early stages of abuse foster strong maladaptive associations between drug use and environmental stimuli that may underlie future cravings and drug-seeking behaviors. With continued drug use, cognitive deficits ensue that exacerbate the difficulty of establishing sustained abstinence. The developing brain is particularly susceptible to the effects of drugs of abuse; prenatal, childhood, and adolescent exposures produce long-lasting changes in cognition. Patients with mental illness are at high risk for substance abuse, and the adverse impact on cognition may be particularly deleterious in combination with cognitive problems related to their mental disorders. PMID:22002448

  12. Goal Based Testing: A Risk Informed Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everline, Chester; Smith, Clayton; Distefano, Sal; Goldin, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    A process for life demonstration testing is developed, which can reduce the number of resources required by conventional sampling theory while still maintaining the same degree of rigor and confidence level. This process incorporates state-of-the-art probabilistic thinking and is consistent with existing NASA guidance documentation. This view of life testing changes the paradigm of testing a system for many hours to show confidence that a system will last for the required number of years to one that focuses efforts and resources on exploring how the system can fail at end-of-life and building confidence that the failure mechanisms are understood and well mitigated.

  13. Addiction circuitry in the human brain (*).

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.

    2011-09-27

    A major challenge in understanding substance-use disorders lies in uncovering why some individuals become addicted when exposed to drugs, whereas others do not. Although genetic, developmental, and environmental factors are recognized as major contributors to a person's risk of becoming addicted, the neurobiological processes that underlie this vulnerability are still poorly understood. Imaging studies suggest that individual variations in key dopamine-modulated brain circuits, including circuits involved in reward, memory, executive function, and motivation, contribute to some of the differences in addiction vulnerability. A better understanding of the main circuits affected by chronic drug use and the influence of social stressors, developmental trajectories, and genetic background on these circuits is bound to lead to a better understanding of addiction and to more effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of substance-use disorders.

  14. Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, Peter W; O'Brien, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Using addictive drugs can evolve from controlled social use into the compulsive relapsing disorder that characterizes addiction. This transition to addiction results from genetic, developmental, and sociological vulnerabilities, combined with pharmacologically induced plasticity in brain circuitry that strengthens learned drug-associated behaviors at the expense of adaptive responding for natural rewards. Advances over the last decade have identified the brain circuits most vulnerable to drug-induced changes, as well as many associated molecular and morphological underpinnings. This growing knowledge has contributed to an expanded understanding of how drugs usurp normal learning circuitry to create the pathology of addiction, as evidenced by involuntary activation of reward circuits in response to drug-associated cues and simultaneous reports of drug craving. This new understanding provides unprecedented potential opportunities for novel pharmacotherapeutic targets in treating addiction. There appears to be plasticity associated with the addiction phenomenon in general as well as changes produced by addiction to a specific class of addicting drugs. These findings also provide the basis for the current understanding of addiction as a chronic, relapsing disease of the brain with changes that persist long after the last use of the drug. Here, we describe the neuroplasticity in brain circuits and cell function induced by addictive drugs that is thought to underlie the compulsions to resume drug-taking, and discuss how this knowledge is impelling exploration and testing of novel addiction therapies. PMID:17805308

  15. Preventing Addiction Related Suicide: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Voss, William D.; Kaufman, Erin; O’Connor, Stephen S.; Comtois, Katherine Anne; Connor, Kenneth R.; Ries, Richard K.

    2012-01-01

    Persons addicted to alcohol and drugs are at 5–10 times higher risk for suicide as compared to the general population. To address the need for improved suicide prevention strategies in this population, the Preventing Addiction Related Suicide (PARS) module was developed. Pilot testing of 78 patients demonstrated significant post-treatment changes in knowledge (t (66) = 12.07, p= .000) and attitudes (t (75) = 6.82, p = .000) toward suicide prevention issues. Significant gains were maintained at one-month follow-up for changes in knowledge (t (55) = 6.33, p= .000) and attitudes (t (61) = 3.37, p= .0001), with changes in positive help seeking behaviors in dealing with suicidal issues in friends (χ2 (1) =10.49, p = .007), family (χ2 (1) = 9.81, p = .015), and self (χ2 (1) = 19.62, p= .008) also observed. The PARS was also highly rated by treatment staff as feasible within their standard clinical practice. PMID:23375569

  16. A review of addiction.

    PubMed

    Clay, Steven W; Allen, Jason; Parran, Theorore

    2008-07-01

    Addiction to drugs and alcohol is often undiagnosed and untreated. Physicians are often unaware or have negative attitudes regarding these patients, such as the perception that treatment is ineffective. Addiction--psychological dependence with or without tolerance and withdrawal--is essentially compulsive uncontrolled substance use despite physical, psychological, or social consequences. We now have an understanding of the 2 major neurological pathways involved in addiction. First, the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which is essential for survival, can be physically altered by drug abuse to result in uncontrolled cravings. Second, the decision-making prefrontal cortex, which suppresses inappropriate reward response, can also be altered by drug abuse. Thus, accelerated "go" signals and impaired "stop" signals result in uncontrolled use despite severe consequences. Further, addicts can be predisposed to addiction by genetic defects in reward pathway neurotransmission and stress-related developmental brain abnormalities. Relapse to drug use can occur because of stress or cue-related reward pathway stimulation or even by a single drug dose. Individualized treatment of addiction, including pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions, can be as successful as treatment of other chronic diseases. Several pharmaceuticals are available or under study for these disorders. Waiting for the addict to "be ready" for treatment can be dangerous and detoxification alone is often ineffective. The physician's role in treating addiction includes prevention, diagnosis, brief intervention, motivational interviewing, referral, and follow-up care. An understanding of the biological reality of addiction allows physicians to understand addicts as having a brain disease. Further, the reality of effective pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for addiction allows physicians to be more optimistic in treating addicts. The challenge to the physician is to embrace the

  17. "Addiction Proneness" and Personality in Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platt, Jerome J.

    1975-01-01

    A carefully controlled comparison of the personality characteristics of heroin addict (n=27) and nonaddict (n=20) offenders was carried out so as to avoid methodological problems associated with earlier studies. (Editor)

  18. Gambling as an addictive disorder among athletes: clinical issues in sports medicine.

    PubMed

    Miller, T W; Adams, J M; Kraus, R F; Clayton, R; Miller, J M; Anderson, J; Ogilvie, B

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the role of gambling as an addictive disorder experienced by athletes, both college and professional. Gambling may often be seen as a comorbid factor with other addictions and with depression among athletes. The focus on addictions among athletes has gained considerable attention among sports medicine clinicians. Diagnostic indicators, risk and protective factors, and a stage model of addiction among athletes are addressed. An algorithm and pathway of care for athletes with an addictive disorder is offered as are recommendations that sports physicians, sports medicine specialists, coaches and counsellors need to address athletes who have an addictive disorder.

  19. Reduction of adult hippocampal neurogenesis confers vulnerability in an animal model of cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Noonan, Michele A.; Bulin, Sarah; Fuller, Dwain C.; Eisch, Amelia J.

    2010-01-01

    Drugs of abuse dynamically regulate adult neurogenesis, which appears important for some types of learning and memory. Interestingly, a major site of adult neurogenesis - the hippocampus - is important in the formation of drug-context associations and in the mediation of drug-taking and drug-seeking behaviors in animal models of addiction. Correlative evidence suggests an inverse relationship between hippocampal neurogenesis and drug-taking or drug-seeking behaviors, but the lack of a causative link has made the relationship between adult-generated neurons and addiction unclear. We used rat i.v. cocaine self-administration in rodents, a clinicall-relevant animal model of addiction, to test the hypothesis that suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis enhances vulnerability to addiction and relapse. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis via cranial irradiation before drug-taking significantly increased cocaine self-administration on both fixed-ratio and progressive-ratio schedules, as well as induced a vertical shift in the dose-response curve. This was not a general enhancement of learning, motivation or locomotion, as sucrose self-administration and locomotor activity were unchanged in irradiated rats. Suppression of adult hippocampal neurogenesis after drug-taking significantly enhanced resistance to extinction of drug-seeking behavior. These studies identify reduced adult hippocampal neurogenesis as a novel risk factor for addiction-related behaviors in an animal model of cocaine addiction. Further, they suggest that therapeutics to specifically increase or stabilize adult hippocampal neurogenesis could aid in preventing initial addiction as well as future relapse. PMID:20053911

  20. Bankruptcy risk model and empirical tests

    PubMed Central

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M.; Urošević, Branko; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the size dependence and temporal stability of firm bankruptcy risk in the US economy by applying Zipf scaling techniques. We focus on a single risk factor—the debt-to-asset ratio R—in order to study the stability of the Zipf distribution of R over time. We find that the Zipf exponent increases during market crashes, implying that firms go bankrupt with larger values of R. Based on the Zipf analysis, we employ Bayes’s theorem and relate the conditional probability that a bankrupt firm has a ratio R with the conditional probability of bankruptcy for a firm with a given R value. For 2,737 bankrupt firms, we demonstrate size dependence in assets change during the bankruptcy proceedings. Prepetition firm assets and petition firm assets follow Zipf distributions but with different exponents, meaning that firms with smaller assets adjust their assets more than firms with larger assets during the bankruptcy process. We compare bankrupt firms with nonbankrupt firms by analyzing the assets and liabilities of two large subsets of the US economy: 2,545 Nasdaq members and 1,680 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) members. We find that both assets and liabilities follow a Pareto distribution. The finding is not a trivial consequence of the Zipf scaling relationship of firm size quantified by employees—although the market capitalization of Nasdaq stocks follows a Pareto distribution, the same distribution does not describe NYSE stocks. We propose a coupled Simon model that simultaneously evolves both assets and debt with the possibility of bankruptcy, and we also consider the possibility of firm mergers. PMID:20937903

  1. Bankruptcy risk model and empirical tests.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M; Urosevic, Branko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-10-26

    We analyze the size dependence and temporal stability of firm bankruptcy risk in the US economy by applying Zipf scaling techniques. We focus on a single risk factor--the debt-to-asset ratio R--in order to study the stability of the Zipf distribution of R over time. We find that the Zipf exponent increases during market crashes, implying that firms go bankrupt with larger values of R. Based on the Zipf analysis, we employ Bayes's theorem and relate the conditional probability that a bankrupt firm has a ratio R with the conditional probability of bankruptcy for a firm with a given R value. For 2,737 bankrupt firms, we demonstrate size dependence in assets change during the bankruptcy proceedings. Prepetition firm assets and petition firm assets follow Zipf distributions but with different exponents, meaning that firms with smaller assets adjust their assets more than firms with larger assets during the bankruptcy process. We compare bankrupt firms with nonbankrupt firms by analyzing the assets and liabilities of two large subsets of the US economy: 2,545 Nasdaq members and 1,680 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) members. We find that both assets and liabilities follow a Pareto distribution. The finding is not a trivial consequence of the Zipf scaling relationship of firm size quantified by employees--although the market capitalization of Nasdaq stocks follows a Pareto distribution, the same distribution does not describe NYSE stocks. We propose a coupled Simon model that simultaneously evolves both assets and debt with the possibility of bankruptcy, and we also consider the possibility of firm mergers.

  2. Bankruptcy risk model and empirical tests.

    PubMed

    Podobnik, Boris; Horvatic, Davor; Petersen, Alexander M; Urosevic, Branko; Stanley, H Eugene

    2010-10-26

    We analyze the size dependence and temporal stability of firm bankruptcy risk in the US economy by applying Zipf scaling techniques. We focus on a single risk factor--the debt-to-asset ratio R--in order to study the stability of the Zipf distribution of R over time. We find that the Zipf exponent increases during market crashes, implying that firms go bankrupt with larger values of R. Based on the Zipf analysis, we employ Bayes's theorem and relate the conditional probability that a bankrupt firm has a ratio R with the conditional probability of bankruptcy for a firm with a given R value. For 2,737 bankrupt firms, we demonstrate size dependence in assets change during the bankruptcy proceedings. Prepetition firm assets and petition firm assets follow Zipf distributions but with different exponents, meaning that firms with smaller assets adjust their assets more than firms with larger assets during the bankruptcy process. We compare bankrupt firms with nonbankrupt firms by analyzing the assets and liabilities of two large subsets of the US economy: 2,545 Nasdaq members and 1,680 New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) members. We find that both assets and liabilities follow a Pareto distribution. The finding is not a trivial consequence of the Zipf scaling relationship of firm size quantified by employees--although the market capitalization of Nasdaq stocks follows a Pareto distribution, the same distribution does not describe NYSE stocks. We propose a coupled Simon model that simultaneously evolves both assets and debt with the possibility of bankruptcy, and we also consider the possibility of firm mergers. PMID:20937903

  3. Tobacco smoking, associated risk behaviours, and experience with quitting: a qualitative study with homeless smokers addicted to drugs and alcohol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevalence of tobacco smoking among homeless people can reach more than 90%, with related morbidity and mortality being high. However, research in this area is scarce. This study aims to explore smoking and quitting related behaviours, experiences and knowledge in homeless smokers in the context of other substance abuse. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with homeless smokers accessing a harm reduction service in Nottingham, UK. Data on smoking history, nicotine dependence, motivation and confidence to quit were collected using structured instruments; a semi-structured interview guide was used to elicit responses to predefined subject areas, and to encourage the emergence of unprecedented themes. Data were analysed using framework analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Participants were generally highly dependent smokers who did not display good knowledge/awareness of smoking related harms and reported to engage in high risk smoking behaviours. The majority reported notable motivation and confidence to quit in the future, despite or indeed for the benefit of addressing other dependencies. Of the many who had tried to quit in the past, all had done so on their own initiative, and several described a lack of support or active discouragement by practitioners to address smoking. Conclusion High levels of tobacco dependence and engagement in unique smoking related risk behaviours and social interplays appear to add to the vulnerability of homeless smokers. Given reported motivation, confidence, previous attempts and lack of support to quit, opportunities to address smoking in one of the most disadvantaged groups are currently missed. PMID:24112218

  4. What is addiction?

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  5. What is addiction?

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines.

  6. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  7. Cis-Expression Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Reveals Replicable Associations with Heroin Addiction in OPRM1

    PubMed Central

    Hancock, Dana B.; Levy, Joshua L.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Glasheen, Cristie; Saccone, Nancy L.; Page, Grier P.; Hulse, Gary; Wildenauer, Dieter; Kelty, Erin; Schwab, Sibylle; Degenhardt, Louisa; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Attia, John; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; McEvoy, Mark; Scott, Rodney J.; Bierut, Laura J.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Kral, Alex; Johnson, Eric O.

    2015-01-01

    Background No opioid receptor, mu 1 (OPRM1) gene polymorphisms, including the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1799971, have been conclusively associated with heroin/other opioid addiction, despite their biological plausibility. We used evidence of polymorphisms altering OPRM1 expression in normal human brain tissue to nominate and then test associations with heroin addiction. Methods We tested 103 OPRM1 SNPs for association with OPRM1 mRNA expression in prefrontal cortex from 224 European Americans and African Americans of the BrainCloud cohort. We then tested the 16 putative cis-quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTL) SNPs for association with heroin addiction in the Urban Health Study and two replication cohorts, totaling 16,729 European Americans, African Americans, and Australians of European ancestry. Results Four putative cis-eQTL SNPs were significantly associated with heroin addiction in the Urban Health Study (smallest P=8.9×10−5): rs9478495, rs3778150, rs9384169, and rs562859. Rs3778150, located in OPRM1 intron 1, was significantly replicated (P=6.3×10−5). Meta-analysis across all case-control cohorts resulted in P=4.3×10−8: the rs3778150-C allele (frequency=16%-19%) being associated with increased heroin addiction risk. Importantly, the functional SNP allele rs1799971-A was associated with heroin addiction only in the presence of rs3778150-C (P=1.48×10−6 for rs1799971-A/rs3778150-C and P=0.79 for rs1799971-A/rs3778150-T haplotypes). Lastly, replication was observed for six other intron 1 SNPs which had prior suggestive associations with heroin addiction (smallest P=2.7×10−8 for rs3823010). Conclusions Our findings show that common OPRM1 intron 1 SNPs have replicable associations with heroin addiction. The haplotype structure of rs3778150 and nearby SNPs may underlie the inconsistent associations between rs1799971 and heroin addiction. PMID:25744370

  8. Addiction and will

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  9. How can sociological theory help our understanding of addictions?

    PubMed

    Adrian, Manuella

    2003-08-01

    Those who work in the addiction field usually use the pharmacological or medical model, psychological theories of behavior, or operate within the confines of a criminal justice perspective. Contributions from the field of sociology are limited to use of the methods of sociological investigations, primarily population surveys, which, typically, are used to identify groups at-risk for specific types of drug use. Surveys have identified illicit drug use as, predominantly, a problem of young males, whereas prescription drug use is predominantly a problem of middle-aged and older women in industrialized countries. Experts in addiction have accused sociologists who study addiction of being "atheoretical." Paradoxically, in the sociology field, the most highly cited article is Merton's theory of addiction. This article will examine the contributions of sociological theory to our understanding of addiction, including social definitions of "the problem of addiction" and mechanisms to account for individual drug use within a social context that defines it as problematic.

  10. Perioperative status and complications in opium addicts in Western rajasthan.

    PubMed

    Malviya, Ajay; Negi, Nitin; Mandora, Manish; Yadav, J K

    2011-10-01

    Opium addiction is rampant in Western Rajasthan and probably has the highest number of opium addicts in the world. The study envisages upon the presentation, diagnosis and various postoperative complications in surgically ill opium addicts vis-à-vis non addicts. The study is purported to benefit clinicians dealing with opium addict patients. The prospective cohort study was conducted at Mahatma Gandhi Hospital, Jodhpur between December 2004 and February 2006 and included cohorts of 71 opium addict and 50 non-addict patients admitted in various surgical wards. The study focused on presentation and the post-surgical complications encountered in these patients vis-à-vis others. The results thus obtained were evaluated statistically (mean±SD, SEM, two tailed t test, chi-square test), p value of <0.05 was considered as significant. A thorough comparative analysis revealed that opium addict patients had a significantly higher incidence of postoperative respiratory, cardiovascular, systemic and local complications. The requirement of analgesics and duration of hospital stay were also significantly higher as compared to control group. The work concludes that opium addicts suffer a much higher degree of postoperative morbidity as compared to non-addicts.

  11. [Safety of nicotine addiction treatment].

    PubMed

    Korzeniowska, Katarzyna; Cieślewicz, Artur; Jabłecka, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Not all smoking addicts can succeed in quitting smoking with willpower only. These people may use nicotine replacement therapy (patches, gums, lozenges, sublingual tablets, inhalers), medicines (bupropion, varenicline and cytisine) and psychological aid. Each drug, besides its therapeutic effect, creates the risk of adverse reactions which number and severity is not always accepted by the patient. The aim of the study was to analyze adverse effects of bupropion, varenicline and cytisine formulations reported by patients. From July 2011 to June 2013 Regional Centre for Monitoring Adverse Drug Reactions (Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Cardiology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences) recorded 32 suspected adverse reactions to the use of drugs for the treatment of nicotine addiction (12 after the preparation of cytisine and varenicline, 8 after preparations of bupropion). High determination caused that none of the patients withdrew from the therapy because of adverse effects.

  12. Genetics of opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Brian; Butelman, Eduardo R; Yuferov, Vadim; Randesi, Matthew; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-11-01

    Addiction to MOP-r agonists such as heroin (and also addiction to prescription opioids) has reemerged as an epidemic in the twenty first century, causing massive morbidity. Understanding the genetics contributing to susceptibility to this disease is crucial for the identification of novel therapeutic targets, and also for discovery of genetic markers which would indicate relative protection or vulnerability from addiction, and relative responsiveness to pharmacotherapy. This information could thus eventually inform clinical practice. In this review, we focus primarily on association studies of heroin and opiate addiction, and further describe the studies which have been replicated in this field, and are thus more likely to be useful for translational efforts.

  13. Anti-addiction vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  14. Hidden addiction: Television

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Moran, Meghan B.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: The most popular recreational pastime in the U.S. is television viewing. Some researchers have claimed that television may be addictive. We provide a review of the definition, etiology, prevention and treatment of the apparent phenomenon of television addiction. Methods: Selective review. Results: We provide a description of television (TV) addiction, including its negative consequences, assessment and potential etiology, considering neurobiological, cognitive and social/cultural factors. Next, we provide information on its prevention and treatment. Discussion and conclusions: We suggest that television addiction may function similarly to substance abuse disorders but a great deal more research is needed. PMID:25083294

  15. Negative HPV screening test predicts low cervical cancer risk better than negative Pap test

    Cancer.gov

    Based on a study that included more than 1 million women, investigators at NCI have determined that a negative test for HPV infection compared to a negative Pap test provides greater safety, or assurance, against future risk of cervical cancer.

  16. Assessment of problematic internet use by the Compulsive Internet Use Scale and the Internet Addiction Test: a sample of problematic and pathological gamblers.

    PubMed

    Guertler, Diana; Rumpf, Hans-Juergen; Bischof, Anja; Kastirke, Nadin; Petersen, Kay Uwe; John, Ulrich; Meyer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to analyze psychometric properties and validity of the Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) and the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and, second, to determine a threshold for the CIUS which matches the IAT cut-off for detecting problematic Internet use. A total of 292 subjects with problematic or pathological gambling (237 men, 55 women) aged 14-63 years and with private Internet use for at least 1 h per working or weekend day were recruited via different recruitment channels. Results include that both scales were internally consistent (Cronbach's α=0.9) and had satisfactory convergent validity (r=0.75; 95% CI 0.70-0.80). The correlation with duration of private Internet use per week was significantly higher for the CIUS (r=0.54) compared to the IAT (r=0.40). Among all participants, 25.3% were classified as problematic Internet users based on the IAT with a cut-off≥40. The highest proportion of congruent classified cases results from a CIUS cut-off ≥18 (sensitivity 79.7%, specificity 79.4%). However, a higher cut-off (≥21) seems to be more appropriate for prevalence estimation of problematic Internet use.

  17. Adolescent Internet addiction: testing the association between self-esteem, the perception of Internet attributes, and preference for online social interactions.

    PubMed

    Fioravanti, Giulia; Dèttore, Davide; Casale, Silvia

    2012-06-01

    There is a general consensus that Internet addiction (IA) is mainly related to social aspects of the Web, especially among adolescents. The empirical link between poor social skills and IA is well documented; however, theoretical explanations for this relationship are less developed. One possibility is that people with poor social skills are especially prone to develop a preference for online social interaction (POSI), which, in turn, predicts problematic usage. This hypothesis has been tested for loneliness and social anxiety, but not for self-esteem (SE; one of the main antecedents of IA). Furthermore, the mediating role of the perceived relevance of some Internet features (e.g., anonymity) in the relationship between SE and POSI has never been investigated. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 257 adolescents. Using mediation analyses, we found evidence among females for the mediating role of (a) POSI in the relationship between SE and IA, and (b) the subjective relevance of some Internet features in the association between SE and POSI. No significant effects were found for males.

  18. The genetic basis of addictive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David

    2012-06-01

    Addictions are common, chronic, and relapsing diseases that develop through a multistep process. The impact of addictions on morbidity and mortality is high worldwide. Twin studies have shown that the heritability of addictions ranges from 0.39 (hallucinogens) to 0.72 (cocaine). Twin studies indicate that genes influence each stage from initiation to addiction, although the genetic determinants may differ. Addictions are by definition the result of gene × environment interaction. These disorders, which are in part volitional, in part inborn, and in part determined by environmental experience, pose the full range of medical, genetic, policy, and moral challenges. Gene discovery is being facilitated by a variety of powerful approaches, but is in its infancy. It is not surprising that the genes discovered so far act in a variety of ways: via altered metabolism of drug (the alcohol and nicotine metabolic gene variants), via altered function of a drug receptor (the nicotinic receptor, which may alter affinity for nicotine but as discussed may also alter circuitry of reward), and via general mechanisms of addiction (genes such as monoamine oxidase A and the serotonin transporter that modulate stress response, emotion, and behavioral control). Addiction medicine today benefits from genetic studies that buttress the case for a neurobiologic origin of addictive behavior, and some general information on familially transmitted propensity that can be used to guide prevention. A few well-validated, specific predictors such as OPRM1, ADH1B, ALDH2, CHRNA5, and CYP26 have been identified and can provide some specific guidance, for example, to understand alcohol-related flushing and upper GI cancer risk (ADH1B and AKLDH2), variation in nicotine metabolism (CYP26), and, potentially, naltrexone treatment response (OPRM1). However, the genetic predictors available are few in number and account for only a small portion of the genetic variance in liability, and have not been integrated

  19. Pleasure and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Jeanette; Matthews, Steve; Snoek, Anke

    2013-01-01

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu (1) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as “strong appetites toward pleasure” and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers) reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value, and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction. PMID:24093020

  20. Impulsivity in internet addiction: a comparison with pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae Woo; Choi, Jung-Seok; Shin, Young-Chul; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Kwon, Jun Soo

    2012-07-01

    Internet addiction has been considered to be associated with poor impulse control. The aim of this study is to compare the trait impulsivity of those suffering from Internet addiction with that of individuals suffering from pathological gambling. Twenty-seven patients diagnosed with Internet addiction (age: 24.78±4.37 years), 27 patients diagnosed with pathological gambling (age: 25.67±3.97 years), and 27 healthy controls (age: 25.33±2.79 years) were enrolled in this study. All patients were men seeking treatment. Trait impulsivity and the severity of the Internet addiction and pathological gambling were measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the Young's Internet Addiction Test, and the South Oaks Gambling Screen, respectively. The Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory were also administered to all subjects. Our results show that those suffering from Internet addiction showed increased levels of trait impulsivity which were comparable to those of patients diagnosed with pathological gambling. Additionally, the severity of Internet addiction was positively correlated with the level of trait impulsivity in patients with Internet addiction. These results state that Internet addiction can be conceptualized as an impulse control disorder and that trait impulsivity is a marker for vulnerability to Internet addiction.

  1. Methodological and Conceptual Limitations in Exercise Addiction Research.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D; de La Vega Marcos, Ricardo; Mervó, Barbara; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this brief analytical review is to highlight and disentangle research dilemmas in the field of exercise addiction. Research examining exercise addiction is primarily based on self-reports, obtained by questionnaires (incorporating psychometrically validated instruments), and interviews, which provide a range of risk scores rather than diagnosis. Survey methodology indicates that the prevalence of risk for exercise addiction is approximately 3 percent among the exercising population. Several studies have reported a substantially greater prevalence of risk for exercise addiction in elite athletes compared to those who exercise for leisure. However, elite athletes may assign a different interpretation to the assessment tools than leisure exercisers. The present paper examines the: 1) discrepancies in the classification of exercise addiction; 2) inconsistent reporting of exercise addiction prevalence; and 3) varied interpretation of exercise addiction diagnostic tools. It is concluded that there is the need for consistent terminology, to follow-up results derived from exercise addiction instruments with interviews, and to follow a theory-driven rationale in this area of research. PMID:26339214

  2. Methodological and Conceptual Limitations in Exercise Addiction Research.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D; de La Vega Marcos, Ricardo; Mervó, Barbara; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this brief analytical review is to highlight and disentangle research dilemmas in the field of exercise addiction. Research examining exercise addiction is primarily based on self-reports, obtained by questionnaires (incorporating psychometrically validated instruments), and interviews, which provide a range of risk scores rather than diagnosis. Survey methodology indicates that the prevalence of risk for exercise addiction is approximately 3 percent among the exercising population. Several studies have reported a substantially greater prevalence of risk for exercise addiction in elite athletes compared to those who exercise for leisure. However, elite athletes may assign a different interpretation to the assessment tools than leisure exercisers. The present paper examines the: 1) discrepancies in the classification of exercise addiction; 2) inconsistent reporting of exercise addiction prevalence; and 3) varied interpretation of exercise addiction diagnostic tools. It is concluded that there is the need for consistent terminology, to follow-up results derived from exercise addiction instruments with interviews, and to follow a theory-driven rationale in this area of research.

