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Sample records for addictive drugs including

  1. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  2. Interoception and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Stewart, Jennifer L.

    2013-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an “embodied” experience of drug uses together with the individual’s predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. PMID:23855999

  3. Interoception and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Martin P; Stewart, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    The role of interoception and its neural basis with relevance to drug addiction is reviewed. Interoception consists of the receiving, processing, and integrating body-relevant signals with external stimuli to affect ongoing motivated behavior. The insular cortex is the central nervous system hub to process and integrate these signals. Interoception is an important component of several addiction relevant constructs including arousal, attention, stress, reward, and conditioning. Imaging studies with drug-addicted individuals show that the insular cortex is hypo-active during cognitive control processes but hyperactive during cue reactivity and drug-specific, reward-related processes. It is proposed that interoception contributes to drug addiction by incorporating an "embodied" experience of drug uses together with the individual's predicted versus actual internal state to modulate approach or avoidance behavior, i.e. whether to take or not to take drugs. This opens the possibility of two types of interventions. First, one may be able to modulate the embodied experience by enhancing insula reactivity where necessary, e.g. when engaging in drug seeking behavior, or attenuating insula when exposed to drug-relevant cues. Second, one may be able to reduce the urge to act by increasing the frontal control network, i.e. inhibiting the urge to use by employing cognitive training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23855999

  4. Young drug addicts and the drug scene.

    PubMed

    Lucchini, R

    1985-01-01

    The drug scene generally comprises the following four distinct categories of young people: neophytes, addicts who enjoy a high status vis-à-vis other addicts, multiple drug addicts, and non-addicted drug dealers. It has its own evolution, hierarchy, structure and criteria of success and failure. The members are required to conform to the established criteria. The integration of the young addict into the drug scene is not voluntary in the real sense of the word, for he is caught between the culture that he rejects and the pseudo-culture of the drug scene. To be accepted into the drug scene, the neophyte must furnish proof of his reliability, which often includes certain forms of criminal activities. The addict who has achieved a position of importance in the drug world serves as a role model for behaviour to the neophyte. In a more advanced phase of addiction, the personality of the addict and the social functions of the drug scene are overwhelmed by the psychoactive effects of the drug, and this process results in the social withdrawal of the addict. The life-style of addicts and the subculture they develop are largely influenced by the type of drug consumed. For example, it is possible to speak of a heroin subculture and a cocaine subculture. In time, every drug scene deteriorates so that it becomes fragmented into small groups, which is often caused by legal interventions or a massive influx of new addicts. The fragmentation of the drug scene is followed by an increase in multiple drug abuse, which often aggravates the medical and social problems of drug addicts. PMID:4075000

  5. NARCOTIC DRUG ADDICTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    YAHRAES, HERBERT; AND OTHERS

    MUCH HAS BEEN LEARNED IN RECENT YEARS ABOUT THE NATURE OF DRUG ADDICTION, THE FACTORS WHICH LEAD A PERSON INTO ADDICTION, AND THE EFFECTIVE TREATMENT OF PERSONS WHO HAVE BECOME ADDICTED. THIS PAMPHLET SURVEYS THE NEW FINDINGS AND IS INTENDED PRIMARILY FOR (1) THOSE WHO IN THE COURSE OF THEIR PROFESSIONAL DUTIES COME IN CONTACT WITH ADDICTED…

  6. Mitoepigenetics and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Frankowska, Małgorzata; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-11-01

    Being the center of energy production in eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are also crucial for various cellular processes including intracellular Ca(2+) signaling and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Mitochondria contain their own circular DNA which encodes not only proteins, transfer RNA and ribosomal RNAs but also non-coding RNAs. The most recent line of evidence indicates the presence of 5-methylcytosine and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA); thus, the level of gene expression - in a way similar to nuclear DNA - can be regulated by direct epigenetic modifications. Up to now, very little data shows the possibility of epigenetic regulation of mtDNA. Mitochondria and mtDNA are particularly important in the nervous system and may participate in the initiation of drug addiction. In fact, some addictive drugs enhance ROS production and generate oxidative stress that in turn alters mitochondrial and nuclear gene expression. This review summarizes recent findings on mitochondrial function, mtDNA copy number and epigenetics in drug addiction. PMID:24956109

  7. Drug addiction in China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lin; Wang, Xi

    2008-10-01

    Drug addiction in China began with the importation of Indian opium by the British in the 16th century and brought severe social and health problems. While drug abuse abated following the establishment of People's Republic of China, modernization and Westernization in the 1980s led to the reemergence of this problem. Drug abuse in China became epidemic, facilitating the spread of HIV/AIDS. The Chinese government has made great efforts to address these problems, focusing both on treatments of drug addiction and on harm-reduction programs. Although the new trends of drug addiction in China pose great public health challenges, these government interventions are likely to successfully stem the problem of drug abuse in the future. PMID:18991965

  8. Transcriptional Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is considered a plausible mechanism of drug addiction given the stability of behavioral abnormalities that define an addicted state. Numerous transcription factors, proteins that bind to regulatory regions of specific genes and thereby control levels of their expression, have been implicated in the addiction process over the past decade or two. Here we review the growing evidence for the role played by several prominent transcription factors, including a Fos family protein (ΔFosB), cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), among several others, in drug addiction. As will be seen, each factor displays very different regulation by drugs of abuse within the brain's reward circuitry, and in turn mediates distinct aspects of the addiction phenotype. Current efforts are geared toward understanding the range of target genes through which these transcription factors produce their functional effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms involved. This work promises to reveal fundamentally new insight into the molecular basis of addiction, which will contribute to improved diagnostic tests and therapeutics for addictive disorders. PMID:23430970

  9. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain’s reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation—histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. PMID:23643695

  10. Epigenetic mechanisms of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction involves potentially life-long behavioral abnormalities that are caused in vulnerable individuals by repeated exposure to a drug of abuse. The persistence of these behavioral changes suggests that long-lasting changes in gene expression, within particular regions of the brain, may contribute importantly to the addiction phenotype. Work over the past decade has demonstrated a crucial role for epigenetic mechanisms in driving lasting changes in gene expression in diverse tissues, including brain. This has prompted recent research aimed at characterizing the influence of epigenetic regulatory events in mediating the lasting effects of drugs of abuse on the brain in animal models of drug addiction. This review provides a progress report of this still early work in the field. As will be seen, there is robust evidence that repeated exposure to drugs of abuse induces changes within the brain's reward regions in three major modes of epigenetic regulation-histone modifications such as acetylation and methylation, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. In several instances, it has been possible to demonstrate directly the contribution of such epigenetic changes to addiction-related behavioral abnormalities. Studies of epigenetic mechanisms of addiction are also providing an unprecedented view of the range of genes and non-genic regions that are affected by repeated drug exposure and the precise molecular basis of that regulation. Work is now needed to validate key aspects of this work in human addiction and evaluate the possibility of mining this information to develop new diagnostic tests and more effective treatments for addiction syndromes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23643695

  11. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Woicik, Patricia A.; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors. PMID:22117165

  12. Neuroimaging for drug addiction and related behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Parvaz M. A.; Parvaz, M.A.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik,P.A.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-10-01

    In this review, we highlight the role of neuroimaging techniques in studying the emotional and cognitive-behavioral components of the addiction syndrome by focusing on the neural substrates subserving them. The phenomenology of drug addiction can be characterized by a recurrent pattern of subjective experiences that includes drug intoxication, craving, bingeing, and withdrawal with the cycle culminating in a persistent preoccupation with obtaining, consuming, and recovering from the drug. In the past two decades, imaging studies of drug addiction have demonstrated deficits in brain circuits related to reward and impulsivity. The current review focuses on studies employing positron emission tomography (PET), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and electroencephalography (EEG) to investigate these behaviors in drug-addicted human populations. We begin with a brief account of drug addiction followed by a technical account of each of these imaging modalities. We then discuss how these techniques have uniquely contributed to a deeper understanding of addictive behaviors.

  13. Drug addiction and periodontal diseases

    PubMed Central

    Saini, Gurpreet Kaur; Gupta, N. D.; Prabhat, K. C.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of drug addiction is increasing globally. Drug abuse damages many parts of the body such as oral cavity, lungs, liver, brain, heart etc., Addicts suffer from physical, psychological, emotional and behavioral problems. Their nutrition is also compromised. There is certainly an impact of all these factors on the health of periodontium. Dentists should be aware of the effects of drugs while treating the drug addicts. This article correlates the studies done on the impact of abused drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, opiates, cannabis, amphetamines etc., on general and periodontal health. PMID:24174750

  14. Treatment Approaches for Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Scientists are developing other medications to treat stimulant (cocaine, methamphetamine) and cannabis (marijuana) addiction. People who use ...

  15. Epigenetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Jian; Nestler, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation can mediate long-lasting changes in gene expression, which makes it an attractive mechanism for the stable behavioral abnormalities that characterize drug addiction. Recent research has unveiled numerous types of epigenetic modifications within the brain’s reward circuitry in animal models of drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the latest advances in the field, focusing on histone modifications, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNAs. We also highlight several areas for future research. Unraveling the highly complex epigenetic mechanisms of addiction is adding to our understanding of this syndrome and has the potential to trigger novel approaches for better diagnosis and therapy. PMID:23374537

  16. Drug Addiction as Risk for Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    Dragisic, Tatjana; Dickov, Aleksandra; Dickov, Veselin; Mijatovic, Vesna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Suicide is closely linked to the substances use. Therefore it is very important to confirm the factors that affect the possibility of suicidal behavior. Methodology: The survey included 200 respondents; 100 heroin addicts on the substitution program that attempted suicide and 100 opiate addicts who have not attempted suicide. The evaluation included a questionnaire with socio-demographic, hereditary and addiction data, legal problems and then the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory–MMPI-2. Results: The results showed a statistically significant difference compared to the personality structure, especially pronounced in hypersensitive structures, in relation to the duration of addictive experience and duration of heroin by intravenous route, as well as in relation to the presence of psychotic disorders, drug abuse and suicidal behavior in the family. Conclusion: As risk factors among opiate addicts are indentified interfered biological and psychological factors and the effects of the substances themselves. PMID:26236166

  17. Neuroimmune Mechanisms of Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859

  18. Neuroimmune mechanisms of alcohol and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Changhai; Shurtleff, David; Harris, R Adron

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse have significant impacts on the neuroimmune system. Studies have demonstrated that drugs of abuse interact with the neuroimmune system and alter neuroimmune gene expression and signaling, which in turn contribute to various aspects of addiction. As the key component of the CNS immune system, neuroimmune factors mediate neuroinflammation and modulate a wide range of brain function including neuronal activity, endocrine function, and CNS development. These neuromodulatory properties of immune factors, together with their essential role in neuroinflammation, provide a new framework to understand neuroimmune mechanisms mediating brain functional and behavioral changes contributing to addiction. This chapter highlights recent advances in understanding neuroimmune changes associated with exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including opiates, marijuana, methamphetamine, and cocaine. It provides a brief overview on what we know about neuroimmune signaling and its role in drug action and addiction. PMID:25175859

  19. How Addictive Drugs Disrupt Presynaptic Dopamine Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Sulzer, David

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental principle that unites addictive drugs appears to be that each enhances synaptic dopamine by means that dissociate it from normal behavioral control, so that they act to reinforce their own acquisition. This occurs via the modulation of synaptic mechanisms involved in learning, including enhanced excitation or disinhibition of dopamine neuron activity, blockade of dopamine reuptake, and altering the state of the presynaptic terminal to enhance evoked over basal transmission. Amphetamines offer an exception to such modulation in that they combine multiple effects to produce non-exocytic stimulation-independent release of neurotransmitter via reverse transport independent from normal presynaptic function. Questions on the molecular actions of addictive drugs, prominently including the actions of alcohol and solvents, remain unresolved, but their ability to co-opt normal presynaptic functions helps to explain why treatment for addiction has been challenging. PMID:21338876

  20. Treating Prescription Drug Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  1. Natural Rewards, Neuroplasticity, and Non-Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    There is a high degree of overlap between brain regions involved in processing natural rewards and drugs of abuse. “Non-drug” or “behavioral” addictions have become increasingly documented in the clinic, and pathologies include compulsive activities such as shopping, eating, exercising, sexual behavior, and gambling. Like drug addiction, non-drug addictions manifest in symptoms including craving, impaired control over the behavior, tolerance, withdrawal, and high rates of relapse. These alterations in behavior suggest that plasticity may be occurring in brain regions associated with drug addiction. In this review, I summarize data demonstrating that exposure to non-drug rewards can alter neural plasticity in regions of the brain that are affected by drugs of abuse. Research suggests that there are several similarities between neuroplasticity induced by natural and drug rewards and that, depending on the reward, repeated exposure to natural rewards might induce neuroplasticity that either promotes or counteracts addictive behavior. PMID:21459101

  2. Signs of Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Download "I feel so helpless against his addiction." Matt's brother Stephen is addicted to meth. Matt wants to help Stephen, but he isn't sure how. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  3. Addiction.

    PubMed

    Naim-Feil, Jodie; Zangen, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Drug and alcohol addiction is a debilitating disorder characterized by persistent drug-seeking behaviors despite negative physiological, medical, or social consequences. Neurobiological models of addiction propose that the reinforcing effects of addictive drugs are associated with altered neurotransmission within the reward 'mesocorticolimbic' circuitry in the brain. Immense efforts are therefore designed to target the mesocorticolimbic circuitry in attenuating drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. Yet, to date, most addiction treatments have demonstrated only limited success in reducing addiction-related behaviors. Accumulating and compelling evidence suggests that novel nonsurgical brain stimulation techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial direct current stimulation, could serve as promising tools for indexing altered neurotransmission associated with repetitive drug use, and moreover, may hold therapeutic potential for the treatment of drug dependence and addiction-related behaviors. This chapter reviews and discusses the current and potential applications of such techniques in the study and treatment of addiction; we focus on a number of common drugs of abuse, including nicotine, alcohol, cocaine, cannabis, and ecstasy. PMID:24112928

  4. Drugs and Addictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, S. Mae; Miller, Eva

    The effects of drug abuse and dependence vary, depending on the type of drug, polydrug use, and characteristics of the user. The influence of genetic, neurochemical, neuropsyiological, sociocultural, and economic factors suggest that the etiology of substance abuse and dependence is multiply determined. Models explaining the causation of substance…

  5. [Psychopathological heterogeneity in opium drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Pani, P P; Carta, M; Rudas, N

    1991-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the presence and nature of psychiatric disorders in opium drug addicts. One hundred and six subjects receiving treatment at the CMAS in Cagliari were included in the study. Hathawai and McKinley's MMPI test was preventively carried out on all subjects; each drug addict was then interviewed three times in the space of three weeks in order to formulate a diagnosis in line with DSM III R criteria. The results obtained show a high incidence of psychopathological disorders which are not included among those caused by drug abuse, and a high degree of diagnostic heterogeneity on both axis I and axis II. The comparative assessment of three subsamples undergoing different phases of treatment reveals both qualitative and quantitative differences. PMID:1749353

  6. A Survey of Attitudes Toward Drug Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doctor, Ronald M.; Sieveking, Nicholas A.

    The purpose of this survey was to assess public attitudes about drug addiction, addicts, and treatment for this condition. Four reference groups were sampled: (1) law-enforcement representatives; (2) college student non-users; (3) student users of marihuana; and (4) post-withdrawal narcotic addicts. Data was obtained from a questionnaire…

  7. Family and environmental factors of drug addiction among young recruits.

    PubMed

    Jedrzejczak, Marian

    2005-08-01

    Drug addiction in a family results from three factors: (1) effect of pathological families on young people's behavior, (2) easy access to drugs, and (3) influence of groups of people of the same age. In the present study, it was investigated to what extent individual factors related to family and environment affect the extent of drug addiction among recruits. The study included 559 subjects. The results proved direct interdependence between the family condition and the extent of narcomania. Drug addicts came mostly from incomplete and pathological families. The main family factors of drug addiction, according to the results obtained, are family atmosphere, strength of family ties, sense of family happiness, structure of authority in the family, and alcoholism. In families where there is warmth and love, children do not or rarely take drugs. Drug addicts come from families where there is ill will and hostility (p < 0.05). Drug addicts have weaker family ties than do those who do not take drugs (w2 = 0.26, p < 0.05). In families where there was contact with drugs, authority belonged to the mother to a greater degree (54.4%) than to the father (23.6%). In 46.3% of the studied drug addicts' families, alcohol was drunk. The results of the investigations approximate results of other studies conducted among young people in Poland and elsewhere in the world. PMID:16173210

  8. Acupuncture therapy for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Motlagh, Farid Esmaeili; Ibrahim, Fatimah; Rashid, Rusdi Abd; Seghatoleslam, Tahereh; Habil, Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat substance abuse. This study aims to review experimental studies examining the effects of acupuncture on addiction. Research and review articles on acupuncture treatment of substance abuse published between January 2000 and September 2014 were searched using the databases ISI Web of Science Core Collection and EBSCO's MEDLINE Complete. Clinical trial studies on the efficacy of acupuncture therapy for substance abuse were classified according to substance (cocaine, opioid, nicotine, and alcohol), and their treatment protocols, assessments, and findings were examined. A total of 119 studies were identified, of which 85 research articles addressed the efficacy of acupuncture for treating addiction. There were substantial variations in study protocols, particularly regarding treatment duration, frequency of electroacupuncture, duration of stimulation, and choice of acupoints. Contradictory results, intergroup differences, variation in sample sizes, and acupuncture placebo effects made it difficult to evaluate acupuncture effectiveness in drug addiction treatment. This review also identified a lack of rigorous study design, such as control of confounding variables by incorporating sham controls, sufficient sample sizes, reliable assessments, and adequately replicated experiments. PMID:27053944

  9. Systems Level Neuroplasticity in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Feltenstein, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder for which research has been dedicated to understand the various factors that contribute to development, loss of control, and persistence of compulsive addictive behaviors. In this review, we provide a broad overview of various theories of addiction, drugs of abuse, and the neurobiology involved across the addiction cycle. Specific focus is devoted to the role of the mesolimbic pathway in acute drug reinforcement and occasional drug use, the mesocortical pathway and associated areas (e.g., the dorsal striatum) in escalation/dependence, and the involvement of these pathways and associated circuits in mediating conditioned responses, drug craving, and loss of behavioral control thought to underlie withdrawal and relapse. With a better understanding of the neurobiological factors that underlie drug addiction, continued preclinical and clinical research will aid in the development of novel therapeutic interventions that can serve as effective long-term treatment strategies for drug-dependent individuals. PMID:23580792

  10. [Relapse prevention in drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Rácz, József

    2013-12-01

    The literature review deals with methods of relapse prevention. Relapse prevention is the key in the treatment of clients with drug addictions according to the transtheoretical model of change. If relapse prevention is more effective then not only the relapse would be prevented, but the client would leave the circulus vitiosus of relapses. Among psychotherapies cognitive behavioural methods are proven effective. Shorter forms of cognitive therapies are also available: for example, cognitive bias modification. Pharmacotherapy partly decreases craving of the clients or ceases the effects of psychoactive substances. Specific pharmacotherapeutic methods prevent relapses in a non-abstinent treatment design. Here the goal is not the abstinence in a short time, but the reduction of harms associated with drug use. In this way, a new target group of drug users can be involved in treatment. PMID:24380964

  11. 75 FR 4900 - Drug Addiction and Alcoholism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... ADMINISTRATION Drug Addiction and Alcoholism AGENCY: Social Security Administration. ACTION: Request for Comments... persons whose drug addiction or alcoholism (DAA) may be a contributing factor material to our... publication in the Federal Register at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background The law...

  12. [Vaccines for the treatment of drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Zorzoli, Ermanno; Marino, Maria Giulia; Bagnato, Barbara; Franco, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of drug addiction is a very wide-ranging sector within modern medicine. The use of immunotherapy in this context represents an innovative approach. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate, through a literature review, the main avenues of research and the results obtained with immunotherapy in the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:27077562

  13. Attitudes of Former Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudouris, James

    1977-01-01

    Characteristics of addicts (N=222) and their own appraisal of which treatment modality they found most successful based upon their own experiences are of primary importance in prescribing a treatment for the addict. For the long-term addict continually in and out of prisons, perhaps methadone maintenance is the solution. (Author)

  14. Striatal Signal Transduction and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Philibin, Scott D.; Hernandez, Adan; Self, David W.; Bibb, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by loss of control over motivated behavior. The need for effective treatments mandates a greater understanding of the causes and identification of new therapeutic targets for drug development. Drugs of abuse subjugate normal reward-related behavior to uncontrollable drug-seeking and -taking. Contributions of brain reward circuitry are being mapped with increasing precision. The role of synaptic plasticity in addiction and underlying molecular mechanisms contributing to the formation of the addicted state are being delineated. Thus we may now consider the role of striatal signal transduction in addiction from a more integrative neurobiological perspective. Drugs of abuse alter dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in medium spiny neurons of the striatum. Dopamine receptors important for reward serve as principle targets of drugs abuse, which interact with glutamate receptor signaling critical for reward learning. Complex networks of intracellular signal transduction mechanisms underlying these receptors are strongly stimulated by addictive drugs. Through these mechanisms, repeated drug exposure alters functional and structural neuroplasticity, resulting in transition to the addicted biological state and behavioral outcomes that typify addiction. Ca2+ and cAMP represent key second messengers that initiate signaling cascades, which regulate synaptic strength and neuronal excitability. Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation are fundamental mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity that are dysregulated by drugs of abuse. Increased understanding of the regulatory mechanisms by which protein kinases and phosphatases exert their effects during normal reward learning and the addiction process may lead to novel targets and pharmacotherapeutics with increased efficacy in promoting abstinence and decreased side effects, such as interference with natural reward, for drug addiction. PMID

  15. Balancing motherhood and drug addiction: the transition to parenthood of addicted mothers.

    PubMed

    Silva, Sofia A; Pires, António P; Guerreiro, Cristina; Cardoso, Antónia

    2013-03-01

    This is a study about balancing motherhood and drug addiction, during the transition to parenthood. Few studies have dealt with the parental experience of drug-addicted mothers. The participants included 24 drug-addicted mothers, on methadone, with ages 25-42 and with children 1-32 months of age. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analyzed according to Grounded Theory. The mothers' main concern was the ambivalence they felt towards pregnancy/motherhood and drug addiction, which was associated with strong feelings of guilt. Confronted with this ambivalence their maternal role becomes merely functional. They focus on providing the basic care to the child, but show little willingness to talk or play. Social support, especially from the partner seems to have a positive role. PMID:22544158

  16. Drug Addiction, Love, and the Higher Power

    PubMed Central

    Sussman, Steve; Reynaud, Michel; Aubin, Henri-Jean; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This discussion piece suggests that reliance on a Higher Power in drug abuse recovery programs is entertained among some addicts for its psychobiological effects. Prayer, meditation, early romantic love, and drug abuse may have in common activation of mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways of the brain and the generation of intense emotional states. In this sense, reliance on a Higher Power may operate as a substitute addiction, which replaces the psychobiological functions formerly served by drug use. Implications of this perspective are discussed. PMID:21411471

  17. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Goldstein, R.Z.; Craig, A.D.; Bechara, A.; Garavan, H.; Childress, A.R.; Paulus, M.P.; Volkow, N.D.

    2009-08-27

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such 'denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and self-awareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug-related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction.

  18. The Neurocircuitry of Impaired Insight in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Rita Z.; Craig, A. D. (Bud); Bechara, Antoine; Garavan, Hugh; Childress, Anna Rose; Paulus, Martin P.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2010-01-01

    More than 80% of addicted individuals fail to seek treatment, which might reflect impairments in recognition of severity of disorder. Considered by some as intentional deception, such `denial' might instead reflect dysfunction of brain networks subserving insight and selfawareness. Here we review the scant literature on insight in addiction and integrate this perspective with the role of: (i) the insula in interoception, self-awareness and drug craving; (ii) the anterior cingulate in behavioral monitoring and response selection (relevant to disadvantageous choices in addiction); (iii) the dorsal striatum in automatic habit formation; and (iv) drug related stimuli that predict emotional behavior in addicted individuals, even without conscious awareness. We discuss implications for clinical treatment including the design of interventions to improve insight into illness severity in addiction. PMID:19716751

  19. An endocannabinoid hypothesis of drug reward and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Onaivi, Emmanuel S

    2008-10-01

    Pharmacologic treatment of drug and alcohol dependency has largely been disappointing, and new therapeutic targets and hypotheses are needed. There is accumulating evidence indicating a central role for the previously unknown but ubiquitous endocannabinoid physiological control system (EPCS) in the regulation of the rewarding effects of abused substances. Thus an endocannabinoid hypothesis of drug reward is postulated. Endocannabinoids mediate retrograde signaling in neuronal tissues and are involved in the regulation of synaptic transmission to suppress neurotransmitter release by the presynaptic cannabinoid receptors (CB-Rs). This powerful modulatory action on synaptic transmission has significant functional implications and interactions with the effects of abused substances. Our data, along with those from other investigators, provide strong new evidence for a role for EPCS modulation in the effects of drugs of abuse, and specifically for involvement of cannabinoid receptors in the neural basis of addiction. Cannabinoids and endocannabinoids appear to be involved in adding to the rewarding effects of addictive substances, including, nicotine, opiates, alcohol, cocaine, and BDZs. The results suggest that the EPCS may be an important natural regulatory mechanism for drug reward and a target for the treatment of addictive disorders. PMID:18991888

  20. Pain Control in the Presence of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Lumermann, Leandro; Zhu, Richard; Kodumudi, Gopal; Elhassan, Amir O; Kaye, Alan David

    2016-05-01

    Drug addiction is present in a significant proportion of the population in the USA and worldwide. Drug addiction can occur with the abuse of many types of substances including cocaine, marijuana, stimulants, alcohol, opioids, and tranquilizers. There is a high likelihood that clinicians will encounter patients with substance abuse disorders on a regular basis with the prevalence of the use of illicit substances and the high rate of abuse of prescription drugs. The use of abuse deterrent formulations of prescription opioid agents, pill counts, and urine drug abuse screenings are all useful strategies. Optimum pain management of patients with addiction in the outpatient and inpatient setting is essential to minimize pain states. Careful selection of medications and appropriate oversight, including drug agreements, can reduce drug-induced impairments, including sleep deficits and diminished physical, social, and sexual functioning. This review, therefore, discusses the prevalence of illicit and prescription drug addiction, the challenges of achieving optimum pain control, and the therapeutic approaches to be considered in this challenging population. More research is warranted to develop improved therapies and routes of treatments for optimum pain relief and to prevent the development of central sensitization, chronic pain, and impaired physical and social functioning in patients with drug addiction. PMID:27068665

  1. Stress Levels of Recovering Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaMon, Brent C.; Alonzo, Anthony

    It appears that chronic drug use may develop as a means of coping in which individuals use self-medication to produce a more desirable state of being. Because drugs are often used to cope with stress, this study examined stress among recovering male drug addicts (N=23) from an urban substance abuse program by administering a self-report inventory…

  2. Biology of Addiction: Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... External link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Biology of Addiction Drugs and Alcohol Can Hijack Your ... scientists are working to learn more about the biology of addiction. They’ve shown that addiction is ...

  3. The development and maintenance of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Wise, Roy A; Koob, George F

    2014-01-01

    What is the defining property of addiction? We dust off a several-decades-long debate about the relative importance of two forms of reinforcement—positive reinforcement, subjectively linked to drug-induced euphoria, and negative reinforcement, subjectively linked to the alleviation of pain—both of which figure importantly in addiction theory; each of these forms has dominated addiction theory in its time. We agree that addiction begins with the formation of habits through positive reinforcement and that drug-opposite physiological responses often establish the conditions for negative reinforcement to come into play at a time when tolerance, in the form of increasing reward thresholds, appears to develop into positive reinforcement. Wise’s work has tended to focus on positive-reinforcement mechanisms that are important for establishing drug-seeking habits and reinstating them quickly after periods of abstinence, whereas Koob’s work has tended to focus on the negative-reinforcement mechanisms that become most obvious in the late stages of sustained addiction. While we tend to agree with each other about the early and late stages of addiction, we hold different views as to (i) the point between early and late at which the diagnosis of ‘addiction’ should be invoked, (ii) the relative importance of positive and negative reinforcement leading up to this transition, and (iii) the degree to which the specifics of negative reinforcement can be generalized across the range of addictive agents. PMID:24121188

  4. [Nicotine--drug addiction--AIDS. Drug use habits of Vienna addicts].

    PubMed

    Loimer, N; Vedovelli, H; Presslich, O; Werner, E; Hollerer, E; Pfersmann, V; Schmid-Siegel, B

    1991-01-01

    In Austria it is illegal to sell tobacco to young adolescents. A diverse sample of 358 narcotic addicts was investigated at the Psychiatric University Clinic of Vienna. Data were obtained from on site confidential interviews and a HIV-test was conducted. The individual drug use history was recorded and, interestingly, tobacco addiction was the first stage in starting a drug career. Furthermore, a strong correlation was observed between onset of heroin use and HIV-1 infection. It is concluded that in Austria not only the availability nicotine and alcohol to young adolescents should be prohibited, but also their use should be punishable. Easy access to nicotine as in public restaurants or from automatic distributors, has to be withdrawn. Tobacco advertisements may drive vulnerable young adolescents to early nicotine abuse and this may be followed by addition to other drugs and diseases causing death, including AIDS. Socioeconomic data, as well as the methadone data are presented. 180 out of the 358 patients were on methadone maintenance. Methadone treatment offers a first step toward social rehabilitation for drug addicts who have been living as criminals on the fringe of society. Physicians have a clear responsibility to lead the effort on all fronts against tobacco, especially in view of the HIV epidemic. PMID:1763508

  5. Cognitive enhancement as a treatment for drug addictions.

    PubMed

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; DeVito, Elise E; Waters, Andrew J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction continues to be an important public health problem, with an estimated 22.6 million current illicit drug users in the United States alone. For many addictions, including cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana addiction, there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Behavioral treatments are effective but effects vary widely across individuals. Treatments that are effective across multiple addictions are greatly needed, and accumulating evidence suggests that one such approach may be pharmacological or behavioral interventions that enhance executive inhibitory control in addicts. Current evidence indicates that most forms of chronic drug use may be associated with significant cognitive impairments, especially in attention, working memory, and response inhibition functions. In some studies, these impairments predict poor treatment retention and outcome. A number of cognitive enhancing agents, including galantamine, modafinil, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and guanfacine, have shown promising findings in human studies. Specific behavioral interventions, including cognitive remediation, also show promise. However, whether improvement of selective cognitive functions reduces drug use behavior remains to be determined. Cognitive enhancement to improve treatment outcomes is a novel strategy worthy of future research, as are related questions such as whether these approaches may be broadly beneficial to most addicts or best reserved for substance users with specific demonstrated cognitive impairments. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Cognitive Enhancers'. PMID:22735770

  6. Cognitive Enhancement as a Treatment for Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Sofuoglu, Mehmet; DeVito, Elise E.; Waters, Andrew J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction continues to be an important public health problem, with an estimated 22.6 million current illicit drug users in the United States alone. For many addictions, including cocaine, methamphetamine, and marijuana addiction, there are no approved pharmacological treatments. Behavioral treatments are effective but effects vary widely across individuals. Treatments that are effective across multiple addictions are greatly needed, and accumulating evidence suggests that one such approach may be pharmacological or behavioral interventions that enhance executive inhibitory control in addicts. Current evidence indicates that most forms of chronic drug use may be associated with significant cognitive impairments, especially in attention, working memory, and response inhibition functions. In some studies, these impairments predict poor treatment retention and outcome. A number of cognitive enhancing agents, including galantamine, modafinil, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, and guanfacine, have shown promising findings in human studies. Specific behavioral interventions, including cognitive remediation, also show promise. However, whether improvement of selective cognitive functions reduces drug use behavior remains to be determined. Cognitive enhancement to improve treatment outcomes is a novel strategy worthy of future research, as are related questions such as whether these approaches may be broadly beneficial to most addicts or best reserved for substance users with specific demonstrated cognitive impairments. PMID:22735770

  7. Understanding Drug Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... addiction. For example: Photo by © Aleshyn_Andrei /Shutterstock Biology . The genes that people are born with account ... Passes Tests in Animals Childhood Maltreatment Changes Cortical Network Architecture and May Raise Risk for Substance Use ...

  8. GIRK Channel Plasticity and Implications for Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Marron Fernandez de Velasco, Ezequiel; McCall, Nora; Wickman, Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Drugs of abuse can "hijack" synaptic plasticity, a physiological basis of learning and memory, establishing maladaptations that can promote drug addiction. A wealth of data supports the existence and importance of neuroadaptations in excitatory neurotransmission upon drug exposure. Recent discoveries, however, have shown that inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (K(+)) (GIRK/Kir3) channels is also subject to adaptation triggered by exposure to drugs of abuse. GIRK channels are expressed in neuronal populations relevant to reward and reward-related behaviors, where their activation by neurotransmitters such as GABA, dopamine, and adenosine reduces neuronal excitability. Studies in animal models have implicated GIRK channels in a number of behaviors including reward. Drugs of abuse also affect the inhibitory neurotransmission mediated by GIRK channels. These changes might be important for the development, maintenance, or relapse of addiction, making GIRK channels promising targets for novel addiction therapies. PMID:26422986

  9. Treatment Approaches for Interoceptive Dysfunctions in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Paulus, Martin P.; Stewart, Jennifer L.; Haase, Lori

    2013-01-01

    There is emerging evidence that individuals with drug addiction have dysfunctions in brain systems that are important for interoceptive processing, which include, among others, the insular and the anterior cingulate cortices. These individuals may not be expending sufficient neural resources to process perturbations of the interoceptive state but may exert over-activation of these systems when processing drug-related stimuli. As a consequence, insufficient detection and processing of interoceptive state changes may result in inadequate anticipation and preparation to adapt to environmental challenges, e.g., adapt to abstinence in the presence of withdrawal symptoms. Here, we integrate interoceptive dysfunction in drug-addicted individuals, with the neural basis for meditation and exercise to develop a heuristic to target the interoceptive system as potential treatments for drug addiction. First, it is suggested that mindfulness-based approaches can modulate both interoceptive function and insular activation patterns. Second, there is an emerging literature showing that the regulation of physical exercise in the brain involves the insula and anterior cingulate cortex and that intense physical exercise is associated with a insula changes that may provide a window to attenuate the increased interoceptive response to drug-related stimuli. It is concluded that the conceptual framework of interoceptive dysfunctions in drug addiction and the experimental findings in meditation and exercise provide a useful approach to develop new interventions for drug addiction. PMID:24151471

  10. Motivating the Drug Addict in Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Pierre, C. Andre

    1971-01-01

    Experience with numbers of drug addicts has shown them to be singularly unmotivated to discontinue drug use. To develop motivation, a treatment program is described in terms of motivational progression: (1) confrontation of the problem; (2) development of an intellectual understanding of the problem and its harmful effects; and (3) development of…

  11. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H.; Galuska, Chad M.; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although…

  12. Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Behavior: The Science of Addiction » Preface Drugs, Brains, and Behavior: The Science of Addiction Email Facebook ... disorders have changed dramatically. Groundbreaking discoveries about the brain have revolutionized our understanding of compulsive drug use, ...

  13. Addicts Using Diarrhea Drug Imodium to Get High

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158685.html Addicts Using Diarrhea Drug Imodium to Get High Trend is increasing ... Vicodin, some addicts are now turning to the diarrhea drug Imodium for a high, researchers say. This ...

  14. Chronic Stress, Drug Use, and Vulnerability to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Stress is a well-known risk factor in the development of addiction and in addiction relapse vulnerability. A series of population-based and epidemiological studies have identified specific stressors and individual-level variables that are predictive of substance use and abuse. Preclinical research also shows that stress exposure enhances drug self-administration and reinstates drug seeking in drug-experienced animals. The deleterious effects of early life stress, child maltreatment, and accumulated adversity on alterations in the corticotropin releasing factor and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (CRF/HPA), the extrahypothalamic CRF, the autonomic arousal, and the central noradrenergic systems are also presented. The effects of these alterations on the corticostriatal-limbic motivational, learning, and adaptation systems that include mesolimbic dopamine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid (GABA) pathways are discussed as the underlying pathophysiology associated with stress-related risk of addiction. The effects of regular and chronic drug use on alterations in these stress and motivational systems are also reviewed, with specific attention to the impact of these adaptations on stress regulation, impulse control, and perpetuation of compulsive drug seeking and relapse susceptibility. Finally, research gaps in furthering our understanding of the association between stress and addiction are presented, with the hope that addressing these unanswered questions will significantly influence new prevention and treatment strategies to address vulnerability to addiction. PMID:18991954

  15. Relationship of personality traits and drug of choice by cocaine addicts and heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Gerra, G; Bertacca, S; Zaimovic, A; Pirani, M; Branchi, B; Ferri, M

    2008-01-01

    The link between specific personality profiles and a single psychotropic drug of choice is still unclear and only partially explored. The present study compares three groups of male subjects: 85 patients manifesting heroin dependence (age: 30.07 +/- 2.78), 60 patients manifesting cocaine dependence (age: 31.96 +/- 3.1), and 50 healthy subjects from a random population sample (age: 33.25 +/- 1.45). The patients included in the study showed a long-lasting history of dependence on heroin or cocaine, respectively, 5.2 +/- 2.5 years, 4.6 +/- 2.9 years, and were stabilized in treatment, and abstinent, at least 4 weeks at the time of the diagnostic assessment. Heroin addicts (52.90%) were on methadone maintenance treatment. Cocaine addicts (11.60%) were treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Personality traits were measured by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) and Cloninger's Three-dimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Character and quantification of aggressiveness were measured by the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Heroin-dependent patients (group A) scored significantly higher on hysteria, masculine-feminine and social introversion subscales of the MMPI, and significantly lower on the harm avoidance (HA) subscale of the TPQ than cocaine addicts. In contrast, scores on the MMPI for hypochondria, psychopathic deviance, and paranoia dimensions were more elevated in cocaine addicts than in heroin-dependent patients. Cocaine addicts scored higher than heroin addicts on the "direct" aggressiveness subscale and on the BDHI total score. Cocaine addicts did not differ from healthy controls on harm avoidance (behavioral control). Although cocaine addicts showed more consistent psychopathic deviance and overt aggressiveness than heroin addicts, higher harm avoidance (behavioral control), hypochondria (or worry about their health), and social extroversion may reduce their proneness to overt antisocial behavior and allow

  16. Network-assisted prediction of potential drugs for addiction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jingchun; Huang, Liang-Chin; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic and complex brain disease, adding much burden on the community. Though numerous efforts have been made to identify the effective treatment, it is necessary to find more novel therapeutics for this complex disease. As network pharmacology has become a promising approach for drug repurposing, we proposed to apply the approach to drug addiction, which might provide new clues for the development of effective addiction treatment drugs. We first extracted 44 addictive drugs from the NIDA and their targets from DrugBank. Then, we constructed two networks: an addictive drug-target network and an expanded addictive drug-target network by adding other drugs that have at least one common target with these addictive drugs. By performing network analyses, we found that those addictive drugs with similar actions tended to cluster together. Additionally, we predicted 94 nonaddictive drugs with potential pharmacological functions to the addictive drugs. By examining the PubMed data, 51 drugs significantly cooccurred with addictive keywords than expected. Thus, the network analyses provide a list of candidate drugs for further investigation of their potential in addiction treatment or risk. PMID:24689033

  17. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  18. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  19. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  20. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section 17... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  1. 43 CFR 17.251 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 17.251 Section... Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or addict who is suffering from...

  2. [Cognitive impairments in psychoactive drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Chukhlovina, M T

    2015-01-01

    This short literature review addresses common features of the pathogenesis and treatment of cognitive impairment in people with drug addiction (cocaine, opioids, hashish, amphetamine, benzodiazepines). A role of cholinergic deficit in the development of cognitive impairment and possibilities of its treatment with acetylcholineesterase inhibitions are analyzed. PMID:26438897

  3. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Rup, Kinga; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Kalivas, Peter W; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Glutamatergic excitatory transmission is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions like learning, memory, neuronal plasticity and emotions, while glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and pain. Also, several lines of evidence have accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors. Among the proteins regulating glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are being developed as pharmacological targets for treating many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. In this review we describe the molecular structure of mGluRs and their distribution, physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, as well as their use as targets in preclinical studies of drug addiction. PMID:24362085

  4. Glutamatergic substrates of drug addiction and alcoholism1

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Justin T.; Foster Olive, M.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a dramatic accumulation of evidence indicating that the excitatory amino acid glutamate plays an important role in drug addiction and alcoholism. The purpose of this review is to summarize findings on glutamatergic substrates of addiction, surveying data from both human and animal studies. The effects of various drugs of abuse on glutamatergic neurotransmission are discussed, as are the effects of pharmacological or genetic manipulation of various components of glutamate transmission on drug reinforcement, conditioned reward, extinction, and relapse-like behavior. In addition, glutamatergic agents that are currently in use or are undergoing testing in clinical trials for the treatment of addiction are discussed, including acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine, modafinil, topiramate, lamotrigine, gabapentin and mematine. All drugs of abuse appear to modulate glutamatergic transmission, albeit by different mechanisms, and this modulation of glutamate transmission is believed to result in long-lasting neuroplastic changes in the brain that may contribute to the perseveration of drug-seeking behavior and drug-associated memories. In general, attenuation of glutamatergic transmission reduces drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. On the other hand, potentiation of glutamatergic transmission appears to facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behavior. However, attempts at identifying genetic polymorphisms in components of glutamate transmission in humans have yielded only a limited number of candidate genes that may serve as risk factors for the development of addiction. Nonetheless, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be a promising avenue of research in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. PMID:17706608

  5. Understanding Drug Use and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  6. The development of children of drug addicts.

    PubMed

    Bauman, P S; Levine, S A

    1986-08-01

    The present study compared 70 methadone-maintained mothers (MM) and their 70 preschool-age children to a matched control group of 70 non-drug-addicted mothers (NDA) and their 70 preschool-age children on mothers' personalities, intelligence levels, and parenting attitudes and behavior; and on children's behavior and intelligence and developmental levels. Findings showed that in comparison to the control group, MM mothers performed less adaptively on measures of intelligence, personality, and parenting behavior. Their scores on the parenting attitude measures reflected authoritarian childrearing beliefs. Children of MM mothers performed more poorly than children of NDA mothers on measures of intelligence and socially adaptive behavior. In a comparison of children of MM mothers who experienced withdrawal from drugs at birth to children of MM mothers who were not born addicted to drugs, results revealed a tendency for withdrawal children to have developmental delays, lower IQ scores, and lower heights and weights. PMID:3771015

  7. Drug addiction as a pathology of staged neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, Peter W; O'Brien, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Using addictive drugs can evolve from controlled social use into the compulsive relapsing disorder that characterizes addiction. This transition to addiction results from genetic, developmental, and sociological vulnerabilities, combined with pharmacologically induced plasticity in brain circuitry that strengthens learned drug-associated behaviors at the expense of adaptive responding for natural rewards. Advances over the last decade have identified the brain circuits most vulnerable to drug-induced changes, as well as many associated molecular and morphological underpinnings. This growing knowledge has contributed to an expanded understanding of how drugs usurp normal learning circuitry to create the pathology of addiction, as evidenced by involuntary activation of reward circuits in response to drug-associated cues and simultaneous reports of drug craving. This new understanding provides unprecedented potential opportunities for novel pharmacotherapeutic targets in treating addiction. There appears to be plasticity associated with the addiction phenomenon in general as well as changes produced by addiction to a specific class of addicting drugs. These findings also provide the basis for the current understanding of addiction as a chronic, relapsing disease of the brain with changes that persist long after the last use of the drug. Here, we describe the neuroplasticity in brain circuits and cell function induced by addictive drugs that is thought to underlie the compulsions to resume drug-taking, and discuss how this knowledge is impelling exploration and testing of novel addiction therapies. PMID:17805308

  8. mGlu receptors and drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, Richard M.; Olive, M. Foster

    2011-01-01

    Historically, brain catecholamine systems have been the primary focus of studies examining the neural substrates of drug addiction. In the past two decades, however, a wealth of evidence has accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors as well as long-term neuroplasticity associated with chronic drug use. As a result, there has been increased interest in developing glutamate-based therapies for the treatment of addictive disorders. Metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are classified into subcategories designated as Group I (mGlu1 and mGlu5), Group II (mGlu2 and mGlu3), and Group III (mGlu4, mGlu6, mGlu7, and mGlu8), and have received a great deal of attention due to their mediation of slower modulatory excitatory neurotransmission. Pharmacological ligands targeting these receptors have demonstrated reduced incidences of excitotoxicity or severe adverse side effects as compared to those targeting ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors. Behavioral genetic and pharmacological studies have explored the role of individual mGlu receptor subtypes in regulating various addiction-related behaviours and several mGlu receptor ligands have been the subject of clinical testing for other medical conditions. PMID:22662312

  9. MicroRNAs and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Purva; Kenny, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is considered a disorder of neuroplasticity in brain reward and cognition systems resulting from aberrant activation of gene expression programs in response to prolonged drug consumption. Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are key regulators of almost all aspects of cellular physiology. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (∼21–23 nucleotides) ncRNAs transcripts that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, miRNAs were shown to play key roles in the drug-induced remodeling of brain reward systems that likely drives the emergence of addiction. Here, we review evidence suggesting that one particular miRNA, miR-212, plays a particularly prominent role in vulnerability to cocaine addiction. We review evidence showing that miR-212 expression is increased in the dorsal striatum of rats that show compulsive-like cocaine-taking behaviors. Increases in miR-212 expression appear to protect against cocaine addiction, as virus-mediated striatal miR-212 overexpression decreases cocaine consumption in rats. Conversely, disruption of striatal miR-212 signaling using an antisense oligonucleotide increases cocaine intake. We also review data that identify two mechanisms by which miR-212 may regulate cocaine intake. First, miR-212 has been shown to amplify striatal cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling through a mechanism involving activation of Raf1 kinase. Second, miR-212 was also shown to regulate cocaine intake by repressing striatal expression of methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2), consequently decreasing protein levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The concerted actions of miR-212 on striatal CREB and MeCP2/BDNF activity greatly attenuate the motivational effects of cocaine. These findings highlight the unique role for miRNAs in simultaneously controlling multiple signaling cascades implicated in addiction. PMID:23717324

  10. Anti-Addiction Drug May Help Curb Painkiller, Heroin Dependence

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Anti-Addiction Drug May Help Curb Painkiller, Heroin Dependence Study finds lower relapse rate associated with ... the country's escalating addiction to opioid painkillers and heroin, a new study suggests. Researchers found that monthly ...

  11. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:26594139

  12. Glutamatergic transmission in drug reward: implications for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Manoranjan S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals addicted to drugs of abuse such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, and heroin are a significant burden on healthcare systems all over the world. The positive reinforcing (rewarding) effects of the above mentioned drugs play a major role in the initiation and maintenance of the drug-taking habit. Thus, understanding the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse is critical to reducing the burden of drug addiction in society. Over the last two decades, there has been an increasing focus on the role of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate in drug addiction. In this review, pharmacological and genetic evidence supporting the role of glutamate in mediating the rewarding effects of the above described drugs of abuse will be discussed. Further, the review will discuss the role of glutamate transmission in two complex heterogeneous brain regions, namely the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. In addition, several medications approved by the Food and Drug Administration that act by blocking glutamate transmission will be discussed in the context of drug reward. Finally, this review will discuss future studies needed to address currently unanswered gaps in knowledge, which will further elucidate the role of glutamate in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. PMID:26594139

  13. The role of the endogenous cannabinoid system in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Parolaro, D; Rubino, T

    2008-04-01

    This review aims to present the more recent knowledge on the role of the endocannabinoid system in drug addiction. For a long time, dopamine has been consistently associated with the reinforcing effects of most drugs of abuse but, recently, pharmacological evidence points to the possibility that pharmacological management of the endocannabinoid system might not only block the direct reinforcing effect of cannabis, opioids, nicotine and ethanol, but also prevent the relapse to various drugs of abuse including opioids, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol and amphetamine. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that the manipulation of the endocannabinoid system through the CB(1) receptor antagonist SR-141716A (rimonabant) might constitute a new therapeutical strategy for treating addiction across different classes of abused drugs. PMID:18560613

  14. School Services for Drug-Addicted Children: What Parents Need to Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelker, Katharin A.

