Science.gov

Sample records for adding ammonium hydroxide

  1. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 582.1139 Section 582.1139 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1139 Ammonium hydroxide. (a) Product. Ammonium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  5. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... water additive complying with § 173.310 of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium hydroxide. 184.1139 Section 184.1139...

  9. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  10. 40 CFR 721.4467 - Quaternary ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. 721... Substances § 721.4467 Quaternary ammonium hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a quaternary ammonium...

  11. Effects of salt and ammonium hydroxide on the quality of ground buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Sen, A R; Muthukumar, M; Babji, Y; Kondaiah, N

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and sodium chloride on the quality of ground buffalo meat patties. Ground buffalo meat was treated with distilled water (control), 0.5% v/w AH, 1.0% v/w AH, 2.0% v/w AH and 1.0% w/w sodium chloride was added for all the samples. Treatment with AH increased (P<0.05) the pH and water holding capacity (WHC) of ground buffalo meat patties during storage relative to their controls. Hunterlab a* (redness) and chroma values increased (P<0.05) and hue decreased (P<0.05) in all AH treated samples in comparison to controls during storage. Ammonium hydroxide significantly (P<0.05) inhibited metmyoglobin formation compared to control after 3rd day of storage. There was a significant (P<0.05) reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) values in all AH treated samples compared to control throughout storage. These results indicate the potential antioxidant and myoglobin redox stabilizing effect of AH in ground buffalo meat patties.

  12. Effect of ammonium hydroxide on ultrastructure and tenderness of buffalo meat.

    PubMed

    Naveena, B M; Kiran, M; Reddy, K Sudhakar; Ramakrishna, C; Vaithiyanathan, S; Devatkal, Suresh K

    2011-08-01

    This study was conducted with an objective to improve the tenderness of tough buffalo meat using ammonium hydroxide. Buffalo meat chunks from Biceps femoris muscle were marinated with distilled water (control), 0.1%, 0.5% and 1.0% solution of ammonium hydroxide for 48 h at 4±1 °C and subjected to various physico-chemical analysis and ultrastructural studies. Ammonium hydroxide increased (P<0.05) the pH, water holding capacity (WHC), collagen solubility, total and salt soluble protein extractability and cooking yield. Reduction (P<0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force values were observed in all ammonium hydroxide treated samples compared to non-treated control. Electrophoretic pattern of muscle proteins exhibited reduction in the intensity and number of certain protein bands for 0.1% and 0.5% ammonium hydroxide treated samples compared to control. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy also revealed breakdown of endothelium layers surrounding muscle fibers and weakening of Z-discs respectively, in treated samples compared to controls. These results suggest that ammonium hydroxide might be used to tenderize tough buffalo meat.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic). 721.10342 Section 721.10342 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic). 721.10342 Section 721.10342 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10342 - Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alkyl dialkyl hydroxide (generic). 721.10342 Section 721.10342 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10342 Quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl... chemical substance identified generically as quaternary ammonium compounds, fatty alkyl dialkyl...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated...

  17. Aqueous Ammonia or Ammonium Hydroxide? Identifying a Base as Strong or Weak

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.; Danner, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    When grocery stores sell solutions of ammonia, they are labeled "ammonia"; however, when the same solution is purchased from chemical supply stores, they are labeled "ammonium hydroxide". The goal of this experiment is for students to determine which name is more appropriate. In this experiment, students use several different experimental methods…

  18. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Hai; Pivovar, Bryan S.

    2014-11-01

    The stability of cations used in the alkaline exchange membranes has been a major challenge. In this paper, degradation energy barriers were investigated by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations. Findings show that electron-donating substituent groups at meta-position(s) of the benzyl ring could result in increased degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations, the largest improvement in degradation barrier found was only 6.7 kJ/mol. This suggests a modest (8×) improvement in stability for this type of approach may be possible, but for anything greater other approaches will need to be pursued.

  19. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... Substances § 721.6183 Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  2. Ab initio simulation of ammonia monohydrate (NH3ṡH2O) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.; Brodholt, J. P.; Wood, I. G.; Vočadlo, L.; Jenkins, H. D. B.

    2001-10-01

    We report the results of the first pseudopotential plane-wave simulations of the static properties of ammonia monohydrate phase I (AMH I) and ammonium hydroxide. Our calculated fourth-order logarithmic equation of state, at zero pressure and temperature, has molar volume, V0=36.38(3) cm3 mol-1, bulk modulus, K0=9.59(9) GPa, and the first derivative of the bulk modulus with respect to pressure, K0'=5.73(21). Both this and the lattice parameters are in very good agreement with experimental values. The monohydrate transforms, via a solid-state proton transfer reaction, to ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH) at 5.0(4) GPa. The equation of state of ammonium hydroxide is, V0=31.82(5) cm3 mol-1, K0=14.78(62) GPa, K0'=2.69(48). We calculate the reaction enthalpy, ΔH(NH4OH,s→NH3ṡH2O,s)=-14.8(5) kJ mol-1 at absolute zero, and thus estimate the enthalpy of formation, ΔfH⊖(NH4OH,s)=-356 kJ mol-1 at 298 K. This result places an upper limit of 84 kJ mol-1 on the barrier to rotation of the ammonium cation, and yields an average hydrogen bond enthalpy of ˜23 kJ mol-1.

  3. Synthesis of Cubic Alpha-Alumina Using a Blocking Reagent of Tetraethyl Ammonium Hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, No-Kuk; Lee, Tae Jin; Kang, Misook

    2015-02-01

    This study was an attempt to obtain a stable and reproducible cubic primary alumina by a hydrothermal method using various aluminum precursors, AIP, AlO(OH), and Al(OH)3. Tetraethyl ammonium hydroxide was introduced as a blocking reagent to control the shape of alumina. The synthesized primary alumina powders from Al precursors showed a boehmite structure after hydrothermal treatment at 200 °C for 1 h. The primary alumina powders synthesized using the precursors of AIP and AlO(OH) had irregular shapes, however the cubic-shape of approximately 300 nm was observed in the primary alumina powder synthesized using Al(OH)3 precursor. The cubic primary alumina samples were transformed to different solid phases like gamma-, delta-, theta-, and alpha-phases according to the calcined temperatures. The theta-phase alumina formed at 1100 °C continually kept the cubic shape, but the shape was collapsed at 1200 °C. However the cubic alpha-alumina alpha-alumina was stably remained by thermal treatment at 1100 °C under the fierce oxygen atmosphere. PMID:26353660

  4. An evaluation of liquid ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) as a candidate piscicide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, R.; Hedwall, Shaula J.

    2013-01-01

    Eradication of populations of nonnative aquatic species for the purpose of reintroducing native fish is often difficult because very few effective tools are available for removing aquatic organisms. This creates the need to evaluate new chemicals that could be used as management tools for native fish conservation. Ammonia is a natural product of fish metabolism and is naturally present in the environment at low levels, yet is known to be toxic to most aquatic species. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using liquid ammonia as a fisheries management tool by evaluating its effectiveness at killing undesirable aquatic species and its persistence in a pond environment. A suite of invasive aquatic species commonly found in the southwestern USA were introduced into two experimental outdoor ponds located at the Rocky Mountain Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. Each pond was treated with ammonium hydroxide (29%) at 38 ppm. This target concentration was chosen because previous studies using anhydrous ammonia reported incomplete fish kills in ponds at concentrations less than 30 ppm. Water quality was monitored for 49 d to determine how quickly the natural bacteria in the environment converted the ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia levels remained above 8 ppm for 24 and 18 d, respectively, in ponds 1 and 2. Nitrite levels in each pond began to rise approximately 14 d after dosing with ammonia and stayed above 5 ppm for an additional 21 d in pond 1 and 18 d in pond 2. After 49 d all water in both ponds was drained and no fish, crayfish, or tadpoles were found to have survived the treatment, but aquatic turtles remained alive and appeared unaffected. Liquid ammonia appears to be an effective tool for removing many problematic invasive aquatic species and may warrant further investigation as a piscicide.

  5. Removal of Aluminum from Leaching Solution of Lepidolite by Adding Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Kuang, Ge; Hu, Song; Guo, Hui; Jin, Ran; Vekariya, Rohit L.

    2016-08-01

    Lepidolite is a kind of low-grade lithium ore (3.5-4.0% Li2O) which contains more than 22% Al2O3 and 8% K2O. Removal and utilization of the Al and K will be very important for the economic extraction of lithium from this ore. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to remove Al from the leaching solution of lepidolite by adding ammonium from (NH4)2SO4. The results indicate that adding NH4 + could remove more aluminum and have a smaller loss of lithium in comparison to adding K+ for removing aluminum in the leaching solution. The Al removal reached up to 80.44% at (K+ + NH4 +)/Al3+ molar ratio of 0.95, while the amount of Li+ (99.84%) still remained in the leaching solution. In addition, the phase equilibrium in the quaternary K2SO4-Al2(SO4)3-(NH4)2SO4-H2O system at 278.2 K was investigated to support the above conclusion. The results verify that the addition of ammonium could remove more Al3+ by easily forming potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) and ammonium alum (NH4Al(SO4)2·12H2O).

  6. Removal of Aluminum from Leaching Solution of Lepidolite by Adding Ammonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huan; Kuang, Ge; Hu, Song; Guo, Hui; Jin, Ran; Vekariya, Rohit L.

    2016-10-01

    Lepidolite is a kind of low-grade lithium ore (3.5-4.0% Li2O) which contains more than 22% Al2O3 and 8% K2O. Removal and utilization of the Al and K will be very important for the economic extraction of lithium from this ore. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to remove Al from the leaching solution of lepidolite by adding ammonium from (NH4)2SO4. The results indicate that adding NH4 + could remove more aluminum and have a smaller loss of lithium in comparison to adding K+ for removing aluminum in the leaching solution. The Al removal reached up to 80.44% at (K+ + NH4 +)/Al3+ molar ratio of 0.95, while the amount of Li+ (99.84%) still remained in the leaching solution. In addition, the phase equilibrium in the quaternary K2SO4-Al2(SO4)3-(NH4)2SO4-H2O system at 278.2 K was investigated to support the above conclusion. The results verify that the addition of ammonium could remove more Al3+ by easily forming potassium alum (KAl(SO4)2·12H2O) and ammonium alum (NH4Al(SO4)2·12H2O).

  7. Retail display evaluation of steaks from select beef strip loins injected with a brine containing 1% ammonium hydroxide. Part 2: Cook yield, tenderness, and sensory attributes.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A N; VanOverbeke, D L; Goad, C L; Mireles DeWitt, C A

    2011-01-01

    The impact of 2 different brines on the palatability and tenderness of select beef strip loin steaks was evaluated. Brines were differentiated by the type of alkaline agent, 4.5% sodium-based phosphate (control brine; CON) or 1% ammonium hydroxide (ammonium hydroxide treatment; AHT), incorporated into the formula. Injected steaks were placed in high oxygen (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) MAP, stored 4 d at 4 °C in dark storage to simulate transportation, and then placed in retail display. Steaks were selected randomly on day 0, 7, and 14 retail display to measure pH, cook loss, shear force, and sensory characteristics. The pH for AHT steaks (pH 5.96) was slightly higher than CON steaks (pH 5.86; P < 0.05). Cook loss was lower (21%) for CON than AHT steaks (23%). There was neither a treatment nor day effect on tenderness as measured by Warner-Braztler shear force (P > 0.05). Sensory evaluation indicated that on day 0, retail display the initial juiciness, sustained juiciness, tenderness 1st impression, tenderness overall impression, and connective tissue in AHT steaks was not different from CON steaks (P > 0.05). A day effect (decrease) for those sensory parameters was observed only for sustained juiciness (P < 0.05). AHT steaks were rated higher in cooked beef flavor while CON steaks were higher in peppery and salty flavor. There was no difference in soapy and ammonia intensity between treatments. Results indicated that despite lower performance in cook loss the replacement of 4.5% sodium-based phosphate in a meat injection brine with 1% ammonium hydroxide produced a beef loin steak with comparable tenderness and palatability. Practical Application: The research in this study compares steaks that have been injected with a commercial brine formulated with sodium phosphates to steaks that have been injected with a brine where the sodium phosphate in the formulation was replaced with 1% ammonium hydroxide. Ammonium hydroxide is an USDA-FSIS approved ingredient in brines

  8. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anheier, N. C., Jr.; McDonald, C. E.; Cuta, J. M.; Cuta, F. M.; Olsen, K. B.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH4(+)). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  9. Ammonia and ammonium hydroxide sensors for ammonia/water absorption machines: Literature review and data compilation

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; McDonald, C.E.; Cuta, J.M.; Cuta, F.M.; Olsen, K.B.

    1995-05-01

    This report describes an evaluation of various sensing techniques for determining the ammonia concentration in the working fluid of ammonia/water absorption cycle systems. The purpose of this work was to determine if any existing sensor technology or instrumentation could provide an accurate, reliable, and cost-effective continuous measure of ammonia concentration in water. The resulting information will be used for design optimization and cycle control in an ammonia-absorption heat pump. PNL researchers evaluated each sensing technology against a set of general requirements characterizing the potential operating conditions within the absorption cycle. The criteria included the physical constraints for in situ operation, sensor characteristics, and sensor application. PNL performed an extensive literature search, which uncovered several promising sensing technologies that might be applicable to this problem. Sixty-two references were investigated, and 33 commercial vendors were identified as having ammonia sensors. The technologies for ammonia sensing are acoustic wave, refractive index, electrode, thermal, ion-selective field-effect transistor (ISFET), electrical conductivity, pH/colormetric, and optical absorption. Based on information acquired in the literature search, PNL recommends that follow-on activities focus on ISFET devices and a fiber optic evanescent sensor with a colormetric indicator. The ISFET and fiber optic evanescent sensor are inherently microminiature and capable of in situ measurements. Further, both techniques have been demonstrated selective to the ammonium ion (NH{sub 4}{sup +}). The primary issue remaining is how to make the sensors sufficiently corrosion-resistant to be useful in practice.

  10. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  11. Effect of cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide concentration on structure, morphology and carbon dioxide adsorption capacity of calcium hydroxide based sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hlaing, Nwe Ni; Vignesh, K.; Sreekantan, Srimala; Pung, Swee-Yong; Hinode, Hirofumi; Kurniawan, Winarto; Othman, Radzali; Thant, Aye Aye; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Salim, Chris

    2016-02-01

    Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been proposed as an important material for industrial, architectural, and environmental applications. In this study, calcium acetate was used as a precursor and cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) was used as a surfactant to synthesize Ca(OH)2 based adsorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. The effect of CTAB concentration (0.2-0.8 M) on the structure, morphology and CO2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)2 was studied in detail. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), BET surfaced area and thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA) techniques. The phase purity, crystallite size, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area and CO2 adsorption performance of Ca(OH)2 precursor adsorbents were significantly increased when the concentration of CTAB was increased. XRD results showed that pure Ca(OH)2 phase was obtained at the CTAB concentration of 0.8 M. TGA results exhibited that 0.8 M of CTAB-assisted Ca(OH)2 precursor adsorbent possessed a residual carbonation conversion of ∼56% after 10 cycles.

  12. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... breathing machine (ventilator) Blood and urine tests Bronchoscopy -- camera down the throat to see burns in the ... lungs Chest x-ray EKG (heart tracing) Endoscopy -- camera down the throat to see burns in the ...

  13. An electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometric study of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene complexation with ammonium hydroxide, and ammonium and sodium ions.

    PubMed

    Sassine, André; Martins-Júnior, Helio A; Lebre, Daniel T; Valli, Felipe; Pires, Maria A F; Vega, Oscar; Felinto, Maria C F C

    2008-01-01

    The formation of complexes involving p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with neutral and charged species has been investigated by tandem mass spectrometry combined with electrospray ionization. Complexes of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with NH4+ ions were observed in the ratios 1:1, 2:1, and 3:1, together with the complexes of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with NH4OH and Na+ ions in the ratios 1:1:1, 2:1:1, and 3:1:1. A single 1:1 complex of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with Na+ ions was observed. In addition, a doubly charged complex of p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene with NH4OH, Na+, and NH4+ ions in the ratio 6:1:1:1 was observed. The identity of each complex was determined by mass analysis of product ions formed by the application of a declustering potential over the range 20-220 V and by observation of product ion mass spectra wherein the collision energy was varied from 5 to 50 eV. Fragmentation of the complexes is characterized by the facile loss of the ammonia molecule, sodium and ammonium ions, loss of neutral p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene, and successive neutral losses of C4H8 from the six tert-butyl groups in each p-tert-butylcalix[6]arene molecule.

  14. Fate of added nitrate and ammonium-nitrogen entering a Louisiana gulf coast swamp forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, C.W.; De Laune, R.D.; Jones, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Added /sup 15/N labeled inorganic nitrogen was used to determine the significance of nitrification-denitrification in flooded swamp soil in removing nitrogen. Nitrogen-15 labeled (NH/sub 2/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and KNO/sub 3/ were added to replicated plots in a swamp forest receiving agricultural runoff. Nitrous oxide and N/sub 2/ fluxes were measured and maximum fluxes were estimated at 24g N/m/sup 2/ x yr and 110 g N/m/sup 2/ x yr, respectively. The capacity of the swamp forest to remove large quantities of nitrogen via nitrification-denitrification processes was demonstrated.

  15. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  16. Effect of added zinc on the properties of cobalt-containing ceramic pigments prepared from layered double hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Bernal, M.E.; Ruano-Casero, R.J.; Rives, V.

    2009-09-15

    Layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al, or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers and carbonate in the interlayer have been prepared by coprecipitation. The Zn/Co molar ratio was kept to 1 in all samples, while the divalent/trivalent molar ratio was varied from 2/1 to 1/2. The samples have been characterised by element chemical analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and thermogravimetric analysis, temperature-programmed reduction and FT-IR spectroscopy. A single hydrotalcite-like phase is formed for samples with molar ratio 2/1, which crystallinity decreases as the Al content is increased, developing small amounts of diaspore and dawsonite and probably an additional amorphous phase. Calcination at 1200 deg. C in air led to formation of spinels; a small amount of NaAlO{sub 2} was observed in the Al-rich samples, which was removed by washing. The nature of the spinels formed (containing Co{sup II}, Co{sup III}, Al{sup III} and Zn{sup II}) strongly depends on the cations molar ratio in the starting materials and the calcination treatment, leading to a partial oxidation of Co{sup II} species to Co{sup III} ones. Colour properties (L*a*b*) of the original and calcined solids have been measured. While the original samples show a pink colour (lighter for the series containing Zn), the calcined Co,Al samples show a dark blue colour and the Zn,Co,Al ones a green colour. Changes due to the different molar ratios within a given calcined series are less evident than between samples with the same composition in different series. These calcined materials could be usable as ceramic pigments. - Abstract: Mixed oxides from layered double hydroxides (LDHs) with the hydrotalcite-type structure containing Co and Al or Zn, Co and Al in the brucite-like layers are potential candidates for ceramic pigments with tunable colour properties. Display Omitted

  17. Aluminum Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  18. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  19. Ammonium as a sustainable proton shuttle in bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf; Law, Yingyu; Cheng, Ka Yu

    2011-10-01

    This work examines a pH control method using ammonium (NH(4)(+)) as a sustainable proton shuttle in a CEM-equipped BES. Current generation was sustained by adding NH(3) or ammonium hydroxide (NH(4)OH) to the anolyte, controlling its pH at 7. Ammonium ion migration maintained the catholyte pH at approximately 9.25. Such NH(4)(+)/NH(3) migration accounted for 90±10% of the ionic flux in the BES. Reintroducing the volatilized NH(3) from the cathode into the anolyte maintained a suitable anolyte pH for sustained microbial-driven current generation. Hence, NH(4)(+)/NH(3) acted as a proton shuttle that is not consumed in the process.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 184.1296 Section 184.1296... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1296 Ferric ammonium citrate. (a) Ferric ammonium citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1139 - Ammonium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by passing ammonia gas into water. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no... recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the following current...

  2. NICKEL HYDROXIDES

    SciTech Connect

    MCBREEN,J.

    1997-11-01

    Nickel hydroxides have been used as the active material in the positive electrodes of several alkaline batteries for over a century. These materials continue to attract a lot of attention because of the commercial importance of nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries. This review gives a brief overview of the structure of nickel hydroxide battery electrodes and a more detailed review of the solid state chemistry and electrochemistry of the electrode materials. Emphasis is on work done since 1989.

  3. Synthesis of high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries by morphology-tailored hydroxide co-precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dapeng; Belharouak, Ilias; Ortega, Luis H.; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xu, Rui; Zhou, Dehua; Zhou, Guangwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-01-01

    Nickel manganese hydroxide co-precipitation inside a continuous stirred tank reactor was studied with sodium hydroxide and ammonium hydroxide as the precipitation agents. The ammonium hydroxide concentration had an effect on the primary and secondary particle evolution. The two-step precipitation mechanism proposed earlier was experimentally confirmed. In cell tests, Li- and Mn-rich composite cathode materials based on the hydroxide precursors demonstrated good electrochemical performance in terms of cycle life over a wide range of lithium content.

  4. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid in the presence of ammonia. The complex chelates occur in brown...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... this chapter. (e) Prior sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this... is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets.../federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sanctions for this ingredient different from the uses established in this section do not exist or have been... neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food..._regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) The ingredient is used as a dough strengthener as defined in §...

  10. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  11. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  12. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater by chemical precipitation recycle technology.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang; Xiong, Xiang

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrogen removal from wastewater has been of considerable concern for several decades. In the present research, we examined chemical precipitation recycle technology (CPRT) for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The pyrolysate resulting from magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) pyrogenation in sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution was recycled for ammonium nitrogen removal from coking wastewater. The objective of this study was to investigate the conditions for MAP pyrogenation and to characterize of MAP pyrolysate for its feasibility in recycling. Furthermore, MAP pyrolysate was characterized by scanning electron microscope (FESEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) as well as X-ray diffraction (XRD). The MAP pyrolysate could be produced at the optimal condition of a hydroxyl (OH(-)) to ammonium molar ratio of 2:1, a heating temperature of 110 degrees C, and a heating time of 3h. Surface characterization analysis indicated that the main component of the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium sodium phosphate (MgNaPO(4)). The pyrolysate could be recycled as a magnesium and phosphate source at an optimum pH of 9.5. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal ratio gradually decreased if the pyrolysate was used without supplementation. When the recycle times were increased, the ammonium nitrogen removal efficiency was not decreased if the added pyrolysate was supplemented with MgCl(2).6H(2)O plus Na(2)HPO(4).12H(2)O during treatment. A high ammonium nitrogen removal ratio was obtained by using pre-formed MAP as seeding material.

  14. SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM HYDROXIDE FROM BISMUTH HYDROXIDE

    DOEpatents

    Watt, G.W.

    1958-08-19

    An tmproved method is described for separating plutonium hydroxide from bismuth hydroxide. The end product of the bismuth phosphate processes for the separation amd concentration of plutonium is a inixture of bismuth hydroxide amd plutonium hydroxide. It has been found that these compounds can be advantageously separated by treatment with a reducing agent having a potential sufficient to reduce bismuth hydroxide to metalltc bisinuth but not sufficient to reduce the plutonium present. The resulting mixture of metallic bismuth and plutonium hydroxide can then be separated by treatment with a material which will dissolve plutonium hydroxide but not metallic bismuth. Sodiunn stannite is mentioned as a preferred reducing agent, and dilute nitric acid may be used as the separatory solvent.

  15. Calcium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Hydrate - calcium; Lime milk; Slaked lime ... Calcium hydroxide ... These products contain calcium hydroxide: Cement Limewater Many industrial solvents and cleaners (hundreds to thousands of construction products, flooring strippers, brick cleaners, cement ...

  16. TREATMENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE SOLUTIONS

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, T.W.; MacHutchin, J.G.; Yaffe, L.

    1958-06-10

    The treatment of waste solutions obtained in the processing of neutron- irradiated uranium containing fission products and ammonium nitrate is described. The object of this process is to provide a method whereby the ammonium nitrate is destroyed and removed from the solution so as to permit subsequent concentration of the solution.. In accordance with the process the residual nitrate solutions are treated with an excess of alkyl acid anhydride, such as acetic anhydride. Preferably, the residual nitrate solution is added to an excess of the acetic anhydride at such a rate that external heat is not required. The result of this operation is that the ammonium nitrate and acetic anhydride react to form N/sub 2/ O and acetic acid.

  17. 21 CFR 184.1296 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... citrate (iron (III) ammonium citrate) is prepared by the reaction of ferric hydroxide with citric acid... 18.5 percent iron, approximately 9 percent ammonia, and 65 percent citric acid and occurs as reddish... composed of 14.5 to 16 percent iron, approximately 7.5 percent ammonia, and 75 percent citric acid...

  18. Struvite pyrolysate recycling combined with dry pyrolysis for ammonium removal from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yu, Rongtai; Geng, Jinju; Ren, Hongqiang; Wang, Yanru; Xu, Ke

    2013-03-01

    The dry pyrolysis of magnesium ammonium phosphate (MAP) with NaOH powder for ammonium release was investigated, as well as the utility of MAP pyrolysate recycling. The identities of the MAP pyrolysate and its derivatives were experimentally validated. The results showed that the pyrolysate was amorphous magnesium hydrogen phosphate (MgHPO4) and magnesium pyrophosphate (Mg2P2O7). The best molar ratio of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) powder to ammonium was 1:1, at 110°C for 3h. The optimum pH for pyrolysate recycling was 9.5. The ammonia removal ratio could be maintained above 80% with MAP pyrolysate recycling. Seed crystal inoculation increased the rate of MAP crystallization by 20.86%, as well as the MAP grain size (2.08nm with seeding versus 1.72nm without). MAP particle size with NaOH treatment decreased: d(0.5)=19.34μm versus d(0.5)=30.35μm for direct pyrolysis. The results demonstrated that crystal growth was controlled by adding NaOH during MAP pyrolysis. PMID:23395767

  19. Potassium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or touching potassium hydroxide or products that contain this chemical. This article is for information only. Do NOT use it to treat or manage an actual poison exposure. If ...

  20. PROCESS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF AMMONIUM URANIUM FLUORIDE

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, A.S.; Mooney, R.B.

    1953-08-25

    This patent relates to the preparation of ammonium uranium fluoride. The process comprises adding a water soluble fluoride to an aqueous solution of a uranous compound containing an ammonium salt, and isolating the resulting precipitate. This patent relates to the manufacture of uranium tetnafluoride from ammonium uranium fluoride, NH/sub 4/UF/sub 5/. Uranium tetrafluoride is prepared by heating the ammonium uranium fluoride to a temperature at which dissociation occurs with liberation of ammonium fluoride. Preferably the process is carried out under reduced pressure, or in a current of an inert gas.

  1. Sodium hydroxide catalyzed monodispersed high surface area silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Snehasis; Dixit, Chandra K.; Bist, Itti; Abdel Jalil, Karim; Suib, Steven L.; Rusling, James F.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding of the synthesis kinetics and our ability to modulate medium conditions allowed us to generate nanoparticles via an ultra-fast process. The synthesis medium is kept quite simple with tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and 50% ethanol and sodium hydroxide catalyst. Synthesis is performed under gentle conditions at 20 °C for 20 min Long synthesis time and catalyst-associated drawbacks are most crucial in silica nanoparticle synthesis. We have addressed both these bottlenecks by replacing the conventional Stober catalyst, ammonium hydroxide, with sodium hydroxide. We have reduced the overall synthesis time from 20 to 1/3 h, ∼60-fold decrease, and obtained highly monodispersed nanoparticles with 5-fold higher surface area than Stober particles. We have demonstrated that the developed NPs with ∼3-fold higher silane can be used as efficient probes for biosensor applications.

  2. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  3. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  4. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section... § 148.220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and... nitrate and containing a maximum of 0.4 percent total added combustible material or containing a...

  5. Hydroxide-catalyzed bonding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gwo, Dz-Hung (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A method of bonding substrates by hydroxide-catalyzed hydration/dehydration involves applying a bonding material to at least one surface to be bonded, and placing the at least one surface sufficiently close to another surface such that a bonding interface is formed between them. A bonding material of the invention comprises a source of hydroxide ions, and may optionally include a silicate component, a particulate filling material, and a property-modifying component. Bonding methods of the invention reliably and reproducibly provide bonds which are strong and precise, and which may be tailored according to a wide range of possible applications. Possible applications for bonding materials of the invention include: forming composite materials, coating substrates, forming laminate structures, assembly of precision optical components, and preparing objects of defined geometry and composition. Bonding materials and methods of preparing the same are also disclosed.

  6. Quaternized graphene oxide nanocomposites as fast hydroxide conductors.

    PubMed

    Zarrin, Hadis; Fu, Jing; Jiang, Gaopeng; Yoo, Skylar; Lenos, Jared; Fowler, Michael; Chen, Zhongwei

    2015-02-24

    Nanocomposites play a key role in performance improvements of hydroxide conductors employed in a wide range of alkaline-electrochemical systems such as fuel cells and metal-air batteries. Graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets are considered to be outstanding nanofillers for polymeric nanocomposites on account of their excellent physicochemical strength and electrochemical properties. In this work, a fast hydroxide conductor was developed on the basis of a chemically modified GO nanocomposite membrane. The high surface area of GO was functionalized with highly stable hydroxide-conductive groups using a dimethyloctadecyl [3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]ammonium chloride (DMAOP) precursor, named QAFGO, and then composed with porous polybenzimidazole PBI (pPBI) as a well-suited polymeric backbone. The nanocomposite exhibited outstanding hydroxide conductivity of 0.085 S cm(-1), high physicochemical strength, and electrochemical stability for 21 days. An alkaline fuel cell (AFC) setup was fabricated to determine the functionality of QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite in an alkaline-based system. The high AFC performance with peak power density of 86.68 mW cm(-2) demonstrated that QAFGO/pPBI nanocomposite membrane has promising potential to be employed as a reliable hydroxide conductor for electrochemical systems working in alkaline conditions. PMID:25644712

  7. Determination of low (137)Cs concentration in seawater using ammonium 12-molybdophosphate adsorption and chemical separation method.