  3. Methodological and Conceptual Limitations in Exercise Addiction Research

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Attila; Griffiths, Mark D.; de La Vega Marcos, Ricardo; Mervó, Barbara; Demetrovics, Zsolt

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this brief analytical review is to highlight and disentangle research dilemmas in the field of exercise addiction. Research examining exercise addiction is primarily based on self-reports, obtained by questionnaires (incorporating psychometrically validated instruments), and interviews, which provide a range of risk scores rather than diagnosis. Survey methodology indicates that the prevalence of risk for exercise addiction is approximately 3 percent among the exercising population. Several studies have reported a substantially greater prevalence of risk for exercise addiction in elite athletes compared to those who exercise for leisure. However, elite athletes may assign a different interpretation to the assessment tools than leisure exercisers. The present paper examines the: 1) discrepancies in the classification of exercise addiction; 2) inconsistent reporting of exercise addiction prevalence; and 3) varied interpretation of exercise addiction diagnostic tools. It is concluded that there is the need for consistent terminology, to follow-up results derived from exercise addiction instruments with interviews, and to follow a theory-driven rationale in this area of research. PMID:26339214

  4. Reducing the addictiveness of cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Henningfield, J.; Benowitz, N.; Slade, J.; Houston, T.; Davis, R.; Deitchman, S.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To assess the feasibility of reducing tobacco-caused disease by gradually removing nicotine from cigarettes until they would not be effective causes of nicotine addiction.
DATA SOURCES—Issues posed by such an approach, and potential solutions, were identified from analysis of literature published by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in its 1996 Tobacco Rule, comments of the tobacco industry and other institutions and individuals on the rule, review of the reference lists of relevant journal articles, other government publications, and presentations made at scientific conferences.
DATA SYNTHESIS—The role of nicotine in causing and sustaining tobacco use was evaluated to project the impact of a nicotine reduction strategy on initiation and maintenance of, and relapse to, tobacco use. A range of potential concerns and barriers was addressed, including the technical feasibility of reducing cigarette nicotine content to non-addictive levels, the possibility that compensatory smoking would reduce potential health benefits, and whether such an approach would foster illicit ("black market") tobacco sales. Education, treatment, and research needs to enable a nicotine reduction strategy were also addressed. The Council on Scientific Affairs came to the following conclusions: (a) gradually eliminating nicotine from cigarettes is technically feasible; (b) a nicotine reduction strategy holds great promise in preventing adolescent tobacco addiction and assisting the millions of current cigarette smokers in their efforts to quit using tobacco products; (c) potential problems such as compensatory over-smoking of denicotinised cigarettes and black market sales could be minimised by providing alternate forms of nicotine delivery with less or little risk to health, as part of expanded access to treatment; and (d) such a strategy would need to be accompanied by relevant research and increased efforts to educate consumers and health professionals about

  5. Counseling Compulsive Resume Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, Marshall J.

    Compulsive Resume Addiction (CRA) is a condition where applicants become dependent on their written credentials to get new employment. It is similar to other addictions in that the person manifests short-term, gratification-seeking behavior with the long term cost in self-esteem and self-confidence. Applicants get stuck in thinking that a better…

  6. Internet Addiction and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koc, Mustafa

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between university students' internet addiction and psychopathology in Turkey. The study was based on data drawn from a national survey of university students in Turkey. 174 university students completed the SCL-90-R scale and Addicted Internet Users Inventory. Results show that students who use internet six…

  7. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    PubMed Central

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  8. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  9. [Functional neuroimaging of addiction].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-09-01

    Positron emission tomography studies investigating dopamine release by drug or reward demonstrated blunted dopamine release in relation to addiction to psychostimulants such as cocaine and amphetamine. However, recent studies reported that nicotine and gambling addiction showed opposite results. Several factors such as illness stage or neurotoxicity of substances could be considered for this discrepancy. Behavioral addiction such as gambling disorder is a good target of neuroimaging because it is free from overt neurotoxicity. However, even in gambling disorder, the results of fMRI studies investigating neural response to reward are mixed. Neuroimaging together with taking the various backgrounds of patients into account should contribute not only to a better understanding of the neurobiology of addiction but also to the development of more effective and individually tailored treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:26394506

  10. [Addictive behavior disorders].

    PubMed

    Masaki, Daiki; Tsuchida, Hideto; Kitabayashi, Yurinosuke; Tani, Naosuke; Fukui, Kenji

    2007-10-01

    "Addiction" used to remind anyone of the use or abuse of chemical substances. In recent years, however, researchers and clinicians have begun to classify other excessive behaviors including gambling, eating shopping and self-injury into the addictive behavior. Above all, pathological gambling and bulimia nervosa patients often make trouble for psychiatrists and psychologists, not only for their family. On the other hand, the neural substrata underlying substance dependence have been revealed. Especially, it is implicated that the mesolimbic neuron plays a crucial role on the reward system. The recent studies suggest that reduced activation of the reward system might be related to the addictive behaviors such as pathological gambling, binge eating and sexual behavior. Further biological researches about the addictive behavior would help our deeper understanding of its disorders. As to the pharmacotherapy, many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in treating the addictive behaviors.

  11. Linking online gaming and addictive behavior: converging evidence for a general reward deficiency in frequent online gamers.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW) - similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions - show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG "World of Warcraft" (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers.

  12. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (β=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (β=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs.

  13. Exploring personality characteristics of Chinese adolescents with internet-related addictive behaviors: trait differences for gaming addiction and social networking addiction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ho, Rainbow T H; Chan, Cecilia L W; Tse, Samson

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated the associations between personality traits, based on the Big Five model, and addictive behaviors to different online activities among adolescents. A sample of 920 participants was recruited from four secondary schools in different districts using random cluster sampling. A structured questionnaire, including demographic information, internet usage pattern, the Internet Addiction Test, the Game Addiction Scale, the Bergen Facebook Addiction Scale - Revised, and the Big Five Inventory, was administered to each participant. The results demonstrated a significant difference in personality traits for addictive behaviors related to different online activities. Specifically, higher neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and less conscientiousness (β=0.12, p<0.001) displayed significant associations with internet addiction in general; less conscientiousness (β=0.09, p<0.01) and low openness (β=0.06, p<0.05) were significantly associated with gaming addiction; and neuroticism (β=0.15, p<0.001) and extraversion (β=0.10, p<0.01) were significantly associated with social networking addiction. Our findings may provide a better understanding of the etiopathology of internet-related addictive behaviors and have implications for psychoeducation and psychotherapy programs. PMID:25462651

  14. Risk Management for Point-of-Care Testing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Point-of-care testing (POCT) is growing in popularity, and with this growth comes an increased chance of errors. Risk management is a way to reduce errors. Originally developed for the manufacturing industry, risk management principles have application for improving the quality of test results in the clinical laboratory. The Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), EP23-A Laboratory Quality Control based on Risk Management guideline, introduces risk management to the clinical laboratory and describes how to build and implement a quality control plan for a laboratory test. A simple, unit-use blood gas analyzer is utilized as an example for developing a laboratory quality control plan. The US Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has revised the Clinical and Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) interpretive guidelines to provide a new quality control option, individualized quality control plans (IQCP), for decreasing the frequency of analyzing liquid controls from two levels each day of testing to manufacturer recommended frequencies in conjunction with a device’s built-in internal control processes and the risk of error when testing with that device. IQCPs have the advantage of allowing laboratories the flexibility to adopt alternative control processes in concert with traditional liquid controls to improve efficiency and cost effectiveness while providing optimal quality POCT results for patient care.

  15. Estimating Skin Cancer Risk: Evaluating Mobile Computer-Adaptive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Djaja, Ngadiman; Janda, Monika; Olsen, Catherine M; Whiteman, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background Response burden is a major detriment to questionnaire completion rates. Computer adaptive testing may offer advantages over non-adaptive testing, including reduction of numbers of items required for precise measurement. Objective Our aim was to compare the efficiency of non-adaptive (NAT) and computer adaptive testing (CAT) facilitated by Partial Credit Model (PCM)-derived calibration to estimate skin cancer risk. Methods We used a random sample from a population-based Australian cohort study of skin cancer risk (N=43,794). All 30 items of the skin cancer risk scale were calibrated with the Rasch PCM. A total of 1000 cases generated following a normal distribution (mean [SD] 0 [1]) were simulated using three Rasch models with three fixed-item (dichotomous, rating scale, and partial credit) scenarios, respectively. We calculated the comparative efficiency and precision of CAT and NAT (shortening of questionnaire length and the count difference number ratio less than 5% using independent t tests). Results We found that use of CAT led to smaller person standard error of the estimated measure than NAT, with substantially higher efficiency but no loss of precision, reducing response burden by 48%, 66%, and 66% for dichotomous, Rating Scale Model, and PCM models, respectively. Conclusions CAT-based administrations of the skin cancer risk scale could substantially reduce participant burden without compromising measurement precision. A mobile computer adaptive test was developed to help people efficiently assess their skin cancer risk. PMID:26800642

  16. [Internet addiction and web-mediated psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Tonioni, Federico; Corvino, Stefano

    2011-11-01

    The development of the Internet and its gradual mass distribution in the last 20 years have marked the beginning of a global revolution in the way of communicating and thinking. In this context, emerged disorders related to a pathological use of the network, up to forms of real addiction (Internet Addiction Disorder), similar to the use of psychotropic substances. The abuse of the Internet can seriously aggravate pre-existing psychopathological traits, which are the basis of addiction, resulting in a continuous process of disconnection from reality. The loss of interpersonal relationships, the change of mood, cognition completely oriented to the use of the network and disruption of temporal experience are common features in patients addicted to the Internet. There are also clear signs of intoxication and abstinence. Teenagers are particularly at risk, maybe because born in the "new virtual world" and therefore less aware of the risks that may ensue. At the Gemelli Hospital in Rome it's active an out-patient service for Internet Addiction Disorder with a treatment protocol that includes individual interviews, group rehabilitation and self-help groups for family members.

  17. Testing the cultural theory of risk in France

    SciTech Connect

    Brenot, J.; Bonnefous, S.; Marris, C.

    1998-12-01

    Cultural Theory, as developed by Mary Douglas, argues that differing risk perceptions can be explained by reference to four distinct cultural biases: hierarchy, egalitarianism, individualism, and fatalism. This paper presents empirical results from a quantitative survey based on a questionnaire devised by Karl Dake to measure these cultural biases. A large representative sample was used to test this instrument in the French social context. Correlations between cultural biases and perceptions of 20 social and environmental risks were examined. These correlations were very weak, but were statistically significant: cultural biases explained 6%, at most, of the variance in risk perceptions. Standard socio-demographic variables were also weakly related to risk perceptions (especially gender, social class, and education), and cultural biases and socio-demographic variables were themselves intercorrelated (especially with age, social class, and political outlook). The authors compare these results with surveys conducted in other countries using the same instrument and conclude that new methods, more qualitative and contextual, still need to be developed to investigate the cultural dimensions of risk perceptions. The paper also discusses relationships between perceptions of personal and residual risk, and between perceived risk and demand for additional safety measures. These three dimensions were generally closely related, but interesting differences were observed for some risk issues. Included in the list of risk perceptions were pollution, hazardous materials, and radioactive wastes.

  18. A Test-Replicate Approach to Candidate Gene Research on Addiction and Externalizing Disorders: A Collaboration Across Five Longitudinal Studies.

    PubMed

    Samek, Diana R; Bailey, Jennifer; Hill, Karl G; Wilson, Sylia; Lee, Susanne; Keyes, Margaret A; Epstein, Marina; Smolen, Andrew; Miller, Michael; Winters, Ken C; Hawkins, J David; Catalano, Richard F; Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2016-09-01

    This study presents results from a collaboration across five longitudinal studies seeking to test and replicate models of gene-environment interplay in the development of substance use and externalizing disorders (SUDs, EXT). We describe an overview of our conceptual models, plan for gene-environment interplay analyses, and present main effects results evaluating six candidate genes potentially relevant to SUDs and EXT (MAOA, 5-HTTLPR, COMT, DRD2, DAT1, and DRD4). All samples included rich longitudinal and phenotypic measurements from childhood/adolescence (ages 5-13) through early adulthood (ages 25-33); sample sizes ranged from 3487 in the test sample, to ~600-1000 in the replication samples. Phenotypes included lifetime symptom counts of SUDs (nicotine, alcohol and cannabis), adult antisocial behavior, and an aggregate externalizing disorder composite. Covariates included the first 10 ancestral principal components computed using all autosomal markers in subjects across the data sets, and age at the most recent assessment. Sex, ancestry, and exposure effects were thoroughly evaluated. After correcting for multiple testing, only one significant main effect was found in the test sample, but it was not replicated. Implications for subsequent gene-environment interplay analyses are discussed. PMID:27444553

  19. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  20. Exercise addiction- diagnosis, bio-psychological mechanisms and treatment issues.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Aviv; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2014-01-01

    Exercise and sports activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but excessive exercise may have adverse physiological and psychological effects. There are methodological issues in the definition, diagnosis and etiology of exercise addiction. Several questionnaires and diagnostic tools have been developed and validated and they show high validity and reliability. Exercise addiction has been suggested as having an obsessive-compulsive dimension as well as rewarding aspects that may include it among the behavioral addictions. Biological studies show that in rodents, exercise such as wheel running activates the dopamine reward system and thus contributing to stress reduction. Further evidence suggests that running is associated with endorphins and cannabinoids thus explaining the "runners high" or euphoric feelings that may lead to exercise addiction. Genetic studies suggest that genes which control preference for drugs also control the preference for naturally rewarding behaviors such as exercise. Psychological studies also explain exercise addiction in terms of reward, habituation, social support, stress-relief, avoidance of withdrawal and reduction of anxiety. It has been suggested that exercise addiction is a part of a continuum of sportive activity that develops in stages from the recreational exercise to at-risk exercise, problematic exercise and finally into exercise addiction. Assessment and treatment should take into account the various stages of exercise addiction development, its comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as eating disorders or substance use and alcohol disorders. Treatment approaches for exercise addiction are based on the cognitive-behavioral approach but little is known about their effectiveness. A single-case study shows promise of pharmacological treatment for exercise addiction and further studies are required. This review summarizes diagnostic and phenomenology of exercise addiction with emphasis on

  1. An integrative approach for studying the etiology of alcoholism and other addictions.

    PubMed

    Jacob, T; Sher, K J; Bucholz, K K; True, W T; Sirevaag, E J; Rohrbaugh, J; Nelson, E; Neuman, R J; Todd, R D; Slutske, W S; Whitfield, J B; Kirk, K M; Martin, N G; Madden, P A; Heath, A C

    2001-04-01

    Studies of alcoholism etiology often focus on genetic or psychosocial approaches, but not both. Greater understanding of the etiology of alcohol, tobacco and other addictions will come from integration of these research traditions. A research approach is outlined to test three models for the etiology of addictions--behavioral undercontrol, pharmacologic vulnerability, negative affect regulation--addressing key questions including (i) mediators of genetic effects, (ii) genotype-environment correlation effects, (iii) genotype x environment interaction effects, (iv) the developmental unfolding of genetic and environmental effects, (v) subtyping including identification of distinct trajectories of substance involvement, (vi) identification of individual genes that contribute to risk, and (vii) the consequences of excessive use. By using coordinated research designs, including prospective assessment of adolescent twins and their siblings and parents; of adult substance dependent and control twins and their MZ and DZ cotwins, the spouses of these pairs, and their adolescent offspring; and of regular families; by selecting for gene-mapping approaches sibships screened for extreme concordance or discordance on quantitative indices of substance use; and by using experimental (drug challenge) as well as survey approaches, a number of key questions concerning addiction etiology can be addressed. We discuss complementary strengths and weaknesses of different sampling strategies, as well as methods to implement such an integrated approach illustrated for the study of alcoholism etiology. A coordinated program of twin and family studies will allow a comprehensive dissection of the interplay of genetic and environmental risk-factors in the etiology of alcoholism and other addictions.

  2. Cellular basis of memory for addiction

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the importance of numerous psychosocial factors, at its core, drug addiction involves a biological process: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of “cellular or molecular memory.” Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of “behavioral memory,” perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  3. Random drug testing to reduce the incidence of addiction in anesthesia residents: preliminary results from one program.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, Michael G; Baker, Keith H; Lowenstein, Edward; Zapol, Warren M

    2008-08-01

    Substance abuse occurs in approximately 1%-2% of anesthesia residents and nearly 80% of programs have had one or more resident (s) with such a problem. Education and control efforts have failed to reduce the frequency of substance abuse. Anesthesia providers have a professional obligation to be drug-free for the well being of their patients. We have instituted a program of preplacement and random urine testing of residents in anesthesiology in an attempt to decrease the incidence of substance abuse. We demonstrate that such a program is feasible, despite logistic and cultural obstacles. Larger multi-institutional studies will be required to determine whether instituting a program of random urine testing decreases the incidence of substance abuse in anesthesiology residents. PMID:18633044

  4. Addict to win? A different approach to doping.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carlos; Tamburrini, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    Traditionally the doping debate has been dominated by those who want to see doping forbidden (the prohibitionist view) and those who want to see it permitted (the ban abolitionist view). In this article, the authors analyse a third position starting from the assertion that doping use is a symptom of the paradigm of highly competitive elite sports, in the same way as addictions reflect current social paradigms in wider society. Based upon a conceptual distinction between occasional use, habitual use and addiction, and focusing on the physical and/or mental dependency caused by the addictive use of a certain drug, we argue that marihuana, stimulants and anabolic steroid abuse--the most frequently detected substances in doping tests--satisfies at least one, often both, of these conditions. A conclusion to be drawn from the authors' arguments is that the prohibitionist view is inappropriate for dealing with doping, as the severe sanctions attached to it will cut the doper off her/his social and professional environment, thereby risking reinforcing her/his addictive conduct. But the ban abolitionist view seems inappropriate as well. At first sight, it seems neither rational nor humane not to intervene when confronted with conduct which is highly harmful for the individual and upon which she has reduced or no control whatsoever. Instead the authors' proposal will be to contextualise dopers' conduct within sport healthcare and see it strictly in relation to each athlete's personal background. Developing preventive programmes--implemented through person-tailored counselling and eventually treatment, rather than severe sanctions or the mere lifting of the ban--seems to be a more reasonable, and probably more efficient, way of conducting 'the war against doping'. PMID:20966493

  5. Addict to win? A different approach to doping.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, Carlos; Tamburrini, Claudio

    2010-11-01

    Traditionally the doping debate has been dominated by those who want to see doping forbidden (the prohibitionist view) and those who want to see it permitted (the ban abolitionist view). In this article, the authors analyse a third position starting from the assertion that doping use is a symptom of the paradigm of highly competitive elite sports, in the same way as addictions reflect current social paradigms in wider society. Based upon a conceptual distinction between occasional use, habitual use and addiction, and focusing on the physical and/or mental dependency caused by the addictive use of a certain drug, we argue that marihuana, stimulants and anabolic steroid abuse--the most frequently detected substances in doping tests--satisfies at least one, often both, of these conditions. A conclusion to be drawn from the authors' arguments is that the prohibitionist view is inappropriate for dealing with doping, as the severe sanctions attached to it will cut the doper off her/his social and professional environment, thereby risking reinforcing her/his addictive conduct. But the ban abolitionist view seems inappropriate as well. At first sight, it seems neither rational nor humane not to intervene when confronted with conduct which is highly harmful for the individual and upon which she has reduced or no control whatsoever. Instead the authors' proposal will be to contextualise dopers' conduct within sport healthcare and see it strictly in relation to each athlete's personal background. Developing preventive programmes--implemented through person-tailored counselling and eventually treatment, rather than severe sanctions or the mere lifting of the ban--seems to be a more reasonable, and probably more efficient, way of conducting 'the war against doping'.

  6. Social activities, self-efficacy, game attitudes, and game addiction.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Eui Jun; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2011-04-01

    This study examines whether social activities with parents, online and offline social self-efficacy, and attitudes toward gaming are associated with the degree of game addiction among adolescents. Using data from a survey of 600 middle- and high-school students in South Korea, we tested the relationships of personal characteristics (grade point average and time spent on gaming each day), social self-efficacy (both on- and offline), general social activities (with parents, friends, and teachers), gaming activities with parents, and attitudes toward gaming (those of self, parents, friends, and teachers) with the degree of game addiction. In addition, we conducted ANOVA tests to determine the differences among three groups: non-addicts (NA), possible (mild or moderate) addicts (PA), and Internet addicts (IA). The results show that social self-efficacy in the real world (offline) was negatively related with the degree of game addiction, whereas social self-efficacy in the virtual world (online) indicated a positive association. Social activities with parents are negatively associated with game addiction, although no relationship is found between gaming activities with parents and game addiction. Parental attitude toward gaming has a negative relationship with the addiction. Results and implications are discussed.

  7. Fortune telling addiction: Unfortunately a serious topic. About a case report

    PubMed Central

    BULTEAU, SAMUEL; VICTORRI-VIGNEAU, CAROLINE; BOUJU, GAËLLE; SAUVAGET, ANNE

    2015-01-01

    Background Constant social change brings about new forms of behavior, such as smartphone use, social networking, indoor tanning, cosmetic surgery, etc., that could become excessive or even lead to new forms of addictive disorders. Methods We report the case of a woman who starts consulting for “clairvoyance addiction”. We then discuss the addictive nature of her disorder, based on several classifications of addiction. Results The patient fulfilled the criteria for addiction and her clinical features were typical of that of addicted people. Other differential diagnoses were discussed. Conclusion As for any addictive behavior, the interaction of several risk factors should be considered. They are related to the individual himself, but also to the object of addiction and to the socio-environmental context. In this case, all the conditions were met for fortune telling use to become addictive. PMID:25786497

  8. Sublingual Buprenorphine/Naloxone for Chronic Pain in At-Risk Patients: Development and Pilot Test of a Clinical Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Andrew; Cruciani, Ricardo A.; Strain, Eric C; Cleland, Charles M.; Joseph, Herman; Magura, Stephen; Marsch, Lisa A; McNicholas, Laura F; Savage, Seddon R; Sundaram, Arun; Portenoy, Russell K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Sublingual buprenorphine/naloxone (Bup/Nx) is approved for addiction treatment and may be useful for pain management, particularly in opioid-treated pain patients with nonadherence behaviors. The transition of opioid-treated pain patients to buprenorphine carries the risk of precipitated withdrawal and increased pain. This study convened pain and addiction specialists to develop and pilot a clinical protocol for safe transitioning to Bup/Nx. Design The protocol was revised three times based on outside expert review and pilot study observations. The pilot was conducted with a prospective cohort of 12 patients with moderate to severe chronic pain, who were receiving long-term opioid therapy with any full μ-agonist drug, and had exhibited one or more aberrant drug-related behaviors. Patients were followed up for 3 to 6 months with the expectation that they would experience few adverse events and report lower pain severity. Results The three patients on the highest baseline opioid dose (equivalent to 303–450 mg of oral morphine) and the three on the lowest doses (≤20 mg) had early adverse events (AEs) when switched to Bup/Nx and did not complete the trial. Of the remaining six, one withdrew due to AEs; one responded well, then withdrew; and four completed a three-month trial. A mixed effects model controlling for dropouts found that average and worst pain significantly decreased after the switch to Bup/Nx (both p < .01). Conclusion Based on this experience, the protocol recommends Bup/Nx for pain only when baseline opioid doses are within bounds that reduce AEs at transition and incorporates dose flexibility to further reduce risks. This protocol warrants further testing. PMID:23264315

  9. Addiction Science: Uncovering Neurobiological Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, N. D.; Baler, R. D.

    2013-01-01

    Until very recently addiction-research was limited by existing tools and strategies that were inadequate for studying the inherent complexity at each of the different phenomenological levels. However, powerful new tools (e.g., optogenetics and designer drug receptors) and high throughput protocols are starting to give researchers the potential to systematically interrogate “all” genes, epigenetic marks, and neuronal circuits. These advances, combined with imaging technologies (both for preclinical and clinical studies) and a paradigm shift towards open access have spurred an unlimited growth of datasets transforming the way we investigate the neurobiology of substance use disorders (SUD) and the factors that modulate risk and resilience. PMID:23688927

  10. JWST Pathfinder Telescope Risk Reduction Cryo Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, Gary W.; Scorse, Thomas R.; Spina, John A.; Noel, Darin M.; Havey, Keith A., Jr.; Huguet, Jesse A.; Whitman, Tony L.; Wells, Conrad; Walker, Chanda B.; Lunt, Sharon; Hadaway, James B.; Keski-Kuha, Ritva; Feinberg, Lee D.; Voyton, Mark F.; Lander, Juli A.; Marsh, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2014, the Optical Ground Support Equipment was integrated into the large cryo vacuum chamber at Johnson Space Center (JSC) and an initial Chamber Commissioning Test was completed. This insured that the support equipment was ready for the three Pathfinder telescope cryo tests. The Pathfinder telescope which consists of two primary mirror segment assemblies and the secondary mirror was delivered to JSC in February 2015 in support of this critical risk reduction test program prior to the flight hardware. This paper will detail the Chamber Commissioning and first optical test of the JWST Pathfinder telescope.

  11. Perceived Parenting Styles as Predictor of Internet Addiction in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Huseyin; Bozgeyikli, Hasan; Bozdas, Canan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the perceived parenting styles as predictors of Internet addiction in adolescence. The participants of the study were a total of 419 high school students including 238 girl and 181 boy students whose mean age was 16.5. Personal information form, "Internet Addiction Test" and "Perceived Parenting Style Scale"…

  12. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection & risk factors for HCV positivity in injecting & non-injecting drug users attending a de-addiction centre in northern India

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Debasish; Sharma, Arun Kumar; Gupta, Sunil; Nebhinani, Naresh; Kumar, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Injecting drug use is a major route of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in India, but there may be other risk factors also. This study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in injecting drug users (IDUs) vs. non-IDUs (NIDUs), and to study the risk estimates for HCV seropositivity in the total sample of substance users with regard to various demographic, clinical, behavioural and personality factors. Methods: The IDUs (n = 201) and NIDUs (n = 219) were assessed for demographic, clinical and behavioural information, and were rated on instruments for severity of dependence, risk behaviour and personality profiles. Anti-HCV antibody was tested by ELISA and confirmed by recombinant immunoblot assay (RIBA) test. Results: Almost one-third of the IDUs (64 of 201; 31.8%) were positive for anti-HCV antibody, as opposed to only seven (3.2%) of the NIDUs. The four risk factors strongly associated with HCV positivity in multivariate analysis were sharing syringe [Exp(B) 75.04; 95%CI 18.28-307.96; P<0.001], reuse of injection accessories (16.39; 3.51-76.92; P<0.001), blood transfusion (5.88; 1.63-21.23; P=0.007) and IDU status (3.60; 1.26-10.31; P=0.017). Other variables less strongly but significantly associated with HCV positivity were multiple sex partners, opioid dependence, risk behaviour scores, impulsivity, and lower age of onset of drug use. Interpretation & conclusions: Our study showed a high seroprevalence of anti-HCV antibody in IDUs. In the substance users, HCV positivity was significantly and independently associated with several clinical, behavioural, and personality risk factors. PMID:26458347

  13. Resting-state beta and gamma activity in Internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Seok; Park, Su Mi; Lee, Jaewon; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Jung, Hee Yeon; Choi, Sam-Wook; Kim, Dai Jin; Oh, Sohee; Lee, Jun-Young

    2013-09-01

    Internet addiction is the inability to control one's use of the Internet and is related to impulsivity. Although a few studies have examined neurophysiological activity as individuals with Internet addiction engage in cognitive processing, no information on spontaneous EEG activity in the eyes-closed resting-state is available. We investigated resting-state EEG activities in beta and gamma bands and examined their relationships with impulsivity among individuals with Internet addiction and healthy controls. Twenty-one drug-naïve patients with Internet addiction (age: 23.33 ± 3.50 years) and 20 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched healthy controls (age: 22.40 ± 2.33 years) were enrolled in this study. Severity of Internet addiction was identified by the total score on Young's Internet Addiction Test. Impulsivity was measured with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11 and a stop-signal task. Resting-state EEG during eyes closed was recorded, and the absolute/relative power of beta and gamma bands was analyzed. The Internet addiction group showed high impulsivity and impaired inhibitory control. The generalized estimating equation showed that the Internet-addiction group showed lower absolute power on the beta band than did the control group (estimate = -3.370, p < 0.01). On the other hand, the Internet-addiction group showed higher absolute power on the gamma band than did the control group (estimate = 0.434, p < 0.01). These EEG activities were significantly associated with the severity of Internet addiction as well as with the extent of impulsivity. The present study suggests that resting-state fast-wave brain activity is related to the impulsivity characterizing Internet addiction. These differences may be neurobiological markers for the pathophysiology of Internet addiction.

