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Sample records for adding engine oil

  1. Engineered soy oils for new value added applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Phuong T.

    Soybean oil is an abundant annually renewable resource. It is composed of triglycerides with long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of unsaturated fatty acids allows for chemical modification to introduce new functionalities to soybean oil. A portfolio of chemically modified soy oil with suitable functional groups has been designed and engineered to serve as the starting material in applications such as polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, composites, and lubricants. Anhydride, hydroxyl, and silicone functionalities were introduced to soy oil. Anhydride functionality was introduced using a single-step free radical initiated process, and the chemically modified soy oils were evaluated for potential applications as a composite and lubricant. Hydroxyl functionalities were introduced in a single-step catalytic ozonolysis process recently developed in our labs, which proceeds rapidly and efficiently at room temperature without solvent. The transformed soy oil was used to successfully prepare bio-lubricants with good thermal/oxidative stability and bio-plastics such as polyamides, polyesters, and polyurethanes. A new class of organic-inorganic hybrid materials was prepared by curing vinyltrimethoxysilane functionalized soy oil. This hybrid material could have potential as biobased sealant through a moisture initiated room temperature cure. These new classes of soy-based materials are competitive both in cost and performance to petroleum based materials, but offer the advantage of being biobased.

  2. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the diesel engine by adding light cycle oil to premium diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Chung; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Chen, Chung-Bang

    2006-06-01

    Diesel fuels governed by U.S. regulations are based on the index of the total aromatic contents. Three diesel fuels, containing various fractions of light cycle oil (LCO) and various sulfur, total polyaromatic, and total aromatic contents, were used in a heavy-duty diesel engine (HDDE) under transient cycle test to assess the feasibility of using current indices in managing the emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from HDDE. The mean sulfur content in LCO is 20.8 times as much as that of premium diesel fuel (PDF). The mean total polyaromatic content in LCO is 28.7 times as much as that of PDF, and the mean total aromatic content in LCO is 2.53 times as much as that of PDF. The total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factors in the exhaust from the diesel engine, as determined using PDF L3.5 (3.5% LCO and 96.5% PDF), L7.5 (7.5% LCO and 92.5% PDF), and L15 (15% LCO and 85% PDF) were 14.3, 25.8, 44, and 101 mg L(-1), respectively. The total benzo(a)pyrene equivalent (BaPeq) emission factors in the exhaust from PDF, L3.5, L7.5, and L15 were 0.0402, 0.121, 0.219, and 0.548 mg L(-1), respectively. Results indicated that using L3.5 instead of PDF will result in an 80.4% and a 201% increase of emission for total PAHs and total BaPeq, respectively. The relationships between the total polyaromatic hydrocarbon emission factor and the two emission control indices, including fuel polyaromatic content and fuel aromatic content, suggest that both indices could be used feasibly to regulate total PAH emissions. These results strongly suggest that LCO used in the traveling diesel vehicles significantly influences PAH emissions.

  3. Multi Tasking Engine Oils

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-21

    Petroleum Institute has standards for engine and gear oils but none for multipurpose lubricants of the type described above. The concept of...Transmission Oils (UTTOs) to satisfy this consumer market. Unfortunately, there are no industry-wide standards for these UTTOs as the American

  4. Modification of plant oils for value-added uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are valuable agricultural commodities and useful raw materials for the preparation of value-added products. In this article, a review is made of the various structural modifications made on plant oils in the authors’ laboratories. The reactions include Diels-Alder, ene reaction, transeste...

  5. Oil Biotechnology: Value-Added Products and Bioactive Fatty Acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During my 40+ years research career, I have been working on "biocatalysis" of hydrophobic organic compounds, both petroleum oil and vegetable oil, to convert them to value-added products. "Biocatalysis" is defined as the use of a biocatalyst such as whole microbial cells or enzymes, in an aqueous o...