    1990-01-01

    This article discusses applications of education legislation for drug-addicted children, including the Education for All Handicapped Children Act and Sec. 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which recognizes smoking and drug addiction as handicapping conditions. Suggested guidelines for parents seeking school support services under these laws…

  15. The Problem-Drinking Drug Addict. Services Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Harriet L.; Cohen, Arie

    An increasingly important consideration in drug abuse policy and programming is the growing number of multiple substance abusers, i.e., problem-drinking drug addicts. A longitudinal study of two drug addict populations examined drug and alcohol usage, psychological variables, and criminal justice and employment indicators. Findings indicated that…

  16. [Ilicit drugs frequently used by drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Cirriez, J P

    2015-03-01

    Drugs stimulate the brain causing mental and physical effects. The effects of drugs can be stimulating, narcotic or mind-altering. This article briefly discusses some commonly used illicit drugs, namely heroin, cocaine, cannabis, ecstasy, amphetamines, LSD, psilocybin mushrooms and poppers. PMID:26571792

  17. From one addiction to another: life after alcohol and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Hatcher, A S

    1989-11-01

    Once the alcoholic or drug addict has stopped drinking or using drugs, other addictive behaviors are frequently adopted. These factors must be considered in planning the overall recovery program. Substances likely to be used to excess include nicotine, caffeine, sugar, chocolate, nutritional supplements and medicinal herbs. Addictive behaviors adopted by recovering persons include eating disorders, exercise and body building, workaholism, and dependency on one's own adrenalin. Breaking the cycle of addiction requires commitment to a program of self-growth and becoming responsible for one's actions. PMID:2586856

  18. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  19. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  20. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  1. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  2. Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet can function as a resource for counselors, counselors in training, or anyone else who works with or knows someone who is addicted to drugs. It begins by identifying 13 principles of effective treatment for drug abusers. It then provides answers to 11 frequently asked questions regarding drug addiction treatment. Next it discusses drug…

  3. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  4. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  5. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  6. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  7. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  8. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  9. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  10. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  11. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  12. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  13. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  14. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  15. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  16. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  17. 38 CFR 18.453 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts... Social Services § 18.453 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate, with regard to a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who...

  18. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  19. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  20. 22 CFR 142.63 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 142.63 Section 142.63... § 142.63 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates a general hospital or outpatient facility may not discriminate in admission or treatment against a drug or...

  1. 34 CFR 104.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 104.53 Section 104.53... ASSISTANCE Health, Welfare, and Social Services § 104.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this... or treatment against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical...

  2. 45 CFR 84.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 84.53 Section 84.53... Social Services § 84.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies that operates... drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of the...

  3. 45 CFR 605.53 - Drug and alcohol addicts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drug and alcohol addicts. 605.53 Section 605.53..., Welfare, and Social Services § 605.53 Drug and alcohol addicts. A recipient to which this subpart applies... against a drug or alcohol abuser or alcoholic who is suffering from a medical condition, because of...

  4. Violent Behaviors in Drug Addiction: Differential Profiles of Drug-Addicted Patients with and without Violence Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Montalvo, Javier; Lopez-Goni, Jose J.; Arteaga, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent behaviors in patients who are addicted to drugs. A sample of 252 addicted patients (203 male and 49 female) who sought outpatient treatment was assessed. Information on violent behaviors, sociodemographic factors, consumption factors (assessed by the European version of the Addiction Severity Index…

  5. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Smethells, John R.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  6. Sex Differences in Behavioral Dyscontrol: Role in Drug Addiction and Novel Treatments.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Marilyn E; Smethells, John R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to discuss recent findings related to sex differences in behavioral dyscontrol that lead to drug addiction, and clinical implications for humans are discussed. This review includes research conducted in animals and humans that reveals fundamental aspects of behavioral dyscontrol. The importance of sex differences in aspects of behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity and compulsivity, is discussed as major determinants of drug addiction. Behavioral dyscontrol during adolescence is also an important consideration, as this is the time of onset for drug addiction. These vulnerability factors additively increase drug-abuse vulnerability, and they are integral aspects of addiction that covary and interact with sex differences. Sex differences in treatments for drug addiction are also reviewed in terms of their ability to modify the behavioral dyscontrol that underlies addictive behavior. Customized treatments to reduce behavioral dyscontrol are discussed, such as (1) using natural consequences such as non-drug rewards (e.g., exercise) to maintain abstinence, or using punishment as a consequence for drug use, (2) targeting factors that underlie behavioral dyscontrol, such as impulsivity or anxiety, by repurposing medications to relieve these underlying conditions, and (3) combining two or more novel behavioral or pharmacological treatments to produce additive reductions in drug seeking. Recent published work has indicated that factors contributing to behavioral dyscontrol are an important target for advancing our knowledge on the etiology of drug abuse, intervening with the drug addiction process and developing novel treatments. PMID:26903885

  7. Drug Addiction and Stress-Response Genetic Variability: Association Study in African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p < 0.05), including the African-specific, missense SNP rs5376 (Asn334Ser) in the galanin receptor type 1 gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. PMID:24766650

  8. Drug addiction and stress-response genetic variability: association study in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Levran, Orna; Randesi, Matthew; Li, Yi; Rotrosen, John; Ott, Jurg; Adelson, Miriam; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2014-07-01

    Stress is a significant risk factor in the development of drug addictions and in addiction relapse susceptibility. This hypothesis-driven study was designed to determine if specific SNPs in genes related to stress response are associated with heroin and/or cocaine addiction in African Americans. The analysis included 27 genes (124 SNPs) and was performed independently for each addiction. The sample consisted of former heroin addicts in methadone maintenance treatment (n = 314), cocaine addicts (n = 281), and controls (n = 208). Fourteen SNPs showed nominally significant association with heroin addiction (p < 0.05), including the African-specific, missense SNP rs5376 (Asn334Ser) in the galanin receptor type 1 gene (GALR1) and the functional FKBP5 intronic SNP rs1360780. Thirteen SNPs showed association with cocaine addiction, including the synonymous SNPs rs237902, in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and rs5374 in GALR1. No signal remained significant after correction for multiple testing. Four additional SNPs (GALR1 rs2717162, AVP rs2282018, CRHBP rs1875999, and NR3C2 rs1040288) were associated with both addictions and may indicate common liability. The study provides preliminary evidence for novel association of variants in several stress-related genes with heroin and/or cocaine addictions and may enhance the understanding of the interaction between stress and addictions. PMID:24766650

  9. NMDA Receptor Modulators in the Treatment of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Tomek, Seven E.; LaCrosse, Amber L.; Nemirovsky, Natali E.; Olive, M. Foster

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in drug addiction, and the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor subtype serves as a molecular target for several drugs of abuse. In this review, we will provide an overview of NMDA receptor structure and function, followed by a review of the mechanism of action, clinical efficacy, and side effect profile of NMDA receptor ligands that are currently in use or being explored for the treatment of drug addiction. These ligands include the NMDA receptor modulators memantine and acamprosate, as well as the partial NMDA agonist d-Cycloserine. Data collected to date suggest that direct NMDA receptor modulators have relatively limited efficacy in the treatment of drug addiction, and that partial agonism of NMDA receptors may have some efficacy with regards to extinction learning during cue exposure therapy. However, the lack of consistency in results to date clearly indicates that additional studies are needed, as are studies examining novel ligands with indirect mechanisms for altering NMDA receptor function. PMID:24275950

  10. Drug addiction and the memory systems of the brain.

    PubMed

    Robbins, T W; Ersche, K D; Everitt, B J

    2008-10-01

    We review drug addiction from the perspective of the hypothesis that drugs of abuse interact with distinct brain memory systems. We focus on emotional and procedural forms of memory, encompassing Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning, both for action-outcome and for stimulus-response associations. Neural structures encompassed by these systems include the amygdala, hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, and dorsal striatum. Additional influences emanate from the anterior cingulate and prefrontal cortex, which are implicated in the encoding and retrieval of drug-related memories that lead to drug craving and drug use. Finally, we consider the ancillary point that chronic abuse of many drugs may impact directly on neural memory systems via neuroadaptive and neurotoxic effects that lead to cognitive impairments in which memory dysfunction is prominent. PMID:18991949

  11. Case Studies: Profiles of Women Recovering from Drug Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Suzanne M.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles two women over an eight-month study who abused alcohol and other drugs while pregnant and describes their recovery from the addiction. Examines, from an ecological framework, the women's experiences with drug addiction, treatment, and recovery, and recounts their situation through each. (JPS)

  12. Factors in Successful Relapse Prevention among Hong Kong Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-Kiu; Lee, Tak-Yan; Lee, Chak-Man

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on the findings of a study involving intensive interviews with 21 former drug addicts who had successfully maintained abstinence for periods ranging from one-and-a-half to four years. They were among the 74 successful former drug addicts out of a pool of more than 2,000 participating in a major rehabilitation program in Hong…

  13. ENDOCANNABINOID INFLUENCE IN DRUG REINFORCEMENT, DEPENDENCE AND ADDICTION-RELATED BEHAVIORS

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Antonia; Parsons, Loren H.

    2011-01-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid system is an important regulatory system involved in physiological homeostasis. Endocannabinoid signaling is known to modulate neural development, immune function, metabolism, synaptic plasticity and emotional state. Accumulating evidence also implicates brain endocannabinoid signaling in the etiology of drug addiction which is characterized by compulsive drug seeking, loss of control in limiting drug intake, emergence of a negative emotional state in the absence of drug use and a persistent vulnerability toward relapse to drug use during protracted abstinence. In this review we discuss the effects of drug intake on brain endocannabinoid signaling, evidence implicating the endocannabinoid system in the motivation for drug consumption, and drug-induced alterations in endocannabinoid function that may contribute to various aspects of addiction including dysregulated synaptic plasticity, increased stress responsivity, negative affective states, drug craving and relapse to drug taking. Current knowledge of genetic variants in endocannabinoid signaling associated with addiction is also discussed. PMID:21798285

  14. 78 FR 62427 - TRICARE; Removal of the Prohibition To Use Addictive Drugs in the Maintenance Treatment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... the substitution of a therapeutic drug, with addictive potential, for a drug of addiction when... substitution of a therapeutic drug with addiction potential, for a drug of addiction, is now generally accepted... therapeutic drug with addictive potential, for a drug of addiction as a component in an otherwise...

  15. Behavioral Perspectives on the Neuroscience of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Winger, Gail; Woods, James H; Galuska, Chad M; Wade-Galuska, Tammy

    2005-01-01

    Neuroscientific approaches to drug addiction traditionally have been based on the premise that addiction is a process that results from brain changes that in turn result from chronic administration of drugs of abuse. An alternative approach views drug addiction as a behavioral disorder in which drugs function as preeminent reinforcers. Although there is a fundamental discrepancy between these two approaches, the emerging neuroscience of reinforcement and choice behavior eventually may shed light on the brain mechanisms involved in excessive drug use. Behavioral scientists could assist in this understanding by devoting more attention to the assessment of differences in the reinforcing strength of drugs and by attempting to develop and validate behavioral models of addiction. PMID:16596985

  16. Addicted to Palatable Foods: Comparing the Neurobiology of Bulimia Nervosa to that of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Hadad, Natalie A.; Knackstedt, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Bulimia Nervosa (BN) is highly comorbid with substance abuse and shares common phenotypic and genetic predispositions with drug addiction. Although treatments for the two disorders are similar, controversy remains about whether BN should be classified as addiction. Objectives: Here we review the animal and human literature with the goal of assessing whether BN and drug addiction share a common neurobiology. Results: Similar neurobiological features are present following administration of drugs and bingeing on palatable food, especially sugar. Specifically, both disorders involve increases in extracellular dopamine (DA), D1 binding, D3 mRNA, and ΔFosB in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Animal models of BN reveal increases in ventral tegmental area (VTA) DA and enzymes involved in DA synthesis that resemble changes observed after exposure to addictive drugs. Additionally, alterations in the expression of glutamate receptors and prefrontal cortex activity present in human BN or following sugar bingeing in animals are comparable to the effects of addictive drugs. The two disorders differ in regards to alterations in NAc D2 binding, VTA DAT mRNA expression, and the efficacy of drugs targeting glutamate to treat these disorders. Conclusions: Although additional empirical studies are necessary, the synthesis of the two bodies of research presented here suggests that BN shares many neurobiological features with drug addiction. While few FDA-approved options currently exist for the treatment of drug addiction, pharmacotherapies developed in the future which target the glutamate, DA, and opioid systems may be beneficial for the treatment of both BN and drug addiction. PMID:24500676

  17. Glutamatergic Targets for Enhancing Extinction Learning in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, R.M; Gass, J.T; Widholm, J.J; Olive, M.F

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the motivational salience of drug-related environmental cues and contexts is one of the most problematic obstacles to successful treatment of drug addiction. Behavioral approaches to extinguishing the salience of drug-associated cues, such as cue exposure therapy, have generally produced disappointing results which have been attributed to, among other things, the context specificity of extinction and inadequate consolidation of extinction learning. Extinction of any behavior or conditioned response is a process of new and active learning, and increasing evidence suggests that glutamatergic neurotransmission, a key component of the neural plasticity that underlies normal learning and memory, is also involved in extinction learning. This review will summarize findings from both animal and human studies that suggest that pharmacological enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission facilitates extinction learning in the context of drug addiction. Pharmacological agents that have shown potential efficacy include NMDA partial agonists, mGluR5 receptor positive allosteric modulators, inhibitors of the GlyT1 glycine transporter, AMPA receptor potentiators, and activators of the cystine-glutamate exchanger. These classes of cognition-enhancing compounds could potentially serve as novel pharmacological adjuncts to cue exposure therapy to increase success rates in attenuating cue-induced drug craving and relapse. PMID:21629446

  18. Neurocognitive Characterizations of Russian Heroin Addicts without a Significant History of Other Drug Use

    PubMed Central

    Fishbein, Diana H.; Krupitsky, Evgeny; Flannery, Barbara A.; Langevin, Doris J.; Bobashev, Georgiy; Verbitskaya, Elena; Augustine, Cynthia B.; Bolla, Karen I.; Zvartau, Edwin; Schech, Barry; Egorova, Valentina; Bushara, Natali; Tsoy, Marina

    2007-01-01

    Research on the neurocognitive characteristics of heroin addiction is sparse and studies that do exist include polydrug abusers; thus, they are unable to distinguish neurocognitive effects of heroin from those of other drugs. To identify neurocognitive correlates specific to heroin addiction, the present study was conducted in St. Petersburg, Russia where individuals typically abuse and/or become addicted to only one substance, generally alcohol or heroin. Heroin addicts were recruited from an inpatient treatment facility in St. Petersburg. Three comparison groups included alcoholics, addicts who used both alcohol and heroin, and non-abusers. Psychiatric, background, and drug history evaluations were administered after detoxification to screen for exclusion criteria and characterize the sample. Executive Cognitive Functions (ECF) that largely activate areas of the prefrontal cortex and its circuitry measured include complex visual pattern recognition (Paired Associates Learning), working memory (Delayed Matching to Sample), problem solving (Stockings of Cambridge), executive decision making (Cambridge Decision Making Task), cognitive flexibility (Stroop Color-Word Task) and response shifting (Stop Change Task). In many respects, the heroin addicts were similar to alcohol and alcohol\\heroin dependent groups in neurocognitive deficits relative to controls. The primary finding was that heroin addicts exhibited significantly more disadvantageous decision making and longer deliberation times while making risky decisions than the other groups. Because the nature and degree of recovery from drug abuse are likely a function of the type or pattern of neurocognitive impairment, differential drug effects must be considered. PMID:17382488

  19. Brain dopaminergic system changes in drug addiction: a review of positron emission tomography findings.

    PubMed

    Hou, Haifeng; Wang, Chunyan; Jia, Shaowei; Hu, Shu; Tian, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction remains unclear. Positron emission tomography (PET) is the first technology used for in vivo measurement of components of the dopaminergic system in the human brain. In this article, we review the major findings from PET imaging studies on the involvement of DA in drug addiction, including presynaptic DA synthesis, vesicular monoamine transporter 2, the DA transporter, and postsynaptic DA receptors. These results have corroborated the role of DA in addiction and increased the understanding of its underlying mechanisms. PMID:25260796

  20. Pharmacogenetics of alcohol, nicotine and drug addiction treatments.

    PubMed

    Sturgess, Jessica E; George, Tony P; Kennedy, James L; Heinz, Andreas; Müller, Daniel J

    2011-07-01

    The numerous premature deaths, medical complications and socio-economic repercussions of drug and alcohol addiction suggest that improvements in treatment strategies for addictive disorders are warranted. The use of pharmacogenetics to predict response to medication, side effects and appropriate dosages is relatively new in the field of drug addiction. However, increasing our understanding of the genetic factors influencing these processes may improve the treatment of addiction in the future. We examined the available scientific literature on pharmacogenetic advancements in the field of drug addiction with a focus on alcohol and tobacco to provide a summary of genes implicated in the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy for addiction. In addition, we reviewed pharmacogenetic research on cocaine and heroin dependence. Thus far, the most promising results were obtained for polymorphisms in the OPRM1 and CYP2A6 genes, which have been effective in predicting clinical response to naltrexone in alcoholism and nicotine replacement therapy in smoking, respectively. Opinions differ as to whether pharmacogenetic testing should be implemented in the clinic at this time because clinical utility and cost-effectiveness require further investigation. However, the data summarized in this review demonstrate that pharmacogenetic factors play a role in response to addiction pharmacotherapy and have the potential to aid in the personalization of addiction treatments. Such data may lead to improved cessation rates by allowing physicians to select medications for individuals based, at least in part, on genetic factors that predispose to treatment success or failure rather than on a trial and error basis. PMID:21362114

  1. Orexin Receptor Targets for Anti-Relapse Medication Development in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Luyi; Sun, Wei-Lun; See, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic illness characterized by high rates of relapse. Relapse to drug use can be triggered by re-exposure to drug-associated cues, stressful events, or the drug itself after a period of abstinence. Pharmacological intervention to reduce the impact of relapse-instigating factors offers a promising target for addiction treatment. Growing evidence has implicated an important role of the orexin/hypocretin system in drug reward and drug-seeking, including animal models of relapse. Here, we review the evidence for the role of orexins in modulating reward and drug-seeking in animal models of addiction and the potential for orexin receptors as specific targets for anti-relapse medication approaches. PMID:23997653

  2. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior Past Issues / ... brain structure and function. Advances in brain imaging science make it possible to see inside the brain ...

  3. Drug addiction in pregnancy: disease not moral failure.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Nurses have demonstrated concern for years about their interactions with pregnant women who abuse drugs. Reports of nurses' concern with substance abuse have been reported in the literature since the 1980s. As with any chronic disease, drug addiction causes physiologic changes, and the pathology that occurs in the brain drives characteristic behaviors. Research suggests that choices that addicts make are driven by pathology rather than by failure of a moral compass. This article reviews the theoretical explanations for addictive behaviors, describes the pathophysiology of drug addiction that is responsible for the predictable symptoms and behaviors exhibited by women who abuse prescription drugs and other opioids, and identifies nursing interventions to impact positive outcomes. Nurses who have a working knowledge of this disease will provide more effective nursing care to the women they encounter and are better prepared to make a difference in the lives of both women and their children. PMID:24413031

  4. Animal models and brain circuits in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, Peter W; Peters, Jamie; Knackstedt, Lori

    2006-12-01

    Animal models in the field of addiction are considered to be among the best available models of neuropsychiatric disease. These models have undergone a number of refinements that allow deeper understanding of the circuitry involved in initiating drug seeking and relapse. Notably, the demonstrable involvement of classic corticostriatal habit circuitry and the engagement of prefrontal cortical circuits in extinction training may have relevance to the therapeutic modulation of habit circuitry and drug addiction in humans. PMID:17200461

  5. 78 FR 54735 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A... those struggling to break free from addiction. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month... and drug addiction remains a serious challenge in our country, but with support from loved ones...

  6. Patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, drug treatment history and characteristics of addicts in methadone maintenance treatment in Iran

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Opiates are the main drugs of abuse, and Methadone Maintenance Treatment (MMT) is the most widely administered drug addiction treatment program in Iran. Our study aimed to investigate patterns of pre-treatment drug abuse, addiction treatment history and characteristics of patients in MMT in Tehran. Methods We applied a stratified cluster random sampling technique and conducted a cross-sectional survey utilizing a standard patient characteristic and addiction history form with patients (n = 810) in MMT. The Chi-square test and t-test served for statistical analyses. Results A clear majority of the participants were men (96%), more than 60% of whom were between 25 and 44 years of age, educated (89% had more than elementary education), and employed (>70%). The most commonly reported main drugs of abuse prior to MMT entry were opium (69%) and crystalline heroin (24%). The patients’ lifetime drug experience included opium (92%), crystalline heroin (28%), cannabis (16%), amphetamines (15%), and other drugs (33%). Crystalline heroin abusers were younger than opium users, had begun abusing drugs earlier, and reported a shorter history of opiate addiction. Conclusion Opium and crystalline heroin were the main drugs of abuse. A high rate of addiction using more dangerous opiate drugs such as crystalline heroin calls for more preventive efforts, especially among young men. PMID:22676557

  7. Role of nucleus accumbens glutamatergic plasticity in drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2013-01-01

    Substance dependence is characterized by a group of symptoms, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). These symptoms include tolerance, withdrawal, drug consumption for alleviating withdrawal, exaggerated consumption beyond original intention, failure to reduce drug consumption, expending a considerable amount of time obtaining or recovering from the substance’s effects, disregard of basic aspects of life (for example, family), and maintenance of drug consumption, despite facing adverse consequences. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain structure located in the basal forebrain of vertebrates, and it has been the target of addictive drugs. Different neurotransmitter systems at the level of the NAc circuitry have been linked to the different problems of drug addiction, like compulsive use and relapse. The glutamate system has been linked mainly to relapse after drug-seeking extinction. The dopamine system has been linked mainly to compulsive drug use. The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis centers around the dynamics of synaptic and extrasynaptic levels of glutamate, and their impact on circuitry from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the NAc. After repetitive drug use, deregulation of this homeostasis increases the release of glutamate from the PFC to the NAc during drug relapse. Glial cells also play a fundamental role in this hypothesis; glial cells shape the interactions between the PFC and the NAc by means of altering glutamate levels in synaptic and extrasynaptic spaces. On the other hand, cocaine self-administration and withdrawal increases the surface expression of subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluA1) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors at the level of the NAc. Also, cocaine self-administration and withdrawal induce the formation of subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluA2), lacking the Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) at the level of the NAc

  8. Role of nucleus accumbens glutamatergic plasticity in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2013-01-01

    Substance dependence is characterized by a group of symptoms, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR). These symptoms include tolerance, withdrawal, drug consumption for alleviating withdrawal, exaggerated consumption beyond original intention, failure to reduce drug consumption, expending a considerable amount of time obtaining or recovering from the substance's effects, disregard of basic aspects of life (for example, family), and maintenance of drug consumption, despite facing adverse consequences. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is a brain structure located in the basal forebrain of vertebrates, and it has been the target of addictive drugs. Different neurotransmitter systems at the level of the NAc circuitry have been linked to the different problems of drug addiction, like compulsive use and relapse. The glutamate system has been linked mainly to relapse after drug-seeking extinction. The dopamine system has been linked mainly to compulsive drug use. The glutamate homeostasis hypothesis centers around the dynamics of synaptic and extrasynaptic levels of glutamate, and their impact on circuitry from the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to the NAc. After repetitive drug use, deregulation of this homeostasis increases the release of glutamate from the PFC to the NAc during drug relapse. Glial cells also play a fundamental role in this hypothesis; glial cells shape the interactions between the PFC and the NAc by means of altering glutamate levels in synaptic and extrasynaptic spaces. On the other hand, cocaine self-administration and withdrawal increases the surface expression of subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluA1) of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors at the level of the NAc. Also, cocaine self-administration and withdrawal induce the formation of subunit glutamate receptor 2 (GluA2), lacking the Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) at the level of the NAc

  9. Anti-relapse medications: Preclinical models for drug addiction treatment

    PubMed Central

    Yahyavi-Firouz-Abadi, Noushin; See, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing brain disease and treatment of relapse to drug-seeking is considered the most challenging part of treating addictive disorders. Relapse can be modeled in laboratory animals using reinstatement paradigms, whereby behavioral responding for a drug is extinguished and then reinstated by different trigger factors, such as environmental cues or stress. In this review, we first describe currently used animal models of relapse, different relapse triggering factors, and the validity of this model to assess relapse in humans. We further summarize the growing body of pharmacological interventions that have shown some promise in treating relapse to psychostimulant addiction. Moreover, we present an overview on the drugs tested in cocaine or methamphetamine addicts and examine the overlap of existing preclinical and clinical data. Finally, based on recent advances in our understanding of the neurobiology of relapse and published preclinical data, we highlight the most promising areas for future anti-relapse medication development. PMID:19683019

  10. Deficits of Affect Mentalization in Patients with Drug Addiction: Theoretical and Clinical Aspects

    PubMed Central

    Savov, Svetoslav; Atanassov, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally treated with wariness, drug addictions have provoked a serious interest in psychodynamically oriented clinicians in recent decades. This paper discusses the development of contemporary psychodynamic conceptualizations of addictions, focusing specifically on mentalization-based theories. The concept of mentalization refers to a complex form of self-regulation which includes attribution of psychological meaning to one's own behavior and affective states, as well as those of the others. We hypothesize that drug-addicted patients have severe impairments in mentalizing, associated with developmental deficits, characteristic for the borderline personality disorder and psychosomatic conditions. Psychodynamic models of mentalization and their corresponding research operationalizations are reviewed, and implications for a contemporary understanding of drug addictions and psychotherapy are drawn. The authors propose that mentalization-oriented theories provide an adequate conceptualization, which is open to empirical testing and has clear and pragmatic guidelines for treatment. PMID:25969831

  11. The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction.

    PubMed

    Müller, Christian P; Homberg, Judith R

    2015-01-15

    The use of psychoactive drugs is a wide spread behaviour in human societies. The systematic use of a drug requires the establishment of different drug use-associated behaviours which need to be learned and controlled. However, controlled drug use may develop into compulsive drug use and addiction, a major psychiatric disorder with severe consequences for the individual and society. Here we review the role of the serotonergic (5-HT) system in the establishment of drug use-associated behaviours on the one hand and the transition and maintenance of addiction on the other hand for the drugs: cocaine, amphetamine, methamphetamine, MDMA (ecstasy), morphine/heroin, cannabis, alcohol, and nicotine. Results show a crucial, but distinct involvement of the 5-HT system in both processes with considerable overlap between psychostimulant and opioidergic drugs and alcohol. A new functional model suggests specific adaptations in the 5-HT system, which coincide with the establishment of controlled drug use-associated behaviours. These serotonergic adaptations render the nervous system susceptible to the transition to compulsive drug use behaviours and often overlap with genetic risk factors for addiction. Altogether we suggest a new trajectory by which serotonergic neuroadaptations induced by first drug exposure pave the way for the establishment of addiction. PMID:24769172

  12. Neural and psychological mechanisms underlying compulsive drug seeking habits and drug memories – indications for novel treatments of addiction*

    PubMed Central

    Everitt, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    This review discusses the evidence for the hypothesis that the development of drug addiction can be understood in terms of interactions between Pavlovian and instrumental learning and memory mechanisms in the brain that underlie the seeking and taking of drugs. It is argued that these behaviours initially are goal-directed, but increasingly become elicited as stimulus–response habits by drug-associated conditioned stimuli that are established by Pavlovian conditioning. It is further argued that compulsive drug use emerges as the result of a loss of prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over drug seeking habits. Data are reviewed that indicate these transitions from use to abuse to addiction depend upon shifts from ventral to dorsal striatal control over behaviour, mediated in part by serial connectivity between the striatum and midbrain dopamine systems. Only some individuals lose control over their drug use, and the importance of behavioural impulsivity as a vulnerability trait predicting stimulant abuse and addiction in animals and humans, together with consideration of an emerging neuroendophenotype for addiction are discussed. Finally, the potential for developing treatments for addiction is considered in light of the neuropsychological advances that are reviewed, including the possibility of targeting drug memory reconsolidation and extinction to reduce Pavlovian influences on drug seeking as a means of promoting abstinence and preventing relapse. PMID:24935353

  13. Existing and Future Drugs for the Treatment of the Dark Side of Addiction.

    PubMed

    Koob, George F; Mason, Barbara J

    2016-01-01

    The identification of a heuristic framework for the stages of the addiction cycle that are linked to neurocircuitry changes in pathophysiology includes the binge/intoxication stage, the withdrawal/negative affect stage, and the preoccupation/anticipation (craving) stage, which represent neuroadaptations in three neurocircuits (basal ganglia, extended amygdala, and frontal cortex, respectively). The identification of excellent and validated animal models, the development of human laboratory models, and an enormous surge in our understanding of neurocircuitry and neuropharmacological mechanisms have provided a revisionist view of addiction that emphasizes the loss of brain reward function and gain of stress function that drive negative reinforcement (the dark side of addiction) as a key to compulsive drug seeking. Reversing the dark side of addiction not only explains much of the existing successful pharmacotherapies for addiction but also points to vast new opportunities for future medications to alleviate this major source of human suffering. PMID:26514207

  14. Women and drug addiction: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Kandall, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    The history of women and addiction in America extends back more than 150 years. Although the true epidemiology of women and addiction has always been difficult to determine, the spectrum of female addicts extends well beyond those women who make sensationalistic headlines by "abandoning" or "battering" their children. Historically, female addiction has been largely the result of inappropriate overmedication practices by physicians and pharmacists, media manipulation, or individuals own attempts to cope with social or occupational barriers preventing equality and self-fulfillment. From the mid-nineteenth century, uneasy tolerance, social ostracism, vilification, persecution, and legal prosecution have grudgingly, but not completely, given way to more humane treatment opportunities in the setting of more enlightened comprehensive care. PMID:20407971

  15. rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies.

    PubMed

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power. PMID:24803733

  16. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P.; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power. PMID:24803733

  17. Off the Beaten Path: Drug Addiction and the Pontine Laterodorsal Tegmentum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Drug addiction is a multileveled behavior controlled by interactions among many diverse neuronal groups involving several neurotransmitter systems. The involvement of brainstem-sourced, cholinergic neurotransmission in the development of addiction and in the persistent physiological processes that drive this maladaptive behavior has not been widely investigated. The major cholinergic input to neurons in the midbrain which are instrumental in assessment of reward and assignment of salience to stimuli, including drugs of abuse, sources from acetylcholine- (ACh-) containing pontine neurons of the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT). Excitatory LDT input, likely cholinergic, is critical in allowing behaviorally relevant neuronal firing patterns within midbrain reward circuitry. Via this control, the LDT is positioned to be importantly involved in development of compulsive, addictive patterns of behavior. The goal of this review is to present the anatomical, physiological, and behavioral evidence suggesting a role of the LDT in the neurobiology underlying addiction to drugs of abuse. Although focus is directed on the evidence supporting a vital participation of the cholinergic neurons of the LDT, data indicating a contribution of noncholinergic LDT neurons to processes underlying addiction are also reviewed. While sparse, available information of actions of drugs of abuse on LDT cells and the output of these neurons as well as their influence on addiction-related behavior are also presented. Taken together, data from studies presented in this review strongly support the position that the LDT is a major player in the neurobiology of drug addiction. Accordingly, the LDT may serve as a future treatment target for efficacious pharmaceutical combat of drug addiction. PMID:24959564

  18. Breaking barriers in the genomics and pharmacogenetics of drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ho, MK; Goldman, D; Heinz, A; Kaprio, J; Kreek, MJ; Li, MD; Munafò, MR; Tyndale, RF

    2013-01-01

    Drug addictions remain a substantial health issue, with limited treatment options currently available. Despite considerable advances in the understanding of our genetic architecture, the genetic underpinning of complex disorders remains elusive. Numerous candidate genes have been implicated in the etiology and response to treatment for different addictions based on our current understanding of the neurobiology. Genome-wide association studies have also provided novel targets. However, replication of these studies is often lacking which complicates interpretation; this will improve as issues such as phenotypic characterization, the apparent “missing heritability”, the identification of functional variants, and possible gene-environment interactions are addressed. In addition, there is growing evidence that genetic information can be useful for refining the choice of addiction treatment. As genetic testing becomes more common in the practice of medicine, a variety of ethical and practical challenges, some of which are unique to drug addiction, will also need to be considered. PMID:20981002

  19. New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, P W; Volkow, N D

    2011-10-01

    The repeated use of drugs that directly or indirectly stimulate dopamine transmission carry addiction liability and produce enduring pathological changes in the brain circuitry that normally regulates adaptive behavioral responding to a changing environment. This circuitry is rich in glutamatergic projections, and addiction-related behaviors in animal models have been linked to impairments in excitatory synaptic plasticity. Among the best-characterized glutamatergic projection in this circuit is the prefrontal efferent to the nucleus accumbens. A variety of molecular adaptations have been identified in the prefrontal glutamate synapses in the accumbens, many of which are induced by different classes of addictive drugs. Based largely on work with cocaine, we hypothesize that the drug-induced adaptations impair synaptic plasticity in the cortico-accumbens projection, and thereby dysregulate the ability of addicts to control their drug-taking habits. Accordingly, we go on to describe the literature implicating the drug-induced changes in protein content or function that impinge upon synaptic plasticity and have been targeted in preclinical models of relapse and, in some cases, in pilot clinical trials. Based upon modeling drug-induced impairments in neuroplasticity in the cortico-accumbens pathway, we argue for a concerted effort to clinically evaluate the hypothesis that targeting glial and neuronal proteins regulating excitatory synaptic plasticity may prove beneficial in treating addiction. PMID:21519339

  20. New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kalivas, PW; Volkow, ND

    2011-01-01

    The repeated use of drugs that directly or indirectly stimulate dopamine transmission carry addiction liability and produce enduring pathological changes in the brain circuitry that normally regulates adaptive behavioral responding to a changing environment. This circuitry is rich in glutamatergic projections, and addiction-related behaviors in animal models have been linked to impairments in excitatory synaptic plasticity. Among the best-characterized glutamatergic projection in this circuit is the prefrontal efferent to the nucleus accumbens. A variety of molecular adaptations have been identified in the prefrontal glutamate synapses in the accumbens, many of which are induced by different classes of addictive drugs. Based largely on work with cocaine, we hypothesize that the drug-induced adaptations impair synaptic plasticity in the cortico-accumbens projection, and thereby dysregulate the ability of addicts to control their drug-taking habits. Accordingly, we go on to describe the literature implicating the drug-induced changes in protein content or function that impinge upon synaptic plasticity and have been targeted in preclinical models of relapse and, in some cases, in pilot clinical trials. Based upon modeling drug-induced impairments in neuroplasticity in the cortico-accumbens pathway, we argue for a concerted effort to clinically evaluate the hypothesis that targeting glial and neuronal proteins regulating excitatory synaptic plasticity may prove beneficial in treating addiction. PMID:21519339

  1. Is immunotherapy an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction?

    PubMed

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga

    2015-11-27

    Immunotherapy has a great potential of becoming a new therapeutic strategy in the treatment of addiction to psychoactive drugs. It may be used to treat addiction but also to prevent neurotoxic complications of drug overdose. In preclinical studies two immunological methods have been tested; active immunization, which relies on the administration of vaccines and passive immunization, which relies on the administration of monoclonal antibodies. Until now researchers have succeeded in developing vaccines and/or antibodies against addiction to heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine and phencyclidine. Their effectiveness has been confirmed in preclinical studies. At present, clinical studies are being conducted for vaccines against nicotine and cocaine and also anti-methamphetamine monoclonal antibody. These preclinical and clinical studies suggest that immunotherapy may be useful in the treatment of addiction and drug overdose. However, there are a few problems to be solved. One of them is controlling the level of antibodies due to variability between subjects. But even obtaining a suitable antibody titer does not guarantee the effectiveness of the vaccine. Additionally, there is a risk of intentional or unintentional overdose. As vaccines prevent passing of drugs through the blood/brain barrier and thereby prevent their positive reinforcement, some addicted patients may erroneously seek higher doses of psychoactive substances to get "high". Consequently, vaccination should be targeted at persons who have a strong motivation to free themselves from drug dependency. It seems that immunotherapy may be an opportunity for effective treatment of drug addiction if directed to adequate candidates for treatment. For other addicts, immunotherapy may be a very important element supporting psycho- and pharmacotherapy. PMID:26432911

  2. Oral health behavior of drug addicts in withdrawal treatment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health behavior (OHB), one major factor contributing to proper oral health status, has been addressed insufficiently in addiction literature. The aim of our study was to investigate OHB and its determinants among drug addicts in withdrawal treatment. Methods Through a stratified cluster sampling method, we collected the data from 685 patients in withdrawal treatment in Tehran using self-administered questionnaires on OHB components and conducting interviews about patients’ characteristics and addiction history. The T-test, ANOVA, and a linear regression model served for statistical analysis. Results Of the patients, 48% reported brushing their teeth less than once a day, more than 90% used fluoride toothpaste almost or always, and 81% flossed their teeth rarely or never. Eating sugary products twice a day or more was reported by 57% of the patients and 85% of them were current smokers. Poor OHB was associated with male gender, lower education, being addicted mainly to crystalline heroin, starting drug abuse at a younger age, and having a longer history of addiction (p < .05). Conclusion Poor OHB was found among the participants in drug withdrawal treatment. Preventive strategies on oral health should be planned and be integrated into other health promotion programs for addicts along with their withdrawal treatment taking into account special groups at higher risk. PMID:23368406

  3. Sex differences in the neurobiology of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Bobzean, Samara A M; DeNobrega, Aliza K; Perrotti, Linda I

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiological data demonstrate that while women report lower rates of drug use than men, the number of current drug users and abusers who are women continues to increase. In addition women progress through the phases of addiction differently than men; women transition from casual drug use to addiction faster, are more reactive to stimuli that trigger relapse, and have higher rates of relapse then men. Sex differences in physiological and psychological responses to drugs of abuse are well documented and it is well established that estrogen effects on dopamine (DA) systems are largely responsible for these sex differences. However, the downstream mechanisms that result from interactions between estrogen and the effects of drugs of abuse on the DA system are just beginning to be explored. Here we review the basic neurocircuitry which underlies reward and addiction; highlighting the neuroadaptive changes that occur in the mesolimbic dopamine reward and anti-reward/stress pathways. We propose that sex differences in addiction are due to sex differences in the neural systems which mediate positive and negative reinforcement and that these differences are modulated by ovarian hormones. This forms a neurobehavioral basis for the search for the molecular and cellular underpinnings that uniquely guide motivational behaviors and make women more vulnerable to developing and sustaining addiction than men. PMID:24508560

  4. Treating Drug Addiction in the Minority Communities: The Decade Ahead.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drew, Joseph S.

    While scholars are not in accord on the basic causes of contemporary drug abuse among minority Americans, most do agree that the social milieu of the drug abuser is fundamental. It has been urged that racism, poverty, police brutality and harrassment, the economics of addiction, the hopelessness of ghetto life, peer pressure, educational…

  5. Adult Literacy and Drug Addiction: What's the Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neri, Charles

    1990-01-01

    A core concept in dealing with drug addiction is the relationship between fear and drug use. In order to deal with fear, one response is a job skills class as a positive, ego-building experience in which literacy skills are emphasized in the context of self-discovery. (SK)

  6. The Emerging Role of Non-Coding RNAs in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Gregory C.; St. Laurent, Georges; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged drug use causes long-lasting neuroadaptations in reward-related brain areas that contribute to addiction. Despite significant amount of research dedicated to understanding the underlying mechanisms of addiction, the molecular underpinnings remain unclear. At the same time, much of the pervasive transcription that encompasses the human genome occurs in the nervous system and contributes to its heterogeneity and complexity. Recent evidence suggests that non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play an important and dynamic role in transcriptional regulation, epigenetic signaling, stress response, and plasticity in the nervous system. Dysregulation of ncRNAs are thought to contribute to many, and perhaps all, neurological disorders, including addiction. Here, we review recent insights in the functional relevance of ncRNAs, including both microRNAs (miRNAs), and long non-coding RNAs, and then illustrate specific examples of ncRNA regulation in the context of drug addiction. We conclude that ncRNAs are importantly involved in the persistent neuroadaptations associated with addiction-related behaviors, and that therapies that target specific ncRNAs may represent new avenues for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:22737160

  7. Training the Staff of a Drug Addiction Treatment Facility: A Case Study of Hogar De Encuentro

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Andrew A.; Leske, M. Cristina

    1977-01-01

    This paper, presented at the American Public Health Association meeting; Chicago, November 1975, discusses a staff training program at a drug addiction treatment facility established for Spanish-speaking (and other) drug addicts. Staff improved counseling skills and knowledge of drug addiction, but changed little in attitudes toward drug use and…

  8. [Are there any sex/gender differences in drug use and drug addiction?].

    PubMed

    Mendrek, Adrianna

    2014-01-01

    Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit. Numerous psychological, socio-cultural and biological factors have been implicated in these changing statistics. For example, while a large proportion of men initiate drug use to induce feelings of elation, energy or focus, women frequently start taking drugs to alleviate pre-existing mental health problems, including high levels of stress, feelings of alienation, depression, anxiety, or post-traumatic stress disorder. This maladaptive self-medication strategy often results in a faster transition to a habitual drug use and eventually a more severe dependence. In addition, the socio-cultural norms (particularly in the Western society) have changed dramatically over the past few decades. Thus, while there is still a more severe stigma and prejudice against women who use drugs (especially if they are pregnant of have children), overall there is much greater acceptance of women's drug use than it was several decades ago. Moreover, women have much greater access to various drugs of abuse than they used to have. Finally, over the past couple of decades new research started emerging pointing to some neurobiological factors that could also contribute to sex differences in drug addiction. Thus, there is now evidence that dopamine system, which for decades has been strongly implicated in drug reinforcement, is sexually dimorphic. The number of dopaminergic neurons, the density of the dopaminergic terminals, as well as

  9. A significant association between BDNF promoter methylation and the risk of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuting; Ji, Huihui; Liu, Guili; Wang, Qinwen; Liu, Huifen; Shen, Wenwen; Li, Longhui; Xie, Xiaohu; Zhou, Wenhua; Duan, Shiwei

    2016-06-10

    As a member of the neurotrophic factor family, brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in the survival and differentiation of neurons. The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of BDNF promoter methylation in drug addiction. A total of 60 drug abusers (30 heroin and 30 methylamphetamine addicts) and 52 healthy age- and gender-matched controls were recruited for the current case control study. Bisulfite pyrosequencing technology was used to determine the methylation levels of five CpGs (CpG1-5) on the BDNF promoter. Among the five CpGs, CpG5 methylation was significantly lower in drug abusers than controls. Moreover, significant associations were found between CpG5 methylation and addictive phenotypes including tension-anxiety, anger-hostility, fatigue-inertia, and depression-dejection. In addition, luciferase assay showed that the DNA fragment of BDNF promoter played a key role in the regulation of gene expression. Our results suggest that BDNF promoter methylation is associated with drug addiction, although further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms by which BDNF promoter methylation contributes to the pathophysiology of drug addiction. PMID:26976342

  10. Exercise as a Novel Treatment for Drug Addiction: A Neurobiological and Stage-Dependent Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, Wendy J.; Peterson, Alexis B.; Sanchez, Victoria; Abel, Jean; Smith, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity, and specifically exercise, has been suggested as a potential treatment for drug addiction. In this review, we discuss clinical and preclinical evidence for the efficacy of exercise at different phases of the addiction process. Potential neurobiological mechanisms are also discussed focusing on interactions with dopaminergic and glutamatergic signaling and chromatin remodeling in the reward pathway. While exercise generally produces an efficacious response, certain exercise conditions may be either ineffective or lead to detrimental effects depending on the level/type/timing of exercise exposure, the stage of addiction, the drug involved, and the subject population. During drug use initiation and withdrawal, its efficacy may be related to its ability to facilitate dopaminergic transmission, and once addiction develops, its efficacy may be related to its ability to normalize glutamatergic and dopaminergic signaling and reverse drug-induced changes in chromatin via epigenetic interactions with BDNF in the reward pathway. We conclude with future directions, including the development of exercise-based interventions alone or as an adjunct to other strategies for treating drug addiction. PMID:23806439

  11. The Nucleus Accumbens: Mechanisms of Addiction across Drug Classes Reflect the Importance of Glutamate Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Scofield, M D; Heinsbroek, J A; Gipson, C D; Kupchik, Y M; Spencer, S; Smith, A C W; Roberts-Wolfe, D; Kalivas, P W

    2016-07-01

    The nucleus accumbens is a major input structure of the basal ganglia and integrates information from cortical and limbic structures to mediate goal-directed behaviors. Chronic exposure to several classes of drugs of abuse disrupts plasticity in this region, allowing drug-associated cues to engender a pathologic motivation for drug seeking. A number of alterations in glutamatergic transmission occur within the nucleus accumbens after withdrawal from chronic drug exposure. These drug-induced neuroadaptations serve as the molecular basis for relapse vulnerability. In this review, we focus on the role that glutamate signal transduction in the nucleus accumbens plays in addiction-related behaviors. First, we explore the nucleus accumbens, including the cell types and neuronal populations present as well as afferent and efferent connections. Next we discuss rodent models of addiction and assess the viability of these models for testing candidate pharmacotherapies for the prevention of relapse. Then we provide a review of the literature describing how synaptic plasticity in the accumbens is altered after exposure to drugs of abuse and withdrawal and also how pharmacological manipulation of glutamate systems in the accumbens can inhibit drug seeking in the laboratory setting. Finally, we examine results from clinical trials in which pharmacotherapies designed to manipulate glutamate systems have been effective in treating relapse in human patients. Further elucidation of how drugs of abuse alter glutamatergic plasticity within the accumbens will be necessary for the development of new therapeutics for the treatment of addiction across all classes of addictive substances. PMID:27363441

  12. [Serious bacterial and fungal infections in intravenous drug addicts].

    PubMed

    Jensenius, M; Heger, B; Dalgard, O; Stiris, M; Ringertz, S H

    1999-05-10

    Invasive infections caused by bacteria and fungi are common complications of intravenous drug abuse. Various vital organs and structures may be affected, e.g. the cardiac valves, the larger arteries, the bones, the joints and the central nervous system. However, due to the high frequency of low-virulent microbes of skin and oral origin, the clinical picture may be atypical with subacute course and few focal signs and symptoms. The complexity of this problem is illustrated by eight cases of serious bacterial and fungal infections recently diagnosed at our hospitals. All patients were HIV negative intravenous heroin addicts. The clinical spectrum was wide and included skin abscesses, pyomyositis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, costal osteomyelitis, infective endocarditis, recurrent bacteraemia, and multiple brain abscesses. PMID:10380592

  13. Molecular Mechanism: ERK Signaling, Drug Addiction, and Behavioral Effects.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Lun; Quizon, Pamela M; Zhu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to psychostimulants has been considered as a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by craving and compulsive drug seeking and use. Over the past two decades, accumulating evidence has demonstrated that repeated drug exposure causes long-lasting neurochemical and cellular changes that result in enduring neuroadaptation in brain circuitry and underlie compulsive drug consumption and relapse. Through intercellular signaling cascades, drugs of abuse induce remodeling in the rewarding circuitry that contributes to the neuroplasticity of learning and memory associated with addiction. Here, we review the role of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase, and its related intracellular signaling pathways in drug-induced neuroadaptive changes that are associated with drug-mediated psychomotor activity, rewarding properties and relapse of drug seeking behaviors. We also discuss the neurobiological and behavioral effects of pharmacological and genetic interferences with ERK-associated molecular cascades in response to abused substances. Understanding the dynamic modulation of ERK signaling in response to drugs may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic strategies to drug addiction. PMID:26809997

  14. 76 FR 54921 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ... and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A... those in need to seek help. As we celebrate National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we pay... proclaim September 2011 as National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month. I call upon the people...