    PubMed

    Park, J H; Chang, B U; Kim, Y J; Seo, J S; Choi, S W; Yun, J Y

    2008-12-01

    A new method has been developed for analyzing (137)Cs in a small volume of seawater. Ammonium 12-molybdophosphate (AMP) was used two times during pretreatment procedure. The first step was to adsorb (137)Cs in seawater samples into AMP in order to reduce sample volume, and the second was to remove (87)Rb, interference nuclide for beta counting. The AMP adsorbing (137)Cs was dissolved by sodium hydroxide solution, and then (137)Cs was finally formed to be cesium chloroplatinate precipitate by adding 10% hexachloroplatinic acid. The beta rays emitted from (137)Cs were measured with a low background gas-proportional alpha/beta counter. This method was applied to several seawater samples taken in the East Sea of Korea. Compared to the routinely used gamma-spectrometry method, this new AMP method was reliable and suitable for analyzing (137)Cs in deep seawater. PMID:18799246

  8. Nickel hydroxide electrode. 3: Thermogravimetric investigations of nickel (II) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennstedt, W.; Loeser, W.

    1982-01-01

    Water contained in Ni hydroxide influences its electrochemical reactivity. The water content of alpha and beta Ni hydroxides is different with respect to the amount and bond strength. Thermogravimetric experiments show that the water of the beta Ni hydroxides exceeding the stoichiometric composition is completely removed at 160 deg. The water contained in the interlayers of the beta hydroxide, however, is removed only at higher temperatures, together with the water originating from the decomposition of the hydroxide. These differences are attributed to the formation of II bonds within the interlayers and between interlayers and adjacent main layers. An attempt is made to explain the relations between water content and the oxidizability of the Ni hydroxides.

  9. 3-Quaternary ammonium 1-carba-1-dethiacephems.

    PubMed

    Cook, G K; McDonald, J H; Alborn, W; Boyd, D B; Eudaly, J A; Indelicato, J M; Johnson, R; Kasher, J S; Pasini, C E; Preston, D A

    1989-11-01

    A series of structurally unique 1-carba-1-dethiacephems is described. The structural stability of the 1-carba-1-dethiacephem nucleus was essential for the preparation of this series of 3-quaternary ammonium carbacephems. The known p-nitrobenzyl 7 beta-(phenoxyacetamido)- 3-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem- 4-carboxylate served as both a quaternization substrate as well as a precursor to derivatives such as allyl 7 beta-[[2-[allyloxy)carbonyl]amino-4- thiazoly] (methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-3-[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl] oxy]-1-carba-1-dethia-3-cephem-4-carboxylate. Quaternization of these enol triflates was accomplished either by dissolution in acetonitrile containing the base or by dissolution in the base, with or without warning to 50 degrees C. Bases nucleophilic enough to displace the triflate include a variety of substituted pyridines and N-methylimidazole. Deprotection then produced a very active series of 1-[7 beta-[(2-amino- 4-thiazolyl)(methoxyimino)acetyl]amino]-2-carboxy-8-oxo- 1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-en-3-yl] quaternary ammonium hydroxide inner salts. These compounds were extremely potent antibacterials against a broad range of Gram-positive and -negative bacteria including constitutive cephalosporinase producers, such as Enterobacter cloacae. The compounds exhibit similar hydrolysis kinetics and pharmacokinetics to the analogous cephalosporin-3'-quaternary ammonium salts.

  10. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M.; Coburn, Michael D.

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  11. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  12. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  13. Preparation and photoluminescence study of mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Changyu; Lian, Suoyuan; Liu, Yang; Liu, Shouxin; Kang, Zhenhui

    2010-02-15

    Mesoporous indium hydroxide nanorods were successfully synthesized by a mild one-step one-pot method. The obtained samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy with selected area electron diffraction, N{sub 2} adsorption, ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy showed that there were some pores in the samples, which were mainly composed of rod-like shapes with length of 300 nm and diameter of 90 nm. N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption measurements confirmed that the prepared powder was mesoporous with average pore diameter of 3.1 nm. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy analysis indicated that the band gap energy of the samples was 5.15 eV. Photoluminescence spectrum showed that there were two strong emissions under ultraviolet light irradiation. The growth mechanism of indium hydroxide nanorods and the role of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide were also discussed.

  14. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  15. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

    1996-04-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

  16. Root Environment Acidity as a Regulatory Factor in Ammonium Assimilation by the Bean Plant 1

    PubMed Central

    Barker, A. V.; Volk, R. J.; Jackson, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Previous experiments have revealed a much greater efficiency of ammonium utilization by bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) when the acidity of the ambient medium was maintained at near-neutral conditions with carbonates or hydroxides. The present investigation, in which 15N-labeled ammonium was used, permitted an assessment of the origin of nitrogen in tissue nitrogen pools with and without acidity control (CaCO3 treated and untreated, respectively) in the root environment. Control of acidity resulted in greater ammonium uptake and greater incorporation into the amino fraction, amide, and ethanol-insoluble nitrogen by the root tissue. These differences were clearly evident by the fifth day after ammonium nitrogen had been applied. Shoots of the untreated plants rapidly accumulated free ammonium and amino nitrogen. A substantial portion of both fractions came from pre-existing nitrogen in the plants, indicating significant protein degradation. No evidence was found for such degradation in the roots of the untreated plants or in either roots or shoots of CaCO3 treated plants. The data indicate that control of ambient acidity in the root environment during ammonium absorption enhanced the conversion of entering ammonium to organic nitrogen compounds in the root tissue thereby restricting movement of free ammonium to shoots. Consequently, the detrimental effects of high ammonium concentrations in the leaves were largely prevented. PMID:16656383

  17. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide..., including pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium hydroxide. 184.1631 Section 184.1631 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Potassium hydroxide (KOH, CAS Reg... pellets, flakes, sticks, lumps, and powders. Potassium hydroxide is obtained commercially from...

  1. [Transient UV absorption spectra of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan-Jun; Ping, Li; Yang, Li-Jun; Wang, Qi-Ming; Xue, Jun-Peng; Wu, Da-Cheng; Li, Rui-Xia

    2009-03-01

    UV absorption spectrum of artemisinin and transient absorption spectra of various concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide were measured by using an intensified spectroscopic detector ICCD. The exposure time of each spectrum was 0.1 ms. Results indicate that artemisinin has an obvious UV absorption band centered at 212.52 nm and can react with sodium hydroxide easily. All absorption spectra of different concentrations of artemisinin reacting with sodium hydroxide have the similar changes, but the moment at which the changes happened is different. After adding sodium hydroxide into artemisinin in ethanol solution, there was a new absorption band centered at 288 nm appearing firstly. As reaction went on, the intensity of another absorption band centered at 260 nm increased gradually. At the end of the reaction, a continuous absorption band from 200 to 350 nm with the peak at 245 nm formed finally. No other transient absorption spectral data are available on the reaction of artemisinin with sodium hydroxide currently. The new spectral information obtained in this experiment provides very important experimental basis for understanding the properties of artemisinin reacting with alkaline medium and is useful for correctly using of artemisinin as a potential anticancer drug.

  2. Liquid-phase catalytic oxidation of CO by ammonium persulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Golodov, V.A.; Abilov, M.T.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

    1984-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide in aqueous solutions is investigated. The abilities of ammonium persulfate, palladium hydroxide, and silver oxide to force the oxidation are discussed. The rates for these reactions are displayed graphically. The reaction rates as a function of the concentrations of the above-mentioned reactants are determined. An excess of persulfate is found to oxidize Pd(II) to Pd(IV), and this produces a reduction in the rate of CO oxidation. The oxidation of CO is preceeded in the reaction by the interaction of the persulfate with the metal catalyst.

  3. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  4. Growth Layers on Ammonium Dihydrogen Phosphate.

    PubMed

    Torgesen, J L; Jackson, R W

    1965-05-14

    Microscopic observations of growth layers and etch pits on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate crystals reveal screw dislocations on the {100} face generating elliptical spirals that change rapidly but reversibly to rectangular shape when chromium-ion impurity is added. The effects of the impurity on crystal habit are judged to be secondary to changes in the morphology of the growth layers. No sources of growth are observed on the {101} faces; the layers spread inward from the edges and at times are mutually annihilating so that, temporarily, no steps are observed. Similar behavior is recorded for the {1011} faces of NaNO(3).

  5. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1305-62-0) is also... meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 52, which is incorporated...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2, CAS Reg... lime. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p....

  10. PROCESS FOR SEPARATING PLUTONIUM BY REPEATED PRECIPITATION WITH AMPHOTERIC HYDROXIDE CARRIERS

    DOEpatents

    Faris, B.F.

    1960-04-01

    A multiple carrier precipitation method is described for separating and recovering plutonium from an aqueous solution. The hydroxide of an amphoteric metal is precipitated in an aqueous plutonium-containing solution. This precipitate, which carries plutonium, is then separated from the supernatant liquid and dissolved in an aqueous hydroxide solution, forming a second plutonium- containing solution. lons of an amphoteric metal which forms an insoluble hydroxide under the conditions existing in this second solution are added to the second solution. The precipitate which forms and which carries plutonium is separated from the supernatant liquid. Amphoteric metals which may be employed are aluminum, bibmuth, copper, cobalt, iron, lanthanum, nickel, and zirconium.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1205 - Calcium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide. 582.1205 Section 582.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1205 Calcium hydroxide. (a) Product. Calcium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.1631 - Potassium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium hydroxide. 582.1631 Section 582.1631 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1631 Potassium hydroxide. (a) Product. Potassium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium hydroxide. 582.1763 Section 582.1763 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Product. Sodium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  15. Analysis of barium hydroxide and calcium hydroxide slurry carbonation reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Patch, K.D.; Hart, R.P.; Schumacher, W.A.

    1980-05-01

    The removal of CO/sub 2/ from air was investigated by using a continuous-agitated-slurry carbonation reactor containing either barium hydroxide (Ba(OH)/sub 2/) or calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)/sub 2/). Such a process would be applied to scrub /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ from stack gases at nuclear-fuel reprocessing plants. Decontamination factors were characterized for reactor conditions which could alter hydrodynamic behavior. An attempt was made to characterize reactor performance with models assuming both plug flow and various degrees of backmixing in the gas phase. The Ba(OH)/sub 2/ slurry enabled increased conversion, but apparently the process was controlled under some conditions by phenomena differing from those observed for carbonation by Ca(OH)/sub 2/. Overall reaction mechanisms are postulated.

  16. Action of hydrochloric acid on aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide gels and magaldrate: 27Al NMR and pH-stat studies.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G E; Falzone, C J; Johnson, R; Lee, H K

    1985-10-01

    Neutralization of mixtures of aluminum hydroxide-magnesium hydroxide gels and of magaldrate by hydrochloric acid were studied by 27Al NMR under conditions of both equilibrium and kinetic control. Under conditions where equilibrium has been attained, an aluminum NMR signal is detectable for suspensions of the mixed gels and magaldrate only after enough acid has been added to exhaust the acid-neutralizing capacity of the magnesium hydroxide. Mixed gels seem to form several soluble aluminum-containing species as neutralization proceeds. Under the conditions of the modified Beekman neutralization procedure, in which the species concentrations reflect neutralization kinetics, mixed gels show a sharp burst of the hexaaquoaluminum cation as acid is added followed by a slow loss of that cation from solution and an accompanying slow rise in pH. Magaldrate shows a steady increase in the hexaaquoaluminum cation with added acid. Differences between magaldrate and mixed gels are also apparent in pH-stat titrations in which magaldrate displays a biphasic response, contrasting to the two burst phases with an intervening lag phase observed for mixed gels. The results of the 27Al NMR and pH-stat titrations are consistent with the hypotheses that magaldrate is a homogeneous substance with a hydrotalcite-like structure and that mixed gels consist of a magnesium hydroxide core surrounded by aluminum hydroxide.

  17. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  18. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  19. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  20. Hydroxide Degradation Pathways for Imidazolium Cations. A DFT Study

    SciTech Connect

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B.

    2014-05-15

    Imidazolium cations are promising candidates as covalently tetherable cations for application in anion exchange membranes. They have generated specific interest in alkaline membrane fuel cell applications where ammonium-based cations have been the most commonly applied but have been found to be susceptible to hydroxide attack. In the search for high stability cations, a detailed understanding of the degradation pathways and reaction barriers is required. In this work, we investigate imidazolium and benzimidazolium cations in the presence of hydroxide using density functional theory calculations for their potential in alkaline membrane fuel cells. Moreover, the dominant degradation pathway for these cations is predicted to be the nucleophilic addition–elimination pathway at the C-2 atom position on the imidazolium ring. Steric interferences, introduced by substitutions at the C-2, C-4, and C-5 atom positions, were investigated and found to have a significant, positive impact on calculated degradation energy barriers. Benzimidazolium cations, with their larger conjugated systems, are predicted to degrade much faster than their imidazolium counterparts. Our results provide important insight into designing stable cations for anion exchange membranes. Some of the molecules studied have significantly increased degradation energy barriers suggesting that they could possess significantly improved (several orders of magnitude) durability compared to traditional cations and potentially enable new applications.

  1. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined.

  2. Solubility of the Sodium and Ammonium Salts of Oxalic Acid in Water with Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Buttke, Lukas G; Schueller, Justin R; Pearson, Christian S; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-08-18

    The solubility of the sodium and ammonium salts of oxalic acid in water with ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray crystallography, and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium hydrogen oxalate were determined to be sodium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate under low ammonium sulfate conditions and ammonium hydrogen oxalate hemihydrate under high ammonium sulfate conditions. Crystals from aqueous mixtures of ammonium sulfate/sodium oxalate were determined to be ammonium oxalate monohydrate under moderate to high ammonium sulfate concentrations and sodium oxalate under low ammonium sulfate concentrations. It was also found that ammonium sulfate enhances the solubility of the sodium oxalate salts (salting in effect) and decreases the solubility of the ammonium oxalate salts (salting out effect). In addition, a partial phase diagram for the ammonium hydrogen oxalate/water system was determined. PMID:27482644

  3. Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Mother-Liquid Radiochemical Production - 13089

    SciTech Connect

    Zherebtsov, Alexander; Dvoeglazov, Konstantine; Volk, Vladimir; Zagumenov, Vladimir; Zverev, Dmitriy; Tinin, Vasiliy; Kozyrev, Anatoly; Shamin, Dladimir; Tvilenev, Konstantin

    2013-07-01

    The aim of the work is to develop a basic technology of decomposition of ammonium nitrate stock solutions produced in radiochemical enterprises engaged in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel and fabrication of fresh fuel. It was necessary to work out how to conduct a one-step thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate, select and test the catalysts for this process and to prepare proposals for recycling condensation. Necessary accessories were added to a laboratory equipment installation decomposition of ammonium nitrate. It is tested several types of reducing agents and two types of catalyst to neutralize the nitrogen oxides. It is conducted testing of modes of the process to produce condensation, suitable for use in the conversion of a new technological scheme of production. It is studied the structure of the catalysts before and after their use in a laboratory setting. It is tested the selected catalyst in the optimal range for 48 hours of continuous operation. (authors)

  4. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Zheng, Ping; Tang, Chong-jian; Jin, Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both processes were quite feasible in engineering with appropriate control. Successful full-scale practice in the Netherlands will accelerate application of the process in future. This review introduces the microbiology and more focuses on application of the ANAMMOX process. PMID:18500782

  5. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS Reg. No. 1309-42-8) occurs... magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p...: (1) The ingredient is used as a nutrient supplement as defined in § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control agent as defined in §...

  7. Molten Hydroxide Trapping Process for Radioiodine

    SciTech Connect

    Trowbridge, L.D.

    2003-01-28

    A molten hydroxide trapping process has been considered for removing radioiodine species from off-gas streams whereby iodine is reacted directly with molten hydroxides such as NaOH or KOH. The resulting product is the corresponding iodide, which can be separated by simple cooling of the molten mixture to grow the iodide primary phase once the mixture reaches 70-80 mol% in the iodide component. Thermodynamic analysis indicates that such a chemical process is highly favorable. Experimental testing of the trapping process using molecular iodine showed trapping of up to 96% of the volatile iodine. The trapping efficiency was dependent on operational parameters such as temperature and gas-melt contact efficiency, and higher efficiencies are expected as the process is further developed. While an iodide phase could be effectively isolated by slow cooling of a molten iodide-hydroxide mixture, the persistent appearance of hydroxide indicated that an appreciable solubility of hydroxide occurred in the iodide phase.

  8. Pretreatment of rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Kang, Kyeong Eop; Jeong, Gwi-Taek; Park, Don-Hee

    2012-06-01

    Pretreatment method for rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide was investigated for production of bioethanol and biobutanol. Various pretreatment parameters, including temperature, time, and sodium hydroxide concentration were optimized using a statistical method which is a central composite design of response surface methodology. In the case of sodium hydroxide pretreatment, optimal pretreatment conditions were found to be 7.9% sodium hydroxide concentration, 5.5 h of reaction time, and 68.4 °C of reaction temperature. The maximum glucose yield which can be recovered by enzymatic hydrolysis at the optimum conditions was 95.7% and the experimental result was 94.0 ± 4.8%. This experimental result was in agreement with the model prediction. An increase of surface area and pore size in pretreated rapeseed straw by sodium hydroxide pretreatment was observed by scanning electron microscope.

  9. Benzylic Ammonium Ylide Mediated Epoxidations

    PubMed Central

    Roiser, Lukas; Robiette, Raphaël; Waser, Mario

    2016-01-01

    A high yielding synthesis of stilbene oxides using ammonium ylides has been developed. It turned out that the amine leaving group plays a crucial role as trimethylamine gives higher yields than DABCO or quinuclidine. The amine group also influences the diastereoselectivity, and detailed DFT calculations to understand the key parameters of these reactions have been carried out. PMID:27766017

  10. Synthesis of the high temperature superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ by the hydroxide co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildermans, I.; Van Bael, M.; Knaepen, E.; Yperman, J.; Mullens, J.; Van Poucke, L. C.

    1997-02-01

    A new synthetic route is developed to prepare a hydroxide precursor for the superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ. In an inert atmosphere and at low temperature the yttrium, barium and copper hydroxides are co-precipitated by adding the metal perchlorates and sodium hydroxide together. The analysis of the precursor proved the absence of ClO 4- and Na + ions. The thermal treatment (12 h calcinating at 950°C, 36 h sintering at 950°C and 6 h annealing at 400°C) gives a superconductor YBa 2Cu 3O 7-δ with a transition temperature of 90.2 K.

  11. Synthesis of Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxide nanowires with controllable morphology in a water-in-oil microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Hongyu; Jiao Qingze; Zhao Yun; Huang Silu; Li Xuefei; Liu Hongbo; Zhou Mingji

    2010-02-15

    The Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxide nanowires were synthesized via a reverse microemulsion method by using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) /n-hexane/n-hexanol/water as Soft-Template. ZnSO{sub 4}, CoSO{sub 4}, Fe{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} and urea were used as raw materials. The influence of reaction temperature, time, urea concentration and Cn (molar ratio of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide to water) on the structure and morphology of Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxides was investigated. The samples were characterized using Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Infrared Absorption Spectrum (IR). The results indicate that higher temperature is beneficial to the formation of layered double hydroxides, but particles apart from nanowires could be produced if temperature is up to 120 deg. C. By varying the temperature, reaction time, urea concentration and Cn, we got the optimum conditions of synthesizing uniform Zn/Co/Fe-layered double hydroxide nanowires: 100 deg. C, more than 12 h, Cn: 30-33, urea concentration: 0.3 M.

  12. The Barium Hydroxide-Ammonium Thiocyanate Reaction: A Titrimetric Continuous Variations Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Arlo D.

    1979-01-01

    Presents an experiment for inorganic, organic, or physical chemistry students utilizing acid-base titrimetry to study the stoichiometric of a solid state reaction. Time involved ranges from one to three, three-hour lab periods. (Author/SA)

  13. Zinc oxide porous nano-cages fabricated by laser ablation of Zn in ammonium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuang; Chen, Ming; Liu, XiangDong

    2014-07-28

    We report the successful synthesis of ZnO porous nano-cages with controllable hollow spaces by simply using laser ablation of Zn target in liquid medium containing deionized water and ammonia (V(water):V(ammonia) = 7:1~5:1). In addition to the porous surface, the created interior space of the ZnO nano-cage substantially increases with the ammonia concentration. The related growth mechanism has been illustrated based on the ultra-rapid alkaline etching process. Moreover, numerous Zn(NH3)(4)(2+) clusters generated by the selective etching route readily penetrate into the ZnO porous structures and can be embedded in these unique nano-cages. It is envisaged that these composite ions/ ZnO porous nano-cages have significant implications for gas sensing and catalytic applications. The synthetic scheme used here should also be applicable to other semiconductors.

  14. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Mouser, Paula J; N'Guessan, A Lucie; Elifantz, Hila; Holmes, Dawn E; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2009-06-15

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders of magnitude (< 4 to 400 microM) across th study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels, whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical and physiological interactions at the field scale in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.

  15. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mouser, P.J.; N'Guessan, A.L.; Elifantz, H.; Holmes, D.E.; Williams, K.H.; Wilkins, M.J.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2009-04-01

    The impact of ammonium availability on microbial community structure and the physiological status and activity of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by as much as two orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 {micro}M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences suggested that ammonium influenced the composition of the microbial community prior to acetate addition with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species at the site with the highest ammonium, and Dechloromonas species dominating at sites with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added, and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to the concentration of acetate that was delivered to each location rather than the amount of ammonium available in the groundwater. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium importer gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during in situ uranium reduction, and that the abundance of amtB transcripts was inversely correlated to ammonium levels across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression by subsurface Geobacter species are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of Geobacter species in subsurface environments during bioremediation. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical/physiological interactions at the field scale, in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes.

  16. Influence of heterogeneous ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the expression of nitrogen fixation and ammonium transporter genes during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Mouser, Paula; N'guessan, Lucie A.; Elifantz, H.; Holmes, Dawn; Williams, Kenneth H.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-06-15

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by two orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 μM) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added, and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI)-reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species and. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical/physiological interactions at the field scale, in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.

  17. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in accordance with good manufacturing or feeding practice....

  3. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker... concentration of marker residues in the target tissue used to monitor for total drug residues in the...

  4. Evaluation of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material.

    PubMed

    Song, Rong; Zhong, Zhaohua; Lin, Lexun

    2016-04-01

    Chitosan quaternary ammonium salt displays good antioxidant and antibacterial characteristics and it shows appreciable solubility in water. When added to the traditional denture material to form a resin base, it could promote good oral health by improving the oral environment. In this study, chitosan quaternary ammonium salt was added to the denture material following two different methods. After three months of immersion in artificial saliva, the specimens were tested for tensile strength and were scanned by electron microscope. The murine fibroblast cytotoxicity and antibacterial properties were also tested. The result showed no significant differences in the tensile strength and in the proliferation of murine L929 fibroblast cells. The two structures of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified denture material had different degrees of corrosion resistance and antimicrobial properties. These results indicate that chitosan quaternary ammonium salt-modified resin denture base material has the potential to become a new generation oral denture composite material.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... from the filtrate on cooling. Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  11. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  12. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... residues of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance for maduramicin ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million in fat (target tissue). A tolerance refers to the... animals. (b) The safe concentrations for total maduramicin ammonium residues in uncooked edible...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 582.1135 Section 582.1135 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1135 Ammonium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium sulfate. 582.1143 Section 582.1143 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1143 Ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 582.1137 Section 582.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Product. Ammonium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.7133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 582.7133 Section 582.7133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Ammonium alginate. (a) Product. Ammonium alginate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  19. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  20. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, M.; Yoo, C. S.

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood -resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 17 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400 °C.

  1. Copper, silver, gold and zinc, cadmium, mercury oxides and hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    Dirkse, T.P.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a compilation of solubility data published up to 1984, including evaluations of the data. Data are presented on the following: copper (I) oxide; copper (II) oxide and hydroxide; silver (I) oxide; silver (II) oxide; gold (III) hydroxide; zinc oxide and hydroxide; cadmium oxide and hydroxide; and mercury (II) oxide.

  2. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 178, which is incorporated by reference. Copies are available from the... § 170.3(o)(20) of this chapter; a pH control agent as defined in § 170.3(o)(23) of this chapter; and...

  3. Thermal storage in ammonium alum/ammonium nitrate eutectic for solar space heating

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, D.Y.; Jotshi, C.K.; Klausner, J.F.; Hsieh, C.K.; Srinivasan, N.

    1995-10-01

    Ammonium alum and ammonium nitrate in the weight ratio of 1:1 forms a eutectic that melts at 53 C and crystallizes at 48 C. The latent heat of fusion of this eutectic was found to be 215 kJ/kg. Its enthalpy as measured by drop calorimetry was found to be 287 kJ/kg in the temperature range of 24--65 C, which is 1.67 times greater than water (172.2 kJ/kg) and 8.75 times greater than rock (32.8 kJ/kg). Upon several heating/cooling cycles, phase separation was observed. However, by adding 5% attapulgite clay to this eutectic mixture, phase separation was prevented. This eutectic was encapsulated in 0.0254m diameter HDPE hollow balls and subjected to about 1,100 heating/cooling cycles in the temperature range between 25 and 65 C. At the end of these cycles, the decrease in enthalpy was found to be 5%. A scale model of the heat storage unit was fabricated to investigate the heat transfer characteristics of this eutectic encapsulated in HDPE balls. The thermal extraction efficiency of the system was measured with the recirculation of hot air during charging and was found to be in the range of 85--98%.

  4. DIS in AdS

    SciTech Connect

    Albacete, Javier L.; Kovchegov, Yuri V.; Taliotis, Anastasios

    2009-03-23

    We calculate the total cross section for the scattering of a quark-anti-quark dipole on a large nucleus at high energy for a strongly coupled N = 4 super Yang-Mills theory using AdS/CFT correspondence. We model the nucleus by a metric of a shock wave in AdS{sub 5}. We then calculate the expectation value of the Wilson loop (the dipole) by finding the extrema of the Nambu-Goto action for an open string attached to the quark and antiquark lines of the loop in the background of an AdS{sub 5} shock wave. We find two physically meaningful extremal string configurations. For both solutions we obtain the forward scattering amplitude N for the quark dipole-nucleus scattering. We study the onset of unitarity with increasing center-of-mass energy and transverse size of the dipole: we observe that for both solutions the saturation scale Q{sub s} is independent of energy/Bjorken-x and depends on the atomic number of the nucleus as Q{sub s}{approx}A{sup 1/3}. Finally we observe that while one of the solutions we found corresponds to the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 2 found earlier in the literature, when extended to higher energy or larger dipole sizes it violates the black disk limit. The other solution we found respects the black disk limit and yields the pomeron intercept of {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5. We thus conjecture that the right pomeron intercept in gauge theories at strong coupling may be {alpha}{sub P} = 1.5.

  5. Magnesium hydroxide as the neutralizing agent for radioactive hydrochloric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, M.J.; Fife, K.W.

    1995-10-01

    The current technology at Los Alamos for removing actinides from acidic chloride waste streams is precipitation with approximately 10 M potassium hydroxide. Although successful, there are many inherent drawbacks to this precipitation technique which will be detailed in this paper. Magnesium hydroxide (K{sub sp} = 1.3 x 10{sup -11}) has limited solubility in water and as a result of the common ion effect, cannot generate a filtrate with a pH greater than 9. At a pH of 9, calcium (K{sub sp} = 5.5 x 10{sup -6}) will not coprecipitate as the hydroxide. This is an important factor since many acidic chloride feeds to hydroxide precipitation contain significant amounts of calcium. In addition, neutralization with Mg(OH){sub 2} produces a more filterable precipitate because neutralization occurs as the Mg(OH){sub 2} is dissolved by the acid rather than as a result of the much faster liquid/liquid reaction of KOH with the waste acid. This slower solid/liquid reaction allows time for crystal growth to occur and produces more easily filterable precipitates. On the other hand, neutralization of spent acid with strong KOH that yields numerous hydroxide ions in solution almost instantaneously forming a much larger volume of small crystallites that result in gelatinous, slow-filtering precipitates. Magnesium hydroxide also offers a safety advantage. Although mildly irritating, it is a weak base and safe and easy to handle. From a waste minimization perspective, Mg(OH){sub 2} offers many advantages. First, the magnesium hydroxide is added as a solid. This step eliminates the diluent water used in KOH neutralizations. Secondly, because the particle size of the precipitate is larger, more actinides are caught on the filter paper resulting in a smaller amount of actinide being transferred to the TA-50 Liquid Waste Treatment Facility. Third, the amount of solids that must be reprocessed is significantly smaller resulting in less waste generation from the downstream processes.