  6. Engine oils: Rheology and tribology

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    This publication focuses on experimental methods, environmental issues, and friction and wear studies. A variety of problems are considered, including valve train friction, bearing lubrication, testing of piston materials, and transfer pump wear. Contents include: Experimental study on viscosity-shear characteristics of lubricating oils; Effects of lubricant composition on fuel efficiency in modern engines; Oxidation and corrosion characteristics of vegetable-base biodegradable hydraulic oils; Analysis of cam/roller follower friction and slippage in valve train systems; Tribological analysis of the transfer pump vane/bore interface using a mixed lubrication model; and more.

  7. Engine wear and lubricating oil contamination from plant oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Darcey, C.L.; LePori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1982-12-01

    Engine disassembly with wear measurements, and lubricating oil analysis were used to determine wear rates on a one cylinder diesel engine. Results are reported from short duration tests on the wear rates of various levels of processed sunflower oil, a 25% blend with diesel fuel, and processed cottonseed oil.

  8. Evaluation of Preservative Engine Oil Containing Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor and a Simplified Engine Preservation Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    AD-A240 100 EVALUATIONS OF PRESERVATIVE ENGINE OIL CONTAINING VAPOR-PHASE CORROSION INHIBITOR AND A SIMPLIFIED ENGINE PRESERVATION TECHNIQUE INTERIM...22060-5606 62786 AH20 123 11. TITLE (Include Security Classtfication) Evaluations of Preservative Engine Oil Containing Vapor-Phase Corrosion Inhibitor...the feasibility of adding a vapor-phase corrosion inhibitor (VCI) component to improve the preservation performance of MIL-L-21260 and (2) to evaluate

  9. Viscosity test standards for engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    This report presents a compilation of 10 ASTM standards that cover both low and high temperature viscosity tests for automotive engine oils, with respect to low temperature flow properties and performance requirements under high temperature, high shear rate conditions. Society of Automotive Engineer's Engine Oil Viscosity Classification SAE J300 is included to provide low temperature high shear rate method.

  10. Designing added functions in engineered cementitious composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, En-Hua

    In this dissertation, a new and systematic material design approach is developed for ECC with added functions through material microstructures linkage to composite macroscopic behavior. The thesis research embodies theoretical development by building on previous ECC micromechanical models, and experimental investigations into three specific new versions of ECC with added functions aimed at addressing societal demands of our built infrastructure. Specifically, the theoretical study includes three important ECC modeling elements: Steady-state crack propagation analyses and simulation, predictive accuracy of the fiber bridging constitutive model, and development of the rate-dependent strain-hardening criteria. The first element establishes the steady-state cracking criterion as a fundamental requirement for multiple cracking behavior in brittle matrix composites. The second element improves the accuracy of crack-width prediction in ECC. The third element establishes the micromechanics basis for impact-resistant ECC design. Three new ECCs with added functions were developed and experimentally verified in this thesis research through the enhanced theoretical framework. A green ECC incorporating a large volume of industrial waste was demonstrated to possess reduced crack width and drying shrinkage. The self-healing ECC designed with tight crack width was demonstrated to recover transport and mechanical properties after microcrack damage when exposed to wet and dry cycles. The impact-resistant ECC was demonstrated to retain tensile ductility with increased strength under moderately high strain-rate loading. These new versions of ECC with added functions are expected to contribute greatly to enhancing the sustainability, durability, and safety of civil infrastructure built with ECC. This research establishes the effectiveness of micromechanics-based design and material ingredient tailoring for ECC with added new attributes but without losing its basic tensile ductile

  11. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products

    PubMed Central

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-01-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed. PMID:21526386

  12. Engineering microbial factories for synthesis of value-added products.

    PubMed

    Du, Jing; Shao, Zengyi; Zhao, Huimin

    2011-08-01

    Microorganisms have become an increasingly important platform for the production of drugs, chemicals, and biofuels from renewable resources. Advances in protein engineering, metabolic engineering, and synthetic biology enable redesigning microbial cellular networks and fine-tuning physiological capabilities, thus generating industrially viable strains for the production of natural and unnatural value-added compounds. In this review, we describe the recent progress on engineering microbial factories for synthesis of valued-added products including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, polyketides, non-ribosomal peptides, biofuels, and chemicals. Related topics on lignocellulose degradation, sugar utilization, and microbial tolerance improvement will also be discussed.