  15. Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model to Study the Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Engleman, Eric A.; Katner, Simon N.; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction takes a massive toll on society. Novel animal models are needed to test new treatments and understand the basic mechanisms underlying addiction. Rodent models have identified the neurocircuitry involved in addictive behavior and indicate that rodents possess some of the same neurobiologic mechanisms that mediate addiction in humans. Recent studies indicate that addiction is mechanistically and phylogenetically ancient and many mechanisms that underlie human addiction are also present in invertebrates. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has conserved neurobiologic systems with powerful molecular and genetic tools and a rapid rate of development that enables cost-effective translational discovery. Emerging evidence suggests that C. elegans is an excellent model to identify molecular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced behavior and potential targets for medications development for various addictive compounds. C. elegans emit many behaviors that can be easily quantitated including some that involve interactions with the environment. Ethanol (EtOH) is the best-studied drug-of-abuse in C. elegans and at least 50 different genes/targets have been identified as mediating EtOH’s effects and polymorphisms in some orthologs in humans are associated with alcohol use disorders. C. elegans has also been shown to display dopamine and cholinergic system–dependent attraction to nicotine and demonstrate preference for cues previously associated with nicotine. Cocaine and methamphetamine have been found to produce dopamine-dependent reward-like behaviors in C. elegans. These behavioral tests in combination with genetic/molecular manipulations have led to the identification of dozens of target genes/systems in C. elegans that mediate drug effects. The one target/gene identified as essential for drug-induced behavioral responses across all drugs of abuse was the cat-2 gene coding for tyrosine hydroxylase, which is consistent with the role of dopamine

  16. Caenorhabditis elegans as a Model to Study the Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Engleman, Eric A; Katner, Simon N; Neal-Beliveau, Bethany S

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction takes a massive toll on society. Novel animal models are needed to test new treatments and understand the basic mechanisms underlying addiction. Rodent models have identified the neurocircuitry involved in addictive behavior and indicate that rodents possess some of the same neurobiologic mechanisms that mediate addiction in humans. Recent studies indicate that addiction is mechanistically and phylogenetically ancient and many mechanisms that underlie human addiction are also present in invertebrates. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has conserved neurobiologic systems with powerful molecular and genetic tools and a rapid rate of development that enables cost-effective translational discovery. Emerging evidence suggests that C. elegans is an excellent model to identify molecular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced behavior and potential targets for medications development for various addictive compounds. C. elegans emit many behaviors that can be easily quantitated including some that involve interactions with the environment. Ethanol (EtOH) is the best-studied drug-of-abuse in C. elegans and at least 50 different genes/targets have been identified as mediating EtOH's effects and polymorphisms in some orthologs in humans are associated with alcohol use disorders. C. elegans has also been shown to display dopamine and cholinergic system-dependent attraction to nicotine and demonstrate preference for cues previously associated with nicotine. Cocaine and methamphetamine have been found to produce dopamine-dependent reward-like behaviors in C. elegans. These behavioral tests in combination with genetic/molecular manipulations have led to the identification of dozens of target genes/systems in C. elegans that mediate drug effects. The one target/gene identified as essential for drug-induced behavioral responses across all drugs of abuse was the cat-2 gene coding for tyrosine hydroxylase, which is consistent with the role of dopamine neurotransmission

  17. A Way to Measure Success in the Rehabilitation of Drug Addicts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinlund, Stephen J.

    1974-01-01

    Persons concerned about drug addiction and who seek to help addicts must learn to distinguish between types of addicts. Three cases are reviewed. Those offering help to addicts in need should look beyond simple abstinence to the development of the total person. (Author/PC)

  18. Adolescent stigma towards drug addiction: effects of age and drug use behaviour.

    PubMed

    Adlaf, Edward M; Hamilton, Hayley A; Wu, Fei; Noh, Samuel

    2009-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine adolescent age and experience with drug use on stigmatizing attitudes toward drug addiction. Data were derived from the 2005 cycle of the Ontario Student Drug Use Survey. In total, 4078, 7- to 12-graders completed self-administered questionnaires that included a measure of drug abuse stigma. Results indicated that stigma scores were higher among younger than older adolescents, and the decline across age was robust, occurring among both males and females and those from rural and non-rural areas. The decline, however, was stronger among non-drug users and among those who had no close friends that use drugs. Despite the age-related decline, the level of stigma in general suggested that drug abuse stigma may continue into adulthood. Findings highlight that individual attitudes toward drug use and drug abusers are salient factors for personal drug use. Given that stigma is a barrier to treatment, but reduced stigma may encourage greater adolescent use, this study highlights the need for more in-depth studies of drug stigma. PMID:19097707

  19. Dissecting Impulsivity and its Relationships to Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Ashenhurst, James R.; Cervantes, M. Catalina; James, Alexander S.; Groman, Stephanie M.; Pennington, Zachary T.

    2015-01-01

    Addictions are often characterized as forms of impulsive behavior. That said, it is often noted that impulsivity is a multidimensional construct, spanning several psychological domains. This review describes the relationship between varieties of impulsivity and addiction-related behaviors, the nature of the causal relationship between the two and the underlying neurobiological mechanisms that promote impulsive behaviors. We conclude that the available data strongly supports the notion that impulsivity is both a risk factor for, and a consequence of, drug and alcohol consumption. While the evidence indicating that subtypes of impulsive behavior are uniquely informative – either biologically or with respect to their relationships to addictions – is convincing, multiple lines of study link “distinct” subtypes of impulsivity to low dopamine D2 receptor function and perturbed serotonergic transmission, revealing shared mechanisms between the subtypes. Therefore, a common biological framework involving monoaminergic transmitters in key frontostriatal circuits may link multiple forms of impulsivity to drug self-administration and addiction-related behaviors. Further dissection of these relationships is needed before the next phase of genetic and genomic discovery will be able to reveal the biological sources of the vulnerability for addiction indexed by impulsivity. PMID:24654857

  20. From drug response profiling to target addiction scoring in cancer cell models.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Bhagwan; Gopalacharyulu, Peddinti; Pemovska, Tea; Khan, Suleiman A; Szwajda, Agnieszka; Tang, Jing; Wennerberg, Krister; Aittokallio, Tero

    2015-10-01

    Deconvoluting the molecular target signals behind observed drug response phenotypes is an important part of phenotype-based drug discovery and repurposing efforts. We demonstrate here how our network-based deconvolution approach, named target addiction score (TAS), provides insights into the functional importance of druggable protein targets in cell-based drug sensitivity testing experiments. Using cancer cell line profiling data sets, we constructed a functional classification across 107 cancer cell models, based on their common and unique target addiction signatures. The pan-cancer addiction correlations could not be explained by the tissue of origin, and only correlated in part with molecular and genomic signatures of the heterogeneous cancer cells. The TAS-based cancer cell classification was also shown to be robust to drug response data resampling, as well as predictive of the transcriptomic patterns in an independent set of cancer cells that shared similar addiction signatures with the 107 cancers. The critical protein targets identified by the integrated approach were also shown to have clinically relevant mutation frequencies in patients with various cancer subtypes, including not only well-established pan-cancer genes, such as PTEN tumor suppressor, but also a number of targets that are less frequently mutated in specific cancer types, including ABL1 oncoprotein in acute myeloid leukemia. An application to leukemia patient primary cell models demonstrated how the target deconvolution approach offers functional insights into patient-specific addiction patterns, such as those indicative of their receptor-type tyrosine-protein kinase FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3-ITD) status and co-addiction partners, which may lead to clinically actionable, personalized drug treatment developments. To promote its application to the future drug testing studies, we have made available an open-source implementation of the TAS calculation in the form of a stand-alone R

  1. Drug addiction therapy. A dance to the music of time.

    PubMed

    Goodison, L; Schafer, H

    1999-10-21

    Dance therapy can play a useful role in the treatment and rehabilitation of women with drug addiction. It works by raising self-esteem through an improved relationship with the body, giving women the strength to help combat their habit. The benefits of dance therapy for women at the detox unit of Holloway Prison have been confirmed by prison staff. PMID:10662323

  2. Natural Recovery from Drug and Alcohol Addiction among Israeli Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Gila

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in the sense of coherence, anxiety, depression, hostility, behavior, and meaning in life among Israeli prisoners recovering from drug and alcohol addiction over various time periods (6-24 months), and without therapeutic intervention (natural recovery). Ninety-eight abstinent prisoners were divided into two groups:…

  3. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Limin; Guo, Minglei; Jin, Daozhong; Xue, Bing; Wang, John Q.

    2014-01-01

    Neuroadaptations of glutamatergic transmission in the limbic reward circuitry are linked to persistent drug addiction. Accumulating data have demonstrated roles of ionotropic glutamate receptors and group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in this event. Emerging evidence also identifies Gαi/o-coupled group III mGluRs (mGluR4/7/8 subtypes enriched in the limbic system) as direct substrates of drugs of abuse and active regulators of drug action. Auto- and heteroreceptors of mGluR4/7/8 reside predominantly on nerve terminals of glutamatergic corticostriatal and GABAergic striatopallidal pathways, respectively. These presynaptic receptors regulate basal and/or phasic release of respective transmitters to maintain basal ganglia homeostasis. In response to operant administration of common addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamine), alcohol and opiates, limbic group III mGluRs undergo drastic adaptations to contribute to the enduring remodeling of excitatory synapses and to usually suppress drug seeking behavior. As a result, a loss-of-function mutation (knockout) of individual group III receptor subtypes often promotes drug seeking. This review summarizes the data from recent studies on three group III receptor subtypes (mGluR4/7/8) expressed in the basal ganglia and analyzes their roles in the regulation of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the striatum and their participation in the addictive properties of three major classes of drugs (psychostimulants, alcohol, and opiates). PMID:24078068

  4. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Mao, Limin; Guo, Minglei; Jin, Daozhong; Xue, Bing; Wang, John Q

    2013-12-01

    Neuroadaptations of glutamatergic transmission in the limbic reward circuitry are linked to persistent drug addiction. Accumulating data have demonstrated roles of ionotropic glutamate receptors and group I and II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in this event. Emerging evidence also identifies Gαi/o-coupled group III mGluRs (mGluR4/7/8 subtypes enriched in the limbic system) as direct substrates of drugs of abuse and active regulators of drug action. Auto- and heteroreceptors of mGluR4/7/8 reside predominantly on nerve terminals of glutamatergic corticostriatal and GABAergic striatopallidal pathways, respectively. These presynaptic receptors regulate basal and/or phasic release of respective transmitters to maintain basal ganglia homeostasis. In response to operant administration of common addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamine), alcohol and opiates, limbic group III mGluRs undergo drastic adaptations to contribute to the enduring remodeling of excitatory synapses and to usually suppress drug seeking behavior. As a result, a loss-of-function mutation (knockout) of individual group III receptor subtypes often promotes drug seeking. This review summarizes the data from recent studies on three group III receptor subtypes (mGluR4/7/8) expressed in the basal ganglia and analyzes their roles in the regulation of dopamine and glutamate signaling in the striatum and their participation in the addictive properties of three major classes of drugs (psychostimulants, alcohol, and opiates). PMID:24078068

  5. The role of nurses in comprehensive care management of pregnant women with drug addiction.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Amy E; Spaeth-Brayton, Sylvia; Sheerin, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction during pregnancy is a complex health and social issue that requires an interdisciplinary health care team providing nonjudgmental, comprehensive care. Critical challenges include onset of and attendance at prenatal care, potential obstetric complications, transition to extrauterine life and potential neonatal abstinence syndrome for the neonate, newborn feeding issues, postpartum depression and risk of relapse for women. PMID:25145717

  6. A Behavior Modification Training Program for Staff Working with Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheek, Frances E.; And Others

    This paper describes a Behavior Modification Training Program, emphasizing self-control, for staff working with drug addicts. The program, which is primarily geared toward training paraprofessionals, takes place in 10 one-and-a-half hour sessions and includes an overview of behavior modification as well as instruction in behavior control,…

  7. Designing Novel Nanoformulations Targeting Glutamate Transporter Excitatory Amino Acid Transporter 2: Implications in Treating Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Rao, PSS; Yallapu, Murali M.; Sari, Youssef; Fisher, Paul B.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic drug abuse is associated with elevated extracellular glutamate concentration in the brain reward regions. Deficit of glutamate clearance has been identified as a contributing factor that leads to enhanced glutamate concentration following extended drug abuse. Importantly, normalization of glutamate level through induction of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1)/ excitatory amino acid transporter 2 (EAAT2) expression has been described in several in vivo studies. GLT1 upregulators including ceftriaxone, a beta-lactam antibiotic, have been effective in attenuating drug-seeking and drug-consumption behavior in rodent models. However, potential obstacles toward clinical translation of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators as treatment for drug addiction might include poor gastrointestinal absorption, serious peripheral adverse effects, and/or suboptimal CNS concentrations. Given the growing success of nanotechnology in targeting CNS ailments, nanoformulating known GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators for selective uptake across the blood brain barrier presents an ideal therapeutic approach for treating drug addiction. In this review, we summarize the results obtained with promising GLT1 (EAAT2) inducing compounds in animal models recapitulating drug addiction. Additionally, the various nanoformulations that can be employed for selectively increasing the CNS bioavailability of GLT1 (EAAT2) upregulators are discussed. Finally, the applicability of GLT1 (EAAT2) induction via central delivery of drug-loaded nanoformulations is described. PMID:26635971

  8. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  11. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  12. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  14. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1535 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a... medical evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism. (1) The key factor we will examine in...

  17. 20 CFR 416.935 - How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.935 How we will determine whether your drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to... evidence of your drug addiction or alcoholism, we must determine whether your drug addiction or...

  18. Breaking barriers in the genomics and pharmacogenetics of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Ho, M K; Goldman, D; Heinz, A; Kaprio, J; Kreek, M J; Li, M D; Munafò, M R; Tyndale, R F

    2010-12-01

    Drug addiction remains a substantial health issue with limited treatment options currently available. Despite considerable advances in the understanding of human genetic architecture, the genetic underpinning of complex disorders remains elusive. On the basis of our current understanding of neurobiology, numerous candidate genes have been implicated in the etiology and response to treatment for different addictions. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have also identified novel targets. However, replication of these studies is often lacking, and this complicates interpretation. The situation is expected to improve as issues such as phenotypic characterization, the apparent "missing heritability," the identification of functional variants, and possible gene-environment (G × E) interactions are addressed. In addition, there is growing evidence that genetic information can be useful in refining the choice of addiction treatment. As genetic testing becomes more common in the practice of medicine, a variety of ethical and practical challenges, some of which are unique to drug addiction, will also need to be considered. PMID:20981002

  19. Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity. Monitoring the European drug situation: the ongoing challenge for the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA).

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paul; Mounteney, Jane; Lopez, Dominique; Zobel, Frank; Götz, Wolfgang

    2012-02-01

    The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) is the designated hub for drug-related information in the European Union. The organization's role is to provide the European Union (EU) and its Member States with a factual overview of European drug problems and a common information framework to support the drugs debate. In order to achieve its mission, the EMCDDA coordinates and relies on a network of 30 national monitoring centres, the Reitox National Focal Points. The Centre publishes on a wide range of drug-related topics, across epidemiology, interventions, laws and policies. Every November, the EMCDDA publishes its Annual Report, providing a yearly update on the European drug situation, translated into 23 EU languages. In line with its founding regulation, the EMCDDA has a role acting as an interface between the worlds of science and policy. While not a research centre in the formal sense, the results the Centre generates serve as catalysts for new research questions and help to identify priorities. Current challenges facing the agency include continuing to increase scientific standards while maintaining a strong institutional role, as well as supporting European efforts to identify, share and codify best practice in the drugs field. PMID:21539630

  20. The ins and outs of the striatum: role in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Yager, L M; Garcia, A F; Wunsch, A M; Ferguson, S M

    2015-08-20

    Addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder characterized by the loss of control over drug intake, high motivation to obtain the drug, and a persistent craving for the drug. Accumulating evidence implicates cellular and molecular alterations within cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuitry in the development and persistence of this disease. The striatum is a heterogeneous structure that sits at the interface of this circuit, receiving input from a variety of brain regions (e.g., prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area) to guide behavioral output, including motor planning, decision-making, motivation and reward. However, the vast interconnectivity of this circuit has made it difficult to isolate how individual projections and cellular subtypes within this circuit modulate each of the facets of addiction. Here, we review the use of new technologies, including optogenetics and DREADDs (Designer Receptors Exclusively Activated by Designer Drugs), in unraveling the role of the striatum in addiction. In particular, we focus on the role of striatal cell populations (i.e., direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons) and striatal dopaminergic and glutamatergic afferents in addiction-related plasticity and behaviors. PMID:26116518

  1. GEDA: new knowledge base of gene expression in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Suh, Young Ju; Yang, Moon Hee; Yoon, Suk Joon; Park, Jong Hoon

    2006-07-31

    Abuse of drugs can elicit compulsive drug seeking behaviors upon repeated administration, and ultimately leads to the phenomenon of addiction. We developed a procedure for the standardization of microarray gene expression data of rat brain in drug addiction and stored them in a single integrated database system, focusing on more effective data processing and interpretation. Another characteristic of the present database is that it has a systematic flexibility for statistical analysis and linking with other databases. Basically, we adopt an intelligent SQL querying system, as the foundation of our DB, in order to set up an interactive module which can automatically read the raw gene expression data in the standardized format. We maximize the usability of this DB, helping users study significant gene expression and identify biological function of the genes through integrated up-to-date gene information such as GO annotation and metabolic pathway. For collecting the latest information of selected gene from the database, we also set up the local BLAST search engine and nonredundant sequence database updated by NCBI server on a daily basis. We find that the present database is a useful query interface and data-mining tool, specifically for finding out the genes related to drug addiction. We apply this system to the identification and characterization of methamphetamine-induced genes' behavior in rat brain. PMID:16889689

  2. Behavioral endophenotypes of drug addiction: Etiological insights from neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Jupp, Bianca; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in the elucidation of neurobehavioral endophenotypes associated with drug addiction made possible by the translational neuroimaging techniques magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Increasingly, these non-invasive imaging approaches have been the catalyst for advancing our understanding of the etiology of drug addiction as a brain disorder involving complex interactions between pre-disposing behavioral traits, environmental influences and neural perturbations arising from the chronic abuse of licit and illicit drugs. In this article we discuss the causal role of trait markers associated with impulsivity and novelty-/sensation-seeking in speeding the development of compulsive drug administration and in facilitating relapse. We also discuss the striking convergence of imaging findings from these behavioural traits and addiction in rats, monkeys and humans with a focus on biomarkers of dopamine neurotransmission, and highlight areas where further research is needed to disambiguate underlying causal mechanisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'. PMID:23756169

  3. Addictive and non-addictive drugs induce distinct and specific patterns of ERK activation in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Valjent, Emmanuel; Pagès, Christiane; Hervé, Denis; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2004-04-01

    A major goal of research on addiction is to identify the molecular mechanisms of long-lasting behavioural alterations induced by drugs of abuse. Cocaine and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) activate extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in the striatum and blockade of the ERK pathway prevents establishment of conditioned place preference to these drugs. However, it is not known whether activation of ERK in the striatum is specific for these two drugs and/or this brain region. We studied the appearance of phospho-ERK immunoreactive neurons in CD-1 mouse brain following acute administration of drugs commonly abused by humans, cocaine, morphine, nicotine and THC, or of other psychoactive compounds including caffeine, scopolamine, antidepressants and antipsychotics. Each drug generated a distinct regional pattern of ERK activation. All drugs of abuse increased ERK phosphorylation in nucleus accumbens, lateral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, central amygdala and deep layers of prefrontal cortex, through a dopamine D1 receptor-dependent mechanism. Although some non-addictive drugs moderately activated ERK in a few of these areas, they never induced this combined pattern of strong activation. Antidepressants and caffeine activated ERK in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Typical antipsychotics mildly activated ERK in dorsal striatum and superficial prefrontal cortex, whereas clozapine had no effect in the striatum, but more widespread effects in cortex and amygdala. Our results outline a subset of structures in which ERK activation might specifically contribute to the long-term effects of drugs of abuse, and suggest mapping ERK activation in brain as a way to identify potential sites of action of psychoactive drugs. PMID:15078556

  4. [Treatment approaches for synthetic drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Ohji

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, synthetic drugs have emerged since late 2000s, and cases of emergency visits and fatal traffic accidents due to acute intoxication have rapidly increased. The synthetic drugs gained popularity mainly because they were cheap and thought to be "legal". The Japanese government restricted not only production and distribution, but also its possession and use in April 2014. As the synthetic drug dependent patients have better social profiles compared to methamphetamine abusers, this legal sanction may have triggered the decrease in the number of synthetic drug dependent patient visits observed at Kanagawa Psychiatric Center since July 2014. Treatment of the synthetic drug dependent patients should begin with empathic inquiry into the motives and positive psychological effects of the drug use. In the maintenance phase, training patients to trust others and express their hidden negative emotions through verbal communications is essential. The recovery is a process of understanding the relationship between psychological isolation and drug abuse, and gaining trust in others to cope with negative emotions that the patients inevitably would face in their subsequent lives. PMID:26394511

  5. Drug addiction is associated with leukocyte telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoyang; Ye, Junyi; Li, Candong; Zhou, Daizhan; Shen, Qin; Wu, Ji; Cao, Lan; Wang, Ting; Cui, Daxiang; He, Shigang; Qi, Guoyang; He, Lin; Liu, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Telomeres are protective chromosomal structures that play a key role in preserving genomic stability. Telomere length is known to be associated with ageing and age-related diseases. To study the impairment of telomeres induced by drug abuse, we conducted an association study in the Chinese Han population. Multivariate linear regression analyses were performed to evaluate the correlation of leukocyte telomere length (LTL) with addiction control status adjusted for age and gender. The results showed that drug abusers exhibited significantly shorter LTLs than controls (P = 1.32e−06). The time before relapse also presented an inverse correlation with LTL (P = 0.02). Drug abusers who had used heroin and diazepam displayed a shorter LTL than those taking other drugs (P = 0.018 and P = 0.009, respectively). Drug abusers who had ingested drugs via snuff exhibited longer LTLs than those using other methods (P = 0.02). These observations may offer a partial explanation for the effects of drug addiction on health. PMID:23528991

  6. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse treatment systems. Seeking to expand international research and infrastructure, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s International Program has engaged international investigators and institutions in addiction research to promote dissemination of addiction science globally. This paper presents three mixed-methods case studies to exemplify the use of advancements in evidence-based practice in addiction treatment as guides and tools for the creation or further development of treatment systems in three countries, Vietnam, Lebanon, and Abu Dhabi. Results indicate that a framework of evidence-based medicine and empirical science creates a necessary platform from which objective conversations about addictions may begin. Other facilitative factors that help create treatment programs internationally include: a receptive and supportive government, support from international donors and technical experts, networking and interest from other international organizations, and often a synergistic and concerted effort by multiple entities and partners. Despite substantial differences in the circumstances that generated these initiatives and the varying scope of the services, common themes across these efforts have been the implementation of science-based approaches to systems transformation and support for a public health approach to addressing drug abuse and addiction. PMID:26752803

  7. S-Glutathionylation and Redox Protein Signaling in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Womersley, Jacqueline S.; Uys, Joachim D.

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that comes at a high cost to individuals and society. Therefore understanding the mechanisms by which drugs exert their effects is of prime importance. Drugs of abuse increase the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species resulting in oxidative stress. This change in redox homeostasis increases the conjugation of glutathione to protein cysteine residues; a process called S-glutathionylation. Although traditionally regarded as a protective mechanism against irreversible protein oxidation, accumulated evidence suggests a more nuanced role for S-glutathionylation, namely as a mediator in redox-sensitive protein signaling. The reversible modification of protein thiols leading to alteration in function under different physiologic/pathologic conditions provides a mechanism whereby change in redox status can be translated into a functional response. As such, S-glutathionylation represents an understudied means of post-translational protein modification that may be important in the mechanisms underlying drug addiction. This review will discuss the evidence for S-glutathionylation as a redox-sensing mechanism and how this may be involved in the response to drug-induced oxidative stress. The function of S-glutathionylated proteins involved in neurotransmission, dendritic spine structure, and drug-induced behavioral outputs will be reviewed with specific reference to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin. PMID:26809999

  8. S-Glutathionylation and Redox Protein Signaling in Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Womersley, Jacqueline S; Uys, Joachim D

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic relapsing disorder that comes at a high cost to individuals and society. Therefore understanding the mechanisms by which drugs exert their effects is of prime importance. Drugs of abuse increase the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species resulting in oxidative stress. This change in redox homeostasis increases the conjugation of glutathione to protein cysteine residues; a process called S-glutathionylation. Although traditionally regarded as a protective mechanism against irreversible protein oxidation, accumulated evidence suggests a more nuanced role for S-glutathionylation, namely as a mediator in redox-sensitive protein signaling. The reversible modification of protein thiols leading to alteration in function under different physiologic/pathologic conditions provides a mechanism whereby change in redox status can be translated into a functional response. As such, S-glutathionylation represents an understudied means of post-translational protein modification that may be important in the mechanisms underlying drug addiction. This review will discuss the evidence for S-glutathionylation as a redox-sensing mechanism and how this may be involved in the response to drug-induced oxidative stress. The function of S-glutathionylated proteins involved in neurotransmission, dendritic spine structure, and drug-induced behavioral outputs will be reviewed with specific reference to alcohol, cocaine, and heroin. PMID:26809999

  9. Fischer 344 and Lewis Rat Strains as a Model of Genetic Vulnerability to Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Cadoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40-60% of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore, the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis on differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neuron functionality. Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigation, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in understanding aberrant

  10. Fischer 344 and Lewis Rat Strains as a Model of Genetic Vulnerability to Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cadoni, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Today it is well acknowledged that both nature and nurture play important roles in the genesis of psychopathologies, including drug addiction. Increasing evidence suggests that genetic factors contribute for at least 40–60% of the variation in liability to drug dependence. Human genetic studies suggest that multiple genes of small effect, rather than single genes, contribute to the genesis of behavioral psychopathologies. Therefore, the use of inbred rat strains might provide a valuable tool to identify differences, linked to genotype, important in liability to addiction and related disorders. In this regard, Lewis and Fischer 344 inbred rats have been proposed as a model of genetic vulnerability to drug addiction, given their innate differences in sensitivity to the reinforcing and rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, as well their different responsiveness to stressful stimuli. This review will provide evidence in support of this model for the study of the genetic influence on addiction vulnerability, with particular emphasis on differences in mesolimbic dopamine (DA) transmission, rewarding and emotional function. It will be highlighted that Lewis and Fischer 344 rats differ not only in several indices of DA transmission and adaptive changes following repeated drug exposure, but also in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responsiveness, influencing not only the ability of the individual to cope with stressful events, but also interfering with rewarding and motivational processes, given the influence of corticosteroids on dopamine neuron functionality. Further differences between the two strains, as impulsivity or anxiousness, might contribute to their different proneness to addiction, and likely these features might be linked to their different DA neurotransmission plasticity. Although differences in other neurotransmitter systems might deserve further investigation, results from the reviewed studies might open new vistas in understanding aberrant

  11. Perioperative analgesia and challenges in the drug-addicted and drug-dependent patient.

    PubMed

    Vadivelu, Nalini; Mitra, Sukanya; Kaye, Alan David; Urman, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    The epidemic use of illicit drugs has led to an increasing number of patients with drug addiction and dependence presenting for perioperative care. There are a wide variety of drugs commonly abused including opioids, such as heroin and prescription drugs; stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine; depressant drugs, such as alprazolam and diazepam; and hallucinogens, such as lysergic acid diethylamide, phencyclidine, and marijuana. Treatment of opioid dependence by office-based buprenorphine and methadone maintenance programs has expanded opportunities for therapy. Treatment of these patients in the perioperative period is challenging. In addition to pain control, management of anxiety, psychological states, and hemodynamic control are the factors to be considered to provide optimum treatment. Although opioids are the mainstay for the control of acute pain, other therapeutic options include alternative routes of administration of local anesthetic, ketamine infusion, and the use of regional anesthesia. We discuss optimum perioperative management, the role of perioperative urine testing, and special considerations in patients on methadone and buprenorphine. PMID:24815969

  12. [Guideline 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions'].

    PubMed

    Westra, Michel; de Haan, Hein A; Arends, Marleen T; van Everdingen, Jannes J E; Klazinga, Niek S

    2009-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the policy on care for prisoners who are addicted to opiates is still heterogeneous. The recent guidelines entitled 'Medicinal care for drug addicts in penal institutions' should contribute towards unambiguous and more evidence-based treatment for this group. In addition, it should improve and bring the care pathways within judicial institutions and mainstream healthcare more into line with one another. Each rational course of medicinal treatment will initially be continued in the penal institution. In penal institutions the help on offer is mainly focused on abstinence from illegal drugs while at the same time limiting the damage caused to the health of the individual user. Methadone is regarded at the first choice for maintenance therapy. For patient safety, this is best given in liquid form in sealed cups of 5 mg/ml once daily in the morning. Recently a combination preparation containing buprenorphine and naloxone - a complete opiate antagonist - has become available. On discontinuation of opiate maintenance treatment intensive follow-up care is necessary. During this period there is considerable risk of a potentially lethal overdose. Detoxification should be coupled with psychosocial or medicinal intervention aimed at preventing relapse. Naltrexone is currently the only available opiate antagonist for preventing relapse. In those addicted to opiates, who also take benzodiazepines without any indication, it is strongly recommended that these be reduced and discontinued. This can be achieved by converting the regular dosage into the equivalent in diazepam and then reducing this dosage by a maximum of 25% a week. PMID:20051159

  13. Addiction, compulsive drug seeking, and the role of frontostriatal mechanisms in regulating inhibitory control.

    PubMed

    Feil, Jodie; Sheppard, Dianne; Fitzgerald, Paul B; Yücel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I; Bradshaw, John L

    2010-11-01

    A principal feature of drug addiction is a reduced ability to regulate control over the desire to procure drugs regardless of the risks involved. Traditional models implicated the neural 'reward' system in providing a neurobiological model of addiction. Newer models however, have expanded on this circuitry to include two separate, but interconnecting systems, the limbic system in the incentive sensitization of drugs, and the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in regulating inhibitory control over drug use. Until the recent developments in neuroimaging and brain stimulation techniques, it has been extremely difficult to assess the involvement of the PFC in addiction. In the current review, we explore the involvement of the frontostriatal circuitry in regulating inhibitory control, and suggest how dysregulation of these circuits could be involved in an increased difficulty in ceasing drug use. Following this, we investigate the recent neuropsychological, neuroimaging and brain stimulation studies that explore the presence of these inhibitory deficits, and frontostriatal dysfunctions, across various different substance groups. Further insight into these deficits could contribute to the development of treatment strategies which target these cognitive impairments, and frontostriatal dysfunction, in reducing drug-seeking behaviors. PMID:20223263

  14. Serotonin2C receptors and drug addiction: focus on cocaine.

    PubMed

    Devroye, Céline; Filip, Malgorzata; Przegaliński, Edmund; McCreary, Andrew C; Spampinato, Umberto

    2013-10-01

    This review provides an overview of the role of central serotonin2C (5-HT2C) receptors in drug addiction, specifically focusing on their impact on the neurochemical and behavioral effects of cocaine, one of the most worldwide abused drug. First, we described the neurochemical and electrophysiological mechanisms underlying the interaction between 5-HT2C receptors and the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic network, in keeping with the key role of this system in drug abuse and dependence. Thereafter, we focused on the role of 5-HT2C receptors in the effects of cocaine in various preclinical behavioral models used in drug addiction research, such as locomotor hyperactivity, locomotor sensitization, drug discrimination, and self-administration, to end with an overview of the neurochemical mechanisms underlying the interactions between 5-HT2C receptors, mesocorticolimbic dopamine system, and cocaine. On their whole, the presented data provide compelling preclinical evidence that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may have efficacy in the treatment of cocaine abuse and dependence, thereby underlying the need for additional clinical studies to ascertain whether preclinical data translate to the human. PMID:23748692

  15. Brain Chemistry and Behaviour: An Update on Neuroscience Research and Its Implications for Understanding Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Emma S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric disorders such as drug addiction represent one of the biggest challenges to society. This article reviews clinical and basic science research to illustrate how developments in research methodology have enabled neuroscientists to understand more about the brain mechanisms involved in addiction biology. Treating addiction represents a…

  16. Serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Karakiewicz, Beata; Kozielec, Tadeusz; Brodowski, Jacek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Noceń, Iwona; Starczewski, Andrzej; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2007-03-01

    Drug addiction is a complex problem which leads to many somatic, psychic and social diseases. It is accompanied by the disturbed metabolism of various macro and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients and analyze whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and methadone treatment affect the level of serum magnesium in these patients. The examination was conducted in a group of 83 people - patients of Szczecin-Zdroje Psychiatric Hospital (Poland). They were 21 to 49 years old, and the mean age was 32 +/- 7 years. The control group consisted of 81 healthy individuals. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the magnesium concentration. The total serum magnesium concentration was calculated for the whole patient group, subgroups of women and men, a subgroup of people infected with HIV, and a subgroup receiving methadone substitution treatment. How magnesium behaves depending on age and addiction period, was checked. The mean concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the patients examined was 0.57 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than in the control group. In the subgroup of men it was 0.57 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of women - 0.55 mmol/L; the differences were not statistically significant. In the patient group nobody had the appropriate magnesium concentration in blood serum. No significant correlation was found between the magnesium concentration, age of the patients and addiction period. In the subgroup of seropositive people the mean concentration of magnesium was 0.55 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of non-infected patients - 0.58 mmol/L; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean concentration of magnesium in the subgroup treated with methadone was 0.59 mmol/L, and in the subgroup not involved in this type of therapy - 0.55 mmol/L; it was not a statistically significant difference. PMID:17536489

  17. The striatal balancing act in drug addiction: distinct roles of direct and indirect pathway medium spiny neurons.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Mary Kay; Nestler, Eric J

    2011-01-01

    The striatum plays a key role in mediating the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs, with drugs of abuse causing long-lasting molecular and cellular alterations in both dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum). Despite the wealth of research on the biological actions of abused drugs in striatum, until recently, the distinct roles of the striatum's two major subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in drug addiction remained elusive. Recent advances in cell-type-specific technologies, including fluorescent reporter mice, transgenic, or knockout mice, and viral-mediated gene transfer, have advanced the field toward a more comprehensive understanding of the two MSN subtypes in the long-term actions of drugs of abuse. Here we review progress in defining the distinct molecular and functional contributions of the two MSN subtypes in mediating addiction. PMID:21811439

  18. The Striatal Balancing Act in Drug Addiction: Distinct Roles of Direct and Indirect Pathway Medium Spiny Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lobo, Mary Kay; Nestler, Eric J.

    2011-01-01

    The striatum plays a key role in mediating the acute and chronic effects of addictive drugs, with drugs of abuse causing long-lasting molecular and cellular alterations in both dorsal striatum and nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum). Despite the wealth of research on the biological actions of abused drugs in striatum, until recently, the distinct roles of the striatum’s two major subtypes of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in drug addiction remained elusive. Recent advances in cell-type-specific technologies, including fluorescent reporter mice, transgenic, or knockout mice, and viral-mediated gene transfer, have advanced the field toward a more comprehensive understanding of the two MSN subtypes in the long-term actions of drugs of abuse. Here we review progress in defining the distinct molecular and functional contributions of the two MSN subtypes in mediating addiction. PMID:21811439

  19. [Addiction].

    PubMed

    Besson, J; Grivel, J; Tomei, A; Gothuey, I; Andronicos, M; Babel, H; Nunweiler, S

    2013-01-01

    What's new in addiction medicine in 2012? The news are presented according three axes: first, in the field of neuroscience, the process of extinction of addiction memories. Then in the clinical field, a reflexion is reported on how to treat addiction in psychiatric hospitals. At last, in the area of teaching, an e-learning development with a virtual patient shows a great interest in addiction psychiatry. PMID:23367696

  20. The affective dimension of pain as a risk factor for drug and alcohol addiction.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Dana M; McGinn, M Adrienne; Itoga, Christy A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-12-01

    Addiction, or substance use disorder (SUD), is a devastating psychiatric disease composed of multiple elemental features. As a biobehavioral disorder, escalation of drug and/or alcohol intake is both a cause and consequence of molecular neuroadaptations in central brain reinforcement circuitry. Multiple mesolimbic areas mediate a host of negative affective and motivational symptoms that appear to be central to the addiction process. Brain stress- and reinforcement-related regions such as the central amygdala (CeA), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and nucleus accumbens (NAc) also serve as central processors of ascending nociceptive input. We hypothesize that a sensitization of brain mechanisms underlying the processing of persistent and maladaptive pain contributes to a composite negative affective state to drive the enduring, relapsing nature of addiction, particularly in the case of alcohol and opioid use disorder. At the neurochemical level, pain activates central stress-related neuropeptide signaling, including the dynorphin and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) systems, and by this process may facilitate negative affect and escalated drug and alcohol use over time. Importantly, the widespread prevalence of unresolved pain and associated affective dysregulation in clinical populations highlights the need for more effective analgesic medications with reduced potential for tolerance and dependence. The burgeoning epidemic of prescription opioid abuse also demands a closer investigation into the neurobiological mechanisms of how pain treatment could potentially represent a significant risk factor for addiction in vulnerable populations. Finally, the continuing convergence of sensory and affective neuroscience fields is expected to generate insight into the critical balance between pain relief and addiction liability, as well as provide more effective therapeutic strategies for chronic pain and addiction. PMID:26008713

  1. Can antipsychotic treatment contribute to drug addiction in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Samaha, Anne-Noël

    2014-07-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia are at very high risk for drug abuse and addiction. Patients with a coexisting drug problem fare worse than patients who do not use drugs, and are also more difficult to treat. Current hypotheses cannot adequately account for why patients with schizophrenia so often have a co-morbid drug problem. I present here a complementary hypothesis based on evidence showing that chronic exposure to antipsychotic medications can induce supersensitivity within the brain's dopamine systems, and that this in turn can enhance the rewarding and incentive motivational effects of drugs and reward cues. At the neurobiological level, these effects of antipsychotics are potentially linked to antipsychotic-induced increases in the striatal levels of dopamine D2 receptors and D2 receptors in a high-affinity state for dopamine, particularly at postsynaptic sites. Antipsychotic-induced dopamine supersensitivity and enhanced reward function are not inevitable consequences of prolonged antipsychotic treatment. At least two parameters appear to promote these effects; the use of antipsychotics of the typical class, and continuous rather than intermittent antipsychotic exposure, such that silencing of dopaminergic neurotransmission via D2/3 receptors is unremitting. Thus, by inducing forms of neural plasticity that facilitate the ability of drugs and reward cues to gain control over behaviour, some currently used treatment strategies with typical antipsychotics might contribute to compulsive drug seeking and drug taking behaviours in vulnerable schizophrenia patients. PMID:23793001

  2. Autism Spectrum Disorders and Drug Addiction: Common Pathways, Common Molecules, Distinct Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Rothwell, Patrick E.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and drug addiction do not share substantial comorbidity or obvious similarities in etiology or symptomatology. It is thus surprising that a number of recent studies implicate overlapping neural circuits and molecular signaling pathways in both disorders. The purpose of this review is to highlight this emerging intersection and consider implications for understanding the pathophysiology of these seemingly distinct disorders. One area of overlap involves neural circuits and neuromodulatory systems in the striatum and basal ganglia, which play an established role in addiction and reward but are increasingly implicated in clinical and preclinical studies of ASDs. A second area of overlap relates to molecules like Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) and methyl CpG-binding protein-2 (MECP2), which are best known for their contribution to the pathogenesis of syndromic ASDs, but have recently been shown to regulate behavioral and neurobiological responses to addictive drug exposure. These shared pathways and molecules point to common dimensions of behavioral dysfunction, including the repetition of behavioral patterns and aberrant reward processing. The synthesis of knowledge gained through parallel investigations of ASDs and addiction may inspire the design of new therapeutic interventions to correct common elements of striatal dysfunction. PMID:26903789

  3. Episodic Memories and Their Relevance for Psychoactive Drug Use and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of adult people in western societies regularly consume psychoactive drugs. While this consumption is integrated in everyday life activities and controlled in most consumers, it may escalate and result in drug addiction. Non-addicted drug use requires the systematic establishment of highly organized behaviors, such as drug-seeking and -taking. While a significant role for classical and instrumental learning processes is well established in drug use and abuse, declarative drug memories have largely been neglected in research. Episodic memories are an important part of the declarative memories. Here a role of episodic drug memories in the establishment of non-addicted drug use and its transition to addiction is suggested. In relation to psychoactive drug consumption, episodic drug memories are formed when a person prepares for consumption, when the drug is consumed and, most important, when acute effects, withdrawal, craving, and relapse are experienced. Episodic drug memories are one-trial memories with emotional components that can be much stronger than “normal” episodic memories. Their establishment coincides with drug-induced neuronal activation and plasticity. These memories may be highly extinction resistant and influence psychoactive drug consumption, in particular during initial establishment and at the transition to “drug instrumentalization.” In that, understanding how addictive drugs interact with episodic memory circuits in the brain may provide crucial information for how drug use and addiction are established. PMID:23734106

  4. From addiction to infection: managing drug abuse in the context of HIV/AIDS in Africa.

    PubMed

    Akindipe, Taiwo; Abiodun, Lolade; Adebajo, Sylvia; Lawal, Rahman; Rataemane, Solomon

    2014-09-01

    People who use drugs are at higher risk of HIV: directly through the sharing of injecting equipment, indirectly through associated risk behavior, and physiologically through the substances' impact on the immune system. Drug users, especially people who inject drugs (PWID) are a bridge to the general population. The treatment of drug addiction and provision of harm reduction interventions have impact on HIV transmission and incidence. Addiction treatment reduces the frequency of drug-related risky behaviors and enhances access and adherence to HIV treatment, resulting in fewer new infections. However, the drug policies of many African countries are punitive and hostile to harm reduction programs. These fuel criminalization of drug use and discrimination against the drug user thereby preventing individuals with drug addiction from accessing treatment programs. There is need to formulate policies aimed at protecting the rights of people with drug addiction and address the ethical aspects of treatment. PMID:26050376

  5. [Structural changes in the brain in HIV infection complicated by drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Nasibullin, B A; Tkachev, O V; Voĭno-Iasenetskaia, O V; Pykhteev, D M

    2000-01-01

    Comparative analysis of brain alterations in drug addicts who were HIV-seropositive and died of sepsis and HIV-seronegative addicts showed similarity of these changes which manifested with ganglion cell rarefaction and losses, changed neuron content of main structural-functional types; massive satellitosis and neuronophagia, massive glycosis and leucodystrophy. These changes were diffuse in seropositive patients and rather focal in seronegative patients. The authors, on the basis of these findings, suggest a wider spread of HIV infection in drug addicts; they express doubts in the secondary nature of HIV-encephalopathy and believe that drug addiction should be considered as factor promoting HIV-infection development. PMID:11198117

  6. 20 CFR 416.544 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Underpayments § 416.544 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled recipients who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  7. 20 CFR 416.544 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Underpayments § 416.544 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled recipients who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  8. 20 CFR 416.544 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Underpayments § 416.544 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled recipients who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  9. 20 CFR 404.480 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Benefits § 404.480 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled beneficiaries who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  10. 20 CFR 404.480 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Benefits § 404.480 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled beneficiaries who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  11. 20 CFR 416.544 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Underpayments § 416.544 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled recipients who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  12. 20 CFR 416.544 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Underpayments § 416.544 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled recipients who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  13. 20 CFR 404.480 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Benefits § 404.480 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled beneficiaries who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  14. 20 CFR 404.480 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Benefits § 404.480 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled beneficiaries who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  15. 20 CFR 404.480 - Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Benefits § 404.480 Paying benefits in installments: Drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) General. For disabled beneficiaries who receive benefit payments through a representative payee because drug addiction or alcoholism... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Paying benefits in installments:...

  16. The Therapeutic Effects of Group Process on the Behavioral Patterns of a Drug-Addicted Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Linda; Page, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Examined role of group therapy, specifically marathon group work, as treatment of choice for drug-addicted individuals. Explored specific behavioral characteristics of drug-addicted population in interaction with specific therapeutic factors. Findings from 12 inmates who participated in group therapy supported the treatment value of the marathon…

  17. Binary logistic regression modelling: Measuring the probability of relapse cases among drug addict

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Mohd Tahir; Alias, Siti Nor Shadila

    2014-07-01

    For many years Malaysia faced the drug addiction issues. The most serious case is relapse phenomenon among treated drug addict (drug addict who have under gone the rehabilitation programme at Narcotic Addiction Rehabilitation Centre, PUSPEN). Thus, the main objective of this study is to find the most significant factor that contributes to relapse to happen. The binary logistic regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between independent variables (predictors) and dependent variable. The dependent variable is the status of the drug addict either relapse, (Yes coded as 1) or not, (No coded as 0). Meanwhile the predictors involved are age, age at first taking drug, family history, education level, family crisis, community support and self motivation. The total of the sample is 200 which the data are provided by AADK (National Antidrug Agency). The finding of the study revealed that age and self motivation are statistically significant towards the relapse cases..