  6. Ammonium treatments to suppress toxic blooms of Prymnesium parvum in a subtropical lake of semi-arid climate: results from in situ mesocosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Grover, James P; Roelke, Daniel L; Brooks, Bryan W; Gable, George M; Neisch, Michael T; Hayden, Natanya J; Valenti, Theodore W; Prosser, Krista N; Umphres, George D; Hewitt, Natalie C

    2013-09-01

    Prymnesium parvum is a haptophyte alga that forms toxic, fish-killing blooms in a variety of brackish coastal and inland waters. Its abundance and toxicity are suppressed by ammonium additions in laboratory cultures and aquaculture ponds. In a cove of a large reservoir (Lake Granbury, Texas, USA) with recurring, seasonal blooms of P. parvum, ammonium additions were tested in mesocosm enclosures for their ability to suppress blooms and their effects on non-target planktonic organisms. One experiment occurred prior to the peak abundance of a P. parvum bloom in the cove, and one encompassed the peak abundance and decline of the bloom. During 21-day experiments, weekly doses raised ammonium concentrations by either 10 or 40 μM. The added ammonium accumulated in experimental mesocosms, with little uptake by biota or other losses. Effects of ammonium additions generally increased over the course of the experiments. The higher ammonium dose suppressed the abundance and toxicity of P. parvum. The biomass of non-haptophyte algae was stimulated by ammonium additions, while positive, negative and neutral effects on zooplankton taxa were observed. Low ammonium additions insufficient to control P. parvum exacerbated its harmful effects. Our results indicate a potential for mitigating blooms of P. parvum with sufficient additions of ammonium to coves of larger lakes. However, factors excluded from mesocosms, such as dilution of ammonium by water exchange and sediment ammonium uptake, could reduce the effectiveness of such additions, and they would entail a risk of eutrophication from the added nitrogen. PMID:23764578

  7. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. ); Stewart, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  8. Phase Diagram of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) has often been subjected to uses in improvised explosive devices, due to its wide availability as a fertilizer and its capability of becoming explosive with slight additions of organic and inorganic compounds. Yet, the origin of enhanced energetic properties of impure AN (or AN mixtures) is neither chemically unique nor well understood - resulting in rather catastrophic disasters in the past1 and thereby a significant burden on safety, in using ammonium nitrates even today. To remedy this situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN, in different chemical environments, at high pressure and temperature, using diamond anvil cells and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The present results confirm the recently proposed phase IV-to-IV' transition above 15 GPa2 and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 673 K. The present study has been supported by the U.S. DHS under Award Number 2008-ST-061-ED0001.

  9. Computer model of hydroponics nutrient solution pH control using ammonium.

    PubMed

    Pitts, M; Stutte, G

    1999-01-01

    A computer simulation of a hydroponics-based plant growth chamber using ammonium to control pH was constructed to determine the feasibility of such a system. In nitrate-based recirculating hydroponics systems, the pH will increase as plants release hydroxide ions into the nutrient solution to maintain plant charge balance. Ammonium is an attractive alternative to traditional pH controls in an ALSS, but requires careful monitoring and control to avoid overdosing the plants with ammonium. The primary advantage of using NH4+ for pH control is that it exploits the existing plant nutrient uptake charge balance mechanisms to maintain solution pH. The simulation models growth, nitrogen uptake, and pH of a l-m2 stand of wheat. Simulation results indicated that ammonium-based control of nutrient solution pH is feasible using a proportional integral controller. Use of a 1 mmol/L buffer (Ka = 1.6 x 10(-6)) in the nutrient solution is required.

  10. Part I. Layered Double Hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimotakis, Emmanuel Dimitrios

    A new general method for the preparation of well -ordered layered double hydroxides (LDHs), (Mg_ {rm 1-x}Al_{ rm x} (OH)_2) (X^{rm n-}) _{rm n/x}{cdot}yH _2O, interlayered by organic anions has been developed. It is based on the reaction of meixnerite, (Mg_3Al(OH)_8) (OH) cdot2H_2O, with the free acid form of the desired anion--using glycerol as a swelling agent--to yield single crystalline products that are not readily available by conventional synthetic methods. The (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) -adipate and -p-toluenesulfonate derivatives undergo facile ion exchange reactions with Keggin-type (XM_{12}O_ {40}) ^{rm n -} or lacunary (XM_{11 }O_{39}) ^{rm m-} polyoxometalates (POMs) to form well-ordered, microporous pillared derivatives with the highest N_2 BET surface areas reported to date, namely 107 and 155 m^2 /g, respectively. Meixnerite, (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) (OH) cdot2H _2O, has unexpectedly been found to undergo similar ion exchange reactions, in a topotactic way, with retention of the structure of the intercalated POMs. The meixnerite was conveniently prepared for the first time from calcination of (Mg_3Al(OH) _8) (CO_3) _{0.5}{cdot}2H _2O and aqueous hydrolysis of the resulting NaCl-type solid solution. Metal carbonyl clusters have also been examined for ion-exchange (i.e., { (Pt _3(CO)_6) _{rm n}}^ {2-}) in these LDH-precursors. This chemistry is compared with the surface chemistry of (Mg_3 Al(OH)_8) (X^ {rm n-}) _{ rm 1/n}{cdot}2H _2O (X = CO_3^{2 -} or OH^{-}). It has been shown that the surface hydrolysis reaction: CO _3^{2-} + H _2O longrightarrow HCO_3^{-} + OH ^-, causes reductive condensation reactions of neutral carbonyl clusters with the LDH. The reactions were as efficient as with Na metal in solution. In part II of this work, Li-fluorohectorite, has been pillared with titanium polyoxocations derived from the acidic hydrolysis of TiCl_4 or Ti(i-OC_3H_7) _4. Raman spectroscopy of the product indicates that the pillars have a structure analogous to TiO_2(B) phase

  11. Iodine Sequestration Using Delafossites and Layered Hydroxides

    SciTech Connect

    J.D. Pless; J.B. Chwirka; J.L. Krumhansl

    2006-03-28

    The objective of this document is to report on early success for sequestering {sup 129}I. Sorption coefficients (K{sub d}) for I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -} onto delafossites, spinels and layered metal hydroxides were measured in order to compare their applicability for sequestering {sup 129}I. The studies were performed using a dilute fluid composition representative of groundwater indigenous to the Yucca mountain area. Delafossites generally exhibited relatively poor sorption coefficients (< 10{sup 1.7} mL/g). In contrast, the composition of the layered hydroxides significantly affects their ability to sorb I. Cu/Al and Cu/Cr layered hydroxide samples exhibit K{sub d}'s greater than 10{sup 3} mL/g for both I{sup -} and IO{sub 3}{sup -}.

  12. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  13. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  14. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  15. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  16. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed...

  17. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  18. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-01

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO-AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N2, N2O, and H2O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV' transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  19. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  20. Deterioration of Parabens in Preserved Magnesium Hydroxide Oral Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamedani Morteza, Pirali; Mohamad Reza, Fazeli; Nasrin, Samadi; Ehsan, Nassireslami; Shams Ali, Rezazadeh; Amini, Mohsen

    In this study the chemical stability of methyl and propyl paraben in magnesium hydroxide suspension (pH about 10) was investigated using both real time (32 months incubation at 25±2°C with humidity of 60±5% RH) and also accelerated (3 months incubation at 40±2°C with humidity of 70±5% RH) methods. Preparation with no added preservative was used as control. Concentrations of methyl and propyl paraben decreased to levels lower than the reported MIC values after the first month and fifth months of real time study, respectively. Preservative effectiveness testing against the Pharmacopeal challanging microorganisms in both suspensions with or without parabens conformed the US Pharmacopeia requirements for oral antacids. It is concluded that alkaline pH of the suspension without parabens could preserve the product against Pharmacopeial challenging microorganisms and incorporation of parabens did not add any antimicrobial activity to the test product.

  1. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  2. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... Federal Bureau of Investigation FR Federal Register HMR Hazardous Materials Regulations HMT Hazardous... ``Secure Handling of Ammonium Nitrate Program'' on October 29, 2008. See 73 FR 64280. The ANPRM solicited... interacting with state and local governments regarding ammonium nitrate security. ] See 73 FR 64280,...

  3. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  4. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  5. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  6. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, ammonium formate, may be safely used in the... safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food, Drug,...

  7. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maduramicin ammonium. 558.340 Section 558.340 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles:...

  8. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs).

    PubMed

    McDonald, Tami R; Ward, John M

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  9. Evolution of Electrogenic Ammonium Transporters (AMTs)

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Tami R.; Ward, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The ammonium transporter gene family consists of three main clades, AMT, MEP, and Rh. The evolutionary history of the AMT/MEP/Rh gene family is characterized by multiple horizontal gene transfer events, gene family expansion and contraction, and gene loss; thus the gene tree for this family of transporters is unlike the organismal tree. The genomes of angiosperms contain genes for both electrogenic and electroneutral ammonium transporters, but it is not clear how far back in the land plant lineage electrogenic ammonium transporters occur. Here, we place Marchantia polymorpha ammonium transporters in the AMT/MEP/Rh phylogeny and we show that AMTs from the liverwort M. polymorpha are electrogenic. This information suggests that electrogenic ammonium transport evolved at least as early as the divergence of bryophytes in the land plant lineage. PMID:27066024

  10. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  11. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  12. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  13. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  14. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  15. The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate precipitated by ammonium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Guangchao; Sun, Zhaohui; Xian, Yong; Jing, Han; Chen, Haijun; Yin, Danfeng

    2016-05-01

    The nucleation kinetics of ammonium metavanadate (NH4VO3) was investigated under conditions of the simulated process for precipitation of NH4VO3 from the vanadium-containing solution. Induction periods for the nucleation of NH4VO3 were experimentally determined as a function of supersaturation at temperatures from 30 to 45 °C. Using the classical nucleation theory, the interfacial tension between NH4VO3 and supersaturated solution, the nucleation rate and critical radius of nucleus for the homogeneous nucleation of NH4VO3 were estimated. With temperature increasing, the calculated interfacial tension gradually decreased from 29.78 mJ/m2 at 30 °C to 23.66 mJ/m2 at 45 °C. The nucleation rate was found to proportionally increase but the critical radius of nucleus exponentially decreased, with increase in supersaturation ratio at a constant temperature. The activation energy for NH4VO3 nucleation was obtained from the relationship between temperature and induction period, ranging from 79.17 kJ/mol at S=25 to 115.50 kJ/mol at S=15. FT-IR and Raman spectrum indicated that the crystals obtained in the precipitation process were NH4VO3.

  16. Structural transformation of nickel hydroxide films during anodic oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Crocker, R.W.; Muller, R.H.

    1992-05-01

    The transformation of anodically formed nickel hydroxide/oxy-hydroxide electrodes has been investigated. A mechanism is proposed for the anodic oxidation reaction, in which the reaction interface between the reduced and oxidized phases of the electrode evolves in a nodular topography that leads to inefficient utilization of the active electrode material. In the proposed nodular transformation model for the anodic oxidation reaction, nickel hydroxide is oxidized to nickel oxy-hydroxide in the region near the metal substrate. Since the nickel oxy-hydroxide is considerably more conductive than the surrounding nickel hydroxide, as further oxidation occurs, nodular features grow rapidly to the film/electrolyte interface. Upon emerging at the electrolyte interface, the reaction boundary between the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases spreads laterally across the film/electrolyte interface, creating an overlayer of nickel oxy-hydroxide and trapping uncharged regions of nickel hydroxide within the film. The nickel oxy-hydroxide overlayer surface facilitates the oxygen evolution side reaction. Scanning tunneling microscopy of the electrode in its charged state revealed evidence of 80 {endash} 100 Angstrom nickel oxy-hydroxide nodules in the nickel hydroxide film. In situ spectroscopic ellipsometer measurements of films held at various constant potentials agree quantitatively with optical models appropriate to the nodular growth and subsequent overgrowth of the nickel oxy-hydroxide phase. A two-dimensional, numerical finite difference model was developed to simulate the current distribution along the phase boundary between the charged and uncharged material. The model was used to explore the effects of the physical parameters that govern the electrode behavior. The ratio of the conductivities of the nickel hydroxide and oxy-hydroxide phases was found to be the dominant parameter in the system.

  17. Recycling Lithium Carbonate/Lithium Hydroxide Waste

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, J.; Flowers, J.

    1983-01-01

    Hazardous waste disposal problem eliminated by regeneration. Li2CO3/ LiOH recycling process relies on low solubility of alkali carbonates in corresponding hydroxides. Li2CO3 precipitate calcined to LI2O, then rehydrated LiOH. Regeneration eliminates need to dispose caustic waste and uses less energy than simple calcination of entire waste mass.

  18. Study of nickel hydroxide electrodes. 2: Oxidation products of nickel (2) hydroxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bode, H.; Demelt, K.; White, J.

    1986-01-01

    Pure phases of some oxidized Ni oxides were prepared galvanimetrically with the Ni(2) hydroxide electrode of an alkaline battery. The crystallographic data of these phases, their chemical behavior, and conditions of transition were studied.

  19. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  20. 40 CFR 721.4095 - Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4095 Quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides. (a... generically as quaternary ammonium alkyltherpropyl trialkylamine halides (PMNs...

  1. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  2. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1010 - Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). 73.1010... GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1010 Alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide). (a) Identity. (1) The color additive alumina (dried aluminum hydroxide) is a white,...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10504 - Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Surface modified magnesium hydroxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10504 Surface modified magnesium hydroxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as surface modified magnesium hydroxide (PMN P-06-682) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. (a) Identification. A calcium hydroxide cavity liner is a device material intended to be applied to the interior of...

  11. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  12. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  14. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  15. 40 CFR 721.4600 - Recovered metal hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recovered metal hydroxide. 721.4600... Substances § 721.4600 Recovered metal hydroxide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a recovered metal hydroxide (PMN...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.2326 Section 73.2326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive chromium hydroxide green shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chromium hydroxide green. 73.1326 Section 73.1326... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  20. Ammonium and attachment of Rhodopirellula baltica.

    PubMed

    Frank, Carsten S; Langhammer, Philipp; Fuchs, Bernhard Maximilian; Harder, Jens

    2011-05-01

    A dimorphic life cycle has been described for the planctomycete Rhodopirellula baltica SH1(T), with juvenile motile, free-swimming cells and adult sessile, attached-living cells. However, attachment as a response to environmental factors was not investigated. We studied the response of R. baltica to nitrogen limitation. In batch cultures, ammonium limitation coincided with a dominance of free-swimming cells and a low number of aggregates. Flow cytometry revealed a quantitative shift with increasing ammonium availability, from single cells towards attached cells in large aggregates. During growth of R. baltica on glucose and ammonium in chemostats, an ammonium addition caused a macroscopic change of the growth behaviour, from homogeneous growth in the liquid phase to a biofilm on the borosilicate glass wall of the chemostat vessel. Thus, an ammonium limitation-a carbon to nitrogen supply ratio of 30:1-sustained free-living growth without aggregate formation. A sudden increase in ammonium supply induced sessile growth of R. baltica. These observations reveal a response of Rhodopirellula baltica cells to ammonium: they abandon the free-swimming life, attach to particles and form biofilms. PMID:21340506

  1. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ′} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  2. Understanding Arsenate Reaction Kinetics with Ferric Hydroxides

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, James; Chaudhary, Binod K.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding arsenic reactions with ferric hydroxides is important in understanding arsenic transport in the environment and in designing systems for removing arsenic from potable water. Many experimental studies have shown that the kinetics of arsenic adsorption on ferric hydroxides is biphasic, where a fraction of the arsenic adsorption occurs on a time scale of seconds while full equilibrium may require weeks to attain. This research employed density functional theory modeling in order to understand the mechanisms contributing to biphasic arsenic adsorption kinetics. The reaction energies and activation barriers for three modes of arsenate adsorption to ferric hydroxides were calculated. Gibbs free energies of reaction depended on the net charge of the complexes, which is a function of the system pH value. Physical adsorption of arsenate to ferric hydroxide proceeded with no activation barrier, with Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −21 to −58 kJ/mol. The highest Gibbs free energies of reaction for physical adsorption resulted from negative charge assisted hydrogen bonding between H atoms on the ferric hydroxide and O atoms in arsenate. The conversion of physically adsorbed arsenate into monodentate surface complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 62 to 73 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −23 to −38 kJ/mol. The conversion of monodentate surface complexes to bidentate, binuclear complexes had Gibbs free energies of activation ranging from 79 to 112 kJ/mol, and Gibbs free energies of reaction ranging from −11 to −55 kJ/mol. For release of arsenate from uncharged bidentate complexes, energies of activation as high as 167 kJ/mol were encountered. Increasingly negative charges on the complexes lowered the activation barriers for desorption of arsenate, and in complexes with −2 charges, the highest activation barrier was 65 kJ/mol. This study shows that the slow kinetics associated with arsenic

  3. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  4. Electrochemically and bioelectrochemically induced ammonium recovery.

    PubMed

    Gildemyn, Sylvia; Luther, Amanda K; Andersen, Stephen J; Desloover, Joachim; Rabaey, Korneel

    2015-01-22

    Streams such as urine and manure can contain high levels of ammonium, which could be recovered for reuse in agriculture or chemistry. The extraction of ammonium from an ammonium-rich stream is demonstrated using an electrochemical and a bioelectrochemical system. Both systems are controlled by a potentiostat to either fix the current (for the electrochemical cell) or fix the potential of the working electrode (for the bioelectrochemical cell). In the bioelectrochemical cell, electroactive bacteria catalyze the anodic reaction, whereas in the electrochemical cell the potentiostat applies a higher voltage to produce a current. The current and consequent restoration of the charge balance across the cell allow the transport of cations, such as ammonium, across a cation exchange membrane from the anolyte to the catholyte. The high pH of the catholyte leads to formation of ammonia, which can be stripped from the medium and captured in an acid solution, thus enabling the recovery of a valuable nutrient. The flux of ammonium across the membrane is characterized at different anolyte ammonium concentrations and currents for both the abiotic and biotic reactor systems. Both systems are compared based on current and removal efficiencies for ammonium, as well as the energy input required to drive ammonium transfer across the cation exchange membrane. Finally, a comparative analysis considering key aspects such as reliability, electrode cost, and rate is made. This video article and protocol provide the necessary information to conduct electrochemical and bioelectrochemical ammonia recovery experiments. The reactor setup for the two cases is explained, as well as the reactor operation. We elaborate on data analysis for both reactor types and on the advantages and disadvantages of bioelectrochemical and electrochemical systems.

  5. Predicting As removal during metal hydroxide precipitation

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1997-01-01

    A simplified isotherm is described that can predict the extent of arsenate removal at drinking water utilities practicing coagulation or iron-manganese (Fe-Mn) removal. If all possible sources of particulate iron and aluminum hydroxide present in the system are accounted for, the model predicts arsenic (As) removal to within {+-}13 percent (90 percent confidence) for Fe coagulation at pH 6.5--8 and alum coagulation at pH < 7.6. Analysis of full-scale treatment data suggests that colloidal aluminum (Al) flocs with sorbed arsenate [As(V)] may pass through filters, thereby decreasing overall As removal efficiency. Thus, Al solubility and particle stability must be minimized to improve As removal. If stability and solubility of aluminum hydroxide flocs are not a problem, alum and Fe coagulants have nearly equal capacity for sorbing As(V). Survey results also demonstrate the importance of particulate As.

  6. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  7. Polarised black holes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Miguel S.; Greenspan, Lauren; Oliveira, Miguel; Penedones, João; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-06-01

    We consider solutions in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a negative cosmological constant that asymptote to global AdS 4 with conformal boundary {S}2× {{{R}}}t. At the sphere at infinity we turn on a space-dependent electrostatic potential, which does not destroy the asymptotic AdS behaviour. For simplicity we focus on the case of a dipolar electrostatic potential. We find two new geometries: (i) an AdS soliton that includes the full backreaction of the electric field on the AdS geometry; (ii) a polarised neutral black hole that is deformed by the electric field, accumulating opposite charges in each hemisphere. For both geometries we study boundary data such as the charge density and the stress tensor. For the black hole we also study the horizon charge density and area, and further verify a Smarr formula. Then we consider this system at finite temperature and compute the Gibbs free energy for both AdS soliton and black hole phases. The corresponding phase diagram generalizes the Hawking-Page phase transition. The AdS soliton dominates the low temperature phase and the black hole the high temperature phase, with a critical temperature that decreases as the external electric field increases. Finally, we consider the simple case of a free charged scalar field on {S}2× {{{R}}}t with conformal coupling. For a field in the SU(N ) adjoint representation we compare the phase diagram with the above gravitational system.

  8. Pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Gurlo, Aleksander; Dzivenko, Dmytro; Andrade, Miria; Riedel, Ralf; Lauterbach, Stefan; Kleebe, Hans-Joachim

    2010-09-15

    A static pressure-induced decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium that takes place at ambient temperature is reported. The lattice parameter of c-In(OH)(3) decreased upon compression from 7.977(2) to approximately 7.45 A at 34 GPa, corresponding to a decrease in specific volume of approximately 18%. Fitting the second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation of state to the obtained compression data gave a bulk modulus of 99 +/- 3 GPa for c-In(OH)(3). The c-In(OH)(3) crystals with a size of approximately 100 nm are comminuted upon compression, as indicated by the grain-size reduction reflected in broadening of the diffraction reflections and the appearance of smaller (approximately 5 nm) incoherently oriented domains in TEM. The rapid decompression of compressed c-In(OH)(3) leads to partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium, mainly as a result of localized stress gradients caused by relaxation of the highly disordered indium sublattice in indium hydroxide. This partial decomposition of indium hydroxide into metallic indium is irreversible, as confirmed by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy imaging, Raman scattering, and FTIR spectroscopy. Recovered c-In(OH)(3) samples become completely black and nontransparent and show typical features of metals, i.e., a falling absorption in the 100-250 cm(-1) region accompanied by a featureless spectrum in the 250-2500 cm(-1) region in the Raman spectrum and Drude-like absorption of free electrons in the region of 4000-8000 cm(-1) in the FTIR spectrum. These features were not observed in the initial c-In(OH)(3), which is a typical white wide-band-gap semiconductor.

  9. Recycle use of magnesium ammonium phosphate to remove ammonium nitrogen from rare-earth wastewater.

    PubMed

    Huang, H M; Xiao, X M; Yan, B

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a recycle MAP process (magnesium ammonium phosphate) to remove NH4-N from a typical rare-earth wastewater. The optimum conditions for the MAP precipitation and recycle use of the MAP with a newly-designed process were investigated in laboratory. The results showed that the pH value and dosages of P (phosphate) and Mg reagents have a significant influence on NH4-N removal, with a maximum removal efficiency of 99.4% at the conditions of pH=9 and Mg:N:P molar ratio=1.2:1:1.2. In the process of recycle use of the MAP, adding some HCl to dissolve MAP decomposition residues could effectively enhance NH4-N removal. The NH4-N removal efficiency reached 99.6% by adding an HCl amount of H+:OH- molar ratio=0.8 into the reused MAP decomposition residues, whereas the NH4-N removal efficiency without addition of HCl was only 96.4%. Moreover, the residual PO4-P from the end of reaction was recovered and the optimum recovery efficiency was achieved at a Mg:P molar ratio=6 and pH=10. Under these optimum conditions, the residual NH4-N and PO4-P concentrations in the treated wastewater, through 6 times of the recycling, were less than 15 mg/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. On the basis of this, an economic evaluation of the recycling MAP was made, and this recycle process could save 48.6% cost used in the chemicals for treating per cubic meter of the rare-earth wastewater, compared to the conventional MAP process.

  10. Sodium hydroxide permethylation of heparin disaccharides.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Christian; Wang, Zhirui; Azadi, Parastoo

    2011-03-30

    Permethylation is a valuable and widely used tool for the mass spectrometry of carbohydrates, improving sensitivity and fragmentation and increasing the amount of information that can be obtained from tandem mass spectrometric experiments. Permethylation of most glycans is easily performed with sodium hydroxide and iodomethane in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). However, permethylation has not been widely used in the mass spectrometry of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) oligosaccharides, partly because it has required the use of the difficult Hakomori method employing the methylsulfinylmethanide ('dimsyl') base, which has to be made in a tedious process. Additionally, the Hakomori method is not as effective as the sodium hydroxide method in making fully methylated derivatives. A further problem in the permethylation of highly sulfated oligosaccharides is their limited solubility in DMSO. This paper describes the use of the triethylammonium counterion to overcome this problem, as well as the application of the sodium hydroxide method to make permethylated heparin disaccharides and their workup to yield fully methylated disaccharides for electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. The ease, speed, and effectiveness of the described methodology should open up permethylation of GAG oligosaccharides to a wider circle of mass spectrometrists and enable them to develop further derivatization schemes in the effort to rapidly elucidate the structure of these important molecules. Permethylation may also provide new ways of separating GAG oligosaccharides in LC/MS, their increased hydrophobicity making them amenable for reversed-phase chromatography without the need for ion pairing reagents.

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  12. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430 Food... Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  13. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  14. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560... Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million (0.0025...

  15. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  16. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in... human consumption so that the level of iron ammonium citrate does not exceed 25 parts per million...

  17. Layered double hydroxide stability. 1. Relative stabilities of layered double hydroxides and their simple counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boclair, J. W.; Braterman, P. S.

    1999-01-01

    Solutions containing di- and trivalent metal chlorides [M(II) = Mg2+, Zn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Mn2+; M(III) = Al3+, Fe3+] were titrated with NaOH to yield hydrotalcite-like layered double hydroxides (LDH), [[M(II)]1-x[M(III)]x(OH)2][Cl]x yH2O, by way of M(III) hydroxide/hydrous oxide intermediates. Analysis of the resultant titration curves yields nominal solubility constants for the LDH. The corresponding LDH stabilities are in the order Mg < Mn < Co approximately Ni < Zn for M(II) and Al < Fe for M(III). The stability of LDH relative to the separate metal hydroxides/hydrous oxides is discussed.

  18. Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology—High Hydroxide Leaching: FY10 Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mahoney, Lenna A.; Neiner, Doinita; Peterson, Reid A.; Rapko, Brian M.; Russell, Renee L.; Schonewill, Philip P.

    2011-02-04

    Boehmite leaching tests were carried out at NaOH concentrations of 10 M and 12 M, temperatures of 85°C and 60°C, and a range of initial aluminate concentrations. These data, and data obtained during earlier 100°C tests using 1 M and 5 M NaOH, were used to establish the dependence of the boehmite dissolution rate on hydroxide concentration, temperature, and initial aluminate concentration. A semi-empirical kinetic model for boehmite leaching was fitted to the data and used to calculate the NaOH additions required for leaching at different hydroxide concentrations. The optimal NaOH concentration for boehmite leaching at 85°C was estimated, based on minimizing the amount of Na that had to be added in NaOH to produce a given boehmite conversion.

  19. Application of the SCC-DFTB method to hydroxide water clusters and aqueous hydroxide solutions.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae Hoon; Liang, Ruibin; Maupin, C Mark; Voth, Gregory A

    2013-05-01

    The self-consistent charge density functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) method has been applied to hydroxide water clusters and a hydroxide ion in bulk water. To determine the impact of various implementations of SCC-DFTB on the energetics and dynamics of a hydroxide ion in gas phase and condensed phase, the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus, and DFTB3-3OB implementations have been tested. Energetic stabilities for small hydroxide clusters, OH(-)(H2O)n, where n = 4-7, are inconsistent with the results calculated with the B3LYP and second order Møller-Plesset (MP2) levels of ab initio theory. The condensed phase simulations, OH(-)(H2O)127, using the DFTB2, DFTB2-γ(h), DFTB2-γ(h)+gaus, DFTB3-diag, DFTB3-diag+gaus, DFTB3-Full+gaus and DFTB3-3OB methods are compared to Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics (CPMD) simulations using the BLYP functional. The SCC-DFTB method including a modified O-H repulsive potential and the third order correction (DFTB3-diag/Full+gaus) is shown to poorly reproduce the CPMD computational results, while the DFTB2 and DFTB2-γ(h) method somewhat more closely describe the structural and dynamical nature of the hydroxide ion in condensed phase. The DFTB3-3OB outperforms the MIO parameter set but is no more accurate than DFTB2. It is also shown that the overcoordinated water molecules lead to an incorrect bulk water density and result in unphysical water void formation. The results presented in this paper point to serious drawbacks for various DFTB extensions and corrections for a hydroxide ion in aqueous environments. PMID:23566052

  20. Selective determination of ammonium ions by high-speed ion-exclusion chromatography on a weakly basic anion-exchange resin column.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masanobu; Tanaka, Kazuhiko; Helaleh, Murad I H; Xu, Qun; Ikedo, Mikaru; Ogura, Yutaka; Sato, Shinji; Hu, Wenzhi; Hasebe, Kiyoshi

    2003-05-16

    This paper describes an ion-exclusion chromatographic system for the rapid and selective determination of ammonium ion. The optimized ion-exclusion chromatographic system was established with a polymethacrylate-based weakly basic anion-exchange resin column (TSKgel DEAE-5PW) as the separation column, an aqueous solution containing 0.05 mM tetramethylammonium hydroxide (pH 9.10) as eluent with conductimetric detection for the analyte determination. Under the optimum chromatographic conditions, ammonium ion was determined within 2.3 min with a detection limit (S/N=3) better than 0.125 microM. Ammonium ion in rain and river waters was precisely determined using this ion-exclusion chromatographic system.

  1. Improving the quality of rice straw by urea and calcium hydroxide on rumen ecology, microbial protein synthesis in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Polyorach, S; Wanapat, M

    2015-06-01

    Four rumen-fistulated beef cattle were randomly assigned to four treatments according to a 4 × 4 Latin square design to study the influence of urea and calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] treatment of rice straw to improve the nutritive value of rice straw. Four dietary treatments were as follows: untreated rice straw, 50 g/kg urea-treated rice straw, 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw and 30 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw. All animals were kept in individual pens and fed with concentrate at 0.5 g/kg of BW (DM), rice straw was fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, and each period lasted for 21 days. During the first 14 days, DM feed intake measurements were made while during the last 7 days, all cattle were moved to metabolism crates for total faeces and urine collections. The results revealed that 20 g/kg urea + 20 g/kg calcium hydroxide-treated rice straw improved the nutritive value of rice straw, in terms of dry matter intake, digestibility, ruminal volatile fatty acids, population of bacteria and fungi, nitrogen retention and microbial protein synthesis. Based on this study, it could be concluded that using urea plus calcium hydroxide was one alternative method to improve the nutritive value of rice straw, rumen ecology and fermentation and thus a reduction of treatment cost.