  13. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  14. Oleaginous yeast: a value-added platform for renewable oils.

    PubMed

    Probst, Kyle V; Schulte, Leslie R; Durrett, Timothy P; Rezac, Mary E; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2016-10-01

    Yeast single cell oil (SCO) is a non-crop-based, renewable oil source that can be used for the production of bio-based oleochemicals. Stand-alone production of SCO for oleochemicals is currently not cost-competitive because lower-cost alternatives from petroleum and crop-based resources are available. Utilizing low-valued nutrient sources, implementing cost-efficient downstream processes and adopting biotechnological advancements such as systems biology and metabolic engineering could prove valuable in making an SCO platform a reality in the emerging bio-based economy. This review aims to consider key biochemical pathways for storage lipid synthesis, possible pathways for SCO yield improvement, previously used bioprocessing techniques for SCO production, challenges in SCO commercialization and advantages of adopting a renewable SCO platform.

  15. Diesel engine combustion of sunflower oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Zubik, J.; Sorenson, S.C.; Goering, C.E.

    1984-09-01

    The performance, combustion, and exhaust emissions of diesel fuel, a blend of 25% sunflower oil in diesel fuel, and sunflower oil methyl ester have been compared. All fuels performed satisfactorily in a direct injection diesel engine, with the fuels derived from sunflower oil giving somewhat higher cylinder pressures and rates of pressure rise due to a higher percentage of 'premixed' burning than the diesel fuel. General performance and emissions characteristics of the two fuels were comparable, with the oil based fuels giving lower smoke readings. 15 references.

  16. Some engineering properties of heavy concrete added silica fume

    SciTech Connect

    Akkaş, Ayşe; Başyiğit, Celalettin; Esen, Serap

    2013-12-16

    Many different types of building materials have been used in building construction for years. Heavy concretes can be used as a building material for critical building as it can contain a mixture of many heavy elements. The barite itself for radiation shielding can be used and also in concrete to produce the workable concrete with a maximum density and adequate structural strength. In this study, some engineering properties like compressive strength, elasticity modules and flexure strength of heavy concretes’ added Silica fume have been investigated.

  17. Some engineering properties of heavy concrete added silica fume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akkaş, Ayşe; Başyiǧit, Celalettin; Esen, Serap

    2013-12-01

    Many different types of building materials have been used in building construction for years. Heavy concretes can be used as a building material for critical building as it can contain a mixture of many heavy elements. The barite itself for radiation shielding can be used and also in concrete to produce the workable concrete with a maximum density and adequate structural strength. In this study, some engineering properties like compressive strength, elasticity modules and flexure strength of heavy concretes' added Silica fume have been investigated.

  18. Model of the world oil market with an OPEC cartel. [1980 AD to 2040 AD

    SciTech Connect

    Alsmiller, R.G. Jr.; Horwedel, J.E.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Haas, S.M.

    1984-08-01

    A world oil market model (WOM) with OPEC treated as a Stackelberg cartel has been developed within the framework of the Generalized Equilibrium Modeling System (GEMS) that is available from Decision Focus, Inc. The US sector of the model is represented by a Liquid Fuels Supply model that was presented previously. The WOM model is described and results obtained with the model for the period 1980 to 2040 are presented. For comparative purposes, results obtained with the model when OPEC is treated as a competitive producer are also presented. By comparing the world oil price as a function of time from the two calculations, the influence that OPEC may have on the oil market by exploiting all of its market power is quantified. The world oil price as obtained with the WOM model is also compared with world oil price projections from a variety of sources. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Gravimetric Determination of Sediment in Turbine Engine Lubricating Oils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    noncombustible sediment present in aircraft turbine engine lubricating oils . Both MIL-L-7808 and MIL-L-23699 lubricants were investigated. These...temperature. When these oils were heated to 140 F, they easily passed through a silver membrane filter. A test procedure for the gravimetric measurement of particulate contamination in turbine engine lubricating oils is proposed. (Author)

  20. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  1. 7 CFR 2902.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 2902.25 Section 2902.25... Items § 2902.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle engines to... least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in the product as...