  14. Prevalence and correlates of video and internet gaming addiction among Hong Kong adolescents: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L W; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W C; Ho, Rainbow T H

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed.

  15. Prevalence and Correlates of Video and Internet Gaming Addiction among Hong Kong Adolescents: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia L. W.; Mak, Kwok-Kei; Ho, Sai-Yin; Wong, Paul W. C.; Ho, Rainbow T. H.

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the patterns of video and internet gaming habits and the prevalence and correlates of gaming addiction in Hong Kong adolescents. A total of 503 students were recruited from two secondary schools. Addictive behaviors of video and internet gaming were assessed using the Game Addiction Scale. Risk factors for gaming addiction were examined using logistical regression. An overwhelming majority of the subjects (94%) reported using video or internet games, with one in six (15.6%) identified as having a gaming addiction. The risk for gaming addiction was significantly higher among boys, those with poor academic performance, and those who preferred multiplayer online games. Gaming addiction was significantly associated with the average time spent gaming per week, frequency of spending money on gaming, period of spending money on gaming, perceived family disharmony, and having more close friends. These results suggest that effective educational and preventative programs or strategies are needed. PMID:25032242

  16. Understanding and Testing Risk Mechanisms for Mental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been a virtual revolution in thinking about risk mechanisms. The key areas of challenge and opportunity include: identification of environmental causes; use of natural experiments; gene-environment interaction; testing for mediation; developmental moderation; biological programming; and developmental perturbations.

  17. "Food addiction is real". The effects of exposure to this message on self-diagnosed food addiction and eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Charlotte A; Rogers, Peter J; Dallas, Rebecca; Scott, Jade; Ruddock, Helen K; Robinson, Eric

    2015-08-01

    Food addiction is widely discussed in popular media in many Westernised societies. However, a potential concern is that endorsement of the food addiction model may cause people to perceive a lack of personal control over eating which could promote unhealthy dietary behaviours. To address this possibility, the current study investigated whether exposure to food addiction messages would, firstly, increase the number of participants who self-diagnosed as food addicts and, secondly, increase intake of indulgent foods. In a between-subjects design, participants (N = 60) read an article which either claimed that food addiction is real ("Real" condition) or that food addiction is a myth ("Myth" condition). Intake of indulgent and non-indulgent foods was then assessed in a disguised taste test and participants also completed a measure of self-diagnosed food addiction. A significantly higher proportion of participants in the Real condition self-diagnosed as food addicts relative to participants in the Myth condition (57% and 27% of participants, respectively; p = .018). Variability in intake, but not mean intake, of indulgent food was higher in the Real condition than in the Myth condition. These findings suggest that endorsement of the concept of food addiction may encourage people to self-diagnose as food addicts and thus explain their eating behaviour in terms of addiction (an external attribution). The extent to which self-diagnosis of food addiction influences actual food intake and how this might vary with individual differences and eating context remains to be determined. PMID:25891042

  18. Biological substrates of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Joffe, Max E.; Grueter, Carrie A.

    2014-01-01

    This review is an introduction to addiction, the reward circuitry, and laboratory addiction models. Addiction is a chronic disease hallmarked by a state of compulsive drug seeking that persists despite negative consequences. Most of the advances in addiction research have centered on the canonical and contemporary drugs of abuse, however, addictions to other activities and stimuli also exist. Substances of abuse have the potential to induce long-lasting changes in the brain at the behavioral, circuit and synaptic levels. Addiction-related behavioral changes involve initiation, escalation and obsession to drug seeking and much of the current research is focused on mapping these manifestations to specific neural pathways. Drug abuse is well known to recruit components of the mesolimbic dopamine system, including the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area. In addition, altered function of a wide variety of brain regions is tightly associated with specific manifestations of drug abuse. These regions peripheral to the mesolimbic pathway likely play a role in specific observed comorbidities and endophenotypes that can facilitate, or be caused by, substance abuse. Alterations in synaptic structure, function and connectivity, as well as epigenetic and genetic mechanisms are thought to underlie the pathologies of addiction. In preclinical models, these persistent changes are studied at the levels of molecular pharmacology and biochemistry, ex vivo and in vivo electrophysiology, radiography and behavior. Coordinating research efforts across these disciplines and examining cell type- and circuit-specific phenomena are crucial components for translating preclinical findings to viable medical interventions that effectively treat addiction and related disorders. PMID:24999377

  19. Risk-informed inservice test activities at the NRC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, D.; Cheok, M.; Hsia, A.

    1996-12-01

    The operational readiness of certain safety-related components is vital to the safe operation of nuclear power plants. Inservice testing (IST) is one of the mechanisms used by licensees to ensure this readiness. In the past, the type and frequency of IST have been based on the collective best judgment of the NRC and industry in an ASME Code consensus process and NRC rulemaking process. Furthermore, IST requirements have not explicitly considered unique component and system designs and contribution to overall plant risk. Because of the general nature of ASME Code test requirements and non-reliance on risk estimates, current IST requirements may not adequately emphasize testing those components that are most important to safety and may overly emphasize testing of less safety significant components. Nuclear power plant licensees are currently interested in optimizing testing by applying resources in more safety significant areas and, where appropriate, reducing measures in less safety-significant areas. They are interested in maintaining system availability and reducing overall maintenance costs in ways that do not adversely affect safety. The NRC has been interested in using probabilistic, as an adjunct to deterministic, techniques to help define the scope, type and frequency of IST. The development of risk-informed IST programs has the potential to optimize the use of NRC and industry resources without adverse affect on safety.

  20. Disparities in Cancer Genetic Risk Assessment and Testing.

    PubMed

    Underhill, Meghan L; Jones, Tarsha; Habin, Karleen

    2016-07-01

    Scientific and technologic advances in genomics have revolutionized genetic counseling and testing, targeted therapy, and cancer screening and prevention. Among younger women, African American and Hispanic women have a higher rate of cancers that are associated with hereditary cancer risk, such as triple-negative breast cancer, which is linked to poorer outcomes. Therefore, genetic testing is particularly important in diverse populations. Unfortunately, all races and ethnic groups are not well represented in current genetic testing practices, leading to disparities in cancer prevention and early detection.

  1. A novel saliva test for caries risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Denny, Paul C; Denny, Patricia A; Takashima, Jona; Si, Yan; Navazesh, Mahvash; Galligan, Joyce M

    2006-04-01

    A new saliva test for caries risk assessment introduced in this study integrates a variety of host factors to predict for children, individual risk levels that are tooth-group specific. These various host factors correlate with caries history, DFT (decayed and filled teeth) or DFS (decayed and filled surfaces) in young adults. The test is based on the pattern of genetically determined oligosaccharides present on salivary glycoproteins. The mechanism behind the test is believed to be centered on the specific oligosaccharides that either facilitate bacterial attachment and colonization at the surface of teeth or protect against colonization by promoting agglutination and removal of free bacteria. It is the ratio of the two classes of oligosaccharides that is very strongly correlated with the numerical range of DFS or DFT observed in a young adult population.

  2. Risk, Reward, and the Double-Edged Sword: Perspectives on Pharmacogenetic Research and Clinical Testing Among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Renee; Starks, Helene; Burke, Wylie; Dillard, Denise A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Pharmacogenetic research and clinical testing raise important concerns for individuals and communities, especially where past medical research and practice has perpetrated harm and cultivated distrust of health care systems and clinicians. We investigated perceptions of pharmacogenetics among Alaska Native (AN) people. Methods. We held four focus groups for 32 ANs in south central Alaska to elicit views about pharmacogenetics in general and for treatment of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, and nicotine addiction. We analyzed data for perceived risks and rewards of pharmacogenetics. Results. Potential risks of pharmacogenetics included health care rationing, misuse of information, and stigma to individuals and the AN community. Potential rewards included decreased care costs, improved outcomes, and community development. Participants also discussed 8 contingent conditions that could mitigate risks and increase pharmacogenetic acceptability. Conclusions. Alaska Natives perceive pharmacogenetics as potentially benefitting and harming individuals, communities, and health systems, depending on methods and oversight. Researchers, clinicians, and administrators, especially in community-based clinic and health care systems serving minority populations, must address this “double-edged sword” to effectively conduct pharmacogenetics. PMID:24134351

  3. Toxicity testing, risk assessment, and options for dredged material management.

    PubMed

    Munns, Wayne R; Berry, Walter J; Dewitt, Theodore H

    2002-04-01

    Programs for evaluating proposed discharges of dredged material into waters of the United States specify a tiered testing and evaluation protocol that includes performance of acute and chronic bioassays to assess toxicity of the dredged sediments. Although these evaluations reflect the toxicological risks associated with disposal activities to some degree, analysis activities are limited to the sediments of each dredging project separately. Cumulative risks to water column and benthic organisms at and near the designated disposal site are therefore difficult to assess. An alternate approach is to focus attention on the disposal site, with the goal of understanding more directly the risks of multiple disposal events to receiving ecosystems. Here we review current US toxicity testing and evaluation protocols, and describe an application of ecological risk assessment that allows consideration of the temporal and spatial components of risk to receiving aquatic ecosystems. When expanded to include other disposal options, this approach can provide the basis for holistic management of dredged material disposal. PMID:12139319

  4. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations.

  5. Is fast food addictive?

    PubMed

    Garber, Andrea K; Lustig, Robert H

    2011-09-01

    Studies of food addiction have focused on highly palatable foods. While fast food falls squarely into that category, it has several other attributes that may increase its salience. This review examines whether the nutrients present in fast food, the characteristics of fast food consumers or the presentation and packaging of fast food may encourage substance dependence, as defined by the American Psychiatric Association. The majority of fast food meals are accompanied by a soda, which increases the sugar content 10-fold. Sugar addiction, including tolerance and withdrawal, has been demonstrated in rodents but not humans. Caffeine is a "model" substance of dependence; coffee drinks are driving the recent increase in fast food sales. Limited evidence suggests that the high fat and salt content of fast food may increase addictive potential. Fast food restaurants cluster in poorer neighborhoods and obese adults eat more fast food than those who are normal weight. Obesity is characterized by resistance to insulin, leptin and other hormonal signals that would normally control appetite and limit reward. Neuroimaging studies in obese subjects provide evidence of altered reward and tolerance. Once obese, many individuals meet criteria for psychological dependence. Stress and dieting may sensitize an individual to reward. Finally, fast food advertisements, restaurants and menus all provide environmental cues that may trigger addictive overeating. While the concept of fast food addiction remains to be proven, these findings support the role of fast food as a potentially addictive substance that is most likely to create dependence in vulnerable populations. PMID:21999689

  6. [Neurobiology of addictive behavior].

    PubMed

    Ivlieva, N Iu

    2011-01-01

    Addictive behavior developes after repeated substance use and it typically include a strong desire to take the drug, difficulties in controlling its use, persisting in its use despite harmful consequences, a higher priority given to the drug use than to other activities. Relapse, the resumption of drug taking after periods of abstinence, remains the major problem for the treatment of addiction. The process of drug addiction shares striking commonalities with neural plasticity associated with natural reward learning and memory and is caused primarily by drug-induced sensitization in the brain mesocorticolimbic systems that attribute incentive salience to reward-associated stimuli. The switch from controlled to compulsive drug seeking represents a transition at the neural level from prefrontal cortical to striatal control. Current neurophysiologic evidence suggests that the development of addiction is to some extent due to neurochemical stimulation of the midbrain dopaminergic system that is traditionally considered as a 'common neural currency' for rewards of most kinds. Addictions are a result of the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. They are characterized by phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity as well as polygenicity. Environmental factors are crucial in addiction vulnerability and resistese too.

  7. A Comparison of Attentional Bias Towards Drug Cues in Addicts and Non-Addicts

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Seyedeh Narjes; Mansouri, Houri; Fazilatpour, Masoud; Shamsai, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Background: According to recent theories on addiction, attentional bias towards drug-related stimuli plays a pivotal role in the initiation of drug abuse. Objectives: The present study attempted to investigate attentional bias towards drug-related words in addicts and non-addicts. Patients and Methods: To attain the objectives, following a causal-comparative study, a number of 15 addicts under treatment in anonymous groups, and 15 non-addicts from among students at Isfahan University were selected through available sampling. Both groups were evaluated through Stroop test, and the results were analyzed adopting independent t-test. Findings: as indicated by the findings, a significant difference was observed in the two groups concerning color-naming accuracy (P < 0.05, X2 (1) = 3.896) as well as reaction time (P < 0.0001, X2 (1) = 17.404). The calculated difference between accuracy and reaction time for congruent and incongruent stimuli was significant. Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the average reaction time of the two groups. In terms of the number of errors, however, no significant difference was observed. Conclusions: The attentional bias of drug addicts is associated with drug-related cues or the temptation for drug abuse. PMID:25632382

  8. Stress, habits, and drug addiction: a psychoneuroendocrinological perspective.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Dickinson, Anthony; Wolf, Oliver T

    2011-02-01

    It is well known that stress is a significant risk factor for the development of drug addiction and addiction relapse. Remarkably, the cognitive processes involved in the effects of stress on addictive behavior remain poorly understood. Here it is proposed that stress-induced changes in the neural circuits controlling instrumental action provide a potential mechanism by which stress affects the development of addiction and relapse vulnerability. Instrumental action can be controlled by two anatomically distinct systems: a goal-directed system that involves learning of action-outcome associations, and a habit system that learns stimulus-response associations. The transition from initial voluntary drug use to subsequent involuntary, compulsive drug use represents a switch from goal-directed to habitual control of action. Recent evidence indicates that this switch from goal-directed to habit action can be prompted by stress and stress hormones. We argue (i) that acute stressors reinstate habitual responding to drug-related cues and thus trigger relapse to addictive behavior, and (ii) that prolonged or repeated stress may accelerate the transition from voluntary to involuntary drug use and thus promote the development of addiction. The suggested mechanism encompasses cognitive processes that may contribute to the effects of stress on addictive behavior and could have important implications for the treatment of addiction and the prevention of relapse.

  9. Parenting attitudes of addict mothers.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, D K; Steinberg, M R

    1980-08-01

    Parenting attitudes of female heroin addicts were investigated in a single factor design which compared addict mothers, addict non-mothers, nonaddict mothers, and nonaddict nonmothers. A principal components factor analysis was performed on the PARI and used as the dependent measure. A factor labeled "authoritarian overinvolvement" emerged which significantly differentiated between groups. Further, the effects of mothering and addiction proved to be additive such that addict mothers were extremely high on this scale. This result was discussed in terms of the parental home environment of addict women.

  10. Skin sensitization testing in potency and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kimber, I; Basketter, D A; Berthold, K; Butler, M; Garrigue, J L; Lea, L; Newsome, C; Roggeband, R; Steiling, W; Stropp, G; Waterman, S; Wiemann, C

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to review, and make recommendations for, the use of relevant skin sensitization test methods, for the purposes of determination of relative potency and the threshold dose necessary for the induction of skin sensitization, and for risk assessment. In addressing the first area, the utility of three guinea pig tests (the guinea pig maximization test, the occluded patch test, and the open epicutaneous test) of the local lymph node assay (LLNA) and of human volunteer testing for the assessment of relative potency and identification of thresholds for sensitization were considered. The following conclusions were drawn. (1) Although attempts have been made to modify the guinea pig maximization test for the purposes of deriving dose-response relationships, this method is usually unsuitable for determination of relative sensitizing potency. (2) Guinea pig methods that do not require the use of adjuvant and which employ a relevant route of exposure (the occluded patch test and the open epicutaneous test) are more appropriate for the assessment of relative skin-sensitizing potency. (3) The LLNA is suitable for the determination of relative skin sensitizing potency, and the adaptation of this method for derivation of comparative criteria such as EC3 values (the estimated concentration of test chemical required to induce a stimulation index of 3 in the LLNA) provides an effective and quantitative basis for such measurements. (4) For all the methods identified above, potency is assessed relative to other chemical allergens of known skin sensitizing potential. The estimation of likely threshold concentrations is dependent upon the availability of suitable benchmark chemicals of known potency for human sensitization. (5) Human testing (and specifically, the Human Repeat Insult Patch Test) can provide information of value in confirming the absence of skin sensitizing activity of formulations and products under specific conditions of use and exposure

  11. Direct-to-consumer testing: more risks than opportunities.

    PubMed

    Lippi, G; Favaloro, E J; Plebani, M

    2011-12-01

    As a result of incessant genetic discoveries and remarkable technological advancements, the availability and the consequent consumer's request for genetic testing are growing exponentially, leading to the development of a 'parallel' market, i.e. the direct-to-consumer (DTC) testing, also known as 'direct access testing' (DAT). Analogous to the traditional laboratory diagnostics, drawbacks of DTC testing might arise from any step characterising the total testing process, and include poor control of both appropriateness and preanalytical requirements, potential operation outside national or international regulation for in vitro diagnostic testing, little evidence of quality as well as the risk of transfer of genetic materials from the companies to other entities. Another important issue is the test panels offered to consumers, which are often based on preliminary, speculative or unsupported scientific information. Finally, the potential of this type of testing to generate anxiety or false reassurance should also be carefully considered. Although DTC testing carries some theoretical advantages (e.g. greater consumer autonomy and empowerment), solid clinical studies and costs vs. benefit analyses are needed to definitely establish whether DTC testing might be effective for decreasing the burden of diseases, delay their onset or modify their progression and therefore the clinical outcome.

  12. "Eating addiction", rather than "food addiction", better captures addictive-like eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, Johannes; Albayrak, Özgür; Adan, Roger; Antel, Jochen; Dieguez, Carlos; de Jong, Johannes; Leng, Gareth; Menzies, John; Mercer, Julian G; Murphy, Michelle; van der Plasse, Geoffrey; Dickson, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    "Food addiction" has become a focus of interest for researchers attempting to explain certain processes and/or behaviors that may contribute to the development of obesity. Although the scientific discussion on "food addiction" is in its nascent stage, it has potentially important implications for treatment and prevention strategies. As such, it is important to critically reflect on the appropriateness of the term "food addiction", which combines the concepts of "substance-based" and behavioral addiction. The currently available evidence for a substance-based food addiction is poor, partly because systematic clinical and translational studies are still at an early stage. We do however view both animal and existing human data as consistent with the existence of addictive eating behavior. Accordingly, we stress that similar to other behaviors eating can become an addiction in thus predisposed individuals under specific environmental circumstances. Here, we introduce current diagnostic and neurobiological concepts of substance-related and non-substance-related addictive disorders, and highlight the similarities and dissimilarities between addiction and overeating. We conclude that "food addiction" is a misnomer because of the ambiguous connotation of a substance-related phenomenon. We instead propose the term "eating addiction" to underscore the behavioral addiction to eating; future research should attempt to define the diagnostic criteria for an eating addiction, for which DSM-5 now offers an umbrella via the introduction on Non-Substance-Related Disorders within the category Substance-Related and Addictive Disorders.

  13. The Addict in Us all

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Brendan; Holton, Richard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we contend that the psychology of addiction is similar to the psychology of ordinary, non-addictive temptation in important respects, and explore the ways in which these parallels can illuminate both addiction and ordinary action. The incentive salience account of addiction proposed by Robinson and Berridge (1–3) entails that addictive desires are not in their nature different from many of the desires had by non-addicts; what is different is rather the way that addictive desires are acquired, which in turn affects their strength. We examine these “incentive salience” desires, both in addicts and non-addicts, contrasting them with more cognitive desires. On this account, the self-control challenge faced by addicted agents is not different in kind from that faced by non-addicted agents – though the two may, of course, differ greatly in degree of difficulty. We explore a general model of self-control for both the addict and the non-addict, stressing that self-control may be employed at three different stages, and examining the ways in which it might be strengthened. This helps elucidate a general model of intentional action. PMID:25346699

  14. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  15. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, S.L.; Brodie, J.D.; Ashby, C.R. Jr.

    2000-05-02

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a primate suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a primate an effective amount of a pharmaceutical composition including gamma vinylGABA. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of nicotine addiction by treating a patient with an effective amount of a composition including gamma vinylGABA.

  16. Ethnicity and HIV risk behaviour, testing and knowledge in Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Tory M.; Hembling, John; Bertrand, Jane T.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To describe levels of risky sexual behaviour, HIV testing and HIV knowledge among men and women in Guatemala by ethnic group and to identify adjusted associations between ethnicity and these outcomes. Design. Data on 16,205 women aged 15–49 and 6822 men aged 15–59 from the 2008–2009 Encuesta Nacional de Salud Materno Infantil were used to describe ethnic group differences in sexual behaviour, HIV knowledge and testing. We then controlled for age, education, wealth and other socio-demographic factors in a multivariate logistic regression model to examine the effects of ethnicity on outcomes related to age at sexual debut, number of lifetime sex partners, comprehensive HIV knowledge, HIV testing and lifetime sex worker patronage (men only). Results. The data show low levels of risky sexual behaviour and low levels of HIV knowledge among indigenous women and men, compared to other respondents. Controlling for demographic factors, indigenous women were more likely than other women never to have been tested for HIV and to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge. They were less likely to report early sexual debut and three or more lifetime sexual partners. Indigenous men were more likely than other men to lack comprehensive HIV knowledge and demonstrated lower odds of early sexual debut, 10 or more lifetime sexual partners and sex worker patronage. Conclusions. The Mayan indigenous population in Guatemala, while broadly socially vulnerable, does not appear to be at elevated risk for HIV based on this analysis of selected risk factors. Nonetheless, low rates of HIV knowledge and testing may be cause for concern. Programmes working in indigenous communities should focus on HIV education and reducing barriers to testing. Further research into the factors that underlie ethnic self-identity and perceived ethnicity could help clarify the relative significance of these measures for HIV risk and other health outcomes. PMID:24834462

  17. Advanced Test Reactor probabilistic risk assessment methodology and results summary

    SciTech Connect

    Eide, S.A.; Atkinson, S.A.; Thatcher, T.A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) Level 1 report documents a comprehensive and state-of-the-art study to establish and reduce the risk associated with operation of the ATR, expressed as a mean frequency of fuel damage. The ATR Level 1 PRA effort is unique and outstanding because of its consistent and state-of-the-art treatment of all facets of the risk study, its comprehensive and cost-effective risk reduction effort while the risk baseline was being established, and its thorough and comprehensive documentation. The PRA includes many improvements to the state-of-the-art, including the following: establishment of a comprehensive generic data base for component failures, treatment of initiating event frequencies given significant plant improvements in recent years, performance of efficient identification and screening of fire and flood events using code-assisted vital area analysis, identification and treatment of significant seismic-fire-flood-wind interactions, and modeling of large loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) and experiment loop ruptures leading to direct damage of the ATR core. 18 refs.

  18. Model of risk assessment under ballistic statistical tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrovski, Ivan; Karakaneva, Juliana

    The material presents the application of a mathematical method for risk assessment under statistical determination of the ballistic limits of the protection equipment. The authors have implemented a mathematical model based on Pierson's criteria. The software accomplishment of the model allows to evaluate the V50 indicator and to assess the statistical hypothesis' reliability. The results supply the specialists with information about the interval valuations of the probability determined during the testing process.

  19. Addiction, the Addict, and Career: Considerations for the Employment Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Matthew D.

    2006-01-01

    Employment counselors have been resistant to working with persons in recovery from addiction except under the strictest of criteria. This article examines the relationship between this resistance and the concepts of addiction and addict. Following this is an examination of substance abuse recovery and practical suggestions on incorporating…

  20. [Neuropsychological characterization of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity in drug addicts: clinical implications].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José M; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Impulsivity is a stable correlate throughout the course of drug addiction. However, it has always been studied as a negative condition, linked to psychopathology. Dickman (1990) proposed two subdimensions of impulsivity, dysfunctional (DI) and functional (FI). He defines the latter as the tendency for rapid, goal-oriented decision-making characterized by well calculated risks. Only a few studies have attempted to differentiate between these two subdimensions using classical neuropsychological tests. Fifty two drug addicts in treatment were tested using Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory and a battery of classical neuropsychological tests. FI shows moderate to high correlations with many classical neuropsychological test scores in relation to enhanced executive functioning, whereas DI reveals surprisingly weak and scarce correlations with indicators of impaired executive functioning. DI appears to be a trait related to some difficulties in classical neuropsychological tests, while FI emerges as a consistent and much stronger predictor of higher attention capacity, lower distractibility, better precision, fewer errors, and better maintenance of goal-oriented strategies. Thus, functional impulsivity is related to positive conditions and more efficient cognitive functioning. Implications for the treatment of drug addictions are suggested.

  1. Addiction as a Systems Failure: Focus on Adolescence and Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Baler, Ruben D.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Scientific advances in the field of addiction have forever debunked the notion that addiction reflects a character flaw under voluntary control, demonstrating instead that it is a bona fide disease of the brain. The aim of this review is to go beyond this consensus understanding and explore the most current evidence regarding the vast number of genetic, developmental, and environmental factors whose complex interactions modulate addiction risk and trajectory. Method Focusing on childhood and adolescent smoking as a paradigm, we review the important risk factors for the development of addictions, starting at the level of genetics and closing with a focus on sociocultural and policy factors. Results A critical review of the pertinent literature provides a detailed view of the cumulative power of risk and protection factors across different phenomenological levels to modulate the risk of undesirable outcomes, particularly for young people. The result represents a compelling argument for the need to engage in comprehensive, multilevel approaches to promoting health. Conclusions Today, the field of medicine understands more about disease than about health; however it need not be that way. The view of drug addiction as a systems failure should help refocus our general approach to developing dynamic models and early comprehensive interventions that optimize the ways in which we prevent and treat a complex, developmental disorder such as drug addiction. PMID:21421173

  2. The Dreams of Heroin Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Maryanne

    1972-01-01

    Few heroin addicts get high'' in their dreams. An exploration of the reasons for this failure provides some clues to the conflicts and other problems that retard an addict's progress in therapy. (Author)

  3. Narcotic addiction following gastric bypass surgery--a case study.

    PubMed

    Wendling, Andrea; Wudyka, Andrea

    2011-05-01

    Addictive behavior following gastric bypass surgery is widely discussed in the lay press, but published reports provide conflicting evidence regarding the prevalence of postoperative substance abuse among bariatric surgery patients. We present a case report of a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patient who presented with recurrent and various pain and nausea complaints postoperatively. These symptoms resulted in multiple radiological and operative procedures before her narcotic addiction was identified. Physicians caring for bariatric surgical patients postoperatively need to be aware of this risk and need to be able to identify early signs of potential postoperative addictions. PMID:20473721

  4. Nicotine addiction through a neurogenomic prism

    PubMed Central

    Caron, Lorraine; Karkazis, Katrina; Raffin, Thomas A.; Swan, Gary; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    Studies are under way to examine the neurogenetic factors contributing to smoking behaviors. The combined approaches of genomics, molecular biology, neuroscience, and pharmacology are expected to fuel developments in pharmacogenetics, to create new genetic tests, and ultimately to provide the basis for innovative strategies for smoking cessation and prevention. The emergence of a neurogenomic understanding of nicotine addiction is likely to induce fundamental changes in popular, clinical, and public health views of smoking, which could significantly shape existing practices and policies to reduce tobacco use. Still a nascent area of research, nicotine addiction provides an excellent case study through which to anticipate key ethical and policy issues in both behavioral genetics and the neurogenomics of addictive behaviors. PMID:16036275

  5. Buprenorphine for opioid addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Walter; Mooney, Larissa; Torrington, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist of the µ-receptor, and is used as a daily dose sublingual tablet or filmstrip for managing opioid addiction. In the USA, the Drug Addiction Treatment Act of 2000 made buprenorphine the only opioid medication for opioid addiction that can be prescribed in an office-based setting. Owing to its high affinity for the µ-receptor, buprenorphine inhibits the reinforcing effect of exogenous opioids. The ceiling effect of buprenorphine's µ-agonist activity reduces the potential for drug overdose and confers low toxicity even at high doses. Buprenorphine pharmacotherapy has proven to be a treatment approach that supports recovery from addiction while reducing or curtailing the use of opioids. This article examines buprenorphine pharmacotherapy for opioid addiction, focusing on the situation in the USA, and is based on a review of pertinent literature, and the authors’ research and clinical experience. The references in this paper were chosen according to the authors’ judgment of quality and relevance, and with respect to their familiarity and involvement in related research. PMID:24654720

  6. Psychosocial correlates of Internet addiction among Jordanian university students.

    PubMed

    Alzayyat, Abdulkarim; Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Ahmad, Muayyad M

    2015-04-01

    Internet addiction is a significant international mental health problem among university students. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the correlation of Internet addiction with university students' characteristics in Jordan using a descriptive, correlational, cross-sectional design. The Internet Addiction Test, Beck Depression Inventory, and Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support were administered to a random sample of 587 undergraduate university students. The findings demonstrated that university year level, student age, depression, and family support were significant correlates of Internet addiction. The current study should raise awareness in nurses and other health care providers that Internet addiction is a potential mental health problem for this student population. The findings from the current study will help develop appropriate interventions for these students and inform future research.