  2. Tetramethylammonium hydroxide as a reagent for complex mixture analysis by negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lobodin, Vladislav V; Juyal, Priyanka; McKenna, Amy M; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

    2013-08-20

    Ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS) enables the direct characterization of complex mixtures without prior fractionation. High mass resolution can distinguish peaks separated by as little as 1.1 mDa), and high mass accuracy enables assignment of elemental compositions in mixtures that contain tens of thousands of individual components (crude oil). Negative electrospray ionization (ESI) is particularly useful for the speciation of the most acidic petroleum components that are implicated in oil production and processing problems. Here, we replace conventional ammonium hydroxide by tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH, a much stronger base, with higher solubility in toluene) to more uniformly deprotonate acidic components of complex mixtures by negative ESI FTICR MS. The detailed compositional analysis of four crude oils (light to heavy, from different geographical locations) reveals that TMAH reagent accesses 1.5-6 times as many elemental compositions, spanning a much wider range of chemical classes than does NH4OH. For example, TMAH reagent produces abundant negative electrosprayed ions from less acidic and neutral species that are in low abundance or absent with NH4OH reagent. More importantly, the increased compositional coverage of TMAH-modified solvent systems maintains, or even surpasses, the compositional information for the most acidic species. The method is not limited to petroleum-derived materials and could be applied to the analysis of dissolved organic matter, coal, lipids, and other naturally occurring compositionally complex organic mixtures. PMID:23919350

  3. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  4. Modelling simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium removal in a granular sludge reactor.

    PubMed

    Winkler, M-K H; Ettwig, K F; Vannecke, T P W; Stultiens, K; Bogdan, A; Kartal, B; Volcke, E I P

    2015-04-15

    Anaerobic nitrogen removal technologies offer advantages in terms of energy and cost savings over conventional nitrification-denitrification systems. A mathematical model was constructed to evaluate the influence of process operation on the coexistence of nitrite dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (n-damo) and anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (anammox) in a single granule. The nitrite and methane affinity constants of n-damo bacteria were measured experimentally. The biomass yield of n-damo bacteria was derived from experimental data and a thermodynamic state analysis. Through simulations, it was found that the possible survival of n-damo besides anammox bacteria was sensitive to the nitrite/ammonium influent ratio. If ammonium was supplied in excess, n-damo bacteria were outcompeted. At low biomass concentration, n-damo bacteria lost the competition against anammox bacteria. When the biomass loading closely matched the biomass concentration needed for full nutrient removal, strong substrate competition occurred resulting in oscillating removal rates. The simulation results further reveal that smaller granules enabled higher simultaneous ammonium and methane removal efficiencies. The implementation of simultaneous anaerobic methane and ammonium removal will decrease greenhouse gas emissions, but an economic analysis showed that adding anaerobic methane removal to a partial nitritation/anammox process may increase the aeration costs with over 20%. Finally, some considerations were given regarding the practical implementation of the process.

  5. The ammonium sulfate inhibition of human angiogenin.

    PubMed

    Chatzileontiadou, Demetra S M; Tsirkone, Vicky G; Dossi, Kyriaki; Kassouni, Aikaterini G; Liggri, Panagiota G V; Kantsadi, Anastassia L; Stravodimos, George A; Balatsos, Nikolaos A A; Skamnaki, Vassiliki T; Leonidas, Demetres D

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we investigate the inhibition of human angiogenin by ammonium sulfate. The inhibitory potency of ammonium sulfate for human angiogenin (IC50 = 123.5 ± 14.9 mm) is comparable to that previously reported for RNase A (119.0 ± 6.5 mm) and RNase 2 (95.7 ± 9.3 mm). However, analysis of two X-ray crystal structures of human angiogenin in complex with sulfate anions (in acidic and basic pH environments, respectively) indicates an entirely distinct mechanism of inhibition. While ammonium sulfate inhibits the ribonucleolytic activity of RNase A and RNase 2 by binding to the active site of these enzymes, sulfate anions bind only to peripheral substrate anion-binding subsites of human angiogenin, and not to the active site. PMID:27483019

  6. The alpha-form of the hydroxides of bivalent metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feitknecht, W.

    1984-01-01

    X-ray analyses were made of the hydroxides of the bivalent metals. The freshly pptd. hydroxide is usually in the alpha-form, which on standing is converted to another form or other forms. The alpha and c grating dimensions of the alpha-form and the C6-type of Co, Zn, C, Co-Zn and Ni-Zn hydroxides are tabulated. Ni hydroxide does not exhibit an alpha-form. The alpha-Co(OH)2, the blue form, is stabilized by sugar or by the higher alcohols: these compounds do not stabilize alpha-Zn(OH)2.

  7. Photoactive oriented films of layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kamil; Kubát, Pavel; Mosinger, Jirí; Bujdák, Juraj; Hof, Martin; Janda, Pavel; Sýkora, Jan; Iyi, Nobuo

    2008-08-14

    The treatment of nano-ordered oriented films of layered double hydroxide (LDH) with dodecyl sulfate increased the interlayer distance from 0.4 to 1.96 nm, which allowed the intercalation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-sulfonatophenyl)porphyrin (TPPS). The re-stacking of separated layers and the rebuilding of crystals oriented parallel to the surface of quartz slides was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and atomic force microscopy. The hybrid films contained homogeneously distributed porphyrin molecules with preserved photophysical properties such as fluorescence, triplet state formation, and energy transfer, thus forming singlet oxygen.

  8. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  9. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution.

    PubMed

    Drisdell, Walter S; Saykally, Richard J; Cohen, Ronald C

    2009-11-10

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 +/- 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

  10. Supercritical water oxidation of ammonium picrate

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G.

    1994-11-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy ammonium picrate. Analyses of reactor effluent composition at various temperatures, residence times, and oxidant concentrations were used to design an improved reactor configuration for achieving destruction with minimum corrosion. The engineering evaluation reactor, a room-sized laboratory scale reactor, was reconfigured to incorporate this design change. Destruction of ammonium picrate with minimized corrosion was demonstrated on this reconfigured reactor. Factors that must be considered in scaling up to pilot plant size are discussed.

  11. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

  12. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  13. Salting out of proteins using ammonium sulfate precipitation.

    PubMed

    Duong-Ly, Krisna C; Gabelli, Sandra B

    2014-01-01

    Protein solubility is affected by ions. At low ion concentrations (<0.5 M), protein solubility increases along with ionic strength. Ions in the solution shield protein molecules from the charge of other protein molecules in what is known as 'salting-in'. At a very high ionic strength, protein solubility decreases as ionic strength increases in the process known as 'salting-out'. Thus, salting out can be used to separate proteins based on their solubility in the presence of a high concentration of salt. In this protocol, ammonium sulfate will be added incrementally to an E. coli cell lysate to isolate a recombinantly over-expressed protein of 20 kDa containing no cysteine residues or tags.

  14. Terahertz time domain spectroscopy of hydrothermally synthesized boehmite and ammonium dawsonite nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehboob, Shoaib; Mehmood, Mazhar; Ahmed, Mushtaq; Ahmad, Jamil; Tanvir, Muhammad Tauseef; Ahmad, Izhar

    2016-09-01

    The frequency dependent optical and dielectric properties of boehmite (AlOOH) and ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) nanostructures, prepared at different temperatures via hydrothermal synthesis, were studied by using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The complex refractive indices, absorption coefficients and complex dielectric constants were determined and compared for different synthesis temperatures. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were also performed to confirm the formation of boehmite and AACH. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to study the morphology of nanostructures. The study reveals the formation of AACH at higher temperatures and decrease in refractive index with increasing synthesis temperature. The higher absorption coefficient and lower refractive index and dielectric constant were observed for AACH than for boehmite.

  15. Separating Metallic Beryllium from Plutonium by Selective Dissolution with Ammonium Fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, R A

    2006-11-29

    Plutonium metal is stabilized for long-term storage by calcining to produce PuO{sub 2}. However, if beryllium is present, the calcined product may have a high neutron dose rate because of the {sup 9}Be({alpha},n){sup 12}C reaction in the finely divided oxide mixture. (At LLNL, inadvertent calcining of a mixture of {approx}500 g Pu/50 g Be produced a neutron source of {approx}5 R/hr.) Therefore, for health physics reasons, we would like a convenient procedure to remove beryllium from plutonium with high selectivity. Two reagents, sodium hydroxide and ammonium fluoride, were considered for aqueous processing. Each reagent selectively dissolves beryllium, which can be separated from the insoluble plutonium by decanting/filtering operations followed by water washes to remove the excess reagent. The washed plutonium is calcined for storage; the beryllium and wash fractions are solidified for disposal.

  16. [Effects of the treatment of coffee pulp, fresh or ensilaged, with calcium hydroxide, on its nutritive value].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Brenes, R; Bendaña, G; González, J M; Jarquín, R; Braham, J E; Bressani, R

    1988-03-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of the addition of calcium hydroxide on the chemical composition and nutritive value of fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp. Fresh or ensilaged pulp were mixed with 1, 2 and 3% of calcium hydroxide. The process was carried out during 0 and 16 hr, after which time the treated pulp was sun-dried for 36 hr until moisture content reached 12%. These samples were then analyzed for their proximate chemical composition and for some minerals (Ca, P, Na, K), as well as for caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids content. Diets were then prepared from these materials, containing 15% protein and 15 or 30% fresh or ensilaged coffee pulp, and offered to weanling rats during six weeks. Information required on weight gain, food conversion, apparent digestibility and toxicity of the diets was recorded. Results of the chemical analysis revealed that the main changes found in both types of pulp as a result of the calcium hydroxide treatment were the following: a decrease in ether extract (from 4.0 to 2.5 g/100 g), crude fiber (from 18.3 to 11.9 g/100 g) and protein content (from 12.3 to 8.6 g/100 g) in an inverse relation to the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The amount of ash increased, fluctuated between 5.5 and 15.4%, depending on the amount of calcium hydroxide used. The latter affected the Ca:P ratio in the diets, where an average ratio of 7.2:1 was found in the control pulp (0% calcium hydroxide) and 59.0:1 in those treated with the highest amount of calcium hydroxide (3%). Regarding the caffeine, tannins and chlorogenic and caffeic acids contents, calcium hydroxide was effective in decreasing only tannins, more so in the fresh than in the ensilaged pulp; the decrease was in direct proportion to the amount of calcium hydroxide added and to the length of the Ca(OH)2 treatment. The results of the biological assays showed that the addition of Ca(OH)2 in either of the two time periods used and at either of the

  17. Protons and Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Noam; Bakker, Huib J; Campen, R Kramer; Henchman, Richard H; Pohl, Peter; Roke, Sylvie; Thämer, Martin; Hassanali, Ali

    2016-07-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of water's constituent ions, proton and hydroxide, has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies over the last century. Besides their obvious importance in acid-base chemistry, these ions play an important role in numerous applications ranging from enzyme catalysis to environmental chemistry. Despite a long history of research, many fundamental issues regarding their properties continue to be an active area of research. Here, we provide a review of the experimental and theoretical advances made in the last several decades in understanding the structure, dynamics, and transport of the proton and hydroxide ions in different aqueous environments, ranging from water clusters to the bulk liquid and its interfaces with hydrophobic surfaces. The propensity of these ions to accumulate at hydrophobic surfaces has been a subject of intense debate, and we highlight the open issues and challenges in this area. Biological applications reviewed include proton transport along the hydration layer of various membranes and through channel proteins, problems that are at the core of cellular bioenergetics. PMID:27314430

  18. Protons and Hydroxide Ions in Aqueous Systems.

    PubMed

    Agmon, Noam; Bakker, Huib J; Campen, R Kramer; Henchman, Richard H; Pohl, Peter; Roke, Sylvie; Thämer, Martin; Hassanali, Ali

    2016-07-13

    Understanding the structure and dynamics of water's constituent ions, proton and hydroxide, has been a subject of numerous experimental and theoretical studies over the last century. Besides their obvious importance in acid-base chemistry, these ions play an important role in numerous applications ranging from enzyme catalysis to environmental chemistry. Despite a long history of research, many fundamental issues regarding their properties continue to be an active area of research. Here, we provide a review of the experimental and theoretical advances made in the last several decades in understanding the structure, dynamics, and transport of the proton and hydroxide ions in different aqueous environments, ranging from water clusters to the bulk liquid and its interfaces with hydrophobic surfaces. The propensity of these ions to accumulate at hydrophobic surfaces has been a subject of intense debate, and we highlight the open issues and challenges in this area. Biological applications reviewed include proton transport along the hydration layer of various membranes and through channel proteins, problems that are at the core of cellular bioenergetics.

  19. Diamond Head Revisited with Ammonium Dichromate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigoni, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The classroom demonstration using ammonium dichromate to simulate a volcanic eruption can be modified into a more dramatic and accurate representation of the geologic processes involved in the formation of a volcanic crater. The materials, demonstration setup, safety procedures, and applications to instruction are presented. (Author/WB)

  20. 21 CFR 558.340 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS NEW ANIMAL DRUGS FOR USE IN ANIMAL FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.340 Maduramicin ammonium. (a) Approvals. Type A medicated articles:...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  2. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Department previously announced a series of public meetings on the same topic on October 2, 2011 (see 76 FR... public comment on August 3, 2011. See 73 FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908... SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security Program...

  3. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908 (notice of proposed rulemaking...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security.... SUMMARY: The National Protection and Programs Directorate of the Department of Homeland Security...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the... defined in § 170.3(o)(32) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium bicarbonate. 184.1135 Section...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ingredient as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) as a direct human food ingredient is based upon the...) of this chapter. (2) The ingredient is used in food at levels not to exceed current good... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Category of food Maximum level of use in food (as served) (percent) Functional use Confections, frostings... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium alginate. 184.1133 Section 184.1133 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...

  10. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... COMMISSION Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... area of the eye. (d) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and of any mixtures... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive chromium hydroxide green is principally hydrated chromic sesquioxide...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner....

  15. 21 CFR 872.3250 - Calcium hydroxide cavity liner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium hydroxide cavity liner. 872.3250 Section 872.3250 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3250 Calcium hydroxide cavity liner....

  16. A supramolecular hyperbranched polymer based on molecular recognition between benzo-21-crown-7 and secondary ammonium salt.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Fan, Xiaodong; Tian, Wei; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Wanbin; Yang, Zhen

    2014-12-01

    A novel A2-B3-type supramolecular hyperbranched polymer was prepared based on the benzo-21-crown-7/secondary ammonium salt recognition motif. The resulting supramolecular polymer exhibited a reversible disassembled-assembled process by adding or removing potassium ions. PMID:25315034

  17. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Urakaev, F.K.

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  18. Extraction of starch from hulled and hull-less barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Priyanka; Tejinder, S

    2014-12-01

    Starch was isolated from hulled (VJM 201) and hull-less (BL 134) barley with papain and aqueous sodium hydroxide treatments. For enzyme-assisted extraction, barley was steeped in water containing 0.2 % SO2 + 0.55 % lactic acid at 50° ± 2 °C for 4-5 h. The slurry was mixed with 0.4-2.0 g papain/kg barley and incubated at 50° ± 2 °C for 1-5 h. Aqueous sodium hydroxide (0.01-0.05 M) was added to the finely ground barley meal. The alkaline slurry was incubated at ambient temperature (25° ± 2 °C) for 15-60 min. The starch and grain fractions were isolated by screening and centrifugation. Increases in the time of treatment significantly affected the fiber, centrifugation and non-starch residue losses. Concentration of papain and sodium hydroxide had negligible effect on extraction losses. The enzyme-assisted extraction efficiency of starch was higher (80.7-84.6 %) than the alkaline method (70.9-83.7 %). The hulled barley showed higher extraction efficiency than the hull-less barley. The slurry treated with 0.4 g papain/kg barley for 5 h and 0.03 M sodium hydroxide for 60 min produced maximal yield of starch. Barley starch showed desirably high pasting temperature, water binding capacity and hold viscosity; and low final and setback viscosity compared with the commercial corn starch. The alkaline extracted hull-less barley starch showed exceptionally high peak and hold viscosities.

  19. Intercalation studies of zinc hydroxide chloride: Ammonia and amino acids

    SciTech Connect

    Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe Carbajal

    2012-01-15

    Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) is a layered hydroxide salt with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O. It was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time and results were compared with intercalation products of the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate and a Zn/Al layered double hydroxide. Ammonia was intercalated into ZHC, while no significant intercalation occurred in ZHN. Aspartic acid intercalation was only achieved by co-precipitation at pH=10 with ZHC and pH=8 with zinc hydroxide nitrate. Higher pH resistance in ZHC favored total deprotonation of both carboxylic groups of the Asp molecule. ZHC conferred more thermal protection against Asp combustion presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C while the exothermic event in ZHN was 366 Degree-Sign C and in the LDH at 276 Degree-Sign C. - Graphical abstract: The zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) with formula Zn{sub 5}(OH){sub 8}Cl{sub 2}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O was tested as intercalation matrix. In comparison with the well-known zinc hydroxide nitrate (ZHN) and layered double hydroxides (LDH), ZHC was the best matrix for thermal protection of Asp combustion, presenting exothermic peaks even at 452 Degree-Sign C, while the highest exothermic event in ZHN was at 366 Degree-Sign C, and in the LDH it was at 276 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zinc hydroxide chloride (ZHC) was tested as intercalation matrix for the first time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZHC has higher chemical and thermal stability than zinc hydroxide nitrate and LDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NH{sub 3} molecules can be intercalated into ZHC. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amino group of amino acids limits the intercalation by ion-exchange.

  20. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.6183 - Amides, from ammonium hydroxide - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... - maleic anhydride polymer and hydrogenated tallow alkyl amines, sodium salts, compds. with ethanolamine... SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific...

  2. High pseudocapacitive cobalt carbonate hydroxide films derived from CoAl layered double hydroxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Zhiyi; Zhu, Wei; Lei, Xiaodong; Williams, Gareth R.; O'Hare, Dermot; Chang, Zheng; Sun, Xiaoming; Duan, Xue

    2012-05-01

    A thin nanosheet of mesoporous cobalt carbonate hydroxide (MPCCH) has been fabricated from a CoAl-LDH nanosheet following removal of the Al cations by alkali etching. The basic etched electrode exhibits enhanced specific capacitance (1075 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and higher rate capability and cycling stability (92% maintained after 2000 cycles).A thin nanosheet of mesoporous cobalt carbonate hydroxide (MPCCH) has been fabricated from a CoAl-LDH nanosheet following removal of the Al cations by alkali etching. The basic etched electrode exhibits enhanced specific capacitance (1075 F g-1 at 5 mA cm-2) and higher rate capability and cycling stability (92% maintained after 2000 cycles). Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Detailed experimental procedure, specific capacitance calculation, EDS and FTIR results, electrochemical results of CoAl-LDH and SEM image. See DOI: 10.1039/c2nr30617d

  3. Complex Microfiltration Behavior of Metal Hydroxide Slurries

    SciTech Connect

    Shimskey, Rick W.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Daniel, Richard C.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-02-28

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance against waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicate that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux loses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current research is to develop an understanding of the roles of cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. Metal hydroxide wastes were tested to examine the role of particle-filter interaction on filter performance.

  4. Ammonium addition (and aerosol pH) has a dramatic impact on the volatility and yield of glyoxal secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Montalvo, Diana L; Häkkinen, Silja A K; Schwier, Allison N; Lim, Yong B; McNeill, V Faye; Turpin, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Glyoxal is an important precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed through aqueous chemistry in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols, yet the gas-particle partitioning of the resulting mixture is not well understood. This work characterizes the volatility behavior of the glyoxal precursor/product mix formed after aqueous hydroxyl radical oxidation and droplet evaporation under cloud-relevant conditions for 10 min, thus aiding the prediction of SOA via this pathway (SOACld). This work uses kinetic modeling for droplet composition, droplet evaporation experiments and temperature-programmed desorption aerosol-chemical ionization mass spectrometer analysis of gas-particle partitioning. An effective vapor pressure (p'L,eff) of ∼10(-7) atm and an enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap,eff) of ∼70 kJ/mol were estimated for this mixture. These estimates are similar to those of oxalic acid, which is a major product. Addition of ammonium until the pH reached 7 (with ammonium hydroxide) reduced the p'L,eff to <10(-9) atm and increased the ΔHvap,eff to >80 kJ/mol, at least in part via the formation of ammonium oxalate. pH 7 samples behaved like ammonium oxalate, which has a vapor pressure of ∼10(-11) atm. We conclude that ammonium addition has a large effect on the gas-particle partitioning of the mixture, substantially enhancing the yield of SOACld from glyoxal. PMID:24328102

  5. Ammonium addition (and aerosol pH) has a dramatic impact on the volatility and yield of glyoxal secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Montalvo, Diana L; Häkkinen, Silja A K; Schwier, Allison N; Lim, Yong B; McNeill, V Faye; Turpin, Barbara J

    2014-01-01

    Glyoxal is an important precursor to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed through aqueous chemistry in clouds, fogs, and wet aerosols, yet the gas-particle partitioning of the resulting mixture is not well understood. This work characterizes the volatility behavior of the glyoxal precursor/product mix formed after aqueous hydroxyl radical oxidation and droplet evaporation under cloud-relevant conditions for 10 min, thus aiding the prediction of SOA via this pathway (SOACld). This work uses kinetic modeling for droplet composition, droplet evaporation experiments and temperature-programmed desorption aerosol-chemical ionization mass spectrometer analysis of gas-particle partitioning. An effective vapor pressure (p'L,eff) of ∼10(-7) atm and an enthalpy of vaporization (ΔHvap,eff) of ∼70 kJ/mol were estimated for this mixture. These estimates are similar to those of oxalic acid, which is a major product. Addition of ammonium until the pH reached 7 (with ammonium hydroxide) reduced the p'L,eff to <10(-9) atm and increased the ΔHvap,eff to >80 kJ/mol, at least in part via the formation of ammonium oxalate. pH 7 samples behaved like ammonium oxalate, which has a vapor pressure of ∼10(-11) atm. We conclude that ammonium addition has a large effect on the gas-particle partitioning of the mixture, substantially enhancing the yield of SOACld from glyoxal.

  6. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  7. Diurnal shifts in co-distributions of sulfide and iron(II) and profiles of phosphate and ammonium in the rhizosphere of Zostera capricorni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagès, Anaïs; Welsh, David T.; Robertson, David; Panther, Jared G.; Schäfer, Jörg; Tomlinson, Rodger B.; Teasdale, Peter R.

    2012-12-01

    High resolution, two dimensional distributions of porewater iron(II) and sulfide were measured, using colourimetric DET (diffusive equilibration in a thin film) and DGT (diffusive gradients in a thin film) techniques, respectively, in Zostera capricorni colonised sediments under both light and dark conditions. Low resolution depth profiles of ammonium and phosphate were measured using conventional DET and DGT methods, respectively. Porewater iron(II) and sulfide distributions showed a high degree of spatial heterogeneity under both light and dark conditions, and distributions were characterised by a complex mosaic of sediment zones dominated by either iron(II) or sulfide. However, there was a clear shift in overall redox conditions between light and dark conditions. During light deployments, iron(II) and sulfide concentrations were generally low throughout the rhizosphere, apart from a few distinct "hotspots" of high concentration. Whereas during dark deployments, high concentrations of iron(II) were sometimes measured in the near surface sediments and sulfide depth distributions migrated towards the sediment surface. Profiles of porewater ammonium and phosphate demonstrated an increase in ammonium concentrations under dark compared to light conditions. Surprisingly, despite the large changes in iron(II) distributions between light and dark conditions, phosphate profiles remained similar, indicating that adsorption/release of phosphate by iron(III) hydr(oxide) mineral formation and reduction was not a major factor regulating porewater phosphate concentrations in these sediments or that phosphate uptake by the seagrass roots persisted during the dark period. Overall, the results demonstrate that the photosynthetic activity of the seagrass played a significant role in regulating sulfide, iron(II) and ammonium concentrations in the rhizosphere, due to rates of radial oxygen loss and ammonium uptake by the roots and rhizomes being lower under dark compared to light

  8. Asymmetric Transport Mechanisms of Hydronium and Hydroxide Ions in Amorphous Solid Water: Hydroxide Goes Brownian while Hydronium Hops.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du Hyeong; Choi, Cheol Ho; Choi, Tae Hoon; Sung, Bong June; Kang, Heon

    2014-08-01

    The diffusion of hydronium (H3O(+)) and hydroxide (OH(-)) ions is one of the most intriguing topics in aqueous chemistry. It is considered that these ions in aqueous solutions move via sequential proton transfer events, known as the Grotthuss mechanisms. Here, we present an experimental study of the diffusion and H/D exchange of hydronium and hydroxide ions in amorphous solid water (ASW) at 140-180 K by using low-energy sputtering (LES) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) measurements. The study shows that the two species transport in ASW via fundamentally different molecular mechanisms. Whereas hydronium ions migrate via efficient proton transfer, hydroxide ions move via Brownian molecular diffusion without proton transfer. The molecular hydroxide diffusion in ASW is in stark contrast to the current view of the hydroxide diffusion mechanism in aqueous solution, which involves proton transfer.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  16. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  18. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  2. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  3. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  4. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  5. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  6. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.655 Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical... as an ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject to reporting...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10591 - Tertiary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tertiary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10591 Tertiary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-11-110) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10582 - Quaternary ammonium compound (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium compound (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10582 Quaternary ammonium compound (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium compound (PMN P-10-571) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430... ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in accordance with the...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  14. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  15. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  16. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal feed... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10099 - Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10099 Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (generic). (a) Chemical... as dialkyl dimethyl ammonium carbonate (1:1) (PMN P-03-715) is subject to reporting under...

  19. Coupling between anammox and autotrophic denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide by enriched marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Rios-Del Toro, E Emilia; Cervantes, Francisco J

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, the capacity of enrichments derived from marine sediments collected from different sites of the Mexican littoral to perform anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) coupled to sulfide-dependent denitrification for simultaneous removal of ammonium and sulfide linked to nitrite reduction was evaluated. Sulfide-dependent denitrification out-competed anammox during the simultaneous oxidation of sulfide and ammonium. Significant accumulation of elemental sulfur (ca. 14-30 % of added sulfide) occurred during the coupling between the two respiratory processes, while ammonium was partly oxidized (31-47 %) due to nitrite limitation imposed in sediment incubations. Nevertheless, mass balances revealed up to 38 % more oxidation of the electron donors available (ammonium and sulfide) than that expected from stoichiometry. Recycling of nitrite, from nitrate produced through anammox, is proposed to contribute to extra oxidation of sulfide, while additional ammonium oxidation is suggested by sulfate-reducing anammox (SR-anammox). The complex interaction between nitrogenous and sulfurous compounds occurring through the concomitant presence of autotrophic denitrification, conventional anammox and SR-anammox may significantly drive the nitrogen and sulfur fluxes in marine environments. PMID:26994921

  20. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards].

    PubMed

    Lipińska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. PMID:25812396

  1. Detonation Properties of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wätterstam, A.; Östmark, H.; Helte, A.; Karlsson, S.

    1999-06-01

    Ammonium Dinitramide, ADN, has a potential as an oxidizer for underwater high explosives. Pure ADN has a large reaction-zone length and shows a strong non-ideal behaviour. The work presented here is an extension of previous work.(Sensitivity and Performance Characterization of Ammonium Dinitramide (ADN). Presented at 11th International Detonation Symposium, Snowmass, CO, 1998.) Experiments for determining the detonation velocity as a function of inverse charge radius and density, reaction-zone length and curvature, and the detonation pressure are presented. Measurements of pressure indicates that no, or weak von-Neumann spike exists, suggesting an immediate chemical decomposition. Experimental data are compared with predicted using thermochemical codes and ZND-theory.

  2. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  3. DETECTION OF THE AMMONIUM ION IN SPACE

    SciTech Connect

    Cernicharo, J.; Tercero, B.; Fuente, A.; Domenech, J. L.; Cueto, M.; Carrasco, E.; Herrero, V. J.; Tanarro, I.; Marcelino, N.; Roueff, E.; Gerin, M.; Pearson, J.

    2013-07-01

    We report on the detection of a narrow feature at 262816.73 MHz toward Orion and the cold prestellar core B1-bS which we attribute to the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} line of the deuterated ammonium ion, NH{sub 3}D{sup +}. The observations were performed with the IRAM 30 m radio telescope. The carrier has to be a light molecular species as it is the only feature detected over 3.6 GHz of bandwidth. The hyperfine structure is not resolved, indicating a very low value for the electric quadrupolar coupling constant of nitrogen which is expected for NH{sub 3}D{sup +} as the electric field over the N nucleus is practically zero. Moreover, the feature is right at the predicted frequency for the 1{sub 0}-0{sub 0} transition of the ammonium ion, 262817 {+-} 6 MHz (3{sigma}), using rotational constants derived from new infrared data obtained in our laboratory in Madrid. The estimated column density is (1.1 {+-} 0.2) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} cm{sup -2}. Assuming a deuterium enhancement similar to that of NH{sub 2}D, we derive N(NH{sub 4}{sup +}) {approx_equal} 2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm{sup -2}, i.e., an abundance for ammonium of a few 10{sup -11}.

  4. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yue; Shang, Kefeng; Lu, Na; Li, Jie; Wu, Yan

    2013-03-01

    How to deal with unstable ammonium sulfite, the byproduct of flue gas desulfuration by ammonia absorption methods, has been a difficult problem in recent years. Oxidation of ammonium sulfite in aqueous solutions using ozone produced by a surface discharge system was investigated in the paper. The oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone and traditional air aeration were compared, and the factors including ozone concentration, gas flow rate, initial concentration of ammonium sulfite solution and reaction temperature were discussed. The results show that the oxidation efficiency of ammonium sulfite by ozone technology reached nearly 100% under the optimum conditions, which had a significant increase compared with that by air aeration.