  2. 7 CFR 3201.102 - Engine crankcase oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Designated Items § 3201.102 Engine crankcase oils. (a) Definition. Lubricating products formulated to provide lubrication and wear protection for four-cycle gasoline or diesel engines. (b) Minimum biobased content. The... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engine crankcase oils. 3201.102 Section...

  3. Field Evaluation of All-Season Tactical Engine Oil OE/HDO-15/40 at Ft. Knox, Kentucky and Ft. Bliss, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    104, Oil, Engine, 3 September 1941. 2. Montemayor , A.F.; Owens, E.C.; Frame, E.A.; Lestz, 5.3.; and Bowen, T.C., "Laboratory Evaluation of Army... Montemayor , A.F., "Laboratory Evaluation of Multiviscosity- Grade Engine Oils in U.S. Army Diesel Engines," Interim Report AFLRL No. 112, AD A108890

  4. Characterization of lubrication oil emissions from aircraft engines.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Liscinsky, David S; Winstead, Edward L; True, Bruce S; Timko, Michael T; Bhargava, Anuj; Herndon, Scott C; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Anderson, Bruce E

    2010-12-15

    In this first ever study, particulate matter (PM) emitted from the lubrication system overboard breather vent for two different models of aircraft engines has been systematically characterized. Lubrication oil was confirmed as the predominant component of the emitted particulate matter based upon the characteristic mass spectrum of the pure oil. Total particulate mass and size distributions of the emitted oil are also investigated by several high-sensitivity aerosol characterization instruments. The emission index (EI) of lubrication oil at engine idle is in the range of 2-12 mg kg(-1) and increases with engine power. The chemical composition of the oil droplets is essentially independent of engine thrust, suggesting that engine oil does not undergo thermally driven chemical transformations during the ∼4 h test window. Volumetric mean diameter is around 250-350 nm for all engine power conditions with a slight power dependence.

  5. Ruthenium oxide ion selective thin-film electrodes for engine oil acidity monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurya, D. K.; Sardarinejad, A.; Alameh, K.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate the concept of a low-cost, rugged, miniaturized ion selective electrode (ISE) comprising a thin film RuO2 on platinum sensing electrode deposited using RF magnetron sputtered in conjunction with an integrated Ag/AgCl and Ag reference electrodes for engine oil acidity monitoring. Model oil samples are produced by adding nitric acid into fresh fully synthetic engine oil and used for sensor evaluation. Experimental results show a linear potential-versus-acid-concentration response for nitric acid concentration between 0 (fresh oil) to 400 ppm, which demonstrate the accuracy of the RuO2 sensor in real-time operation, making it attractive for use in cars and industrial engines.

  6. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H.; Shanklin, John

    2010-02-02

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  7. ADS genes for reducing saturated fatty acid levels in seed oils

    DOEpatents

    Heilmann, Ingo H; Shanklin, John

    2014-03-18

    The present invention relates to enzymes involved in lipid metabolism. In particular, the present invention provides coding sequences for Arabidopsis Desaturases (ADS), the encoded ADS polypeptides, and methods for using the sequences and encoded polypeptides, where such methods include decreasing and increasing saturated fatty acid content in plant seed oils.