  7. Self-Compassion and Internet Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iskender, Murat; Akin, Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the relationship of self-compassion and internet addiction. Participants were 261 university students who completed a questionnaire package that included the Self-compassion Scale and the Online Cognition Scale. The hypothesis model was tested through structural equation modeling. In correlation analysis,…

  8. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol, nicotine and drug addiction treatments.

    PubMed

    Sturgess, Jessica E; George, Tony P; Kennedy, James L; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    The numerous premature deaths, medical complications and socio-economic repercussions of drug and alcohol addiction suggest that improvements in treatment strategies for addictive disorders are warranted. The use of pharmacogenetics to predict response to medication, side effects and appropriate dosages is relatively new in the field of drug addiction. However, increasing our understanding of the genetic factors influencing these processes may improve the treatment of addiction in the future. We examined the available scientific literature on pharmacogenetic advancements in the field of drug addiction with a focus on alcohol and tobacco to provide a summary of genes implicated in the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for addiction. In addition, we reviewed pharmacogenetic research on cocaine and heroin dependence. Thus far, the most promising results were obtained for polymorphisms in the OPRM1 and CYP2A6 genes, which have been effective in predicting clinical response to naltrexone in alcoholism and nicotine replacement therapy in smoking, respectively. Opinions differ as to whether pharmacogenetic testing should be implemented in the clinic at this time because clinical utility and cost-effectiveness require further investigation. However, the data summarized in this review demonstrate that pharmacogenetic factors play a role in response to addiction pharmacotherapy and have the potential to aid in the personalization of addiction treatments. Such data may lead to improved cessation rates by allowing physicians to select medications for individuals based, at least in part, on genetic factors that predispose to treatment success or failure rather than on a trial and error basis. PMID:21362114

  9. Internet addiction phenomenon in early adolescents in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and demographic correlates of Internet addiction in Hong Kong adolescents as well as the change in related behavior at two time points over a one-year interval. Two waves of data were collected from a large sample of students (Wave 1: 3,328 students, age = 12.59 ± 0.74 years; Wave 2: 3,580 students, age = 13.50 ± 0.75 years) at 28 secondary schools in Hong Kong. Comparable to findings at Wave 1 (26.4%), 26.7% of the participants met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 2 as measured by Young's 10-item Internet Addiction Test. The behavioral pattern of Internet addiction was basically stable over time. While the predictive effects of demographic variables including age, gender, family economic status, and immigration status were not significant, Internet addictive behaviors at Wave 1 significantly predicted similar behaviors at Wave 2. Students who met the criterion of Internet addiction at Wave 1 were 7.55 times more likely than other students to be classified as Internet addicts at Wave 2. These results suggest that early detection and intervention for Internet addiction should be carried out.

  10. Internet Addiction: A Logotherapeutic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didelot, Mary J.; Hollingsworth, Lisa; Buckenmeyer, Janet A.

    2012-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is both the most rapidly growing addiction and the least understood addiction (Watson, 2005). For counselors, treatment issues surrounding the disease are also growing. At the forefront is the lack of understanding concerning treatment protocol to manage the challenging recovery and maintenance stages after IA behavior has…

  11. Attitudes of Former Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudouris, James

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of addicts (N=222) and their own appraisal of which treatment modality they found most successful based upon their own experiences are of primary importance in prescribing a treatment for the addict. For the long-term addict continually in and out of prisons, perhaps methadone maintenance is the solution. (Author)

  12. Addictive sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Myers, W A

    1994-01-01

    Case material is presented from two patients suffering from addictive sexual behavior. The term addiction is used because of the intense, driven quality of the behavior and because of its mood-elevating effects. Psychodynamically, the patients' sexual acts helped to undo feelings of rejection at the hands of their mothers and to enhance feelings of lovability and of self-esteem. The behavior also helped to neutralize powerful feelings of rage toward the mother. In one patient, the acts also helped to ease inner turmoil related to an underlying attention deficit disorder. I speculate that some adults with addictive sexual behavior may have underlying attention deficit disorders. In both my patients, the sexual behaviors served the self-regulatory function of alleviating inner feelings of anhedonia and depression. When they decreased their sexual activities during the course of the treatment, they required adjunctive antidepressant medication. The underlying meaning of the medication and countertransference attitudes toward such patients are explored.

  13. Types, Risk Factors, Clinical symptoms and Diagnostic Tests of Acute Adult Meningitis in Northern Iran During 2006-2012

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Babamahmoodi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    Background Acute bacterial meningitis is a medical emergency condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment and otherwise associated with serious morbidity and mortality. Aim The aim of this study was to assess types, risk factors, clinical symptoms and diagnostic tests of meningitis in hospitalized patients of Mazandaran University of medical sciences hospitals during 2006-2012. Matherials and Methods This is a retrospective descriptive study. Following approval of the ethics committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, records of adult patients diagnosed with acute meningitis from 2006 to 2012 were extracted from Mazandaran Provincial Health Center and patients attending hospitals affiliated to Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Statistical Analysis Data were analyzed with SPSS-16 using descriptive statistics (frequency, mean, standard deviation, and median). Results In this study, of the 137 patients with meningitis, 73 (53.9%) were viral, 61 (46%) bacterial, 1 (0.7%) fungal, and 2 (1.4%) unknown. The majority of risk factors in patients were head trauma, upper respiratory infection, and drug addiction. The most common clinical signs were headache, fever, nausea and vomiting, and stiff neck. Conclusion In this study, the incidence of meningitis was much lower than any other country. It could be due to geographic variation or incomplete recording of patient's data. It is recommended to perform a longitudinal study during the coming years on patients with meningitis. PMID:26155497

  14. Constructing and testing a framework for dynamic risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Thornton, David

    2002-04-01

    This paper describes the construction and testing of a framework for dynamic risk assessment. A review of previous studies identified 4 domains into which dynamic risk factors for sexual offending seem to fall. These were sexual interests, distorted attitudes, socioaffective functioning, and self-management. Psychometric indicators for 3 of the domains were identified, and 2 studies are reported using these indicators to test the framework. Study 1 divided men serving a prison sentence for a sexual offense against a child into 2 groups--those with a previous conviction of this kind (Repeaters) and those for whom this was the only time they had been sentenced for such an offense (Current Only). The Repeaters were found to show more distorted attitudes, worse socioaffective functioning, and poorer self-management than did the Current Only group. Study 2 used a simple algorithm to combine these psychometric indicators into an overall "Deviance" classification. Reconviction data was obtained for offenders classified as high, moderate, or low on Deviance. Sexual reconviction was found to be monotonically associated with the Deviance classification. Logistic regression analysis showed that both static variables (Static-99) and the Deviance classification made independent contributions to prediction. It is suggested that risk assessment procedures should combine these 2 approaches.

  15. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  16. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  17. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  18. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  19. 12 CFR 652.65 - Risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-based capital stress test. 652.65 Section... CORPORATION FUNDING AND FISCAL AFFAIRS Risk-Based Capital Requirements § 652.65 Risk-based capital stress test. You will perform the risk-based capital stress test as described in summary form below and...

  20. Recognizing internet addiction: prevalence and relationship to academic achievement in adolescents enrolled in urban and rural Greek high schools.

    PubMed

    Stavropoulos, Vasilis; Alexandraki, Kiriaki; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso

    2013-06-01

    This study aims: a) to estimate the prevalence of internet addiction among adolescents of urban and rural areas in Greece, b) to examine whether the Internet Addiction Test cut-off point is applicable to them and c) to investigate the phenomenon's association with academic achievement. Participants were 2090 adolescents (mean age 16, 1036 males, 1050 females). Young's (1998) Internet Addiction Test and her Diagnostic Questionnaire were applied. School records' grades were retrieved. A 3.1% prevalence revealed, while boys {F (1, 1642) = 6.207, p < .05}, urban residents {F (1, 1642) = 5.53, p > .05} and academic track high school students {F (1, 1642) = 5.30, p < .05} were at higher risk. An Internet Addiction Test score of 51 points (sample's mean = 27.69, SD = 17.38) was proposed as the optimal cut-off point combining high sensitivity (98%) and specificity (91%). Finally, findings illustrated the syndrome's relation to worse academic achievement {F (1, 1725) = 0.93, p > .05}.

  1. Psychostimulant addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Karran A.; Epstein, David H.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of psychostimulant addiction has been a major, and not fully met, challenge. For opioid addiction, there is strong evidence for the effectiveness of several medications. For psychostimulants, there is no corresponding form of agonist maintenance that has met criteria for regulatory approval or generally accepted use. Stimulant-use disorders remain prevalent and can result in both short-term and long-term adverse consequences. The mainstay of treatment remains behavioral interventions. In this paper, we discuss those interventions and some promising candidates in the search for pharmacological interventions. PMID:24727297

  2. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  3. Addiction and free will

    PubMed Central

    VOHS, KATHLEEN D.; BAUMEISTER, ROY F.

    2009-01-01

    Whether people believe that they have control over their behaviors is an issue that is centrally involved in definitions of addiction. Our research demonstrates that believing in free will – that is, believing that one has control over one's actions – has societal implications. Experimentally weakening free will beliefs led to cheating, stealing, aggression, and reduced helping. Bolstering free will beliefs did not change participants’ behavior relative to a baseline condition, suggesting that most of the time people possess a belief in free will. We encourage a view of addiction that allows people to sustain a belief in free will and to take responsibility for choices and actions. PMID:19812710

  4. Treadmill exercise testing of mass screening for coronary risk factors.

    PubMed

    Allen, W H; Aronow, W S; De Cristofaro, D

    1976-01-01

    The prevalence of an abnormal maximal treadmill stress test (MTST) was correlated with coronary risk factors in 1,077 asymptomatic adults (709 men and 368 women) in Long Beach, California. Of 1,077 adults, 113 (10.5%) had a positive MTST. A positive MTST was correlated with sex (p less than 0.001), age (p less than 0.001), a serum cholesterol less than or equal to 200 mg% (p less than 0.02), hypertriglyceridemia (p less than 0.05), cigarette smoking (p less than 0.025), and with the number of coronary risk factors (p less than 0.005) but not with hypertension, cigar or pipe smoking, obesity, or blood sugar.

  5. Serum Level of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor Type-1 in Addicted Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    PubMed Central

    Forood, Afsaneh; Malekpour-Afshar, Reza; Mahdavi, Amin

    2014-01-01

    Background Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a glycoprotein with inhibitory effects on the formation of plasmin from plasminogen by plasminogen activator. Thus, it prevents clot lysis in vessel walls. Several evidences prove the relationship between coronary artery disease and response to fibrinolytic therapy in patients with myocardial infarction (MI) with PAI-1 level. Opium addiction is one of the most important factors in causing MI and cardiovascular events. This is due to it causing imbalance between coagulation and anticoagulation factors in the blood. This study was designed and implemented to determine the levels of PAI-I in opium-addicted patients with coronary artery disease in comparison with non addicts. Methods In this case-control study, 160 patients with coronary heart disease (CHD), which was confirmed by angiography results, were enrolled. All of the patients had a medical history, their creatinine levels and lipid profile were evaluated, morphine urine test was performed, and after that a blood sample was taken to determine the levels of PAI-1. Thus, the 80 patients who had a positive morphine urine test result formed the case group, and the control group was constituted of the 80 patients with negative morphine test results. The two groups were matched. Findings Average level of PAI-1 in the control group was 2.4 ± 2.6 and in the case group was 8.8 ± 9.1 and it was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The frequency of two vessel disease was higher in opium addicted patients than non-addicted patients and this was statistically significant (P = 0.030). However, the frequency of single vessel and three vessel disease was the same in the two groups. The two groups had no differences in age, lipid profile, and creatinine level. Moreover, females are at a higher risk of high PAI-1 levels. Conclusion PAI-1 levels in opium addicted patients with CHD are higher than other patients. In these patients, the risk of atherosclerosis and MI is

  6. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students.A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction.Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction.Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27428191

  7. [Gambling and internet addiction: review and research agenda].

    PubMed

    Wölfling, K; Bühler, M; Leménager, T; Mörsen, C; Mann, K

    2009-09-01

    Behavioral addictions, especially pathological gambling and internet addiction, have become a growing concern in research and health policy. Similarities between behavioral addictions and substance dependency are currently being discussed in the scientific community. Unfortunately the number of scientific studies on pathological gambling and internet addiction is still very low. The estimated prevalence of pathological gambling among the German population is 0.2-0.5%. These numbers are comparable to prevalence rates reported for illegal drug dependency. About 1.5 million people, i.e. 3% of the German population, are believed to be at risk of internet addiction. Therefore, it is important to investigate in more detail the clinical and neuroscientific basis of pathological gambling and internet addiction. In this review we summarize the current status of research regarding pathological gambling and internet addiction and outline possible future research perspectives in the field of neuroimaging and genetics. The aim is to develop a multifactorial and explanatory model which helps to improve the quality of existing therapeutic approaches and prevention strategies. At present, parts of the research are funded by the federal states. The authors of this article, supported by scientific associations, have established a research platform called 'pathological gambling' in which research methods and strategies will be discussed which facilitate the implementation of different studies on pathological gambling.

  8. The Emergence of a Circuit Model for Addiction.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Addiction is a disease of altered behavior. Addicts use drugs compulsively and will continue to do so despite negative consequences. Even after prolonged periods of abstinence, addicts are at risk of relapse, particularly when cues evoke memories that are associated with drug use. Rodent models mimic many of the core components of addiction, from the initial drug reinforcement to cue-associated relapse and continued drug intake despite negative consequences. Rodent models have also enabled unprecedented mechanistic insight into addiction, revealing plasticity of glutamatergic synaptic transmission evoked by the strong activation of mesolimbic dopamine-a defining feature of all addictive drugs-as a neural substrate for these drug-adaptive behaviors. Cell type-specific optogenetic manipulations have allowed both identification of the relevant circuits and design of protocols to reverse drug-evoked plasticity and to establish links of causality with drug-adaptive behaviors. The emergence of a circuit model for addiction will open the door for novel therapies, such as deep brain stimulation. PMID:27145911

  9. Symposium overview--Food addiction: fact or fiction?

    PubMed

    Corwin, Rebecca L; Grigson, Patricia S

    2009-03-01

    Food addiction is a pervasive, yet controversial, topic that has gained recent attention in both lay media and the scientific literature. The goal of this series of articles is to use a combination of preclinical and clinical data to determine whether foods, like drugs of abuse, can be addictive, the conditions under which the addiction develops, and the underlying neurophysiological substrates. Operational definitions of addiction that have been used in the treatment of human disorders and to guide research in both humans and animals are presented, and an overview of the symposium articles is provided. We propose that specific foods, especially those that are rich in fat and/or sugar, are capable of promoting "addiction"-like behavior and neuronal change under certain conditions. That is, these foods, although highly palatable, are not addictive per se but become so following a restriction/binge pattern of consumption. Such consummatory patterns have been associated with increased risk for comorbid conditions such as obesity, early weight gain, depression, anxiety, and substance abuse as well as with relapse and treatment challenges. The topic of food addiction bears study, therefore, to develop fresh approaches to clinical intervention and to advance our understanding of basic mechanisms involved in loss of control.

  10. Smartphone gaming and frequent use pattern associated with smartphone addiction

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chun-Hao; Lin, Sheng-Hsuan; Pan, Yuan-Chien; Lin, Yu-Hsuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors of smartphone addiction in high school students. A total of 880 adolescents were recruited from a vocational high school in Taiwan in January 2014 to complete a set of questionnaires, including the 10-item Smartphone Addiction Inventory, Chen Internet Addiction Scale, and a survey of content and patterns of personal smartphone use. Of those recruited, 689 students (646 male) aged 14 to 21 and who owned a smartphone completed the questionnaire. Multiple linear regression models were used to determine the variables associated with smartphone addiction. Smartphone gaming and frequent smartphone use were associated with smartphone addiction. Furthermore, both the smartphone gaming-predominant and gaming with multiple-applications groups showed a similar association with smartphone addiction. Gender, duration of owning a smartphone, and substance use were not associated with smartphone addiction. Our findings suggest that smartphone use patterns should be part of specific measures to prevent and intervene in cases of excessive smartphone use. PMID:27428191

  11. Addictive Internet Use among Korean Adolescents: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Jongho; Oh, Juhwan; Subramanian, S. V.; Kim, Yoon; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Background A psychological disorder called ‘Internet addiction’ has newly emerged along with a dramatic increase of worldwide Internet use. However, few studies have used population-level samples nor taken into account contextual factors on Internet addiction. Methods and Findings We identified 57,857 middle and high school students (13–18 year olds) from a Korean nationally representative survey, which was surveyed in 2009. To identify associated factors with addictive Internet use, two-level multilevel regression models were fitted with individual-level responses (1st level) nested within schools (2nd level) to estimate associations of individual and school characteristics simultaneously. Gender differences of addictive Internet use were estimated with the regression model stratified by gender. Significant associations were found between addictive Internet use and school grade, parental education, alcohol use, tobacco use, and substance use. Female students in girls' schools were more likely to use Internet addictively than those in coeducational schools. Our results also revealed significant gender differences of addictive Internet use in its associated individual- and school-level factors. Conclusions Our results suggest that multilevel risk factors along with gender differences should be considered to protect adolescents from addictive Internet use. PMID:24505318

  12. Addiction and reward-related genes show altered expression in the postpartum nucleus accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Changjiu; Eisinger, Brian Earl; Driessen, Terri M.; Gammie, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    Motherhood involves a switch in natural rewards, whereby offspring become highly rewarding. Nucleus accumbens (NAC) is a key CNS region for natural rewards and addictions, but to date no study has evaluated on a large scale the events in NAC that underlie the maternal change in natural rewards. In this study we utilized microarray and bioinformatics approaches to evaluate postpartum NAC gene expression changes in mice. Modular Single-set Enrichment Test (MSET) indicated that postpartum (relative to virgin) NAC gene expression profile was significantly enriched for genes related to addiction and reward in five of five independently curated databases (e.g., Malacards, Phenopedia). Over 100 addiction/reward related genes were identified and these included: Per1, Per2, Arc, Homer2, Creb1, Grm3, Fosb, Gabrb3, Adra2a, Ntrk2, Cry1, Penk, Cartpt, Adcy1, Npy1r, Htr1a, Drd1a, Gria1, and Pdyn. ToppCluster analysis found maternal NAC expression profile to be significantly enriched for genes related to the drug action of nicotine, ketamine, and dronabinol. Pathway analysis indicated postpartum NAC as enriched for RNA processing, CNS development/differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis (WGCNA) identified possible networks for transcription factors, including Nr1d1, Per2, Fosb, Egr1, and Nr4a1. The postpartum state involves increased risk for mental health disorders and MSET analysis indicated postpartum NAC to be enriched for genes related to depression, bipolar disorder (BPD), and schizophrenia. Mental health related genes included: Fabp7, Grm3, Penk, and Nr1d1. We confirmed via quantitative PCR Nr1d1, Per2, Grm3, Penk, Drd1a, and Pdyn. This study indicates for the first time that postpartum NAC involves large scale gene expression alterations linked to addiction and reward. Because the postpartum state also involves decreased response to drugs, the findings could provide insights into how to mitigate addictions. PMID:25414651

  13. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment.

  14. Interoception and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Stewart, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an “embodied” experience of drug uses together with the individual’s predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. PMID:23855999

  15. Religion and addiction.

    PubMed

    Gostečnik, Christian; Cvetek, Mateja; Poljak, Saša; Repič, Tanja; Cvetek, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Religion with its rituals can become an object of addiction, especially when a child while growing up experiences neglect and abuse. It is also very common that such individuals transfer their feelings of anger, rage and sometimes even true hatred to God. Then God becomes the substitute for their displaced vengeance (upon those who abused them as children).

  16. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  17. Reducing the Risk of Human Missions to Mars Through Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-07-01

    The NASA Deputy Administrator charted an internal NASA planning group to develop the rationale for exploration beyond low-Earth orbit. This team, termed the Exploration Blueprint, performed architecture analyses to develop roadmaps for how to accomplish the first steps beyond Low-Earth Orbit through the human exploration of Mars. Following the results of the Exploration Blueprint study, the NASA Administrator asked for a recommendation on the next steps in human and robotic exploration. Much of the focus during this period was on integrating the results from the previous studies into more concrete implementation strategies in order to understand the relationship between NASA programs, timing, and resulting budgetary implications. This resulted in an integrated approach including lunar surface operations to retire risk of human Mars missions, maximum use of common and modular systems including what was termed the exploration transfer vehicle, Earth orbit and lunar surface demonstrations of long-life systems, collaboration of human and robotic missions to vastly increase mission return, and high-efficiency transportation systems (nuclear) for deep-space transportation and power. The data provided in this summary presentation was developed to begin to address one of the key elements of the emerging implementation strategy, namely how lunar missions help retire risk of human missions to Mars. During this process the scope of the activity broadened into the issue of how testing in general, in various venues including the moon, can help reduce the risk for Mars missions.

  18. Mars Flyer Rocket Propulsion Risk Assessment Kaiser Marquardt Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marquardt, Kaiser

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the investigation of a 10-N, bipropellant thruster, operating at -40 C, with monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and 25% nitric oxide in nitrogen tetroxide (MON-25). The thruster testing was conducted as part of a risk reduction activity for the Mars Flyer, a proposed mission to fly a miniature airplane in the Martian atmosphere. Testing was conducted using an existing thruster, designed for MMH and MON-3 propellants. The nitric oxide content of MON-3 was increased to 25%, to lower its freezing point to -55 C. The thruster was conditioned, along with the propellants, to temperature prior to hot firing. Thruster operating parameters included oxidizer-to-fuel mixture ratios of 1.6 to 2.7 and inlet pressure ranging from 689 to 2070 kPa. The test matrix consisted of many 10-second firings and several 60-, 300-, 600-, and 1200-second firings, as well as pulse testing. The thruster successfully accumulated nearly 10,000 seconds of operation without failure, at temperatures ranging from -40 C to 22 C. At nominal inlet pressures, the ignition delay was comparable to MMH/MON-3 operation. The optimal performance for the 8.9-N thruster was determined to be at a mixture ratio of 1.93 with an average specific impulse of 298 sec.

  19. Mars Flyer Rocket Propulsion Risk Assessment: ARC Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the investigation of a 10-N, bipropellant thruster, operating at -40 C, with monomethy1hydrazine (MMH) and 25% nitric oxide in nitrogen tetroxide (MON-25). The thruster testing was conducted as part of a risk reduction activity for the Mars Flyer, a proposed mission to fly a miniature airplane in the Martian atmosphere. Testing was conducted using an existing thruster, designed for MMH and MON-3 propellants. MON-25 oxidizer was successfully manufactured from MON-3 by the addition of nitric oxide. The thruster was operated successfully over a range of propellant temperatures (-40 to 21 C and feed pressures (6.9 to 20.7 kPa). The thruster hardware was always equal or lower than the propellant temperature. Most tests were 30- and 60-second durations, with 600- and 1200-second duration and pulse testing also conducted. When operating at -40 C, the mixture ratio of the thruster shifted from the nominal value of 1.65 to about 1.85, probably caused by an increase in MMH viscosity, with a corresponding reduction in MMH flowrate. Specific impulse at - 40 C (at nominal feed pressures) was 267 sec, while performance was 277 sec at 21 C. This difference in performance was due, in part, to the mixture ratio shift.

  20. Versatility and addiction in gaming: the number of video-game genres played is associated with pathological gaming in male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Donati, Maria Anna; Chiesi, Francesca; Ammannato, Giulio; Primi, Caterina

    2015-02-01

    This study tested the predictive power of gaming versatility (i.e., the number of video game genres engaged in) on game addiction in male adolescents, controlling for time spent on gaming. Participants were 701 male adolescents attending high school (Mage=15.6 years). Analyses showed that pathological gaming was predicted not only by higher time spent on gaming, but also by participation in a greater number of video game genres. Specifically, the wider the array of video game genres played, the higher were the negative consequences caused by gaming. Findings show that versatility can be considered as one of the behavioral risk factors related to gaming addiction, which may be characterized by a composite and diversified experience with video games. This study suggests that educational efforts designed to prevent gaming addiction among youth may also be focused on adolescents' engagement in different video games.

  1. [Adolescents and new technologies: Behaviours pointing a possible addiction problem].

    PubMed

    Labrador Encinas, Francisco Javier; Villadangos González, Silvia María

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate adolescents' subjective risk perception derived from the use of the New Technologies (NT), and to identify behaviours or warning symptoms of possible addiction problems. A sample of 1,710 underage students of Madrid responded to the DENA questionnaire. Firstly, we found a positive correlation between the time of NT use and the perception of addiction problems. Also, age was positively correlated to these perception problems. Secondly, the results indicated that television is the technology that generates a major perception problem in underage students. Lastly, the NTs have produced behaviours that are similar to those produced by other established addictions. Among them are notable the relaxation caused by their use or discomfort if they cannot be used. In addition, the frequent presence of other behaviours exclusive to these instruments has been identified, such as constantly checking one's mobile phone screen. It is necessary to continue studying possible addictive behaviours specific to the NT. PMID:20423619

  2. Determinants of choice, and vulnerability and recovery in addiction.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Maguire, David R; Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; France, Charles P

    2016-06-01

    Addiction may be viewed as choice governed by competing contingencies. One factor impacting choice, particularly as it relates to addiction, is sensitivity to delayed rewards. Discounting of delayed rewards influences addiction vulnerability because of competition between relatively immediate gains of drug use, e.g. intoxication, versus relatively remote gains of abstinence, e.g. family stability. Factors modifying delay sensitivity can be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, increased delay sensitivity can be similarly observed in adolescent humans and non-human animals. Similarly, genetic factors influence delay sensitivity in humans and animals. Recovery from addiction may also be viewed as choice behavior. Thus, reinforcing alternative behavior facilitates recovery because reinforcing alternative behavior decreases the frequency of using drugs. How reinforcing alternative behavior influences recovery can also be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, relapse risk decreases as abstinence duration increases, and this decreasing risk can be modeled in animals using choice procedures. In summary, addiction in many respects can be conceptualized as a problem of choice. Animal models of choice disorders stand to increase our understanding of the core processes that establish and maintain addiction and serve as a proving ground for development of novel treatments.

  3. Determinants of choice, and vulnerability and recovery in addiction.

    PubMed

    Lamb, R J; Maguire, David R; Ginsburg, Brett C; Pinkston, Jonathan W; France, Charles P

    2016-06-01

    Addiction may be viewed as choice governed by competing contingencies. One factor impacting choice, particularly as it relates to addiction, is sensitivity to delayed rewards. Discounting of delayed rewards influences addiction vulnerability because of competition between relatively immediate gains of drug use, e.g. intoxication, versus relatively remote gains of abstinence, e.g. family stability. Factors modifying delay sensitivity can be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, increased delay sensitivity can be similarly observed in adolescent humans and non-human animals. Similarly, genetic factors influence delay sensitivity in humans and animals. Recovery from addiction may also be viewed as choice behavior. Thus, reinforcing alternative behavior facilitates recovery because reinforcing alternative behavior decreases the frequency of using drugs. How reinforcing alternative behavior influences recovery can also be modeled in the laboratory. For instance, relapse risk decreases as abstinence duration increases, and this decreasing risk can be modeled in animals using choice procedures. In summary, addiction in many respects can be conceptualized as a problem of choice. Animal models of choice disorders stand to increase our understanding of the core processes that establish and maintain addiction and serve as a proving ground for development of novel treatments. PMID:27083500

  4. Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_159737.html Gene Test Might One Day Gauge Alzheimer's Risk in Younger Adults But doctors ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene test may one day be able to predict the risk for Alzheimer's ...