  5. Cold Case: Radar investigation of ammonium sulfate cryovolcanism on Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomann, C.; Hayes, A. G.; Hofgartner, J.; Lunine, J. I.; Le Gall, A.

    2012-12-01

    The detection of a large tidal k2 value from Cassini [1] constitutes very strong evi-dence for a subcrustal ocean, most plausibly dominated by water. However, the secondary constituents are not known. One interesting possibility that has received scant attention in analysis of surface data sets is that the ocean contain aqueous ammonium sulfates, which erupted on the surface in the past to create vast, smooth plains [2]. We adopt the hypothesis that the undifferentiated plains—the "bland-lands" in the mid-latitudes of Titan—are these deposits, and test it using radiometry with SAR data. Lopez et al (this conference) investigate the global distribution and possible origin of this type of unit. We extracted SAR and radiometry-during-SAR data sets from the PDS, and pro-duced maps of brightness temperatures. The SAR imagery was used to identify locations where crossovers exist -some of which are in the undifferentiated plains--and hence where brightness temperatures at different incidence angles are available. We derived emissivities from the data using a simple radiometric model [3] to ac-count for the brightness temperature differences as a function of surface roughness, volume scattering and emissivity. We test the hypothesis by assessing whether the derived emissivities and volume scattering in the bland-lands are consistent with the model cryoclastic ash of ice and ammonium sulfate proposed in [2], distinct from that in other terrains. [1] L. Iess, R.A. Jacobson, M. Ducci, D.J. Stevenson, J.I. Lunine, J.W. Armstrong, S.W. Asmar, P. Racioppa, N.J. Rappaport, P. Tortora, Science, 337, 457 (2012). [2] A.D. Fortes, P.M. Grinrod, S.K. Trickett, L. Vocadlo. Icarus, 188, 139 (2007). [3] T.L. White and J.R. Cogdell. The Moon, 6, 235 (1973).

  6. Complications of sodium hydroxide chemical matrixectomy: nail dystrophy, allodynia, hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Bostancı, Seher; Koçyiğit, Pelin; Güngör, Hilayda Karakök; Parlak, Nehir

    2014-11-01

    Ingrown toenails are seen most commonly in young adults, and they can seriously affect daily life. Partial nail avulsion with chemical matrixectomy, generally by using either sodium hydroxide or phenol, is one of the most effective treatment methods. Known complications of phenol matrixectomy are unpredictable tissue damage, prolonged postoperative drainage, increased secondary infection rates, periostitis, and poor cosmetic results. To our knowledge, there have been no reports about the complications related to sodium hydroxide matrixectomy. Herein, we describe three patients who developed nail dystrophy, allodynia, and hyperalgesia after sodium hydroxide matrixectomy.

  7. Chemical analysis of the liberation of calcium and hydroxyl ions from calcium hydroxide pastes in connective tissue in the dog--Part I.

    PubMed

    Estrela, C; Pesce, H F

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research is to chemically analyze calcium hydroxide pastes added to three hydrosoluble vehicles having different acid-base characteristics using polyethylene tubes implanted in subcutaneous connective tissue in a dog, evaluating the liberation of calcium and hydroxyl ions over a period of 7, 30, 45 and 60 days. The three vehicles were saline, anesthetic, and polyethylene glycol 400. Chemical analysis of the liberated calcium ions was done by means of conductimetry using EDTA for titration. Liberation of hydroxyl ions was determined by analogy of calcium ions liberated, which are in direct proportion to the molecular weight of calcium hydroxide.

  8. Homogeneous Precipitation of Nickel Hydroxide Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bora Mavis

    2003-12-12

    Precipitation and characterization of nickel hydroxide powders were investigated. A comprehensive precipitation model incorporating the metal ion hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions was developed for the production of the powders with urea precipitation method. Model predictions on Ni{sup 2+} precipitation rate were confirmed with precipitation experiments carried out at 90 C. Experimental data and model predictions were in remarkable agreement. Uncertainty in the solubility product data of nickel hydroxides was found to be the large contributor to the error. There were demonstrable compositional variations across the particle cross-sections and the growth mechanism was determined to be the aggregation of primary crystallites. This implied that there is a change in the intercalate chemistry of the primary crystallites with digestion time. Predicted changes in the concentrations of simple and complex ions in the solution support the proposed mechanism. The comprehensive set of hydrolysis reactions used in the model described above allows the investigation of other systems provided that accurate reaction constants are available. the fact that transition metal ions like Ni{sup 2+} form strong complexes with ammonia presents a challenge in the full recovery of the Ni{sup 2+}. On the other hand, presence of Al{sup 3+} facilitates the complete precipitation of Ni{sup 2+} in about 3 hours of digestion. A challenge in their predictive modeling studies had been the fact that simultaneous incorporation of more than one metal ion necessitates a different approach than just using the equilibrium constants of hydrolysis, complexation and precipitation reactions. Another limitation of using equilibrium constants is that the nucleation stage of digestion, which is controlled mainly by kinetics, is not fully justified. A new program released by IBM Almaden Research Center (Chemical Kinetics Simulator{trademark}, Version 1.01) lets the user change the order of

  9. Adding flavor to AdS4/CFT3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammon, Martin; Erdmenger, Johanna; Meyer, René; O'Bannon, Andy; Wrase, Timm

    2009-11-01

    Aharony, Bergman, Jafferis, and Maldacena have proposed that the low-energy description of multiple M2-branes at a Bbb C4/Bbb Zk singularity is a (2+1)-dimensional Script N = 6 supersymmetric U(Nc) × U(Nc) Chern-Simons matter theory, the ABJM theory. In the large-Nc limit, its holographic dual is supergravity in AdS4 × S7/Bbb Zk. We study various ways to add fields that transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge groups, i.e. flavor fields, to the ABJM theory. We work in a probe limit and perform analyses in both the supergravity and field theory descriptions. In the supergravity description we find a large class of supersymmetric embeddings of probe flavor branes. In the field theory description, we present a general method to determine the couplings of the flavor fields to the fields of the ABJM theory. We then study four examples in detail: codimension-zero Script N = 3 supersymmetric flavor, described in supergravity by Kaluza-Klein monopoles or D6-branes; codimension-one Script N = (0,6) supersymmetric chiral flavor, described by D8-branes; codimension-one Script N = (3,3) supersymmetric non-chiral flavor, described by M5/D4-branes; codimension-two Script N = 4 supersymmetric flavor, described by M2/D2-branes. Finally we discuss special physical equivalences between brane embeddings in M-theory, and their interpretation in the field theory description.

  10. A titration model for evaluating calcium hydroxide removal techniques

    PubMed Central

    PHILLIPS, Mark; McCLANAHAN, Scott; BOWLES, Walter

    2015-01-01

    Objective Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament due to its antimicrobial effects and its ability to inactivate bacterial endotoxin. The inability to totally remove this intracanal medicament from the root canal system, however, may interfere with the setting of eugenol-based sealers or inhibit bonding of resin to dentin, thus presenting clinical challenges with endodontic treatment. This study used a chemical titration method to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left after different endodontic irrigation methods. Material and Methods Eighty-six human canine roots were prepared for obturation. Thirty teeth were filled with known but different amounts of Ca(OH)2 for 7 days, which were dissolved out and titrated to quantitate the residual Ca(OH)2 recovered from each root to produce a standard curve. Forty-eight of the remaining teeth were filled with equal amounts of Ca(OH)2 followed by gross Ca(OH)2 removal using hand files and randomized treatment of either: 1) Syringe irrigation; 2) Syringe irrigation with use of an apical file; 3) Syringe irrigation with added 30 s of passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), or 4) Syringe irrigation with apical file and PUI (n=12/group). Residual Ca(OH)2 was dissolved with glycerin and titrated to measure residual Ca(OH)2 left in the root. Results No method completely removed all residual Ca(OH)2. The addition of 30 s PUI with or without apical file use removed Ca(OH)2 significantly better than irrigation alone. Conclusions This technique allowed quantification of residual Ca(OH)2. The use of PUI (with or without apical file) resulted in significantly lower Ca(OH)2 residue compared to irrigation alone. PMID:25760272

  11. Twistor methods for AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamo, Tim; Skinner, David; Williams, Jack

    2016-08-01

    We consider the application of twistor theory to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space. The twistor space of AdS5 is the same as the ambitwistor space of the four-dimensional conformal boundary; the geometry of this correspondence is reviewed for both the bulk and boundary. A Penrose transform allows us to describe free bulk fields, with or without mass, in terms of data on twistor space. Explicit representatives for the bulk-to-boundary propagators of scalars and spinors are constructed, along with twistor action functionals for the free theories. Evaluating these twistor actions on bulk-to-boundary propagators is shown to produce the correct two-point functions.

  12. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  13. Hydroxide-Assisted Bonding of Ultra-Low-Expansion Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abramovici, Alexander; White, Victor

    2008-01-01

    A process for hydroxide-assisted bonding has been developed as a means of joining optical components made of ultra-low-expansion (ULE) glass, while maintaining sufficiently precise alignment between. The process is intended mainly for use in applications in which (1) bonding of glass optical components by use of epoxy does not enable attainment of the required accuracy and dimensional stability and (2) conventional optical contacting (which affords the required accuracy and stability) does not afford adequate bond strength. The basic concept of hydroxide-assisted bonding is not new. The development of the present process was prompted by two considerations: (1) The expertise in hydroxide-assisted bonding has resided in very few places and the experts have not been willing to reveal the details of their processes and (2) data on the reliability and strength attainable by hydroxide-assisted bonding have been scarce.

  14. 68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING OF THE CAUSTIC SODA (SODIUM HYDROXIDE) BUILDING, LOOKING AT CAUSTIC SODA MEASURING TANKS. (DATE UNKNOWN). - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  15. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2326 - Chromium hydroxide green.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2326 Chromium hydroxide green. (a) Identity and... in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including those intended for use in the area of the eye,...

  18. Conversion coatings prepared or treated with calcium hydroxide solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minevski, Zoran (Inventor); Clarke, Eric (Inventor); Maxey, Jason (Inventor); Nelson, Carl (Inventor); Eylem, Cahit (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A conversion coating process that forms a stable and corrosion-resistant oxide layer on metal or metal oxide substrates or layers. Particularly, the conversion coating process involves contacting the metal or metal oxide substrate or layer with the aqueous calcium hydroxide solutions in order to convert the surface of the substrate to a stable metal oxide layer or coating. According to the present invention, the calcium hydroxide solution is prepared by removing carbon dioxide from water or an aqueous solution before introducing the calcium hydroxide. In this manner, formation of calcium carbonate particles is avoided and the porosity of the conversion coating produced by the calcium hydroxide solution is reduced to below about 1%.

  19. Shadows, currents, and AdS fields

    SciTech Connect

    Metsaev, R. R.

    2008-11-15

    Conformal totally symmetric arbitrary spin currents and shadow fields in flat space-time of dimension greater than or equal to four are studied. A gauge invariant formulation for such currents and shadow fields is developed. Gauge symmetries are realized by involving the Stueckelberg fields. A realization of global conformal boost symmetries is obtained. Gauge invariant differential constraints for currents and shadow fields are obtained. AdS/CFT correspondence for currents and shadow fields and the respective normalizable and non-normalizable solutions of massless totally symmetric arbitrary spin AdS fields are studied. The bulk fields are considered in a modified de Donder gauge that leads to decoupled equations of motion. We demonstrate that leftover on shell gauge symmetries of bulk fields correspond to gauge symmetries of boundary currents and shadow fields, while the modified de Donder gauge conditions for bulk fields correspond to differential constraints for boundary conformal currents and shadow fields. Breaking conformal symmetries, we find interrelations between the gauge invariant formulation of the currents and shadow fields, and the gauge invariant formulation of massive fields.

  20. Solvent and process for recovery of hydroxide from aqueous mixtures

    DOEpatents

    Moyer, Bruce A.; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Bonnesen, Peter V.; Keever, Tamara J.

    2001-01-01

    Hydroxide values and associated alkali metal may be recovered from alkaline aqueous solutions using classes of fluorinated alcohols in a water immiscible solvent. The alcohols are characterized by fluorine substituents which are proximal to the acidic alcohol protons and are located to adjust the acidity of the extractant and the solubility of the extractant in the solvent. A method for stripping the extractant and solvent to regenerate the extractant and purified aqueous hydroxide solution is described.

  1. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network.

  2. Crystal structure of ammonium bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium dichloride

    PubMed Central

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-01-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 +·NH4 +·2Cl−, the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis­[(pyridin-2-yl)meth­yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N—H⋯N and N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  3. Crystal structure of ammonium bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium dichloride.

    PubMed

    Trischler, Aaron; Oshin, Kayode; Pintauer, Tomislav

    2015-09-01

    In the title molecular salt, C12H14N3 (+)·NH4 (+)·2Cl(-), the central, secondary-amine, N atom is protonated. The bis-[(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]ammonium and ammonium cations both lie across a twofold rotation axis. The dihedral angles between the planes of the pyridine rings is 68.43 (8)°. In the crystal, N-H⋯N and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the components of the structure, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (010). In addition, weak C-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds exist within the two-dimensional network. PMID:26396908

  4. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    PubMed

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days.

  5. Phosphate adsorption from wastewater using zirconium (IV) hydroxide: Kinetics, thermodynamics and membrane filtration adsorption hybrid system studies.

    PubMed

    Johir, M A H; Pradhan, M; Loganathan, P; Kandasamy, J; Vigneswaran, S

    2016-02-01

    Excessive phosphate in wastewater should be removed to control eutrophication of water bodies. The potential of employing amorphous zirconium (Zr) hydroxide to remove phosphate from synthetic wastewater was studied in batch adsorption experiments and in a submerged membrane filtration adsorption hybrid (MFAH) reactor. The adsorption data satisfactorily fitted to Langmuir, pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order models. Langmuir adsorption maxima at 22 °C and pHs of 4.0, 7.1, and 10.0 were 30.40, 18.50, and 19.60 mg P/g, respectively. At pH 7.1 and temperatures of 40 °C and 60 °C, they were 43.80 and 54.60 mg P/g, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters, ΔG° and ΔS° were negative and ΔH° was positive. FTIR, zeta potential and competitive phosphate, sulphate and nitrate adsorption data showed that the mechanism of phosphate adsorption was inner-sphere complexation. In the submerged MFAH reactor experiment, when Zr hydroxide was added at doses of 1-5 g/L once only at the start of the experiment, the removal of phosphate from 3 L of wastewater containing 10 mg P/L declined after 5 h of operation. However, when Zr hydroxide was repeatedly added at 5 g/L dose every 24 h, satisfactory removal of phosphate was maintained for 3 days. PMID:26686069

  6. Sodium-hydroxide solution treatment on sandstone cores

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.J.

    1984-01-01

    This research was performed to study the effect of sodium hydroxide solution on the sandstone core samples and to develop a method whereby the permeability of the samples could be increased by the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. This work should provide the first step in developing a technique that can be used in the stimulation of oil and gas wells. A series of tests was conducted in which sodium hydroxide solution with concentrations ranging from 0.25 N to 2.00 N was injected into a number of Berea sandstone cores. The tests were conducted at room temperature and at 180{degree}F. In some cases the core sample were damaged by the injection of fresh water which resulted in a marked reduction in the permeability of the cores prior to the injection of sodium hydroxide solution. Based on laboratory testing with measurements of uniaxial compressive strength, SEM examination and X-ray analysis, it was found that sodium hydroxide interacted with sandstone to promote (1) partial dissolution of the sandstone minerals; (2) sandstone weight loss; (3) increased porosity; (4) weakening of the sandstone cores; and (5) changes in permeability. The interaction increased with increasing temperature and increasing sodium hydroxide concentration. However, at concentrations higher than 1.00 N, the degree of increase in permeability was not as large even though the sandstone weight loss and the increase in porosity did increase.

  7. The role of calcium hydroxide in the formation of thaumasite

    SciTech Connect

    Bellmann, F. Stark, J.

    2008-10-15

    It has recently been derived by thermodynamic calculation that the presence or absence of calcium hydroxide plays a vital role in the resistance of cement paste or concrete against the formation of thaumasite. To obtain experimental data on this matter, special binders have been mixed and used for the preparation of mortar bars. These specimens were exposed to moderate sulphate attack for a period of 18 months at a temperature of 8 deg. C. Mortar bars containing calcium hydroxide showed visual signs of attack a few months after exposure, leading to expansion, mass loss and complete failure. In contrast to this, no signs of attack were observed when no calcium hydroxide was present in the microstructure. These results confirm the conclusions of earlier thermodynamic calculations that the presence of calcium hydroxide has an important impact on the formation of thaumasite. Calcium-rich C-S-H formed in the presence of calcium hydroxide is vulnerable against sulphate attack and the formation of thaumasite. In the absence of calcium hydroxide, C-S-H has a much lower calcium/silicon ratio and a higher resistance against the formation of thaumasite.

  8. Review: Mechanisms of ammonium toxicity and the quest for tolerance.

    PubMed

    Esteban, Raquel; Ariz, Idoia; Cruz, Cristina; Moran, Jose Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Ammonium sensitivity of plants is a worldwide problem, constraining crop production. Prolonged application of ammonium as the sole nitrogen source may result in physiological and morphological disorders that lead to decreased plant growth and toxicity. The main causes of ammonium toxicity/tolerance described until now include high ammonium assimilation by plants and/or low sensitivity to external pH acidification. The various ammonium transport-related components, especially the non-electrogenic influx of NH3 (related to the depletion of (15)N) and the electrogenic influx of NH4(+), may contribute to ammonium accumulation, and therefore to NH3 toxicity. However, this accumulation may be influenced by increasing K(+) concentration in the root medium. Recently, new insights have been provided by "omics" studies, leading to a suggested involvement of GDP mannose-pyrophosphorylase in the response pathways of NH4(+) stress. In this review, we highlight the cross-talk signaling between nitrate, auxins and NO, and the importance of the connection of the plants' urea cycle to metabolism of polyamines. Overall, the tolerance and amelioration of ammonium toxicity are outlined to improve the yield of ammonium-grown plants. This review identifies future directions of research, focusing on the putative importance of aquaporins in ammonium influx, and on genes involved in ammonium sensitivity and tolerance. PMID:27181951

  9. Alkali-metal ion coordination in uranyl(VI) poly-peroxide complexes in solution. Part 1: the Li⁺, Na⁺ and K⁺--peroxide-hydroxide systems.

    PubMed

    Zanonato, Pier Luigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio; Vallet, Valerie; Szabó, Zoltán; Grenthe, Ingmar

    2015-01-28

    The alkali metal ions Li(+), Na(+) and K(+) have a profound influence on the stoichiometry of the complexes formed in uranyl(VI)-peroxide-hydroxide systems, presumably as a result of a templating effect, resulting in the formation of two complexes, M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) where the uranyl units are linked by one peroxide bridge, μ-η(2)-η(2), with the second peroxide coordinated "end-on", η(2), to one of the uranyl groups, and M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]4(3-), with a four-membered ring of uranyl ions linked by μ-η(2)-η(2) peroxide bridges. The stoichiometry and equilibrium constants for the reactions: M(+) + 2UO2(2+) + 2HO2(-) + 2H2O → M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) + 4H(+) (1) and M(+) + 4UO2(2+) + 4HO2(-) + 4H2O → M[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]4(3-) + 8H(+) (2) have been measured at 25 °C in 0.10 M (tetramethyl ammonium/M(+))NO3 ionic media using reaction calorimetry. Both reactions are strongly enthalpy driven with large negative entropies of reaction; the observation that ΔH(2) ≈ 2ΔH(1) suggests that the enthalpy of reaction is approximately the same when peroxide is added in bridging and "end-on" positions. The thermodynamic driving force in the reactions is the formation of strong peroxide bridges and the role of M(+) cations is to provide a pathway with a low activation barrier between the reactants and in this way "guide" them to form peroxide bridged complexes; they play a similar role as in the synthesis of crown-ethers. Quantum chemical (QC) methods were used to determine the structure of the complexes, and to demonstrate how the size of the M(+)-ions affects their coordination geometry. There are several isomers of Na[(UO2)(O2)(OH)]2(-) and QC energy calculations show that the ones with a peroxide bridge are substantially more stable than the ones with hydroxide bridges. There are isomers with different coordination sites for Na(+) and the one with coordination to the peroxide bridge and two uranyl oxygen atoms is the most stable one.

  10. Formation of Cr(III) hydroxides from chrome alum solutions. 1: Precipitation of active chromium hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Avena, M.J.; Giacomelli, C.E.; De Pauli, C.P.

    1996-06-25

    The hydrolysis of Cr(III) and precipitation of colloidal chromium hydroxides are important processes occurring in soils and natural waters. The formation of active chromium hydroxide, Cr(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O, was studied through potentiometric titrations and turbidimetric measurements. UV-Vis and IR spectroscopies were also employed to characterize the synthesized solid. The rapid addition of NaOH solution to aqueous chrome alum (KCr(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}{center_dot}12H{sub 2}O) solutions caused the immediate precipitation of the active material. Only monomeric Cr(III) species seemed to be participating in the precipitation process; neither chromium polymers nor complexes with anions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, Cl{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, ClO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}) influenced the fast formation of Cr(OH){sub 3}{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O. Titration studies allowed the determination of several hydrolysis and precipitation constants for Cr(III). Nevertheless, they cannot be used for the estimate of Cr(OH){sub 3}{sup 0} formation constant.

  11. Pseudo-hydroxide extraction in the separation of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solutions using alkyl phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Hyun Ah; Moyer, Bruce A

    2006-01-01

    Pseudo-hydroxide extraction of sodium hydroxide from aqueous solution using four alkyl phenols of nearly identical molecular weight in 1-octanol at 25 degrees C was examined to understand the effect of alkyl substituents. The order of extraction strength among the four alkyl phenols tested was 4-tert-octylphenol. 3,5-di-tertbutylphenol. 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol. A good correlation with phenol pK(a) was observed, indicating that extraction strength is determined by phenol acidity, as modified by steric effects in proximity to the phenol - OH group. The effective partition ratios (P-eff) of two phenols from 1 M NaOH solution were determined, showing that the phenols remain predominantly in the 1-octanol phase even when converted to their sodium salts. However, the hydrophobicity of the tested phenols may not be sufficient for process purposes. The equilibrium constants for the governing extraction equilibria were determined by modeling the data using the program SXLSQI, supporting the cation-exchange extraction mechanism. The proposed mechanism consists of two simple sets of equilibria for a. Ion-pair extraction to give Na+OH- ion pairs and corresponding free ions in 1-octanol the phase and b. Cation exchange by monomeric phenol molecules (HAs) to form monomeric organic-phase Na(+)A(-) ion pairs and corresponding free organic-phase ions.

  12. Evolution of rheological properties of the nanofluids composed of laponite particles and Mg–Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Tae-Bong; Phuoc, Tran X.; Chyu, Minking K.; Romanov, Vyacheslav

    2011-05-01

    The thixotropic clay suspensions composed of laponite particles and Mg-Fe layered double hydroxide nanosheets were examined. By adding a very small amount of the layered double hydroxide nanosheets overall theological properties of the host laponite suspension have been changed. Though the particle concentration of the mixture suspension is only about 1 wt%, the mixture quickly becomes a gel in a day by the electrostatic attraction between nano-materials. When a constant shear rate is applied to the mixture gel suspension, at short time, stress increases linearly with elastic deformation of the mixture. Beyond the maximum of stress, while the solid-like gel structure is being broken down with time of shearing, the stress increases again by reflecting shear enhanced association of solid phase. This is likely that the mixture suspension shows partially the behavior of memory effect.

  13. [Achievement of Sulfate-Reducing Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation Reactor Started with Nitrate-Reducting Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheng-chuan; Yuan, Lin-jiang; Zhou, Guo-biao; Li, Jing

    2015-09-01

    The transformation of nitrite-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation to sulfate-reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an UASB was performed and the changes in microbial community were studied. The result showed that the sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation process was successfully accomplished after 177 days' operation. The removal rate of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were up to 58. 9% and 15. 7%, the removing load of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate were 74. 3 mg.(L.d)-1 and 77. 5 mg.(L.d)-1 while concentration of ammonium nitrogen and sulfate of influent were 130 mg.(L.d)-1 and 500 mg.(L.d)-1, respectively. The lost nitrogen and sulphur was around 2 in molar ratio. The pH value of the effluent was lower than that of the influent. Instead of Candidatus brocadia in nitrite reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation granular sludge, Bacillus benzoevorans became the dominant species in sulfate reducing anaerobic ammonium oxidation sludge. The dominant bacterium in the two kinds of anaerobic ammonium oxidation process is different. Our results imply that the two anaerobic ammonium oxidation processes are carried out by different kind of bacterium.

  14. Mild ammonium stress increases chlorophyll content in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Zabala, Joseba; González-Murua, Carmen; Marino, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and ammonium (NH4(+)) are the main forms of nitrogen available in the soil for plants. Excessive NH4(+) accumulation in tissues is toxic for plants and exclusive NH4(+)-based nutrition enhances this effect. Ammonium toxicity syndrome commonly includes growth impairment, ion imbalance and chlorosis among others. In this work, we observed high intraspecific variability in chlorophyll content in 47 Arabidopsis thaliana natural accessions grown under 1 mM NH4(+) or 1 mM NO3(-) as N-source. Interestingly, chlorophyll content increased in every accession upon ammonium nutrition. Moreover, this increase was independent of ammonium tolerance capacity. Thus, chlorosis seems to be an exclusive effect of severe ammonium toxicity while mild ammonium stress induces chlorophyll accumulation.

  15. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970`s. In the late 1970`s and early 1980`s, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC`s current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC`s current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  16. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970's. In the late 1970's and early 1980's, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC's current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC's current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  17. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

    PubMed

    Oommen; Jain

    1999-06-30

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  18. Reassimilation of ammonium in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Betti, Marco; García-Calderón, Margarita; Pérez-Delgado, Carmen M; Credali, Alfredo; Pal'ove-Balang, Peter; Estivill, Guillermo; Repčák, Miroslav; Vega, José M; Galván, Francisco; Márquez, Antonio J

    2014-10-01

    This review summarizes the most recent results obtained in the analysis of two important metabolic pathways involved in the release of internal sources of ammonium in the model legume Lotus japonicus: photorespiratory metabolism and asparagine breakdown mediated by aparaginase (NSE). The use of photorespiratory mutants deficient in plastidic glutamine synthetase (GS2) enabled us to investigate the transcriptomics and metabolomic changes associated with photorespiratory ammonium accumulation in this plant. The results obtained indicate the existence of a coordinate regulation of genes involved in photorespiratory metabolism. Other types of evidence illustrate the multiple interconnections existing among the photorespiratory pathway and other processes such as intermediate metabolism, nodule function, and secondary metabolism in this plant, all of which are substantially affected in GS2-deficient mutants because of the impairment of the photorespiratory cycle. Finally, the importance of asparagine metabolism in L. japonicus is highlighted because of the fact that asparagine constitutes the vast majority of the reduced nitrogen translocated between different organs of this plant. The different types of NSE enzymes and genes which are present in L. japonicus are described. There is a particular focus on the most abundant K(+)-dependent LjNSE1 isoform and how TILLING mutants were used to demonstrate by reverse genetics the importance of this particular isoform in plant growth and seed production.

  19. A novel and easy chemical-clock synthesis of nanocrystalline iron-cobalt bearing layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Jebril; Grangeon, Sylvain; Warmont, Fabienne; Seron, Alain; Greneche, Jean-Marc

    2014-11-15

    A novel synthesis of cobalt-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH) with interlayer chlorides was investigated. The method consists in mixing concentrated solutions of hexaamminecobalt(III) trichloride with ferrous chloride at room temperature and in anoxic conditions. Four initial Fe/Co atomic ratios have been tried out (0.12, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8). Neither heating nor addition of alkali was employed for adjusting the pH and precipitating the metal hydroxides. Still, each mixture led to the spontaneous precipitation of a LDH-rich solid having a crystal-chemistry that depended on the initial solution Fe/Co. These LDHs phases were carefully characterized by mean of X-ray diffraction, (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and chemical analysis (total dissolution and phenanthroline method). Solution Eh and pH were also monitored during the synthesis. Increasing initial Fe/Co ratio impacted the dynamic of the observed stepwise reaction and the composition of the resulting product. Once the two solutions are mixed, a spontaneous and abrupt color change occurs after an induction time which depends on the starting Fe/Co ratio. This makes the overall process acting as a chemical clock. This spontaneous generation of CoFe-LDH arises from the interplay between redox chemistries of iron and cobalt-ammonium complexes. PMID:25173991

  20. A novel and easy chemical-clock synthesis of nanocrystalline iron-cobalt bearing layered double hydroxides.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Jebril; Grangeon, Sylvain; Warmont, Fabienne; Seron, Alain; Greneche, Jean-Marc

    2014-11-15

    A novel synthesis of cobalt-iron layered double hydroxide (LDH) with interlayer chlorides was investigated. The method consists in mixing concentrated solutions of hexaamminecobalt(III) trichloride with ferrous chloride at room temperature and in anoxic conditions. Four initial Fe/Co atomic ratios have been tried out (0.12, 0.6, 1.2 and 1.8). Neither heating nor addition of alkali was employed for adjusting the pH and precipitating the metal hydroxides. Still, each mixture led to the spontaneous precipitation of a LDH-rich solid having a crystal-chemistry that depended on the initial solution Fe/Co. These LDHs phases were carefully characterized by mean of X-ray diffraction, (57)Fe Mössbauer spectrometry, transmission electron microscopy and chemical analysis (total dissolution and phenanthroline method). Solution Eh and pH were also monitored during the synthesis. Increasing initial Fe/Co ratio impacted the dynamic of the observed stepwise reaction and the composition of the resulting product. Once the two solutions are mixed, a spontaneous and abrupt color change occurs after an induction time which depends on the starting Fe/Co ratio. This makes the overall process acting as a chemical clock. This spontaneous generation of CoFe-LDH arises from the interplay between redox chemistries of iron and cobalt-ammonium complexes.