  8. Lipid metabolism and potentials of biofuel and high added-value oil production in red algae.

    PubMed

    Sato, Naoki; Moriyama, Takashi; Mori, Natsumi; Toyoshima, Masakazu

    2017-04-01

    Biomass production is currently explored in microalgae, macroalgae and land plants. Microalgal biofuel development has been performed mostly in green algae. In the Japanese tradition, macrophytic red algae such as Pyropia yezoensis and Gelidium crinale have been utilized as food and industrial materials. Researches on the utilization of unicellular red microalgae such as Cyanidioschyzon merolae and Porphyridium purpureum started only quite recently. Red algae have relatively large plastid genomes harboring more than 200 protein-coding genes that support the biosynthetic capacity of the plastid. Engineering the plastid genome is a unique potential of red microalgae. In addition, large-scale growth facilities of P. purpureum have been developed for industrial production of biofuels. C. merolae has been studied as a model alga for cell and molecular biological analyses with its completely determined genomes and transformation techniques. Its acidic and warm habitat makes it easy to grow this alga axenically in large scales. Its potential as a biofuel producer is recently documented under nitrogen-limited conditions. Metabolic pathways of the accumulation of starch and triacylglycerol and the enzymes involved therein are being elucidated. Engineering these regulatory mechanisms will open a possibility of exploiting the full capability of production of biofuel and high added-value oil. In the present review, we will describe the characteristics and potential of these algae as biotechnological seeds.

  9. Adding a visualization feature to web search engines: it's time.

    PubMed

    Wong, Pak Chung

    2008-01-01

    It's widely recognized that all Web search engines today are almost identical in presentation layout and behavior. In fact, the same presentation approach has been applied to depicting search engine results pages (SERPs) since the first Web search engine launched in 1993. In this Visualization Viewpoints article, I propose to add a visualization feature to Web search engines and suggest that the new addition can improve search engines' performance and capabilities, which in turn lead to better Web search technology.

  10. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  11. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  12. 7 CFR 3201.25 - 2-Cycle engine oils.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2-Cycle engine oils. 3201.25 Section 3201.25... Designated Items § 3201.25 2-Cycle engine oils. (a) Definition. Lubricants designed for use in 2-cycle... of at least 34 percent, which shall be based on the amount of qualifying biobased carbon in...

  13. Orange oil and its application to spark ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.

    1982-12-01

    Orange oil can be extracted from the peel of citrus. In Japan the production of orange oil is about 2000 tons per year. No orange oil has been however used for any specific purpose. The main ingredient of orange oil consists of d-limonen. About 0.6-1.0% oil can be extracted from the peel of ''Unshu orange'', which is a kind of typical Japanese tangerine. Orange oil has 106-140 research octane number which is good for running the CFR engine. The flash point of orange oil measured by Pensky-Martens method was at 56/sup 0/C. For the use of orange oil only as fuel without blending, there was found to be some difficulty in engine startability under cold conditions.

  14. Born-Infeld AdS black holes as heat engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Clifford V.

    2016-07-01

    We study the efficiency of heat engines that perform mechanical work via the pdV terms present in the first law in extended gravitational thermodynamics. We use charged black holes as the working substance, for a particular choice of engine cycle. The context is Einstein gravity with negative cosmological constant and a Born-Infeld nonlinear electrodynamics sector. We compare the results for these ‘holographic’ heat engines to previous results obtained for Einstein-Maxwell black holes, and for the case where there is a Gauss-Bonnet sector.

  15. 21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Power plant engine fuel oil piping diagrams, sheet 83 of 130 - Naval Air Station Fallon, Power Plant, 800 Complex, off Carson Road near intersection of Pasture & Berney Roads, Fallon, Churchill County, NV

  16. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess of fuel control requirements back to aircraft fuel tank, thereby increasing the fuel pump heat sink and decreasing the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than that normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. Fluid circuitry is provided to route hot engine oil through a plurality of heat exchangers disposed within the system to provide for selective cooling of the oil.

  17. Soybean and sunflower oil performance in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schlick, M.L.; Hanna, M.A.; Schinstock, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The performance of a direct injection diesel engine operating on mechanically expelled-unrefined soybean oil and sunflower oil blende with number 2 diesel fuel on a 25:75 v/v basis was evaluated. The power output remained constant throughout 200 h of operation. Excessive carbon deposits on all combustion chamber parts precludes the use of these fuel blends, at least in the engine and under the specified EMA operating conditions.