  18. The anti-addiction drug ibogaine and the heart: a delicate relation.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Xaver; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    The plant indole alkaloid ibogaine has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animal studies. Ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans as the drug alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug and despite safety concerns, ibogaine is currently used as an anti-addiction medication in alternative medicine in dozens of clinics worldwide. In recent years, alarming reports of life-threatening complications and sudden death cases, temporally associated with the administration of ibogaine, have been accumulating. These adverse reactions were hypothesised to be associated with ibogaine's propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this review is to recapitulate the current knowledge about ibogaine's effects on the heart and the cardiovascular system, and to assess the cardiac risks associated with the use of this drug in anti- addiction therapy. The actions of 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a less toxic ibogaine congener with anti-addictive properties, are also considered. PMID:25642835

  19. Drug-induced neurotoxicity in addiction medicine: From prevention to harm reduction.

    PubMed

    Mohammad Ahmadi Soleimani, S; Ekhtiari, Hamed; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2016-01-01

    Neurotoxicity is considered as a major cause of neurodegenerative disorders. Most drugs of abuse have nonnegligible neurotoxic effects many of which are primarily mediated by several dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmitter systems. Although many researchers have investigated the medical and cognitive consequences of drug abuse, the neurotoxicity induced by these drugs still requires comprehensive attention. The science of neurotoxicity promises to improve preventive and therapeutic strategies for brain disorders such as Alzheimer disease and Parkinson's disease. However, its clinical applications for addiction medicine remain to be defined adequately. This chapter reviews the most commonly discussed mechanisms underlying neurotoxicity induced by common drugs of abuse including amphetamines, cocaine, opiates, and alcohol. In addition, the known factors that trigger and/or predispose to drug-induced neurotoxicity are discussed. These factors include drug-related, individual-related, and environmental insults. Moreover, we introduce some of the potential pharmacological antineurotoxic interventions deduced from experimental animal studies. These interventions involve various targets such as dopaminergic system, mitochondria, cell death signaling, and NMDA receptors, among others. We conclude the chapter with a discussion of addicted patients who might benefit from such interventions. PMID:26806769

  20. Inability to access addiction treatment and risk of HIV infection among injection drug users recruited from a supervised injection facility†

    PubMed Central

    Milloy, M.-J.S.; Kerr, Thomas; Zhang, Ruth; Tyndall, Mark; Montaner, Julio; Wood, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Background Treatment for drug addiction is effective in reducing the harms of injection drug use, including infection with HIV and/or hepatitis C. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of being unable to access addiction treatment in a representative sample of injection drug users randomly recruited from a supervised injection facility. Methods Using generalized estimating equations, we determined the prevalence and factors associated with being unable to access addiction treatment. Results Between 1 July 2004 and 30 June 2006, 889 individuals completed at least one interview and were included in this analysis. At each interview, ∼20% of respondents reported trying but being unable to access any type of drug or alcohol treatment in the previous 6 months. Being unable to access treatment was independently associated with recent incarceration, daily use of heroin and borrowing used syringes. In a secondary question, the majority of individuals reported waiting lists were the reason for being unable to access treatment. Conclusion Given the independent association between inability to access addiction treatment and elevated HIV risk behavior, these results suggest expanding addiction treatment may contribute significantly to HIV prevention efforts in this population. PMID:19776079

  1. New insights into the roles of microRNAs in drug addiction and neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is a major public health issue. It is typically a multigenetic brain disorder, implying combined changes of expression of several hundred genes. Psychostimulants (such as cocaine, heroin and amphetamines) induce strong and persistent neuroadaptive changes through a surfeit of gene regulatory mechanisms leading to addiction. Activity-dependent synaptic plasticity of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, known as the 'reward pathway', plays a crucial role in the development of drug dependence. miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs, particularly abundant in the nervous system, that play key roles as regulatory molecules in processes such as neurogenesis, synapse development and plasticity in the brain. They also act as key spatiotemporal regulators during dendritic morphogenesis, controlling the expression of hundreds of genes involved in neuroplasticity and in the function of synapses. Recent studies have identified changes of several specific miRNA expression profiles and polymorphisms affecting the interactions between miRNAs and their targets in various brain disorders, including addiction: miR-16 causes adaptive changes in production of the serotonin transporter; miR-133b is specifically expressed in midbrain dopaminergic neurons, and regulates the production of tyrosine hydroxylase and the dopamine transporter; miR-212 affects production of striatal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and synaptic plasticity upon cocaine. Clearly, specific miRNAs have emerged as key regulators leading to addiction, and could serve as valuable targets for more efficient therapies. In this review, the aim is to provide an overview of the emerging role of miRNAs in addiction. PMID:21205279

  2. The obesity epidemic and food addiction: clinical similarities to drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Fortuna, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    As of 2010 nearly 70% of adult Americans were overweight or obese. Specifically, 35.7% of adult Americans are obese, and this is the highest level of obesity in the recorded history of the United States. A number of environmental factors, most notably the number of fast food outlets, have contributed to the obesity epidemic as well as to the binge prone dynamic. There is evidence that bingeing on sugar-dense, palatable foods increases extracellular dopamine in the striatum and thereby possesses addictive potential. Moreover, elevated blood glucose levels catalyze the absorption of tryptophan through the large neutral amino acid (LNAA) complex and its subsequent conversion into the mood-elevating chemical serotonin. There appear to be several biological and psychological similarities between food addiction and drug dependence including craving and loss of control. Nonetheless there is at least one apparent difference: acute tryptophan depletion does not appear to induce a relapse in recovering drug-dependent individuals, although it may induce dysphoria. In some individuals, palatable foods have palliative properties and can be viewed as a form of self medication. This article will examine environmental factors that have contributed to the obesity epidemic, and will compare the clinical similarities and differences of food addiction and drug dependence. PMID:22641965

  3. Drug Addiction Endophenotypes: Impulsive Versus Sensation-Seeking Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ersche, Karen D.; Turton, Abigail J.; Pradhan, Shachi; Bullmore, Edward T.; Robbins, Trevor W.

    2010-01-01

    Background Genetic factors have been implicated in the development of substance abuse disorders, but the role of pre-existing vulnerability in addiction is still poorly understood. Personality traits of impulsivity and sensation-seeking are highly prevalent in chronic drug users and have been linked with an increased risk for substance abuse. However, it has not been clear whether these personality traits are a cause or an effect of stimulant drug dependence. Method We compared self-reported levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking between 30 sibling pairs of stimulant-dependent individuals and their biological brothers/sisters who did not have a significant drug-taking history and 30 unrelated, nondrug-taking control volunteers. Results Siblings of chronic stimulant users reported significantly higher levels of trait-impulsivity than control volunteers but did not differ from control volunteers with regard to sensation-seeking traits. Stimulant-dependent individuals reported significantly higher levels of impulsivity and sensation-seeking compared with both their siblings and control volunteers. Conclusions These data indicate that impulsivity is a behavioral endophenotype mediating risk for stimulant dependence that may be exacerbated by chronic drug exposure, whereas abnormal sensation-seeking is more likely to be an effect of stimulant drug abuse. PMID:20678754

  4. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  5. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  7. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction or...), you must avail yourself of appropriate treatment for your drug addiction or alcoholism at...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction or...), you must avail yourself of appropriate treatment for your drug addiction or alcoholism at...

  11. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  12. 3 CFR 8701 - Proclamation 8701 of August 31, 2011. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2011 8701 Proclamation 8701 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8701 of August 31, 2011 Proc. 8701 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month... National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we pay tribute to the transforming power of...

  13. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  14. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction or...), you must avail yourself of appropriate treatment for your drug addiction or alcoholism at...

  16. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  17. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  18. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  19. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction or...), you must avail yourself of appropriate treatment for your drug addiction or alcoholism at...

  20. 20 CFR 404.1536 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction or...), you must avail yourself of appropriate treatment for your drug addiction or alcoholism at...

  1. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  2. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  3. 3 CFR 8550 - Proclamation 8550 of August 31, 2010. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2010 8550 Proclamation 8550 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8550 of August 31, 2010 Proc. 8550 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month... and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we express support for those living healthy and productive lives...

  4. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  5. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  6. 20 CFR 416.1725 - Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1725 Section 416.1725 Employees' Benefits... Or Drug Addiction § 416.1725 Effect of your failure to comply with treatment requirements for your drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Suspension of benefits. Your eligibility for benefits will...

  7. 20 CFR 416.936 - Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Drug Addiction and Alcoholism § 416.936 Treatment required for individuals whose drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the determination of disability. (a) If we determine that you are disabled and drug addiction...

  8. 20 CFR 416.1326 - Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. 416.1326 Section 416.1326 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY....1326 Suspension for failure to comply with treatment for drug addiction or alcoholism. (a) Basis for suspension. If you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  9. 3 CFR 8850 - Proclamation 8850 of August 31, 2012. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2012

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2012 8850 Proclamation 8850 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8850 of August 31, 2012 Proc. 8850 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month... neighbors. During National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, we recognize their strength...

  10. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  11. 20 CFR 416.214 - You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false You are disabled and drug addiction or....214 You are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to the... because you are disabled and drug addiction or alcoholism is a contributing factor material to...

  12. Breaking the loop: oxytocin as a potential treatment for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Iain S; Bowen, Michael T

    2012-03-01

    Drug use typically occurs within a social context, and social factors play an important role in the initiation, maintenance and recovery from addictions. There is now accumulating evidence of an interaction between the neural substrates of affiliative behavior and those of drug reward, with a role for brain oxytocin systems in modulating acute and long-term drug effects. Early research in this field indicated that exogenous oxytocin administration can prevent development of tolerance to ethanol and opiates, the induction of stereotyped, hyperactive behavior by stimulants, and the withdrawal symptoms associated with sudden abstinence from drugs and alcohol. Additionally, stimulation of endogenous oxytocin systems is a key neurochemical substrate underlying the prosocial and empathogenic effects of party drugs such as MDMA (Ecstasy) and GHB (Fantasy). Brain oxytocin systems exhibit profound neuroplasticity and undergo major neuroadaptations as a result of drug exposure. Many drugs, including cocaine, opiates, alcohol, cannabis, MDMA and GHB cause long-term changes in markers of oxytocin function and this may be linked to enduring deficits in social behavior that are commonly observed in laboratory animals repeatedly exposed to these drugs. Very recent preclinical studies have illustrated a remarkable ability of exogenously delivered oxytocin to inhibit stimulant and alcohol self-administration, to alter associated drug-induced changes in dopamine, glutamate and Fos expression in cortical and basal ganglia sites, and to prevent stress and priming-induced relapse to drug seeking. Oxytocin therefore has fascinating potential to reverse the corrosive effects of long-term drugs abuse on social behavior and to perhaps inoculate against future vulnerability to addictive disorders. The results of clinical studies examining intranasal oxytocin effects in humans with drug use disorders are eagerly awaited. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Oxytocin, Vasopressin

  13. Psychophysiological prediction of choice: relevance to insight and drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Hajcak, Greg; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Dunning, Jonathan P.; Volkow, Nora D.

    2012-01-01

    An important goal of addiction research and treatment is to predict behavioural responses to drug-related stimuli. This goal is especially important for patients with impaired insight, which can interfere with therapeutic interventions and potentially invalidate self-report questionnaires. This research tested (i) whether event-related potentials, specifically the late positive potential, predict choice to view cocaine images in cocaine addiction; and (ii) whether such behaviour prediction differs by insight (operationalized in this study as self-awareness of image choice). Fifty-nine cocaine abusers and 32 healthy controls provided data for the following laboratory components that were completed in a fixed-sequence (to establish prediction): (i) event-related potential recordings while passively viewing pleasant, unpleasant, neutral and cocaine images, during which early (400–1000 ms) and late (1000–2000 ms) window late positive potentials were collected; (ii) self-reported arousal ratings for each picture; and (iii) two previously validated tasks: one to assess choice for viewing these same images, and the other to group cocaine abusers by insight. Results showed that pleasant-related late positive potentials and arousal ratings predicted pleasant choice (the choice to view pleasant pictures) in all subjects, validating the method. In the cocaine abusers, the predictive ability of the late positive potentials and arousal ratings depended on insight. Cocaine-related late positive potentials better predicted cocaine image choice in cocaine abusers with impaired insight. Another emotion-relevant event-related potential component (the early posterior negativity) did not show these results, indicating specificity of the late positive potential. In contrast, arousal ratings better predicted respective cocaine image choice (and actual cocaine use severity) in cocaine abusers with intact insight. Taken together, the late positive potential could serve as a biomarker

  14. Anti-addiction drug ibogaine inhibits hERG channels: a cardiac arrhythmia risk.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Xaver; Kovar, Michael; Boehm, Stefan; Sandtner, Walter; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2014-03-01

    Ibogaine, an alkaloid derived from the African shrub Tabernanthe iboga, has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans. Thus, it alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug, and despite evidence that ibogaine may disturb the rhythm of the heart, this alkaloid is currently used as an anti-addiction drug in alternative medicine. Here, we report that therapeutic concentrations of ibogaine reduce currents through human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels. Thereby, we provide a mechanism by which ibogaine may generate life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias. PMID:22458604

  15. Scientific Research has Revolutionized our Understanding of Drug Abuse and Addiction | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Curtain on Addiction Why the “Addiction Performance Project”? In 2010, 23.1 million people needed treatment ... See accompanying Debra Winger interview. ) The Addiction Performance Project includes a dramatic reading of Act III of ...

  16. Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction. PMID:23912828

  17. How Preclinical Models Evolved to Resemble the Diagnostic Criteria of Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Belin-Rauscent, Aude; Fouyssac, Maxime; Bonci, Antonello; Belin, David

    2016-01-01

    Drug addiction is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder that affects a subset of the individuals who take drugs. It is characterized by maladaptive drug-seeking habits that are maintained despite adverse consequences and intense drug craving. The pathophysiology and etiology of addiction is only partially understood despite extensive research because of the gap between current preclinical models of addiction and the clinical criteria of the disorder. This review presents a brief overview, based on selected methodologies, of how behavioral models have evolved over the last 50 years to the development of recent preclinical models of addiction that more closely mimic diagnostic criteria of addiction. It is hoped that these new models will increase our understanding of the complex neurobiological mechanisms whereby some individuals switch from controlled drug use to compulsive drug-seeking habits and relapse to these maladaptive habits. Additionally, by paving the way to bridge the gap that exists between biobehavioral research on addiction and the human situation, these models may provide new perspectives for the development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies for drug addiction. PMID:25747744

  18. Cognitive effects of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptor ligands in the context of drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Olive, M. Foster

    2010-01-01

    Glutamate plays a pivotal role in regulating drug self-administration and drug-seeking behavior, and the past decade has witnessed a substantial surge of interest in the role of Group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu1 and mGlu5 receptors) in mediating these behaviors. As will be reviewed here, Group I mGlu receptors are involved in normal and drug-induced synaptic plasticity, drug reward, reinforcement and relapse-like behaviors, and addiction-related cognitive processes such as maladaptive learning and memory, behavioral inflexibility, and extinction learning. Animal models of addiction have revealed that antagonists of Group I mGlu receptors, particularly the mGlu5 receptor, reduce self-administration of virtually all drugs of abuse. Since inhibitors of mGlu5 receptor function have now entered clinical trials for other medical conditions and appear to be well-tolerated, a key question that remains unanswered is - what changes in cognition are produced by these compounds that result in reduced drug intake and drug-seeking behavior? Finally, in contrast to mGlu5 receptor antagonists, recent studies have indicated that positive allosteric modulation of mGlu5 receptors actually enhances synaptic plasticity and improves various aspects of cognition, including spatial learning, behavioral flexibility, and extinction of drug-seeking behavior. Thus, while inhibition of Group I mGlu receptor function may reduce drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-related behaviors, positive allosteric modulation of the mGlu5 receptor subtype may actually enhance cognition and potentially reverse some of the cognitive deficits associated with chronic drug use. PMID:20371237

  19. Fatal poisoning in drug addicts in the Nordic countries in 2012.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, K Wiese; Edvardsen, H M E; Thelander, G; Ojanperä, I; Thordardottir, S; Andersen, L V; Kriikku, P; Vindenes, V; Christoffersen, D; Delaveris, G J M; Frost, J

    2015-03-01

    This report is a follow-up to a study on fatal poisoning in drug addicts conducted in 2012 by a Nordic working group. Here we analyse data from the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. Data on sex, number of deaths, places of death, age, main intoxicants and other drugs detected in the blood were recorded. National data are presented and compared between the Nordic countries and with data from similar studies conducted in 1991, 1997, 2002 and 2007. The death rates (number of deaths per 100,000 inhabitants) increased in drug addicts in Finland, Iceland and Sweden but decreased in Norway compared to the rates in earlier studies. The death rate was stable in Denmark from 1991 to 2012. The death rate remained highest in Norway (5.79) followed by Denmark (5.19) and Iceland (5.16). The differences between the countries diminished compared to earlier studies, with death rates in Finland (4.61) and Sweden (4.17) approaching the levels in the other countries. Women accounted for 15-27% of the fatal poisonings. The median age of the deceased drug addicts was still highest in Denmark, and deaths of addicts >45 years old increased in all countries. Opioids remained the main cause of death, but medicinal opioids like methadone, buprenorphine, fentanyl and tramadol mainly replaced heroin. Methadone was the main intoxicant in Denmark and Sweden, whereas heroin/morphine caused the most deaths in Norway. Finland differed from the other Nordic countries in that buprenorphine was the main intoxicant with only a few heroin/morphine and methadone deaths. Deaths from methadone, buprenorphine and fentanyl increased immensely in Sweden compared to 2007. Poly-drug use was widespread in all countries. The median number of drugs per case varied from 4 to 5. Heroin/morphine, medicinal opioids, cocaine, amphetamines, benzodiazepines and alcohol were the main abused drugs. However, less widely used drugs, like gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), methylphenidate

  20. Proceedings of a Symposium on the Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazda, George M., Ed.

    The theme of the fifth annual Symposium on Group Procedures was "The Use of Group Procedures in the Prevention and Treatment of Drug and Alcohol Addiction." Symposium participants included professionals in counseling; clinical, school, and educational psychology, psychiatry, and social work. In addition, invitations were sent to members of…

  1. 78 FR 11939 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p.; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    .... The DSM-IV-TR does not include diagnoses for Caffeine Dependence or Caffeine Abuse. Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fetal cocaine exposure, or ] Addiction to, or use of, prescription medications taken as... he or she stopped using drugs or alcohol; that is, we will determine whether DAA is ``material''...

  2. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR (PPAR) AGONISTS AS PROMISING NEW MEDICATIONS FOR DRUG ADDICTION: PRECLINICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Foll, Bernard Le; Ciano, Patricia Di; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-α agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-γ agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together this preclinical data indicates that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment. PMID:23614675

  3. [The comparative study of bioelectronic brain activity at the drug and Internet-addiction].

    PubMed

    Rabadanova, A I; Abacharova, Z S

    2014-01-01

    The comparative estimation of the bioelectric brain activities at different drug (heroin, opium, toxic organic join, home chemistry) and internet addiction are studied. These data can be interest for problem of general and specific mechanism of the influence of different factors, causing the addiction, on neirofisiological and neirochemical processes. PMID:25702456

  4. Pharmacogenetic aspects of addictive behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Hejazi, Nadia S.

    2007-01-01

    Addictions are illnesses of complex causation, including inheritance and a role for gene/environment interactions. Functional alleles influencing pharmacodynamic (tissue response) and pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, and metabolism) play a role, but these interact with diverse environmental factors including early Ife stress, underage drug exposure, availability of addictive agents, and response to clinical interventions including pharmacotherapies. Identification of genetic factors addiction thus plays an important role in the understanding of processes of addiction and origins of differential vulnerabilities and treatment responses. PMID:18286803

  5. Surgical treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in "Krokodil" drug addicted patients.

    PubMed

    Poghosyan, Yuri M; Hakobyan, Koryun A; Poghosyan, Anna Yu; Avetisyan, Eduard K

    2014-12-01

    Retrospective study of jaw osteonecrosis treatment in patients using the "Krokodil" drug from 2009 to 2013. On the territory of the former USSR countries there is widespread use of a self-produced drug called "Krokodil". Codeine containing analgesics ("Sedalgin", "Pentalgin" etc), red phosphorus (from match boxes) and other easily acquired chemical components are used for synthesis of this drug, which used intravenously. Jaw osteonecrosis develops as a complication in patients who use "Krokodil". The main feature of this disease is jawbone exposure in the oral cavity. Surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". 40 "Krokodil" drug addict patients with jaw osteonecrosis were treated. Involvement of maxilla was found in 11 patients (27.5%), mandible in 21 (52.5%), both jaws in 8 (20%) patients. 35 Lesions were found in 29 mandibles and 21 lesions in 19 maxillas. Main factors of treatment success are: cessation of "Krokodil" use in the pre- (minimum 1 month) and postoperative period and osteonecrosis area resection of a minimum of 0.5 cm beyond the visible borders of osteonecrosis towards the healthy tissues. Surgery was not delayed until sequestrum formation. In the mandible marginal or segmental resection (with or without TMJ exarticulation) was performed. After surgery recurrence of disease was seen in 8 (23%) cases in the mandible, with no cases of recurrence in the maxilla. According to our experience in this case series, surgery is the main method for the treatment of jaw osteonecrosis in patients using "Krokodil". Cessation of drug use and jaw resection minimize the rate of recurrences in such patients. PMID:24969764

  6. Opiate addiction and cocaine addiction: underlying molecular neurobiology and genetics

    PubMed Central

    Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Levran, Orna; Reed, Brian; Schlussman, Stefan D.; Zhou, Yan; Butelman, Eduardo R.

    2012-01-01

    Addictive diseases, including addiction to heroin, prescription opioids, or cocaine, pose massive personal and public health costs. Addictions are chronic relapsing diseases of the brain caused by drug-induced direct effects and persisting neuroadaptations at the epigenetic, mRNA, neuropeptide, neurotransmitter, or protein levels. These neuroadaptations, which can be specific to drug type, and their resultant behaviors are modified by various internal and external environmental factors, including stress responsivity, addict mindset, and social setting. Specific gene variants, including variants encoding pharmacological target proteins or genes mediating neuroadaptations, also modify vulnerability at particular stages of addiction. Greater understanding of these interacting factors through laboratory-based and translational studies have the potential to optimize early interventions for the therapy of chronic addictive diseases and to reduce the burden of relapse. Here, we review the molecular neurobiology and genetics of opiate addiction, including heroin and prescription opioids, and cocaine addiction. PMID:23023708

  7. The meaning of suffering in drug addiction and recovery from the perspective of existentialism, Buddhism and the 12-Step program.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gila

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the current article was to examine the meaning of suffering in drug addiction and in the recovery process. Negative emotions may cause primary suffering that can drive an individual toward substance abuse. At the same time, drugs only provide temporary relief, and over time, the pathological effects of the addiction worsen causing secondary suffering, which is a motivation for treatment. The 12-Step program offers a practical way to cope with suffering through a process of surrender. The act of surrender sets in motion a conversion experience, which involves a self-change including reorganization of one's identity and meaning in life. This article is another step toward understanding one of the several factors that contribute to the addict's motivation for treatment. This knowledge may be helpful for tailoring treatment that addresses suffering as a factor that initiates treatment motivation and, in turn, treatment success. PMID:21053759

  8. Continuing the Epidemiological Function of the Addicts Index--Evidence from Matching the Home Office Addicts Index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew; Griffin, Maria; Mott, Joy; Corkery, John; Madden, Peter; Sondhi, Arun; Stimson, Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We discuss the Addicts Index (AI) and examine whether the epidemiological trends of the AI can be continued by the regional drug misuse databases (DMDs, now known as National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). Methods: (i) Matching individuals recorded as addicted to opiates and/or cocaine in the AI with those reported to the North…

  9. Self-Concept and Drug Addiction: A Controlled Study of White, Middle-Socioeconomic Status Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Richard A.

    This study investigated the questions of whether addicts have more negative self-attitudes than their matched controls, and if they do, whether the constructs of self theory are able to explain the differences. Subjects were selected from white middle socioeconomic status (WMSES) narcotic addicts being treated under the Narcotic Addict…

  10. Fronto-striatal dysregulation in drug addiction and pathological gambling: Consistent inconsistencies?☆

    PubMed Central

    Limbrick-Oldfield, Eve H.; van Holst, Ruth J.; Clark, Luke

    2013-01-01

    Alterations in appetitive processing are central to the major psychological theories of addiction, with differential predictions made by the reward deficiency, incentive salience, and impulsivity hypotheses. Functional MRI has become the chief means of testing these predictions, with experiments reliably highlighting disturbances at the level of the striatum, medial prefrontal cortex, and affiliated regions. However, demonstrations of hypo-reactivity and hyper-reactivity of this circuitry in drug addicted groups are reported in approximately equal measure. Similar findings are echoed in the emergent neuroimaging literature on pathological gambling, which has recently witnessed a coming of age. The first aim of this article is to consider some of the methodological aspects of these experiments that could influence the observed direction of group-level effects, including the baseline condition, trial structure and timing, and the nature of the appetitive cues (drug-related, monetary, or primary rewards). The second aim is to highlight the conceptual traction that is offered by pathological gambling, as a model of a ‘toxicity free’ addiction and an illness where tasks of monetary reinforcement afford a more direct mapping to the abused commodity. Our conclusion is that relatively subtle decisions in task design appear capable of driving group differences in fronto-striatal circuitry in entirely opposing directions, even with tasks and task variants that look ostensibly similar. Differentiation between the psychological theories of addiction will require a greater breadth of experimental designs, with more research needed on processing of primary appetitive cues, aversive processing, and in vulnerable/at-risk groups. PMID:24179792

  11. Imbalanced decision hierarchy in addicts emerging from drug-hijacked dopamine spiraling circuit.

    PubMed

    Keramati, Mehdi; Gutkin, Boris

    2013-01-01

    Despite explicitly wanting to quit, long-term addicts find themselves powerless to resist drugs, despite knowing that drug-taking may be a harmful course of action. Such inconsistency between the explicit knowledge of negative consequences and the compulsive behavioral patterns represents a cognitive/behavioral conflict that is a central characteristic of addiction. Neurobiologically, differential cue-induced activity in distinct striatal subregions, as well as the dopamine connectivity spiraling from ventral striatal regions to the dorsal regions, play critical roles in compulsive drug seeking. However, the functional mechanism that integrates these neuropharmacological observations with the above-mentioned cognitive/behavioral conflict is unknown. Here we provide a formal computational explanation for the drug-induced cognitive inconsistency that is apparent in the addicts' "self-described mistake". We show that addictive drugs gradually produce a motivational bias toward drug-seeking at low-level habitual decision processes, despite the low abstract cognitive valuation of this behavior. This pathology emerges within the hierarchical reinforcement learning framework when chronic exposure to the drug pharmacologically produces pathologicaly persistent phasic dopamine signals. Thereby the drug hijacks the dopaminergic spirals that cascade the reinforcement signals down the ventro-dorsal cortico-striatal hierarchy. Neurobiologically, our theory accounts for rapid development of drug cue-elicited dopamine efflux in the ventral striatum and a delayed response in the dorsal striatum. Our theory also shows how this response pattern depends critically on the dopamine spiraling circuitry. Behaviorally, our framework explains gradual insensitivity of drug-seeking to drug-associated punishments, the blocking phenomenon for drug outcomes, and the persistent preference for drugs over natural rewards by addicts. The model suggests testable predictions and beyond that, sets the

  12. AA protein-related renal amyloidosis in drug addicts.

    PubMed Central

    Menchel, S.; Cohen, D.; Gross, E.; Frangione, B.; Gallo, G.

    1983-01-01

    Reports of renal amyloidosis occurring among narcotic addicts have been limited, for the most part, to case reports. In a prospective survey of 150 addicts examined at autopsy in the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner of the City of New York, 7 cases of renal amyloidosis were found. Immunohistologic examination demonstrated that in all of the 7 cases, the amyloid was AA protein-related. The amyloid extracted from the kidneys of two addicts and analyzed biochemically did not differ from the AA amyloid secondary to chronic infectious and inflammatory diseases. The combined data of previous reports and the present survey demonstrate that addicts who are subcutaneous users with skin infections most frequently develop amyloidosis. Our data demonstrating renal amyloidosis in 26% of addicts with chronic suppurative skin infections suggest that such addicts are at high risk for the development of amyloidosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:6881286

  13. Meta-analysis and genome-wide interpretation of genetic susceptibility to drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Classical genetic studies provide strong evidence for heritable contributions to susceptibility to developing dependence on addictive substances. Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have sought genes, chromosomal regions and allelic variants likely to contribute to susceptibility to drug addiction. Results Here, we performed a meta-analysis of addiction candidate gene association studies and GWAS to investigate possible functional mechanisms associated with addiction susceptibility. From meta-data retrieved from 212 publications on candidate gene association studies and 5 GWAS reports, we linked a total of 843 haplotypes to addiction susceptibility. We mapped the SNPs in these haplotypes to functional and regulatory elements in the genome and estimated the magnitude of the contributions of different molecular mechanisms to their effects on addiction susceptibility. In addition to SNPs in coding regions, these data suggest that haplotypes in gene regulatory regions may also contribute to addiction susceptibility. When we compared the lists of genes identified by association studies and those identified by molecular biological studies of drug-regulated genes, we observed significantly higher participation in the same gene interaction networks than expected by chance, despite little overlap between the two gene lists. Conclusions These results appear to offer new insights into the genetic factors underlying drug addiction. PMID:21999673

  14. Electrophysiological evidence that drug cues have greater salience than other affective stimuli in opiate addiction.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Allen, N B; Peters, L A; Deakin, J F W

    2008-11-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that drug cues are able to capture attentional resources in addicted populations. However, few studies have controlled for the possibility that drug users find all motivationally significant (i.e., affective) stimuli particularly salient. We examined this issue in opiate addiction, by exploring the impact of drug-related and affective stimuli on central attentional processes. Sixteen male heroin addicts (seven on opiate pharmacotherapy and nine recently detoxified subjects) and 12 matched controls were studied. Subjects were fitted with a 32-channel electrode cap and were instructed to passively view a series of neutral, affective and opiate-related images. The P300 elicited by drug-related stimuli was significantly larger than that elicited by affective and neutral stimuli in opiate users but not controls. Baseline ratings of craving were also found to predict the degree of P300 facilitation to the drug-related stimuli in the addicted group. Further, the opiate group demonstrated an absence of the typical enhancement of ERP responses to non-drug affective stimuli. These results suggest that opiate addicts demonstrate greater cortical processing of drug cues than other types of affective stimuli. Further research is required to assess whether addiction is specifically associated with reduced sensitivity to natural rewards, aversive stimuli or affective cues in general. PMID:18208907

  15. A review of addiction.

    PubMed

    Clay, Steven W; Allen, Jason; Parran, Theorore

    2008-07-01

    Addiction to drugs and alcohol is often undiagnosed and untreated. Physicians are often unaware or have negative attitudes regarding these patients, such as the perception that treatment is ineffective. Addiction--psychological dependence with or without tolerance and withdrawal--is essentially compulsive uncontrolled substance use despite physical, psychological, or social consequences. We now have an understanding of the 2 major neurological pathways involved in addiction. First, the mesolimbic dopamine reward pathway, which is essential for survival, can be physically altered by drug abuse to result in uncontrolled cravings. Second, the decision-making prefrontal cortex, which suppresses inappropriate reward response, can also be altered by drug abuse. Thus, accelerated "go" signals and impaired "stop" signals result in uncontrolled use despite severe consequences. Further, addicts can be predisposed to addiction by genetic defects in reward pathway neurotransmission and stress-related developmental brain abnormalities. Relapse to drug use can occur because of stress or cue-related reward pathway stimulation or even by a single drug dose. Individualized treatment of addiction, including pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral interventions, can be as successful as treatment of other chronic diseases. Several pharmaceuticals are available or under study for these disorders. Waiting for the addict to "be ready" for treatment can be dangerous and detoxification alone is often ineffective. The physician's role in treating addiction includes prevention, diagnosis, brief intervention, motivational interviewing, referral, and follow-up care. An understanding of the biological reality of addiction allows physicians to understand addicts as having a brain disease. Further, the reality of effective pharmacological and cognitive-behavioral treatments for addiction allows physicians to be more optimistic in treating addicts. The challenge to the physician is to embrace the

  16. Neuronal nicotinic receptors as brain targets for pharmacotherapy of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shafiqur; López-Hernández, Gretchen Y; Corrigall, William A; Papke, Roger L

    2008-11-01

    Nicotine addiction and other forms of drug addiction continue to be significant public health problems in the United States and the rest of the world. Accumulated evidence indicates that brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are a heterogenous family of ion channels expressed in the various parts of the brain. A growing body of preclinical studies suggests that brain nAChRs are critical targets for the development of pharmacotherapies for nicotine and other drug addictions. In this review, we will discuss the nAChR subtypes, their function in response to endogenous brain transmitters, and how their functions are regulated in the presence of nicotine. Furthermore, we will discuss the role of nAChRs in mediating nicotine-induced addictive behavior in animal models. Additionally, we will provide an overview of the effects of nicotine and nicotinic compounds on the mesolimbic dopamine system, part of the reinforcement/reward circuitry of the brain, as an example of the neurochemical basis of nicotine addiction and other drug addictions. An appreciation of the complexity of nicotinic receptors and their regulation will be necessary for the development of nicotinic receptor modulators as potential pharmacotherapy for drug addiction. PMID:19128201

  17. Understanding the Global Problem of Drug Addiction is a Challenge for IDARS Scientists

    PubMed Central

    Ali, S.F; Onaivi, E.S; Dodd, P.R; Cadet, J.L; Schenk, S; Kuhar, M.J; Koob, G.F

    2011-01-01

    IDARS is an acronym for the International Drug Abuse Research Society. Apart from our scientific and educational purposes, we communicate information to the general and scientific community about substance abuse and addiction science and treatment potential. Members of IDARS are research scientists and clinicians from around the world, with scheduled meetings across the globe. IDARS is developing a vibrant and exciting international mechanism not only for scientific interactions in the domain of addiction between countries but also ultimately as a resource for informing public policy across nations. Nonetheless, a lot more research needs to be done to better understand the neurobiological basis of drug addiction – A challenge for IDARS scientists. PMID:21886551

  18. Stigma, Discrimination, Treatment Effectiveness and Policy Support: Comparing Public Views about Drug Addiction with Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Barry, Colleen L; McGinty, Emma Elizabeth; Pescosolido, Bernice; Goldman, Howard H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study compares current public attitudes about drug addiction with attitudes about mental illness. Methods A web-based national public opinion survey (N=709) was conducted to compare attitudes about stigma, discrimination, treatment effectiveness, and policy support. Results Respondents hold significantly more negative views toward persons with drug addiction compared to those with mental illness. More respondents were unwilling to have a person with drug addiction marry into their family or work closely with them on a job. Respondents were more willing to accept discriminatory practices, more skeptical about the effectiveness of available treatments, and more likely to oppose public policies aimed at helping persons with drug addiction. Conclusions Drug addiction is often treated as a sub-category of mental illness, and health insurance benefits group these conditions together under the rubric of behavioral health. Given starkly different public views about drug addiction and mental illness, advocates may need to adopt differing approaches for advancing stigma reduction and public policy. PMID:25270497

  19. Drug Addiction: Updating Actions to Habits to Compulsions Ten Years On.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    A decade ago, we hypothesized that drug addiction can be viewed as a transition from voluntary, recreational drug use to compulsive drug-seeking habits, neurally underpinned by a transition from prefrontal cortical to striatal control over drug seeking and taking as well as a progression from the ventral to the dorsal striatum. Here, in the light of burgeoning, supportive evidence, we reconsider and elaborate this hypothesis, in particular the refinements in our understanding of ventral and dorsal striatal mechanisms underlying goal-directed and habitual drug seeking, the influence of drug-associated Pavlovian-conditioned stimuli on drug seeking and relapse, and evidence for impairments in top-down prefrontal cortical inhibitory control over this behavior. We further review animal and human studies that have begun to define etiological factors and individual differences in the propensity to become addicted to drugs, leading to the description of addiction endophenotypes, especially for cocaine addiction. We consider the prospect of novel treatments for addiction that promote abstinence from and relapse to drug use. PMID:26253543

  20. 76 FR 81899 - TRICARE; Removal of the Prohibition to Use Addictive Drugs in the Maintenance Treatment of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...This rule proposes revisions to remove the exclusion of drug abuse maintenance programs and allow as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for an individual with substance dependence, the substitution of a therapeutic drug with addictive potential for a drug of addiction (e.g. the substitution of methadone for heroin). The current regulation prohibits drug maintenance programs where one......

  1. Nicotine Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    The use of tobacco products is one of the most critical health problems facing the country. Through the use of neuroimaging technologies, it is now possible to see some of the changes in brain functioning that occur from smoking. There may be other chemicals in cigarette smoke that contribute to addiction. The improved understanding of addiction,…

  2. Historical and cultural aspects of man's relationship with addictive drugs

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Our taste for addictive psychoactive substances is attested to in the earliest human records. Historically, psychoactive substances have been used by (i) priests in religious ceremonies (eg, amanita muscaria); (ii) healers for medicinal purposes (eg, opium); or (iii) the general population in a socially approved way (eg, alcohol, nicotine, and caffeine). Our forebears refined more potent compounds and devised faster routes of administration, which contributed to abuse. Pathological use was described as early as classical Antiquity. The issue of loss of control of the substance, heralding today's concept of addiction, was already being discussed in the 17th century. The complex etiology of addiction is reflected in the frequent pendulum swings between opposing attitudes on issues that are still currently being debated, such as: is addiction a sin or a disease; should treatment be moral or medical; is addiction caused by the substance; the individual's vulnerability and psychology, or social factors; should substances be regulated or freely available. PMID:18286796

  3. Adolescent Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: The Experience of Parents

    PubMed Central

    Choate, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents’ experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent’s own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26529024

  4. Adolescent Alcoholism and Drug Addiction: The Experience of Parents.

    PubMed

    Choate, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Alcoholism and drug addiction have marked impacts on the ability of families to function. Much of the literature has been focused on adult members of a family who present with substance dependency. There is limited research into the effects of adolescent substance dependence on parenting and family functioning; little attention has been paid to the parents' experience. This qualitative study looks at the parental perspective as they attempted to adapt and cope with substance dependency in their teenage children. The research looks into family life and adds to family functioning knowledge when the identified client is a youth as opposed to an adult family member. Thirty-one adult caregivers of 21 teenagers were interviewed, resulting in eight significant themes: (1) finding out about the substance dependence problem; (2) experiences as the problems escalated; (3) looking for explanations other than substance dependence; (4) connecting to the parent's own history; (5) trying to cope; (6) challenges of getting help; (7) impact on siblings; and (8) choosing long-term rehabilitation. Implications of this research for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:26529024

  5. The CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) system in appetite and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Vicentic, Aleksandra; Jones, Douglas C

    2007-02-01

    CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript) peptides are neuromodulators that are involved in feeding, drug reward, stress, cardiovascular function, and bone remodeling. CART peptides are abundant but discretely distributed in the brain, pituitary and adrenal glands, pancreas, and gut. High expression of CART in discrete hypothalamic nuclei associated with feeding has led to behavioral and pharmacological studies that strongly support an anorectic action of CART in feeding. Subsequent studies on humans and transgenic animals provide additional evidence that CART is important in the regulation of appetite as mutations in the CART gene are linked to eating disorders, including obesity and anorexia. The expression of CART in the mesolimbic dopamine circuit has lead to functional studies demonstrating CART's psychostimulant-like effects on locomotor activity and conditioned place preference in rats. These and other findings demonstrated that CART modulates mesolimbic dopamine systems and affects psychostimulant-induced reward and reinforcing behaviors. The link between CART and psychostimulants was substantiated by demonstrating alterations of the CART system in human cocaine addicts. CART seems to regulate the mesolimbic dopamine system, which serves as a common mechanism of action for both feeding and addiction. Indeed, recent studies that demonstrated CART projections from specific hypothalamic areas associated with feeding to specific mesolimbic areas linked to reward/motivation behaviors provide evidence that CART may be an important connection between food- and drug-related rewards. Given the enormous public health burden of both obesity and drug addiction, future studies exploring the pharmacotherapies targeting CART peptide represent an exciting and challenging research area. PMID:16840648

  6. Drink, drugs and disruption: memory manipulation for the treatment of addiction.

    PubMed

    Milton, A L

    2013-08-01

    Addiction is a complex disorder, and one characterised by the acquisition of maladaptive instrumental (drug-seeking and drug-taking) and pavlovian (cue-drug associations) memories. These memories markedly contribute to the long-term risk of relapse, so reduction of the impact of these memories on behaviour could potentially be an important addition to current therapies for addiction. Memory reconsolidation may provide such a target for disrupting well-consolidated pavlovian cue-drug memories following an extensive drug history. Reconsolidation can be disrupted either by administering amnestic drugs in conjunction with a memory reactivation session, or by updating the memory adaptively through the induction of 'superextinction'. More work is needed before these therapies are ready for translation to the clinic, but if found clinically effective memory manipulation promises a radical new way of treating addiction. PMID:23265965

  7. Issues In-Depth: Advancing Understanding of Drug Addiction and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2009-01-01

    While most school districts utilize a drug abuse resistance curriculum, as science teachers, it is our responsibility to understand the science behind drug addiction in order to most effectively educate our students against drug abuse. In the last two decades, increases in scientific technology have permitted significant discoveries surrounding…

  8. Drug Use, Dependence, and Addiction at a British Columbia University: Good News and Bad News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Bruce K.

    1985-01-01

    Two studies of perceived and actual drug use at Simon Fraser University found students estimating greater drug use among friends than for themselves, but 31 percent reported dependence and 5 percent reported current addiction, especially to caffeine and nicotine. An approach to drug abuse focusing on familiar substances is recommended. (MSE)

  9. Methadone: The Drug and Its Therapeutic Uses In the Treatment of Addiction. Series 31, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This fact sheet from the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information discusses methadone, a therapeutic drug for the treatment of narcotic addiction. It reviews the pharmacology of the drug as well as physiological and psychological effects, patterns of use, and adverse effects (toxicity and poisoning). It examines the success rates of…

  10. Comparing Time Perception among Morphine-Derived Drugs Addicts and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Shahabifar, Ali; Movahedinia, Ataollah

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study is to compare time perception among drug addicts and controls. Methods 30 drug addicts were selected, and 30 non-addict individuals were selected as the control group. The two groups performed three tests of time reproduction, time estimation, and time discrimination. Findings There was a significant difference between the addicts group and the control group regarding the error of time reproduction and time estimation. The addict group in comparison to the control group had a lower under-reproduction and a higher over-reproduction error, and also a lower under-estimation and higher over-estimation error. However, regarding time discrimination, no significant difference was observed between the errors committed by both groups. On the other hand, when showing images of drug consumption tools and normal images with same durations, the normal group believed that the images related to drug consumption tools were shown for a shorter period of time. Conclusion Time perception is different between morphine-derived drugs addicts and controls. PMID:27274791

  11. Post-Translational Modification Biology of Glutamate Receptors and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Li-Min; Guo, Ming-Lei; Jin, Dao-Zhong; Fibuch, Eugene E.; Choe, Eun Sang; Wang, John Q.

    2011-01-01

    Post-translational covalent modifications of glutamate receptors remain a hot topic. Early studies have established that this family of receptors, including almost all ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes, undergoes active phosphorylation at serine, threonine, or tyrosine residues in their intracellular domains. Recent evidence identifies several glutamate receptor subtypes to be direct substrates for palmitoylation at cysteine residues. Other modifications such as ubiquitination and sumoylation at lysine residues also occur to certain glutamate receptors. These modifications are dynamic and reversible in nature and are regulatable by changing synaptic inputs. The regulated modifications significantly impact the receptor in many ways, including interrelated changes in biochemistry (synthesis, subunit assembling, and protein–protein interactions), subcellular redistribution (trafficking, endocytosis, synaptic delivery, and clustering), and physiology, usually associated with changes in synaptic plasticity. Glutamate receptors are enriched in the striatum and cooperate closely with dopamine to regulate striatal signaling. Emerging evidence shows that modification processes of striatal glutamate receptors are sensitive to addictive drugs, such as psychostimulants (cocaine and amphetamine). Altered modifications are believed to be directly linked to enduring receptor/synaptic plasticity and drug-seeking. This review summarizes several major types of modifications of glutamate receptors and analyzes the role of these modifications in striatal signaling and in the pathogenesis of psychostimulant addiction. PMID:21441996

  12. Individual differences and vulnerability to drug addiction: a focus on the endocannabinoid system.

    PubMed

    Sagheddu, Claudia; Melis, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Vulnerability to drug addiction depends upon the interactions between the biological makeup of the individual, the environment, and age. These interactions are complex and difficult to tease apart. Since dopamine is involved in the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, it is postulated that innate differences in mesocorticolimbic pathway can influence the response to drug exposure. In particular, higher and lower expression of dopamine D2 receptors in the ventral striatum (i.e. a marker of dopamine function) has been considered a putative protective and a risk factor, respectively, that can influence one's susceptibility to continued drug abuse as well as the transition to addiction. This phenomenon, which is phylogenetically preserved, appears to be a compensatory change to increased impulse activity of midbrain dopamine neurons. Hence, dopamine neuronal excitability plays a fundamental role in the diverse stages of the drug addiction cycle. In this review, a framework for the evidence that modulation of dopamine neuronal activity plays in the context of vulnerability to drug addiction will be presented. Furthermore, since endogenous cannabinoids serve as retrograde messengers to shape afferent neuronal activity in a short- and long-lasting fashion, their role in individual differences and vulnerability to drug addiction will be discussed. PMID:25714966

  13. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  14. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  15. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  16. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  17. 46 CFR 5.35 - Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Definitions § 5.35 Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use of, or addiction to the use of dangerous... complaint will allege conviction for a dangerous drug law violation or use of dangerous drugs or addiction... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conviction for a dangerous drug law violation, use...

  18. The Science of Addiction: Drugs, Brains, and Behavior

    MedlinePlus

    ... network HBO to present an unprecedented multi–platform film, TV, and print campaign aimed at helping Americans ... Willenbring, M.D. Consisting of nine segments, the film presents an encouraging look at addiction as a ...

  19. Theories of addiction: methamphetamine users' explanations for continuing drug use and relapse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Thomas F; De La Garza, Richard; Kalechstein, Ari D; Tziortzis, Desey; Jacobsen, Caitlin A

    2009-01-01

    A variety of preclinical models have been constructed to emphasize unique aspects of addiction-like behavior. These include Negative Reinforcement ("Pain Avoidance"), Positive Reinforcement ("Pleasure Seeking"), Incentive Salience ("Craving"), Stimulus Response Learning ("Habits"), and Inhibitory Control Dysfunction ("Impulsivity"). We used a survey to better understand why methamphetamine-dependent research volunteers (N = 73) continue to use methamphetamine, or relapse to methamphetamine use after a period of cessation of use. All participants met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine abuse or dependence, and did not meet criteria for other current Axis I psychiatric disorders or dependence on other drugs of abuse, other than nicotine. The questionnaire consisted of a series of face-valid questions regarding drug use, which in this case referred to methamphetamine use. Examples of questions include: "Do you use drugs mostly to make bad feelings like boredom, loneliness, or apathy go away?", "Do you use drugs mostly because you want to get high?", "Do you use drugs mostly because of cravings?", "Do you find yourself getting ready to take drugs without thinking about it?", and "Do you impulsively take drugs?". The scale was anchored at 1 (not at all) and 7 (very much). For each question, the numbers of participants rating each question negatively (1 or 2), neither negatively or affirmatively (3-5), and affirmatively (6 or 7) were tabulated. The greatest number of respondents (56%) affirmed that they used drugs due to "pleasure seeking." The next highest categories selected were "impulsivity" (27%) and "habits"(25%). Surprisingly, many participants reported that "pain avoidance" (30%) and "craving" (30%) were not important for their drug use. Results from this study support the contention that methamphetamine users (and probably other drug users as well) are more heterogeneous than is often appreciated, and imply that treatment development might be more successful if

  20. Examine the Relationship between Mindfulness and Drug Craving in Addicts Undergoing Methadone Maintenance Treatment

    PubMed Central

    ARDAME, Ali; BASSAKNEJAD, Soodabe; ZARGARD, Yadollah; ROKNI, Parisa; SAYYAH, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was examination the relationship between mindfulness and drug craving in addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment. Methods The subjects of this research were 80 addicts undergoing methadone maintenance treatment selected through available sampling from four addiction treatment center in Ahvaz from March 2012 to September 2012. Two questionnaires to examine the variables of this study were the five facets mindfulness questionnaire (FFMQ) and hero-in craving questionnaire (HCQ). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. Results The Pearson correlational results indicated significant reverse relation between mindfulness factors and craving sub scales (P<0.05). Besides, the regression results indicated that four factors of mindfulness such as observation, describing, acting with awareness and non-reactivity to inner experience can totally predict 48 percent of craving variance (P<0.01 ). Conclusion There is a reverse relation between mindfulness and craving. Therefore we advise the researchers in addiction fields that in line with various studies that indicated effectiveness of mindfulness based interventions in improving various psychological problems, be researcher in effectiveness of this intervention in addiction fields. Moreover, we advise the addiction therapists to use mindfulness based interventions and technics in order to reduction of emotional and cognitive problems co morbidities with addiction such as craving that is one of potential factors affecting survival and relapse to drug abuse. PMID:25988095

  1. Is Overeating Behavior Similar to Drug Addiction? (427th Brookhaven Lecture)

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Gene-Jack

    2007-09-27

    The increasing number of obese individuals in the U.S. and other countries world-wide adds urgency to the need to understand the mechanisms underlying pathological overeating. Research by the speaker and others at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere is compiling evidence that the brain circuits disrupted in obesity are similar to those involved in drug addiction. Using positron emission tomography (PET), the speaker and his colleagues have implicated brain dopamine in the normal and the pathological intake of food by humans. During the 427th Brookhaven Lecture, speaker will review the findings and implications of PET studies of obese subjects and then compare them to PET research involving drug-addicted individuals. For example, in pathologically obese subjects, it was found that reductions in striatal dopamine D2 receptors are similar to those observed in drug-addicted subjects. The speaker and his colleagues have postulated that decreased levels of dopamine receptors predisposed subjects to search for strongly rewarding reinforcers, be it drugs for the drug-addicted or food for the obese, as a means to compensate for decreased sensitivity of their dopamine-regulated reward circuits. As the speaker will summarize, multiple but similar brain circuits involved in reward, motivation, learning and inhibitory control are disrupted both in drug addiction and obesity, resulting in the need for a multimodal approach to the treatment of obesity.