  1. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Radhakrishnan, H.; Gopi, M.; Arumugam, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate. PMID:25484533

  2. Solubilities and Glass Formation in Aqueous Solutions of the Sodium Salts of Malonic Acid With and Without Ammonium Sulfate.

    PubMed

    Kissinger, Jared A; Buttke, Lukas G; Vinokur, Anastasiya I; Guzei, Ilia A; Beyer, Keith D

    2016-06-01

    The solubility of sodium hydrogen malonate and sodium malonate in water both with and without ammonium sulfate present has been studied using differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The crystals that form from sodium hydrogen malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium hydrogen malonate monohydrate by single-crystal X-ray diffractometry. The crystals formed in sodium malonate/water solutions were determined to be sodium malonate monohydrate, a compound whose structure had not been previously known. When ammonium sulfate is added to these respective aqueous systems, the precipitation solids contain sodium sulfate decahydrate under low to moderate ammonium concentrations and lecontite (NaNH4SO4·2H2O) under high ammonium concentrations, which can be found under dry atmospheric conditions. Thus, it appears the presence of malonate and hydrogen malonate ions does not significantly affect the precipitation of inorganic salts in these systems. The glass transition temperatures of all solutions were also determined, and it was observed that the addition of ammonium sulfate slightly lowers the glass transition temperature in these solutions.

  3. Stability and economics of solar ponds using ammonium salts

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The use of ammonium salts in salt gradient solar ponds eliminates the environmental problems associated with NaCl by incorporating the salt discharge from the solar pond into the fertilizer cycle of an agricultural system. An examination of thermophysical properties of several ammonium salts suggests that both ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate can provide hydrodynamic stability equivalent to NaCl. The cost of the fertilizer salt is based on the real interest for holding the fertilizer in inventory. Costs are independent of the rate at which the salt is cycled through the pond, which makes desirable a maintenance scheme that minimizes the thickness of the upper convecting zone.

  4. Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals in Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, T. V. V.; Clark, R. N.; Calvin, W. M.; Sherman, D. M.; Swayze, G. A.; Brown, R. H.

    1991-01-01

    Evidence for ammonium-bearing minerals was found on the surface of the largest asteroid Ceres. The presence of ammonium-bearing clays suggests that Ceres has experienced a period of alteration by substantial amounts of an ammonium-bearing fluid. The presence of the ammonium-bearing clays does not preclude Ceres maintaining a volatile inventory in the core or in a volatile-rich zone at some distance below the surface. Telescopic observations of Ceres, using the 3.0 meter NASA Infrared telescope facility prompted this reevaluation of its surface mineralogy.

  5. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  6. Fire and thermal properties of layered double hydroxides and polyurea nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyambo, Calistor

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) intercalated with linear alkyl carboxylates (CH3(CH2)n COO-, n = 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20), borate and benzyl anions were prepared. The effect on fire and thermal properties of the mode of preparation for LDHs (i.e. ion exchange, coprecipitation and rehydration of the calcined LDH methods) has been studied. After characterization, the LDHs were used to prepare nanocomposites with a range of polar and non-polar polymers. Characterization of the LDHs and the nanocomposites was performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry analysis (TGA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cone calorimetry. FTIR and XRD analyses confirmed the presence of the charge balancing anions in the galleries of the LDHs. Improvements in fire and thermal properties of the nanocomposites were observed. The cone calorimeter revealed that the addition of LDHs reduces the peak heat release rate significantly. LDHs were combined with commercial fire retardants. Synergistic effects were observed in both TGA and cone calorimetry for formulations containing both LDH and ammonium polyphosphate (APP). Physical and chemical interactions between LDH and APP are responsible for the observed synergy in thermal stability and fire performance.

  7. 21 CFR 73.85 - Caramel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide U.S.P. Potassium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide. (iii) Salts: Ammonium, sodium, or potassium carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate (including dibasic phosphate and...

  8. 21 CFR 73.85 - Caramel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide U.S.P. Potassium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide. (iii) Salts: Ammonium, sodium, or potassium carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate (including dibasic phosphate and...

  9. 21 CFR 73.85 - Caramel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide U.S.P. Potassium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide. (iii) Salts: Ammonium, sodium, or potassium carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate (including dibasic phosphate and...

  10. 21 CFR 73.85 - Caramel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide U.S.P. Potassium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide. (iii) Salts: Ammonium, sodium, or potassium carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate (including dibasic phosphate and...

  11. 21 CFR 73.85 - Caramel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Ammonium hydroxide. Calcium hydroxide U.S.P. Potassium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide. (iii) Salts: Ammonium, sodium, or potassium carbonate, bicarbonate, phosphate (including dibasic phosphate and...

  12. Understanding improved dissolution of indomethacin through the use of cohesive poorly water-soluble aluminium hydroxide: effects of concentration and particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Tay, Tracy; Allahham, Ayman; Morton, David A V; Stewart, Peter J

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the effects of concentration and particle size distribution of an added poorly water-soluble inorganic salt, aluminium hydroxide, on the dissolution of a poorly water-soluble drug, indomethacin (IMC), from lactose interactive mixtures. Dissolution was studied using the United States Pharmacopeia paddle method in buffer pH 5.0 and the data most aptly fitted a bi-exponential dissolution model which represented dissolution occurring from dispersed and agglomerated particles. The dispersion of IMC mixtures was measured in dissolution media under non-sink conditions by laser diffraction. The dissolution of IMC increased as a function of the concentration of aluminium hydroxide (5-20%) added to the mixtures. Increasing the proportion of larger particles of the cohesive aluminium hydroxide increased the dissolution rate of IMC. The enhanced dissolution was attributed to increases in both the dissolution rate constant and initial concentration of dispersed particles. Mechanistically, the aluminium hydroxide was found to facilitate the detachment of IMC particles from the carrier surface, forming a complex interactive mixture that more readily deagglomerated than the cohesive drug agglomerates. The outcomes of this work would therefore allow more careful control and selection of the excipient specifications in producing solid dosage formulations with improved dissolution of poorly water-soluble drugs.

  13. Toxicity of triphenyltin hydroxide to fish.

    PubMed

    Antes, Fabiane G; Becker, Alexssandro G; Parodi, Thaylise V; Clasen, Barbara; Lópes, Thais; Loro, Vania L; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Dressler, Valderi L

    2013-11-01

    Triphenyltin (TPhT) is used worldwide in pesticide formulas for agriculture. Toxic effects of this compound to aquatic life have been reported; however, the biochemical response of fish exposed to different concentrations of TPhT hydroxide (TPhTH) was investigated for the first time in this study. The lethal concentration (LC50) of TPhTH to silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, was calculated from an acute-exposure experiment (96 h). In addition, acethylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain and muscle-as well as glucose, glycogen, lactate, total protein, ammonia, and free amino acids in liver and muscle-were evaluated in a chronic-exposure experiment (15-day exposure). Speciation analysis of tin (Sn) was performed in fish tissues at the end of both experiments using gas chromatography coupled to a pulsed-flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD). Concentrations of TPhT, diphenyltin, and monophenyltin (reported as Sn) were lower than limits of quantification (10σ criteria). Waterborne TPhTH concentration used through the experiment was also evaluated by GC-PFPD, and no degradation of this species was observed. The LC50 value for silver catfish juveniles was 9.73 μg L(-1) (as Sn). Decreased brain and muscle AChE activities were observed in fish exposed to TPhTH in relation to unexposed fish (control). Liver glycogen and lactate levels were significantly higher in fish kept at the highest waterborne TPhTH concentration compared with the control. Liver and muscle glucose levels of fish exposed to all TPhTH concentrations were significantly lower than those of control fish. Silver catfish exposed to all TPhTH concentrations showed lower total protein values and higher total free amino acids levels in liver and muscle compared with controls. Total ammonia levels in liver and muscle were significantly higher for the highest TPhTH concentration compared with controls. In conclusion, TPhTH caused metabolic alterations in silver catfish juveniles, and the analyzed parameters can

  14. Biocompatibility of Intracanal Medications Based on Calcium Hydroxide

    PubMed Central

    Andolfatto, Carolina; da Silva, Guilherme Ferreira; Cornélio, Ana Livia Gomes; Guerreiro-Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Tanomaru-Filho, Mario; Faria, Gisele; Bonetti-Filho, Idomeo; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2012-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the rat subcutaneous tissue reaction to calcium hydroxide-based intracanal medicaments, UltraCal XS (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, aqueous matrix), Hydropast (calcium hydroxide, barium sulphate, and propyleneglycol), and Calen (Calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide, colophony, and polyethyleneglycol), used as a control. Methods. Forty-eight rats (Rattus Norvegicus Holtzman) were distributed in three groups: Calen, UltraCal XS, and Hydropast. Polyethylene tubes filled with one of the medicaments were implanted in the dorsal subcutaneous. After 7 and 30 days, the implants were removed and the specimens were fixed and embedded in paraffin. Morphological and quantitative analyses were carried out in the HE-stained sections. The numerical density of inflammatory cells in the capsule was evaluated and statistical analyses were performed (P ≤ 0.05). Results. At 7 days, all materials induced an inflammatory reaction in the subcutaneous tissue adjacent to the implants. In all groups, a significant reduction in the number of inflammatory cells and giant cells was verified in the period of 30 days. Conclusion. These results indicate that the calcium hydroxide-based medicaments evaluated present biocompatibility similar to Calen. PMID:23320187

  15. Fabrication of Elemental Copper by Intense Pulsed Light Processing of a Copper Nitrate Hydroxide Ink.

    PubMed

    Draper, Gabriel L; Dharmadasa, Ruvini; Staats, Meghan E; Lavery, Brandon W; Druffel, Thad

    2015-08-01

    Printed electronics and renewable energy technologies have shown a growing demand for scalable copper and copper precursor inks. An alternative copper precursor ink of copper nitrate hydroxide, Cu2(OH)3NO3, was aqueously synthesized under ambient conditions with copper nitrate and potassium hydroxide reagents. Films were deposited by screen-printing and subsequently processed with intense pulsed light. The Cu2(OH)3NO3 quickly transformed in less than 100 s using 40 (2 ms, 12.8 J cm(-2)) pulses into CuO. At higher energy densities, the sintering improved the bulk film quality. The direct formation of Cu from the Cu2(OH)3NO3 requires a reducing agent; therefore, fructose and glucose were added to the inks. Rather than oxidizing, the thermal decomposition of the sugars led to a reducing environment and direct conversion of the films into elemental copper. The chemical and physical transformations were studied with XRD, SEM, FTIR and UV-vis. PMID:26154246

  16. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=сΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  17. Unsteady growth of ammonium chloride dendrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martyushev, L. M.; Terentiev, P. S.; Soboleva, A. S.

    2016-02-01

    Growth of ammonium chloride dendrites from aqueous solution is experimentally investigated. The growth rate υ and the radius ρ of curvature of branches are measured as a function of the relative supersaturation Δ for steady and unsteady growth conditions. It is shown that the experimental results are quantitatively described by the dependences ρ=a/Δ+b, υ=cΔ2, where the factors for primary branches are a=(1.3±0.2)·10-7 m, b=(2.5±0.4)·10-7 m, and c=(2.2±0.3)·10-4 m/s. The factor c is found to be approximately 7 times smaller for the side branches than that for the primary branches.

  18. Standard enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates

    SciTech Connect

    Burylev, B.P.

    1995-03-01

    Available experimental data on standard enthalpies of formation of alkali metal hydroxide hydrates have been summarized. Using equations derived, the authors have calculated previously unknown enthalpies of formation of some lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium, and cesium hydroxide hydrates. Taking into account the contribution of water to the enthalpies of formation of monohydrates, the authors have estimated the enthalpies of formation of francium hydroxide hydrates FrOH{center_dot}H{sub 2}O, FrOH{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O, and FrOH{center_dot}3H{sub 2}O (-745.8, -1085.8, and -1515.8 kJ mol{sup -1}, respectively).

  19. Transformation of zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael; McDonagh, Andrew

    2016-04-25

    Thermal decomposition of layered zinc hydroxide double salts provides an interesting alternative synthesis for particles of zinc oxide. Here, we examine the sequence of changes occurring as zinc hydroxide chloride monohydrate (Zn5(OH)8Cl2·H2O) is converted to crystalline ZnO by thermal decomposition. The specific surface area of the resultant ZnO measured by BET was 1.3 m(2) g(-1). A complicating and important factor in this process is that the thermal decomposition of zinc hydroxide chloride is also accompanied by the formation of volatile zinc-containing species under certain conditions. We show that this volatile compound is anhydrous ZnCl2 and its formation is moisture dependent. Therefore, control of atmospheric moisture is an important consideration that affects the overall efficiency of ZnO production by this process. PMID:27030646

  20. Zinc hydroxide sulphate and its transformation to crystalline zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Moezzi, Amir; Cortie, Michael B; McDonagh, Andrew M

    2013-10-28

    The thermal transformation of zinc hydroxide sulphate hydrate to zinc oxide has been examined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and surface area measurements. By collecting X-ray diffraction data in situ, we found that the dehydration of zinc hydroxide sulphate pentahydrate proceeded in discrete steps to form anhydrous zinc hydroxide sulphate. This compound then decomposed to a mixture of zinc oxide and a compound tentatively identified as Zn3(OH)2(SO4)2 at ~235 °C. At ~360 °C, the final dehydroxylation occurred with the formation of zinc oxy-sulphate, Zn3O(SO4)2, which then decomposed to ZnO at about ~800 °C. Interruption of the dehydration process can be used to synthesize the intermediate compounds.

  1. Structure and properties of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levkov, R.; Kulkov, S.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper the study of porous ceramics obtained from aluminum hydroxide with gibbsite modification is presented. The dependence of porosity and mechanical characteristics of the material sintered at different temperatures was studied. It was shown that compressive strength of alumina ceramics increases by 40 times with decreasing the pore volume from 65 to 15%. It was shown that aluminum hydroxide may be used for pore formation and pore volume in the sintered ceramics can be controlled by varying the aluminum hydroxide concentration and sintering temperature. Based on these results one can conclude that the obtained structure is very close to inorganic bone matrix and can be used as promising material for bone implants production.

  2. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ferric ammonium citrate. 73.1025 Section 73.1025 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... color additive ferric ammonium citrate consists of complex chelates prepared by the interaction...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  7. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tetra...

  9. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  10. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  11. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  12. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  13. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as alkyl phosphonate...

  14. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... residues of the herbicide glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...-propionic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid equivalents, in or on the... ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)-, monoammonium salt and its metabolite,...

  15. THE MASS ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOL. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mass transfer rate of pure ammonium nitrate between the aerosol and gas phases was
    quantified experimentally by the use of the tandem differential mobility analyzer/scanning mobility
    particle sizer (TDMA/SMPS) technique. Ammonium nitrate particles 80-220 nm in diameter<...

  16. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  17. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  18. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  19. Effect of oxide formation mechanisms on lead adsorption by biogenic manganese (hydr)oxides, iron (hydr)oxides, and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Yarrow M; Lion, Leonard W; Shuler, Michael L; Ghiorse, William C

    2002-02-01

    The effects of iron and manganese (hydr)oxide formation processes on the trace metal adsorption properties of these metal (hydr)oxides and their mixtures was investigated by measuring lead adsorption by iron and manganese (hydr)oxides prepared by a variety of methods. Amorphous iron (hydr)oxide formed by fast precipitation at pH 7.5 exhibited greater Pb adsorption (gamma(max) = 50 mmol of Pb/mol of Fe at pH 6.0) than iron (hydr)oxide formed by slow, diffusion-controlled oxidation of Fe(II) at pH 4.5-7.0 or goethite. Biogenic manganese(III/IV) (hydr)oxide prepared by enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II) by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 adsorbed five times more Pb (per mole of Mn) than an abiotic manganese (hydr)oxide prepared by oxidation of Mn(II) with permanganate, and 500-5000 times more Pb than pyrolusite oxides (betaMnO2). X-ray crystallography indicated that biogenic manganese (hydr)oxide and iron (hydr)oxide were predominantly amorphous or poorly crystalline and their X-ray diffraction patterns were not significantly affected by the presence of the other (hydr)oxide during formation. When iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were mixed after formation, or for Mn biologically oxidized with iron(III) (hydr)oxide present, observed Pb adsorption was similar to that expected for the mixture based on Langmuir parameters for the individual (hydr)oxides. These results indicate that interactions in iron/manganese (hydr)oxide mixtures related to the formation process and sequence of formation such as site masking, alterations in specific surface area, or changes in crystalline structure either did not occur or had a negligible effect on Pb adsorption by the mixtures. PMID:11871557

  20. Effect of oxide formation mechanisms on lead adsorption by biogenic manganese (hydr)oxides, iron (hydr)oxides, and their mixtures.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Yarrow M; Lion, Leonard W; Shuler, Michael L; Ghiorse, William C

    2002-02-01

    The effects of iron and manganese (hydr)oxide formation processes on the trace metal adsorption properties of these metal (hydr)oxides and their mixtures was investigated by measuring lead adsorption by iron and manganese (hydr)oxides prepared by a variety of methods. Amorphous iron (hydr)oxide formed by fast precipitation at pH 7.5 exhibited greater Pb adsorption (gamma(max) = 50 mmol of Pb/mol of Fe at pH 6.0) than iron (hydr)oxide formed by slow, diffusion-controlled oxidation of Fe(II) at pH 4.5-7.0 or goethite. Biogenic manganese(III/IV) (hydr)oxide prepared by enzymatic oxidation of Mn(II) by the bacterium Leptothrix discophora SS-1 adsorbed five times more Pb (per mole of Mn) than an abiotic manganese (hydr)oxide prepared by oxidation of Mn(II) with permanganate, and 500-5000 times more Pb than pyrolusite oxides (betaMnO2). X-ray crystallography indicated that biogenic manganese (hydr)oxide and iron (hydr)oxide were predominantly amorphous or poorly crystalline and their X-ray diffraction patterns were not significantly affected by the presence of the other (hydr)oxide during formation. When iron and manganese (hydr)oxides were mixed after formation, or for Mn biologically oxidized with iron(III) (hydr)oxide present, observed Pb adsorption was similar to that expected for the mixture based on Langmuir parameters for the individual (hydr)oxides. These results indicate that interactions in iron/manganese (hydr)oxide mixtures related to the formation process and sequence of formation such as site masking, alterations in specific surface area, or changes in crystalline structure either did not occur or had a negligible effect on Pb adsorption by the mixtures.

  1. Hybrid organic-inorganic crystals based on ammonium dihydrogen phosphate and ammonium salicylate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronov, A. P.; Salo, V. I.; Puzikov, V. M.; Babenko, G. N.; Roshal, A. D.; Tkachenko, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    ADP-NH 4Sal hybrid crystals are grown from aqueous solutions. The influence of the acidity of the mixed solution on the conditions of co-crystallization of the components is studied. The spectral and scintillation characteristics are determined. Co-crystallization of ammonium salicylate (NH 4Sal) and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP, NH 4H 2PO 4) is shown to be feasible, the structure of the doping addition being defined by the solution рН. In basic and weak acidic media the hybrid crystals ADP:NH 4Sal are formed in which salicylate anions are located in the interplanar space between the {110}-type planes in the lattice of ADP. The luminescence spectra contain an emission band maximum with λ max=360 nm. In acidic solutions there are ADP:HSal crystals in which salicylic acid molecules captured by the growth macrosteps are located in the interplanar space of the prismatic {100} and pyramidal {101} growth sectors. The luminescence band undergoes bathochromic shift to λmax=400 nm. The sensitivity of ADP:NH 4Sal scintillation crystals to fast neutrons depends on the concentration of ammonium salicylate in ADP matrix. The highest neutron sensitivity is characteristic of the co-doped ADP:NH 4Sal/Tl scintillation crystals.

  2. Assimilation of ammonium and nitrate nitrogen by bean plants

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, R.J. ); Chaillou, S.; Morot-Gaudry, J.F. ); Mariotti, A. )

    1989-04-01

    Enhanced growth is often observed in plants growing on combined ammonium and nitrate nutrition. The physiological basis for such enhancement was examined by exposing non-nodulated bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants to {sup 15}N-labeled, 1.0 mM N solutions containing 0, 33, 67 or 100% of the N as ammonium, the balance being nitrate. Maximal total N uptake and biomass production were attained by plants receiving 33% ammonium. A higher proportion of incoming ammonium than nitrate was incorporated into root protein. This was accompanied by increased partitioning of plant biomass to roots. It was concluded that as a consequence of greater N metabolism in the root under mixed ammonium and nitrate nutrition, the root became a more active sink for photosynthate. Concurrently, the augmented supply of N to the shoot enhanced net photosynthesis as reflected in increased plant biomass.

  3. [Pathway of aqueous ferric hydroxide catalyzed ozone decomposition and ozonation of trace nitrobenzene].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Tao; Chen, Zhong-lin; Sui, Ming-hao; Li, Xue-yan

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, the decomposition rate of ozone in water was measured over GAC and ferric hydroxide/GAC (FeOOH/GAC) catalyst and the mechanism of ozone catalytic decomposition was discussed. The catalytic ozonation activity of trace nitrobenzene in water was determined on several metal oxides and correlated with their surface density of hydroxyl groups and pHzpc,(pH of zero point of charge). The results show that: 1) The pseudo-first order rate of ozone decomposition increased by 68 and 108 percent for GAC and FeOOH/GAC catalysts respectively; 2) When t-butanol was added, the rate constant decreased by 9 % for GAC and 20% for FeOOH/GAC; 3) There was no direct correlation between surface density of hydroxyl groups and the activity of catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene; 4) The oxide surface at nearly zero charged point was favorable for the catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene.

  4. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  5. Role of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in nitrogen removal from a freshwater aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, Richard L.; Bohlke, John Karl; B. Song,; C. Tobias,

    2015-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) couples the oxidation of ammonium with the reduction of nitrite, producing N2. The presence and activity of anammox bacteria in groundwater were investigated at multiple locations in an aquifer variably affected by a large, wastewater-derived contaminant plume. Anammox bacteria were detected at all locations tested using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantification of hydrazine oxidoreductase (hzo) gene transcripts. Anammox and denitrification activities were quantified by in situ 15NO2–tracer tests along anoxic flow paths in areas of varying ammonium, nitrate, and organic carbon abundances. Rates of denitrification and anammox were determined by quantifying changes in 28N2, 29N2, 30N2, 15NO3–, 15NO2–, and 15NH4+ with groundwater travel time. Anammox was present and active in all areas tested, including where ammonium and dissolved organic carbon concentrations were low, but decreased in proportion to denitrification when acetate was added to increase available electron supply. Anammox contributed 39–90% of potential N2 production in this aquifer, with rates on the order of 10 nmol N2–N L–1 day–1. Although rates of both anammox and denitrification during the tracer tests were low, they were sufficient to reduce inorganic nitrogen concentrations substantially during the overall groundwater residence times in the aquifer. These results demonstrate that anammox activity in groundwater can rival that of denitrification and may need to be considered when assessing nitrogen mass transport and permanent loss of fixed nitrogen in aquifers.

  6. Thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidation in an acidic forest peat soil is not influenced by ammonium amendment.

    PubMed

    Stopnisek, Nejc; Gubry-Rangin, Cécile; Höfferle, Spela; Nicol, Graeme W; Mandic-Mulec, Ines; Prosser, James I

    2010-11-01

    Both bacteria and thaumarchaea contribute to ammonia oxidation, the first step in nitrification. The abundance of putative ammonia oxidizers is estimated by quantification of the functional gene amoA, which encodes ammonia monooxygenase subunit A. In soil, thaumarchaeal amoA genes often outnumber the equivalent bacterial genes. Ecophysiological studies indicate that thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizers may have a selective advantage at low ammonia concentrations, with potential adaptation to soils in which mineralization is the major source of ammonia. To test this hypothesis, thaumarchaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers were investigated during nitrification in microcosms containing an organic, acidic forest peat soil (pH 4.1) with a low ammonium concentration but high potential for ammonia release during mineralization. Net nitrification rates were high but were not influenced by addition of ammonium. Bacterial amoA genes could not be detected, presumably because of low abundance of bacterial ammonia oxidizers. Phylogenetic analysis of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that dominant populations belonged to group 1.1c, 1.3, and "deep peat" lineages, while known amo-containing lineages (groups 1.1a and 1.1b) comprised only a small proportion of the total community. Growth of thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizers was indicated by increased abundance of amoA genes during nitrification but was unaffected by addition of ammonium. Similarly, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of amoA gene transcripts demonstrated small temporal changes in thaumarchaeal ammonia oxidizer communities but no effect of ammonium amendment. Thaumarchaea therefore appeared to dominate ammonia oxidation in this soil and oxidized ammonia arising from mineralization of organic matter rather than added inorganic nitrogen.

  7. Introducing ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Henneken, E.; Grant, C. S.; Kurtz, M. J.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Thompson, D. M.; Bohlen, E.; Murray, S. S.

    2011-05-01

    ADS Labs is a platform that ADS is introducing in order to test and receive feedback from the community on new technologies and prototype services. Currently, ADS Labs features a new interface for abstract searches, faceted filtering of results, visualization of co-authorship networks, article-level recommendations, and a full-text search service. The streamlined abstract search interface provides a simple, one-box search with options for ranking results based on a paper relevancy, freshness, number of citations, and downloads. In addition, it provides advanced rankings based on collaborative filtering techniques. The faceted filtering interface allows users to narrow search results based on a particular property or set of properties ("facets"), allowing users to manage large lists and explore the relationship between them. For any set or sub-set of records, the co-authorship network can be visualized in an interactive way, offering a view of the distribution of contributors and their inter-relationships. This provides an immediate way to detect groups and collaborations involved in a particular research field. For a majority of papers in Astronomy, our new interface will provide a list of related articles of potential interest. The recommendations are based on a number of factors, including text similarity, citations, and co-readership information. The new full-text search interface allows users to find all instances of particular words or phrases in the body of the articles in our full-text archive. This includes all of the scanned literature in ADS as well as a select portion of the current astronomical literature, including ApJ, ApJS, AJ, MNRAS, PASP, A&A, and soon additional content from Springer journals. Fulltext search results include a list of the matching papers as well as a list of "snippets" of text highlighting the context in which the search terms were found. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  8. Dewatering of alumino-humic sludge: impacts of hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Bache, D H; Papavasilopoulos, E N

    2003-08-01

    The paper draws together information on factors which influence the conditioning and dewatering behaviour of an alum sludge gained from the coagulation of a low-turbidity coloured water. A principal focus is the potential impact of aluminium hydroxide on the sludge character. Background information is provided on the composition of the source floc for the domain pH 6.0-6.5 and Al>2.0mg/l. From this, there were many pointers to the presence of Al(OH)(3)(s) within the floc. A series of comparisons were made between an alum sludge and a hydroxide suspension at a concentration equivalent to the coagulant fraction within the sludge. The parameters studied included floc size, floc density, polymer adsorption and dewatering behaviour at different time-scales. In all cases, there were strong similarities in the behaviour of the two suspensions-indicating the potential impact of the hydroxide. There was also evidence of common features being displayed by both the organic fractions and the hydroxide. It was suggested that some of the behavioural features might emanate from a common fractal structure within the source floc, the fractal dimension (approximately 1) being insensitive to composition.

  9. Sintering of corundum ceramics based on aluminum hydroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Afoninia, G.A.; Leonov, V.G.

    1995-09-01

    The possibility of using aluminum hydroxide obtained by the precipitation method for synthesis of corundum ceramics with additives forming a liquid phase during firing and without additives, is investigated. The optimum parameters of the manufacturing process and the main properties of the material recommended for testing in the production of glass ceramic substrates for integrated circuits are investigated.

  10. Aqueous alkali metal hydroxide insoluble cellulose ether membrane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, H. E.; Pfluger, H. L. (Inventor)

    1969-01-01

    A membrane that is insoluble in an aqueous alkali metal hydroxide medium is described. The membrane is a resin which is a water-soluble C2-C4 hydroxyalkyl cellulose ether polymer and an insolubilizing agent for controlled water sorption, a dialytic and electrodialytic membrane. It is particularly useful as a separator between electrodes or plates in an alkaline storage battery.

  11. INFLUENCE OF IODOFORM ON ANTIMICROBIAL POTENTIAL OF CALCIUM HYDROXIDE

    PubMed Central

    Estrela, Carlos; Estrela, Cyntia Rodrigues de Araújo; Hollanda, Augusto César Braz; Decurcio, Daniel de Almeida; Pécora, Jesus Djalma

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to verify the influence of Iodoform on antimicrobial potential of calcium hydroxide. S. aureus, E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, C. albicans were the biological indicators. The substances tested were: calcium hydroxide + saline; calcium hydroxide + Iodoform + saline; Iodoform + saline. For the agar diffusion test, 18 Petri plates with 20 ml of BHI agar were inoculated with the microbial suspensions. Fifty-four cavities were made and filled with the substances tested. The diameters of microbial inhibition were then measured. In direct exposure test, 162 #50 sterile absorbent paper points were immersed in the experimental suspensions for 5 min, and covered with the pastes. At intervals of 24, 48 and 72 hours, the paper points were immersed in 10 ml of Letheen Broth, followed by incubation at 37°°C for 48h. Microbial growth was evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. A 0.1 ml inoculum obtained from the Letheen Broth was transferred to 7 ml of BHI, and incubated at 37°°C for 48h. Bacterial growth was again evaluated by turbidity of the culture medium. The calcium hydroxide associated with the saline or the iodoform plus saline showed antimicrobial effectiveness in both experimental methods. The iodoform paste presented antimicrobial ineffectiveness for the agar diffusion test on all biological microorganisms and for the direct exposure test on B. subtilis and on the mixture. PMID:19089027

  12. Praseodymium(III) sulfate hydroxide, Pr(SO(4))(OH).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Cheng, Jian-Wen

    2011-01-15

    The title compound, Pr(SO(4))(OH), obtained under hydro-thermal conditions, consists of Pr(III) ions coordinated by nine O atoms from six sulfate groups and three hydroxide anions. The bridging mode of the O atoms results in the formation of a three-dimensional framework, stabilized by two O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions.