  18. Commercial Automotive Engine Oils - A Laboratory Assessment of Their Quality.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    were to procure off-the-shelf re-branded oils of at least American Petroleum Institute (API) * ISE performance level and falling into the Society of...requirement. 14 APPENDIX COMMERCIAL ENGINE OIL PERFORMANCE CLASSIFICATIONS In 1947, the American Petroleum Institute (API) adopted the first

  19. Long term testing of peanut oil in engines

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    Durability tests of engines using crude peanut oil blended with no. 2 diesel were conducted, using the E.M.A. screening procedure. Direct and indirect injection designs were operated on 20:80 and 80:28 fuel blends. Time-dependent exhaust temperature changes, mechanical wear, and crank-case oil viscosity changes were evaluated.

  20. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Rubber-pyrolysis oil is difficult to be fuel due to high proportion of PAHs. • The efficiency of pyrolysis was increased as the percentage of sawdust increased. • The adding of sawdust improved pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the PAHs content. • Adding sawdust reduced nitrogen/sulfur in oil and was easier to convert to diesel. - Abstract: This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG–FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis–gas chromatography (GC)–mass spectrometry (Py–GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2 s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  1. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  2. Approximate ad-hoc query engine for simulation data

    SciTech Connect

    Abdulla, G; Baldwin, C; Critchlow, T; Kamimura, R; Lozares, I; Musick, R; Tang, N; Lee, B S; Snapp, R

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, we describe AQSim, an ongoing effort to design and implement a system to manage terabytes of scientific simulation data. The goal of this project is to reduce data storage requirements and access times while permitting ad-hoc queries using statistical and mathematical models of the data. In order to facilitate data exchange between models based on different representations, we are evaluating using the ASCI common data model which is comprised of several layers of increasing semantic complexity. To support queries over the spatial-temporal mesh structured data we are in the process of defining and implementing a grammar for MeshSQL.

  3. Improving peppermint essential oil yield and composition by metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernd Markus; Mahmoud, Soheil Seyed; Wildung, Mark R; Turner, Glenn W; Davis, Edward M; Lange, Iris; Baker, Raymond C; Boydston, Rick A; Croteau, Rodney B

    2011-10-11

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was transformed with various gene constructs to evaluate the utility of metabolic engineering for improving essential oil yield and composition. Oil yield increases were achieved by overexpressing genes involved in the supply of precursors through the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. Two-gene combinations to enhance both oil yield and composition in a single transgenic line were assessed as well. The most promising results were obtained by transforming plants expressing an antisense version of (+)-menthofuran synthase, which is critical for adjusting the levels of specific undesirable oil constituents, with a construct for the overexpression of the MEP pathway gene 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (up to 61% oil yield increase over wild-type controls with low levels of the undesirable side-product (+)-menthofuran and its intermediate (+)-pulegone). Elite transgenic lines were advanced to multiyear field trials, which demonstrated consistent oil yield increases of up to 78% over wild-type controls and desirable effects on oil composition under commercial growth conditions. The transgenic expression of a gene encoding (+)-limonene synthase was used to accumulate elevated levels of (+)-limonene, which allows oil derived from transgenic plants to be recognized during the processing of commercial formulations containing peppermint oil. Our study illustrates the utility of metabolic engineering for the sustainable agricultural production of high quality essential oils at a competitive cost.

  4. Sunflower oil as a fuel for compression ignition engines

    SciTech Connect

    Tahir, A.R.; Lapp, H.M.; Buchanan, L.C.