  5. Food addiction and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Meule, Adrian; von Rezori, Vittoria; Blechert, Jens

    2014-09-01

    In individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED), eating patterns can show addictive qualities, with similarities to substance use disorders on behavioural and neurobiological levels. Bulimia nervosa (BN) has received less attention in this regard, despite their regular binge eating symptoms. The Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) was developed according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, diagnostic criteria for substance use disorders, and food addiction can be diagnosed when at least three addiction symptoms are endorsed and a clinically significant impairment or distress is present. Although the prevalence of food addiction diagnoses is increased in individuals with obesity and BED, recent studies which used the YFAS showed that there are also individuals with normal weight who can be classified as being 'food addicted'. Based on self-reported eating disorder symptoms, women with current (n=26) or remitted (n=20) BN, and a control group of women matched for age and body mass index (n=63) completed the YFAS and other measures. Results revealed that all patients with current BN received a food addiction diagnosis according to the YFAS while only six (30%) women with remitted BN did. None of the women in the control group received a food addiction diagnosis. Results provide support for the notion that BN can be described as addiction-like eating behaviour and suggest that food addiction most likely improves when BN symptoms remit.

  6. A systems medicine research approach for studying alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    Spanagel, Rainer; Durstewitz, Daniel; Hansson, Anita; Heinz, Andreas; Kiefer, Falk; Köhr, Georg; Matthäus, Franziska; Nöthen, Markus M; Noori, Hamid R; Obermayer, Klaus; Rietschel, Marcella; Schloss, Patrick; Scholz, Henrike; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael; Sommer, Wolfgang; Vengeliene, Valentina; Walter, Henrik; Wurst, Wolfgang; Zimmermann, Uli S; Stringer, Sven; Smits, Yannick; Derks, Eske M

    2013-11-01

    According to the World Health Organization, about 2 billion people drink alcohol. Excessive alcohol consumption can result in alcohol addiction, which is one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric diseases afflicting our society today. Prevention and intervention of alcohol binging in adolescents and treatment of alcoholism are major unmet challenges affecting our health-care system and society alike. Our newly formed German SysMedAlcoholism consortium is using a new systems medicine approach and intends (1) to define individual neurobehavioral risk profiles in adolescents that are predictive of alcohol use disorders later in life and (2) to identify new pharmacological targets and molecules for the treatment of alcoholism. To achieve these goals, we will use omics-information from epigenomics, genetics transcriptomics, neurodynamics, global neurochemical connectomes and neuroimaging (IMAGEN; Schumann et al. ) to feed mathematical prediction modules provided by two Bernstein Centers for Computational Neurosciences (Berlin and Heidelberg/Mannheim), the results of which will subsequently be functionally validated in independent clinical samples and appropriate animal models. This approach will lead to new early intervention strategies and identify innovative molecules for relapse prevention that will be tested in experimental human studies. This research program will ultimately help in consolidating addiction research clusters in Germany that can effectively conduct large clinical trials, implement early intervention strategies and impact political and healthcare decision makers.

  7. Coexisting addiction and pain in people receiving methadone for addiction.

    PubMed

    St Marie, Barbara

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to examine the narratives of people who experience chronic pain (lasting 6 months or more) and were receiving methadone for the treatment of their opiate addiction through a major methadone clinic. This paper featured the pathway of how the participants developed chronic pain and addiction, and their beliefs of how prescription opioids would impact their addiction in the future. Thirty-four participants who experienced chronic pain and received methadone for treatment of opiate addiction were willing to tell the story of their experiences. The findings in three areas are presented: (a) whether participants experienced addiction first or pain first and how their exposures to addictive substances influenced their experiences, (b) the significance of recreational drug use and patterns of abuse behaviors leading to chronic pain, and (c) participants' experiences and beliefs about the potential for abuse of prescription opioid used for treatment of pain.

  8. mGlu receptors and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Cleva, Richard M; Olive, M Foster

    2012-05-01

    Historically, brain catecholamine systems have been the primary focus of studies examining the neural substrates of drug addiction. In the past two decades, however, a wealth of evidence has accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors as well as long-term neuroplasticity associated with chronic drug use. As a result, there has been increased interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are classified into subcategories designated as Group I (mGlu1 and mGlu5), Group II (mGlu2 and mGlu3), and Group III (mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7, and mGlu8), and have received a great deal of attention due to their mediation of slower modulatory excitatory neurotransmission. Pharmacological ligands targeting these receptors have demonstrated reduced incidences of excitotoxicity or severe adverse side effects as compared to those targeting ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors. Behavioral genetic and pharmacological studies have explored the role of individual mGlu receptor subtypes in regulating various addiction-related behaviours and several mGlu receptor ligands have been the subject of clinical testing for other medical conditions. PMID:22662312

  9. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  10. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  11. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  12. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  13. 12 CFR 652.100 - Audit of the risk-based capital stress test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Audit of the risk-based capital stress test... the risk-based capital stress test. You must have a qualified, independent external auditor review your implementation of the risk-based capital stress test every 3 years and submit a copy of...

  14. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: the Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Tim; Reist, Dan; Macdonald, Scott; Benoit, Cecilia; Jansson, Mikael

    2010-02-01

    The Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia (CARBC) was established as a multi-campus and multi-disciplinary research centre administered by the University of Victoria (UVic) in late 2003. Its core funding is provided from interest payments on an endowment of CAD 10.55 million dollars. It is supported by a commitment to seven faculty appointments in various departments at UVic. The Centre has two offices, an administration and research office in Victoria and a knowledge exchange unit in Vancouver. The two offices are collaborating on the implementation of CARBC's first 5-year plan which seeks to build capacity in British Columbia for integrated multi-disciplinary research and knowledge exchange in the areas substance use, addictions and harm reduction. Present challenges include losses to the endowment caused by the 2008/2009 economic crisis and difficulties negotiating faculty positions with the university administration. Despite these hurdles, to date each year has seen increased capacity for the Centre in terms of affiliated scientists, funding and staffing as well as output in terms of published reports, electronic resources and impacts on policy and practice. Areas of special research interest include: drug testing in the work-place, epidemiological monitoring, substance use and injury, pricing and taxation policies, privatization of liquor monopolies, polysubstance use, health determinants of indigenous peoples, street-involved youth and other vulnerable populations at risk of substance use problems. Further information about the Centre and its activities can be found on http://www.carbc.ca. PMID:20078479

  15. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2004-12-07

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating substance addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from substance addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. The present invention also provides a method of treatment of cocaine, morphine, heroin, nicotine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, or ethanol addiction by treating a mammal with an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof.

  16. Undetected Toxicity Risk in Pharmacogenetic Testing for Dihydropyrimidine Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Falvella, Felicia Stefania; Caporale, Marta; Cheli, Stefania; Martinetti, Antonia; Berenato, Rosa; Maggi, Claudia; Niger, Monica; Ricchini, Francesca; Bossi, Ilaria; Di Bartolomeo, Maria; Sottotetti, Elisa; Bernardi, Francesca Futura; de Braud, Filippo; Clementi, Emilio; Pietrantonio, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Fluoropyrimidines, the mainstay agents for the treatment of colorectal cancer, alone or as a part of combination therapies, cause severe adverse reactions in about 10%–30% of patients. Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD), a key enzyme in the catabolism of 5-fluorouracil, has been intensively investigated in relation to fluoropyrimidine toxicity, and several DPD gene (DPYD) polymorphisms are associated with decreased enzyme activity and increased risk of fluoropyrimidine-related toxicity. In patients carrying non-functional DPYD variants (c.1905+1G>A, c.1679T>G, c.2846A>T), fluoropyrimidines should be avoided or reduced according to the patients’ homozygous or heterozygous status, respectively. For other common DPYD variants (c.496A>G, c.1129-5923C>G, c.1896T>C), conflicting data are reported and their use in clinical practice still needs to be validated. The high frequency of DPYD polymorphism and the lack of large prospective trials may explain differences in studies’ results. The epigenetic regulation of DPD expression has been recently investigated to explain the variable activity of the enzyme. DPYD promoter methylation and its regulation by microRNAs may affect the toxicity risk of fluoropyrimidines. The studies we reviewed indicate that pharmacogenetic testing is promising to direct personalised dosing of fluoropyrimidines, although further investigations are needed to establish the role of DPD in severe toxicity in patients treated for colorectal cancer. PMID:25906475

  17. Disordered gambling: a behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Clark, Luke; Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H

    2013-08-01

    Developments in psychiatry have ratified the existence of behavioral addictions, that certain activities such as gambling or video-game play may be considered addictive in the absence of exogenous (i.e. drug-induced) stimulation of brain reinforcement circuitry. This article describes recent advances in understanding the neurobiological basis of behavioral addiction, with a focus on pathological gambling as the prototypical disorder. We describe positron emission tomography (PET) studies characterizing dopaminergic transmission, and functional imaging studies of reward processing and gambling-related cognitive distortions. The current evidence not only indicates changes in pathological gamblers in core circuitry implicated in drug addiction, but also highlights some subtle differences. Behavioral addictions can also provide experimental traction on distinguishing vulnerability markers for addictions from the active detrimental effects of chronic drug use.

  18. Signs of Heroin Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Signs of Heroin Use and Addiction Listen People who are trying ... Español English Español PDF Version Download "I needed heroin just to get by." Deon was addicted to ...

  19. [Therapy in heroin addiction].

    PubMed

    Hosztafi, Sáandor; Fürst, Zsuzsanna

    2014-09-01

    Heroin addiction is one of the most devastating and expensive of public health problems. The most effective treatment is opioid replacement therapy. Replacement of heroin, a short-acting euphoriant with methadone or other opioids that have significantly longer duration of action provides a number of therapeutic benefits. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Opioid-based detoxification is based on the principle of cross-tolerance, in which one opioid is replaced with another one that is slowly tapered. For the treatment of heroin addicts a wide range of psychosocial and pharmacotherapeutic treatments are available; of these, methadone maintenance therapy has the most evidence of benefit. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rate and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential to reduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. Buprenorphine which is a long-acting partial agonist was also approved as pharmacotherapy for opioid dependence. Opioid antagonists can reduce heroin self-administration and opioid craving in detoxified addicts. Naltrexone, which is a long-acting competitive antagonist at the opioid receptors, blocks the subjective and objective responses produced by intravenous opioids. Naltrexone is employed to accelerate opioid detoxification by displacing heroin and as a maintenance agent for detoxified formerly heroin-dependent patients who want to

  20. Treatment of internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xui-qin; Li, Meng-chen; Tao, Ran

    2010-10-01

    Internet addiction (IA) is a prevalent, highly comorbid, and significantly impairing disorder. Although many psychotherapeutic approaches and psychotropic medications have been recommended and some of the psychotherapeutic approaches and a few pharmacotherapy strategies have been studied, treatment of IA is generally in its early stages. This article reviews theoretical descriptions of psychotherapy and the effects of psychosocial treatment and pharmacologic treatment. We also outline our own treatment model of IA.

  1. Food addiction and neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; von Deneen, Karen M; Tian, Jie; Gold, Mark S; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Obesity has become a serious epidemic and one of the leading global health problems. However, much of the current debate has been fractious, and etiologies of obesity have been attributed to eating behavior (i.e. fast food consumption), personality, depression, addiction or genetics. One of the interesting new hypotheses for explaining the development of obesity involves a food addiction model, which suggests that food is not eaten as much for survival as pleasure and that hedonic overeating is relevant to both substance-related disorders and eating disorders. Accumulating evidence has shown that there are a number of shared neural and hormonal pathways as well as distinct differences in these pathways that may help researchers discover why certain individuals continue to overeat despite health and other consequences, and becomes more and more obese. Functional neuroimaging studies have further revealed that pleasant smelling, looking, and tasting food has reinforcing characteristics similar to drugs of abuse. Many of the brain changes reported for hedonic eating and obesity are also seen in various types of addictions. Most importantly, overeating and obesity may have an acquired drive similar to drug addiction with respect to motivation and incentive craving. In both cases, the desire and continued satisfaction occur after early and repeated exposure to stimuli. The acquired drive for eating food and relative weakness of the satiety signal would cause an imbalance between the drive and hunger/reward centers in the brain and their regulation. In the current paper, we first provide a summary of literature on food addition from eight different perspectives, and then we proposed a research paradigm that may allow screening of new pharmacological treatment on the basis of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI).

  2. The instrumental rationality of addiction.

    PubMed

    Pickard, Hanna

    2011-12-01

    The claim that non-addictive drug use is instrumental must be distinguished from the claim that its desired ends are evolutionarily adaptive or easy to comprehend. Use can be instrumental without being adaptive or comprehensible. This clarification, together with additional data, suggests that Müller & Schumann's (M&S's) instrumental framework may explain addictive, as well as non-addictive consumption. PMID:22074973

  3. What is sexual addiction?

    PubMed

    Levine, Stephen B

    2010-01-01

    Married men labeled as sexual addicts seek help after being discovered to have had broken monogamy rules for sexual behavior through their use of masturbation, pornography, cybersex, commercial sex involvement, paraphilic pursuits, or affairs. This study analyzed the sexual patterns and dynamics of 30 men who presented to 1 clinician between 2005 and 2009. Their important differences were captured by a 6-category spectrum: (a) no sexual excess beyond breaking the spouse's restrictive rules (n = 2), (b) discovery of husband's longstanding sexual secrets (n = 5), (c) new discovery of the joys of commercial sex (n = 4), (d) the bizarre or paraphilic (n = 7), (e) alternate concept of normal masculinity (n = 5), and (f) spiraling psychological deterioration (n = 7). Only the men with a spiraling psychological deterioration-about 25% of the sample with sexual issues-could reasonably be described as having a sexual addiction. This group experienced significant psychological failures before the onset of their deterioration. Another 25% were adequately defined as paraphilic. Half of the sample was not adequately described using addiction, compulsivity, impulsivity, and relationship incapacity models. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for DSM-5 and treatment. PMID:20432125

  4. [Are eating disorders addictions?].

    PubMed

    Kinzl, Johann F; Biebl, Wilfried

    2010-01-01

    The various eating disorders, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge-eating disorder, are characterized by severe disturbances in eating behavior and are seen as typical "psychosomatic disorders". The subdivision of anorexia nervosa into two subtypes, namely "anorexia nervosa restricting type" and "anorexia nervosa bulimic type" has proved to be very good. It is to be assumed that eating disorders are not a homogeneous group, and that the various subtypes of eating disorders are also heterogeneous at several levels. Co-morbid psychiatric disorders, especially affective disorders, anxiety disorders, substance-related disorders, and personality disorders, are often found in eating- disordered patients. Many anorectics of the restrictive type and orthorectics show co-morbid psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and avoidant or obsessive-compulsive personality disorders, while a co-morbidity of affective disorders, addiction, personality disorders, especially multi-impulsivity and borderline personality disorder, is frequently found in anorectics of bulimic type, bulimics, and binge eaters. Addictive behavior manifests itself in permanent preoccupation with food and eating, withdrawal symptoms, continuation of disturbed eating behavior in spite of negative consequences, loss of control, and frequent relapse. There are some indications that there is a basic psychological disturbance common to eating disorders, especially bulimia nervosa, and to substance-related disorders, namely a personality disorder with an emotional instability and multi-impulsivity. The possible associations between eating disorders and mental disorders, particularly addictions, will be discussed.

  5. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD.

  6. Are adolescents with internet addiction prone to aggressive behavior? The mediating effect of clinical comorbidities on the predictability of aggression in adolescents with internet addiction.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won; Kim, Dai Jin; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-05-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners-Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  7. Are Adolescents with Internet Addiction Prone to Aggressive Behavior? The Mediating Effect of Clinical Comorbidities on the Predictability of Aggression in Adolescents with Internet Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jae-A; Gwak, Ah Reum; Park, Su Mi; Kwon, Jun-Gun; Lee, Jun-Young; Jung, Hee Yeon; Sohn, Bo Kyung; Kim, Jae-Won

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Previous studies have reported associations between aggression and Internet addiction disorder (IAD), which has also been linked with anxiety, depression, and impulsiveness. However, the causal relationship between aggression and IAD has thus far not been clearly demonstrated. This study was designed to (a) examine the association between aggression and IAD and (b) investigate the mediating effects of anxiety, depression, and impulsivity in cases in which IAD predicts aggression or aggression predicts IAD. A total of 714 middle school students in Seoul, South Korea, were asked to provide demographic information and complete the Young's Internet Addiction Test (Y-IAT), the Buss–Perry Aggression Questionnaire, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale-11, the State–Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Conners–Wells Adolescent Self-Report Scale. Three groups were identified based on the Y-IAT: the usual user group (n=487, 68.2%), the high-risk group (n=191, 26.8%), and the Internet addiction group (n=13, 1.8%). The data revealed a linear association between aggression and IAD such that one variable could be predicted by the other. According to the path analysis, the clinical scales (BAI, BDI, and CASS) had partial or full mediating effects on the ability of aggression to predict IAD, but the clinical scales had no mediating effect on the ability of IAD to predict aggression. The current findings suggest that adolescents with IAD seem to have more aggressive dispositions than do normal adolescents. If more aggressive individuals are clinically prone to Internet addiction, early psychiatric intervention may contribute to the prevention of IAD. PMID:25902276

  8. Brain Reward Circuits in Morphine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juhwan; Ham, Suji; Hong, Heeok; Moon, Changjong; Im, Heh-In

    2016-01-01

    Morphine is the most potent analgesic for chronic pain, but its clinical use has been limited by the opiate’s innate tendency to produce tolerance, severe withdrawal symptoms and rewarding properties with a high risk of relapse. To understand the addictive properties of morphine, past studies have focused on relevant molecular and cellular changes in the brain, highlighting the functional roles of reward-related brain regions. Given the accumulated findings, a recent, emerging trend in morphine research is that of examining the dynamics of neuronal interactions in brain reward circuits under the influence of morphine action. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the roles of several reward circuits involved in morphine addiction based on pharmacological, molecular and physiological evidences. PMID:27506251

  9. Contributions of mobile technologies to addiction research

    PubMed Central

    Swendsen, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Mobile technologies are revolutionizing the field of mental health, and particular progress has been made in their application to addiction research and treatment. The use of smartphones and other mobile devices has been shown to be feasible with individuals addicted to any of a wide range of substances, with few biases being observed concerning the repeated monitoring of daily life experiences, craving, or substance use. From a methodological point of view, the use of mobile technologies overcomes longstanding limitations of traditional clinical research protocols, including the more accurate assessment of temporal relationships among variables, as well as the reduction in both contextual constraints and discipline-specific methodological isolation. The present article presents a conceptual review of these advances while using illustrations of research applications that are capable of overcoming specific methodological barriers. Finally, a brief review of both the benefits and risks of mobile technology use for the treatment of patients will be addressed. PMID:27489461

  10. Contributions of mobile technologies to addiction research.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Mobile technologies are revolutionizing the field of mental health, and particular progress has been made in their application to addiction research and treatment. The use of smartphones and other mobile devices has been shown to be feasible with individuals addicted to any of a wide range of substances, with few biases being observed concerning the repeated monitoring of daily life experiences, craving, or substance use. From a methodological point of view, the use of mobile technologies overcomes longstanding limitations of traditional clinical research protocols, including the more accurate assessment of temporal relationships among variables, as well as the reduction in both contextual constraints and discipline-specific methodological isolation. The present article presents a conceptual review of these advances while using illustrations of research applications that are capable of overcoming specific methodological barriers. Finally, a brief review of both the benefits and risks of mobile technology use for the treatment of patients will be addressed.

  11. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Nadia S

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early life stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors in addiction thus plays an important role in the understanding of processes of addiction and origins of differential vulnerabilities and treatment responses. PMID:18286803

  12. Linking Online Gaming and Addictive Behavior: Converging Evidence for a General Reward Deficiency in Frequent Online Gamers

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Tim; Notebaert, Karolien Hilde; Dresler, Thomas; Kowarsch, Linda; Reif, Andreas; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Millions of people regularly play so-called massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs). Recently, it has been argued that MMORPG overuse is becoming a significant health problem worldwide. Symptoms such as tolerance, withdrawal, and craving have been described. Based on behavioral, resting state, and task-related neuroimaging data, we test whether frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW) – similar to drug addicts and individuals with an increased risk for addictions – show a generally deficient reward system. In frequent players of the MMORPG “World of Warcraft” (WoW-players) and in a control group of non-gamers we assessed (1) trait sensitivity to reward (SR), (2) BOLD responses during monetary reward processing in the ventral striatum, and (3) ventral-striatal resting-state dynamics. We found a decreased neural activation in the ventral striatum during the anticipation of both small and large monetary rewards. Additionally, we show generally altered neurodynamics in this region independent of any specific task for WoW players (resting state). On the behavioral level, we found differences in trait SR, suggesting that the reward processing deficiencies found in this study are not a consequence of gaming, but predisposed to it. These findings empirically support a direct link between frequent online gaming and the broad field of behavioral and drug addiction research, thus opening new avenues for clinical interventions in addicted gamers and potentially improving the assessment of addiction-risk in the vast population of frequent gamers. PMID:25426039

  13. The role of interoception and alliesthesia in addiction.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Tapert, Susan F; Schulteis, Gery

    2009-11-01

    This review presents a novel conceptualization of addiction, integrating the concepts of interoception (i.e., the CNS representation of visceral feelings) and alliesthesia (i.e., that rewarding properties of stimuli are dependent on the internal state of the individual) with existing theories. It is argued that the body state, as defined by the integration of interoceptive information, is a crucial arbiter of the risk for initiation of and transition to compulsive use of addictive compounds. Overall, individuals at risk for drug dependence are characterized by an altered internal bodily state that leads to a change in hedonic and incentive motivational properties of addictive drugs. Specifically, drug dependent individuals experience alliesthesia of interoceptive processing, leading to increased incentive motivational properties of the drug over time and thereby increasing the probability of subsequent use. This extension of previous theories of addiction to include interoception and alliesthesia is based upon a clearly delineated set of neural substrates mediating interoception, key elements of which also recently have been implicated in drug addiction. The model thereby provides new potential targets for interventions that are aimed at changing the internal state that puts the individual at risk for continued substance use. PMID:19698739

  14. GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD addiction.

    PubMed

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Amsterdam, Jan G C; van den Brink, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence shows that gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is an addictive substance. Its precursors gammabutyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) show the same properties and may pose even more risks due to different pharmacokinetics. There are indications that problematic GHB use is increasing in the European Union. This review investigates the existing literature on the neurochemistry of GHB and its precursors, their acute toxicity, addiction potential and withdrawal, the proposed molecular mechanism underlying addiction and the treatment of withdrawal and addiction. Current evidence shows that GHB and its precursors are highly addictive, both in humans and animals, probably through a GABAB receptor related mechanism. Severity of withdrawal symptoms can be considered as a medical emergency. Recent studies suggest that benzodiazepines are not very effective, showing a high treatment resistance, whereas detoxification with pharmaceutical GHB proved to be successful. However, relapse in GHB use is frequent and more research is warranted on relapse prevention. This might aid medical practitioners in the field and improve general understanding of the severity of addiction to GHB, GBL and 1,4-BD.

  15. Possible association between human blood types and opioid addiction.

    PubMed

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Meymandi, Manzumeh Shamsi; Divsalar, Kouros; Mahmoudi, Minoo; Heravi, Gioia

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex disorder that has been shown to have a genetic component like several other diseases. Finding any factor that is associated with higher risk of addiction tendency may influence the strategies of prevention and treatment of drug abuse and also provide an avenue of further research in genetics, immunology, and other related fields. This case-control study aimed at finding the frequency rate of ABO blood groups and Rhesus (Rh) factor among opioid dependents. Therefore, 249 opioid dependents referred to the Drug Quit center at Bam, Iran (case group) were compared with 360 blood donors referred to the Blood Transfusion Center (control group) in regard to the frequency of blood groups and Rh factor. The two groups were matched for demographic features. The odds ratio for AB blood group in addicts was 3.98 compared to non-addicts (p < .001) and the odds ratio of negative Rh in addicts compared to non-addicts was 4.27 (p < .001). According to the findings, in this population the frequency of negative Rh and AB blood group were significantly less than the predictive values. The relationship between opioid use and blood group type requires a cohort study eliminating all extraneous factors in order to be proved.

  16. Treating Pain in Addicted Patients: Recommendations from an Expert Panel

    PubMed Central

    Cheatle, Martin; Wunsch, Martha; Skoufalos, Alexis; Reddy, Yeshwant

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Clinicians may face pragmatic, ethical, and legal issues when treating addicted patients. Equal pressures exist for clinicians to always address the health care needs of these patients in addition to their addiction. Although controversial, mainly because of the lack of evidence regarding their long-term efficacy, the use of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain management is widespread. Their use for pain management in the addicted population can present even more challenges, especially when evaluating the likelihood of drug-seeking behavior. As the misuse and abuse of opioids continues to burgeon, clinicians must be particularly vigilant when prescribing chronic opioid therapy. The purpose of this article is to summarize recommendations from a recent meeting of experts convened to recommend how primary care physicians should approach treatment of chronic pain for addicted patients when an addiction specialist is not available for a referral. As there is a significant gap in guidelines and recommendations in this specific area of care, this article serves to create a foundation for expanding chronic pain guidelines in the area of treating the addicted population. This summary is designed to be a practical how-to guide for primary care physicians, discussing risk assessment, patient stratification, and recommended therapeutic approaches. (Population Health Management 2014;17:79–89) PMID:24138341

  17. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention relates to the use of a composition that increases central nervous system GABA levels in a mammal, for the treatment of addiction to drugs of abuse and modification of behavior associated with addiction to drugs of abuse in said mammal.

  18. [Food addiction - substance use disorder or behavioral addiction?].

    PubMed

    Albayrak, Özgür; Kliewer, Josephine; Föcker, Manuel; Antel, Jochen; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2015-05-01

    This article looks at food addiction as a subject situated between psychiatry, neurobiology, nutritional science, internal medicine, food industry, and public health. Essentially, the question is whether or not individual nutritional components can induce physical dependence, similar to the well-known effects of drugs such as alcohol and cocaine, or whether food addiction is rather a behavioral addiction. The literature describes many overlaps as well as differences of substance-based and non-substance-based addiction in both clinical and neurobiological terms. Until recently it was argued that food addiction appears only in the realms of obesity and eating disorders (e.g., binge-eating disorder, BED). Some studies, however, described the prevalence of food addiction symptoms and diagnoses independent of overweight or that they were in subjects who do not fulfill the criteria for BED. This article sums up the controversial discussion about the phenomenological and neurobiological classification of food addiction. Implications of food addiction for children and adolescents as well as public-health-related issues are also discussed.

  19. Personalized Medicine Through SNP Testing for Breast Cancer Risk: Clinical Implementation.

    PubMed

    Howe, Rebecca; Miron-Shatz, Talya; Hanoch, Yaniv; Omer, Zehra B; O'Donoghue, Cristina; Ozanne, Elissa M

    2015-10-01

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have the potential to improve personalized medicine in breast cancer care. As new SNPs are discovered, further enhancing risk classification, SNP testing may serve to complement family history and phenotypic risk factors when assessed in a clinical setting. SNP analysis is particularly relevant to high-risk women who may seek out such information to guide their decision-making around risk-reduction. However, little is known about how high-risk women may respond to SNP testing with regard to clinical decision-making. We examined high-risk women's interest in SNP testing for breast cancer risk through an online survey of hypothetical testing scenarios. Women stated their preferences for sharing test results and selected the most likely follow-up action they would pursue in each of the test result scenarios (above average and below average risk for breast cancer). Four hundred seventy-eight women participated. Most women (89 %) did not know what a SNP was prior to the study. Once SNP testing was described, 75 % were interested in SNP testing. Participants stated an interest in lifestyle interventions for risk-reduction and wanted to discuss their testing results with their doctor or a genetic counselor. Women are interested in SNP testing and are prepared to make lifestyle changes based on testing results. Women's preference for discussing testing results with a healthcare provider aligns with the current trend towards SNP testing in a clinical setting.