  2. Roles of "Wanting" and "Liking" in Motivating Behavior: Gambling, Food, and Drug Addictions.

    PubMed

    Robinson, M J F; Fischer, A M; Ahuja, A; Lesser, E N; Maniates, H

    2016-01-01

    The motivation to seek out and consume rewards has evolutionarily been driven by the urge to fulfill physiological needs. However in a modern society dominated more by plenty than scarcity, we tend to think of motivation as fueled by the search for pleasure. Here, we argue that two separate but interconnected subcortical and unconscious processes direct motivation: "wanting" and "liking." These two psychological and neuronal processes and their related brain structures typically work together, but can become dissociated, particularly in cases of addiction. In drug addiction, for example, repeated consumption of addictive drugs sensitizes the mesolimbic dopamine system, the primary component of the "wanting" system, resulting in excessive "wanting" for drugs and their cues. This sensitizing process is long-lasting and occurs independently of the "liking" system, which typically remains unchanged or may develop a blunted pleasure response to the drug. The result is excessive drug-taking despite minimal pleasure and intense cue-triggered craving that may promote relapse long after detoxification. Here, we describe the roles of "liking" and "wanting" in general motivation and review recent evidence for a dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" in drug addiction, known as the incentive sensitization theory (Robinson and Berridge 1993). We also make the case that sensitization of the "wanting" system and the resulting dissociation of "liking" and "wanting" occurs in both gambling disorder and food addiction. PMID:26407959

  3. Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, perceived benefits, barriers and self-efficacy regarding AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts

    PubMed Central

    Bastami, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Addicts account for approximately 68.15% of AIDS cases in Iran and injection drug users are considered as a major factor in the spread of AIDS in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an educational intervention on the perceived self-efficacy, benefits, and barriers concerning AIDS preventive behaviors among drug addicts in Khorramabad, Iran. Methods: This is a quasi-experimental study carried out in 2013 on 88 addicts kept in rehabilitations center in Khorramabad. The data collection instruments included a questionnaire on self-efficacy, perceived benefits, perceived barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors regarding HIV. Data were analyzed by paired t-test, independent t-test, Chi-square and analysis of covariance. Results: Paired t-test showed that the mean scores for perceived benefits and barriers, knowledge and preventive behaviors significantly increased in the intervention group after the intervention than before the intervention. But the increase in self-efficacy score was not statistically significant. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that training and education based on the health belief model led to an increase in knowledge, self-efficacy, perceived benefits, performance and reduction in perceived barriers in addicts. It is recommended that future studies should include strategies for enhancing self-efficacy and perceived benefits as well as strategies for reducing barriers to the adoption of preventive behaviors.

  4. TRICARE; removal of the prohibition to use addictive drugs in the maintenance treatment of substance dependence in TRICARE beneficiaries. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2013-10-22

    The Department of Defense (DoD) is publishing this final rule to remove the exclusion of drug maintenance programs and allow TRICARE coverage of the substitution of a therapeutic drug, with addictive potential, for a drug of addiction when medically necessary and appropriate as part of a comprehensive treatment plan for an individual with substance use dependence. The current regulation prohibits coverage of drug maintenance programs where one addictive substance is substituted for another. The final rule allows TRICARE to cover, as part of otherwise authorized treatment of substance use disorder, utilization of a specific category of psychoactive agent when medically necessary and appropriate. Removal of the exclusion is based on recognition of the accumulated medical evidence supporting the use of certain pharmacotherapies as one component in the continuum of opioid treatment services. Medication assisted treatment, to include drug maintenance involving substitution of a therapeutic drug with addiction potential, for a drug of addiction, is now generally accepted by qualified professionals to be reasonable and adequate as a component in the safe and effective treatment of substance use disorders treatment services, and thus appropriate for inclusion as a component in the TRICARE authorized substance use disorder treatment for beneficiaries. PMID:24156132

  5. Epidemic of illicit drug use, mechanisms of action/addiction and stroke as a health hazard

    PubMed Central

    Esse, Katherine; Fossati-Bellani, Marco; Traylor, Angela; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse robs individuals of their jobs, their families, and their free will as they succumb to addiction; but may cost even more: a life of disability or even life lost due to stroke. Many illicit drugs have been linked to major cardiovascular events and other comorbidities, including cocaine, amphetamines, ecstasy, heroin, phencyclidine, lysergic acid diethylamide, and marijuana. This review focuses on available epidemiological data, mechanisms of action, particularly those leading to cerebrovascular events, and it is based on papers published in English in PubMed during 1950 through February 2011. Each drug's unique interactions with the brain and vasculature predispose even young, healthy people to ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. Cocaine and amphetamines have the strongest association with stroke. However, the level of evidence firmly linking other drugs to stroke pathogenesis is weak. Large epidemiological studies and systematic evaluation of each drug's action on the brain and cardiovascular system are needed to reveal the full impact of drug use on the population. PMID:22398980

  6. Effects of addictive drugs on adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chi; Loh, Horace H; Law, Ping-Yee

    2016-01-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) undergo a series of developmental processes before giving rise to newborn neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes in adult neurogenesis. During the past decade, the role of NSPCs has been highlighted by studies on adult neurogenesis modulated by addictive drugs. It has been proven that these drugs regulate the proliferation, differentiation and survival of adult NSPCs in different manners, which results in the varying consequences of adult neurogenesis. The effects of addictive drugs on NSPCs are exerted via a variety of different mechanisms and pathways, which interact with one another and contribute to the complexity of NSPC regulation. Here, we review the effects of different addictive drugs on NSPCs, and the related experimental methods and paradigms. We also discuss the current understanding of major signaling molecules, especially the putative common mechanisms, underlying such effects. Finally, we review the future directions of research in this area. PMID:26468052

  7. Cumulative Vulnerability: A Case Study on intrafamilial violence, Drug Addiction and Adolescent Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miura, Paula Orchiucci; Passarini, Gislaine Martins Ricardo; Ferreira, Loraine Seixas; Paixão, Rui Alexandre Paquete; Tardivo, Leila Salomão de La Plata Cury; Barrientos, Dora Mariela Salcedo

    2014-12-01

    A pregnant adolescent's vulnerability increases when she is a victim of intrafamilial violence and drug addiction, which cause physical and biopsychosocial damage to the mother and her baby. Objective Present and analyze the case of an adolescent who is addicted to drugs, pregnant and the victim of lifelong intrafamilial violence. Method A case study based on a semi-structured interview conducted in the Obstetrics Emergency Unit at the Teaching Hospital of the University of São Paulo. The data were interpreted and analyzed using Content Analysis. Results intrafamilial violence experienced at the beginning of the adolescent's early relationships seriously affected her emotional maturity, triggering the development of psychopathologies and leaving her more susceptible to the use and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. The adolescent is repeating her history with her daughter, reproducing the cycle of violence. Conclusion Adolescent pregnancy combined with intrafamilial violence and drug addiction and multiplies the adolescent's psychosocial vulnerability increased the adolescent's vulnerability. PMID:25830736

  8. Drug addiction. Is it a disease or is it based on choice? A review of Gene Heyman's Addiction: A disorder of choice.

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Marc N

    2011-01-01

    In Addiction: A disorder of choice, Gene Heyman surveys a broad array of evidence—historical, anthropological, survey, clinical, and laboratory-based to build an argument about the role of basic choice processes in the phenomena that comprise drug addiction. He makes a compelling, multifaceted argument that conceptualizing drug addiction as a chronic disease (like schizophrenia or diabetes) is both misleading and erroneous. In developing his argument, he points out that the best survey data available indicate that most drug addicts quit their addiction, a fact inconsistent with a chronic-disease model. He illustrates how basic, normal choice processes can lead to addiction, arguing that people do not choose to be addicts, but that normal choice dynamics can lead them to that condition. He points to a variety of factors that keep most from becoming addicted, with a focus on the role of choice governed by choice-by-choice contingencies versus choice governed by the outcome of sequences of choices, a difference in an under-described activity called framing. His view is consistent with the most effective treatments currently available, and provides a basis for continued basic research on choice as well as research on treatment and prevention.

  9. Modeling stress and drug craving in the laboratory: implications for addiction treatment development

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajita

    2009-01-01

    Addition is a chronic relapsing illness affected by multiple social, individual and biological factors that significantly impact course and recovery of the illness. Stress interacts with these factors and increases addiction vulnerability and relapse risk, thereby playing a significant role in the course of the illness. This paper reviews our efforts in developing and validating laboratory models of stress and drug cue-related provocation to assess stress responses and stress-related adaptation in addicted individuals compared with healthy controls. Empirical findings from human laboratory and brain imaging studies are presented to show the specific stress-related dysregulation that accompanies the drug-craving state in addicted individuals. In order to adequately validate our laboratory model, we have also carefully examined relapse susceptibility in the addicted individuals and these data are reviewed. The overarching goal of these efforts is to develop a valid laboratory model to identify the stress-related pathophysiology in addiction with specific regard to persistent craving and compulsive seeking. Finally, the significant implications of these findings for the development of novel treatment interventions that target stress processes and drug craving to improve addiction relapse outcomes are discussed. PMID:18945295

  10. The Anti-Addiction Drug Ibogaine and the Heart: A Delicate Relation

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Xaver; Hilber, Karlheinz

    2015-01-01

    The plant indole alkaloid ibogaine has shown promising anti-addictive properties in animal studies. Ibogaine is also anti-addictive in humans as the drug alleviates drug craving and impedes relapse of drug use. Although not licensed as therapeutic drug and despite safety concerns, ibogaine is currently used as an anti-addiction medication in alternative medicine in dozens of clinics worldwide. In recent years, alarming reports of life-threatening complications and sudden death cases, temporally associated with the administration of ibogaine, have been accumulating. These adverse reactions were hypothesised to be associated with ibogaine’s propensity to induce cardiac arrhythmias. The aim of this review is to recapitulate the current knowledge about ibogaine’s effects on the heart and the cardiovascular system, and to assess the cardiac risks associated with the use of this drug in anti- addiction therapy. The actions of 18-methoxycoronaridine (18-MC), a less toxic ibogaine congener with anti-addictive properties, are also considered. PMID:25642835

  11. Child abuse, drug addiction and mental health problems of incarcerated women in Israel.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gila; Gueta, Keren

    2015-01-01

    The mental health problems and pathways to drug addiction and crime among female inmates have long been of interest to researchers and practitioners. The purpose of the current study was to examine the possible association between multiple types of childhood abuse, mental health problems, and drug addiction and the incarceration of 50 Israeli women in prison. The findings indicated that female inmates come from risky families with a high prevalence of family mental health problems, parental drug addiction and crime, and sibling drug addiction and crime. Furthermore, they revealed that incarcerated women from risky families were victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect by their parents, as well as their siblings. Overall, the results suggest that the adverse consequences of a family's mental health problems are much more dramatic than we assumed to date, and that women are more likely than men to be the victims of multiple types of childhood abuse and neglect, as well as suffering more severe psychiatric problems, depression, and drug addiction. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:25660063

  12. [The activity of drug addiction service of the Russian Federation: an assessment of statistical parameters and an analysis of results].

    PubMed

    Koshkina, E A; Kirzhanova, V V; Babicheva, L P; Mugantseva, L A

    2013-01-01

    The authors studied changes in the structure of drug addiction services, the dynamics of outpatient and inpatient referrals for drug addiction treatment and effectiveness of drug addiction services in 2011 compared to the preceding period. There was a reduction of availability of drug treatment services due to the reduction of the number of drug addiction units and the depletion of human resource potential. The lack of structural development of rehabilitation sector of drug care services and low rates of its development as well as the decrease in the number of patients seeking treatment are highlighted. It has been concluded that the drug addiction services require reorganization of its regulatory and legal framework and need innovative organizational and management decisions and human resources trained in innovative thinking and technologies. PMID:23887460

  13. Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup A Decreases the Risk of Drug Addiction but Conversely Increases the Risk of HIV-1 Infection in Chinese Addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, A-Mei; Hu, Qiu-Xiang; Liu, Feng-Liang; Bi, Rui; Yang, Bi-Qing; Zhang, Wen; Guo, Hao; Logan, Ian; Zheng, Yong-Tang; Yao, Yong-Gang

    2016-08-01

    Drug addiction is one of the most serious social problems in the world today and addicts are always at a high risk of acquiring HIV infection. Mitochondrial impairment has been reported in both drug addicts and in HIV patients undergoing treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup could affect the risk of drug addiction and HIV-1 infection in Chinese. We analyzed mtDNA sequence variations of 577 Chinese intravenous drug addicts (289 with HIV-1 infection and 288 without) and compared with 2 control populations (n = 362 and n = 850). We quantified the viral load in HIV-1-infected patients with and without haplogroup A status and investigated the potential effect of haplogroup A defining variants m.4824A > G and m.8794C > T on the cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels by using an allotopic expression assay. mtDNA haplogroup A had a protective effect against drug addiction but appeared to confer an increased risk of HIV infection in addicts. HIV-1-infected addicts with haplogroup A had a trend for a higher viral load, although the mean viral load was similar between carriers of haplogroup A and those with other haplogroup. Hela cells overexpressing allele m.8794 T showed significantly decreased ROS levels as compared to cells with the allele m.8794C (P = 0.03). Our results suggested that mtDNA haplogroup A might protect against drug addiction but increase the risk of HIV-1 infection. The contradictory role of haplogroup A might be caused by an alteration in mitochondrial function due to a particular mtDNA ancestral variant. PMID:26162319

  14. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    PubMed

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. PMID:25528557

  15. Portraying Mental Illness and Drug Addiction as Treatable Health Conditions: Effects of a Randomized Experiment on Stigma and Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Howard H.; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N=3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2–5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6–10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. PMID:25528557

  16. Animal studies of addictive behavior.

    PubMed

    Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Ahmed, Serge H

    2013-04-01

    It is increasingly recognized that studying drug taking in laboratory animals does not equate to studying genuine addiction, characterized by loss of control over drug use. This has inspired recent work aimed at capturing genuine addiction-like behavior in animals. In this work, we summarize empirical evidence for the occurrence of several DSM-IV-like symptoms of addiction in animals after extended drug use. These symptoms include escalation of drug use, neurocognitive deficits, resistance to extinction, increased motivation for drugs, preference for drugs over nondrug rewards, and resistance to punishment. The fact that addiction-like behavior can occur and be studied in animals gives us the exciting opportunity to investigate the neural and genetic background of drug addiction, which we hope will ultimately lead to the development of more effective treatments for this devastating disorder. PMID:23249442

  17. Introduction to The Special Issue on The Behavior Analysis and Treatment of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Kenneth; Roll, John M; Higgins, Stephen T

    2008-01-01

    Extensive evidence from the laboratory and the clinic suggests that drug addiction can be viewed as operant behavior and effectively treated through the application of principles of operant conditioning. Contingency management interventions that arrange for the direct reinforcement of drug abstinence or of other therapeutically important target behaviors (e.g., regular use of drug abuse treatment medications) are among the most studied type of operant treatments. Behavior analysts have contributed to the substantial and rapidly growing literature on operant treatments for drug addiction, but the publications of this work usually appear in medical, clinical psychology, or drug abuse journals. This special issue of the Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis represents an effort to bring this important work to the attention of the behavior-analytic community. The articles in this special issue illustrate both the enormous potential of contingency management interventions to address the serious and seemingly intractable problem of drug addiction as well as the real challenges involved in attempting to develop and disseminate treatments that will produce substantial and lasting changes in the lives of individuals plagued by the chronic problem of drug addiction. PMID:19192853

  18. Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2/3) in drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Moussawi, Khaled; Kalivas, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by maladaptive decision-making and dysfunctional brain circuitry regulating motivated behaviors, resulting in loss of the behavioral flexibility needed to abstain from drug seeking. Hence, addicts face high risk of relapse even after prolonged periods of abstinence from drug use. This is thought to result from long-lasting drug-induced neuroadaptations of glutamate and dopaminergic transmission in the mesocorticolimbic and corticostriatal circuits where group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGlu2/3 receptors) are densely expressed. mGlu2/3 receptors presynaptically control glutamate as well as dopamine release throughout the mesocorticolimbic structures involved in reward processing and drug seeking, and their function is reduced after prolonged exposure to drugs of abuse. In pre-clinical models, mGlu2/3 receptors have been shown to regulate both reward processing and drug seeking, in part through the capacity to control release of dopamine and glutamate respectively. Specifically, mGlu2/3 receptor agonists administered systemically or locally into certain brain structures reduce the rewarding value of commonly abused drugs and inhibit the reinstatement of drug seeking. Given the ability of mGlu2/3 receptor agonists to compensate for and possibly reverse drug-induced neuroadaptations in mesocorticolimbic circuitry, this class of receptors emerges as a new therapeutic target for reducing relapse in drug addiction. PMID:20371233

  19. Exploring the limits and utility of operant conditioning in the treatment of drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Kenneth

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a research program to develop an operant treatment for cocaine addiction in low-income, treatment-resistant methadone patients. The treatment's central feature is an abstinence reinforcement contingency in which patients earn monetary reinforcement for providing cocaine-free urine samples. Success and failure of this contingency appear to be an orderly function of familiar parameters of operant conditioning. Increasing reinforcement magnitude and duration can increase effectiveness, and sustaining the contingency can prevent relapse. Initial development of a potentially practical application of this technology suggests that it may be possible to integrate abstinence reinforcement into employment settings using salary for work to reinforce drug abstinence. This research illustrates the potential utility and current limitations of an operant approach to the treatment of drug addiction. Similar research programs are needed to explore the limits of the operant approach and to develop practical applications that can be used widely in society for the treatment of drug addiction. PMID:22478430

  20. Drug addiction: targeting dynamic neuroimmune receptor interactions as a potential therapeutic strategy.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Jonathan Henry W; Hutchinson, Mark R; Mustafa, Sanam

    2016-02-01

    Drug addiction and dependence have proven to be difficult psychiatric disorders to treat. The limited efficacy of neuronally acting medications, such as acamprosate and naltrexone, highlights the need to identify novel targets. Recent research has underscored the importance of the neuroimmune system in many behavioural manifestations of drug addiction. In this review, we propose that our appreciation for complex phenotypes such as drug addiction and dependence will come with a greater understanding that these disorders are the result of intricate, interconnected signalling pathways that are, if only partially, determined at the receptor level. The idea of receptor heteromerisation and receptor mosaics will be introduced to explain cross talk between the receptors and signalling molecules implicated in neuroimmune signalling pathways. PMID:26657076

  1. What is addiction?

    PubMed

    Kranzler, Henry R; Li, Ting-Kai

    2008-01-01

    This issue of Alcohol Research & Health examines addiction to multiple substances--that is, combined dependence on alcohol and other drugs (AODs), including marijuana, cocaine, and opioids. It seems fitting, then, to begin the issue with a look at what constitutes "addiction." The Oxford English Dictionary (pp. 24-25) traces the term addiction to Roman law, under which addiction was a "formal giving over by sentence of court; hence, a dedication of person to a master." This notion of relinquishment of control by the addicted person is the central feature of many lay and professional definitions of the term. The study of addictive behavior crosses several disciplines, including, among others, behavioral neuroscience, epidemiology, genetics, molecular biology, pharmacology, psychology, psychiatry, and sociology. Articles in this issue examine aspects of AOD use disorders from the perspective of some of these varied disciplines. PMID:23584810

  2. Adjuvants for vaccines to drugs of abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Alving, Carl R; Matyas, Gary R; Torres, Oscar; Jalah, Rashmi; Beck, Zoltan

    2014-09-22

    Immunotherapeutic vaccines to drugs of abuse, including nicotine, cocaine, heroin, oxycodone, methamphetamine, and others are being developed. The theoretical basis of such vaccines is to induce antibodies that sequester the drug in the blood in the form of antibody-bound drug that cannot cross the blood brain barrier, thereby preventing psychoactive effects. Because the drugs are haptens a successful vaccine relies on development of appropriate hapten-protein carrier conjugates. However, because induction of high and prolonged levels of antibodies is required for an effective vaccine, and because injection of T-independent haptenic drugs of abuse does not induce memory recall responses, the role of adjuvants during immunization plays a critical role. As reviewed herein, preclinical studies often use strong adjuvants such as complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant and others that cannot be, or in the case of many newer adjuvants, have never been, employed in humans. Balanced against this, the only adjuvant that has been included in candidate vaccines in human clinical trials to nicotine and cocaine has been aluminum hydroxide gel. While aluminum salts have been widely utilized worldwide in numerous licensed vaccines, the experience with human responses to aluminum salt-adjuvanted vaccines to haptenic drugs of abuse has suggested that the immune responses are too weak to allow development of a successful vaccine. What is needed is an adjuvant or combination of adjuvants that are safe, potent, widely available, easily manufactured, and cost-effective. Based on our review of the field we recommend the following adjuvant combinations either for research or for product development for human use: aluminum salt with adsorbed monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA); liposomes containing MPLA [L(MPLA)]; L(MPLA) adsorbed to aluminum salt; oil-in-water emulsion; or oil-in-water emulsion containing MPLA. PMID:25111169

  3. Return to Education for Recovering Drug Addicts: The Soilse Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barter, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article is an account of a return to education course set up to cater to the needs of recovering heroin addicts in a Dublin rehabilitation project in the summer of 2008. It begins with a brief outline of the HSE Soilse rehabilitation and recovery programme and the rationale for seeking association with the Department of Adult and Community…

  4. Articulating addiction in alcohol and other drug policy: A multiverse of habits.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Suzanne

    2016-05-01

    Concepts of addiction differ across time and place. This article is based on an international research project currently exploring this variation and change in concepts of addiction, in particular in the field of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use. Taking AOD policy in Australia and Canada as its empirical focus, and in-depth interviews with policy makers, service providers and advocates in each country as its key method (N=60), the article compares the addiction concepts articulated by professionals working in each setting. Drawing on Bruno Latour's theoretical work on the body and his proposal for a better science based on the 'articulation of differences', it explores the accounts of addiction offered across the Australian and Canadian project sites, identifying a shared dynamic in all: the juggling of difference and unity in discussions of the nature of addiction, its composite parts and how best to respond to it. The article maps two simultaneous trajectories in the data - one moving towards difference in participants' insistence on the multitude and diversity of factors that make up addiction problems and solutions, and the other towards unity in their tendency to return to narrow disease models of addiction in uncomfortable, sometimes dissonant, strategic choices. As I will argue, the AOD professionals interviewed for my project operate in two modes treated as distinct in Latour's proposal: in turning to reifying disease labels of addiction they take for granted, and work within, a 'universe of essences', but in articulating the multiplicity and diversity of addiction, they grope towards a vision of a 'multiverse of habits'. The article concludes by addressing this tension directly, scrutinising its practical implications for the development of policy and delivery of services in the future, asking how new thinking, and therefore new opportunities, might be allowed to emerge. PMID:26656000

  5. Novelty Seeking and Drug Addiction in Humans and Animals: From Behavior to Molecules.

    PubMed

    Wingo, Taylor; Nesil, Tanseli; Choi, Jung-Seok; Li, Ming D

    2016-09-01

    Global treatment of drug addiction costs society billions of dollars annually, but current psychopharmacological therapies have not been successful at desired rates. The increasing number of individuals suffering from substance abuse has turned attention to what makes some people more vulnerable to drug addiction than others. One personality trait that stands out as a contributing factor is novelty seeking. Novelty seeking, affected by both genetic and environmental factors, is defined as the tendency to desire novel stimuli and environments. It can be measured in humans through questionnaires and in rodents using behavioral tasks. On the behavioral level, both human and rodent studies demonstrate that high novelty seeking can predict the initiation of drug use and a transition to compulsive drug use and create a propensity to relapse. These predictions are valid for several drugs of abuse, such as alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, amphetamine, and opiates. On the molecular level, both novelty seeking and addiction are modulated by the central reward system in the brain. Dopamine is the primary neurotransmitter involved in the overlapping neural substrates of both parameters. In sum, the novelty-seeking trait can be valuable for predicting individual vulnerability to drug addiction and for generating successful treatment for patients with substance abuse disorders. PMID:26481371

  6. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Earnshaw, Valerie; Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources…

  7. 3 CFR 8406 - Proclamation 8406 of August 31, 2009. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2009

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proclamation 8406 of August 31, 2009. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2009 8406 Proclamation 8406 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8406 of August 31, 2009 Proc. 8406 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2009By the President of the United States...

  8. 3 CFR 9005 - Proclamation 9005 of August 30, 2013. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 9005 of August 30, 2013. National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013 9005 Proclamation 9005 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 9005 of August 30, 2013 Proc. 9005 National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2013By the President of the United States...

  9. Comprehensive Evaluation of Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in Punjab (Northern India)

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vikram Kumar; Kaur, Paramjeet; Singh, Gurmeet; Bansal, Priya; Sidhu, B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Drug addiction is on the rise in Punjab,India. There are 15 DDCs which are supported by the Indian Red Cross Society. There is alleged mushrooming of private Drug De-addiction Centres (DDCs) in the smaller towns, villages and cities of Punjab. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate DDCs in Punjab. Materials and Methods: A total of 10 DDCs were included in the study and scheduled visits were made to collect data by using a pre-tested questionnaire. Results: The duration of treatment was 1 month at the Red Cross DDCs and it was approximately 6 months at private DDCs. The staff at the private DDCs were inadequate. The major drugs which were abused by patients were Propoxyphene, Alcohol, Bhukki and Cannabis. Patients were usually referred to the DDCs either by family members (35.3%) or social workers (29.8%). About 72.5% of patients were married, 36.3% had passed 10th standard and 54.4% were employed. A majority dropped out of the DDCs due to personal reasons and lack of family support. On comparison, more patients were found to be treated at Red Cross centres (75.3%) than at private centres (65.8%). All DDCs had conducted regular sessions of individual, group and family counseling for patients. Red Cross DDCs ensured that ex-clients received follow-ups and home visits. More patients were satisfied with the services which were provided by the Red Cross DDCs. On the contrary, more patients at the private DDCs complained about harassment fromstaff personnel (p>0.05). Conclusion: It is recommended that all DDCs should be checked regularly, and that the private centres should be provided with additional support from the government, to help run them more efficiently. PMID:24783080

  10. Current Perspectives on the Neurobiology of Drug Addiction: A Focus on Genetics and Factors Regulating Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Jhodie R.

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder defined by cyclic patterns of compulsive drug seeking and taking interspersed with episodes of abstinence. While genetic variability may increase the risk of addictive behaviours in an individual, exposure to a drug results in neuroadaptations in interconnected brain circuits which, in susceptible individuals, are believed to underlie the transition to, and maintenance of, an addicted state. These adaptations can occur at the cellular, molecular, or (epi)genetic level and are associated with synaptic plasticity and altered gene expression, the latter being mediated via both factors affecting translation (epigenetics) and transcription (non coding microRNAs) of the DNA or RNA itself. New advances using techniques such as optogenetics have the potential to increase our understanding of the microcircuitry mediating addictive behaviours. However, the processes leading to addiction are complex and multifactorial and thus we face a major contemporary challenge to elucidate the factors implicated in the development and maintenance of an addicted state. PMID:23097719

  11. Association between Experience of Child Abuse and Severity of Drug Addiction Measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese Drug-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  12. Association between experience of child abuse and severity of drug addiction measured by the Addiction Severity Index among Japanese drug-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Ogai, Yasukazu; Senoo, Eiichi; Gardner, Fumiyuki Chin; Haraguchi, Ayako; Saito, Tamaki; Morita, Nobuaki; Ikeda, Kazutaka

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to clarify the association between child abuse experiences and drug addiction severity among Japanese drug-dependent patients using the Addiction Severity Index-Japanese version (ASI-J). One hundred and eleven inpatients and outpatients with drug dependence participated in the study. Some of the questions on the ASI-J asked about lifetime experiences of abuse. A higher percentage of female participants experienced child abuse compared with male participants. Male participants who experienced child abuse (MEA) had a significantly higher severity of drug use than men who did not experience it (MNEA). Female participants who experienced child abuse (FEA) had significantly more serious problems in family/social relationships than female participants who did not experience it (FNEA). Patients in the MEA group were arrested less frequently for drug charges, experienced more serious problems with their fathers, and experienced more severe anxiety in their lifetime compared with the MNEA group. The FEA group experienced more serious troubles with their sexual partners, close friends, and families and experienced more severe psychiatric problems in their lifetime compared with the FNEA group. These results suggest gender differences in the problems experienced by drug-dependent patients with child abuse experiences, and gender-specific interventions may be more effective in treating their drug dependence. PMID:25741639

  13. Redox-based epigenetic status in drug addiction: a potential contributor to gene priming and a mechanistic rationale for metabolic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Trivedi, Malav S.; Deth, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance, and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS). For example, under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY) to the trans sulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine, and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH)-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting SAM levels and DNA methylation status. Here, existing evidence is presented in a coherent manner to propose a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Further, we discuss how a “gene priming” phenomenon can contribute to the maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Additionally, a new mechanistic rationale for the use of metabolic interventions/redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol and other drug addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms is also provided. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction exemplified by the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse. PMID:25657617

  14. Redox-based epigenetic status in drug addiction: a potential contributor to gene priming and a mechanistic rationale for metabolic intervention.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Malav S; Deth, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and other drugs of abuse, including psychostimulants and opioids, can induce epigenetic changes: a contributing factor for drug addiction, tolerance, and associated withdrawal symptoms. DNA methylation is a major epigenetic mechanism and it is one of more than 200 methylation reactions supported by methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). Levels of SAM are controlled by cellular redox status via the folate and vitamin B12-dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS). For example, under oxidative conditions MS is inhibited, diverting its substrate homocysteine (HCY) to the trans sulfuration pathway. Alcohol, dopamine, and morphine, can alter intracellular levels of glutathione (GSH)-based cellular redox status, subsequently affecting SAM levels and DNA methylation status. Here, existing evidence is presented in a coherent manner to propose a novel hypothesis implicating the involvement of redox-based epigenetic changes in drug addiction. Further, we discuss how a "gene priming" phenomenon can contribute to the maintenance of redox and methylation status homeostasis under various stimuli including drugs of abuse. Additionally, a new mechanistic rationale for the use of metabolic interventions/redox-replenishers as symptomatic treatment of alcohol and other drug addiction and associated withdrawal symptoms is also provided. Hence, the current review article strengthens the hypothesis that neuronal metabolism has a critical bidirectional coupling with epigenetic changes in drug addiction exemplified by the link between redox-based metabolic changes and resultant epigenetic consequences under the effect of drugs of abuse. PMID:25657617

  15. [Study on job support programs for drug addicts in japan: results of a nationwide survey on drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC)].

    PubMed

    Takahara, Keiko; Morita, Nobuaki; Ogai, Yasukazu; Umeno, Mitsuru; Koda, Minoru; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Yabe, Yohko; Abe, Yukie; Kondo, Tsuneo

    2014-04-01

    In Japan, many drug addiction rehabilitation centers (DARC) provide various types of recovery programs for drug addiction. The purpose of this study was to clarify the attitudes of DARC staff and users regarding job support programs. A nationwide questionnaire survey was conducted in 2009. The staff of 46 facilities and 606 users returned questionnaires. The results indicated that many (92.1%) users had work experience before entering the recovery programs provided by DARC and about half (49.3%) of the users reported being motivated to work. Although many DARC have established various job support programs, the users faced various levels of anxieties to get employed and 60.4% of the users expected to learn more detailed and concrete methods for finding a job. Through the DARC programs, the users gradually realize the significance of basic daily living skills such as maintaining their rhythm of life or neat and presentable appearance. And the more they get recovered the more they understand the significance of "self-care" and "interpersonal relationship skills". These findings indicate that job support programs for drug addicts should also focus on these recovery processes. More extensive job supports dealing with more practical issues and covering a wide variety of anxieties would be imperative. PMID:24946393

  16. [Cocaine - Characteristics and addiction].

    PubMed

    Girczys-Połedniok, Katarzyna; Pudlo, Robert; Jarząb, Magdalena; Szymlak, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Cocaine use leads to health, social and legal problems. The aim of this paper is to discuss cocaine action, addicts characteristics, use patterns and consequences, as well as addiction treatment methods. A literature review was based on the Medline, PubMed, Polish Medical Bibliography databases and the Silesian Library resources. The Police and Central Statistical Office statistics, as well as the World Health Organization, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction and the National Office for Combating Drug Addiction reports were used. Cocaine leads to mood improvement, appetite decrease, physical and intellectual activity enhancement, euphoria, inflated self-esteem, social networking ease and increased sexual desire. Cocaine hydrochloride is mainly used intranasaly, but also as intravenous and subcutaneous injections. Cocaine use and first addiction treatment fall in later age compared to other psychoactive substances. There is a high men to women ratio among addicts. There is a relationship between cocaine addiction, the presence of other disorders and genetic predisposition to addiction development. Polish reports indicate higher popularity of cocaine among people with a high economic and social status. Although Poland is a country with the low percentage of cocaine use, its popularity is growing. The consequences of cocaine use concern somatic and mental health problems, socioeconomic and legal conditions. The drug plays a role in crimes and traffic accidents. Because of the risks associated with cocaine use, it has been listed in a register of drugs attached to the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Addiction treatment includes psychological, pharmacological and harm reduction strategies. Med Pr 2016;67(4):537-544. PMID:27623834

  17. Activators of G-protein Signaling 3: A drug addiction molecular gateway

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, M. Scott

    2010-01-01

    Drug addiction is marked by continued drug-seeking behavior despite deleterious consequences and a heightened propensity to relapse notwithstanding long, drug-free periods. The enduring nature of addiction has been hypothesized to arise from perturbations in intracellular signaling, gene expression, and brain circuitry induced by substance abuse. Ameliorating some of these aberrations should abate behavioral and neurochemical markers associated with an “addiction phenotype”. This review summarizes data showing that protein expression and signaling through the non-receptor Activator of heterotrimeric G-protein Signaling 3 (AGS3) is altered by commonly abused substances in rat and in vitro addiction models. AGS3 structure and function are unrelated to the more broadly studied Regulator of G-protein Signaling (RGS) family. Thus, the unique role of AGS3 is the focus of this review. Intriguingly, AGS3 protein changes persist into drug abstinence. Accordingly, studies probing the role of AGS3 in the neurochemistry of drug-seeking behavior and relapse are reviewed in detail. To illuminate this work, AGS3 structure, cellular localization, and function are covered so that an idealized AGS3-targeted pharmacotherapy can be proposed. PMID:20700046

  18. Food and drug reward: overlapping circuits in human obesity and addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow N. D.; Wang G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Baler, R.

    2012-12-01

    Both drug addiction and obesity can be defined as disorders in which the saliency value of one type of reward (drugs and food, respectively) becomes abnormally enhanced relative to, and at the expense of others. This model is consistent with the fact that both drugs and food have powerful reinforcing effects - partly mediated by dopamine increases in the limbic system - that, under certain circumstances or in vulnerable individuals, could overwhelm the brain's homeostatic control mechanisms. Such parallels have generated significant interest in understanding the shared vulnerabilities and trajectories between addiction and obesity. Now, brain imaging discoveries have started to uncover common features between these two conditions and to delineate some of the overlapping brain circuits whose dysfunctions may explain stereotypic and related behavioral deficits in human subjects. These results suggest that both obese and drug addicted individuals suffer from impairments in dopaminergic pathways that regulate neuronal systems associated not only with reward sensitivity and incentive motivation, but also with conditioning (memory/learning), impulse control (behavioral inhibition), stress reactivity and interoceptive awareness. Here, we integrate findings predominantly derived from positron emission tomography that investigate the role of dopamine in drug addiction and in obesity and propose an updated working model to help identify treatment strategies that may benefit both of these conditions.

  19. Emerging roles of actin cytoskeleton regulating enzymes in drug addiction: Actin or reactin’?

    PubMed Central

    Rothenfluh, Adrian; Cowan, Christopher W.

    2013-01-01

    Neurons rely on their cytoskeleton to give them shape and stability, and on cytoskeletal dynamics for growth and synaptic plasticity. Because drug addiction is increasingly seen as the inappropriate learning of strongly reinforcing stimuli, the role of the cytoskeleton in shaping drug memories has been of increasing interest in recent years. Does the cytoskeleton have an active role in shaping these memories, and to what extent do alterations in the cytoskeleton reflect the acute actions of drug exposure, or homeostatic reactions to the chronic exposure to drugs of abuse? Here we will review recent advances in understanding the role of the cytoskeleton in the development of drug addiction, with a focus on actin filaments, as they have been studied in greater detail. PMID:23428655

  20. The drive to eat: comparisons and distinctions between mechanisms of food reward and drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    DiLeone, Ralph J.; Taylor, Jane R.; Picciotto, Marina R.

    2013-01-01

    The growing rates of obesity have prompted comparisons between the uncontrolled intake of food and drugs; however, an evaluation of the equivalence of food- and drug-related behaviors requires a thorough understanding of the underlying neural circuits driving each behavior. Although it has been attractive to borrow neurobiological concepts from addiction to explore compulsive food seeking, a more integrated model is needed to understand how food and drugs differ in their ability to drive behavior. In this review, we will examine the commonalities and differences in the systems-level and behavioral responses to food and drugs of abuse, with the goal of identifying areas of research that would address gaps in our current understanding and ultimately identify novel treatments for obesity or drug addiction. PMID:23007187

  1. Choice to view cocaine images predicts concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction*

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Beebe-Wang, Nicasia; Woicik, Patricia A.; Konova, Anna B.; Maloney, Thomas; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Background Identifying variables that predict drug use in treatment-seeking drug addicted individuals is a crucial research and therapeutic goal. This study tested the hypothesis that choice to view cocaine images is associated with concurrent and prospective drug use in cocaine addiction. Methods To establish choice-concurrent drug use associations, 71 cocaine addicted subjects (43 current users and 28 treatment seekers) provided data on (A) choice to view cocaine images and affectively pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images [collected under explicit contingencies (when choice was made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more probabilistic contingencies (when choice was made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)]; and (B) past-month cocaine and other drug use. To establish choice-prospective drug use associations, 20 of these treatment-seeking subjects were followed over the next six months. Results Baseline cocaine-related picture choice as measured by both tasks positively correlated with subjects’ concurrent cocaine and other drug use as driven by the actively-using subjects. In a subsequent multiple regression analysis, choice to view cocaine images as compared with affectively pleasant images (under probabilistic contingencies) was the only predictor that continued to be significantly associated with drug use. Importantly, this same baseline cocaine>pleasant probabilistic choice also predicted the number of days drugs were used (cocaine, alcohol, and marijuana) over the next six months. Conclusions Simulated cocaine choice – especially when probabilistic and when compared with other positive reinforcers – may provide a valid laboratory marker of current and future drug use in cocaine addiction. PMID:23218913

  2. Obsessive-compulsive disorder, impulse control disorders and drug addiction: common features and potential treatments.

    PubMed

    Fontenelle, Leonardo F; Oostermeijer, Sanne; Harrison, Ben J; Pantelis, Christos; Yücel, Murat

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts underlying compulsive, impulsive and addictive behaviours overlap, which may help explain why laymen use these expressions interchangeably. Although there has been a large research effort to better characterize and disentangle these behaviours, clinicians and scientists are still unable to clearly differentiate them. Accordingly, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), impulse control disorders (ICD) and substance-related disorders (SUD) overlap on different levels, including phenomenology, co-morbidity, neurocircuitry, neurocognition, neurochemistry and family history. In this review we summarize these issues with particular emphasis on the role of the opioid system in the pathophysiology and treatment of OCD, ICD and SUD. We postulate that with progression and chronicity of OCD, the proportion of the OCD-related behaviours (e.g. checking, washing, ordering and hoarding, among others) that are driven by impulsive 'rash' processes increase as involvement of more ventral striatal circuits becomes prominent. In contrast, as SUD and ICD progress, the proportion of the SUD- and ICD-related behaviours that are driven by compulsive 'habitual' processes increase as involvement of more dorsal striatal circuits become prominent. We are not arguing that, with time, ICD becomes OCD or vice versa. Instead, we are proposing that these disorders may acquire qualities of the other with time. In other words, while patients with ICD/SUD may develop 'compulsive impulsions', patients with OCD may exhibit 'impulsive compulsions'. There are many potential implications of our model. Theoretically, OCD patients exhibiting impulsive or addictive features could be managed with drugs that address the quality of the underlying drives and the involvement of neural systems. For example, agents for the reduction or prevention of relapse of addiction (e.g. heavy drinking), which modulate the cortico-mesolimbic dopamine system through the opioid (e.g. buprenorphine and naltrexone

  3. [Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB): more than a date rape drug, a potentially addictive drug].

    PubMed

    Karila, Laurent; Novarin, Johanne; Megarbane, Bruno; Cottencin, Olivier; Dally, Sylvain; Lowenstein, William; Reynaud, Michel

    2009-10-01

    According to available information, GHB and its precursors--gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) and 1,4-butanediol (1,4BD)--are used especially in a nightlife scene characterized by the search for amplified sensations through the combination of electronic music, marathon dancing, and substance abuse. Evidence indicates that GHB/GHL is used particularly in some subpopulations and in places, such as in gay nightclubs. Commonly known as Gorliquid ecstasy, it was misused in the 1980s for its bodybuilding effects and in the 1990s as a recreational drug at music venues. In the same period, media coverage of the use of GHB in sexual assault (often referred to as date rape) brought the drug into the spotlight. GHB/GHL addiction is a recognized clinical entity evidenced by severe withdrawal symptoms when the drug is abruptly discontinued after regular or chronic use. There is evidence that negative health and social consequences may occur in recreational and chronic users. Nonfatal overdoses and deaths related to GHB have been reported. These undesirable effects and especially the deaths appear to have prompted campaigns to limit the use of GHB. Clinicians must also be aware of GBL, which is being sold and used as a substitute for GHB. PMID:19762202

  4. ADDicted.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruenzel, David

    1996-01-01

    Debates the use of Ritalin for children with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), highlighting the experience of one boy who takes the drug. The article examines diagnosis of ADD, school and home lives of families affected by ADD, and controversy over the widespread use of Ritalin. (SM)

  5. The Impact of Exposure to Addictive Drugs on Future Generations: Physiological and Behavioral Effects

    PubMed Central

    Vassoler, F.M.; Byrnes, E.M.; Pierce, R.C.

    2013-01-01

    It is clear that both genetic and environmental factors contribute to drug addiction. Recent evidence indicating trans-generational influences of drug abuse highlight potential epigenetic factors as well. Specifically, mounting evidence suggests that parental ingestion of abused drugs influence the physiology and behavior of future generations even in the absence of prenatal exposure. The goal of this review is to describe the trans-generational consequences of preconception exposure to drugs of abuse for five major classes of drugs: alcohol, nicotine, marijuana, opioids, and cocaine. The potential epigenetic mechanisms underlying the transmission of these phenotypes across generations also are detailed. PMID:23810828

  6. Religious treatments for drug addiction: an exploratory study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Nappo, Solange A

    2008-08-01

    The main objective of the present work is to understand the processes used in emerging Catholic and Protestant religious interventions for recovery from drug dependence, from the vantage point of individuals subjected to them. A qualitative method and an intentional sample selected by criteria were adopted for this investigation, which was conducted in São Paulo, Brazil. An in-depth semi-structured interview was conducted with 57 predominantly male former drug users who fit the criteria: they had been submitted to non-medical religious treatments to treat dependence and were abstinent for at least 6 months. Crisis was found to be the main reason leading interviewees to seek treatment; this includes, losing family, losing employment, and experiencing severe humiliation. Evangelicals most used religious resources exclusively as treatment, showing strong aversion to the role of doctors and to any type of pharmacological treatment. A common feature of Catholic and Protestant groups is the importance ascribed to praying and talking to God, described by subjects as strongly anxiolytic, and a means to control drug craving. Confession and forgiveness, through faith conversion or penitences, respectively, appeal strongly to the restructuring of life and increase of self-esteem. Religious interventions were considered effective by the individuals who underwent them and were seen as attractive for the humane, respectful treatment they delivered. The key aspects of this type of treatment are social support provided by the receiving group, equal treatment, and instant, judgment-free acceptance. The success of these actions, then, is not only due to some "supernatural" aspect, as might be assumed, but also more to the unconditional dedication of human beings to their peers. Given the difficulty in treating drug dependence, religious interventions could be used as a complementary treatment for conventional therapies. PMID:18501491

  7. Suicide Risk in College Students: The Effects of Internet Addiction and Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genctanirim Kurt, Dilek

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to identify the factors in suicide risk among college students by examining the direct and indirect effects of drug use, internet addiction, gender, and alcohol use on suicide risk. The sample of the study is composed of 975 students studying at different faculties of Ahi Evran University during the academic year 2011-2012. They…

  8. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  9. 77 FR 72752 - Opioid Drugs in Maintenance and Detoxification Treatment of Opiate Addiction; Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Federal Register on January 17, 2001 (66 FR 4076, January 17, 2001), SAMHSA issued final regulations for..., Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 355) for use in the treatment of opioid addiction. The regulation... issuing an Interim Final Rule on May 22, 2003 (68 FR 27937, May 22, 2003, ``Interim Final Rule'')....

  10. Drug addiction: An affective-cognitive disorder in need of a cure.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Diana, Marco

    2016-06-01

    Drug addiction is a compulsive behavioral abnormality. In spite of pharmacological treatments and psychosocial support to reduce or eliminate drug intake, addiction tends to persist over time. Preclinical and human observations have converged on the hypothesis that addiction represents the pathological deterioration of neural processes that normally serve affective and cognitive functioning. The major elements of persistent compulsive drug use are hypothesized to be structural, cellular and molecular that underlie enduring changes in several forebrain circuits that receive input from midbrain dopamine neurons and are involved in affective (e.g. ventral striatum) and cognitive (e.g. prefrontal cortex) mechanisms. Here we review recent progress in identifying crucial elements useful to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and its treatments. Manipulation of neuropeptides brain systems and pharmacological targeting of κ-opioid receptors and/or drug metabolism may hold beneficial effects at affective and cognitive level. Non-pharmacological, highly innovative approaches such as Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation may reveal unsuspected potential and promise to be the first neurobiology-based therapeutics in addiction. PMID:27095547

  11. A Study of the Relationship between Child Abuse and Drug Addiction in 178 Patients: Preliminary Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Frederick S.; Densen-Gerber, Judianne

    1982-01-01

    A questionnaire on family intactness, parental and sibling relationships, and personal physical/sexual abuse histories was completed by 178 adults in treatment for drug/alcohol addiction. Results revealed that 84 percent of the sample reported a history of child abuse/neglect. (Author/CL)

  12. Novel therapeutic strategies for alcohol and drug addiction: focus on GABA, ion channels and transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Leggio, Lorenzo; Hopf, F Woodward; Diana, Marco; Bonci, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction represents a major social problem where addicts and alcoholics continue to seek and take drugs despite adverse social, personal, emotional, and legal consequences. A number of pharmacological compounds have been tested in human addicts with the goal of reducing the level or frequency of intake, but these pharmacotherapies have often been of only moderate efficacy or act in a sub-population of humans. Thus, there is a tremendous need for new therapeutic interventions to treat addiction. Here, we review recent interesting studies focusing on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, voltage-gated ion channels, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some of these treatments show considerable promise to reduce addictive behaviors, or the early clinical studies or pre-clinical rationale suggest that a promising avenue could be developed. Thus, it is likely that within a decade or so, we could have important new and effective treatments to achieve the goal of reducing the burden of human addiction and alcoholism. PMID:22030714

  13. Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Alcohol and Drug Addiction: Focus on GABA, Ion Channels and Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Addolorato, Giovanni; Leggio, Lorenzo; Hopf, F Woodward; Diana, Marco; Bonci, Antonello

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction represents a major social problem where addicts and alcoholics continue to seek and take drugs despite adverse social, personal, emotional, and legal consequences. A number of pharmacological compounds have been tested in human addicts with the goal of reducing the level or frequency of intake, but these pharmacotherapies have often been of only moderate efficacy or act in a sub-population of humans. Thus, there is a tremendous need for new therapeutic interventions to treat addiction. Here, we review recent interesting studies focusing on gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, voltage-gated ion channels, and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Some of these treatments show considerable promise to reduce addictive behaviors, or the early clinical studies or pre-clinical rationale suggest that a promising avenue could be developed. Thus, it is likely that within a decade or so, we could have important new and effective treatments to achieve the goal of reducing the burden of human addiction and alcoholism. PMID:22030714

  14. Theories of Addiction: Methamphetamine Users’ Explanations for Continuing Drug Use and Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Thomas F.; De La Garza, Richard; Kalechstein, Ari D.; Tziortzis, Desey; Jacobsen, Caitlin A.