    1982-01-01

    Sunflower oil has emerged among the vegetable oils as potential fuel alternatives. The Province of Manitoba is the major producer of sunflower oil in Canada. This study was initiated to investigate the fuel-related physical properties and performance characteristics in compression ignition engines. The results for sunflower oil were summarized and compared with No. 2 diesel fuel. The most detrimental parameter in the use of sunflower oil is its higher viscosity which is about 14 times higher than diesel fuel at 37.78/sup 0/C. The problem of higher viscosity can be solved by transesterification of sunflower oil to its methyl ester. The cetane number of sunflower oil is a little less than the minimum value of 40 for No. 2 diesel fuel. Specific fuel consumption was higher due to its lower energy value whereas thermal efficiency was satisfactory when compared with No. 2 diesel fuel. Oxidation of sunflower oil left heavy gum and wax deposits on the stationary engine parts and the test bench equipment. Lower levels of corrosion can be expected on metal parts due to the lower sulfur content in the sunflower oil. Fire hazards associated with fuel handling will be reduced because of the higher flash point of sunflower oil. 5 figures, 4 tables. (DP)

  5. [Application of PCA to diesel engine oil spectrometric analysis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Tian, Hong-Xiang; Guo, Wen-Yong

    2010-03-01

    In order to study wear characteristics of a 6-cylinder diesel engine, six different working statuses were arranged by altering the clearance between cylinder and piston. Sixty-nine oil samples were taken from engine at different loads under 6 working statuses and analyzed by Spectroil M Instrument made in US. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to analyzing spectrometric data of sixty-nine oil samples and clustering those data according to elements and oil samples separately based on the weighted coefficient and principal component scores. All 21 elements were used in element clustering and only 6 wear-related elements, namely iron, chromium, aluminum, copper, plumbum and silicon, were used in sample clustering. It is shown that PCA effectively clustered oil spectrometric data into three different principal components according to elements. The projection of two different principal components exhibited five types of elements combinations, namely wear elements (Fe, Cr, Cu, Al and Pb), high concentration additives elements (Na, Zn, P, Ca and Mg), low concentration additives elements (Ba and B), base constituent of lubricating oils (C and H) and interferential elements (Ni, Ti, Mo, V, Ag and Sn). Furthermore, PCA clearly clustered oil samples according to different clearance between cylinder and piston in the diesel engine. The study suggests that analyzing oil spectrographic data by PCA could find the sources of different elements, monitor engine conditions and diagnose wear faults.

  6. Use of Multiviscosity/Synthetic Engine Oil in Army Combat/Tactical Vehicles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-09-01

    Approach to the Characterization of Military Lubricants," Interim Report AFLRL No. 77, AD A027397, prepared at U.S. Army Fuels and Lubricants Research...Lubricating Oil, Internal Com- bustion Engine, Tactical Service, November 1970. 15. "Multigrade Oils for Diesel Application," 4emorandum for Record, DRX - FB-GL...signific.ant ’cdolei rtz’oas wero e:’countered. Non vr-hi1cleo, Act-ain. #I nQ-680, sustalmed r~iajr~ engimed-r.~ dur-Ing ciprtlcn, One c tio conne

  7. Evaluation of sensor arrays for engine oils using artificial oil alteration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Sedat; Schneidhofer, Christoph; Dörr, Nicole; Vellekoop, Michael J.

    2011-06-01

    With respect to varying operation conditions, only sensors directly installed in the engine can detect the current oil condition hence enabling to get the right time for the oil change. Usually, only one parameter is not sufficient to obtain reliable information about the current oil condition. For this reason, appropriate sensor principles were evaluated for the design of sensor arrays for the measurement of critical lubricant parameters. In this contribution, we report on the development of a sensor array for engine oils using laboratory analyses of used engine oils for the correlation with sensor signals. The sensor array comprises the measurement of conductivity, permittivity, viscosity and temperature as well as oil corrosiveness as a consequence of acidification of the lubricant. As a key method, rapid evaluation of the sensors was done by short term simulation of entire oil change intervals based on artificial oil alteration. Thereby, the compatibility of the sensor array to the lubricant and the oil deterioration during the artificial alteration process was observed by the sensors and confirmed by additional laboratory analyses of oil samples take.