  20. Reflections on Addiction in Students Using Stimulants for Neuroenhancement: A Preliminary Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    Lieb, Klaus; Franke, Andreas G.

    2015-01-01

    The use of stimulants for the purpose of pharmacological neuroenhancement (NE) among students is a subject of increasing public awareness. The risk of addiction development by stimulant use for NE is still unanswered. Therefore, face-to-face interviews were carried out among 18 university students experienced in the nonmedical use of methylphenidate and amphetamines for NE assessing aspects of addiction. Interviews were tape-recorded, verbatim-transcribed, and analyzed using a qualitative approach. The interviews showed that participants—the majority had current or lifetime diagnoses of misuse or addiction to alcohol or cannabis—reported an awareness of the risk of addiction development associated with stimulant use and reported various effects which may increase their likelihood of future stimulant use, for example, euphoric effects, increase of self-confidence, and motivation. They also cited measures to counteract the development of addiction as well as measures taken to normalize again after stimulant use. Students were convinced of having control over their stimulant use and of not becoming addicted to stimulants used for NE. We can conclude that behavior and beliefs of the students in our sample appear to be risky in terms of addiction development. However, long-term empirical research is needed to estimate the true risk of addiction. PMID:26064931

  1. Reducing the Risk of Human Missions to Mars Through Testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-07-01

    order to put into context an updated Integrated Space Transportation Plan (post- Columbia) and guide Agency planning. NASA was on the verge of committing significant funding in programs that would be better served if longer term goals were better known including the Orbital Space Plane, research on the ISS, National Aerospace Initiative, Shuttle Life Extension Program, Project Prometheus, as well as a wide range of technology development throughout the Agency. Much of the focus during this period was on integrating the results from the previous studies into more concrete implementation strategies in order to understand the relationship between NASA programs, timing, and resulting budgetary implications. This resulted in an integrated approach including lunar surface operations to retire risk of human Mars missions, maximum use of common and modular systems including what was termed the exploration transfer vehicle, Earth orbit and lunar surface demonstrations of long-life systems, collaboration of human and robotic missions to vastly increase mission return, and high-efficiency transportation systems (nuclear) for deep-space transportation and power. The data provided in this summary viewgraph presentation was developed to begin to address one of the key elements of the emerging implementation strategy, namely how lunar missions help retire risk of human missions to Mars. During this process the scope of the activity broadened into the issue of how testing in general, in various venues including the Moon, can help reduce the risk for Mars missions.

  2. Reducing the Risk of Human Missions to Mars Through Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2007-01-01

    order to put into context an updated Integrated Space Transportation Plan (post- Columbia) and guide Agency planning. NASA was on the verge of committing significant funding in programs that would be better served if longer term goals were better known including the Orbital Space Plane, research on the ISS, National Aerospace Initiative, Shuttle Life Extension Program, Project Prometheus, as well as a wide range of technology development throughout the Agency. Much of the focus during this period was on integrating the results from the previous studies into more concrete implementation strategies in order to understand the relationship between NASA programs, timing, and resulting budgetary implications. This resulted in an integrated approach including lunar surface operations to retire risk of human Mars missions, maximum use of common and modular systems including what was termed the exploration transfer vehicle, Earth orbit and lunar surface demonstrations of long-life systems, collaboration of human and robotic missions to vastly increase mission return, and high-efficiency transportation systems (nuclear) for deep-space transportation and power. The data provided in this summary viewgraph presentation was developed to begin to address one of the key elements of the emerging implementation strategy, namely how lunar missions help retire risk of human missions to Mars. During this process the scope of the activity broadened into the issue of how testing in general, in various venues including the Moon, can help reduce the risk for Mars missions.

  3. Harry Potter: Agency or Addiction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Alice

    2010-01-01

    This article considers limitations on agency for characters in the Harry Potter novels, in particular, how far they are driven by an addictive yearning for their beloved dead. As well as Harry's yearning for his dead parents, Dumbledore's guilt, Snape's longing and Slughorn's craving can be read as evidence of addiction rather than love, while the…

  4. [Exercise addiction: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Kurimay, Tamás

    2008-01-01

    Exercise in appropriate quantity and of proper quality contributes significantly to the preserve our health. On the contrary, excessive exercise may be harmful to health. The term 'exercise addiction' has been gaining increasing recognition to describe the latter phenomenon. The exact definition of exercise addiction and its potential associations with other disorders is still under study, although according to the authors this phenomenon can be primarily described as a behavioral addiction. Accordingly, exercise addiction, among other behavioral and mental disorders, can be well describe within the obsessive-compulsive spectrum suggested by Hollander (1993). There are several tools used to assess exercise addiction. The authors here present the Hungarian version of the Exercise Dependence Scale (Hausenblas és Downs, 2002) and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (Terry, Szabo és Griffiths, 2004). Exercise addiction has many symptoms in common and also shows a high comorbidity with eating disorders and body image disorders. It may be more closely associated with certain sports but more data is needed to demonstrate this specificity with more certainty. Sel-evaluation problems seem to have a central role in the etiology from a psychological aspect. The relevance of neurohormonal mechanisms is less clear. The authors emphasize the importance of further research on exercise addiction. One important question to be answered is if this disorder is an independent entity to be classified as a distinct clinical disorder or is it rather a subgroup of another disorder.

  5. Game Addiction and Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Dincel, Sezen

    2016-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between game addiction and academic achievement. The secondary aim was to adapt a self-report instrument to measure game addiction. Three hundred and seventy high school students participated in this study. Data were collected via an online questionnaire that included a brief…

  6. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders. PMID:21287493

  7. [Cognitive remediation in addictions treatment].

    PubMed

    Pedrero-Perez, E J; Rojo-Mota, G; Ruiz-Sanchez de Leon, J M; Llanero-Luque, M; Puerta-Garcia, C

    2011-02-01

    More recent theories of addiction suggest that neurocognitive mechanisms, such as attentional processing, cognitive control, and reward processing play a key role in the development or maintenance of addiction. Ultimately, the addiction (with or without substances) is based on the alteration of brain decision-making processes. The neurosciences, particularly those responsible for behavior modification, must take into account the neurobiological processes underlying the observable behavior. Treatments of addiction usually do not take into account these findings, which may be at the base of the low retention rates and high dropout rates of addicted patients. Considered as an alteration of brain functioning, addiction could be addressed successfully through cognitive rehabilitation treatments used in other clinical pathologies such as brain damage or schizophrenia. Although there are few studies, it is suggest that intervention to improve patients' cognitive functioning can improve the efficiency of well-established cognitive-behavioral therapies, such as relapse prevention. This paper reviews the available evidence on cognitive rehabilitation in treating addiction as well as in other pathologies, in order to formulate interventions that may be included in comprehensive rehabilitation programs for people with addictive disorders.

  8. Internet addiction in young people.

    PubMed

    Ong, Say How; Tan, Yi Ren

    2014-07-01

    In our technology-savvy population, mental health professionals are seeing an increasing trend of excessive Internet use or Internet addiction. Researchers in China, Taiwan and Korea have done extensive research in the field of Internet addiction. Screening instruments are available to identify the presence of Internet addiction and its extent. Internet addiction is frequently associated with mental illnesses such as anxiety, depression, conduct disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment modalities include individual and group therapies, cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), family therapy and psychotropic medications. A significant proportion of Singapore adolescents engaging in excessive Internet use are also diagnosed to have concomitant Internet addiction. Despite the presence of a variety of treatment options, future research in this area is needed to address its growing trend and to minimise its negative psychological and social impact on the individuals and their families.

  9. Personality dimensions of opiate addicts.

    PubMed

    Vukov, M; Baba-Milkic, N; Lecic, D; Mijalkovic, S; Marinkovic, J

    1995-02-01

    A survey of 80 opiate addicts included in a detoxification program was conducted at the Institute on Addictions in Belgrade. In addition to a dependence diagnosis and mental disorders based on DSM-III-R, we applied a Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) that measures the 3 major personality dimensions: novelty-seeking (NS), harm avoidance (HA) and reward dependence (RD). When compared with a control group (a sample of Yugoslav undergraduate students), the opiate addicts demonstrate significantly high NS dimension as well as significant divergences of HA and RD subscales. The surveyed opiate addicts demonstrate a high percentage of personality disorders specifically in cluster B. The personality dimensions of opiate addicts showed certain temperament traits, such as: impulsiveness, shyness with strangers, fear of uncertainty and dependence. NS, HA and RD determined by temperament specifics may be an etiological factor in forming of a personality disorder, an affective disorder as well as of a drug choice.

  10. Animal Studies of Addictive Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Serge H.

    2013-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  11. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  12. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder.

  13. [Pharmacopsychoses during drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Cottereau, M J; Lôo, H; Poirier, M F; Deniker, P

    1975-01-01

    Widespread use of certain drugs (amphetamines, L.S.D., hypnotics) in France, allowed us to observe more than 200 cases of acute or chronic psychoses among addicts. Sometimes these are transitory outburst but the occurrence of a delusional psychosis with long range evolution raises a difficult diagnosis problem in relation to functional psychoses. The emphasis should be put on respective roles of the drug and of a predisposed mental state. Circumstances of beginning, apparently direct relationship between drug taking and pathological symptoms, therapy efficiency, absence of earlier pathological traits (as in many of our patients) and relapse when intoxication starts again, are in favour of a pharmacological origin of the troubles.

  14. Personality Traits and Their Relationship to Demographic Features in Addicts Referring to a Drug Rehabilitation Center in the City of Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    ALAGHEMANDAN, Hamed; GHAFFARI DARAB, Mohsen; KHORASANI, Elahe; NAMAZI, Ehsan; MANIYAN, Mohammad Hossein; BARATI, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Addiction is one of the most serious social damages and due to its progressive nature in all aspects, adversely affects people’s physical and psychological health. Hence, this paper investigates the characteristics of drug addicts in a drug rehabilitation center in the city of Isfahan. Methods: In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2012, the population consisted of all addicts that referred to Shefa Drug Rehabilitation Center. A sample of 201 individuals was selected randomly. Two questionnaires were drawn up to collect data; the first questionnaire examined demographic characteristics and the second was the 71-item Minnesota Multiphase Personality Inventory short form. Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis test were used in SPSS20 to analyze the data. Results: Overall, 98% of participants were men, 65.7% were married, and 13.3% were unemployed. Depression and hypomania were respectively the most and the least prevalent disorders among individuals with high-risk psychological profiles of clinical scales respectively. Psychopathic deviation and schizophrenia were seen among the unemployed more than the employed ones. Conclusion: Considering the fact that depression was the most common personality disorder among the addicts participating, it is recommended that this disorder be given priority in investigations in the treatment programs of these patients. In addition, the scales of disorder, schizophrenia, mental infirmity, mental deviation, and paranoia had a significant relationship to aggression, delirium and hallucination, which must be taken into consideration in the treatment of such patients. PMID:26056674

  15. Psychobiology of cocaine addiction: Contribution of a multi-symptomatic animal model of loss of control.

    PubMed

    Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    Transition to addiction is the shift from controlled to uncontrolled drug use that occurs after prolonged drug intake in a limited number of drug users. A major challenge of addiction research in recent years has been to develop models for studying this pathological transition. Toward this goal, a DSM-IV/5-based multi-symptomatic model of cocaine addiction has been developed in the rat. It is based on an operational translation of the main features of the disease. 1. Addiction is not just taking drug; it is a non-adaptive drug use: The procedure models addiction in relation to its clinical definition. 2. All drug users do not face the same individual risk of developing addiction: The model includes an individual-based approach. 3. Addiction develops after protracted periods of controlled drug use: This procedure allows for the study of the long-term shift from controlled drug use to addiction. We describe this model in detail and show how it can contribute to our understanding of the pathophysiology of cocaine addiction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  16. Drug addiction as drive satisfaction ("antidrive") dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Kostowski, Wojciech

    2002-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex brain disorder, characterized by the loss of control over drug seeking and drug taking behavior, and by the risk of relapse, even after a prolonged period of abstinence. This disorder may have its source in a disturbed balance of drive-related behaviors, which control appetitive reactions aimed at seeking contact with an addictive substance. The act of consumption becomes more and more attractive, and the behavior takes on compulsive character. We suppose that drug addiction may involve a change in the mechanism of satisfaction of drives and states of satiation as well. To understand how the motivational processes are changed with the development of dependence, one must consider the mechanism of drive satisfaction and satiation states that occur in relation to the consumatory reflex. When a given drive is satisfied a state of fulfillment occurs. This state may be a result of a so-called "antidrive" mechanism (Konorski 1967). While a drive activity is characterized by general activation and tension, the drive satisfaction state ("antidrive") is characterized by relaxation and relief. When a particular drive is satisfied, the operation of other drives become possible. Therefore, we postulate that dysfunction of drive satisfaction leads to the sustained activation related to the current drug-related drive, which blocks the operation of other drives. In effect, uncontrolled compulsive appetitive behavior is released, and the operation of other drives is restrained, thus forcing the organism to focus on drug-related drive. The reason for an "antidrive" dysfunction may be related to adaptive changes which develop during a contact with an addictive substance.

  17. Prevalence and co-occurrence of addictive behaviors among former alternative high school youth

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Arpawong, Thalida Em; Sun, Ping; Tsai, Jennifer; Rohrbach, Louise A.; Spruijt-Metz, Donna

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims: Recent work has studied multiple addictions using a matrix measure, which taps multiple addictions through single responses for each type. Methods: The present study investigated use of a matrix measure approach among former alternative high school youth (average age = 19.8 years) at risk for addictions. Lifetime and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of 11 addictions reviewed in other work (Sussman, Lisha & Griffiths, 2011) was the primary focus (i.e., cigarettes, alcohol, other/hard drugs, eating, gambling, Internet, shopping, love, sex, exercise, and work). Also, the co-occurrence of two or more of these 11 addictive behaviors was investigated. Finally, the latent class structure of these addictions, and their associations with other measures, was examined. Results: We found that ever and last 30-day prevalence of one or more of these addictions was 79.2% and 61.5%, respectively. Ever and last 30-day co-occurrence of two or more of these addictions was 61.5% and 37.7%, respectively. Latent Class Analysis suggested two groups: a generally Non-addicted Group (67.2% of the sample) and a “Work Hard, Play Hard”-addicted Group that was particularly invested in addiction to love, sex, exercise, the Internet, and work. Supplementary analyses suggested that the single-response type self-reports may be measuring the addictions they intend to measure. Discussion and Conclusions: We suggest implications of these results for future studies and the development of prevention and treatment programs, though much more validation research is needed on the use of this type of measure. PMID:24701344

  18. Is Internet Addiction Prevalent Among Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients? Data from Las Vegas and Tel Aviv.

    PubMed

    Peles, Einat; Linzy, Shirley; Sason, Anat; Tene, Oren; Adelson, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Internet addiction is known to be associated with depression. The Internet Addiction Test (IAT) and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) for depression were studied among non-selective methadone maintenance treatment patients from the United States (n = 164) and Israel (n = 113). Thirty percent were not exposed to the internet, and 2.9% (n = 8) had an "occasional/frequent problem." The IAT and CES-D scores correlated significantly (p = .03). The non-exposed group was older, less educated, and had more benzodiazepine abusers. Unlike other behavioral addictions that characterized these patients, the internet addiction problem is rare, but should not be ignored.

  19. The Development of Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Jap, Tjibeng; Tiatri, Sri; Jaya, Edo Sebastian; Suteja, Mekar Sari

    2013-01-01

    Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative interviews and field observation to ensure appropriate expression of the items. The measure consists of 7 items with a 5-point Likert Scale. It is validated by testing 1,477 Indonesian junior and senior high school students from several schools in Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Yogyakarta. The validation evidence is shown by item-total correlation and criterion validity. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has good item-total correlation (ranging from 0.29 to 0.55) and acceptable reliability (α = 0.73). It is also moderately correlated with the participant's longest time record to play online games (r = 0.39; p<0.01), average days per week in playing online games (ρ = 0.43; p<0.01), average hours per days in playing online games (ρ = 0.41; p<0.01), and monthly expenditure for online games (ρ = 0.30; p<0.01). Furthermore, we created a clinical cut-off estimate by combining criteria and population norm. The clinical cut-off estimate showed that the score of 14 to 21 may indicate mild online game addiction, and the score of 22 and above may indicate online game addiction. Overall, the result shows that Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has sufficient psychometric property for research use, as well as limited clinical application. PMID:23560113

  20. The development of indonesian online game addiction questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Jap, Tjibeng; Tiatri, Sri; Jaya, Edo Sebastian; Suteja, Mekar Sari

    2013-01-01

    Online game is an increasingly popular source of entertainment for all ages, with relatively prevalent negative consequences. Addiction is a problem that has received much attention. This research aims to develop a measure of online game addiction for Indonesian children and adolescents. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire draws from earlier theories and research on the internet and game addiction. Its construction is further enriched by including findings from qualitative interviews and field observation to ensure appropriate expression of the items. The measure consists of 7 items with a 5-point Likert Scale. It is validated by testing 1,477 Indonesian junior and senior high school students from several schools in Manado, Medan, Pontianak, and Yogyakarta. The validation evidence is shown by item-total correlation and criterion validity. The Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has good item-total correlation (ranging from 0.29 to 0.55) and acceptable reliability (α = 0.73). It is also moderately correlated with the participant's longest time record to play online games (r = 0.39; p<0.01), average days per week in playing online games (ρ = 0.43; p<0.01), average hours per days in playing online games (ρ = 0.41; p<0.01), and monthly expenditure for online games (ρ = 0.30; p<0.01). Furthermore, we created a clinical cut-off estimate by combining criteria and population norm. The clinical cut-off estimate showed that the score of 14 to 21 may indicate mild online game addiction, and the score of 22 and above may indicate online game addiction. Overall, the result shows that Indonesian Online Game Addiction Questionnaire has sufficient psychometric property for research use, as well as limited clinical application.

  1. Childhood Food Addiction and the Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlisle, Kristy L.; Buser, Juleen K.; Carlisle, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    Food addiction among children is a concerning issue. Few empirical studies have examined the relevance of food addiction among pediatric samples, but emerging evidence suggests that some children experience their eating patterns as addictive. The present review will discuss the issue of food addiction among children, and will also attend to the…

  2. The business of addiction treatment: A research agenda.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, John R; McLellan, A Thomas

    2006-10-01

    The social and economic costs of addiction are substantial and of great concern to society. Research in the past decade has led to promising therapies that appear to be highly effective but not widely diffused. This leads one to wonder if there is something about the structure, dynamics, or structure and dynamics of the addiction treatment industry that is getting in the way. However, there has been very little research in the areas of organization, finance, or management practices within the substance abuse treatment field-the kinds of issues that reduce the potential impact of addiction treatment industrywide. With this as background, this article introduces the Center for Organization and Management in Addiction Treatment (COMAT) and a special section on research in the "business of addiction treatment." Many other industries have experienced significant problems that are similar, in many respects, to those seen in substance abuse treatment, but research in leadership, innovation, investment, organization, and consolidation strategies has helped to overcome those problems. COMAT is dedicated to implementing and testing evidence-based methods from other industries to improve the outcomes performance and, ultimately, the clinical effectiveness of service providers in the addiction treatment field.

  3. Addiction as excessive appetite.

    PubMed

    Orford, J

    2001-01-01

    The excessive appetite model of addiction is summarized. The paper begins by considering the forms of excessive appetite which a comprehensive model should account for: principally, excessive drinking, smoking, gambling, eating, sex and a diverse range of drugs including at least heroin, cocaine and cannabis. The model rests, therefore, upon a broader concept of what constitutes addiction than the traditional, more restricted, and arguably misleading definition. The core elements of the model include: very skewed consumption distribution curves; restraint, control or deterrence; positive incentive learning mechanisms which highlight varied forms of rapid emotional change as rewards, and wide cue conditioning; complex memory schemata; secondary, acquired emotional regulation cycles, of which 'chasing', 'the abstinence violation effect' and neuroadaptation are examples; and the consequences of conflict. These primary and secondary processes, occurring within diverse sociocultural contexts, are sufficient to account for the development of a strong attachment to an appetitive activity, such that self-control is diminished, and behaviour may appear to be disease-like. Giving up excess is a natural consequence of conflict arising from strong and troublesome appetite. There is much supportive evidence that change occurs outside expert treatment, and that when it occurs within treatment the change processes are more basic and universal than those espoused by fashionable expert theories. PMID:11177517

  4. The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mike Z; He, Jing; Ko, Deborah M; Pang, Kaichung

    2014-02-01

    A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet. PMID:24003966

  5. The influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction: a study of Chinese college students.

    PubMed

    Yao, Mike Z; He, Jing; Ko, Deborah M; Pang, Kaichung

    2014-02-01

    A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet.

  6. The Influence of Personality, Parental Behaviors, and Self-Esteem on Internet Addiction: A Study of Chinese College Students

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Mike Z.; Ko, Deborah M.; Pang, Kaichung

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A survey of 2,095 college students in five major cities in China was conducted to examine the influence of personality, parental behaviors, and self-esteem on Internet addiction. We found that psychoticism and neuroticism were both positively related to Internet addiction. The influence of parental behaviors on Internet addition was also significant. However, fathers' and mothers' behaviors had different impacts on their children's likelihood of being addicted to the Internet. Specifically, we found that fathers' rejection and overprotection, and mothers' rejection would increase the risk for Internet addiction. Furthermore, the influence of emotional warmth from parents on Internet addiction was partially mediated by self-esteem. Finally, we found that parental behaviors of mothers and fathers affected males and females differently in terms the risk of being addicted to the Internet. PMID:24003966

  7. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?☆

    PubMed Central

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  8. Functional features, biological pathways, and protein interaction networks of addiction-related genes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Zhongming

    2010-05-01

    Addictions are chronic and common brain disorders affected by many genetic, environmental, and behavioral factors. Recent genome-wide linkage and association studies have revealed several promising genomic regions and multiple genes relating to addictions. To explore the underlying biological processes in the development of addictions, we used 62 genes recently reviewed by Li and Burmeister (2009) as representative addiction-related genes, and then we investigated their features in gene function, pathways, and protein interaction networks. We performed enrichment tests of their Gene Ontology (GO) annotations and of their pathways in the Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) system. The tests revealed that these addiction-related genes were highly enriched in neurodevelopment-related processes. Interestingly, we found circadian rhythm signaling in one of the enriched pathways. Moreover, these addiction-related genes tended to have higher connectivity and shorter characteristic shortest-path distances compared to control genes in the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network. This investigation is the first of such kind in addiction studies, and it is useful for further addiction candidate-gene prioritization and verification, thus helping us to better understand molecular mechanisms of addictions.

  9. Effectively addressing addiction requires changing the language of addiction.

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Foster, Susan E

    2014-02-01

    Public knowledge and attitudes about addiction are largely inconsistent with scientific evidence. The gap between the facts and public and professional perceptions is due in part to the language used to describe the disease and those who have it. A key step in modifying public attitudes and improving how health professionals and policymakers address addiction is to better align the language of addiction with the scientific evidence. Unless we clarify the language, those with the disease will continue to experience the stigma associated with it and attempts to deliver comprehensive and effective evidence-based prevention, treatment, and disease management will be profoundly compromised. PMID:24226552

  10. Treatment of addiction to ethanol and addictive-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a highly efficient method for treating alcohol addiction and for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from alcohol addiction. The method includes administering to a mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof. In one embodiment, the method of the present invention includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of a composition which increase central nervous system GABA levels wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of alcohol.

  11. The Effect of Home-based Daily Journal Writing in Korean Adolescents with Smartphone Addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk; Seo, Min Jae; Choi, Tae Young

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of smartphones, many adverse effects have emerged. However, to date, there was no particular approach to treat or prevent smartphone addiction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a home-based daily journal of smartphone use (HDJ-S) in Korean adolescents. Three hundred thirty five middle school students participated in this study. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured using the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. The ability to control smartphone use was evaluated with the Motive Scale for Smartphone Regulation. We used the Parents' Concerns for Children's Smartphone Activities Scale to measure parental monitoring and supervision of adolescents' smartphone activities. The Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale classified subjects into high risk and non-high risk for smartphone addiction, according to total scores. Forty six participants (14%) were high risk for smartphone addiction. The high risk group performed the HDJ-S for two weeks, and the same scales were subsequently assessed. After performing the HDJ-S, the total scores of the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale decreased significantly in the high risk group (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the total scores of the Parents' Concerns for Children's Smartphone Activities Scale in the high risk group between baseline and following two weeks of treatment (P < 0.05). The HDJ-S was effective for adolescents with smartphone addiction and increased the parents' concerns for their children's smartphone activities. We suggested that HDJ-S would be considered as a treatment and prevention for smartphone addiction.

  12. The Effect of Home-based Daily Journal Writing in Korean Adolescents with Smartphone Addiction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyuk; Seo, Min Jae; Choi, Tae Young

    2016-05-01

    Despite the benefits of smartphones, many adverse effects have emerged. However, to date, there was no particular approach to treat or prevent smartphone addiction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a home-based daily journal of smartphone use (HDJ-S) in Korean adolescents. Three hundred thirty five middle school students participated in this study. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured using the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. The ability to control smartphone use was evaluated with the Motive Scale for Smartphone Regulation. We used the Parents' Concerns for Children's Smartphone Activities Scale to measure parental monitoring and supervision of adolescents' smartphone activities. The Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale classified subjects into high risk and non-high risk for smartphone addiction, according to total scores. Forty six participants (14%) were high risk for smartphone addiction. The high risk group performed the HDJ-S for two weeks, and the same scales were subsequently assessed. After performing the HDJ-S, the total scores of the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale decreased significantly in the high risk group (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the total scores of the Parents' Concerns for Children's Smartphone Activities Scale in the high risk group between baseline and following two weeks of treatment (P < 0.05). The HDJ-S was effective for adolescents with smartphone addiction and increased the parents' concerns for their children's smartphone activities. We suggested that HDJ-S would be considered as a treatment and prevention for smartphone addiction. PMID:27134499

  13. The Effect of Home-based Daily Journal Writing in Korean Adolescents with Smartphone Addiction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Despite the benefits of smartphones, many adverse effects have emerged. However, to date, there was no particular approach to treat or prevent smartphone addiction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic effectiveness of a home-based daily journal of smartphone use (HDJ-S) in Korean adolescents. Three hundred thirty five middle school students participated in this study. The severity of smartphone addiction was measured using the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale. The ability to control smartphone use was evaluated with the Motive Scale for Smartphone Regulation. We used the Parents’ Concerns for Children’s Smartphone Activities Scale to measure parental monitoring and supervision of adolescents’ smartphone activities. The Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale classified subjects into high risk and non-high risk for smartphone addiction, according to total scores. Forty six participants (14%) were high risk for smartphone addiction. The high risk group performed the HDJ-S for two weeks, and the same scales were subsequently assessed. After performing the HDJ-S, the total scores of the Korean Smartphone Addiction Proneness Scale decreased significantly in the high risk group (P < 0.001). There was a significant increase in the total scores of the Parents’ Concerns for Children’s Smartphone Activities Scale in the high risk group between baseline and following two weeks of treatment (P < 0.05). The HDJ-S was effective for adolescents with smartphone addiction and increased the parents’ concerns for their children’s smartphone activities. We suggested that HDJ-S would be considered as a treatment and prevention for smartphone addiction. PMID:27134499

  14. Socio-demographic characteristics of the addicted inmates of Qom and Tabriz prisons in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sattari, Mohammadreza; Islambulchilar, Mina; Toluyi, Mohsen; Mashayekhi, Siminozar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this investigation was to study the factors responsible for drug addiction amongst the inmates of Tabriz and Qom prisons, to further understand the reasons for drug abuse particularly in the young and find improved methods for combating these widespread problems. Methods: A multi-choice questionnaire was provided to inmates to potentially assess the reasons for their drug addiction psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors were thought to be implicated. Two hundred drug addicted prisoners were individually interviewed randomly in both Tabriz and Qom prisons. A questionnaire including questions about the inmates’ demographic characteristics and 49 multiple answers questions, was provided to identify the effects of different reasons for drug addiction for instance: psychiatric, personal, social, economical, and political factors. The collected data were analyzed by Student t-test and chi-squared test using SPSS software. Results: The results showed that the following factors could lead to drug addiction e.g. company with addicted friends and offenders, curiosity, imitation, illiteracy, family problems, crowded family, poverty, unemployment, and lack of self confidence. There were significant differences between Tabriz and Qom prisoners in relation to age, starting age of addiction, job, income, education, class of addiction, marital status, and hobbies. Mean age, mean starting age of addiction, poverty, alcohol drinking before addiction, marital status, heroin addiction, codeine and benzodiazepines abuse were significantly greater for Tabriz prisoners than those of Qom. Conclusion: It is clear that the governmental programs for reducing unemployment, creation of safe hobbies, proper control on drug dispensing in the pharmacies, proper birth control programs, and encouragement to higher education could alleviate addiction problem in Iran. PMID:24312772

  15. The Sensor Test for Orion RelNav Risk Mitigation (STORRM) Development Test Objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christian, John A.; Hinkel, Heather; D'Souza, Christopher N.; Maguire, Sean; Patangan, Mogi

    2011-01-01

    The Sensor Test for Orion Relative-Navigation Risk Mitigation (STORRM) Development Test Objective (DTO) flew aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour on STS-134 in May- June 2011, and was designed to characterize the performance of the flash LIDAR and docking camera being developed for the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle. The flash LIDAR, called the Vision Navigation Sensor (VNS), will be the primary navigation instrument used by the Orion vehicle during rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking. The DC will be used by the Orion crew for piloting cues during docking. This paper provides an overview of the STORRM test objectives and the concept of operations. It continues with a description of STORRM's major hardware components, which include the VNS, docking camera, and supporting avionics. Next, an overview of crew and analyst training activities will describe how the STORRM team prepared for flight. Then an overview of in-flight data collection and analysis is presented. Key findings and results from this project are summarized. Finally, the paper concludes with lessons learned from the STORRM DTO.