    2012-01-01

    A variety of preclinical models have been constructed to emphasize unique aspects of addiction-like behavior. These include Negative Reinforcement (“Pain Avoidance”), Positive Reinforcement (“Pleasure Seeking”), Incentive Salience (“Craving”), Stimulus Response Learning (“Habits”), and Inhibitory Control Dysfunction (“Impulsivity”). We used a survey to better understand why methamphetamine-dependent research volunteers (N = 73) continue to use methamphetamine, or relapse to methamphetamine use after a period of cessation of use. All participants met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine abuse or dependence, and did not meet criteria for other current Axis I psychiatric disorders or dependence on other drugs of abuse, other than nicotine. The questionnaire consisted of a series of face-valid questions regarding drug use, which in this case referred to methamphetamine use. Examples of questions include: “Do you use drugs mostly to make bad feelings like boredom, loneliness, or apathy go away?”, “Do you use drugs mostly because you want to get high?”, “Do you use drugs mostly because of cravings?”, “Do you find yourself getting ready to take drugs without thinking about it?”, and “Do you impulsively take drugs?”. The scale was anchored at 1 (not at all) and 7 (very much). For each question, the numbers of participants rating each question negatively (1 or 2), neither negatively or affirmatively (3–5), and affirmatively (6 or 7) were tabulated. The greatest number of respondents (56%) affirmed that they used drugs due to “pleasure seeking.” The next highest categories selected were “impulsivity” (27%) and “habits”(25%). Surprisingly, many participants reported that “pain avoidance” (30%) and “craving” (30%) were not important for their drug use. Results from this study support the contention that methamphetamine users (and probably other drug users as well) are more heterogeneous than is often appreciated, and

  15. Meta-Analyses of Seven of NIDA’s Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Pearson, Frank S.; Prendergast, Michael L.; Podus, Deborah; Vazan, Peter; Greenwell, Lisa; Hamilton, Zachary

    2011-01-01

    Seven of the 13 Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment disseminated by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were meta-analyzed as part of the Evidence-based Principles of Treatment (EPT) project. By averaging outcomes over the diverse programs included in EPT, we found that five of the NIDA principles examined are supported: matching treatment to the client’s needs; attending to the multiple needs of clients; behavioral counseling interventions; treatment plan reassessment; and counseling to reduce risk of HIV. Two of the NIDA principles are not supported: remaining in treatment for an adequate period of time and frequency of testing for drug use. These weak effects could be the result of the principles being stated too generally to apply to the diverse interventions and programs that exist or of unmeasured moderator variables being confounded with the moderators that measured the principles. Meta-analysis should be a standard tool for developing principles of effective treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:22119178

  16. Death due to an unrecognized groin abscess in a drug addict: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, Cristian; Vellante, Paola; Costantini, Sara; Carnevale, Aldo

    2013-07-01

    Intravenous drug injection persists despite health risks and medical complications. Venous thrombosis, septic thrombophlebitis, artery necrosis, arterio-venous fistula, mycotic aneurysm, dissecting hematoma, pseudoaneurysm formation, and soft tissues infections (i.e. abscesses, cellulitis, infected ulcers), are some of the major clinical consequences lives threatening. The aim of this work is to present this unusual autoptic case of a drug addict man died for an unrecognized groin abscess referred to the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Chieti, causing femoral vein's erosion, and to analyse the most common patterns of vascular lesions among drug addicts. It could be stimulated a new scientific debate because groin injections and their vascular complications increase over years; while soft tissue infections may hide vascular lesions' diagnosis. So physicians should have a high index of suspicion for serious vascular problems, among intravenous drug users (IDUs): prevention for avoiding groin injection and a proper treatment are necessary. PMID:23756501

  17. Pleasure and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Kennett, Jeanette; Matthews, Steve; Snoek, Anke

    2013-01-01

    What is the role and value of pleasure in addiction? Foddy and Savulescu (1) have claimed that substance use is just pleasure-oriented behavior. They describe addiction as “strong appetites toward pleasure” and argue that addicts suffer in significant part because of strong social and moral disapproval of lives dominated by pleasure seeking. But such lives, they claim, can be autonomous and rational. The view they offer is largely in line with the choice model and opposed to a disease model of addiction. Foddy and Savulescu are sceptical of self-reports that emphasize the ill effects of addiction such as loss of family and possessions, or that claim an absence of pleasure after tolerance sets in. Such reports they think are shaped by social stigma which makes available a limited set of socially approved addiction narratives. We will not question the claim that a life devoted to pleasure can be autonomously chosen. Nor do we question the claim that the social stigma attached to the use of certain drugs increases the harm suffered by the user. However our interviews with addicts (as philosophers rather than health professionals or peers) reveal a genuinely ambivalent and complex relationship between addiction, value, and pleasure. Our subjects did not shy away from discussing pleasure and its role in use. But though they usually valued the pleasurable properties of substances, and this played that did not mean that they valued an addictive life. Our interviews distinguished changing attitudes towards drug related pleasures across the course of substance use, including diminishing pleasure from use over time and increasing resentment at the effects of substance use on other valued activities. In this paper we consider the implications of what drug users say about pleasure and value over the course of addiction for models of addiction. PMID:24093020

  18. The role of central dopamine D3 receptors in drug addiction: a review of pharmacological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Heidbreder, Christian A.; Gardner, Eliot L.; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Thanos, Panayotis K.; Mugnaini, Manolo; Hagan, Jim J.; Ashby, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The cDNA for the dopamine D3 receptor was isolated and characterized in 1990. Subsequent studies have indicated that D3 receptors, as well as D3 receptor mRNA, are primarily localized in limbic regions in mammals. This finding led to the postulate that D3 receptors may be involved in drug dependence and addiction. However, this hypothesis has been difficult to test due to the lack of compounds with high selectivity for central D3 receptors. The interpretation of results from studies using mixed D2/D3 agonists and/or antagonists is problematic because these agents have low selectivity for D3 over D2 receptors and it is likely that their actions are primarily related to D2 receptor antagonism and possibly interaction with other neurotransmitter receptors. Currently, with the synthesis and characterization of new highly selective D3 receptor antagonists such as SB-277011-A this difficulty has been surmounted. The purpose of the present article is to review, for the first time, the effects of various putative D3 receptor selective compounds in animal models of drug dependence and addiction. The results obtained with highly selective D3 receptor antagonists such as SB-277011-A, SB-414796, and NGB-2904 indicate that central D3 receptors may play an important role in drug-induced reward, drug-taking, and cue-, drug-, and stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. Provided these results can be extrapolated to human drug addicts, they suggest that selective DA D3 receptor antagonists may prove effective as potential pharmacotherapeutic agents to manage drug dependence and addiction. PMID:15960988

  19. Neural mechanisms of reproduction in females as a predisposing factor for drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Hedges, Valerie L; Staffend, Nancy A; Meisel, Robert L

    2010-04-01

    There is an increasing awareness that adolescent females differ from males in their response to drugs of abuse and consequently in their vulnerability to addiction. One possible component of this vulnerability to drug addiction is the neurobiological impact that reproductive physiology and behaviors have on the mesolimbic dopamine system, a key neural pathway mediating drug addiction. In this review, we examine animal models that address the impact of ovarian cyclicity, sexual affiliation, sexual behavior, and maternal care on the long-term plasticity of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The thesis is that this plasticity in synaptic neurotransmission stemming from an individual's normal life history contributes to the pathological impact of drugs of abuse on the neurobiology of this system. Hormones released during reproductive cycles have only transient effects on these dopamine systems, whereas reproductive behaviors produce a persistent sensitization of dopamine release and post-synaptic neuronal responsiveness. Puberty itself may not represent a neurobiological risk factor for drug abuse, but attendant behavioral experiences may have a negative impact on females engaging in drug use. PMID:20176045

  20. Neural Mechanisms of Reproduction in Females as a Predisposing Factor for Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, Valerie L.; Staffend, Nancy A.; Meisel, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that adolescent females differ from males in their response to drugs of abuse and consequently in their vulnerability to addiction. One possible component of this vulnerability to drug addiction is the neurobiological impact that reproductive physiology and behaviors have on the mesolimbic dopamine system, a key neural pathway mediating drug addiction. In this review, we examine animal models that address the impact of ovarian cyclicity, sexual affiliation, sexual behavior, and maternal care on the long-term plasticity of the mesolimbic dopamine system. The thesis is that this plasticity in synaptic neurotransmission stemming from an individual’s normal life history contributes to the pathological impact of drugs of abuse on the neurobiology of this system. Hormones released during reproductive cycles have only transient effects on these dopamine systems, whereas reproductive behaviors produce a persistent sensitization of dopamine release and postsynaptic neuronal responsiveness. Puberty itself may not represent a neurobiological risk factor for drug abuse, but attendant behavioral experiences may have a negative impact on females engaging in drug use. PMID:20176045

  1. Maintenance of reinforcement to address the chronic nature of drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Kenneth; DeFulio, Anthony; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur O.

    2012-01-01

    Background Drug addiction can be a chronic problem. Abstinence reinforcement can initiate drug abstinence, but as with other treatments many patients relapse after the intervention ends. Abstinence reinforcement can be maintained to promote long-term drug abstinence, but practical means of implementing long-term abstinence reinforcement are needed. Methods We reviewed 8 clinical trials conducted in Baltimore, MD from 1996 through 2010 that evaluated the therapeutic workplace as a vehicle for maintaining reinforcement for the treatment of drug addiction. The therapeutic workplace uses employment-based reinforcement in which employees must provide objective evidence of drug abstinence or medication adherence to work and earn wages. Results Employment-based reinforcement can initiate (3 of 4 studies) and maintain (2 studies) cocaine abstinence in methadone patients, although relapse can occur even after long-term exposure to abstinence reinforcement (1 study). Employment-based reinforcement can also promote abstinence from alcohol in homeless alcohol dependent adults (1 study), and maintain adherence to extended-release naltrexone in opioid dependent adults (2 studies). Conclusion Treatments should seek to promote life-long effects in patients. Therapeutic reinforcement may need to be maintained indefinitely to prevent relapse. Workplaces could be effective vehicles for the maintenance of therapeutic reinforcement contingencies for drug abstinence and adherence to addiction medications. PMID:22668883

  2. Testing the Drug Substitution Switching-Addictions Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Carlos; Okuda, Mayumi; Wang, Shuai; Liu, Shang-Min; Olfson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Adults who remit from a substance use disorder (SUD) are often thought to be at increased risk for developing another SUD. A greater understanding of the prevalence and risk factors for drug substitution would inform clinical monitoring and management. OBJECTIVE To determine whether remission from an SUD increases the risk of onset of a new SUD after a 3-year follow-up compared with lack of remission from an SUD and whether sociodemographic characteristics and psychiatric disorders, including personality disorders, independently predict a new-onset SUD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study where data were drawn from a nationally representative sample of 34 653 adults from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Participants were interviewed twice, 3 years apart (wave 1, 2001–2002; wave 2, 2004–2005). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES We compared new-onset SUDs among individuals with at least 1 current SUD at wave 1 who did not remit from any SUDs at wave 2 (n = 3275) and among individuals with at least 1 current SUD at wave 1 who remitted at wave 2 (n = 2741). RESULTS Approximately one-fifth (n = 2741) of the total sample had developed a new-onset SUD at the wave 2 assessment. Individuals who remitted from 1 SUD during this period were significantly less likely than those who did not remit to develop a new SUD (13.1% vs 27.2%, P < .001). Results were robust to sample specification. An exception was that remission from a drug use disorder increased the odds of a new SUD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11–1.92). However, after adjusting for the number of SUDs at baseline, remission from drug use disorders decreased the odds of a new-onset SUD (OR = 0.66; 95% CI, 0.46–0.95) whereas the number of baseline SUDs increased those odds (OR=1.68; 95% CI, 1.43–1.98). Being male, younger in age, never married, having an earlier age at substance use onset, and psychiatric comorbidity significantly increased

  3. Drug Addiction Treatment in the Criminal Justice System

    MedlinePlus

    ... sentenced for drug offenses were incarcerated for drug trafficking. [v] Simple possession is even less of a ... in your area. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration ...

  4. The dopamine hypothesis of drug addiction and its potential therapeutic value.

    PubMed

    Diana, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission is deeply affected by drugs of abuse, and alterations in DA function are involved in the various phases of drug addiction and potentially exploitable therapeutically. In particular, basic studies have documented a reduction in the electrophysiological activity of DA neurons in alcohol, opiate, cannabinoid, and other drug-dependent rats. Further, DA release in the Nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is decreased in virtually all drug-dependent rodents. In parallel, these studies are supported by increments in intracranial self stimulation (ICSS) thresholds during withdrawal from alcohol, nicotine, opiates, and other drugs of abuse, thereby suggesting a hypofunction of the neural substrate of ICSS. Accordingly, morphological evaluations fed into realistic computational analysis of the medium spiny neuron of the Nacc, post-synaptic counterpart of DA terminals, show profound changes in structure and function of the entire mesolimbic system. In line with these findings, human imaging studies have shown a reduction of dopamine receptors accompanied by a lesser release of endogenous DA in the ventral striatum of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol-dependent subjects, thereby offering visual proof of the "dopamine-impoverished" addicted human brain. The lasting reduction in physiological activity of the DA system leads to the idea that an increment in its activity, to restore pre-drug levels, may yield significant clinical improvements (reduction of craving, relapse, and drug-seeking/taking). In theory, it may be achieved pharmacologically and/or with novel interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Its anatomo-physiological rationale as a possible therapeutic aid in alcoholics and other addicts will be described and proposed as a theoretical framework to be subjected to experimental testing in human addicts. PMID:22144966

  5. The Dopamine Hypothesis of Drug Addiction and Its Potential Therapeutic Value

    PubMed Central

    Diana, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) transmission is deeply affected by drugs of abuse, and alterations in DA function are involved in the various phases of drug addiction and potentially exploitable therapeutically. In particular, basic studies have documented a reduction in the electrophysiological activity of DA neurons in alcohol, opiate, cannabinoid, and other drug-dependent rats. Further, DA release in the Nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is decreased in virtually all drug-dependent rodents. In parallel, these studies are supported by increments in intracranial self stimulation (ICSS) thresholds during withdrawal from alcohol, nicotine, opiates, and other drugs of abuse, thereby suggesting a hypofunction of the neural substrate of ICSS. Accordingly, morphological evaluations fed into realistic computational analysis of the medium spiny neuron of the Nacc, post-synaptic counterpart of DA terminals, show profound changes in structure and function of the entire mesolimbic system. In line with these findings, human imaging studies have shown a reduction of dopamine receptors accompanied by a lesser release of endogenous DA in the ventral striatum of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol-dependent subjects, thereby offering visual proof of the “dopamine-impoverished” addicted human brain. The lasting reduction in physiological activity of the DA system leads to the idea that an increment in its activity, to restore pre-drug levels, may yield significant clinical improvements (reduction of craving, relapse, and drug-seeking/taking). In theory, it may be achieved pharmacologically and/or with novel interventions such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Its anatomo-physiological rationale as a possible therapeutic aid in alcoholics and other addicts will be described and proposed as a theoretical framework to be subjected to experimental testing in human addicts. PMID:22144966

  6. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Psychological Differences between College Students and Drug Addicts in New Orleans and San Juan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Jacobo; Jacobs, Keith W.

    Research arguing the validity of the construct of the addictive personality has been criticized for methodology and because it has often been based on a narrow group of personality dimensions. To identify personality differences between drug addicts and college students from two different cultures, four groups of subjects, aged 17-25, were tested.…

  7. Bioethical differences between drug addiction treatment professionals inside and outside the Russian Federation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an overview of a sociological study of the views of 338 drug addiction treatment professionals. A comparison is drawn between the bioethical approaches of Russian and foreign experts from 18 countries. It is concluded that the bioethical priorities of Russian and foreign experts differ significantly. Differences involve attitudes toward confidentiality, informed consent, compulsory treatment, opioid agonist therapy, mandatory testing of students for psychoactive substances, the prevention of mental patients from having children, harm reduction programs (needle and syringe exchange), euthanasia, and abortion. It is proposed that the cardinal dissimilarity between models for providing drug treatment in the Russian Federation versus the majority of the countries of the world stems from differing bioethical attitudes among drug addiction treatment experts. PMID:21663615

  8. An exploratory research on the role of family in youth's drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Sobia; Us Sahar, Najam

    2014-01-01

    Most of the researches in Pakistan are concerned with the aetiological factors of drug addiction among the youth. However, few studies seek to explore the social aspects of this phenomenon. The present study aimed to explore the role of family, the influence of parental involvement, and communication styles in youth's drug addiction in a qualitative manner. Twenty drug addicts (age range 18–28 years) were taken as a sample from drug rehabilitation centres in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. A structured interview guide was administered comprising questions related to the individual's habits, relationship with family and friends, and modes of communication within the family. Case profiles of the participants were also taken. The rehabilitation centres offered family therapy and the researcher, as a non-participant, observed these sessions as part of the analysis. The demographic information revealed that majority of the participants were poly-substance abusers (80%) and the significant reasons for starting drugs were the company of peers and curiosity. The thematic analysis revealed parental involvement and emotional expressiveness as two major components in family communication. It was found that parents were concerned about their children, but were not assertive in the implementation of family rules. It was also found that the major life decisions of the participants were taken by their parents, which is a characteristic of collectivist Pakistani society. PMID:25750821

  9. Use of Preclinical Drug vs. Food Choice Procedures to Evaluate Candidate Medications for Cocaine Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Matthew L; Hutsell, Blake A; Schwienteck, Kathryn L; Negus, S. Stevens

    2015-01-01

    Opinion Statement Drug addiction is a disease that manifests as an inappropriate allocation of behavior towards the procurement and use of the abused substance and away from other behaviors that produce more adaptive reinforcers (e.g. exercise, work, family and social relationships). The goal of treating drug addiction is not only to decrease drug-maintained behaviors, but also to promote a reallocation of behavior towards alternative, nondrug reinforcers. Experimental procedures that offer concurrent access to both a drug reinforcer and an alternative, nondrug reinforcer provide a research tool for assessment of medication effects on drug choice and behavioral allocation. Choice procedures are currently the standard in human laboratory research on medications development. Preclinical choice procedures have been utilized in biomedical research since the early 1940’s, and during the last 10–15 years, their use for evaluation of medications to treat drug addiction has increased. We propose here that parallel use of choice procedures in preclinical and clinical studies will facilitate translational research on development of medications to treat cocaine addiction. In support of this proposition, a review of the literature suggests strong concordance between preclinical effectiveness of candidate medications to modify cocaine choice in nonhuman primates and rodents and clinical effectiveness of these medications to modify either cocaine choice in human laboratory studies or metrics of cocaine abuse in patients with cocaine use disorder. The strongest evidence for medication effectiveness in preclinical choice studies has been obtained with maintenance on the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine, a candidate agonist medication for cocaine use analogous to use of methadone to treat heroin abuse or nicotine formulations to treat tobacco dependence. PMID:26009706

  10. Dealing with Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... more addictive than others: Drugs like crack or heroin are so addictive that they might only be used once or twice before the user loses control. Addiction means a person has no control over whether ...

  11. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. PMID:26721952

  12. Silent Synapse-Based Circuitry Remodeling in Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to cocaine, and likely other drugs of abuse, generates α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor-silent glutamatergic synapses in the nucleus accumbens. These immature synaptic contacts evolve after drug withdrawal to redefine the neurocircuital properties. These results raise at least three critical questions: (1) what are the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate drug-induced generation of silent synapses; (2) how are neurocircuits remodeled upon generation and evolution of drug-generated silent synapses; and (3) what behavioral consequences are produced by silent synapse-based circuitry remodeling? This short review analyzes related experimental results, and extends them to some speculations. PMID:26721952

  13. Dopamine D3 receptor ligands for drug addiction treatment: update on recent findings.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Collo, Ginetta; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Boileau, Isabelle; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Sokoloff, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is located in the limbic area and apparently mediates selective effects on motivation to take drugs and drug-seeking behaviors, so that there has been considerable interest on the possible use of D3 receptor ligands to treat drug addiction. However, only recently selective tools allowing studying this receptor have been developed. This chapter presents an overview of findings that were presented at a symposium on the conference Dopamine 2013 in Sardinia in May 2013. Novel neurobiological findings indicate that drugs of abuse can lead to significant structural plasticity in rodent brain and that this is dependent on the availability of functional dopamine D3 autoreceptor, whose activation increased phosphorylation in the ERK pathway and in the Akt/mTORC1 pathway indicating the parallel engagement of a series of intracellular signaling pathways all involved in cell growth and survival. Preclinical findings using animal models of drug-seeking behaviors confirm that D3 antagonists have a promising profile to treat drug addiction across drugs of abuse type. Imaging the D3 is now feasible in human subjects. Notably, the development of (+)-4-propyl-9-hydroxynaphthoxazine ligand used in positron emission tomography (PET) studies in humans allows to measure D3 and D2 receptors based on the area of the brain under study. This PET ligand has been used to confirm up-regulation of D3 sites in psychostimulant users and to reveal that tobacco smoking produces elevation of dopamine at the level of D3 sites. There are now novel antagonists being developed, but also old drugs such as buspirone, that are available to test the D3 hypothesis in humans. The first results of clinical investigations are now being provided. Overall, those recent findings support further exploration of D3 ligands to treat drug addiction. PMID:24968784

  14. Inhibition of FAAH and activation of PPAR: New approaches to the treatment of cognitive dysfunction and drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Panlilio, Leigh V.; Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2013-01-01

    Enhancing the effects of endogenously-released cannabinoid ligands in the brain might provide therapeutic effects more safely and effectively than administering drugs that act directly at the cannabinoid receptor. Inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) prevent the breakdown of endogenous ligands for cannabinoid receptors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR), prolonging and enhancing the effects of these ligands when they are naturally released. This review considers recent research on the effects of FAAH inhibitors and PPAR activators in animal models of addiction and cognition (specifically learning and memory). These studies show that FAAH inhibitors can produce potentially therapeutic effects, some through cannabinoid receptors and some through PPAR. These effects include enhancing certain forms of learning, counteracting the rewarding effects of nicotine and alcohol, relieving symptoms of withdrawal from cannabis and other drugs, and protecting against relapse-like reinstatement of drug self-administration. Since FAAH inhibition might have a wide range of therapeutic actions but might also share some of the adverse effects of cannabis, it is noteworthy that at least one FAAH-inhibiting drug (URB597) has been found to have potentially beneficial effects but no indication of liability for abuse or dependence. Although these areas of research are new, the preliminary evidence indicates that they might lead to improved therapeutic interventions and a better understanding of the brain mechanisms underlying addiction and memory. PMID:23333350

  15. Towards an animal model of food addiction.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Johannes W; Vanderschuren, Louk J M J; Adan, Roger A H

    2012-01-01

    The dramatically increasing prevalence of obesity, associated with potentially life-threatening health problems, including cardiovascular diseases and type II diabetes, poses an enormous public health problem. It has been proposed that the obesity epidemic can be explained by the concept of 'food addiction'. In this review we focus on possible similarities between binge eating disorder (BED), which is highly prevalent in the obese population, and drug addiction. Indeed, both behavioral and neural similarities between addiction and BED have been demonstrated. Behavioral similarities are reflected in the overlap in DSM-IV criteria for drug addiction with the (suggested) criteria for BED and by food addiction-like behavior in animals after prolonged intermittent access to palatable food. Neural similarities include the overlap in brain regions involved in food and drug craving. Decreased dopamine D2 receptor availability in the striatum has been found in animal models of binge eating, after cocaine self-administration in animals as well as in drug addiction and obesity in humans. To further explore the neurobiological basis of food addiction, it is essential to have an animal model to test the addictive potential of palatable food. A recently developed animal model for drug addiction involves three behavioral characteristics that are based on the DSM-IV criteria: i) extremely high motivation to obtain the drug, ii) difficulty in limiting drug seeking even in periods of explicit non-availability, iii) continuation of drug-seeking despite negative consequences. Indeed, it has been shown that a subgroup of rats, after prolonged cocaine self-administration, scores positive on these three criteria. If food possesses addictive properties, then food-addicted rats should also meet these criteria while searching for and consuming food. In this review we discuss evidence from literature regarding food addiction-like behavior. We also suggest future experiments that could

  16. Role of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor in Drug Addiction: Potential for Pharmacological Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Logrip, Marian L.; Koob, George F.; Zorrilla, Eric P.

    2012-01-01

    Drug dependence is a chronically relapsing disorder that places an enormous strain on healthcare systems. For treatments to have long-term clinical value, they must address the causes of relapse. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), a neuropeptide central to the stress response, may be one key to solving the relapse cycle. CRF is hypothesized to mediate the elevated anxiety and negative emotional states experienced during the development of dependence. This review summarizes existing data on changes in the CRF system produced by drugs of abuse and the function of CRF receptors in regulating behavioural responses to drugs of abuse, with an emphasis on drug dependence. Drug-induced changes in neuronal excitability throughout the limbic system, as well as the reversal of these neuroadaptations by CRF receptor antagonists, are also addressed. CRF receptor antagonists, by reducing the motivational effects of drug withdrawal and protracted abstinence, are proposed to be novel therapeutic targets for drug abuse and addiction. PMID:21425881

  17. Adolescent Black Males' Drug Trafficking and Addiction: Three Theoretical Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Sharon E.

    1995-01-01

    Explains the incidence and nature of drug trafficking and chemical dependency among adolescent black males. The paper also discusses the social science theories of Emile Durkheim, Karl Marx, and Molefi Asante to better understand the behaviors, and the consequences of those behaviors, of young black males who participate in drug trafficking. (GR)

  18. A Community Mental Health Approach to Drug Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotman, Richard; Freedman, Alfred

    The nature of the historical changes in the presumed stereo-types of drug users in the United States, and the associated policy changes, are described in this report which takes a community health viewpoint of drug use while concurrently dealing with the individual. Eight case histories illustrate the community mental health approach in action.…

  19. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. PMID:25479528

  20. Gene × Abstinence Effects on Drug Cue Reactivity in Addiction: Multimodal Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Shumay, Elena; Beebe-Wang, Nicasia; Konova, Anna B.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Volkow, Nora D.

    2013-01-01

    Functional polymorphisms in the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1 or SLC6A3) modulate responsiveness to salient stimuli, such that carriers of one 9R-allele of DAT1 (compared with homozygote carriers of the 10R-allele) show heightened reactivity to drug-related reinforcement in addiction. Here, using multimodal neuroimaging and behavioral dependent variables in 73 human cocaine-addicted individuals and 47 healthy controls, we hypothesized and found that cocaine-addicted carriers of a 9R-allele exhibited higher responses to drug cues, but only among individuals who had used cocaine within 72 h of the study as verified by positive cocaine urine screens (a state characterized by intense craving). Importantly, this responsiveness to drug cues was reliably preserved across multimodal imaging and behavioral probes: psychophysiological event-related potentials, self-report, simulated cocaine choice, and fMRI. Because drug cues contribute to relapse, our results identify the DAT1R 9R-allele as a vulnerability allele for relapse especially during early abstinence (e.g., detoxification). PMID:23761898

  1. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Hobkirk, Andréa L.; Watt, Melissa H.; Green, Kimberly T.; Beckham, Jean C.; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S.

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women. PMID:25479528

  2. Inmunoterapias para las adicciones a las drogas Immunotherapies for Drug Addictions

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Iván D.

    2008-01-01

    Immunotherapies in the form of vaccines (active immunization) or monoclonal antibodies (passive immunization) appear safe and a promising treatment approaches for some substance-related disorders. The mechanism of action of the antibody therapy is by preventing the rapid entry of drugs of abuse into the central nervous system. In theory, immunotherapies could have several clinical applications. Monoclonal antibodies may be useful to treat drug overdoses and prevent the neurotoxic effects of drugs by blocking the access of drugs to the brain. Vaccines may help to prevent the development of addiction, initiate drug abstinence in those already addicted to drugs, or prevent drug use relapse by reducing the pharmacological effects and rewarding properties of the drugs of abuse on the brain. Passive immunization with monoclonal antibodies has been investigated for cocaine, methamphetamine, nicotine, and phencyclidine (PCP). Active immunization with vaccines has been studied for cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and nicotine. These immunotherapies seem promising therapeutic tools and are at different stages in their development before they can be approved by regulatory agencies for the treatment of substance-related disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the current immunotherapy approaches with emphasis on the risks and benefits for the treatment of these disorders. PMID:18551223

  3. Drug Addiction Stigma in the Context of Methadone Maintenance Therapy: An Investigation into Understudied Sources of Stigma

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Laramie; Copenhaver, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Experiences of stigma from others among people with a history of drug addiction are understudied in comparison to the strength of stigma associated with drug addiction. Work that has studied these experiences has primarily focused on stigma experienced from healthcare workers specifically even though stigma is often experienced from other sources as well. Because stigma has important implications for the mental health and recovery efforts of people in treatment, it is critical to better understand these experiences of stigma. Therefore, we characterize drug addiction stigma from multiple sources using qualitative methodology to advance understandings of how drug addiction stigma is experienced among methadone maintenance therapy patients and from whom. Results demonstrate that methadone maintenance therapy patients experience prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination from friends and family, coworkers and employers, healthcare workers, and others. Discussion highlights similarities and differences in stigma experienced from these sources. PMID:23956702

  4. [Drug addiction: between classification and social and health policies].

    PubMed

    Amato, Laura; Davoli, Marina

    2014-03-01

    Recent changes in Italian legislation about drug use suggest a reflection, in order to plan health policies useful to reducing the magnitude of the problem. On the one hand, the classification between soft and hard drugs is misleading: it is not the substance but the consumption habits that can be considered light or heavy. On the other hand, the adoption of strict regulations inattentive to harm reduction has not yielded positive results in terms of drug use spreading. Finally, the association between cannabis use and the onset of psychotic disorders deserve to be confirmed by further studies. PMID:24675448

  5. [Molecular epidemiology of HIV-infection in drug addicts of Southern Ural].

    PubMed

    Kazennova, E V; Bobkova, M R; Zemerov, V B; Shantseva, N A; Fedotova, T A; Kiva, L D; Fedotova, T T; Kapizov, A S; Bagautdinov, A T; Gerasimov, V E; Seliutina, L I; Kostian, I R; Raspopin, V I; Pokrovskiĭ, V V; Bobkov, A F

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of HIV-1 variants circulating among drug addicts in 16 settlements of the Sverdlov, Chelyabinsk and Orenburg regions (72, 90 and 42 patients respectively) was carried out. As shown by the serological analysis, the spread of HIV-1 variant IDU-A among the drug addicts in this area continued in this area and could be detected in 99.5% of the samples (203 out of 204 samples). These data were confirmed by the results of the analysis of 35 samples by the Heteroduplex Mobility Assay for genes env and gag. The analysis of nucleotide sequences of gene env revealed that HIV-1 variants in the Southern Urals, where the greatest outbreak of HIV infection in Russia had been registered, were genetically related to viruses of subtype A, detected earlier in this group of risk in other regions of Russia, as well as in Ukraine, Belarus and other East European countries. PMID:15188556

  6. The role of expectation in the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments.

    PubMed

    Spagnolo, Primavera A; Colloca, Luana; Heilig, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Throughout history, patient-physician relationships have been acknowledged as an important component of the therapeutic effects of any pharmacological treatment. Here, we discuss the role of physicians' expectations in influencing the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction pharmacological treatments. As largely demonstrated, such expectations and attitudes may contribute to produce placebo and nocebo effects that in turn affect the course of the disease and the response to the therapy. This article is aimed at discussing the current insights into expectations, placebo and nocebo mechanisms and their impact on the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments; with the goal of informing physicians and other health care providers about the potentially widespread implications for clinical practice and for a successful treatment regimen. PMID:25761920

  7. The Role of Expectation in the Therapeutic Outcomes of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Spagnolo, Primavera A.; Colloca, Luana; Heilig, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, patient–physician relationships have been acknowledged as an important component of the therapeutic effects of any pharmacological treatment. Here, we discuss the role of physicians' expectations in influencing the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction pharmacological treatments. As largely demonstrated, such expectations and attitudes may contribute to produce placebo and nocebo effects that in turn affect the course of the disease and the response to the therapy. This article is aimed at discussing the current insights into expectations, placebo and nocebo mechanisms and their impact on the therapeutic outcomes of alcohol and drug addiction treatments; with the goal of informing physicians and other health care providers about the potentially widespread implications for clinical practice and for a successful treatment regimen. PMID:25761920

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and addiction: Pathological versus therapeutic effects on drug seeking.

    PubMed

    Barker, Jacqueline M; Taylor, Jane R; De Vries, Taco J; Peters, Jamie

    2015-12-01

    Many abused drugs lead to changes in endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression in neural circuits responsible for addictive behaviors. BDNF is a known molecular mediator of memory consolidation processes, evident at both behavioral and neurophysiological levels. Specific neural circuits are responsible for storing and executing drug-procuring motor programs, whereas other neural circuits are responsible for the active suppression of these "seeking" systems. These seeking-circuits are established as associations are formed between drug-associated cues and the conditioned responses they elicit. Such conditioned responses (e.g. drug seeking) can be diminished either through a passive weakening of seeking- circuits or an active suppression of those circuits through extinction. Extinction learning occurs when the association between cues and drug are violated, for example, by cue exposure without the drug present. Cue exposure therapy has been proposed as a therapeutic avenue for the treatment of addictions. Here we explore the role of BDNF in extinction circuits, compared to seeking-circuits that "incubate" over prolonged withdrawal periods. We begin by discussing the role of BDNF in extinction memory for fear and cocaine-seeking behaviors, where extinction circuits overlap in infralimbic prefrontal cortex (PFC). We highlight the ability of estrogen to promote BDNF-like effects in hippocampal-prefrontal circuits and consider the role of sex differences in extinction and incubation of drug-seeking behaviors. Finally, we examine how opiates and alcohol "break the mold" in terms of BDNF function in extinction circuits. PMID:25451116

  9. From the ventral to the dorsal striatum: devolving views of their roles in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Everitt, Barry J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2013-11-01

    We revisit our hypothesis that drug addiction can be viewed as the endpoint of a series of transitions from initial voluntarily drug use to habitual, and ultimately compulsive drug use. We especially focus on the transitions in striatal control over drug seeking behaviour that underlie these transitions since functional heterogeneity of the striatum was a key area of Ann Kelley's research interests and one in which she made enormous contributions. We also discuss the hypothesis in light of recent data that the emergence of a compulsive drug seeking habit both reflects a shift to dorsal striatal control over behaviour and impaired prefontal cortical inhibitory control mechanisms. We further discuss aspects of the vulnerability to compulsive drug use and in particular the impact of impulsivity. In writing this review we acknowledge the untimely death of an outstanding scientist and a dear personal friend. PMID:23438892

  10. [Sherlock Holmes, Watson and cocaine. A literary contribution to the history of drug addiction].

    PubMed

    Fouassier, E

    1994-01-01

    From 1887 to 1927, Conan Doyle devoted fifty-six short stories and four novels to the extraordinary investigations of Sherlock Holmes. Special passages from these works, gathered here in the form of long extracts, evoke the passion of the celebrated detective for cocaine and constitute rather generally an original sort of evidence on the emergence of drug addicts in Europe at the end of the 19th century. PMID:11640289

  11. The rewarding properties of methamphetamine in an invertebrate model of drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Imeh-Nathaniel, Adebobola; Adedeji, Adekunle; Huber, Robert; Nathaniel, Thomas I

    2016-01-01

    The rewarding properties of drugs in the mammalian system depend on their ability to activate appetitive motivational states. The associated underlying mechanism is strongly conserved in evolution and invertebrates have recently emerged as a powerful new model in addiction research. The natural reward system in crayfish has surprisingly proven sensitive to human drugs of abuse, providing a new model for research into the basic biological mechanisms of drug addiction. In this study, we examined the presence of natural reward systems in crayfish, and then characterized its sensitivity to 2.5 μg/g, 5.0 μg/g and 10.0 μg/g doses of methamphetamine (METH). Using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm, we demonstrated that irrespective of the number of doses of METH injected into the pericardial system, crayfish seek out a particular tactile environment that had previously been paired with the METH. This study demonstrates that crayfish offer a comparative and complementary approach in addiction research. It contributes an evolutionary context to our understanding of a key component in learning and of natural reward as an important life-sustaining process. PMID:26477734

  12. Prevalence of HCV Infections and Co-Infection With HBV and HIV and Associated Risk Factors Among Addicts in Drug Treatment Centers, Lorestan Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Norouzian, Hossein; Gholami, Mohammadreza; Shakib, Pegah; Goudarzi, Gholamreza; Ghobadian Diali, Hamze; Rezvani, Azam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C is an infectious disease caused by blood-borne pathogen, hepatitis C virus (HCV). Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors among addicts in drug treatment centers in Lorestan Province, Iran. Patients and Methods: A cross-sectional sero-behavioral survey was given to drug addicts in the drug treatment centers of Khorramabad, Lorestan Province, Iran during June 2012 - March 2013. Drug addicts were interviewed using a standard questionnaire including demographic, imprisonment history, and HCV-related risk behavior items. Thereafter, the sera drawn from the participants were tested for anti-HCV antibody (Ab), anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Ab, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Results: The mean age of the cohorts was 31.7. Up to 60.2% of drug users had educational levels less than high school, 67.5% were self-employed, and 32.5% were office workers. The mean duration of drug injection was 6.8 years. Statistical analyses indicated that the prevalence of HCV among drug addicts was positively associated with age, past incarceration, drug injection history, the duration of drug use, and tattooing. In addition, 16.23% of volunteers were HCV-positive. Of those infected with HCV, 1.10% was co-infected with HBV, 2.95% were positive for HIV, and 0.36% of HCV-positive cases were infected with all three viruses. Conclusions: The high prevalence of HCV infection among this group implies a high rate of transmission and exposure to the risk of serious diseases. It is important that the high prevalence of HCV infection be taken into consideration to control further transmission of this infection. PMID:27162762

  13. Addiction: Beyond dopamine reward circuitry

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Telang, F.

    2011-09-13

    Dopamine (DA) is considered crucial for the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse, but its role in addiction is much less clear. This review focuses on studies that used PET to characterize the brain DA system in addicted subjects. These studies have corroborated in humans the relevance of drug-induced fast DA increases in striatum [including nucleus accumbens (NAc)] in their rewarding effects but have unexpectedly shown that in addicted subjects, drug-induced DA increases (as well as their subjective reinforcing effects) are markedly blunted compared with controls. In contrast, addicted subjects show significant DA increases in striatum in response to drug-conditioned cues that are associated with self-reports of drug craving and appear to be of a greater magnitude than the DA responses to the drug. We postulate that the discrepancy between the expectation for the drug effects (conditioned responses) and the blunted pharmacological effects maintains drug taking in an attempt to achieve the expected reward. Also, whether tested during early or protracted withdrawal, addicted subjects show lower levels of D2 receptors in striatum (including NAc), which are associated with decreases in baseline activity in frontal brain regions implicated in salience attribution (orbitofrontal cortex) and inhibitory control (anterior cingulate gyrus), whose disruption results in compulsivity and impulsivity. These results point to an imbalance between dopaminergic circuits that underlie reward and conditioning and those that underlie executive function (emotional control and decision making), which we postulate contributes to the compulsive drug use and loss of control in addiction.

  14. Prescription Pain Medicines - An Addictive Path?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for addiction to these drugs, which include codeine, morphine, oxycodone (OxyContin), hydrocodone (Vicodin), and meperidine (Demerol). The ... the receptors in the brain affected by heroin, morphine, and prescription painkillers. The tablets relieve drug cravings ...

  15. Stress enhances retrieval of drug-related memories in abstinent heroin addicts.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Yan; Shi, Jie; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Epstein, David H; Zhang, Xiang-Yang; Liu, Yu; Kosten, Thomas R; Lu, Lin

    2010-02-01

    Stress is associated with relapse to drugs after abstinence, but the mechanisms for this association are unclear. One mechanism may be that stress enhances abstinent addicts' recall of memories of drugs as stress relievers. This study assessed the effects of stress on free recall and cued recall of 10 heroin-related and 10 neutral words learned 24 h earlier by 102 abstinent heroin addicts. These participants were randomly assigned to three experiments that also assessed attention and working memory. Experiment 1 used a psychosocial stressor (Trier social stress test (TSST)) before testing for recall of heroin-related words. Experiment 2 added administration of the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol 1 h before the psychosocial stressor. Experiment 3 added administration of either cortisol with propranolol, cortisol alone, or propranolol alone 1 h before word recall to determine whether stress enhancement of heroin-related word recall required noradrenergic-glucocorticoid interactions. We found that free recall of heroin-related words in abstinent addicts was enhanced after stress or cortisol administration when compared with a non-stress condition or placebo, respectively, whereas these interventions had no effect on neutral word recall. beta-adrenergic blockade blocked the enhancing effect of stress or cortisol on free recall of heroin-related words. Neither stress nor cortisol affected cued recall, attention, or working memory. The potential of beta-adrenergic blockade to reduce or block stress-induced enhancement of drug-related memory retrieval may be relevant to preventing stress-induced relapse in abstinent heroin addicts. PMID:19890257

  16. Antisocial tendency among drug-addicted adults: potential long-term effects of parental absence, support, and conflict during childhood.

    PubMed

    Knight, D K; Broome, K M; Cross, D R; Simpson, D D

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceptions of parent-child relations in the family of origin and antisocial tendency in a sample of drug-addicted adults. Data included retrospective accounts of childhood family factors, adolescent antisocial tendency, and self-reported hostility and risk-taking prior to treatment entry. A developmental model was tested that included adolescent antisocial tendency as a mediator of the relationship between childhood parenting factors and adulthood antisocial tendency. The effects of parental support and conflict were found to operate primarily through adolescent measures. Specifically, lower levels of parental support and higher levels of conflict with parents predicted greater adolescent antisocial tendency, which in turn predicted more hostility and risk-taking in adulthood. Thus, parental support appears to serve as a buffer against deviant behavior and drug use. PMID:9741940

  17. The tetrapartite synapse: Extracellular matrix remodeling contributes to corticoaccumbens plasticity underlying drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alexander C W; Scofield, Michael D; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-12-01

    Synaptic plasticity has long been known to involve three key elements of neuropil, the presynapse, the postsynapse and adjacent glia. Here we review the role of the extracellular matrix in synaptic plasticity as a necessary component forming the tetrapartite synapse. We describe the role of matrix metalloproteinases as enzymes sculpting extracellular proteins and thereby creating an extracellular signaling domain required for synaptic plasticity. Specifically we focus on the role of the tetrapartite synapse in mediating the effects of addictive drugs at cortico-striatal synapses, and conclude that the extracellular signaling domain and its regulation by matrix metalloproteinases is critical for developing and expressing drug seeking behaviors. PMID:25838241

  18. Drug-induced and genetic alterations in stress-responsive systems: Implications for specific addictive diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Yuferov, Vadim; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2010-02-16

    From the earliest work in our laboratory, we hypothesized, and with studies conducted in both clinical research and animal models, we have shown that drugs of abuse, administered or self-administered, on a chronic basis, profoundly alter stress-responsive systems. Alterations of expression of specific genes involved in stress responsivity, with increases or decreases in mRNA levels, receptor, and neuropeptide levels, and resultant changes in hormone levels, have been documented to occur after chronic intermittent exposure to heroin, morphine, other opiates, cocaine, other stimulants, and alcohol in animal models and in human molecular genetics. The best studied of the stress-responsive systems in humans and mammalian species in general is undoubtedly the HPA axis. In addition, there are stress-responsive systems in other parts in the brain itself, and some of these include components of the HPA axis, such as CRF and CRF receptors, along with POMC gene and gene products. Several other stress-responsive systems are known to influence the HPA axis, such as the vasopressin-vasopressin receptor system. Orexin-hypocretin, acting at its receptors, may effect changes which suggest that it should be properly categorized as a stress-responsive system. However, less is known about the interactions and connectivity of some of these different neuropeptide and receptor systems, and in particular, about the possible connectivity of fast-acting (e.g., glutamate and GABA) and slow-acting (including dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine) neurotransmitters with each of these stress-responsive components and the resultant impact, especially in the setting of chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Several of these stress-responsive systems and components, primarily based on our laboratory-based and human molecular genetics research of addictive diseases, will be briefly discussed in this review. PMID:19914222

  19. Drug-induced and Genetic Alterations in Stress-Responsive Systems: Implications for Specific Addictive Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yan; Proudnikov, Dmitri; Yuferov, Vadim; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    From the earliest work in our laboratory, we hypothesized, and with studies conducted in both clinical research and animal models, we have shown that drugs of abuse, administered or self-administered, on a chronic basis, profoundly alter stress-responsive systems. Alterations of expression of specific genes involved in stress responsivity, with increases or decreases in mRNA levels, receptor and neuropeptide levels, and resultant changes in hormone levels, have been documented to occur after chronic intermittent exposure to heroin, morphine, other opiates, cocaine, other stimulants and alcohol in animal models and in human molecular genetics. The best studied of the stress-responsive systems in humans and mammalian species in general is undoubtedly the HPA axis. In addition, there are stress-responsive systems in other parts in the brain itself, and some of these include components of the HPA axis, such as CRF and CRF receptors, along with POMC gene and gene products. Several other stress-responsive systems are known to influence the HPA axis, such as the vasopressin-vasopressin receptor system. Orexin-hypocretin, acting at its receptors, may effect changes which suggest that it should be properly categorized as a stress-responsive system. However, less is known about the interactions and connectivity of some of these different neuropeptide and receptor systems, and in particular, about the possible connectivity of fast-acting (e.g., glutamate and GABA) and slow-acting (including dopamine, serotonin and norepinephrine) neurotransmitters with each of these stress-responsive components and the resultant impact, especially in the setting of chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Several of these stress-responsive systems and components, primarily based on our laboratory-based and human molecular genetics research of addictive diseases, will be briefly discussed in this review. PMID:19914222

  20. Silent Synapses Speak Up: Updates of the Neural Rejuvenation Hypothesis of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yanhua H.; Schlüter, Oliver M.; Dong, Yan

    2015-01-01

    A transient but prominent increase in the level of “silent synapses”—a signature of immature glutamatergic synapses that contain only NMDA receptors without stably expressed AMPA receptors—has been identified in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) following exposure to cocaine. As the NAc is a critical forebrain region implicated in forming addiction-associated behaviors, the initial discoveries have raised speculations about whether and how these drug-induced synapses mature and potentially contribute to addiction-related behaviors. Here, we summarize recent progress in recognizing the pathway-specific regulations of silent synapse maturation, and its diverse impacts on behavior. We provide an update of the guiding hypothesis—the “neural rejuvenation hypothesis”—with recently emerged evidence of silent synapses in cocaine craving and relapse. PMID:25829364

  1. The role of the habenula in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Velasquez, Kenia M; Molfese, David L; Salas, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the habenula has greatly increased in recent years. The habenula is a small brain structure located posterior to the thalamus and adjacent to the third ventricle. Despite its small size, the habenula can be divided into medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei that are anatomically and transcriptionally distinct. The habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia primarily via the stria medullaris. The fasciculus retroflexus is the primary habenular output from the habenula to the midbrain and governs release of glutamate onto gabaergic cells in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and onto the interpeduncular nucleus. The resulting GABA released from RMTg neurons inactivates dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra compacta. Through this process, the habenula controls dopamine levels in the striatum. Thus, the habenula plays a critical role in reward and reward-associated learning. The LHb also modulates serotonin levels and norepinephrine release, while the MHb modulates acetylcholine. The habenula is a critical crossroad that influences the brain's response to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep, and reward. Dysfunction of the habenula has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, and the effects of drugs of abuse. This review focuses on the possible relationships between the habenula and drug abuse. PMID:24734015

  2. The role of the habenula in drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Velasquez, Kenia M.; Molfese, David L.; Salas, Ramiro

    2014-01-01

    Interest in the habenula has greatly increased in recent years. The habenula is a small brain structure located posterior to the thalamus and adjacent to the third ventricle. Despite its small size, the habenula can be divided into medial habenula (MHb) and lateral habenula (LHb) nuclei that are anatomically and transcriptionally distinct. The habenula receives inputs from the limbic system and basal ganglia primarily via the stria medullaris. The fasciculus retroflexus is the primary habenular output from the habenula to the midbrain and governs release of glutamate onto gabaergic cells in the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) and onto the interpeduncular nucleus. The resulting GABA released from RMTg neurons inactivates dopaminergic cells in the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra compacta. Through this process, the habenula controls dopamine levels in the striatum. Thus, the habenula plays a critical role in reward and reward-associated learning. The LHb also modulates serotonin levels and norepinephrine release, while the MHb modulates acetylcholine. The habenula is a critical crossroad that influences the brain’s response to pain, stress, anxiety, sleep, and reward. Dysfunction of the habenula has been linked to depression, schizophrenia, and the effects of drugs of abuse. This review focuses on the possible relationships between the habenula and drug abuse. PMID:24734015

  3. Treatment of addiction and addiction-related behavior

    DOEpatents

    Dewey, Stephen L.; Brodie, Jonathan D.; Ashby, Jr., Charles R.