  13. Engineering evaluation of a sodium hydroxide thermal energy storage module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perdue, D. G.; Gordon, L. H.

    1980-01-01

    An engineering evaluation of thermal energy storage prototypes was performed in order to assess the development status of latent heat storage media. The testing and the evaluation of a prototype sodium hydroxide module is described. This module stored off-peak electrical energy as heat for later conversion to domestic hot water needs.

  14. Nickel immobilization in ceramic matrix admixed with waste nickel hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Osińska, Malgorzata; Stefanowicz, Tadeusz; Paukszta, Dominik

    2003-01-01

    WAXS examinations performed with nickel hydroxide samples heated to various temperatures showed that freshly settled wet nickel hydroxide sample contains some amount of crystalline beta-Ni(OH)(2) structure and its share increased when sample was dried during 3 weeks at ambient temperature. However, the share significantly decreased when the sample was dried at 110 degrees C and more so at 250 degrees C. Crystalline phase traces of Ni(OH)(2) disappeared after sample burning at 980 degrees C and instead the distinct presence of crystalline NiO was determined. The above samples were examined for solubility in stoichiometric amount of sulphuric acid diluted with water to pH 1.9 and 2.8. Solubility was determined by measuring nickel ion concentration in leachate by the AAS method. The dissolving rate was found to decrease with the rise of temperature to which the nickel hydroxide samples were heated. The solubility of Ni(OH)(2) sample burnt at 980 degrees C was undetectable during 90 h solubility-testing time likely due to its transformation into sparingly soluble crystalline NiO. The latter is considered to be the reason for effective immobilization of waste nickel hydroxide in ceramic prepared by blending with clay and sintering at 980 degrees C. PMID:14583250

  15. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  16. Acclimation and toxicity of high ammonium concentrations to unicellular algae.

    PubMed

    Collos, Yves; Harrison, Paul J

    2014-03-15

    A literature review on the effects of high ammonium concentrations on the growth of 6 classes of microalgae suggests the following rankings. Mean optimal ammonium concentrations were 7600, 2500, 1400, 340, 260, 100 μM for Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Diatomophyceae, Raphidophyceae, and Dinophyceae respectively and their tolerance to high toxic ammonium levels was 39,000, 13,000, 2300, 3600, 2500, 1200 μM respectively. Field ammonium concentrations <100 μM would not likely reduce the growth rate of most microalgae. Chlorophytes were significantly more tolerant to high ammonium than diatoms, prymnesiophytes, dinoflagellates, and raphidophytes. Cyanophytes were significantly more tolerant than dinoflagellates which were the least tolerant. A smaller but more complete data set was used to estimate ammonium EC₅₀ values, and the ranking was: Chlorophyceae>Cyanophyceae, Dinophyceae, Diatomophyceae, and Raphidophyceae. Ammonia toxicity is mainly attributed to NH₃ at pHs >9 and at pHs <8, toxicity is likely associated with the ammonium ion rather than ammonia. PMID:24533997

  17. Study of ammonium molybdate to minimize the phosphate interference in the selenium determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with deuterium background correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela

    2002-02-01

    The use of ammonium molybdate to minimize the phosphate interference when measuring selenium by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) with deuterium background correction was evaluated. Ammonium molybdate did not produce a selenium thermal stabilization; however, the presence of ammonium molybdate decreased the phosphate interference. The study was carried out with mussel acid digests and mussel slurries. Pd-Mg(NO 3) 2 was used as a chemical modifier at optimum concentrations of 300 and 250 mg l -1, respectively, yielding optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures of 1200 and 2100 °C, respectively. A yellow solid (ammonium molybdophosphate) was obtained when adding ammonium molybdate to mussel acid digest solutions. This precipitate can be removed after centrifugation prior to ETAAS determination. Additionally, studies on the sampling of the solid ammonium molybdophosphate (AMP) together with the liquid phase, as a slurry, were also developed. The volatilization of the solid AMP was not reached at temperatures lower than 2500 °C. By this way, phosphate, as AMP, is not present in the vapor phase at the atomization temperature (2100 °C), yielding a reduction of the spectral interference by phosphate. The proposed method was validated analyzing three reference materials of marine origin (DORM-1, DOLT-1 and TORT-1). Good agreement with the certified selenium contents was reached for all cases.

  18. Combustion of ammonium and hydrazine azides

    SciTech Connect

    Fogelzang, A.E.; Egorshev, V.Y.; Sinditsky, V.P.; Kolesov, B.I. )

    1992-09-01

    This paper reports that steady-state combustion of ammonium azide (AA) and hydrazne azide (HA) was studied in a window constant-pressure bomb over a pressure range of 0.1-36 MPa. HA burns three to four times faster than AA over the whole pressure range. The temperature distribution in the combustion wave of AA and HA was measured using 5-{mu}m-thick {pi}-shaped tungsten-rhenium tape thermocouples. The combustion temperature of both compounds is 240-430 K higher than the temperature calculated for the thermodynamically equilibrium composition of the combustion products due to the presence of large amounts of ammonia (0.97 and 0.87 mol per AA and HA mole, respectively). The burning surface is formed via dissociation of the salts into hydrazoic acid HN{sub 3} and the parent base. The growth of the surface temperature with pressure is determined by the dissociation enthalpy of the slats. The burning rate of these compounds is determined by heat release in the gas phase.

  19. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  20. Subcellular localization of ammonium transporters in Dictyostelium discoideum

    PubMed Central

    Kirsten, Janet H; Xiong, Yanhua; Davis, Carter T; Singleton, Charles K

    2008-01-01

    Background With the exception of vertebrates, most organisms have plasma membrane associated ammonium transporters which primarily serve to import a source of nitrogen for nutritional purposes. Dictyostelium discoideum has three ammonium transporters, Amts A, B and C. Our present work used fluorescent fusion proteins to determine the cellular localization of the Amts and tested the hypothesis that the transporters mediate removal of ammonia generated endogenously from the elevated protein catabolism common to many protists. Results Using RFP and YFP fusion constructs driven by the actin 15 promoter, we found that the three ammonium transporters were localized on the plasma membrane and on the membranes of subcellular organelles. AmtA and AmtB were localized on the membranes of endolysosomes and phagosomes, with AmtB further localized on the membranes of contractile vacuoles. AmtC also was localized on subcellular organelles when it was stabilized by coexpression with either the AmtA or AmtB fusion transporter. The three ammonium transporters exported ammonia linearly with regard to time during the first 18 hours of the developmental program as revealed by reduced export in the null strains. The fluorescently tagged transporters rescued export when expressed in the null strains, and thus they were functional transporters. Conclusion Unlike ammonium transporters in most organisms, which import NH3/NH4+ as a nitrogen source, those of Dictyostelium export ammonia/ammonium as a waste product from extensive catabolism of exogenously derived and endogenous proteins. Localization on proteolytic organelles and on the neutral contractile vacuole suggests that Dictyostelium ammonium transporters may have unique subcellular functions and play a role in the maintenance of intracellular ammonium distribution. A lack of correlation between the null strain phenotypes and ammonia excretion properties of the ammonium transporters suggests that it is not the excretion function that

  1. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10573 - Magnesium hydroxide surface treated with substituted alkoxysilanes (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Magnesium hydroxide surface treated... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10573 Magnesium hydroxide surface... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as magnesium hydroxide...

  3. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  4. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  5. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  6. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  7. 40 CFR 415.310 - Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... calcium hydroxide production subcategory. 415.310 Section 415.310 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Calcium Hydroxide Production Subcategory § 415.310 Applicability; description of the calcium hydroxide production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  8. DOUBLE SHELL TANK (DST) HYDROXIDE DEPLETION MODEL FOR CARBON DIOXIDE ABSORPTION

    SciTech Connect

    OGDEN DM; KIRCH NW

    2007-10-31

    This document generates a supernatant hydroxide ion depletion model based on mechanistic principles. The carbon dioxide absorption mechanistic model is developed in this report. The report also benchmarks the model against historical tank supernatant hydroxide data and vapor space carbon dioxide data. A comparison of the newly generated mechanistic model with previously applied empirical hydroxide depletion equations is also performed.

  9. Potassium hydroxide: an alternative reagent to perform the modified apt test.

    PubMed

    Chicaiza, Henry; Hellstrand, Karl; Lerer, Trudy; Smith, Sharon; Sylvester, Francisco

    2014-09-01

    We tested the performance of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in the modified Apt test under different experimental conditions using sodium hydroxide as a positive control. Like sodium hydroxide, KOH differentiated fresh fetal and adult blood stains on a cloth but not dried blood. KOH may be used to perform the Apt test at the bedside.

  10. [A case of ammonium urate urinary stones with anorexia nervosa].

    PubMed

    Komori, K; Arai, H; Gotoh, T; Imazu, T; Honda, M; Fujioka, H

    2000-09-01

    A 27-year-old woman had been suffering from bulimia and habitual vomiting for about 7 years and was incidentally found to have right renal stones by computed tomography. She was referred to our hospital for the treatment of these caluculi. On admission, she presented with hypokalemia, hypochloremia and metabolic alkalosis and was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. Following successful removal by percutaneous nephrolithotripsy and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy the stones were found to consist of pure ammonium urate. Since the urine of an anorexia nervosa patient tends to be rich in uric acid and ammonium, anorexia nervosa seems to be associated with ammonium urate urinary stones.

  11. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2 nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2 nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  12. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  13. Two Virasoro symmetries in stringy warped AdS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Compère, Geoffrey; Guica, Monica; Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    We study three-dimensional consistent truncations of type IIB supergravity which admit warped AdS3 solutions. These theories contain subsectors that have no bulk dynamics. We show that the symplectic form for these theories, when restricted to the non-dynamical subsectors, equals the symplectic form for pure Einstein gravity in AdS3. Consequently, for each consistent choice of boundary conditions in AdS3, we can define a consistent phase space in warped AdS3 with identical conserved charges. This way, we easily obtain a Virasoro × Virasoro asymptotic symmetry algebra in warped AdS3; two different types of Virasoro × Kač-Moody symmetries are also consistent alternatives.

  14. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  15. ANAMMOX-like performances for nitrogen removal from ammonium-sulfate-rich wastewater in an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Prachakittikul, Pensiri; Wantawin, Chalermraj; Noophan, Pongsak Lek; Boonapatcharoen, Nimaradee

    2016-01-01

    Ammonium removal by the ANaerobic AMonium OXidation (ANAMMOX) process was observed through the Sulfate-Reducing Ammonium Oxidation (SRAO) process. The same concentration of ammonium (100 mg N L(-1)) was applied to two anaerobic sequencing batch reactors (AnSBRs) that were inoculated with the same activated sludge from the Vermicelli wastewater treatment process, while nitrite was fed in ANAMMOX and sulfate in SRAO reactors. In SRAO-AnSBR, in substrates that were fed with a ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 1:0.4 ± 0.03, a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 48 h and without sludge draining, the Ammonium Removal Rate (ARR) was 0.02 ± 0.01 kg N m(-3).d(-1). Adding specific ANAMMOX substrates to SRAO-AnSBR sludge in batch tests results in specific ammonium and nitrite removal rates of 0.198 and 0.139 g N g(-1) VSS.d, respectively, indicating that the ANAMMOX activity contributes to the removal of ammonium in the SRAO process using the nitrite that is produced from SRAO. Nevertheless, the inability of ANAMMOX to utilize sulfate to oxidize ammonium was also investigated in batch tests by augmenting enriched ANAMMOX culture in SRAO-AnSBR sludge and without nitrite supply. The time course of sulfate in a 24-hour cycle of SRAO-AnSBR showed an increase in sulfate after 6 h. For enriched SRAO culture, the uptake molar ratio of NH4(+)/SO4(2-) at 8 hours in a batch test was 1:0.82 lower than the value of 1:0.20 ± 0.09 as obtained in an SRAO-AnSBR effluent, while the stoichiometric ratio of 1:0.5 that includes the ANAMMOX reaction was in this range. After a longer operation of more than 2 years without sludge draining, the accumulation of sulfate and the reduction of ammonium removal were observed, probably due to the gradual increase in the sulfur denitrification rate and the competitive use of nitrite with ANAMMOX. The 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE (polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) and PCR cloning analyses resulted in the detection of the ANAMMOX

  16. Methods to Stabilize and Destabilize Ammonium Borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Thomas K.; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J.; Bowden, Mark E.; Besenbacher, Fleming; Jensen, Torben R.; Autrey, Thomas

    2013-01-21

    Ammonium borohydride, NH4BH4, has a high hydrogen content of ρm = 24.5 wt% H2 and releases 18 wt% H2 below T = 160 °C. However, the half-life of bulk NH4BH4 at ambient temperatures, ~6 h, is insufficient for practical applications. The decomposition of NH4BH4 (ABH2) was studied at variable hydrogen and argon back pressures to investigate possible pressure mediated stabilization effects. The hydrogen release rate from solid ABH2 at ambient temperatures is reduced by ~16 % upon increasing the hydrogen back pressure from 5 to 54 bar. Similar results were obtained using argon pressure and the observed stabilization may be explained by a positive volume of activation in the transition state leading to hydrogen release. Nanoconfinement in mesoporous silica, MCM-41, was investigated as alternative means to stabilize NH4BH4. However, other factors appear to significantly destabilize NH4BH4 and it rapidly decomposes at ambient temperatures into [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] (DADB) in accordance with the bulk reaction scheme. The hydrogen desorption kinetics from nanoconfined [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] is moderately enhanced as evidenced by a reduction in the DSC decomposition peak temperature of ΔT = -13 °C as compared to the bulk material. Finally, we note a surprising result, storage of DADB at temperature < -30 °C transformed, reversibly, the [(NH3)2BH2][BH4] into a new low temperature polymorph as revealed by both XRD and solid state MAS 11B MAS NMR. TA & AK are thankful for support from the US Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated by Battelle.

  17. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  18. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  19. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2298 Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide. (a... ferrocyanide is safe for use in coloring externally applied cosmetics, including cosmetics applied to the...

  4. Direct esterification of ammonium salts of carboxylic acids

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, Yuval

    2003-06-24

    A non-catalytic process for producing esters, the process comprising reacting an ammonium salt of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol and removing ammonia from the reaction mixture. Selectivities for the desired ester product can exceed 95 percent.

  5. Seasonal patterns of ammonium regeneration from size-fractionated microheterotrophs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguer, Jean-François; L'Helguen, Stéphane; Madec, Christian; Le Corre, Pierre

    1999-11-01

    Ammonium regeneration by size-fractionated plankton was measured for 1 year at a coastal station in the shallow well-mixed waters of the western English Channel. Rates of ammonium regeneration in the <200 μm fraction varied from 0.6 to 27 nmol N l -1 h -1. On the seasonal scale, these rates were relatively low (<7 nmol N l -1 h -1) in autumn and winter, increased steadily from March to attain a maximum (27 nmol N l -1 h -1) at the end of May and thereafter decreased steadily to the seasonal minimum in December. This pattern is distinctly different from that observed in deep well-mixed waters where the peak ammonium regeneration occurs in summer (Le Corre et al., 1996, Journal of Plankton Research, 18, 355-370). Total ammonium regenerated in a year by the microheterotrophs was 15 g N m -2, equivalent to about 60% of the total nitrogen uptake. Microplankton (200-15 μm) accounted for about 50% of the regeneration measured between early spring and late summer. Percent contribution of nanoplankton to total ammonium regeneration varied considerably between the seasons, from very high (83-88%) levels in winter to very low (2-13%) levels in summer. Contribution by picoplankton (<1 μm) was high (20-45%) in summer but was less than 20% in other seasons. Ammonium regeneration in micro- and nanoplankton fractions was mainly associated with ciliates and in the picoplankton fraction with bacteria. Macrozooplankton dynamics appears to regulate ammonium regeneration by ciliates and bacteria. Low macrozooplankton biomass in spring may favour a high growth of ciliates and an associated high in ammonium regeneration. In summer, the increase in macrozooplankton may exert a grazing pressure on ciliates. This, coupled with the fact that most of the flagellates are autotrophs, would, in turn, lower the grazing pressure on the bacteria, thus favouring their development and increasing the importance of their role in ammonium regeneration. This situation, where the macrozooplankton

  6. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-12-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry.

  7. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg−1 of L and 0.428 g kg−1 of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  8. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857 g kg(-1) of L and 0.428 g kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  9. Thermal Decomposition Behavior of Ammonium Perchlorate and of an Ammonium-Perchlorate-Based Composite Propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

    1998-01-01

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes. One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H2O, O2, Cl2, N2O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200(micro) diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20(micro) diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH3 + HClO4 followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.

  10. The thermal decomposition behavior of ammonium perchlorate and of an ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellant

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens, R.; Minier, L.

    1998-03-24

    The thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP) and ammonium-perchlorate-based composite propellants is studied using the simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometry (STMBMS) technique. The main objective of the present work is to evaluate whether the STMBMS can provide new data on these materials that will have sufficient detail on the reaction mechanisms and associated reaction kinetics to permit creation of a detailed model of the thermal decomposition process. Such a model is a necessary ingredient to engineering models of ignition and slow-cookoff for these AP-based composite propellants. Results show that the decomposition of pure AP is controlled by two processes. One occurs at lower temperatures (240 to 270 C), produces mainly H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O and HCl, and is shown to occur in the solid phase within the AP particles. 200{micro} diameter AP particles undergo 25% decomposition in the solid phase, whereas 20{micro} diameter AP particles undergo only 13% decomposition. The second process is dissociative sublimation of AP to NH{sub 3} + HClO{sub 4} followed by the decomposition of, and reaction between, these two products in the gas phase. The dissociative sublimation process occurs over the entire temperature range of AP decomposition, but only becomes dominant at temperatures above those for the solid-phase decomposition. AP-based composite propellants are used extensively in both small tactical rocket motors and large strategic rocket systems.

  11. Thermal storage in ammonium alum/ammonium nitrate eutectic for solar space heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Jotshi, C.K.; Hsieh, C.K.; Goswami, D.Y.; Klausner, J.F.; Srinivasan, N.

    1998-02-01

    Ammonium alum and ammonium nitrate in the weight ratio of 1:1 form a eutectic that melts at 53 C and solidifies at 48 C. The thermophysical properties of this eutectic were measured in detail and the eutectic was found to have properties desirable for energy storage for solar space heating applications. The eutectic was encapsulated in 0.0254-m diameter high-density polyethylene (HDPE) balls and packed into a cylindrical bed in a scale model for testing its heat transfer characteristics when exposed to an air flow. Test results indicate that the thermal extraction efficiency of the model was 89% with an uncertainty of {+-} 8.0%. The packed bed had a Stanton number value in close agreement with that predicted with an empirical equation for sensible heat extraction from the eutectic in the solid phase. This Stanton number was increased by about 74% for sensible heat extraction from the eutectic in the liquid phase, a phenomenon not previously reported in the literature.

  12. Heterogeneous reactivity of chlorine atoms with ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate particles.

    PubMed

    Ciuraru, Raluca; Gosselin, Sylvie; Visez, Nicolas; Petitprez, Denis

    2012-04-01

    In this laboratory study, model particles of ammonium sulfate (AS) and ammonium nitrate (AN) were exposed to chlorine atoms and uptake experiments were performed in a coated wall flow tube reactor coupled to a molecular beam mass spectrometer. The reactive surfaces were prepared by coating the inner surface of the reactor using two different methods: either by depositing size-selected particles on the halocarbon wax or by spray depositing thin films using a constant output atomizer. The observed uptake coefficients vary for (NH(4))(2)SO(4), ranging from γ(Cl)(AS)≈ 1 × 10(-3) for size-selected particles to γ(Cl)(AS)≈ 6 × 10(-2) for thin films prepared by spray. An uptake coefficient of γ(Cl)(AN)≈ 2.5 × 10(-3) of Cl˙ on size-selected NH(4)NO(3) particles was measured. A heterogeneous recombination of Cl atoms to from Cl(2) molecules was observed for the two surfaces. Furthermore, an ageing process was observed for AS particles, this phenomenon leading to the formation of new chlorine species on the solid substrate. PMID:22374517

  13. Stoichiometric analysis of ammonium nitrate and ammonium perchlorate with nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreedhar, S.; Rao, S. Venugopal; Kiran, P. Prem; Tewari, Surya P.; Kumar, G. Manoj

    2010-04-01

    We present our results on the stoichiometric analysis of ammonium nitrate (AN) and ammonium Perchlorate (AP) studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) with nanosecond pulses. The LIBS spectra collected for AP and AN, without any gating and using a high resolution spectrometer, exhibited characteristic lines corresponding to O, N, H, C, and K. The Oxygen line at 777.38 nm and three Nitrogen lines (N1, N2, N3) at 742.54 nm, 744.64 nm, 747.12 nm were used for evaluating the Oxygen/Nitrogen ratios. The intensities were calculated using area under the peaks and normalized to their respective transition probabilities and statistical weights. The O/N1 ratios estimated from the LIBS spectra were ~4.94 and ~5.11 for AP and O/N3 ratios were ~1.64 and ~1.47 for AN obtained from two independent measurements. The intensity ratios show good agreement with the actual stoichiometric ratios - four for AP and one for AN.

  14. Safety assessment of ammonium hectorites as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Becker, Lillian C; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Cosmetic Ingredient Review Expert Panel (Panel) reviewed the safety of 4 ammonium hectorite compounds used in cosmetics: disteardimonium hectorite, dihydrogenated tallow benzylmonium hectorite, stearalkonium hectorite, and quaternium-18 hectorite. These ingredients function in cosmetics mainly as nonsurfactant suspending agents. The Panel reviewed available animal and human data and concluded that these ammonium hectorite compounds were safe as cosmetic ingredients in the practices of use and concentration as given in this safety assessment.

  15. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles.

  16. Removal of ammonium from municipal landfill leachate using natural zeolites.

    PubMed

    Ye, Zhihong; Wang, Jiawen; Sun, Lingyu; Zhang, Daobin; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Ammonium ion-exchange performance of the natural zeolite was investigated in both batch and column studies. The effects of zeolite dosage, contact time, stirring speed and pH on ammonium removal were investigated in batch experiments. The result showed that ammonium removal efficiency increased with an increase in zeolite dosage from 25 to 150 g/L, and an increase in stirring speed from 200 to 250 r/min. But further increase in zeolite dosage and stirring speed would result in an unpronounced increase of ammonium removal. The optimal pH for the removal of ammonium was found as 7.1. In the column studies, the effect of flow rate was investigated, and the total ammonium removal percentage during 180 min operation time decreased with the flow rate though the ion-exchange capacity varied to a very small extent with the flow rate ranging from 4 to 9 mL/min. The spent zeolite was regenerated by sodium chloride solution and the ammonia removal capacity of zeolite changed little or even increased after three regeneration cycles. PMID:26510611

  17. Nonlinear realization of local symmetries of AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T.E.; Love, S.T.; Nitta, Muneto; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2005-10-15

    Coset methods are used to construct the action describing the dynamics associated with the spontaneous breaking of the local symmetries of AdS{sub d+1} space due to the embedding of an AdS{sub d} brane. The resulting action is an SO(2,d) invariant AdS form of the Einstein-Hilbert action, which in addition to the AdS{sub d} gravitational vielbein, also includes a massive vector field localized on the brane. Its long wavelength dynamics is the same as a massive Abelian vector field coupled to gravity in AdS{sub d} space.

  18. Effects of dietary ammonium chloride and variations in calcium to phosphorus ratio on silica urolithiasis in sheep.

    PubMed

    Stewart, S R; Emerick, R J; Pritchard, R H

    1991-05-01

    Ammonium chloride was added to diets varying in Ca content to evaluate its potential in preventing silica urolith formation in sheep. A 2 x 2 factorial experiment involved wether lambs with ad libitum access to a diet of 50% grass hay and 50% ground oats plus supplement. The basal diet contained on a DM basis 3.3% SiO2, .31% Ca, .22% P, 11.6% CP, and 26% ADF. Treatments (38 to 39 lambs/treatment) consisted of a control (C), limestone to increase dietary calcium to .6% (L), 1% ammonium chloride (A), and L + A (LA). After a 118-d experimental period, siliceous kidney deposits were found only in C and L, with silica making up 93% to 95% of the urolithic ash. Urolith incidences were 13% (C) and 18% (L), respectively. The lack of urolith development in lambs fed A and LA (ammonium chloride effect, P less than .01) and a trend toward a lower urolith incidence in C vs L (P less than .02) support the hypothesis that acid-forming effects of the diet and a reduction in the dietary Ca to P ratio reduce silica urolith formation.

  19. Quality control in production of suspensions from solid ammonium phosphates (monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate). [Monoammonium phosphate; diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Achorn, F.P.; Balay, H.L.

    1982-01-01

    Suspensions of good quality can be produced from MAP and DAP. Suspension quality depends on the amount of impurities in the ammonium phosphate solids used. Tests have shown that adding ammonium fluoride helps lower viscosity of suspensions containing a considerable amount of impurities. Also, adding polyphosphates (such as 10-34-0, 9-32-0, and 11-37-0) as a source of part of the P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ (6 to 15% polyphosphate in the product) helps to produce a suspension that has excellent storage characteristics. When the polyphosphate content of the product (11-33-0 suspension) is between 10 and 15% it usually will not solidify during cold weather storage. Freight and production costs of granular ammonium phosphates are relatively low compared to other sources of P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ for the fluid fertilizer market; therefore, using MAP and DAP to produce suspensions is expected to continue to grow in popularity. 2 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, Kuo-Chuan; Jorne, Jacob

    1987-01-01

    The electrochemical impregnation of nickel hydroxide in porous electrode was investigated both experimentally and theoretically. The loading level and plaque expansion were the most important parameters to be considered. The effects of applied current density, stirring, ratio of solution to electrode volume and pH were identified. A novel flow through electrochemical impregnation is proposed in which the electrolyte is forced through the porous nickel plaque. The thickening of the plaque can be reduced while maintaining high loading capacity. A mathematical model is presented which describes the transport of the nitrate, nickel and hydroxyl ions and the consecutive heterogeneous electrochemical reduction of nitrate and the homogeneous precipitation reaction of nickel hydroxide. The distributions of precipitation rate and active material within the porous electrode are obtained. A semiempirical model is also proposed which takes into account the plugging of the pores.

  1. A Case of Recurrent Renal Aluminum Hydroxide Stone

    PubMed Central

    Cakıroglu, Basri; Dogan, Akif Nuri; Tas, Tuncay; Gozukucuk, Ramazan; Uyanik, Bekir Sami

    2014-01-01

    Renal stone disease is characterized by the differences depending on the age, gender, and the geographic location of the patients. Seventy-five percent of the renal stone components is the calcium (Ca). The most common type of the stones is the Ca oxalate stones, while Ca phosphate, uric acid, struvite, and sistine stones are more rarely reported. Other than these types, triamterene, adenosine, silica, indinavir, and ephedrine stones are also reported in the literature as case reports. However, to the best of our knowledge, aluminum hydroxide stones was not reported reported before. Herein we will report a 38-years-old woman with the history of recurrent renal colic disease whose renal stone was determined as aluminum hydroxide stone in type. Aluminum mineral may be considered in the formation of kidney stones as it is widely used in the field of healthcare and cosmetics. PMID:25013740

  2. Microbial susceptibility to calcium hydroxide pastes and their vehicles.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi; Garrido, Fabio Devora; Rosalen, Pedro Luiz; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto; Teixeira, Fabricio Batista; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of some microorganisms commonly isolated from root canals to calcium hydroxide in combination with several vehicles by the agar diffusion method. Stainless-steel cylinders were placed on each inoculated agar medium. The test medications and their controls were placed inside the cylinders. The zones of growth inhibition were measured and recorded after the incubation period for each plate, and the results were analyzed statistically. Enterococcus faecalis was most resistant, whereas the anaerobic Porphyromonas endodontalis was more susceptible to all medications, followed by P. gingivalis and Prevotella intermedial intermedia. Ca(OH)2 + CMCP + glycerin showed significantly larger mean zones of inhibition when compared with the other medications. We conclude that anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria are more susceptible to calcium hydroxide pastes than facultative Gram-positive microorganisms. PMID:12470019

  3. Hierarchical cobalt-based hydroxide microspheres for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Cui, Bai; Derr, Olivia; Yao, Zhibo; Qin, Zhaotong; Deng, Xiangyun; Li, Jianbao; Lin, Hong

    2014-03-21

    3D hierarchical cobalt hydroxide carbonate hydrate (Co(CO3)0.5(OH)·0.11H2O) has been synthesized featuring a hollow urchin-like structure by a one-step hydrothermal method at modest temperature on FTO glass substrates. The functionalities of precursor surfactants were isolated and analyzed. A plausible formation mechanism of the spherical urchin-like microclusters has been furnished through time-dependent investigations. Introduction of other transitional metal doping (Cu, Ni) would give rise to a substantial morphological change associated with a surface area drop. The directly grown cobalt-based hydroxide composite electrodes were found to be capable of catalyzing oxygen evolution reaction (OER) under both neutral pH and alkaline conditions. The favorable 3D dendritic morphology and porous structure provide large surface areas and possible defect sites that are likely responsible for their robust electrochemical activity.

  4. 40 CFR 418.40 - Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate subcategory. 418.40 Section 418.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ammonium Nitrate Subcategory § 418.40 Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of ammonium...

  5. 40 CFR 418.40 - Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate subcategory. 418.40 Section 418.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ammonium Nitrate Subcategory § 418.40 Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of ammonium...