  16. Corticosteroid receptor genes and childhood neglect influence susceptibility to crack/cocaine addiction and response to detoxification treatment.

    PubMed

    Rovaris, Diego L; Mota, Nina R; Bertuzzi, Guilherme P; Aroche, Angelita P; Callegari-Jacques, Sidia M; Guimarães, Luciano S P; Pezzi, Júlio C; Viola, Thiago W; Bau, Claiton H D; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze hypotheses-driven gene-environment and gene-gene interactions in smoked (crack) cocaine addiction by evaluating childhood neglect and polymorphisms in mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptor genes (NR3C2 and NR3C1, respectively). One hundred thirty-nine crack/cocaine-addicted women who completed 3 weeks of follow-up during early abstinence composed our sample. Childhood adversities were assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment (CSSA) scale. Conditional logistic regression with counterfactuals and generalized estimating equation modeling were used to test gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. We found an interaction between the rs5522-Val allele and childhood physical neglect, which altered the risk of crack/cocaine addiction (Odds ratio = 4.0, P = 0.001). Moreover, a NR3C2-NR3C1 interaction (P = 0.002) was found modulating the severity of crack/cocaine withdrawal symptoms. In the post hoc analysis, concomitant carriers of the NR3C2 rs5522-Val and NR3C1 rs6198-G alleles showed lower overall severity scores when compared to other genotype groups (P-values ≤ 0.035). This gene-environment interaction is consistent with epidemiological and human experimental findings demonstrating a strong relationship between early life stress and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation in cocaine addiction. Additionally, this study extended in crack/cocaine addiction the findings previously reported for tobacco smoking involving an interaction between NR3C2 and NR3C1 genes.

  17. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Stress Test A Appendix A to... Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 652— Risk-Based Capital Stress Test 2.0 Credit Risk. 2.1 Loss-Frequency and... Volume. 2.5 Calculation of Loss Rates for Use in the Stress Test for All Types of Loans, Except...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Stress Test A Appendix A to... Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 652— Risk-Based Capital Stress Test 2.0Credit Risk. 2.1Loss-Frequency and... Volume. 2.5Calculation of Loss Rates for Use in the Stress Test for All Types of Loans, Except...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix A to Subpart B of... - Risk-Based Capital Stress Test

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Risk-Based Capital Stress Test A Appendix A to... Appendix A to Subpart B of Part 652— Risk-Based Capital Stress Test 2.0Credit Risk. 2.1Loss-Frequency and... Volume. 2.5Calculation of Loss Rates for Use in the Stress Test for All Types of Loans, Except...

  20. Prostate-specific antigen testing in inner London general practices: are those at higher risk most likely to get tested?

    PubMed Central

    Nderitu, Paul; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Ashworth, Mark; Mathur, Rohini; Hull, Sally; Dudek, Alexandra; Chowdhury, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between factors influencing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing prevalence including prostate cancer risk factors (age, ethnicity, obesity) and non-risk factors (social deprivation and comorbidity). Setting A cross-sectional database of 136 inner London general practices from 1 August 2009 to 31 July 2014. Participants Men aged ≥40 years without prostate cancer were included (n=150 481). Primary outcome Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the association between PSA testing and age, ethnicity, social deprivation, body mass index (BMI) and comorbidity while adjusting for age, benign prostatic hypertrophy, prostatitis and tamsulosin or finasteride use. Results PSA testing prevalence was 8.2% (2013–2014), and the mean age was 54 years (SD 11). PSA testing was positively associated with age (OR 70–74 years compared to 40–44 years: 7.34 (95% CI 6.82 to 7.90)), ethnicity (black) (OR compared to white: 1.78 (95% CI 1.71 to 1.85)), increasing BMI and cardiovascular comorbidity. Testing was negatively associated with Chinese ethnicity and with increasing social deprivation. Conclusions PSA testing among black patients was higher compared to that among white patients, which differs from lower testing rates seen in previous studies. PSA testing was positively associated with prostate cancer risk factors and non-risk factors. Association with non-risk factors may increase the risk of unnecessary invasive diagnostic procedures. PMID:27406644

  1. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach.

  2. Core and peripheral criteria of video game addiction in the game addiction scale for adolescents.

    PubMed

    Brunborg, Geir Scott; Hanss, Daniel; Mentzoni, Rune Aune; Pallesen, Ståle

    2015-05-01

    Assessment of video game addiction often involves measurement of peripheral criteria that indicate high engagement with games, and core criteria that indicate problematic use of games. A survey of the Norwegian population aged 16-74 years (N=10,081, response rate 43.6%) was carried out in 2013, which included the Gaming Addiction Scale for Adolescents (GAS). Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a two-factor structure, which separated peripheral criteria from core criteria, fitted the data better (CFI=0.963; RMSEA=0.058) compared to the original one-factor solution where all items are determined to load only on one factor (CFI=0.905, RMSEA=0.089). This was also found when we analyzed men aged ≤33 years, men aged >33 years, women aged ≤33 years, and women aged >33 years separately. This indicates that the GAS measures both engagement and problems related to video games. Multi-group measurement invariance testing showed that the factor structure was valid in all four groups (configural invariance) for the two-factor structure but not for the one-factor structure. A novel approach to categorization of problem gamers and addicted gamers where only the core criteria items are used (the CORE 4 approach) was compared to the approach where all items are included (the GAS 7 approach). The current results suggest that the CORE 4 approach might be more appropriate for classification of problem gamers and addicted gamers compared to the GAS 7 approach. PMID:25826043

  3. Non-smoking youths' "perceived" addiction to tobacco is associated with their susceptibility to future smoking.

    PubMed

    Okoli, Chizimuzo T C; Richardson, Chris G; Ratner, Pamela A; Johnson, Joy L

    2009-12-01

    Smoking initiation places adolescents at risk for adult onset diseases, including heart disease, respiratory illness, and cancer. Adolescents that smoke have levels of 'perceived' tobacco addiction that are associated with several measures of nicotine dependence. Nonsmoking adolescents also report feeling addicted to tobacco even with minimal or no prior tobacco use, suggesting some vulnerability to tobacco use. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between perceived tobacco addiction and smoking susceptibility among adolescents with very minimal tobacco use. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted of data obtained from 5155 nonsmokers who completed the British Columbia Youth Survey of Smoking and Health II, a school-based survey conducted during 2004. Measures included demographics, tobacco use (ever puffed a cigarette), substance use (marijuana and alcohol), exposure to family members' smoking in the home, peers' tobacco use, depressive symptoms, perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco, and smoking susceptibility. The adolescents who were most susceptible to smoking were female, younger and in a lower school grade; had ever puffed a cigarette, had used alcohol or marijuana; had family members or peers who smoked; had higher depression scores, and higher perceived physical and mental addiction to tobacco. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, perceived mental addiction but not perceived physical addiction to tobacco was significantly associated with smoking susceptibility. Understanding factors associated with smoking initiation, and ways to identify "at- risk" adolescents can enhance early intervention and prevention programs. Perceived mental addiction to tobacco appears to be an important indicator of smoking susceptibility. PMID:19643546

  4. Benefits of peer support groups in the treatment of addiction

    PubMed Central

    Tracy, Kathlene; Wallace, Samantha P

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peer support can be defined as the process of giving and receiving nonprofessional, nonclinical assistance from individuals with similar conditions or circumstances to achieve long-term recovery from psychiatric, alcohol, and/or other drug-related problems. Recently, there has been a dramatic rise in the adoption of alternative forms of peer support services to assist recovery from substance use disorders; however, often peer support has not been separated out as a formalized intervention component and rigorously empirically tested, making it difficult to determine its effects. This article reports the results of a literature review that was undertaken to assess the effects of peer support groups, one aspect of peer support services, in the treatment of addiction. Methods The authors of this article searched electronic databases of relevant peer-reviewed research literature including PubMed and MedLINE. Results Ten studies met our minimum inclusion criteria, including randomized controlled trials or pre-/post-data studies, adult participants, inclusion of group format, substance use-related, and US-conducted studies published in 1999 or later. Studies demonstrated associated benefits in the following areas: 1) substance use, 2) treatment engagement, 3) human immunodeficiency virus/hepatitis C virus risk behaviors, and 4) secondary substance-related behaviors such as craving and self-efficacy. Limitations were noted on the relative lack of rigorously tested empirical studies within the literature and inability to disentangle the effects of the group treatment that is often included as a component of other services. Conclusion Peer support groups included in addiction treatment shows much promise; however, the limited data relevant to this topic diminish the ability to draw definitive conclusions. More rigorous research is needed in this area to further expand on this important line of research. PMID:27729825

  5. HIV Testing for At-Risk Adolescents at Rhode Island Hospital.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Hyeon-Ju; Nazareth, Kristina; Chan, Philip A; Reinert, Steven E; Koster, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of HIV has great potential to reduce transmission, especially when newly diagnosed individuals are treated early. Early treatment and suppression of viral loads is known to effectively attenuate HIV transmission. However, little is known about whether persons at high risk for HIV are being appropriately tested during healthcare encounters according to national guidelines. Specifically, the at-risk adolescent population may be under tested and are not routinely monitored by state-level surveillance system. This study reviewed HIV testing rates for at-risk adolescents from 2005-2012 at the main tertiary care and pediatric center in Rhode Island. While the absolute number of HIV tests for at-risk adolescents continued to increase, the HIV testing rates for this population decreased during the seven year period. Increasing awareness of HIV testing for patients, their families, and physicians may improve the HIV testing rate among at-risk adolescents in Rhode Island. PMID:26230109

  6. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  7. Genetic signatures of heroin addiction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Liao, Ding-Lieh; Shen, Tsu-Wang; Yang, Hsin-Chou; Chen, Kuang-Chi; Chen, Chia-Hsiang

    2016-08-01

    Heroin addiction is a complex psychiatric disorder with a chronic course and a high relapse rate, which results from the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Heroin addiction has a substantial heritability in its etiology; hence, identification of individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction may help prevent the occurrence and relapse of heroin addiction and its complications. The study aimed to identify a small set of genetic signatures that may reliably predict the individuals with a high genetic propensity to heroin addiction. We first measured the transcript level of 13 genes (RASA1, PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CD74, CEBPB, AUTS2, ENO2, IMPDH2, HAT1, MBD1, and RGS3) in lymphoblastoid cell lines in a sample of 124 male heroin addicts and 124 male control subjects using real-time quantitative PCR. Seven genes (PRKCB, PDK1, JUN, CEBPG, CEBPB, ENO2, and HAT1) showed significant differential expression between the 2 groups. Further analysis using 3 statistical methods including logistic regression analysis, support vector machine learning analysis, and a computer software BIASLESS revealed that a set of 4 genes (JUN, CEBPB, PRKCB, ENO2, or CEBPG) could predict the diagnosis of heroin addiction with the accuracy rate around 85% in our dataset. Our findings support the idea that it is possible to identify genetic signatures of heroin addiction using a small set of expressed genes. However, the study can only be considered as a proof-of-concept study. As the establishment of lymphoblastoid cell line is a laborious and lengthy process, it would be more practical in clinical settings to identify genetic signatures for heroin addiction directly from peripheral blood cells in the future study. PMID:27495086

  8. “We as Drug Addicts Need that Program”: Insight from Rural African American Cocaine Users on Designing a Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Their Community

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Wright, Patricia B.; McSweeney, Jean; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study examines data collected in 2007 from four gender- and age-specific focus groups (FGs) (N = 31) to inform the development of a sexual risk reduction intervention for African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas. A semi-structured protocol was used to guide audio-recorded FGs. Data were entered into Ethnograph and analyzed using constant comparison and content analysis. Four codes with accompanying factors emerged from the data and revealed recommendations for sexual risk reduction interventions with similar populations. Intervention design implications and challenges, study limitations, and future research are discussed. The study was supported by funds from the National Institute of Nursing Research (P20 NR009006-01) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA024575-01 and F31 DA026286-01). PMID:22216991

  9. "We as drug addicts need that program": Insight from rural African American cocaine users on designing a sexual risk reduction intervention for their community.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Brooke E E; Stewart, Katharine E; Wright, Patricia B; McSweeney, Jean; Booth, Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study examines data collected in 2007 from four gender- and age-specific focus groups (FGs) (N = 31) to inform the development of a sexual risk reduction intervention for African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas. A semi-structured protocol was used to guide audio-recorded FGs. Data were entered into Ethnograph and analyzed using constant comparison and content analysis. Four codes with accompanying factors emerged from the data and revealed recommendations for sexual risk reduction interventions with similar populations. Intervention design implications and challenges, study limitations, and future research are discussed. The study was supported by funds from the National Institute of Nursing Research (P20 NR009006-01) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA024575-01 and F31 DA026286-01).

  10. Opiate Addicted and Non-Addicted Siblings in a Slum Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Compares addicted and non-addicted siblings of families residing in and around a slum block in New York. Data supporting an ideographic relative deprivation-differential anticipation" explanation for current opiate addiction in the U. S. was produced. (JM)

  11. Improving Test-Taking Performance of Secondary At-Risk Youth and Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, Tachelle; Eaton, India

    2014-01-01

    Preparing at-risk youth and students with mild disabilities for state and district tests is important for improving their test performance, and basic instruction in test preparation can significantly improve student test performance. The article defines noncognitive variables that adversely affect test-taker performance. The article also describes…

  12. Prevalence of Internet addiction and its association with social support and other related factors among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao-Shuang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Zhao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Jing; Li, Yi-Feng; Bi, Linda; Qian, Zhen-Zhong; Lu, Shan-Shan; Feng, Fang; Hu, Cai-Yun; Gong, Feng-Feng; Sun, Ye-Huan

    2016-10-01

    A cross-sectional study design was applied amongst a random sample (n = 10158) of Chinese adolescents. Self-completed questionnaires, including demographic characteristics, Internet use situation, Youth Internet Addiction Test, Youth Social Support Rating Scale and Zung Self-rating Depression Scale were utilized to examine the study objectives. Among the study population, the prevalence rate of Internet addiction was 10.4%, with 1038 (10.2%) moderately and 21 (0.2%) severely addicted to the Internet. Results from the multivariate logistic regression analyses suggested that a variety of related factors have significant effects on Internet addiction (parental control, per capita annual household income, academic performance, the access to Internet, online activities). The correlation coefficients showed that Internet addiction was negatively correlated with social support and positively associated with depression. Social support had a significant negative predictive effect on Internet addiction. The mediating effect of depression between social support and Internet addiction was remarkable. PMID:27544491

  13. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue.

  14. Considering the Definition of Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Sussman, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    The definition of addiction is explored. Elements of addiction derived from a literature search that uncovered 52 studies include: (a) engagement in the behavior to achieve appetitive effects, (b) preoccupation with the behavior, (c) temporary satiation, (d) loss of control, and (e) suffering negative consequences. Differences from compulsions are suggested. While there is some debate on what is intended by the elements of addictive behavior, we conclude that these five constituents provide a reasonable understanding of what is intended by the concept. Conceptual challenges for future research are mentioned. PMID:22073026

  15. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases.

    PubMed

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N D; Prabhat, K C

    2013-09-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  16. Addiction between therapy and criminalization.

    PubMed

    Birklbauer, Alois; Schmidthuber, Kathrin

    2014-12-01

    The present paper delves into the question of whether and to what extent it is appropriate to leave addiction problems between the conflicting priorities of therapy and criminalization. After outlining the issue the criminal addictive behaviour including crimes associated with drug misuse and with obtaining drugs is described. Subsequently it is discussed if and how you could make allowances for addiction-related legal insanity in the criminal law sector. Following a few remarks on the principle of "voluntary therapy instead of penal sanction" as a way to alleviate the strict law on narcotic drugs misuse a summary and an outlook with criminal-political demands complete the issue. PMID:25377376

  17. A TEST OF WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION SYSTEMS FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    To facilitate extrapolation among watersheds, ecological risk assessments should be based on a model of underlying factors influencing watershed response, particularly vulnerability. We propose a conceptual model of landscape vulnerability to serve as a basis for watershed classi...

  18. The Association between Internet User Characteristics and Dimensions of Internet Addiction among Greek Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Eleni; Svoli, Hionia

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how internet users' psychological characteristics, amount of internet use and demographic factors contribute to particular dimensions of internet addiction. The sample consisted of 384 adolescents, ranging in age from 15 to 18 years. Participants were asked to complete the Internet Addiction Test (IAT), measures of Locus of…

  19. Addiction Studies: Exploring Students' Attitudes toward Research in a Graduate Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Raven; Simons, Lori

    2011-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted to compare addiction studies and community counseling students' attitudes toward research. A survey of 66 addiction studies and 17 community counseling students in graduate programs was used to explore interest and self-efficacy in research and the research training environment. A pre/post test design was used to…

  20. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  1. Treatment of PCP addiction and PCP addiction-related behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to phencyclidine (PCP). The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of PCP.

  2. Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students.

    PubMed

    Siomos, Konstantinos E; Dafouli, Evaggelia D; Braimiotis, Dimitrios A; Mouzas, Odysseas D; Angelopoulos, Nikiforos V

    2008-12-01

    This research aimed to assess the prevalence of Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students, ages 12 to 18. The sample of 2,200 students was recruited from 120 classes among 85 schools in Thessaly, Greece. The sample included 10% of all classes in schools of Thessaly. The method of randomized stratified selection in every school was used for its constitution. Participants were asked to complete the Diagnostic Questionnaire for Internet Addiction (YDQ), based on eight criteria, as well as an inventory that included sociodemographic factors and questions about the use of Internet, their social life, and their habits. In Greece, 70.8% of adolescents had access to the Internet. The consistency of the YDQ was tested with Cronbach's alpha (0.719), with standardized item alpha (0.728). Proportions are also calculated only on the frequent Internet users, which results in 11% fulfilling five YDQ criteria. The most frequent type of Internet use is online games, representing 50.9% of Internet users, and information services, representing 46.8%. The prevalence of Internet addiction among Internet users of Central Greece is 8.2%, and it concerns mainly the male students who play online games and visit Internet cafés. PMID:18991535

  3. Correlations Between Awareness of Illness (Insight) and History of Addiction in Heroin-Addicted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Rovai, Luca; Rugani, Fabio; Pacini, Matteo; Lamanna, Francesco; Bacciardi, Silvia; Perugi, Giulio; Deltito, Joseph; Dell’Osso, Liliana; Maremmani, Icro

    2012-01-01

    In a group of 1066 heroin addicts, who were seeking treatment for opioid agonist treatment, we looked for differences in historical, demographic, and clinical characteristics, between patients with different levels of awareness of illness (insight). The results showed that, in the cohort studied, a majority of subjects lacked insight into their heroin-use behavior. Compared with the impaired-insight group, those who possessed insight into their illness showed significantly greater awareness of past social, somatic, and psychopathological impairments, and had a greater number of past treatment-seeking events for heroin addiction. In contrast with other psychiatric illnesses, the presence of awareness appears to be related to the passing of time and to the worsening of the illness. Methodologies to improve the insight of patients should, therefore, be targeted more directly on patients early in their history of heroin dependence, because the risk of lack of insight is greatest during this period. PMID:22787450

  4. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study.

    PubMed

    Bipeta, Rajshekhar; Yerramilli, Srinivasa Srr; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compared them to 38 patients with "pure" obsessive-compulsive disorder (with or without internet addiction). Internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder were diagnosed based on Young's Diagnostic Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), respectively. Age and Internet Addiction Test scores were comparable in both the control (years: 26.87±6.57; scores: 43.65±11.56) and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups (years: 27.00±6.13 years, p=0.69; scores: 43.47±15.21, p=0.76). Eleven patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.95%) were diagnosed with internet addiction as compared to three control subjects (p=0.039). In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, no difference in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (24.07±3.73 non-internet addiction, 23.64±4.65 internet addiction; p=0.76) score was seen between the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder and non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. As expected, the Internet Addiction Test scores were higher in the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (64.09±9.63) than in the non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (35.07±6.37; p=0.00). All enrolled patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were subsequently treated for a period of one year. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder improved Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Internet Addiction Test scores over time. At 12 months, only

  5. Diagnostic Stability of Internet Addiction in Obsessive-compulsive Disorder: Data from a Naturalistic One-year Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Yerramilli, Srinivasa SRR; Karredla, Ashok Reddy; Gopinath, Srinath

    2015-01-01

    Whether internet addiction should be categorized as a primary psychiatric disorder or the result of an underlying psychiatric disorder still remains unclear. In addition, the relationship between internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder remains to be explored. We hypothesized that internet addiction is a manifestation of underlying psychopathology, the treatment of which will improve internet addiction. We enrolled 34 control subjects (with or without internet addiction) and compared them to 38 patients with “pure” obsessive-compulsive disorder (with or without internet addiction). Internet addiction and obsessive-compulsive disorder were diagnosed based on Young’s Diagnostic Questionnaire and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), respectively. Age and Internet Addiction Test scores were comparable in both the control (years: 26.87±6.57; scores: 43.65±11.56) and obsessive-compulsive disorder groups (years: 27.00±6.13 years, p=0.69; scores: 43.47±15.21, p=0.76). Eleven patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (28.95%) were diagnosed with internet addiction as compared to three control subjects (p=0.039). In the obsessive-compulsive disorder group, no difference in the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (24.07±3.73 non-internet addiction, 23.64±4.65 internet addiction; p=0.76) score was seen between the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder and non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder groups. As expected, the Internet Addiction Test scores were higher in the internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (64.09±9.63) than in the non-internet addiction/obsessive-compulsive disorder group (35.07±6.37; p=0.00). All enrolled patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder were subsequently treated for a period of one year. Treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder improved Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale and Internet Addiction Test scores over time. At 12 months

  6. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    2002-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain's reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain's reward system.

  7. Mechanisms of Nicotine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    McGehee, Daniel

    2009-06-26

    Nicotine reinforces the use of tobacco products primarily through its interaction with specific receptor proteins within the brain’s reward centers. A critical step in the process of addiction for many drugs, including nicotine, is the release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. A single nicotine exposure will enhance dopamine levels for hours, however, nicotinic receptors undergo both activation and then desensitization in minutes, which presents an important problem. How does the time course of receptor activity lead to the prolonged release of dopamine? We have found that persistent modulation of both inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections by nicotine underlies the sustained increase in dopamine release. Because these inputs express different types of nicotinic receptors there is a coordinated shift in the balance of synaptic inputs toward excitation of the dopamine neurons. Excitatory inputs are turned on while inhibitory inputs are depressed, thereby boosting the brain’s reward system.

  8. Commentary on muscle dysmorphia as an addiction: A response to Grant (2015) and Nieuwoudt (2015)

    PubMed Central

    FOSTER, ANDREW C.; SHORTER, GILLIAN W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Following the publication of our paper ‘Muscle Dysmorphia: Could it be classified as an addiction to body image?’ in the Journal of Behavioral Addictions, two commentaries by Jon Grant and Johanna Nieuwoudt were published in response to our paper. Method Using the ‘addiction components model’, our main contention is that muscle dysmorphia (MD) actually comprises a number of different actions and behaviors and that the actual addictive activity is the maintaining of body image via a number of different activities such as bodybuilding, exercise, eating certain foods, taking specific drugs (e.g., anabolic steroids), shopping for certain foods, food supplements, and purchase or use of physical exercise accessories. This paper briefly responds to these two commentaries. Results While our hypothesized specifics relating to each addiction component sometimes lack empirical support (as noted explicitly by both Nieuwoudt and Grant), we still believe that our main thesis (that almost all the thoughts and behaviors of those with MD revolve around the maintenance of body image) is something that could be empirically tested in future research by those who already work in the area. Conclusions We hope that the ‘Addiction to Body Image’ model we proposed provides a new framework for carrying out work in both empirical and clinical settings. The idea that MD could potentially be classed as an addiction cannot be negated on theoretical grounds as many people in the addiction field are turning their attention to research in new areas of behavioral addiction. PMID:25786494

  9. Violence, addiction, recovery: An anthropological study of Mexico's anexos.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Anderson, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery. Our findings indicate that poverty, addiction, and drug-related violence have fueled the proliferation of anexos They also suggest that anexos offer valuable health, social, and practical support, but risk exacerbating the suffering of residents through coercive rehabilitation techniques. Emphasizing this tension, this article considers the complex relationship between coercion and care, and poses fundamental questions about what drug recovery consists of in settings of poverty and violence. PMID:27535824

  10. Violence, addiction, recovery: An anthropological study of Mexico's anexos.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Angela; Anderson, Brian

    2016-08-01

    Informal, coercive residential centers for the treatment of addiction are widespread and growing throughout Latin America. In Mexico these centers are called "anexos" and they are run and utilized by low-income individuals and families with problems related to drugs and alcohol. This article draws on findings from a 3-year anthropological study of anexos in Mexico City. Participant observation and in-depth interviews were used to describe and analyze anexos, their therapeutic practices, and residents' own accounts of addiction and recovery. Our findings indicate that poverty, addiction, and drug-related violence have fueled the proliferation of anexos They also suggest that anexos offer valuable health, social, and practical support, but risk exacerbating the suffering of residents through coercive rehabilitation techniques. Emphasizing this tension, this article considers the complex relationship between coercion and care, and poses fundamental questions about what drug recovery consists of in settings of poverty and violence.

  11. Circadian rhythms and addiction: Mechanistic insights and future directions

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ryan W.; Williams, Wilbur P.; McClung, Colleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythms are prominent in many physiological and behavioral functions. Circadian disruptions either by environmental or molecular perturbation can have profound health consequences, including the development and progression of addiction. Both animal and humans studies indicate extensive bidirectional relationships between the circadian system and drugs of abuse. Addicted individuals display disrupted rhythms, and chronic disruption or particular chronotypes, may increase the risk for substance abuse and relapse. Moreover, polymorphisms in circadian genes and an evening chronotype have been linked to mood and addiction disorders, and recent efforts suggest an association with the function of reward neurocircuitry. Animal studies are beginning to determine how altered circadian gene function results in drug induced neuroplasticity and behaviors. Many studies suggest a critical role for circadian rhythms in reward-related pathways in the brain and indicate that drugs of abuse directly affect the central circadian pacemaker. In this review, we highlight key findings demonstrating the importance of circadian rhythms in addiction, and how future studies will reveal important mechanistic insights into the involvement of circadian rhythms in drug addiction. PMID:24731209

  12. Dissecting Impulsivity and its Relationships to Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Ashenhurst, James R.; Cervantes, M. Catalina; James, Alexander S.; Groman, Stephanie M.; Pennington, Zachary T.