    2003-07-15

    The present invention provides a method for changing addiction-related behavior of a mammal suffering from addiction to a combination of abused drugs. The method includes administering to the mammal an effective amount of gamma vinylGABA (GVG) or a pharmaceutically acceptable salt thereof, or an enantiomer or a racemic mixture thereof, wherein the effective amount is sufficient to diminish, inhibit or eliminate behavior associated with craving or use of the combination of abused drugs.

  4. Role of innate and drug-induced dysregulation of brain stress and arousal systems in addiction: Focus on corticotropin-releasing factor, nociceptin/orphanin FQ, and orexin/hypocretin

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Fardon, Rémi; Zorrilla, Eric P.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Weiss, Friedbert

    2010-01-01

    Stress-like symptoms are an integral part of acute and protracted drug withdrawal, and several lines of evidence have shown that dysregulation of brain stress systems, including the extrahypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system, following long-term drug use is of major importance in maintaining drug and alcohol addiction. Recently, two other neuropeptide systems have attracted interest, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) and orexin/hypocretin (Orx/Hcrt) systems. N/OFQ participates in a wide range of physiological responses, and the hypothalamic Orx/Hcrt system helps regulate several physiological processes, including feeding, energy metabolism, and arousal. Moreover, these two systems have been suggested to participate in psychiatric disorders, including anxiety and drug addiction. Dysregulation of these systems by chronic drug exposure has been hypothesized to play a role in the maintenance of addiction and dependence. Recent evidence demonstrated that interactions between CRF-N/OFQ and CRF-Orx/Hcrt systems may be functionally relevant for the control of stress-related addictive behavior. The present review discusses recent findings that support the hypotheses of the participation and dysregulation of these systems in drug addiction and evaluates the current understanding of interactions among these stress-regulatory peptides. PMID:20026088

  5. The risk of multiple addictions. Guidelines for assessing a woman's alcohol and drug use.

    PubMed Central

    Matteo, S

    1988-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs have been overly prescribed for women of all ages for all manner of symptoms. Patients' and physicians' expectations about appropriate diagnosis and treatment, combined with the relative invisibility of women's alcohol and legal and illicit drug use, can lead to quick but temporary prescription solutions that may put women at risk for multiple addictions. This is a special problem for adolescent, minority, and elderly women, about whom we know little yet hold strong stereotypes. Moreover, while prescriptions may alleviate patients' symptoms, they do little to correct the underlying situation. Physicians are encouraged to review their prescribing habits and to learn more about their women patients' use of alcohol, cigarettes, previously prescribed medications, and recreational drugs, as well as a tendency to self-medicate. Physicians should also have available alternative strategies to prescribing psychotropic drugs. Images PMID:3074574

  6. [Misuse of sleep and wakefulness drugs: from undesirable effects to addiction].

    PubMed

    Bastuji, H

    2007-07-01

    Sleep disorders, mainly insomnia and daytime somnolence, can arise from very different causes. For example insomnia may be related to anxiety-depression or occur in response to a stressful lifestyle or as an element of restless leg syndrome. Subjects with hypersomnia may present episodes of sleep apnea, drug-related depression or narcolepsia. Specific management is required for each etiology. Misuse of sleep drugs generally results from an insufficient etiological diagnosis and a misunderstanding of their proper use. These drugs can be used as necessary expedients but cannot replace correct management or treatment of the cause or causes of the sleep disorder. We present here a review of the undesirable effects, particularly among the elderly population, and of the risk of addiction to the different drugs used to induce sleep in order to propose prescription guidelines. PMID:17652995

  7. Addiction and the potential for therapeutic drug development.

    PubMed

    Janssen, P A

    1994-01-01

    Therapeutic drug development in alcoholism could be targeted at any of the following: direct antagonism, substitution, treatment of abstinence, enhancement of aversion, modification of biodisposition, or craving. Ritanserin is a potent, centrally acting, highly selective 5-HT1C/2 antagonist which, in addition to having a sleep-regulating and anti-depression/anti-axiety effect, displays a unique pharmacological action in several animal paradigms of substance abuse which assess drug-craving. In fact, the latter pharmacological action was demonstrated after initial clinical observations suggested an effect of ritanserin in the chronic withdrawal phase after detoxification from alcohol in patients. The results of a recent double-blind, placebo-controlled, trial indicated that ritanserin did not induce aversion to drink alcohol in normal volunteers who display social drinking, but are not suffering alcohol dependence. Currently, a full clinical development program of ritanserin in cocaine and alcohol abuse is ongoing. Three major double-blind, placebo-controlled trials in alcohol dependent patients are in progress. Patients of different severity levels, ranging from mild to very severe, are studied. The dosages of ritanserin tested (2.5 mg, 5 mg, and 10 mg o.d.) are known to be well tolerated and safe. Two trials aim for relapse prevention--clinically defined in one, biochemically defined in the other-, and one trial has improved (reduced) drinking behaviour as a therapeutic goal. This program, which involves close to 900 alcohol-dependent patients, is well under way, and is still picking up momentum. PMID:8032167

  8. Protein Kinases and Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna M.; Messing, Robert O.

    2011-01-01

    Although drugs of abuse have different chemical structures and interact with different protein targets, all appear to usurp common neuronal systems that regulate reward and motivation. Addiction is a complex disease that is thought to involve drug-induced changes in synaptic plasticity due to alterations in cell signaling, gene transcription, and protein synthesis. Recent evidence suggests that drugs of abuse interact with and change a common network of signaling pathways that include a subset of specific protein kinases. The best studied of these kinases are reviewed here and include extracellular signal-regulated kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cyclin-dependent protein kinase 5, protein kinase C, calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, and Fyn tyrosine kinase. These kinases have been implicated in various aspects of drug addiction including acute drug effects, drug self-administration, withdrawal, reinforcement, sensitization, and tolerance. Identifying protein kinase substrates and signaling pathways that contribute to the addicted state may provide novel approaches for new pharma-cotherapies to treat drug addiction. PMID:18991950

  9. The Soviet doctor and the treatment of drug addiction: "A difficult and most ungracious task"

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of early Soviet drug treatment approaches by focusing on the struggle for disciplinary power between leading social and mental hygienists and clinical psychiatrists as a defining moment for Soviet drug treatment speciality that became known as "narcology." From this vantage point, I engage in the examination of the rise and fall of various treatment methods and conceptualizations of addiction in Russian metropolitan centres and look at how they were imported (or not) to other Soviet republics. As clinical psychiatrists appeared as undisputed victors from the battle with social and mental hygienists, the entire narcological arsenal was subdued in order to serve the needs of mainstream psychiatry. However, what that 'mainstream' would be, was not entirely clear. When, in 1934, Aleksandr Rapoport insisted on the need for re-working narcological knowledge in line with the Marxist approach, he could only raise questions and recognise that there were almost no "dialectically illuminated scientific data" to address these questions. The maintenance treatment of opiate users, which emerged as the most effective one based on the results of a six-year study published in 1936, was definitely not attuned to the political and ideological environment of the late 1930s. Maintenance was rather considered as a temporary solution, in the absence of radical therapeutic measures to free Soviet society from "narkomania." As the Great Terror swept across the Soviet Union, Stalin's regime achieved its objective of eliminating drug addiction from the surface of public life by driving opiate users deep underground and incarcerating many of them in prisons and the Gulag camps. In the final section, I briefly discuss the changing perceptions of drug use during the World War II and outline subsequent transformations in Soviet responses to the post-war opiate addiction [Additional file 1]. PMID:22208726

  10. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children's emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother-infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother-infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory. PMID:27625612

  11. Attachment Theory and Maternal Drug Addiction: The Contribution to Parenting Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Children’s emotional and relational development can be negatively influenced by maternal substance abuse, particularly through a dysfunctional caregiving environment. Attachment Theory offers a privileged framework to analyze how drug addiction can affect the quality of adult attachment style, parenting attitudes and behaviors toward the child, and how it can have a detrimental effect on the co-construction of the attachment bond by the mother and the infant. Several studies, as a matter of fact, have identified a prevalence of insecure patterns among drug-abusing mothers and their children. Many interventions for mothers with Substance Use Disorders have focused on enhancing parental skills, but they have often overlooked the emotional and relational features of the mother–infant bond. Instead, in recent years, a number of protocols have been developed in order to strengthen the relationship between drug-abusing mothers and their children, drawing lessons from Attachment Theory. The present study reviews the literature on the adult and infant attachment style in the context of drug addiction, describing currently available treatment programs that address parenting and specifically focus on the mother–infant bond, relying on Attachment Theory. PMID:27625612

  12. Differential profile and treatment development of drug-addicted patients depending on violent behaviours and/or criminal acts.

    PubMed

    López-Goñi, José J; Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; Arteaga, Alfonso; Cacho, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the prevalence of violent and/or criminal behaviors in drug-addicted patients. A sample of 252 drug-addicted patients who sought treatment was assessed. Information was collected on violent behaviors, criminal acts, socio-demographic factors, consumption factors, psychopathological factors, and personality variables. The sample was divided into 4 groups according to the presence of violence and/or criminal behaviors. There were significant differences between the groups on some variables. In general, patients associated with both violence and criminal behaviors showed a greater severity in drug consumption and maladjustment variables, as well as a higher rate of treatment dropout and re-entry. PMID:25774971

  13. Convergence and divergence in the etiology of myelin impairment in psychiatric disorders and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yue

    2008-10-01

    Impairment of oligodendroglia (OL)-dependent myelination in the central nervous system (CNS) is a remarkable parallel recently identified in major psychiatric disorders and chronic drug abuse. Neuroimaging and neuropathological studies revealed myelin defects and microarray-profiling analysis demonstrated aberrant expression of myelin-related genes in schizophrenia (SZ), bipolar disorder (BD), major depressive disorder (MDD) and cocaine addiction. However, the etiology underlying myelin impairment in these clinically distinct subjects remains elusive. This article reviews myelin impairment in line with dopaminergic dysfunction, a prime neuropathophysiological trait shared in psychiatric disorders and drug abuse, as well as the genetic and epigenetic alterations associated with these diseases. The current findings support the hypothesis that aberrant dopamine (DA) action on OLs is a common pathologic mechanism for myelin impairment in the aforementioned mental morbidities, whereas inherited genetic variations that specifically affect OL development and myelinogenesis may further increase myelin vulnerability in psychiatric disorders. Importantly, OL defect is not only a pathological consequence but also a causative factor for dopaminergic dysfunction. Hence, myelin impairment is a key factor in the pathogenic loop of psychiatric diseases and drug addiction. PMID:18404371

  14. Dopamine D₁-D₂ receptor heteromer regulates signaling cascades involved in addiction: potential relevance to adolescent drug susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Perreault, Melissa L; O'Dowd, Brian F; George, Susan R

    2014-01-01

    Adolescence is a developmental period that has been associated with heightened sensitivity to psychostimulant-induced reward, thus placing adolescents at increased risk to develop drug addiction. Although alterations in dopamine-induced synaptic plasticity are perhaps the most critical factor in mediating addiction processes, developmental differences in the cell signaling mechanisms that contribute to synaptic plasticity, and their contribution to adolescent reward sensitivity, has been grossly understudied. The most abundant dopamine receptors, the D1 and D2 receptors, as well as the dopamine D1-D2 receptor heteromer, exhibit age-dependent and brain region-specific changes in their expression and function and are responsible for regulating cell signaling pathways known to significantly contribute to the neurobiological mechanisms underlying addiction. The D1-D2 receptor heteromer, for instance, has been associated with calcium calmodulin kinase IIα, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) signaling, three proteins highly implicated in the regulation of glutamate transmission and synaptic plasticity and which regulate addiction to amphetamine, opioids and cocaine. Therefore, in this review the importance of these signaling proteins as potential mediators of addiction susceptibility in adolescence will be highlighted, and the therapeutic potential of the D1-D2 receptor heteromer in addiction will be discussed. It is the overall goal of this review to draw attention to the research gap in dopamine-induced cell signaling in the adolescent brain--knowledge that would provide much-needed insights into adolescent addiction vulnerability. PMID:24820626

  15. Molecular genetics of addiction and related heritable phenotypes: genome wide association approaches identify “connectivity constellation” and drug target genes with pleiotropic effects

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, George R; Drgon, Tomas; Johnson, Catherine; Li, Chuan-Yun; Contoreggi, Carlo; Hess, Judith; Naiman, Daniel; Liu, Qing-Rong

    2013-01-01

    Genome wide association (GWA) can elucidate molecular genetic bases for human individual differences in “complex” phenotypes that include vulnerability to addiction. Here, we review: a) evidence that supports polygenic models with (at least) modest heterogeneity for the genetic architectures of addiction and several related phenotypes; b) technical and ethical aspects of importance for understanding genome wide association data: genotyping in individual samples vs DNA pools, analytic approaches, power estimation and ethical issues in genotyping individuals with illegal behaviors; c) the samples and the data that shape our current understanding of the molecular genetics of individual differences in vulnerability to substance dependence and related phenotypes; d) overlaps between GWA datasets for dependence on different substances; e) overlaps between GWA data for addictions vs other heritable, brain-based phenotypes that include: i) bipolar disorder, ii) cognitive ability, iii) frontal lobe brain volume, iv) ability to successfully quit smoking, v) neuroticism and vi) Alzheimer’s disease. These convergent results identify potential targets for drugs that might modify addictions and play roles in these other phenotypes. They add to evidence that individual differences in the quality and quantity of brain connections make pleiotropic contributions to individual differences in vulnerability to addictions and to related brain disorders and phenotypes. A “connectivity constellation” of brain phenotypes and disorders appears to receive substantial pathogenic contributions from individual differences in a constellation of genes whose variants provide individual differences in the specification of brain connectivities during development and in adulthood. Heritable brain differences that underlie addiction vulnerability thus lie squarely in the midst of the repertoire of heritable brain differences that underlie vulnerability to other common brain disorders and

  16. [Work: a potential addiction].

    PubMed

    Karila, L; Liot, K; Reynaud, M

    2010-02-01

    Although the term workaholism is widely used, there is very little consensus about its meaning. Since the seventies, workaholism has been described as a work addiction such as drug or alcohol addiction. Similarities with other addictions include craving, withdrawal, tolerance, progressive involvement, and denial. Although considerable attention has been devoted to the concept of workaholism in recent years, little empirical research has been undertaken to further the understanding of this phenomenon. The existence of different types of workaholism has been described. Questionnaires were developed to assess this concept. This heterogeneous disease has negative health, personal, family relationships and professional consequences. Many therapeutic interventions are possible for this unknown addictive trouble. The objective of this paper is to gain a better understanding and knowledge regarding the phenomenon of workaholism. Data obtained for this review are based on a Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Google Scholar search of English- and French-language articles published between 1968 and 2009. PMID:20344916

  17. Common single nucleotide variants underlying drug addiction: more than a decade of research.

    PubMed

    Bühler, Kora-Mareen; Giné, Elena; Echeverry-Alzate, Victor; Calleja-Conde, Javier; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodriguez; López-Moreno, Jose Antonio

    2015-09-01

    Drug-related phenotypes are common complex and highly heritable traits. In the last few years, candidate gene (CGAS) and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a huge number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with drug use, abuse or dependence, mainly related to alcohol or nicotine. Nevertheless, few of these associations have been replicated in independent studies. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the SNPs that have been most significantly associated with alcohol-, nicotine-, cannabis- and cocaine-related phenotypes in humans between the years of 2000 and 2012. To this end, we selected CGAS, GWAS, family-based association and case-only studies published in peer-reviewed international scientific journals (using the PubMed/MEDLINE and Addiction GWAS Resource databases) in which a significant association was reported. A total of 371 studies fit the search criteria. We then filtered SNPs with at least one replication study and performed meta-analysis of the significance of the associations. SNPs in the alcohol metabolizing genes, in the cholinergic gene cluster CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4, and in the DRD2 and ANNK1 genes, are, to date, the most replicated and significant gene variants associated with alcohol- and nicotine-related phenotypes. In the case of cannabis and cocaine, a far fewer number of studies and replications have been reported, indicating either a need for further investigation or that the genetics of cannabis/cocaine addiction are more elusive. This review brings a global state-of-the-art vision of the behavioral genetics of addiction and collaborates on formulation of new hypothesis to guide future work. PMID:25603899

  18. Drugs of abuse and addiction: A slippery slope toward liver injury.

    PubMed

    Roy, Dijendra Nath; Goswami, Ritobrata

    2016-08-01

    Substances of abuse induce alteration in neurobehavioral symptoms, which can lead to simultaneous exacerbation of liver injury. The biochemical changes of liver are significantly observed in the abused group of people using illicit drugs or drugs that are abused. A huge amount of work has been carried out by scientists for validation experiments using animal models to assess hepatotoxicity in cases of drugs of abuse. The risk of hepatotoxicity from these psychostimulants has been determined by different research groups. Hepatotoxicity of these drugs has been recently highlighted and isolated case reports always have been documented in relation to misuse of the drugs. These drugs induce liver toxicity on acute or chronic dose dependent process, which ultimately lead to liver damage, acute fatty infiltration, cholestatic jaundice, liver granulomas, hepatitis, liver cirrhosis etc. Considering the importance of drug-induced hepatotoxicity as a major cause of liver damage, this review emphasizes on various drugs of abuse and addiction which induce hepatotoxicity along with their mechanism of liver damage in clinical aspect as well as in vitro and in vivo approach. However, the mechanisms of drug-induced hepatotoxicity is dependent on reactive metabolite formation via metabolism, modification of covalent bonding between cellular components with drug and its metabolites, reactive oxygen species generation inside and outside of hepatocytes, activation of signal transduction pathways that alter cell death or survival mechanism, and cellular mitochondrial damage, which leads to alteration in ATP generation have been notified here. Moreover, how the cytokines are modulated by these drugs has been mentioned here. PMID:26409324

  19. [Cocaine addiction].

    PubMed

    Pitchot, W; Scantamburlo, G; Pinto, E; Karila, L

    2013-01-01

    Cocaine is the second most commonly used illicit drug after cannabis in the general population. Cocaine is a powerful stimulating agent of the central nervous system and a highly addictogenic drug. Somatic and psychiatric consequences of cocaine addiction are major and clinically relevant. The increasing consumption of cocaine and the importance of its consequences justify an update of our knowledge about cocaine addiction. PMID:23888579

  20. Adult Attachment, Social Adjustment, and Well-Being in Drug-Addicted Inpatients.

    PubMed

    Delvecchio, Elisa; Di Riso, Daniela; Lis, Adriana; Salcuni, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    In recent years, attachment studies have gathered overwhelming evidence for a relation between insecure attachment and drug addiction. The existing literature predominantly addresses attachment styles and little attention is given to attachment-pattern-oriented studies. The current study explored how attachment, social adjustment, and well-being interact in 40 (28 men, 12 women; ages 20-52 years, M = 32.3, SD = 9.4) inpatients with drug addiction. The Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP), the Social Adjustment Scale-Self-report (SAS-SR), and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) were administered. Descriptive statistics were computed as well as differences between patterns of attachment in all variables were measured. None of the inpatients showed a secure attachment pattern: 7 scored as dismissing (18%), 5 preoccupied (12%) and 28 unresolved (70%). AAP stories were mainly connected with themes of danger, lack of protection, and helplessness. Inpatients classified as unresolved reported significantly higher maladjustment on the SAS-SR and GHQ-28 than those with resolved attachment patterns. Implications for clinicians and researchers are presented. PMID:27154381

  1. "Not just eliminating the mosquito but draining the swamp": A critical geopolitics of Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction and Turkey's approach to illicit drugs.

    PubMed

    Evered, Kyle T; Evered, Emine Ö

    2016-07-01

    In the 1970s, Turkey ceased to be a significant producer state of illicit drugs, but it continued to serve as a key route for the trade of drugs between East and West. Over the past decade, however, authorities identified two concerns beyond its continued transit state status. These reported problems entail both new modes of production and a rising incidence of drug abuse within the nation-state - particularly among its youth. Amid these developments, new law enforcement institutions emerged and acquired European sponsorship, leading to the establishment of TUBİM (the Turkish Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction). Coordinating with and reporting to the European Union agency EMCDDA (the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction), TUBİM's primary assigned duties entail the collection and analysis of data on drug abuse, trafficking, and prevention, the geographic identification of sites of concern (e.g. consumption, drug-related crimes, and peoples undergoing treatment), and the production of annual national reports. In this article, we examine the geopolitical origins of TUBİM as Turkey's central apparatus for confronting drug problems and its role as a vehicle for policy development, interpretation, and enforcement. In doing so, we emphasize the political and spatial dimensions inherent to the country's institutional and policy-driven approaches to contend with drug-related problems, and we assess how this line of attack reveals particular ambiguities in mission when evaluated from scales at world regional, national, and local levels. In sum, we assess how Turkey's new institutional and legislative landscapes condition the state's engagements with drug use, matters of user's health, and policy implementation at local scales and amid ongoing political developments. PMID:27267659

  2. Does Addiction Run in Families?

    MedlinePlus

    ... runs in some families. Addiction runs in ours." Matt's family has a history of addiction. He realizes ... may be more likely to become addicted. Read Matt's story About the National Institute on Drug Abuse ( ...

  3. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 activation by addictive drugs: a signal toward pathological adaptation.

    PubMed

    Pascoli, Vincent; Cahill, Emma; Bellivier, Frank; Caboche, Jocelyne; Vanhoutte, Peter

    2014-12-15

    Addiction is a chronic and relapsing psychiatric disorder that is thought to occur in vulnerable individuals. Synaptic plasticity evoked by drugs of abuse in the so-called neuronal circuits of reward has been proposed to underlie behavioral adaptations that characterize addiction. By increasing dopamine in the striatum, addictive drugs alter the balance of dopamine and glutamate signals converging onto striatal medium-sized spiny neurons (MSNs) and activate intracellular events involved in long-term behavioral alterations. Our laboratory contributed to the identification of salient molecular changes induced by administration of addictive drugs to rodents. We pioneered the observation that a common feature of addictive drugs is to activate, by a double tyrosine/threonine phosphorylation, the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) in the striatum, which control a plethora of substrates, some of them being critically involved in cocaine-mediated molecular and behavioral adaptations. Herein, we review how the interplay between dopamine and glutamate signaling controls cocaine-induced ERK1/2 activation in MSNs. We emphasize the key role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor potentiation by D1 receptor to trigger ERK1/2 activation and its subsequent nuclear translocation where it modulates both epigenetic and genetic processes engaged by cocaine. We discuss how cocaine-induced long-term synaptic and structural plasticity of MSNs, as well as behavioral adaptations, are influenced by ERK1/2-controlled targets. We conclude that a better knowledge of molecular mechanisms underlying ERK1/2 activation by drugs of abuse and/or its role in long-term neuronal plasticity in the striatum may provide a new route for therapeutic treatment in addiction. PMID:24844603

  4. Resolution No. 43/121. Use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors, 8 December 1988.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    This document contains the text of a 1988 UN Resolution on the use of children in the illicit traffic in narcotic drugs and rehabilitation of drug-addicted minors. In this Resolution, the General Assembly recalls previous resolutions adopted to fight illicit drugs, expresses alarm at the fact that drug dealers are using children to further their illicit activities and at the increasing number of drug-addicted children, and refers to the Declaration of the Rights of the Child and the upcoming Convention on the Rights of the Child. Based on this, the UN condemns all forms of drug trafficking, especially those which involve children; urges states to establish programs to protect children from drugs; invites member states with the most urgent problems to adopt additional measures; calls for suitably severe punishment of drug-trafficking crimes that involve children; urges all organizations to place high priority on the prevention and treatment of drug addiction in children; asks international agencies and the UN Fund for Drug Abuse Control to give financial support to such programs; and asks the UN Department of Pubic Information of the Secretariat to publish information designed to prevent drug use in children. PMID:12289144

  5. Targeting extinction and reconsolidation mechanisms to combat the impact of drug cues on addiction

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jane R.; Olausson, Peter; Quinn, Jennifer J.; Torregrossa, Mary M.

    2009-01-01

    Drug addiction is a progressive and compulsive disorder, where recurrent craving and relapse to drug seeking occur even after long periods of abstinence. A major contributing factor to relapse is drug-associated cues. Here we review behavioral and pharmacological studies outlining novel methods of effective and persistent reductions in cue-induced relapse behavior in animal models. We focus on extinction and reconsolidation of cue-drug associations as the memory processes that are the most likely targets for interventions. Extinction involves the formation of new inhibitory memories rather than memory erasure; thus, it should be possible to facilitate the extinction of cue-drug memories to reduce relapse. We propose that context-dependency of extinction might be altered by mnemonic agents, thereby enhancing the efficacy of cue-exposure therapy as treatment strategy. In contrast, interfering with memory reconsolidation processes can disrupt the integrity or strength of specific cue-drug memories. Reconsolidation is argued to be a distinct process that occurs over a brief time period after memory is reactivated/retrieved -- when the memory becomes labile and vulnerable to disruption. Reconsolidation is thought to be an independent, perhaps opposing, process to extinction and disruption of reconsolidation has recently been shown to directly affect subsequent cue-drug memory retrieval in an animal model of relapse. We hypothesize that a combined approach aimed at both enhancing the consolidation of cue-drug extinction and interfering with the reconsolidation of cue-drug memories will have a greater potential for persistently inhibiting cue-induced relapse than either treatment alone. PMID:18708077

  6. Cellular basis of memory for addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2013-12-01

    DESPITE THE IMPORTANCE OF NUMEROUS PSYCHOSOCIAL FACTORS, AT ITS CORE, DRUG ADDICTION INVOLVES A BIOLOGICAL PROCESS: the ability of repeated exposure to a drug of abuse to induce changes in a vulnerable brain that drive the compulsive seeking and taking of drugs, and loss of control over drug use, that define a state of addiction. Here, we review the types of molecular and cellular adaptations that occur in specific brain regions to mediate addiction-associated behavioral abnormalities. These include alterations in gene expression achieved in part via epigenetic mechanisms, plasticity in the neurophysiological functioning of neurons and synapses, and associated plasticity in neuronal and synaptic morphology mediated in part by altered neurotrophic factor signaling. Each of these types of drug-induced modifications can be viewed as a form of "cellular or molecular memory." Moreover, it is striking that most addiction-related forms of plasticity are very similar to the types of plasticity that have been associated with more classic forms of "behavioral memory," perhaps reflecting the finite repertoire of adaptive mechanisms available to neurons when faced with environmental challenges. Finally, addiction-related molecular and cellular adaptations involve most of the same brain regions that mediate more classic forms of memory, consistent with the view that abnormal memories are important drivers of addiction syndromes. The goal of these studies which aim to explicate the molecular and cellular basis of drug addiction is to eventually develop biologically based diagnostic tests, as well as more effective treatments for addiction disorders. PMID:24459410

  7. Attitudes of Students Living in Dormitories of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences Towards the Causes of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mir Lotfi, Parvizreza; Javadimehr, Mani; Adrome, Mahdiye

    2015-01-01

    Background: Health-threatening behavior is one of the most challenges of social and mental health, that most countries are involved somehow in it, and as a result widespread and severe problems are imposed on communities. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the attitudes of students living in dormitories of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences towards causes of drug addiction. Patients and Methods: In this study, 100 students (60 boys and 40 girls) living in dormitories (Kooser and Misagi) of Zahedan University of Medical Sciences were selected using the simple random sampling method. Data were collected by oral interview and participants were asked demographic, geographic and economic oral questions about their attitude towards causes of drug addiction. The interview was conducted by psychology experts and respondents’ answers were recorded on tape recorder and then transcribed on papers, and finally the data were analyzed by SPSS (15). Results: Different percentages of participants expressed different views about the causes of drug addiction. Results showed that 75%, 65%, 55.5% 90%, 40% and 85%, of participants believed being away from their parents, curiosity, unconsidered friendships, smoking, using drug at home, and easy accessibility were as major contributing factors involved in drug addiction, respectively, and the same factors underlie the student's involvement in addiction. Conclusions: Many contributing factors of drug abuse obtained in this study can influence on tendency towards drug use for new students. It is evident that the period of residency in dormitories is one of the most critical periods in students' life. Thus, the concerned authorities take necessary measures to overcome the students’ mental and social problems. PMID:26405683

  8. Epigenetics and addiction.

    PubMed

    Cadet, J L; McCoy, M T; Jayanthi, S

    2016-05-01

    Addictions are public health menaces. However, despite advances in addiction research, the cellular or molecular mechanisms that cause transition from recreational use to addiction remain to be elucidated. We have recently suggested that addiction may be secondary to long-term epigenetic modifications that determine the clinical course of substance use disorders. A better understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in animal models that mimic human conditions should help to usher in a new area of drug development against addiction. PMID:26841306

  9. Neuronal circuitry underlying the impact of D3 receptor ligands in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Di Ciano, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Since the cloning of the D3 receptor in the early 1990s, there has been a great deal of interest in this receptor as a possible therapeutic target for drug addiction. The development of a D3 ligand suitable for use in humans has remained elusive, so the study of the function of the D3 receptor and its possible therapeutic efficacy has largely been restricted to animals. Pre-clinical studies have established that systemic administration of D3 ligands, particularly antagonists and partial agonists, can alter drug-seeking in animals. Despite over a decade of research, few studies have investigated the effects of intra-cerebral infusion of D3 ligands on drug-seeking. In the present review, these studies are summarized, which have largely focused on stimulus-controlled behaviors. Converging evidence from studies of D3 receptor expression, Fos and pharmacological Magnetic Resonance Imaging (phMRI) is also provided to delineate some of the D3 brain systems involved in drug-seeking and taking. The data so far indicate that different brain systems may be involved in different types of stimulus control as well as drug taking. PMID:25266821

  10. Maternal Cocaine Addiction: Correlates and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa Lawton

    This study investigated the effects of cocaine addiction on mothers' ability to care for their children. The population interviewed included 25 cocaine-addicted mothers in a drug treatment center and a comparison group of 25 mothers of children in a Head Start program. Each mother was questioned about: (1) her pregnancy with a specific child…

  11. Annotated Bibliography of Literature on Narcotic Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowden, R. Renee

    Nearly 150 abstracts have been included in this annotated bibliography; its purpose has been to scan the voluminous number of documents on the problem of drug addiction in order to summarize the present state of knowledge on narcotic addiction and on methods for its treatment and control. The literature reviewed has been divided into the following…

  12. [Can we treat sexual addiction ?].

    PubMed

    Inescu Cismaru, A; Andrianne, R; Triffaux, F; Triffaux, J-M

    2013-01-01

    Sexual addiction or sexual dependence is characterized by hypersexuality, impaired regulation of sexual desire and sexual compulsivity, including having sex with uncontrolled excessive frequency (5 to 15 sexual acts per day for more than 6 months, from 15 years old). Between 3% and 6% of the adult population (> or =18 years) would have the characteristics of sexual addiction, disorder prevalent in the male population. The addictive processes affect three behavioral domains : motivation-reward, affect regulation and behavioral inhibition. Sex addiction is usually accompanied by other addictions, such as abuse of drugs or alcohol or sex toys that enhance sexual performance. Psychiatric comorbidities can be found : anxiety disorders, mood disorders. Several forms of treatment have been tried, using medication, cognitive-behavioral therapy and psychotherapy sessions alternated with exposure therapy in virtual reality. In this article, we will discuss the multiple definitions of hypersexuality and the possibilities of therapeutic approaches. PMID:23888589

  13. Differences between the course of the drug addict's HIV infection and that of other HIV-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Gölz, J

    1993-11-01

    Drug addicts have, in general, a less complicated course of HIV infection than homosexual HIV patients. They show fewer opportunistic infections and tumors. But this advantage is lost by unnecessary complications due to their psychic disorders. Their non-compliance and concealment of signs of disease lead to worse outcomes of infections, which could be well-treated or prevented. PMID:8300042

  14. An Exploration of Quality of Life and Its Predictors in Patients with Addictive Disorders: Gambling, Alcohol and Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manning, Victoria; Gomez, Brenda; Guo, Song; Low, Yee Deng; Koh, Puay Kee; Wong, Kim Eng

    2012-01-01

    The study set out to examine Quality of Life (QoL), specifically subjective well being in three different addiction populations (260 alcohol-dependent, 282 drug-dependent, and 132 pathological gambling outpatients) at their first visit to treatment, using the Personal Well being Index (PWI). The mean PWI score for all patients was significantly…

  15. 78 FR 17744 - Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Social Security Ruling, SSR 13-2p; Titles II and XVI: Evaluating Cases Involving Drug Addiction... Federal Register on February 20, 2013. (78 FR 11939). On page 11940, in the first column, under...

  16. Neurochemistry of Drug Action: Insights from Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging And Their Relevance to Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Licata, Stephanie C.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2011-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a non-invasive imaging technique that permits measurement of particular compounds or metabolites within the tissue of interest. In the brain, 1H MRS provides a snapshot of the neurochemical environment within a defined volume of interest. A search of the literature demonstrates the widespread utility of this technique for characterizing tumors, tracking the progress of neurodegenerative disease, and for understanding the neurobiological basis of psychiatric disorders. As of relatively recently, 1H MRS has found its way into substance abuse research, and it is beginning to become recognized as a valuable complement in the brain imaging toolbox that also contains positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Drug abuse studies employing 1H MRS have identified a number biochemical changes in the brain. The most consistent alterations across drug class were reductions in N-acetylaspartate and elevations in myo-inositol, while changes in choline, creatine, and amino acid transmitters also were abundant. Together, the studies discussed herein provide evidence that drugs of abuse may have a profound impact on neuronal health, energy metabolism and maintenance, inflammatory processes, cell membrane turnover, and neurotransmission, and these biochemical changes may underlie the neuropathology within brain tissue that subsequently gives rise to the cognitive and behavioral impairments associated with drug addiction. PMID:20201852

  17. What have positron emission tomography and ‘Zippy’ told us about the neuropharmacology of drug addiction?

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Paul; Caprioli, Daniele; Dalley, Jeffrey W

    2011-01-01

    Translational molecular imaging with positron emission tomography (PET) and allied technologies offer unrivalled applications in the discovery of biomarkers and aetiological mechanisms relevant to human disease. Foremost among clinical PET findings during the past two decades of addiction research is the seminal discovery of reduced dopamine D2/3 receptor expression in the striatum of drug addicts, which could indicate a predisposing factor and/or compensatory reaction to the chronic abuse of stimulant drugs. In parallel, recent years have witnessed significant improvements in the performance of small animal tomographs (microPET) and a refinement of animal models of addiction based on clinically relevant diagnostic criteria. This review surveys the utility of PET in the elucidation of neuropharmacological mechanisms underlying drug addiction. It considers the consequences of chronic drug exposure on regional brain metabolism and neurotransmitter function and identifies those areas where further research is needed, especially concerning the implementation of PET tracers targeting neurotransmitter systems other than dopamine, which increasingly have been implicated in the pathophysiology of drug addiction. In addition, this review considers the causal effects of behavioural traits such as impulsivity and novelty/sensation-seeking on the emergence of compulsive drug-taking. Previous research indicates that spontaneously high-impulsive rats – as exemplified by ‘Zippy’– are pre-disposed to escalate intravenous cocaine self-administration, and subsequently to develop compulsive drug taking tendencies that endure despite concurrent adverse consequences of such behaviour, just as in human addiction. The discovery using microPET of pre-existing differences in dopamine D2/3 receptor expression in the striatum of high-impulsive rats suggests a neural endophenotype that may likewise pre-dispose to stimulant addiction in humans. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a

  18. Comparison of a drug versus money and drug versus drug self-administration choice procedure with oxycodone and morphine in opioid addicts

    PubMed Central

    Comer, Sandra D; Metz, Verena E; Cooper, Ziva D; Kowalczyk, William J; Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Manubay, Jeanne M; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Smith, Mary E; Peyser, Deena; Saccone, Phillip A

    2014-01-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated effects of oral morphine (0, 45, 135 mg/70kg) and oral oxycodone (0, 15, 45 mg/70kg) in buprenorphine-maintained opioid addicts. Since a 3:1 morphine:oxycodone dose ratio had yielded equivalent subjective and physiological effects in non-dependent individuals, this ratio was used in the present study. Two self-administration laboratory procedures, i.e. a drug vs. money and a drug vs. drug procedure, were assessed. Study participants (N=12) lived in the hospital and were maintained on 4 mg/day sublingual buprenorphine. When participants chose between drug and money, money was preferred over all drug doses; only high-dose oxycodone was self-administered more than placebo. When participants chose between drug and drug, both drugs were chosen more than placebo, high doses of each drug were chosen over low doses, and high-dose oxycodone was preferred over high-dose morphine. The subjective, performance-impairing, and miotic effects of high-dose oxycodone were generally greater compared to high-dose morphine. The study demonstrated that a 3:1 dose ratio of morphine:oxycodone was not equipotent in buprenorphine-dependent subjects. Both self-administration procedures were effective for assessing the relative reinforcing effects of drugs; preference for one procedure should be driven by the specific research question of interest. PMID:23839029

  19. Comparison of a drug versus money and drug versus drug self-administration choice procedure with oxycodone and morphine in opioid addicts.

    PubMed

    Comer, Sandra D; Metz, Verena E; Cooper, Ziva D; Kowalczyk, William J; Jones, Jermaine D; Sullivan, Maria A; Manubay, Jeanne M; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Smith, Mary E; Peyser, Deena; Saccone, Phillip A

    2013-09-01

    This double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the effects of oral morphine (0, 45, 135 mg/70 kg) and oral oxycodone (0, 15, 45 mg/70 kg) on buprenorphine-maintained opioid addicts. As a 3: 1 morphine : oxycodone oral dose ratio yielded equivalent subjective and physiological effects in nondependent individuals, this ratio was used in the present study. Two self-administration laboratory procedures - that is, a drug versus money and a drug versus drug procedure - were assessed. Study participants (N=12) lived in the hospital and were maintained on 4 mg/day sublingual buprenorphine. When participants chose between drug and money, money was preferred over all drug doses; only high-dose oxycodone was self-administered more than placebo. When participants chose between drug and drug, both drugs were chosen more than placebo, high doses of each drug were chosen over low doses, and high-dose oxycodone was preferred over high-dose morphine. The subjective, performance-impairing, and miotic effects of high-dose oxycodone were generally greater than those of high-dose morphine. The study demonstrated that a 3: 1 oral dose ratio of morphine : oxycodone was not equipotent in buprenorphine-dependent individuals. Both self-administration procedures were effective for assessing the relative reinforcing effects of drugs; preference for one procedure should be driven by the specific research question of interest. PMID:23839029

  20. Midkine and Pleiotrophin in the Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Alguacil, Luis F; Herradón, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) and Midkine (MK) are neurotrophines with documented protective actions in experimental models of neurodegenerative diseases and beneficial effects on toxicity and addictive behaviours related to drug abuse. Concerning the latter, both PTN and MK prevent the neurotoxic effects of amphetamine on nigrostriatal pathways and endogenous PTN also limits amphetamine reward. Moreover, endogenous PTN overexpression in the prefontral cortex abolishes alcohol- induced conditioned place preference. This review summarizes the existing patents for using PTN and MK in the treatment and diagnosis of neuropsychiatric disorders with a focus on neurotoxicity, neurodegeneration and substance use disorders. We have also reviewed the mechanism of action of PTN and MK and summarized existing patents on downstream modulators in their signaling pathways for the same indications. PMID:25808239

  1. Is there any relationship between drug addiction and the development of a signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach?

    PubMed

    de-Tomás, Jorge; Monturiol, José María

    2016-03-01

    We present three young patients diagnosed with signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach. All had in common the smoking rather than the injecting route of administration of drugs, such as heroin. In the smoking route, pieces of nickel scourer are mixed with the drug. This heavy metal has known carcinogenic effects. Chronic exposure of the gastric mucosa to nickel, from oropharynx, could be a risk factor for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma in heroin smoking addicts. PMID:26817508

  2. To hell and back: excessive drug use, addiction, and the process of recovery in mainstream rock autobiographies.

    PubMed

    Oksanen, Atte

    2012-01-01

    Rock autobiographies have become increasingly popular since the 1990s. This article analyzes 31 mainstream rock autobiographies describing a wide variety of legal and illegal substances used and reckless behavior. Narrative analysis shows that books concentrate on recovering from addiction. The majority of writers have participated in some kind of treatment. Rock autobiographies use therapeutic vocabulary and borrow discursive elements from culturally familiar Alcoholics Anonymous texts recounting recovery stories. The analysis shows that drugs and alcohol are not associated with rebellion and authenticity as they once were in rock music. Surviving addiction has become a key theme of rock culture. PMID:22217068

  3. Pharmacologically-induced stress: a cross-species probe for translational research in drug addiction and relapse

    PubMed Central

    See, Ronald E; Waters, R Parrish

    2011-01-01

    Stress plays a major role in the process of drug addiction and various stressors are known to increase measures of craving in drug dependent human laboratory subjects. Animal models of stress-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking have also been developed in order to determine the neuropharmacological and neurobiological features of stress-induced relapse. Here, we review experimental approaches that use various pharmacological agents to induce a stress response and subsequent craving or drug-seeking for drugs of abuse. The advantages of such an approach are that the exact same stressor can be used in different species, pharmacological stress activation works on identifiable pathways, and stress levels can be varied via dose dependent manipulations. To date, successful use of such probes in both humans and experimental animals have been achieved with noradrenergic compounds and corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). Other possible approaches, such as neuroactive peptides related to central stress responses (e.g., vasopressin and substance P) and inverse benzodiazepine agonists show some promise, and we discuss recent experiments using these compounds. Future development and application of pharmacological stressors across species will be useful in assessing stress-induced craving and relapse in both human drug addiction and animal models of relapse. Through this translational approach, novel treatment interventions for addiction may be designed and tested. PMID:21139808

  4. Stress Mediates the Relationship Between Past Drug Addiction and Current Risky Sexual Behaviour Among Low-income Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Z Helen; Tennen, Howard; Hosain, G M Monawar; Coman, Emil; Cullum, Jerry; Berenson, Abbey B

    2016-04-01

    This study examined the role of stress as a mediator of the relationship between prior drug addiction and current high-risk sexual behaviour. Eight hundred twenty women aged 18 to 30 years, who received care at community-based family planning clinics, were interviewed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Sexual Risk Behavior Assessment Schedule. They also completed the brief version of the Self-Control Scale as a measure of problem-solving strategies and measures of recent stressful events, daily hassles and ongoing chronic stress. Regardless of addiction history, stress exposure during the previous 12 months was associated with risky sexual behaviour during the previous 12 months. Structural equation modelling revealed that 12-month stress levels mediated the relationship between past drug addiction and 12-month high-risk sexual behaviours, as well as the negative relationship between problem-solving strategies and high-risk sexual behaviours. Problem-solving strategies did not moderate the relationship between drug addiction and high-risk sexual behaviours. These findings suggest that stress management training may help reduce risky behaviour among young, low-income women Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24985341

  5. Real-Life Stories about Addiction Struggles

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction Real-Life Stories About Addiction Struggles ... IMAGE TO PLAY THE VIDEO Read More "Preventing Drug Abuse and Addiction" Articles Scientific Research has Revolutionized our ...

  6. Targeting the ecology within: The role of the gut-brain axis and human microbiota in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Skosnik, Patrick D; Cortes-Briones, Jose A

    2016-08-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of the brain using traditional neuroscience, reliable and efficacious treatments for drug addiction have remained elusive. Hence, the time has come to utilize novel approaches, particularly those drawing upon contemporary advances in fields outside of established neuroscience and psychiatry. Put another way, the time has come for a paradigm shift in the addiction sciences. Apropos, a revolution in the area of human health is underway, which is occurring at the nexus between enteric microbiology and neuroscience. It has become increasingly clear that the human microbiota (the vast ecology of bacteria residing within the human organism), plays an important role in health and disease. This is not surprising, as it has been estimated that bacteria living in the human body (approximately 1kg of mass, roughly equivalent to that of the human brain) outnumber human cells 10 to 1. While advances in the understanding of the role of microbiota in other areas of human health have yielded intriguing results (e.g., Clostridium difficile, irritable bowel syndrome, autism, etc.), to date, no systematic programs of research have examined the role of microbiota in drug addiction. The current hypothesis, therefore, is that gut dysbiosis plays a key role in addictive disorders. In the context of this hypothesis, this paper provides a rationale for future research to target the "gut-brain axis" in addiction. A brief background of the gut-brain axis is provided, along with a series of hypothesis-driven ideas outlining potential treatments for addiction via manipulations of the "ecology within." PMID:27372861

  7. The Impact of the 5E Teaching Model on Changes in Neuroscience, Drug Addiction, and Research Methods Knowledge of Science Teachers Attending California's ARISE Professional Development Workshops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Rosa D.; Whent, Linda; Liets, Lauren; de la Torre, Adela; Gomez-Camacho, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This study examined how science teachers' knowledge of research methods, neuroscience and drug addiction changed through their participation in a 5-day summer science institute. The data for this study evolved from a four-year NIH funded science education project called Addiction Research and Investigation for Science Educators (ARISE). Findings…

  8. "Helpful People in Touch" Consumer Led Self Help Programs for People with Multiple Disorders, Mental Illness, Drug Addiction, and Alcoholism (MIDAA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciacca, Kathleen

    This paper describes the consumer program, "Helpful People in Touch," a self-help treatment program for people with the multiple disorders of mental illness, drug addiction, and/or alcoholism. First, the terms, "Mentally Ill Chemical Abusers and Addicted" (MICAA) and "Chemical Abusing Mentally Ill" (CAMI) are defined and differentiated, with…

  9. A Review of Computer-Based Interventions Used in the Assessment, Treatment, and Research of Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Christensen, Darren R.; Marsch, Lisa A.