  6. 40 CFR 418.40 - Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate subcategory. 418.40 Section 418.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ammonium Nitrate Subcategory § 418.40 Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of ammonium...

  7. 40 CFR 418.40 - Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ammonium nitrate subcategory. 418.40 Section 418.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Ammonium Nitrate Subcategory § 418.40 Applicability; description of the ammonium nitrate subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the manufacture of ammonium...

  8. A chlorate candle/lithium hydroxide personal breathing apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    A portable coal mine rescue and survival equipment is reported that consists of a chlorate candle with a lithium hydroxide carbon-dioxide absorbent for oxygen generation, a breathing bag and tubing to conduct breathing to and from the man. A plastic hood incorporating a mouth piece for communication provides also eye protection and prevents inhalation through the nose. Manned testing of a prototype system demonstrated the feasibility of this closed circuit no-maintenance breathing apparatus that provides for good voice communication.

  9. Dressing phases of AdS3/CFT2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borsato, Riccardo; Ohlsson Sax, Olof; Sfondrini, Alessandro; Stefański, Bogdan, Jr.; Torrielli, Alessandro

    2013-09-01

    We determine the all-loop dressing phases of the AdS3/CFT2 integrable system related to type IIB string theory on AdS3×S3×T4 by solving the recently found crossing relations and studying their singularity structure. The two resulting phases present a novel structure with respect to the ones appearing in AdS5/CFT4 and AdS4/CFT3. In the strongly coupled regime, their leading order reduces to the universal Arutyunov-Frolov-Staudacher phase as expected. We also compute their subleading order and compare it with recent one-loop perturbative results and comment on their weak-coupling expansion.

  10. Bubbling geometries for AdS2× S2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, Oleg

    2015-10-01

    We construct BPS geometries describing normalizable excitations of AdS2×S2. All regular horizon-free solutions are parameterized by two harmonic functions in R 3 with sources along closed curves. This local structure is reminiscent of the "bubbling solutions" for the other AdS p ×S q cases, however, due to peculiar asymptotic properties of AdS2, one copy of R 3 does not cover the entire space, and we discuss the procedure for analytic continuation, which leads to a nontrivial topological structure of the new geometries. We also study supersymmetric brane probes on the new geometries, which represent the AdS2×S2 counterparts of the giant gravitons.

  11. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  12. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  13. Influence of ammonium availability on expression of nifD and amtB genes during biostimulation of a U(VI) contaminated aquifer: implications for U(VI) removal and monitoring the metabolic state of Geobacteraceae

    SciTech Connect

    Mouser, Paula J.; N'Guessan, A. Lucie; Elifantz, Hila; Holmes, Dawn E.; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J.; Long, Philip E.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2009-03-25

    The influence of ammonium availability on bacterial community structure and the physiological status of Geobacter species during in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders of magnitude (<4 to 400 ?M) across the study site. Analysis of 16S rRNA sequences suggested that ammonium may have been one factor influencing the community composition prior to acetate amendment with Rhodoferax species predominating over Geobacter species with higher ammonium and Dechloromonas species dominating at the site with lowest ammonium. However, once acetate was added and dissimilatory metal reduction was stimulated, Geobacter species became the predominant organisms at all locations. Rates of U(VI) reduction appeared to be more related to acetate concentrations rather than ammonium levels. In situ mRNA transcript abundance of the nitrogen fixation gene, nifD, and the ammonium transporter gene, amtB, in Geobacter species indicated that ammonium was the primary source of nitrogen during uranium reduction. The abundance of amtB was inversely correlated to ammonium levels, whereas nifD transcript levels were similar across all sites examined. These results suggest that nifD and amtB expression are closely regulated in response to ammonium availability to ensure an adequate supply of nitrogen while conserving cell resources. Thus, quantifying nifD and amtB transcript expression appears to be a useful approach for monitoring the nitrogen-related physiological status of subsurface Geobacter species. This study also emphasizes the need for more detailed analysis of geochemical and physiological interactions at the field scale in order to adequately model subsurface microbial processes during bioremediation.

  14. Early metabolic effects and mechanism of ammonium transport in yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, A.; Pardo, J.P.; Ramirez, J.

    1987-03-01

    Studies were performed to define the effects and mechanism of NH+4 transport in yeast. The following results were obtained. Glucose was a better facilitator than ethanol-H/sub 2/O/sub 2/ for ammonium transport; low concentrations of uncouplers or respiratory inhibitors could inhibit the transport with ethanol as the substrate. With glucose, respiratory inhibitors showed only small inhibitory effects, and only high concentrations of azide or trifluoromethoxy carbonylcyanide phenylhydrazone could inhibit ammonium transport. Ammonium in the free state could be concentrated approximately 200-fold by the cells. Also, the addition of ammonium produced stimulation of both respiration and fermentation; an increased rate of H+ extrusion and an alkalinization of the interior of the cell; a decrease of the membrane potential, as monitored by fluorescent cyanine; an immediate decrease of the levels of ATP and an increase of ADP, which may account for the stimulation of both fermentation and respiration; and an increase of the levels of inorganic phosphate. Ammonium was found to inhibit 86Rb+ transport much less than K+. Also, while K+ produced a competitive type of inhibition, that produced by NH4+ was of the noncompetitive type. From the distribution ratio of ammonium and the pH gradient, an electrochemical potential gradient of around -180 mV was calculated. The results indicate that ammonium is transported in yeast by a mechanism similar to that of monovalent alkaline cations, driven by a membrane potential. The immediate metabolic effects of this cation seem to be due to an increased (H+)ATPase, to which its transport is coupled. However, the carriers seem to be different. The transport system studied in this work was that of low affinity.

  15. Evaluation of three-dimensional biofilms on antibacterial bonding agents containing novel quaternary ammonium methacrylates

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Han; Weir, Michael D; Antonucci, Joseph M; Schumacher, Gary E; Zhou, Xue-Dong; Xu, Hockin HK

    2014-01-01

    Antibacterial adhesives are promising to inhibit biofilms and secondary caries. The objectives of this study were to synthesize and incorporate quaternary ammonium methacrylates into adhesives, and investigate the alkyl chain length effects on three-dimensional biofilms adherent on adhesives for the first time. Six quaternary ammonium methacrylates with chain lengths of 3, 6, 9, 12, 16 and 18 were synthesized and incorporated into Scotchbond Multi-Purpose. Streptococcus mutans bacteria were cultured on resin to form biofilms. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to measure biofilm thickness, live/dead volumes and live-bacteria percentage vs. distance from resin surface. Biofilm thickness was the greatest for Scotchbond control; it decreased with increasing chain length, reaching a minimum at chain length 16. Live-biofilm volume had a similar trend. Dead-biofilm volume increased with increasing chain length. The adhesive with chain length 9 had 37% live bacteria near resin surface, but close to 100% live bacteria in the biofilm top section. For chain length 16, there were nearly 0% live bacteria throughout the three-dimensional biofilm. In conclusion, strong antibacterial activity was achieved by adding quaternary ammonium into adhesive, with biofilm thickness and live-biofilm volume decreasing as chain length was increased from 3 to 16. Antibacterial adhesives typically only inhibited bacteria close to its surface; however, adhesive with chain length 16 had mostly dead bacteria in the entire three-dimensional biofilm. Antibacterial adhesive with chain length 16 is promising to inhibit biofilms at the margins and combat secondary caries. PMID:24722581

  16. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  17. A maritime pine antimicrobial peptide involved in ammonium nutrition.

    PubMed

    Canales, Javier; Avila, Concepción; Cánovas, Francisco M

    2011-09-01

    A large family of small cysteine-rich antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is involved in the innate defence of plants against pathogens. Recently, it has been shown that AMPs may also play important roles in plant growth and development. In previous work, we have identified a gene of the AMP β-barrelin family that was differentially regulated in the roots of maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Ait.) in response to changes in ammonium nutrition. Here, we present the molecular characterization of two AMP genes, PpAMP1 and PpAMP2, showing different molecular structure and physicochemical properties. PpAMP1 and PpAMP2 displayed different expression patterns in maritime pine seedlings and adult trees. Furthermore, our expression analyses indicate that PpAMP1 is the major form of AMP in the tree, and its relative abundance is regulated by ammonium availability. In contrast, PpAMP2 is expressed at much lower levels and it is not regulated by ammonium. To gain new insights into the function of PpAMP1, we over-expressed the recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrated that PpAMP1 strongly inhibited yeast growth, indicating that it exhibits antimicrobial activity. We have also found that PpAMP1 alters ammonium uptake, suggesting that it is involved in the regulation of ammonium ion flux into pine roots.

  18. Simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids in multipurpose filters.

    PubMed

    Alkas, Deniz; Baykal, Bilsen Beler; Kinaci, Cumali

    2012-06-01

    A multipurpose filter in which sand and clinoptilolite are used together as filter material is suggested for the simultaneous removal of suspended solids and ammonium in one single unit. The capacity of the clinoptilolite used was determined as 10.4 mg/g for 20 mg/l initial ammonium concentration. In addition, a packed column ion exchanger with clinoptilolite and a classical sand filter were also investigated for comparison. Ammonium and suspended solids removal rates were observed and compared for all columns. The results of the column analysis have revealed that the ammonium removal rate, which was only 20% in the sand column, was increased to 100% by replacing 50% of the sand with clinoptilolite; similarly, the suspended solids removal, which was only 17% in the clinoptilolite column, was increased to 75% by replacing 50% of the clinoptilolite with sand. As such, when ion exchange and filtration processes were carried out in a multipurpose column, high removals for both parameters could be obtained simultaneously. Multipurpose columns could be an alternative both for the upgrading of existing treatment plants or for new plants for simultaneous removal of ammonium and suspended solids, giving considerable savings in terms of land requirements.

  19. Modeling of alkyl quaternary ammonium cations intercalated into montmorillonite lattice

    SciTech Connect

    Daoudi, El Mehdi; Boughaleb, Yahia; El Gaini, Layla; Meghea, Irina; Bakasse, Mina

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► The modification of montmorillonites by three surfactants increases the basal spacing. ► The model proposed show a bilayer conformation for the surfactant ODTMA. ► The DODMA and TOMA surfactants adopt a paraffin type arrangement. ► Behavior of surfactants in interlayer space was confirmed by TGA and ATR analysis. - Abstract: The objective of this work was to study the conformation of the quaternary ammonium cations viz., octadecyl trimethyl ammonium (ODTMA), dioctadecyl dimethyl ammonium (DMDOA) and trioctadecyl methyl ammonium (TOMA) intercalated within montmorillonite. The modified montmorillonite was characterized by X-ray diffraction in small angle (SAXS), thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy of attenuated total reflection (ATR). The modification of organophilic montmorillonites by the three surfactants ODTMA, DMDOA and TOMA increases the basal spacing from their respective intercalated distances of 1.9 nm, 2.6 nm and 3.4 nm respectively. The increase in the spacing due to the basic organic modification was confirmed by the results of thermal analysis (TGA) and infrared spectroscopy (ATR), and also supported by theoretical calculations of longitudinal and transversal chain sizes of these alkyl quaternary ammonium cations.

  20. Prevalence of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria in contaminated groundwater.

    PubMed

    Moore, Tara A; Xing, Yangping; Lazenby, Brent; Lynch, Michael D J; Schiff, Sherry; Robertson, William D; Timlin, Robert; Lanza, Sadia; Ryan, M Cathryn; Aravena, Ramon; Fortin, Danielle; Clark, Ian D; Neufeld, Josh D

    2011-09-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria perform an important step in the global nitrogen cycle: anaerobic oxidation of ammonium and reduction of nitrite to form dinitrogen gas (N(2)). Anammox organisms appear to be widely distributed in natural and artificial environments. However, their roles in groundwater ammonium attenuation remain unclear and only limited biomarker-based data confirmed their presence prior to this study. We used complementary molecular and isotope-based methods to assess anammox diversity and activity occurring at three ammonium-contaminated groundwater sites: quantitative PCR, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, sequencing of 16S rRNA genes, and (15)N-tracer incubations. Here we show that anammox performing organisms were abundant bacterial community members. Although all sites were dominated by Candidatus Brocadia-like sequences, the community at one site was particularly diverse, possessing four of five known genera of anammox bacteria. Isotope data showed that anammox produced up to 18 and 36% of N(2) at these sites. By combining molecular and isotopic results we have demonstrated the diversity, abundance, and activity of these autotrophic bacteria. Our results provide strong evidence for their important biogeochemical role in attenuating groundwater ammonium contamination.

  1. Loss of Fine Particle Ammonium from Denuded Nylon Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Taehyoung; Ayres, Benjamin; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

    2006-08-01

    Ammonium is an important constituent of fine particulate mass in the atmosphere, but can be difficult to quantify due to possible sampling artifacts. Losses of semivolatile species such as NH4NO3 can be particularly problematic. In order to evaluate ammonium losses from aerosol particles collected on filters, a series of field experiments was conducted using denuded nylon and Teflon filters at Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio, California (April 2003 and July 2004), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May, 2003), Brigantine, New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park (NP), Tennessee (July–August 2004). Samples were collected over 24-hr periods. Losses from denuded nylon filters ranged from 10% (monthly average) in Bondville, Illinois to 28% in San Gorgonio, California in summer. Losses on individual sample days ranged from 1% to 65%. Losses tended to increase with increasing diurnal temperature and relative humidity changes and with the fraction of ambient total N(--III) (particulate NH4+ plus gaseous NH3) present as gaseous NH3. The amount of ammonium lost at most sites could be explained by the amount of NH4NO3 present in the sampled aerosol. Ammonium losses at Great Smoky Mountains NP, however, significantly exceeded the amount of NH4NO3 collected. Ammoniated organic salts are suggested as additional important contributors to observed ammonium loss at this location.

  2. Supramolecular assembly of borate with quaternary ammonium: Crystal structure and tunable luminescent properties

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Jie; Wang, Yong-gang; Wang, Ying-xia; Liao, Fu-hui; Lin, Jian-hua

    2013-04-15

    A new borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 16}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] (1) is synthesized hydrothermally by the reaction of isopropyltrimethylammonium hydroxide with boric acid. It crystallizes in the triclinic space group P-1 with the parameters a=9.1578(10) Å, b=9.372(9) Å, c=9.9812(10) Å, α=66.508(2)°, β=74.751(2)°, γ=81.893(2)°. The [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions are interlinked via hydrogen bonding forming a 3D supramolecular network containing large cavities, where reside the (CH{sub 3}){sub 3}(i-C{sub 3}H{sub 7}) N{sup +} cations. This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating-treatment, exciting-light, and solvents. The fluorescent intensity of 1 enhances 6-fold with decreasing the temperature from 25 K to 78 K. By treatment under different temperatures, the luminescence of 1 shifted from blue to white and the sample treated at 230 °C emits bright white light to naked eyes. The hybrid borate can disperse in different solvents, and shows a red-shifted and intense emission in polar solvents. - Graphical abstract: The new quaternary ammonium borate [C{sub 6}H{sub 17}N][B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}] contains a 3D supramolecular network formed by hydrogen bond linked [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions and shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, excitation light, and solvents. Highlights: ► A novel quaternary ammonium borate was synthesized. ► It possesses a supramolecular network fomed by H-bonded [B{sub 5}O{sub 6}(OH){sub 4}]{sup −} anions. ► This borate shows tunable luminescent properties with temperature, heating treatment, excitation light, and solvents.

  3. Nano-Ammonium Perchlorate: Preparation, Characterization, and Evaluation in Composite Propellant Formulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, A.; Mehilal; Jain, S.; Jain, M. K.; Bhattacharya, B.

    2013-07-01

    Nanomaterials are finding applications in explosives and propellant formulations due to their large surface area and high surface energy. This high surface energy is responsible for the low activation energy and increase in burning rate of the composition. Therefore, a successful attempt has been made to prepare nano-ammonium perchlorate using a nonaqueous method by dissolving ammonium perchlorate (AP) in methanol followed by adding the dissolved AP to the hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), homogenization, and vacuum distillation of the solvent. The nano-AP thus formed was characterized using a NANOPHOX particle size analyzer (Sympatec, Germany), transmission electron microscopy (FEI, Hillsboro, OR), X-ray diffraction (PANalytical B.V., The Netherlands) and scanning electron microscopy (Ikon Analytical Equipment Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India) for particle size, purity, and morphology, respectively. The thermal behavior of nano-AP was also studied using differential thermal analysis-thermo gravimetric analysis (DTA-TGA). The data indicated that the particle size of the prepared AP was in the range of 21-52 nm and the thermal decomposition temperature was lower than that of coarse AP. Characterized nano-AP was subsequently used in composite propellant formulation up to 5% with 86% solid loading and studied for different properties. The results showed a 14% increase in burning rate in comparison to standard propellant composition with desired mechanical properties.

  4. Theoretical studies on CO2 capture behavior of quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Ge, Kun; Chen, Kexian; Hou, Chenglong; Fang, Mengxiang

    2016-05-14

    Quaternary ammonium-based polymeric ionic liquids (PILs) are novel CO2 sorbents as they have high capacity, high stability and high binding energy. Moreover, the binding energy of ionic pairs to CO2 is tunable by changing the hydration state so that the sorbent can be regenerated through humidity adjustment. In this study, theoretical calculations were conducted to reveal the mechanism of the humidity swing CO2 adsorption, based on model compounds of quaternary ammonium cation and carbonate anions. The electrostatic potential map demonstrates the anion, rather than the cation, is chemically preferential for CO2 adsorption. Further, the proton transfer process from water to carbonate at the sorbent interface is successfully depicted with an intermediate which has a higher energy state. By determining the CO2 adsorption energy and activation energy at different hydration states, it is discovered that water could promote CO2 adsorption by reducing the energy barrier of proton transfer. The adsorption/desorption equilibrium would shift to desorption by adding water, which constitutes the theoretical basis for humidity swing. By analyzing the hydrogen bonding and structure of the water molecules, it is interesting to find that the CO2 adsorption weakens the hydrophilicity of the sorbent and results in release of water. The requirement of latent heat for the phase change of water could significantly reduce the heat of adsorption. The special "self-cooling" effect during gas adsorption can lower the temperature of the sorbent and benefit the adsorption isotherms.

  5. Ammonium removal from groundwater using a zeolite permeable reactive barrier: a pilot-scale demonstration.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengpin; Huang, Guoxin; Kong, Xiangke; Yang, Yingzhao; Liu, Fei; Hou, Guohua; Chen, Honghan

    2014-01-01

    In situ remediation of ammonium-contaminated groundwater is possible through a zeolite permeable reactive barrier (PRB); however, zeolite's finite sorption capacity limits the long-term field application of PRBs. In this paper, a pilot-scale PRB was designed to achieve sustainable use of zeolite in removing ammonium (NH(4)(+)-N) through sequential nitrification, adsorption, and denitrification. An oxygen-releasing compound was added to ensure aerobic conditions in the upper layers of the PRB where NH(4)(+)-N was microbially oxidized to nitrate. Any remaining NH(4)(+)-N was removed abiotically in the zeolite layer. Under lower redox conditions, nitrate formed during nitrification was removed by denitrifying bacteria colonizing the zeolite. During the long-term operation (328 days), more than 90% of NH(4)(+)-N was consistently removed, and approximately 40% of the influent NH(4)(+)-N was oxidized to nitrate. As much as 60% of the nitrate formed in the PRB was reduced in the zeolite layer after 300 days of operation. Removal of NH(4)(+)-N from groundwater using a zeolite PRB through bacterial nitrification and abiotic adsorption is a promising approach. The zeolite PRB has the advantage of achieving sustainable use of zeolite and immediate NH(4)(+)-N removal.

  6. Superstring theory in AdS(3) and plane waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, John Sang Won

    This thesis is devoted to the study of string theory in AdS 3 and its applications to recent developments in string theory. The difficulties associated with formulating a consistent string theory in AdS3 and its underlying SL(2, R) WZW model are explained. We describe how these difficulties can be overcome by assuming that the SL(2, R) WZW model contains spectral flow symmetry. The existence of spectral flow symmetry in the fully quantum treatment is proved by a calculation of the one-loop string partition function. We consider Euclidean AdS 3 with the time direction periodically identified, and compute the torus partition function in this background. The string spectrum can be reproduced by viewing the one-loop calculation as the free energy of a gas of strings, thus providing a rigorous proof of the results based on spectral flow arguments. Next, we turn to spacetimes that are quotients of AdS 3, which include the BTZ black hole and conical spaces. Strings propagating in the conical space are described by taking an orbifold of strings in AdS3. We show that the twisted states of these orbifolds can be obtained by fractional spectral flow. We show that the shift in the ground state energy usually associated with orbifold twists is absent in this case, and offer a unified framework in which to view spectral flow. Lastly, we consider the RNS superstrings in AdS 3 x S3 x M , where M may be K3 or T 4, based on supersymmetric extensions of SL(2, R) and SU(2) WZW models. We construct the physical states and calculate the spectrum. A subsector of this theory describes strings propagating in the six dimensional plane wave obtained by the Penrose limit of AdS3 x S3 x M . We reproduce the plane wave spectrum by taking J and the radius to infinity. We show that the plane wave spectrum actually coincides with the large J spectrum at fixed radius, i.e. in AdS3 x S3. Relation to some recent topics of interest such as the Frolov-Tseytlin string and strings with critical tension

  7. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  8. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  9. Effect of temperature on ammonium removal in Scenedesmus sp.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Martínez, A; Serralta, J; Seco, A; Ferrer, J

    2015-09-01

    The effect of temperature on microalgal ammonium uptake was investigated by carrying out four batch experiments in which a mixed culture of microalgae, composed mainly of Scenedesmus sp., was cultivated under different temperatures within the usual temperature working range in Mediterranean climate (15-34 °C). Ammonium removal rates increased with temperature up to 26 °C and stabilized thereafter. Ratkowsky and Cardinal temperatures models successfully reproduced the experimental data. Optimum (31.3 °C), minimum (8.8 °C) and maximum (46.1 °C) temperatures for ammonium removal by Scenedesmus sp. under the studied conditions were obtained as model parameters. These temperature-related parameters constitute very useful information for designing and operating wastewater treatment systems using these microalgae.

  10. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice.

    PubMed

    Melin, Vanessa E; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R; Hrubec, Terry C

    2014-12-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually.

  11. Exposure to common quaternary ammonium disinfectants decreases fertility in mice

    PubMed Central

    Melin, Vanessa E.; Potineni, Haritha; Hunt, Patricia; Griswold, Jodi; Siems, Bill; Werre, Stephen R.; Hrubec, Terry C.

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are antimicrobial disinfectants commonly used in commercial and household settings. Extensive use of QACs results in ubiquitous human exposure, yet reproductive toxicity has not been evaluated. Decreased reproductive performance in laboratory mice coincided with the introduction of a disinfectant containing both alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (ADBAC) and didecyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (DDAC). QACs were detected in caging material over a period of several months following cessation of disinfectant use. Breeding pairs exposed for six months to a QAC disinfectant exhibited decreases in fertility and fecundity: increased time to first litter, longer pregnancy intervals, fewer pups per litter and fewer pregnancies. Significant morbidity in near term dams was also observed. In summary, exposure to a common QAC disinfectant mixture significantly impaired reproductive health in mice. This study illustrates the importance of assessing mixture toxicity of commonly used products whose components have only been evaluated individually. PMID:25483128

  12. [The biological activity of quaternary ammonium salts (QASs)].

    PubMed

    Obłak, Ewa; Gamian, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium salts (QASs), especially those of cationic surfactant character, are applied as antibacterial and antifungal disinfectants. QASs affect lipid-enveloped viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV), but not non-enveloped viruses. These compounds are extensively used in domestic (as ingredients of shampoos, hair conditioners), agricultural (as fungicides, pesticides, insecticides), healthcare (as medications), and industrial applications (as biocides, fabric softeners, corrosion inhibitors). The extensive use of quaternary ammonium disinfectants in recent years has led to the development of resistance in microorganisms to these drugs. Thus Staphylococcus aureus strains contain the plasmid-carrying genes qacA and qacB encoding resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds and acriflavine. The membrane proteins QacA and QacB confer multidrug resistance by exporting the compound by the proton motive force which is generated by the transmembrane electrochemical proton gradient. PMID:20400784

  13. Aerosol isotopic ammonium signatures over the remote Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. T.; Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Marca, A.; Johnson, M. T.

    2016-05-01

    We report aerosol ammonium 15N signatures for samples collected from research cruises on the South Atlantic and Caribbean using a new high sensitivity method. We confirm a pattern of isotopic signals from generally light (δ15N -5 to -10‰), for aerosols with very low (<2  nmol m-3) ammonium concentrations from the remote high latitude ocean, to generally heavier values (δ15N +5 to +10‰), for aerosols collected in temperate and tropical latitudes and with higher ammonium concentrations (>2  nmol m-3). We discuss whether this reflects a mixing of aerosols from two end-members (polluted continental and remote marine emissions), or isotopic fractionation during aerosol transport.

  14. Steady state growth of E. Coli in low ammonium environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minsu; Deris, Barret; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terry

    2011-03-01

    Ammonium is the preferred nitrogen source for many microorganisms. In medium with low ammonium concentrations, enteric bacteria turn on the nitrogen responsive (ntr) genes to assimilate ammonium. Two proteins in E. coli, Glutamine synthetase (GS) and the Ammonium/methylammonium transporter AmtB play crucial roles in this regard. GS is the major ammonium assimilation enzyme below 1mM of NH4 + . AmtB is an inner membrane protein that transports NH4 + across the cell membrane against a concentration gradient. In order to study ammonium uptake at low NH4 + concentration at neutral pH, we developed a microfluidic flow chamber that maintains a homogenous nutrient environment during the course of exponential cell growth, even at very low concentration of nutrients. Cell growth can be accurately monitored using time-lapse microscopy. We followed steady state growth down to micro-molar range of NH4 + for the wild type and Δ amtB strains. The wild type strain is able to maintain the growth rate from 10mM down to a few uM of NH4 + , while the mutant exhibited reduced growth below ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + . Simultaneous characterization of the expression levels of GS and AmtB using fluorescence reporters reveals that AmtB is turned on already at 1mM, but contributes to function only below ~ 30 ~uM in the wild-type. Down to ~ 20 ~uM of NH4 + , E.~coli can compensate the loss of AmtB by GS alone.

  15. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  16. Asymptotically AdS spacetimes with a timelike Kasner singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Exact solutions to Einstein's equations for holographic models are presented and studied. The IR geometry has a timelike cousin of the Kasner singularity, which is the less generic case of the BKL (Belinski-Khalatnikov-Lifshitz) singularity, and the UV is asymptotically AdS. This solution describes a holographic RG flow between them. The solution's appearance is an interpolation between the planar AdS black hole and the AdS soliton. The causality constraint is always satisfied. The entanglement entropy and Wilson loops are discussed. The boundary condition for the current-current correlation function and the Laplacian in the IR is examined. There is no infalling wave in the IR, but instead, there is a normalizable solution in the IR. In a special case, a hyperscaling-violating geometry is obtained after a dimensional reduction.

  17. New massive gravity and AdS(4) counterterms.

    PubMed

    Jatkar, Dileep P; Sinha, Aninda

    2011-04-29

    We show that the recently proposed Dirac-Born-Infeld extension of new massive gravity emerges naturally as a counterterm in four-dimensional anti-de Sitter space (AdS(4)). The resulting on-shell Euclidean action is independent of the cutoff at zero temperature. We also find that the same choice of counterterm gives the usual area law for the AdS(4) Schwarzschild black hole entropy in a cutoff-independent manner. The parameter values of the resulting counterterm action correspond to a c=0 theory in the context of the duality between AdS(3) gravity and two-dimensional conformal field theory. We rewrite this theory in terms of the gauge field that is used to recast 3D gravity as a Chern-Simons theory. PMID:21635026

  18. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  19. Advances in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Peng; Zou, Yening; Hu, Zhongyu

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, hundreds of materials have been tried as adjuvant; however, only aluminum-based adjuvants continue to be used widely in the world. Aluminum hydroxide, aluminum phosphate and alum constitute the main forms of aluminum used as adjuvants. Among these, aluminum hydroxide is the most commonly used chemical as adjuvant. In spite of its wide spread use, surprisingly, the mechanism of how aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants exert their beneficial effects is still not fully understood. Current explanations for the mode of action of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants include, among others, the repository effect, pro-phagocytic effect, and activation of the pro-inflammatory NLRP3 pathway. These collectively galvanize innate as well as acquired immune responses and activate the complement system. Factors that have a profound influence on responses evoked by aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant applications include adsorption rate, strength of the adsorption, size and uniformity of aluminum hydroxide particles, dosage of adjuvant, and the nature of antigens. Although vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants are beneficial, sometimes they cause adverse reactions. Further, these vaccines cannot be stored frozen. Until recently, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants were known to preferentially prime Th2-type immune responses. However, results of more recent studies show that depending on the vaccination route, aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants can enhance both Th1 as well as Th2 cellular responses. Advances in systems biology have opened up new avenues for studying mechanisms of aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvants. These will assist in scaling new frontiers in aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant research that include improvement of formulations, use of nanoparticles of aluminum hydroxide and development of composite adjuvants. PMID:25692535

  20. Direct ethanol fuel cell using hydrotalcite clay as a hydroxide ion conductive electrolyte.

    PubMed

    Tadanaga, Kiyoharu; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Hayashi, Akitoshi; Tatsumisago, Masahiro

    2010-10-15

    An alkaline-type direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) using a natural clay electrolyte with non-platinum catalysts is proposed. So-called hydrotalcite clay, Mg–Al layered double hydroxide intercalated with CO₃²⁻, is shown to be a hydroxide ion conductor. An alkaline-type DEFC using this natural clay as the electrolyte and aqueous solution of ethanol and potassium hydroxide as a source of fuel exhibits excellent electrochemical performance from room temperature to 80 °C.