    2015-01-01

    Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that promote impulsive behaviors. We conclude that the available data strongly supports the notion that impulsivity is both a risk factor for, and a consequence of, drug and alcohol consumption. While the evidence indicating that subtypes of impulsive behavior are uniquely informative – either biologically or with respect to their relationships to addictions – is convincing, multiple lines of study link “distinct” subtypes of impulsivity to low dopamine D2 receptor function and perturbed serotonergic transmission, revealing shared mechanisms between the subtypes. Therefore, a common biological framework involving monoaminergic transmitters in key frontostriatal circuits may link multiple forms of impulsivity to drug self-administration and addiction-related behaviors. Further dissection of these relationships is needed before the next phase of genetic and genomic discovery will be able to reveal the biological sources of the vulnerability for addiction indexed by impulsivity. PMID:24654857

  13. Impulsivity: four ways five factors are not basic to addiction.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Matthew J; Loxton, Natalie J; Dawe, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Several impulsivity-related models have been applied to understanding the vulnerability to addiction. While there is a growing consensus that impulsivity is multifaceted, debate continues as to the precise number of facets and, more critically, which are most relevant to explaining the addiction-risk profile. In many ways, the current debate mirrors that which took place in the personality literature in the early 1990s (e.g., Eysenck's 'Big Three' versus Costa and McCrae's 'Big Five'). Indeed, many elements of this debate are relevant to the current discussion of the role of impulsivity in addictive behavior. Specifically, 1) the use of factor analysis as an atheoretical 'truth-grinding machine'; 2) whether additional facets add explanatory power over fewer; 3) the delineation of specific neurocognitive pathways from each facet to addictive behaviors, and; 4) the relative merit of 'top-down' versus 'bottom-up' approaches to the understanding of impulsivity. Ultimately, the utility of any model of impulsivity and addiction lies in its heuristic value and ability to integrate evidence from different levels of analysis. Here, we make the case that theoretically-driven, bottom-up models proposing two factors deliver the optimal balance of explanatory power, parsimony, and integration of evidence. PMID:24576666

  14. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Scientists are developing other medications to treat stimulant (cocaine, methamphetamine) and cannabis (marijuana) addiction. People who use ...

  15. Optogenetics: potentials for addiction research.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen Fang Huang; Burdakov, Denis; Sarnyai, Zoltán

    2011-10-01

    Research on the biology of addiction has advanced significantly over the last 50 years expanding our understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying reward, reinforcement and craving. Novel experimental approaches and techniques have provided an ever increasing armory of tools to dissect behavioral processes, neural networks and molecular mechanisms. The ultimate goal is to reintegrate this knowledge into a coherent, mechanistic framework of addiction to help identify new treatment. This can be greatly facilitated by using tools that allow, with great spatial and temporal specificity, to link molecular changes with altered activation of neural circuits and behavior. Such specificity can now be achieved by using optogenetic tools. Our review describes the general principles of optogenetics and its use to understand the links between neural activity and behavior. We also provide an overview of recent studies using optogenetic tools in addiction and consider some outstanding questions of addiction research that are particularly amenable for optogenetic approaches.

  16. [Addictive behavior among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Menecier, Pascal; Fernandez, Lydia

    2012-12-01

    Addictive behavior still persists among the elderly, mainly concerning substance abuse, such as alcohol, tobacco or psychotropic drugs and addictive practices such as gambling. Illegal substances or cyber-addictions appear much less often. The environment (place of residence or care) and/or economic factors may influence behavior and practices. The incidence of somatic illness or psychiatric disorders, such as cognitive impairment among the elderly patients, complicates even further the presentation of addictive disorders and their treatment. The age factor does not seem to lessen the suffering felt by the patient and care is required in an equal manner for all ages. Prevention (maintenance of personal autonomy and quality of life throughout the ageing process) plays an essential role along with the offer of care. The lack of scientific data such as the absence of validation for adult care among the elderly, leave wide scope for epidemiological, clinical and theoretical research.

  17. Neurobiology of Adolescent Substance Use and Addictive Behaviors: Prevention and Treatment Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hammond, Christopher J.; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2015-01-01

    Psychoactive substance and nonsubstance/behavioral addictions are major public health concerns associated with significant societal cost. Adolescence is a period of dynamic biologic, psychological, and behavioral changes. Adolescence is also associated with an increased risk for substance use and addictive disorders. During adolescence, developmental changes in neural circuitry of reward processing, motivation, cognitive control, and stress may contribute to vulnerability for increased levels of engagement in substance use and nonsubstance addictive behaviors. Current biologic models of adolescent vulnerability for addictions incorporate existing data on allostatic changes in function and structure of the midbrain dopaminergic system, stress-associated neuroplasticity, and maturational imbalances between cognitive control and reward reactivity. When characterizing adolescent vulnerability, identifying subgroups of adolescents at high risk for addictive behaviors is a major goal of the addiction field. Genetics, epigenetics, and intermediate phenotypes/endophenotypes may assist in characterizing children and adolescents at risk. Improved understanding of the neurobiology of adolescence and addiction vulnerability has the potential to refine screening, enhance prevention and intervention strategies, and inform public policy. PMID:25022184

  18. Imaging the Addicted Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Joanna S.; Volkow, Nora D.; Kassed, Cheryl A.; Chang, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Modern imaging techniques enable researchers to observe drug actions and consequences as they occur and persist in the brains of abusing and addicted individuals. This article presents the five most commonly used techniques, explains how each produces images, and describes how researchers interpret them. The authors give examples of key findings illustrating how each technique has extended and deepened our knowledge of the neurobiological bases of drug abuse and addiction, and they address potential clinical and therapeutic applications. PMID:17514067

  19. Examining Equivalency of the Driver Risk Inventory Test Versions: Does It Matter Which Version I Use?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degiorgio, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Equivalency of test versions is often assumed by counselors and evaluators. This study examined two versions, paper-pencil and computer based, of the Driver Risk Inventory, a DUI/DWI (driving under the influence/driving while intoxicated) risk assessment. An overview of computer-based testing and standards for equivalency is also provided. Results…

  20. Cost-effectiveness of a genetic test for breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Folse, Henry J; Green, Linda E; Kress, Andrea; Allman, Richard; Dinh, Tuan A

    2013-12-01

    Genetic testing of seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (7SNP) can improve estimates of risk of breast cancer relative to the Gail risk test alone, for the purpose of recommending MRI screening for women at high risk. A simulation of breast cancer and health care processes was used to conduct a virtual trial comparing the use of the 7SNP test with the Gail risk test to categorize patients by risk. Average-risk patients received annual mammogram, whereas high-risk patients received annual MRI. Cancer incidence was based on Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data and validated to Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort data. Risk factor values were drawn from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-4) and Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial data. Mammogram characteristics were derived from Breast Cancer Surveillance Consortium data. The test was most cost-effective when given to patients at an intermediate lifetime risk of breast cancer. For patients with a risk of 16% to 28%, it resulted in a 1.91% reduction in cancer deaths, saving 0.005 quality-adjusted life years per person at a cost of $163,264 per QALY. These results were sensitive to the age at which the test is given, the discount rate, and the costs of the genetic test and MRI. The cost effectiveness of using the 7SNP test for patients with intermediate Gail risk is similar to that of other recommended strategies, including annual MRI for patients with a lifetime risk greater than 20% or BRCA1/2 mutations. PMID:24309564

  1. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-12-31

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction.

  2. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  3. Exercise rehabilitation for smartphone addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunna

    2013-01-01

    Internet addiction after launching smartphone is becoming serious. Therefore this paper has attempted to sketch out the diverse addiction treatment and then check the feasibility of exercise rehabilitation. The reason to addict the internet or smartphone is personalized individual characters related personal psychological and emotional factors and social environmental factors around them. We have shown that 2 discernible approaches due to 2 different addiction causes: that is behavioral treatment and complementary treatment. In the behavioral treatment, cognitive behavioral approach (CBT) is representative methods for changing additive thoughts and behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is also the brief approach for persons not ready to change their behavior. Mindfulness behavioral cognitive treatment (MBCT) also the adapted treatment based on CBT. There are different types following the emphatic point, mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) or mindfulness oriented recovery enhancement (MORE). It is apparent that therapeutic recreation, music therapy using drumming activity, and art therapy are useful complementary treatment. Exercise rehabilitation contained the systematic procedures and comprehensive activities compared to previous addiction treatments by contents and techniques. Exercise rehabilitation can treat both physical symptoms at first and mental problems in the next step. So more evidence-based exercise rehabilitation researches need to do, but it is highly probable that exercise rehab can apply for smartphone addiction. PMID:24409425

  4. Cost benefit and risk assessment for selected tank waste process testing alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gasper, K.A.

    1995-05-22

    The US Department of Energy has established the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) program to safely manage wastes currently stored in underground tank at the Hanford Site. A TWRS testing and development strategy was recently developed to define long-range TWRS testing plans. The testing and development strategy considered four alternatives. The primary variable in the alternatives is the level of pilot-scale testing involving actual waste. This study evaluates the cost benefit and risks associated with the four alternatives. Four types of risk were evaluated: programmatic schedule risk, process mishap risk, worker risk, and public health risk. The structure of this report is as follows: Section 1 introduces the report subject; Section 2 describes the test strategy alternative evaluation; Section 3 describes the approach used in this study to assess risk and cost benefit; Section 4 describes the assessment methodologies for costs and risks; Section 5 describes the bases and assumptions used to estimate the costs and risks; Section 6 presents the detailed costs and risks; and Section 7 describes the results of the cost benefit analysis and presents conclusions.

  5. Influences of parental problem drinking on internet addiction among early adolescents: a multiple-mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Mi Heui; Kim, Mi Ja; Choi, Heeseung

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to describe the relationship between Internet addiction and parental problem drinking among early adolescents. Specific aims were to identify indirect, direct, and total influence of parental problem drinking on Internet addiction; to determine relative magnitudes of specific mediating effects of self-esteem, family function, anxiety-depression, and aggression in the total sample and the Internet addiction subgroup. The target population for this correlational study was early adolescents aged 11-12 years (n = 743) who attended elementary school in J City, South Korea. Study variables included the Internet addiction self-test scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test, the Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, and the Korean version of the Child Behavior Checklist. Multiple-mediation analyses were performed. A significant association was observed between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction. Only aggression significantly mediated the relationship between parental problem drinking and adolescents' Internet addiction in the total sample. When the Internet addiction group was analyzed separately as a subgroup, the mediation effect of aggression disappeared, and parental problem drinking had neither indirect nor direct association. However, the significant association of aggression with Internet addiction in the Internet addiction subgroup was two times as much as in the total sample. The findings suggested that parental problem drinking and aggression should be examined early to prevent development of Internet addiction in early adolescents. For those who already have developed Internet addiction, aggression should be the focal point for more effective intervention strategies.

  6. Addiction surplus: the add-on margin that makes addictive consumptions difficult to contain.

    PubMed

    Adams, Peter J; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Addictive consumptions generate financial surpluses over-and-above non-addictive consumptions because of the excessive consumption of addicted consumers. This add-on margin or 'addiction surplus' provides a powerful incentive for beneficiaries to protect their income by ensuring addicted consumers keep consuming. Not only that, addiction surplus provides the financial base that enables producers to sponsor activities which aim to prevent public health initiatives from reducing consumption. This paper examines the potency of addiction surplus to engage industry, governments and communities in an on-going reliance on addiction surplus. It then explores how neo-liberal constructions of a rational consumer disguise the ethical and exploitative dynamics of addiction surplus by examining ways in which addictive consumptions fail to conform to notions of autonomy and rationality. Four measures are identified to contain the distorting effects of addiction surplus.

  7. Impact of social stress in addiction to psychostimulants: what we know from animal models.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Maria A; García-Pardo, Maria P; Montagud-Romero, Sandra; Miñarro, José; Do Couto, Bruno Ribeiro

    2013-01-01

    Psychostimulant addiction, most notably cocaine and amphetamine - type stimulants are an important public health problem worldwide. It appears that social factors may influence the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. Several animal models have been developed to study addiction, highlighting drug self-administration (SA) and the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms. These models have been modified to accurately reflect the characteristics of drug addiction in its different stages. One factor that clearly plays a major role in addiction is stress, which is a risk factor not only for the initiation, maintenance and escalation of drug consumption, but also for relapse. In animal models, stress for itself can provoke reinstatement of self-administration or CPP. The relationship between stress and addiction is very tight. One example is the close anatomical relationship of some areas that share these two phenomena. It seems obvious to think that the main source of stress in humans is social interaction. The aim of the present review is to gather the current information regarding the role of social stress in the addiction to psychostimulant drugs in animal models. First, we briefly describe the mechanisms by which stress exerts its effects and the basic concepts of addiction. We will try to establish common pathways of stress and addiction, to address later social stress effects on different stages of addiction. Then, we will address pharmacological therapies and preventive factors that counteract the enhancing effects of social stress in addiction. Finally, we will analyze how negative environmental conditions may induce individuals to increased vulnerability to drugs, and how favorable environmental conditions may have protective and curative effects against addiction. In this sense, we also analyze the importance of social interactions and their ability to modulate the different stages of addiction. As a conclusion, and despite the scarcity of

  8. Measuring addiction propensity and severity: the need for a new instrument.

    PubMed

    Conway, Kevin P; Levy, Janet; Vanyukov, Michael; Chandler, Redonna; Rutter, Joni; Swan, Gary E; Neale, Michael

    2010-09-01

    Drug addiction research requires but lacks a valid and reliable way to measure both the risk (propensity) to develop addiction and the severity of manifest addiction. This paper argues for a new measurement approach and instrument to quantify propensity to and severity of addiction, based on the testable assumption that these constructs can be mapped onto the same dimension of liability to addiction. The case for this new direction becomes clear from a critical review of empirical data and the current instrumentation. The many assessment instruments in use today have proven utility, reliability, and validity, but they are of limited use for evaluating individual differences in propensity and severity. The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of instruments currently used in research and clinical practice can be overcome through the use of new technologies to develop a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment instrument(s) to measure and distinguish individual variations in expression of the underlying latent trait(s) that comprises propensity to and severity of drug addiction. Such instrumentation would enhance our capacity for drug addiction research on linkages and interactions among familial, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with variations in propensity and severity. It would lead to new opportunities in substance abuse prevention, treatment, and services research, as well as in interventions and implementation science for drug addiction.

  9. Measuring Addiction Propensity and Severity: The Need for a New Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Conway, Kevin P.; Levy, Janet; Vanyukov, Michael; Chandler, Redonna; Rutter, Joni; Swan, Gary E.; Neale, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction research requires but lacks a valid and reliable way to measure both the risk (propensity) to develop addiction and the severity of manifest addiction. This paper argues for a new measurement approach and instrument to quantify propensity to and severity of addiction, based on the testable assumption that these constructs can be mapped onto the same dimension of liability to addiction. The case for this new direction becomes clear from a critical review of empirical data and the current instrumentation. The many assessment instruments in use today have proven utility, reliability, and validity, but they are of limited use for evaluating individual differences in propensity and severity. The conceptual and methodological shortcomings of instruments currently used in research and clinical practice can be overcome through the use of new technologies to develop a reliable, valid, and standardized assessment instrument(s) to measure and distinguish individual variations in expression of the underlying latent trait(s) that comprises propensity to and severity of drug addiction. Such instrumentation would enhance our capacity for drug addiction research on linkages and interactions among familial, genetic, psychosocial, and neurobiological factors associated with variations in propensity and severity. It would lead to new opportunities in substance abuse prevention, treatment, and services research, as well as in interventions and implementation science for drug addiction. PMID:20462706

  10. Toward quantifying the abuse liability of ultraviolet tanning: A behavioral economic approach to tanning addiction.

    PubMed

    Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A; Becirevic, Amel; Roma, Peter G; Hursh, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Many adults engage in ultraviolet indoor tanning despite evidence of its association with skin cancer. The constellation of behaviors associated with ultraviolet indoor tanning is analogous to that in other behavioral addictions. Despite a growing literature on ultraviolet indoor tanning as an addiction, there remains no consensus on how to identify ultraviolet indoor tanning addictive tendencies. The purpose of the present study was to translate a behavioral economic task more commonly used in substance abuse to quantify the "abuse liability" of ultraviolet indoor tanning, establish construct validity, and determine convergent validity with the most commonly used diagnostic tools for ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction (i.e., mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR). We conducted a between-groups study using a novel hypothetical Tanning Purchase Task to quantify intensity and elasticity of ultraviolet indoor tanning demand and permit statistical comparisons with the mCAGE and mDSM-IV-TR. Results suggest that behavioral economic demand is related to ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction status and adequately discriminates between potential addicted individuals from nonaddicted individuals. Moreover, we provide evidence that the Tanning Purchase Task renders behavioral economic indicators that are relevant to public health research. The present findings are limited to two ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction tools and a relatively small sample of high-risk ultraviolet indoor tanning users; however, these pilot data demonstrate the potential for behavioral economic assessment tools as diagnostic and research aids in ultraviolet indoor tanning addiction studies. PMID:27400670

  11. Predictors of addiction treatment providers' beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction.

    PubMed

    Russell, Christopher; Davies, John B; Hunter, Simon C

    2011-03-01

    Addiction treatment providers working in the United States (n = 219) and the United Kingdom (n = 372) were surveyed about their beliefs in the disease and choice models of addiction, as assessed by the 18-item Addiction Belief Scale of J. Schaler (1992). Factor analysis of item scores revealed a three-factor structure, labeled "addiction is a disease," "addiction is a choice," and "addiction is a way of coping with life," and factor scores were analyzed in separate hierarchical multiple regression analyses. Controlling for demographic and addiction history variables, treatment providers working in the United States more strongly believe addiction is a disease, whereas U.K.-based providers more strongly believe that addiction is a choice and a way of coping with life. Beliefs that addiction is a disease were stronger among those who provide for-profit treatment, have stronger spiritual beliefs, have had a past addiction problem, are older, are members of a group of addiction professionals, and have been treating addiction longer. Conversely, those who viewed addiction as a choice were more likely to provide public/not-for-profit treatment, be younger, not belong to a group of addiction professionals, and have weaker spiritual beliefs. Additionally, treatment providers who have had a personal addiction problem in the past were significantly more likely to believe addiction is a disease the longer they attend a 12-step-based group and if they are presently abstinent. PMID:21036516

  12. Risk-based inservice testing program modifications at Palo Verde nuclear generating station

    SciTech Connect

    Knauf, S.; Lindenlaub, B.; Linthicum, R.

    1996-12-01

    Arizona Public Service Company (APS) is investigating changes to the Palo Verde Inservice Testing (IST) Program that are intended to result in the reduction of the required test frequency for various valves in the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Section XI IST program. The analytical techniques employed to select candidate valves and to demonstrate that these frequency reductions are acceptable are risk based. The results of the Palo Verde probabilistic risk assessment (PRA), updated in June 1994, and the risk significant determination performed as part of the implementation efforts for 10 CFR 50.65 (the maintenance rule) were used to select candidate valves for extended test intervals. Additional component level evaluations were conducted by an `expert panel.` The decision to pursue these changes was facilitated by the ASME Risk-Based Inservice Testing Research Task Force for which Palo Verde is participating as a pilot plant. The NRC`s increasing acceptance of cost beneficial licensing actions and risk-based submittals also provided incentive to seek these changes. Arizona Public Service is pursuing the risk-based IST program modification in order to reduce the unnecessary regulatory burden of the IST program through qualitative and quantitative analysis consistent with maintaining a high level of plant safety. The objectives of this project at Palo Verde are as follows: (1) Apply risk-based technologies to IST components to determine their risk significance (i.e., high or low). (2) Apply a combination of deterministic and risk-based methods to determine appropriate testing requirements for IST components including improvement of testing methods and frequency intervals for high-risk significant components. (3) Apply risk-based technologies to high-risk significant components identified by the {open_quotes}expert panel{close_quotes} and outside of the IST program to determine whether additional testing requirements are appropriate.

  13. SELECTING RELEVANT TEST SPECIES FOR ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENTS FOR PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many countries, numerous tests are required prior to chemical registration for the protection of human health and the environment from the unintended effects of chemical releases. The species used in these tests are quite often familiar to scientists, have an extensive histor...

  14. NEUROBEHAVIORAL TESTING IN ANIMALS AND THE APPLICATION TO RISK ASSESSMENT.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Neurobehavioral evaluations are emerging as a key component in neurotoxicity testing. The tests most often used for screening are the functional observational battery (FOB) and motor activity. The FOB is a series of non-invasive observational and manipulative measures which ass...

  15. Current Perspectives on the Neurobiology of Drug Addiction: A Focus on Genetics and Factors Regulating Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jhodie R.

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder defined by cyclic patterns of compulsive drug seeking and taking interspersed with episodes of abstinence. While genetic variability may increase the risk of addictive behaviours in an individual, exposure to a drug results in neuroadaptations in interconnected brain circuits which, in susceptible individuals, are believed to underlie the transition to, and maintenance of, an addicted state. These adaptations can occur at the cellular, molecular, or (epi)genetic level and are associated with synaptic plasticity and altered gene expression, the latter being mediated via both factors affecting translation (epigenetics) and transcription (non coding microRNAs) of the DNA or RNA itself. New advances using techniques such as optogenetics have the potential to increase our understanding of the microcircuitry mediating addictive behaviours. However, the processes leading to addiction are complex and multifactorial and thus we face a major contemporary challenge to elucidate the factors implicated in the development and maintenance of an addicted state. PMID:23097719

  16. Interest and Informational Preferences Regarding Genomic Testing for Modest Increases in Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Allison E.; Flores, Kristina G.; Boonyasiriwat, Watcharaporn; Gammon, Amanda; Kohlmann, Wendy; Birmingham, Wendy C.; Schwartz, Marc D.; Samadder, Jewel; Boucher, Ken; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims To explore interest in genomic testing for modest changes in colorectal cancer risk and preferences for receiving genomic risk communications among individuals with intermediate disease risk due to a family history of colorectal cancer. Methods Surveys were conducted on 278 men and women at intermediate risk for colorectal cancer enrolled in a randomized trial comparing a remote personalized risk communication intervention (TeleCARE) aimed at promoting colonoscopy to a generic print control condition. Guided by Leventhal’s Common Sense Model of Self-regulation, we examined demographic and psychosocial factors possibly associated with interest in SNP testing. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with testing interest and preferences for receiving genomic risk communications. Results Three-fourths of participants expressed interest in SNP testing for colorectal cancer risk. Testing interest did not markedly change across behavior modifier scenarios. Participants preferred to receive genomic risk communications from a variety of sources: printed materials, (69.1%), oncologists (59.5%), primary-care physicians (58.1%), and the web (57.9%). Overall, persons who were unmarried (p=0.029), younger (p=0.003), and with greater cancer-related fear (p=0.019) were more likely to express interest in predictive genomic testing for colorectal cancer risk. In a stratified analysis, cancer related fear was associated with interest in predictive genomic testing in the intervention group (p=0.017) but not the control group. Conclusions Individuals with intermediate familial risk for colorectal cancer are highly interested in genomic testing for modest increases in disease risk, specifically unmarried persons, younger age groups, and those with greater cancer fear. PMID:24435063

  17. The CRHR1 gene, trauma exposure, and alcoholism risk: a test of G × E effects.

    PubMed

    Ray, L A; Sehl, M; Bujarski, S; Hutchison, K; Blaine, S; Enoch, M-A

    2013-06-01

    The corticotropin-releasing hormone type I receptor (CRHR1) gene has been implicated in the liability for neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly under conditions of stress. On the basis of the hypothesized effects of CRHR1 variation on stress reactivity, measures of adulthood traumatic stress exposure were analyzed for their interaction with CRHR1 haplotypes and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in predicting the risk for alcoholism. Phenotypic data on 2533 non-related Caucasian individuals (1167 alcoholics and 1366 controls) were culled from the publically available Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment genome-wide association study. Genotypes were available for 19 tag SNPs. Logistic regression models examined the interaction between CRHR1 haplotypes/SNPs and adulthood traumatic stress exposure in predicting alcoholism risk. Two haplotype blocks spanned CRHR1. Haplotype analyses identified one haplotype in the proximal block 1 (P = 0.029) and two haplotypes in the distal block 2 (P = 0.026, 0.042) that showed nominally significant (corrected P < 0.025) genotype × traumatic stress interactive effects on the likelihood of developing alcoholism. The block 1 haplotype effect was driven by SNPs rs110402 (P = 0.019) and rs242924 (P = 0.019). In block 2, rs17689966 (P = 0.018) showed significant and rs173365 (P = 0.026) showed nominally significant, gene × environment (G × E) effects on alcoholism status. This study extends the literature on the interplay between CRHR1 variation and alcoholism, in the context of exposure to traumatic stress. These findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of the extra hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor system dysregulation in the initiation and maintenance of alcoholism. Molecular and experimental studies are needed to more fully understand the mechanisms of risk and protection conferred by genetic variation at the identified loci.

  18. DESCRIPTION OF RISK REDUCTION ENGINEERING LABORATORY TEST AND EVALUATION FACILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An onsite team of multidisciplined engineers and scientists conduct research and provide technical services in the areas of testing, design, and field implementation for both solid and hazardous waste management. Engineering services focus on the design and implementation of...

  19. Modeling Addictive Consumption as an Infectious Disease*

    PubMed Central

    Alamar, Benjamin; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2011-01-01

    The dominant model of addictive consumption in economics is the theory of rational addiction. The addict in this model chooses how much they are going to consume based upon their level of addiction (past consumption), the current benefits and all future costs. Several empirical studies of cigarette sales and price data have found a correlation between future prices and consumption and current consumption. These studies have argued that the correlation validates the rational addiction model and invalidates any model in which future consumption is not considered. An alternative to the rational addiction model is one in which addiction spreads through a population as if it were an infectious disease, as supported by the large body of empirical research of addictive behaviors. In this model an individual's probability of becoming addicted to a substance is linked to the behavior of their parents, friends and society. In the infectious disease model current consumption is based only on the level of addiction and current costs. Price and consumption data from a simulation of the infectious disease model showed a qualitative match to the results of the rational addiction model. The infectious disease model can explain all of the theoretical results of the rational addiction model with the addition of explaining initial consumption of the addictive good. PMID:21339848

  20. Development and Validation of a Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS)

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Min; Lee, Joon-Yeop; Won, Wang-Youn; Park, Jae-Woo; Min, Jung-Ah; Hahn, Changtae; Gu, Xinyu; Choi, Ji-Hye; Kim, Dai-Jin

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop a self-diagnostic scale that could distinguish smartphone addicts based on the Korean self-diagnostic program for Internet addiction (K-scale) and the smartphone's own features. In addition, the reliability and validity of the smartphone addiction scale (SAS) was demonstrated. Methods A total of 197 participants were selected from Nov. 2011 to Jan. 2012 to accomplish a set of questionnaires, including SAS, K-scale, modified Kimberly Young Internet addiction test (Y-scale), visual analogue scale (VAS), and substance dependence and abuse diagnosis of DSM-IV. There were 64 males and 133 females, with ages ranging from 18 to 53 years (M = 26.06; SD = 5.96). Factor analysis, internal-consistency test, t-test, ANOVA, and correlation analysis were conducted to verify the reliability and validity of SAS. Results Based on the factor analysis results, the subscale “disturbance of reality testing” was removed, and six factors were left. The internal consistency and concurrent validity of SAS were verified (Cronbach's alpha = 0.967). SAS and its subscales were significantly correlated with K-scale and Y-scale. The VAS of each factor also showed a significant correlation with each subscale. In addition, differences were found in the job (p<0.05), education (p<0.05), and self-reported smartphone addiction scores (p<0.001) in SAS. Conclusions This study developed the first scale of the smartphone addiction aspect of the diagnostic manual. This scale was proven to be relatively reliable and valid. PMID:23468893