    2011-01-01

    Computer-based interventions are cost-efficient methods that may result in greater access to drug addiction treatment. We review recent findings from our laboratory where computer-based interventions have produced outcomes that are comparable to therapist-delivered interventions. We also examine how computer-based interventions targeting substance abuse disorders relate to cognitive functioning. This review will suggest that not only are computer-based interventions cost-efficient and accessible but that they are also effective methods for the motivation, engagement, and treatment of drug-dependent individuals. Moreover, computer-based interventions are compatible with a recently proposed biological mechanism implicated as the basis for drug addiction. PMID:21190401

  10. Differential Gene Expression in the Nucleus Accumbens and Frontal Cortex of Lewis and Fischer 344 Rats Relevant to Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Higuera-Matas, A; Montoya, G. L; Coria, S.M; Miguéns, M; García-Lecumberri, C; Ambrosio, E

    2011-01-01

    Drug addiction results from the interplay between social and biological factors. Among these, genetic variables play a major role. The use of genetically related inbred rat strains that differ in their preference for drugs of abuse is one approach of great importance to explore genetic determinants. Lewis and Fischer 344 rats have been extensively studied and it has been shown that the Lewis strain is especially vulnerable to the addictive properties of several drugs when compared with the Fischer 344 strain. Here, we have used microarrays to analyze gene expression profiles in the frontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of Lewis and Fischer 344 rats. Our results show that only a very limited group of genes were differentially expressed in Lewis rats when compared with the Fischer 344 strain. The genes that were induced in the Lewis strain were related to oxygen transport, neurotransmitter processing and fatty acid metabolism. On the contrary genes that were repressed in Lewis rats were involved in physiological functions such as drug and proton transport, oligodendrocyte survival and lipid catabolism. These data might be useful for the identification of genes which could be potential markers of the vulnerability to the addictive properties of drugs of abuse. PMID:21886580

  11. The "ups and downs" of signaling cascades in addiction.

    PubMed

    Ron, Dorit; Jurd, Rachel

    2005-11-01

    Drug addiction is a chronic disease characterized by compulsive drug use despite the severe negative consequences associated with it. Repeated exposure to drugs of abuse results in molecular adaptations in neuronal signaling pathways, which eventually manifest in the complex behavioral alterations that characterize addiction. These include tolerance, sensitization, dependence, drug craving, and relapse. In this Review, we focus on recent studies highlighting signaling cascades initiated by cocaine, as a representative of a drug of abuse with a defined site of action, and alcohol, as a drug with an undefined primary site of action. Specifically, we describe recent studies that emphasize the role of protein-protein interactions, phosphorylation, and compartmentalization in the molecular mechanisms that result in the cellular and behavioral adaptations that underlie addiction. Signaling cascades that contribute to addiction, as well as those that protect or delay the development of addiction, are presented. PMID:16278489

  12. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice

    PubMed Central

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-01-01

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity, and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline) we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically-innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction. PMID:22458423

  13. A new proposal for drug conditioning with implications for drug addiction: the Pavlovian two-step from delay to trace conditioning.

    PubMed

    Carey, Robert J; Carrera, Marinette Pinheiro; Damianopoulos, Ernest N

    2014-12-15

    Pavlovian conditioning of drug effects is generally acknowledged to be a critical factor in the development and persistence of drug addiction. In drug conditioning the focus has essentially been on one type of Pavlovian conditioning, namely, delay conditioning in which the CS and drug UCS overlap and are temporally contiguous. Another type of Pavlovian conditioning is trace-conditioning in which the CS terminates before the onset of the UCS. While trace conditioning has been extensively studied in conditioning studies using a punctual CS and a non-drug UCS, trace conditioning has not been considered as having a role in drug conditioning. In several recent reports we have conducted experiments in which we first established a contextual drug CS using a delay conditioning protocol and subsequently used this same CS in a trace drug conditioning protocol with the same or different drug treatment and showed that the CS could be strongly modified by trace conditioning. These observations take on importance in that it has been well established that delay and trace conditioning are mediated by different CNS systems. Delay conditioning is mediated by cerebellar mechanisms, conforming to the general idea of Pavlovian conditioning as a reflexive type of learning whereas trace conditioning involves the hippocampus and frontal cortex brain structures more commonly associated with voluntary behavior. In this proposal we suggest that the emergence of potent drug associations that motivate drug-seeking behavior and addiction are initiated by delay conditioning and subsequently amplified and linked to higher brain functions by trace conditioning. PMID:25218870

  14. Program of the University Clinic of Toxicology, Skopje, Republic of Macedonia in Treatment of Drug Addiction (Buprenorfin Treatment Protocol)

    PubMed Central

    Simonovska, Natasa; Chibishev, Andon; Babulovska, Aleksandra; Pereska, Zanina; Jurukov, Irena; Glasnovic, Marija

    2011-01-01

    The program of our Clinic includes, not only treatment of acute intoxication with opioids and other drugs, but also comprehends clinical investigations and treatment of the somatic complications of this population. For the first time in our country our Clinic offers to this population the alternative way of treatment with Buprenorfin. The Clinic started with this protocol on August 1, 2009. During a period of two years, the treatment with Buprenorfine has been initiated in 353 patients, of which 211 regularly attend the medical check ups. This model is used according to the national clinical guidelines and procedures for the use of buprenorfine in the treatment of opioid dependence The dose of this medicament depends on the evolution of the withdrawal symptoms. We have used the objective and subjective opioid withdrawal scale for the observation of these symptoms (OOWS ; SOWS – Handelsman et al 1987). This protocol starts with a complete clinical investigations, (i.e. where all patients undergo the inclusion and exclusion criteria with a written consent). Afterwards, the patients are hospitalized and start with a Buprenorfin teratment. After period of 7-10 days hospitalization they come to our Clinic, like outpatients for a regular controls. We have precise evidence for every patient who comes for control (e.g. medical record with all biochemical and toxicological screenings). All patients are recommended a tight cooperation with psychiatrists who are specialized to treat the problematic drug addictions. PMID:23678303

  15. Role of environmental factors in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Badiani, Aldo; Spagnolo, Primavera A

    2013-01-01

    Decades of experimentation with a variety of pharmacological treatments have identified some effective therapies for heroin addiction but not for cocaine addiction. This may be due, at least in part, to our incomplete understanding of the factors involved in the differential vulnerability to these addictions, which are often considered mere variations of the same disorder. Indeed, the preference for one drug or another has been variously attributed to factors such as drug availability or price, to the addict's lifestyle, or even to chance. Yet, there is evidence of substance-specific influences on drug taking. Data from twin registries, for example, suggest that a sizeable portion of the variability in the susceptibility to drug abuse is due to environmental factors that are unique to opiates or to psychostimulants. Very little is known about the nature of these environmental influences. We report here original data, based on retrospective reports in human addicts, indicating that the setting of drug taking exerts a differential influence on heroin versus cocaine use. We also review additional clinical and pre-clinical data pointing to fundamental differences in the way in which the environment interacts with cocaine relative to heroin and other addictive drugs. These findings - as well as other evidence, including the lack of pharmacological treatments effective for both cocaine and heroin addiction - support the notion that much is to be gained by taking into account the substance-specific aspects of drug addiction. At a therapeutic level, for example, it appears reasonable to propose that cognitive-behavioral approaches should be tailored in a substance-specific manner in order to allow the addict to anticipate, and cope with, the risks associated to the various environmental settings of drug use. PMID:23574438

  16. Drug-induced regulatory overcompensation has motivational consequences: Implications for homeostatic and allostatic models of drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, Douglas S.; Woods, Stephen C.; Kaiyala, Karl J.

    2015-01-01

    Initial administration of 60% nitrous oxide (N2O) at 21°C ambient temperature (Ta) reduces core temperature (Tc) in rats, but tolerance develops to this hypothermic effect over several administrations. After additional N2O administrations, a hyperthermic overcompensation (sign-reversal) develops such that Tc exceeds control levels during N2O inhalation. This study investigated whether rats would employ behavioral thermoregulation to facilitate, or oppose, a previously acquired hyperthermic overcompensation during N2O administration. To establish a hyperthermic sign-reversal, male Long-Evans rats (N=12) received ten 3-h administrations of 60% N2O while housed in a gas-tight, live-in, “inactive” thermal gradient (~21°C). Following the tenth N2O exposure, the thermal gradient was activated (range of 10–37°C), and rats received both a control gas session and a 60% N2O test session in counterbalanced order. Mean Tc during N2O inhalation in the inactive gradient was reliably hypothermic during the first exposure but was reliably hyperthermic by the tenth exposure. When subsequently exposed to 60% N2O in the active gradient, rats selected a cooler Ta, which blunted the hyperthermic sign-reversal and lowered Tc throughout the remainder of the N2O exposure. Thus, autonomic heat production effectors mediating the hyperthermia were opposed by a behavioral effector that promoted increased heat loss via selection of a cooler ambient temperature. These data are compatible with an allostatic model of drug addiction that suggests that dysregulatory overcompensation in the drugged-state may motivate behaviors (e.g., drug taking) that oppose the overcompensation, thereby creating a vicious cycle of escalating drug consumption and recurring dysregulation. PMID:25938126

  17. In situ gelling hexagonal phases for sustained release of an anti-addiction drug.

    PubMed

    Phelps, Jessica; Bentley, M Vitória L B; Lopes, Luciana B

    2011-10-15

    In this study, fluid precursor formulations for subcutaneous injection and in situ formation of hexagonal phase gels upon water absorption were developed as a strategy to sustain the release of naltrexone, a drug used for treatment of drug addiction. Precursor formulations were obtained by combining BRIJ 97 with propylene glycol (PG, 5-70%, w/w). To study the phase behavior of these formulations, water was added at 10-90% (w/w), and the resulting systems were characterized by polarized light microscopy. Two precursor formulations containing BRIJ:PG at 95:5 (w/w, referred to as BRIJ-95) and at 80:20 (w/w, referred to as BRIJ-80) were chosen. Naltrexone was dissolved at 1% or suspended at 5% (w/w). Precursor formulations were transformed into hexagonal phases when water content exceeded 20%. Water uptake followed second-order kinetics, and after 2-4h all precursor formulations were transformed into hexagonal phases. Drug release was prolonged by the precursor formulations (compared to a drug solution in PBS), and followed pseudo-first order kinetics regardless of naltrexone concentration. The release from BRIJ-80 was significantly higher than that from BRIJ-95 after 48 h. The relative safety of the precursor formulations was assessed in cultured fibroblasts. Even though BRIJ-95 was more cytotoxic than BRIJ-80, both precursor formulations were significantly less cytotoxic than sodium lauryl sulfate (considered moderate-to-severe irritant) at the same concentration (up to 50 μg/mL). These results suggest the potential of BRIJ-based precursor formulations for sustained naltrexone release. PMID:21703826

  18. Sex differences in impulsive and compulsive behaviors: a focus on drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Fattore, Liana; Melis, Miriam

    2016-09-01

    Sex differences in inhibition and self-regulation at a behavioral level have been widely described. From an evolutionary point of view, the different selection pressures placed on male and female hominids led them to differ in their behavioral strategies that allowed our species to survive during natural selection processes. These differences reflect changes in neural and structural plasticity that might be the core of sex differences, and of the susceptibility towards one psychiatric condition rather than another. The goal of the present review is to summarize current evidence for such a dichotomy in impulsive and compulsive behavior with a focus on drug addiction. Sex-dependent differences in drug abuse and dependence will be examined in the context of pathophysiological regulation of impulse and motivation by neuromodulators (i.e. gonadal hormones) and neurotransmitters (i.e. dopamine). Advances in the understanding of the sex differences in the capability to control impulses and motivational states is key for the determination of efficacious biologically based intervention and prevention strategies for several neuropsychiatric disorders where loss of impulse control and compulsivity are the core symptoms. PMID:26935237

  19. What Does Addiction Mean To Me

    PubMed Central

    Hesse, Morten

    2006-01-01

    Addiction is compulsive need for and use of a habit-forming substance. It is accepted as a mental illness in the diagnostic nomenclature and results in substantial health, social and economic problems. In the diagnostic nomenclature, addiction was originally included in the personality disorders along with other behaviours considered deviant. But it is now considered a clinical syndrome. Addiction is multifactorially determined, with substantial genetic influence. The development of addictions is also influenced by environmental factors, and an interplay between the two. In the clinical context, addiction puts problem substance use on the agenda, and helps focus on the difficulties associated with drug use. But the concept of addiction is also used to distance the user from addicts, and in this way, may be counter-therapeutic. The addiction concept has also had a substantial influence on policy. The almost universal prohibition against drugs such as opiates, cocaine, cannabis and amphetamine has much support. But unfortunately, it has not been able to hinder the development of substance use problems. Optimism is fostered by the development of respectful ways of thinking about people with addictions, in particular, from advocates of motivational interviewing. PMID:22013336

  20. Relationship between Addiction Relapse and Self-Efficacy Rates in Injection Drug Users Referred to Maintenance Therapy Center of Sari, 1391

    PubMed Central

    Abdollahi, Zahra; Taghizadeh, Fatemeh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Bahramzad, Olia

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Self-efficacy is the belief that one has the ability to implement the behaviors needed to produce a desired effect. There has been growing interest in the role of self-efficacy as a predictor and/or mediator of treatment outcome in number of domains. In numerous studies of substance abuse treatment, self-efficacy has emerged as an important predictor of outcome, or as a mediator of treatment effects. In the event of a slip, highly self-efficacious persons are inclined to regard the slip as a temporary setback and to reinstate control, whereas those who have low self-efficacy are more likely to proceed to a full-blown relapse. This study was carried out to determine relationship between relapse and self-efficacy and other factors in injected drug users. Materials and Methods: We conducted this study in 200 addicts in the center of counseling behavioral disease in health center of sari city (methadone maintenance therapy center or MMTC). A cross-sectional study was carried out on all of these addicts. Results: The average age in addictions was38 and its range was 20-60.72%of them were married and the first drug used was opium. All of them had relapse at least one time. We found a relationship between relapse and self-efficacy as well as the relationship between self-efficacy with the age of the first of drug use, dose, and procrastination for treatment, marriage, employment and job was significant. Conclusion: This study found that there was a significant difference between relapse and self-efficacy as well as other related factors. It is important to include drug users and common society organizations representing them in every stage of the governmental policy and program development process to make them responsive to the needs of the community. PMID:24762356

  1. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-07-01

    Small-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840

  2. KCNN Genes that Encode Small-Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Influence Alcohol and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Padula, Audrey E; Griffin, William C; Lopez, Marcelo F; Nimitvilai, Sudarat; Cannady, Reginald; McGuier, Natalie S; Chesler, Elissa J; Miles, Michael F; Williams, Robert W; Randall, Patrick K; Woodward, John J; Becker, Howard C; Mulholland, Patrick J

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ (KCa2) channels control neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity, and have been implicated in substance abuse. However, it is unknown if genes that encode KCa2 channels (KCNN1-3) influence alcohol and drug addiction. In the present study, an integrative functional genomics approach shows that genetic datasets for alcohol, nicotine, and illicit drugs contain the family of KCNN genes. Alcohol preference and dependence QTLs contain KCNN2 and KCNN3, and Kcnn3 transcript levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of genetically diverse BXD strains of mice predicted voluntary alcohol consumption. Transcript levels of Kcnn3 in the NAc negatively correlated with alcohol intake levels in BXD strains, and alcohol dependence enhanced the strength of this association. Microinjections of the KCa2 channel inhibitor apamin into the NAc increased alcohol intake in control C57BL/6J mice, while spontaneous seizures developed in alcohol-dependent mice following apamin injection. Consistent with this finding, alcohol dependence enhanced the intrinsic excitability of medium spiny neurons in the NAc core and reduced the function and protein expression of KCa2 channels in the NAc. Altogether, these data implicate the family of KCNN genes in alcohol, nicotine, and drug addiction, and identify KCNN3 as a mediator of voluntary and excessive alcohol consumption. KCa2.3 channels represent a promising novel target in the pharmacogenetic treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. PMID:25662840

  3. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  4. Memory Systems and the Addicted Brain

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Jarid; Packard, Mark G.

    2016-01-01

    The view that anatomically distinct memory systems differentially contribute to the development of drug addiction and relapse has received extensive support. The present brief review revisits this hypothesis as it was originally proposed 20 years ago (1) and highlights several recent developments. Extensive research employing a variety of animal learning paradigms indicates that dissociable neural systems mediate distinct types of learning and memory. Each memory system potentially contributes unique components to the learned behavior supporting drug addiction and relapse. In particular, the shift from recreational drug use to compulsive drug abuse may reflect a neuroanatomical shift from cognitive control of behavior mediated by the hippocampus/dorsomedial striatum toward habitual control of behavior mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS). In addition, stress/anxiety may constitute a cofactor that facilitates DLS-dependent memory, and this may serve as a neurobehavioral mechanism underlying the increased drug use and relapse in humans following stressful life events. Evidence supporting the multiple systems view of drug addiction comes predominantly from studies of learning and memory that have employed as reinforcers addictive substances often considered within the context of drug addiction research, including cocaine, alcohol, and amphetamines. In addition, recent evidence suggests that the memory systems approach may also be helpful for understanding topical sources of addiction that reflect emerging health concerns, including marijuana use, high-fat diet, and video game playing. PMID:26941660

  5. Extraction and determination by liquid chromatography and spectrophotometry of naloxone in microparticles for drug-addiction treatment.

    PubMed

    Gil-Alegre, Maria Esther; Barone, Monica Lareo; Torres-Suárez, Ana Isabel

    2005-11-01

    This paper discusses the development and validation of two analytical methods for the assay of naloxone in microparticles, as used in the therapy of opioid drug addiction (weaning). A UV-Vis spectrophotometric method is proposed to study drug loading and drug release, due to its ease and simplicity of performance, while a high performance liquid chromatographic method is developed as a means of stability-indication. Both analytical procedures were validated according to the International Committee for Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. Although the ranges and wavelengths were different for the two analytical methods, they were both found to be specific, linear, precise, and accurate under the determined conditions. PMID:16318204

  6. Drugs and Addict Lifestyles. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Issues 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson, Patricia, Ed.; And Others

    This report is the seventh in a series intended to summarize the empirical research findings and major theoretical approaches relating to the issues of drug use and abuse. This volume reviews the research undertaken to describe the lifestyle histories of heroin users. These research findings are formulated and detailed to provide the reader with…

  7. The Addictive Dimensionality of Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Volkow, Nora D.; Wang, Gene-Jack; Tomasi, Dardo; Baler, Ruben D.

    2016-01-01

    Our brains are hardwired to respond and seek immediate rewards. Thus, it is not surprising that many people overeat, which in some can result in obesity, whereas others take drugs, which in some can result in addiction. Though food intake and body weight are under homeostatic regulation, when highly palatable food is available, the ability to resist the urge to eat hinges on self-control. There is no homeostatic regulator to check the intake of drugs (including alcohol); thus, regulation of drug consumption is mostly driven by self-control or unwanted effects (i.e., sedation for alcohol). Disruption in both the neurobiological processes that underlie sensitivity to reward and those that underlie inhibitory control can lead to compulsive food intake in some individuals and compulsive drug intake in others. There is increasing evidence that disruption of energy homeostasis can affect the reward circuitry and that overconsumption of rewarding food can lead to changes in the reward circuitry that result in compulsive food intake akin to the phenotype seen with addiction. Addiction research has produced new evidence that hints at significant commonalities between the neural substrates underlying the disease of addiction and at least some forms of obesity. This recognition has spurred a healthy debate to try and ascertain the extent to which these complex and dimensional disorders overlap and whether or not a deeper understanding of the crosstalk between the homeostatic and reward systems will usher in unique opportunities for prevention and treatment of both obesity and drug addiction. PMID:23374642

  8. Addiction and will

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud’s concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  9. Addiction and will.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Brian

    2013-01-01

    A hypothesis about the neurobiological bases of drive, drive reduction and will in addictive illness is presented. Drive reduction seems to require both SEEKING and gratification. Will is the everyday term for our experience of drives functioning within us. Addictive drugs take over the will by altering neurotransmission in the SEEKING system. As a result of this biological change, psychological defenses are arrayed that allow partial gratification and reduce anxiety about the consequences of drug use. Repeated partial gratification of the addictive drive creates a cathexis to the drug and the drug seller. It also keeps the addicted person in a permanent state of SEEKING. The cathexis to the drug and drug seller creates a difficult situation for psychoanalytic therapists. The actively addicted patient will have one set of feelings for the analyst, and a split off set of feelings for the drug dealer. Addictive neuroses, which feature a split transference, are contrasted with Freud's concept of transference and narcissistic neuroses. For treatment of an actively addicted patient, the treater must negotiate the split transference. By analyzing the denial system the relationship with the drug dealer ends and the hostility involved in addictive behavior enters the transference where it can be interpreted. Selling drugs that take over the will is a lucrative enterprise. The addictive drug industry, about the size of the oil and gas industry worldwide, produces many patients in need of treatment. The marketers of addictive drugs understand the psychology of inducing initial ingestion of the drugs, and of managing their addicted populations. The neuropsychoanalytic understanding of addiction might be used to create more effective public health interventions to combat this morbid and mortal illness. PMID:24062657

  10. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction.

    PubMed

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A; Harris, R Adron

    2015-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson's disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. PMID:26422988

  11. Behavioral and Genetic Evidence for GIRK Channels in the CNS: Role in Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Mayfield, Jody; Blednov, Yuri A.; Harris, R. Adron

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are widely expressed throughout the brain and mediate the inhibitory effects of many neurotransmitters. As a result, these channels are important for normal CNS function and have also been implicated in Down syndrome, Parkinson’s disease, psychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and drug addiction. Knockout mouse models have provided extensive insight into the significance of GIRK channels under these conditions. This review examines the behavioral and genetic evidence from animal models and genetic association studies in humans linking GIRK channels with CNS disorders. We further explore the possibility that subunit-selective modulators and other advanced research tools will be instrumental in establishing the role of individual GIRK subunits in drug addiction and other relevant CNS diseases and in potentially advancing treatment options for these disorders. PMID:26422988

  12. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early

    PubMed Central

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18–24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  13. Parental Substance Abuse As an Early Traumatic Event. Preliminary Findings on Neuropsychological and Personality Functioning in Young Drug Addicts Exposed to Drugs Early.

    PubMed

    Parolin, Micol; Simonelli, Alessandra; Mapelli, Daniela; Sacco, Marianna; Cristofalo, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Parental substance use is a major risk factor for child development, heightening the risk of drug problems in adolescence and young adulthood, and exposing offspring to several types of traumatic events. First, prenatal drug exposure can be considered a form of trauma itself, with subtle but long-lasting sequelae at the neuro-behavioral level. Second, parents' addiction often entails a childrearing environment characterized by poor parenting skills, disadvantaged contexts and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), leading to dysfunctional outcomes. Young adults born from/raised by parents with drug problems and diagnosed with a Substance Used Disorder (SUD) themselves might display a particularly severe condition in terms of cognitive deficits and impaired personality function. This preliminary study aims to investigate the role of early exposure to drugs as a traumatic event, capable of affecting the psychological status of young drug addicts. In particular, it intends to examine the neuropsychological functioning and personality profile of young adults with severe SUDs who were exposed to drugs early in their family context. The research involved three groups, each consisting of 15 young adults (aged 18-24): a group of inpatients diagnosed with SUDs and exposed to drugs early, a comparison group of non-exposed inpatients and a group of non-exposed youth without SUDs. A neuropsychological battery (Esame Neuropsicologico Breve-2), an assessment procedure for personality disorders (Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-200) and the Symptom CheckList-90-Revised were administered. According to present preliminary results, young drug addicts exposed to drugs during their developmental age were characterized by elevated rates of neuropsychological impairments, especially at the expense of attentive and executive functions (EF); personality disorders were also common but did not differentiate them from non-exposed youth with SUDs. Alternative multi-focused prevention and

  14. Enhanced midbrain response at 6-month follow-up in cocaine addiction, association with reduced drug-related choice: Midbrain in drug choice

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, Scott J.; Tomasi, Dardo; Woicik, Patricia A.; Maloney, Thomas; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Honorio, Jean; Telang, Frank; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wang, Ruiliang; Sinha, Rajita; Carise, Deni; Astone-Twerell, Janetta; Bolger, Joy; Volkow, Nora D.; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2012-03-28

    Drug addiction is characterized by dysregulated dopamine neurotransmission. Although dopamine functioning appears to partially recover with abstinence, the specific regions that recover and potential impact on drug seeking remain to be determined. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study an ecologically valid sample of 15 treatment-seeking cocaine addicted individuals at baseline and 6-month follow-up. At both study sessions, we collected fMRI scans during performance of a drug Stroop task, clinical self-report measures of addiction severity and behavioral measures of cocaine seeking (simulated cocaine choice); actual drug use in between the two study sessions was also monitored. At 6-month follow-up (compared with baseline), we predicted functional enhancement of dopaminergically innervated brain regions, relevant to the behavioral responsiveness toward salient stimuli. Consistent with predictions, whole-brain analyses revealed responses in the midbrain (encompassing the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra complex) and thalamus (encompassing the mediodorsal nucleus) that were higher (and more positively correlated) at follow-up than baseline. Increased midbrain activity from baseline to follow-up correlated with reduced simulated cocaine choice, indicating that heightened midbrain activations in this context may be marking lower approach motivation for cocaine. Normalization of midbrain function at follow-up was also suggested by exploratory comparisons with active cocaine users and healthy controls (who were assessed only at baseline). Enhanced self-control at follow-up was suggested by a trend for the commonly hypoactive dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to increase response during a drug-related context. Together, these results suggest that fMRI could be useful in sensitively tracking follow-up outcomes in drug addiction.

  15. Attitudes about Addiction: A National Study of Addiction Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadus, Angela D.; Hartje, Joyce A.; Roget, Nancy A.; Cahoon, Kristy L.; Clinkinbeard, Samantha S.

    2010-01-01

    The following study, funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA), utilized the "Addiction Belief Inventory" (ABI; Luke, Ribisl, Walton, & Davidson, 2002) to examine addiction attitudes in a national sample of U.S. college/university faculty teaching addiction-specific courses (n = 215). Results suggest that addiction educators view…

  16. Analysis of Gap in Service Quality in Drug Addiction Treatment Centers of Kerman, Iran, Using SERVQUAL Model

    PubMed Central

    Naqavi, Mohammad Reza; Refaiee, Raheleh; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of drug addicts is one of the main strategies of drug control in Iran. Client satisfaction strongly influences the success of any treatment program. This study aimed to explore the difference between customer expectations and perceptions in drug addiction treatment centers of Kerman, Iran, using SERVQUAL model. Methods Using a cross-sectional design 260 clients referring to drug addiction treatment centers of Kerman, were enrolled in 2012. From among 84 clinics, 20 centers were selected randomly. Based on the number of clients registered in each center, a random sample proportional to the size was selected and 290 subjects were invited for interviews. A well validated 22-item questionnaire, which measured the 5 dimensions of service quality (reliability, assurance, tangibility, empathy, and responsiveness), was completed by participants. Each item measured 2 aspects of service quality; expectations and perceptions. Findings Mean ± SD (Standard deviation) age of the subjects was 37.7 ± 9.4. Most of them were male (87.7%). Less than half of them had an educational level lower than diploma. The total score of clients` expectations was higher than their perceptions (P < 0.001). Considering the 5 dimensions of the SERVQUAL model, only 1 dimension (i.e., assurance) showed no difference between perceptions and expectations of the participants (P = 0.134). Conclusion There was a gap between the clients’ expectations and what they actually perceived in the clinics. Thus, more attention should be devoted to the clients’ views regarding service quality in addiction treatment clinics. PMID:25984274

  17. Drugs--Not Here!--Model of Group Intervention as Preventative Therapeutic Tool for Children of Drug Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta

    2002-01-01

    Describes a model of group intervention as one of the preventive therapeutic tools for children of addicts. This article deals with the characteristics of children of addicts, the group intervention model with reference to the group framework, and the work carried out with the group, as well as its evaluation. The evaluation indicated positive…

  18. 75 FR 54447 - National Alcohol and Drug Addiction Recovery Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-07

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-22426 Filed... addiction. Together, we can reduce the harmful consequences of untreated addiction, such as violence, failure in school, job loss, child abuse, crimes, and death. I encourage all Americans to visit...

  19. Evaluating Long-Term Outcomes of Treatments for Drug and Alcohol Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Arthur M. Ed.; McKay, James R. Ed.

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this special issue are reviews that focus on issues related to the evaluation of addiction treatment outcomes over longer term followup periods (2 years or more). The primary conclusion that can be drawn is that research evaluations of substance abuse treatment should reflect, to a greater degree, the chronic nature of addiction. (SLD)

  20. Delay discounting and the use of mindful attention versus distraction in the treatment of drug addiction: a conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Ashe, Melinda L; Newman, Michelle G; Wilson, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers have integrated measurements of delay discounting, how the subjective valuation of a reward changes as a function of time, into their study of addiction. Research has begun to explore the idea that delay discounting may serve as both a marker for the effectiveness of existing treatments for addiction and a potential target for novel intervention strategies. As this work is in its infancy, many potentially significant connections between the construct of delay discounting and the treatment of addiction have yet to be explored. Here, we present a conceptual review highlighting novel points of intersection between delay discounting and two approaches to treating addiction that have become increasingly popular in recent years: those that focus on the development of mindfulness skills and those that emphasize the use of distraction techniques. Viewing these two techniques through the lens of delay discounting is particularly intriguing because of the very different way that they address the experience of drug cravings in the present moment (nonjudgmentally attending to vs. shifting attention away from subjective cravings, respectively). We propose that these opposing strategies for dealing with cravings may interact with delay discounting in ways that have important implications for treatment effectiveness. PMID:25545725

  1. Delay Discounting and the use of Mindful Attention versus Distraction in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: A Conceptual Review

    PubMed Central

    Ashe, Melinda L.; Newman, Michelle G.; Wilson, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, researchers have integrated measurements of delay discounting, how the subjective valuation of a reward changes as a function of time, into their study of addiction. Research has begun to explore the idea that delay discounting may serve as both a marker for the effectiveness of existing treatments for addiction and a potential target for novel intervention strategies. As this work is in its infancy, many potentially significant connections between the construct of delay discounting and the treatment of addiction have yet to be explored. Here, we present a conceptual review highlighting novel points of intersection between delay discounting and two approaches to treating addiction that have become increasingly popular in recent years: those that focus on the development of mindfulness skills and those that emphasize the use of distraction techniques. Viewing these two techniques through the lens of delay discounting is particularly intriguing because of the very different way that they address the experience of drug cravings in the present moment (nonjudgmentally attending to versus shifting attention away from subjective cravings, respectively). We propose that these opposing strategies for dealing with cravings may interact with delay discounting in ways that have important implications for treatment effectiveness. PMID:25545725

  2. NIDA-Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS) Relapse as a Function of Spirituality/Religiosity

    PubMed Central

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J.; Blum, Kenneth; Braverman, Eric R.; Giordano, John; Thompson, Ben; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D.; Madigan, Margaret A.; Dushaj, Kristina; Li, Mona; Demotrovics, Zsolt; Waite, Roger L.; Gold, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The connection between religion/spirituality and deviance, like substance abuse, was first made by Durkheim who defined socially expected behaviors as norms. He explained that deviance is due in large part to their absence (called anomie), and concluded that spirituality lowers deviance by preserving norms and social bonds. Impairments in brain reward circuitry, as observed in Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS), may also result in deviance and as such we wondered if stronger belief in spirituality practice and religious belief could lower relapse from drugs of abuse. Methods The NIDA Drug Addiction Treatment Outcome Study data set was used to examine post hoc relapse rates among 2,947 clients who were interviewed at 12 months after intake broken down by five spirituality measures. Results Our main findings strongly indicate, that those with low spirituality have higher relapse rates and those with high spirituality have higher remission rates with crack use being the sole exception. We found significant differences in terms of cocaine, heroin, alcohol, and marijuana relapse as a function of strength of religious beliefs (x2 = 15.18, p = 0.028; logistic regression = 10.65, p = 0.006); frequency of attending religious services (x2 = 40.78, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 30.45, p < 0.0005); frequency of reading religious books (x2 = 27.190, p < 0.0005; logistic regression = 17.31, p < 0.0005); frequency of watching religious programs (x2 = 19.02, p = 0.002; logistic regression = ns); and frequency of meditation/prayer (x2 = 11.33, p = 0.045; logistic regression = 9.650, p = 0.002). Across the five measures of spirituality, the spiritual participants reported between 7% and 21% less alcohol, cocaine, heroin, and marijuana use than the non-spiritual subjects. However, the crack users who reported that religion was not important reported significantly less crack use than the spiritual participants. The strongest association between remission and spirituality

  3. Nutritional status of deceased illicit drug addicts in Stockholm, Sweden--a longitudinal medicolegal study.

    PubMed

    Rajs, Jovan; Petersson, Anna; Thiblin, Ingemar; Olsson-Mortlock, Caroline; Fredriksson, Ake; Eksborg, Staffan

    2004-03-01

    Autopsy investigations, toxicological analyses, and calculation of body mass index were performed in 1180 deceased illicit drug addicts (IDAs) in Stockholm. Sweden during 1988-2000, i.e., during a period of time when the general population in numerous countries showed a dramatic increase in the prevalence of overweight. Nutritional deficit in IDAs has been pointed out as a threat to their health as well as to their quality of life. The prevalence of overweight in deceased IDAs increased from 27.4% in 1988 to 45.5% in 2000. The prevalence of overweight among all heroin users, heroin injectors, methadone, cocaine, and amphetamine users was 36.0, 38.4, 43.1, 45.0 and 50.9%, respectively, the lowest prevalence being among users of cannabis alone and HIV-positive IDAs (22.0 and 16.1%, respectively). In conclusion, Stockholm's IDAs are affected by the past decade's dramatically increased prevalence of overweight, at least to the same degree as the general population. The increased body weight seems not to influence the danger of dying upon heroin administration. PMID:15027554

  4. Heroin-Addicted Parents and Their Children. Two Reports. Services Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colten, Mary Ellen; And Others

    Drug addicted and non-addicted parents show similar behaviors and attitudes toward their children; however, addicted women are more likely to feel inadequate in their role as mothers. The results of two studies comparing the relationships between drug addicted and non-drug addicted parents and children of addicts and non-addicts showed little…

  5. Behavioral addictions: an overview.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reef; Chaudhri, Priya

    2012-01-01

    The legitimacy of nonsubstance addictions has received increased attention from clinicians, researchers and the general population as more and more individuals report symptoms consistent with impairment of impulse control. The clinical presentation of these disorders is varied, as compulsive activities may include: gambling, eating, sex, shopping, use of the Internet or videogames or even exercising, working or falling in love. As such, there is great controversy in diagnosing, treating or even naming these conditions, as many of these behaviors are daily rituals instrumental to our ultimate survival. Historically, the phrase "impulse control disorders" described these conditions but many researchers and clinicians also use the term "behavioral addictions," "process addictions" or "impulsive-compulsive behaviors" to report behavioral pathology. This review summarizes the data of each of these behavioral addictions from epidemiology to neurobiology to treatment options. Research suggests similarities between natural and drug reward processing but clinical evidence supports the utilization of treatment modalities for these behavioral conditions that can sometimes differ from traditional drug treatment. PMID:22641961

  6. Natural addiction: a behavioral and circuit model based on sugar addiction in rats.

    PubMed

    Hoebel, Bartley G; Avena, Nicole M; Bocarsly, Miriam E; Rada, Pedro

    2009-03-01

    The distinction between natural addiction and drug addiction is interesting from many points of view, including scientific and medical perspectives. "Natural addictions" are those based on activation of a physiobehavioral system, such as the one that controls metabolism, foraging, and eating to achieve energy balance. "Drug addictions" activate many systems based on their pharmacology. This review discusses the following questions: (1) When does food produce a natural addiction? Sugar causes signs of addiction if the scheduling conditions are appropriate to cause binge eating. (2) Why does addictive-like behavior result? Bingeing on a 10% sucrose solution repeatedly releases dopamine in the nucleus accumbens, and it delays the release of acetylcholine, thereby postponing satiety. Opioid involvement is shown by withdrawal caused by naloxone or food deprivation. Bingeing, withdrawal, and abstinence-induced motivation are described as the basis for a vicious cycle leading to excessive eating. (3) Which foods can lead to natural addiction? A variety of sugars, saccharin, and sham feeding are compared with bingeing on high-fat diets, which seem to lack sugar's opioid-withdrawal characteristic. (4) How does natural food addiction relate to obesity? Low basal dopamine may be a common factor, leading to "eating for dopamine." (5) In a neural model, the accumbens is depicted as having separate GABA output pathways for approach and avoidance, both controlled by dopamine and acetylcholine. These outputs, in turn, control lateral hypothalamic glutamate release, which starts a meal, and GABA release, which stops it. PMID:21768998

  7. Controlled drugs.

    PubMed

    2016-05-18

    Essential facts Controlled drugs are defined and governed by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 and associated regulations. Examples of controlled drugs include morphine, pethidine and methadone. Since 2012, appropriately qualified nurses and midwives can prescribe controlled drugs for medical conditions within their competence. There are some exceptions when treating addiction. PMID:27191427

  8. Preparing Addiction Specialists to Include Case Management and Vocational Rehabilitation Services in the Treatment Model for Problem Gamblers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, Margaret K.; Diaz, Sebastian R.; Hawley, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    Professionals in the field of addictions view problems associated with recovery management across multiple domains. This exploratory study utilized concept mapping and pattern matching methodology to conceptualize the resulting 7 domains of concern for treatment and aftercare of problem and pathological gamblers. The information can be used by…

  9. Prescription Drugs: Abuse and Addiction. National Institute on Drug Abuse Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This publication answers questions about the consequences of abusing commonly prescribed medications including opioids, central nervous system depressants, and stimulants. In addition to offering information on what research says about how certain medications affect the brain and body, this publication also discusses treatment options. It examines…

  10. Addiction and Choice: Theory and New Data

    PubMed Central

    Heyman, Gene M.

    2013-01-01

    Addiction’s biological basis has been the focus of much research. The findings have persuaded experts and the public that drug use in addicts is compulsive. But the word “compulsive” identifies patterns of behavior, and all behavior has a biological basis, including voluntary actions. Thus, the question is not whether addiction has a biology, which it must, but whether it is sensible to say that addicts use drugs compulsively. The relevant research shows most of those who meet the American Psychiatric Association’s criteria for addiction quit using illegal drugs by about age 30, that they usually quit without professional help, and that the correlates of quitting include legal concerns, economic pressures, and the desire for respect, particularly from family members. That is, the correlates of quitting are the correlates of choice not compulsion. However, addiction is, by definition, a disorder, and thereby not beneficial in the long run. This is precisely the pattern of choices predicted by quantitative choice principles, such as the matching law, melioration, and hyperbolic discounting. Although the brain disease model of addiction is perceived by many as received knowledge it is not supported by research or logic. In contrast, well established, quantitative choice principles predict both the possibility and the details of addiction. PMID:23653607

  11. Anti-addiction vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiaoyun; Orson, Frank M.

    2011-01-01

    Despite intensive efforts to eradicate it, addiction to both legal and illicit drugs continues to be a major worldwide medical and social problem. Anti-addiction vaccines can produce the antibodies to block the effects of these drugs on the brain, and have great potential to ameliorate the morbidity and mortality associated with illicit drug intoxications. This review provides a current overview of anti-addiction vaccines that are under clinical trial and pre-clinical research evaluation. It also outlines the development challenges, ethical concerns, and likely future intervention for anti-addiction vaccines. PMID:22003367

  12. [Toxic phosphorous osteonecrosis of facial bones among drug addicts to desomorphine and pervitin. Part II].

    PubMed

    Basin, E M; Medvedev, Yu A

    2015-01-01

    Article describes literature review of "atypical" osteomyelitis--osteonecrosis of facial bones among addicts to synthetic narcotics desomorphine and pervitin, different comorbidities, treatment strategy and prognosis were outlined PMID:26331178

  13. Parenting quality in drug-addicted mothers in a therapeutic mother–child community: the contribution of attachment and personality assessment

    PubMed Central

    De Palo, Francesca; Capra, Nicoletta; Simonelli, Alessandra; Salcuni, Silvia; Di Riso, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    Growing evidence shows that attachment is a key risk factor for the diagnosis and treatment of clinical diseases in Axis I, such as drug addiction. Recent literature regarding attachment, psychiatric pathology, and drug addiction demonstrates that there is a clear prevalence of insecure attachment patterns in clinical and drug addicted subjects. Specifically, some authors emphasize that the anxious-insecure attachment pattern is prevalent among drug-addicted women with double diagnosis (Fonagy et al., 1996). The construct of attachment as a risk factor in clinical samples of drug-addicted mothers needs to be studied more in depth though. The present explorative study focused on the evaluation of parenting quality in a therapeutic mother–child community using attachment and personality assessment tools able to outline drug-addicted mothers’ profiles. This study involved 30 drug addicted mothers, inpatients of a therapeutic community (TC). Attachment representations were assessed via the Adult Attachment Interview; personality diagnosis and symptomatic profiles were performed using the Structured Clinical Interview of the DSM-IV (SCID-II) and the Symptom Check List-90-R (SCL-90-R), respectively. Both instruments were administered during the first six months of residence in a TC. Results confirmed the prevalence of insecure attachment representations (90%), with a high presence of U patterns, prevalently scored for dangerous and/or not protective experiences in infanthood. Very high values (>5) were found for some experience scales (i.e., neglect and rejection scales). Data also showed very low values (1–3) in metacognitive monitoring, coherence of transcript and coherence of mind scales. Patients’ different profiles (U vs. E vs. Ds) were linked to SCID-II diagnosis, providing insightful indications both for treatment planning and intervention on parenting functions and for deciding if to start foster care or adoption proceedings for children. PMID:25309481

  14. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that ... purpose, such as getting high Abusing some prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, ...

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was ... prescription drugs can lead to addiction. These include narcotic painkillers, sedatives, tranquilizers, and stimulants. Every medicine has ...

  16. A review of technology-assisted self-help and minimal contact therapies for drug and alcohol abuse and smoking addiction: is human contact necessary for therapeutic efficacy?

    PubMed

    Newman, Michelle G; Szkodny, Lauren E; Llera, Sandra J; Przeworski, Amy

    2011-02-01

    Technology-based self-help and minimal contact therapies have been proposed as effective and low-cost interventions for addictive disorders, such as nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse and addiction. The present article reviews the literature published before 2010 on computerized treatments for drug and alcohol abuse and dependence and smoking addiction. Treatment studies are examined by disorder as well as amount of therapist contact, ranging from self-administered therapy and predominantly self-help interventions to minimal contact therapy where the therapist is actively involved in treatment but to a lesser degree than traditional therapy and predominantly therapist-administered treatments involving regular contact with a therapist for a typical number of sessions. In the treatment of substance use and abuse it is concluded that self-administered and predominantly self-help computer-based cognitive and behavioral interventions are efficacious, but some therapist contact is important for greater and more sustained reductions in addictive behavior. PMID:21095051

  17. Caudate nucleus-dependent navigational strategies are associated with increased use of addictive drugs

    PubMed Central

    Bohbot, Veronique D; Balso, Daniel; Conrad, Kate; Konishi, Kyoko; Leyton, Marco

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between navigational strategies and the use of abused substances in a sample of healthy young adults. Navigational strategies were assessed with the 4-on-8 virtual maze (4/8VM), a task previously shown to dissociate between hippocampal-dependent spatial navigational strategies and caudate nucleus-dependent stimulus-response navigational strategies. Spatial strategies involve learning the spatial relationships between the landmarks in an environment, while response learning strategies involve learning a rigid set of stimulus-response type associations, e.g., see the tree, turn left. We have shown that spatial learners have increased gray matter and fMRI activity in the hippocampus compared with response learners, while response learners have increased gray matter and fMRI activity in the caudate nucleus. We were interested in the prevalence of use of substances of abuse in spatial and response learners because of the evidence that people who score high on traits such as novelty seeking, sensation seeking, reward seeking, and impulsivity, are more cue-responsive and more likely to use substances of abuse. Since response learners show increased activity and gray matter in the caudate nucleus of the striatum, which is a brain area involved in addiction, we hypothesized that response learners would have a greater use of abused substances than spatial learners. Fifty-five young adults were tested on the 4/8VM and completed a time-line follow-back assessment of drug and alcohol use. We found that response learners had smoked a significantly greater number of cigarettes in their lifetime than spatial learners, were more likely to have used cannabis, and had double the lifetime alcohol consumption. We discuss the possible relationship between substance abuse and response strategies as well as the implications for the hippocampus, risks of neurological and psychiatric disorders, and healthy cognition. © 2013 The Authors

  18. Fatal Attraction: The Selling of Addiction. Special Double Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Rosalind, Ed.; Thoman, Elizabeth, Ed.

    1991-01-01

    This issue of "Media & Values" provides essays and teaching ideas for addressing the influence of the media in society and the growing incidence of addiction. Articles in this issue include: (1) "Culture of Addiction" (Rosalind Silver); (2) "Crack and the Box" (Pete Hamill); (3) "When It Comes to Drugs, Beware the Censor's Fix" (David Musto); (4)…

  19. A community-based Inventory of Current Concerns of impoverished homeless and drug-addicted minority women.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, A M; Flaskerud, J

    1992-04-01

    The purpose of this series of studies was to refine and evaluate the psychometric properties of a measure of the concerns of impoverished minority women who were homeless and/or drug addicted. A comprehensive review of the literature and qualitative focus groups conducted with homeless and drug-addicted minority women were used to refine the inventory of Current Concerns (ICC) (Weisman, Worden, & Sobel, 1980). A 31-item revised Community-Based Inventory of Current Concerns (CICC) was critiqued by measurements and content experts, and content validity was established. The CICC was administered to 978 black and Hispanic women who were residents of drug recovery programs or were homeless and residing in shelters, single room occupancy hotels, or with family or friends. Principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation resulted in a five-factor solution explaining 53% of the variance. These factors were labeled Competency, Personal Instability/Despondency, Survival, Drug-Related, and Parenting Concerns. Alpha reliability coefficient was .90 for the total scale and .79 to .93 for the subscales. Construct validity was demonstrated by moderate correlations (r = .54) between the total CICC and the CES-D. The revised CICC can be used for clinical and research purposes to aid in assessing the concerns of minority impoverished women. PMID:1565805

  20. A Shared Molecular and Genetic Basis for Food and Drug Addiction: Overcoming Hypodopaminergic Trait/State by Incorporating Dopamine Agonistic Therapy in Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Gold, Mark S; Badgaiyan, Rajendra D; Blum, Kenneth

    2015-09-01

    This article focuses on the shared molecular and neurogenetics of food and drug addiction tied to the understanding of reward deficiency syndrome. Reward deficiency syndrome describes a hypodopaminergic trait/state that provides a rationale for commonality in approaches for treating long-term reduced dopamine function across the reward brain regions. The identification of the role of DNA polymorphic associations with reward circuitry has resulted in new understanding of all addictive behaviors. PMID:26300032