  8. Storage stability of sunflower oil with added natural antioxidant concentrate from sesame seed oil.

    PubMed

    Nasirullah; Latha, R Baby

    2009-01-01

    Demand for use of natural additives such as nutraceuticals, antioxidants, coloring and flavoring matter is continuously increasing world over. It is due to nutritional awareness among the masses and belief that most of the natural products are safe for human consumption. Interest has been shown recently on the use of natural antioxidants from oil seeds. Hence, oils obtained from sesame (Sesamum indicum) had been utilized for this purpose. Oils were thermally treated (T) to enhance the sesamol content from 4,900 to 9,500 ppm. A portion of resultant oil had been extracted with ethanol in a controlled conditions to yield a concentrate (ESSO-T) with sesamol content of 28,500 ppm. Whereas another portion after silica gel column separation yielded a concentrate (SSO-TFII) with sesamol content of 27,100 ppm. Refined sunflower oil without antioxidant was mixed with ESSO-T and SSO-TFII separately at the level of 2,000, 1,000, 500 and 200 ppm and its storage stability assessed was at ambient (22-28 degrees C) and elevated (37 degrees C) temperatures. Peroxide value (PV) and Free Fatty Acid content (FFA) of samples were estimated at intervals of 2 weeks for a total storage period of 12 weeks. Results indicated that ESSO-T at the level of 500 ppm had maximum protective effect on refined sunflower oil, where PV and FFA were found ranging between 2.1 to 5.9 and 0.10 to 0.15%; and 4.1 to 9.8 and 0.11 to 0.21% for samples stored at ambient and elevated conditions respectively. The storage stability of this sample was very close to the storage stability of sunflower oil containing TBHQ at 200 ppm. Comparatively in sunflower oil without antioxidant PV and FFA had gone up from 2.0 to 45.4 and 0.11 to 1.3% at ambient and 2.0 to 56.4 and 0.11 to 2.8% at elevated temperatures.

  9. Spacecraft Testing Programs: Adding Value to the Systems Engineering Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britton, Keith J.; Schaible, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Testing has long been recognized as a critical component of spacecraft development activities - yet many major systems failures may have been prevented with more rigorous testing programs. The question is why is more testing not being conducted? Given unlimited resources, more testing would likely be included in a spacecraft development program. Striking the right balance between too much testing and not enough has been a long-term challenge for many industries. The objective of this paper is to discuss some of the barriers, enablers, and best practices for developing and sustaining a strong test program and testing team. This paper will also explore the testing decision factors used by managers; the varying attitudes toward testing; methods to develop strong test engineers; and the influence of behavior, culture and processes on testing programs. KEY WORDS: Risk, Integration and Test, Validation, Verification, Test Program Development

  10. Metabolism of waste engine oil by Pseudomonas species.

    PubMed

    Salam, Lateef B

    2016-06-01

    Two bacterial strains phylogenetically identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains RM1 and SK1 displayed extensive degradation ability on waste engine oil (SAE 40W) in batch cultures. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed the presence of various heavy metals such as lead, chromium and nickel in the waste engine oil. The rate of degradation of waste engine oil by the isolates, for the first 12 days and the last 9 days were 66.3, 31.6 mg l(-1) day(-1)  and 69.6, 40.0 mg l(-1) day(-1) for strains RM1 and SK1, respectively. Gas chromatographic (GC) analyses of residual waste engine oil, revealed that 66.58, 89.06 % and 63.40, 90.75 % of the initial concentration of the waste engine oil were degraded by strains RM1 and SK1 within 12 and 21 days. GC fingerprints of the waste engine oil after 12 days of incubation of strains RM1 and SK1 showed total disappearance of C15, C23, C24, C25 and C26 hydrocarbon fractions as well as drastic reductions of C13, C14, C16 and PAHs fractions such as C19-anthracene and C22-pyrene. At the end of 21 days incubation, total disappearance of C17-pristane, C22-pyrene, one of the C19-anthracene and significant reduction of C18-phytane (97.2 %, strain RM1; 95.1 %, strain SK1) fractions were observed. In addition, <10 % of Day 0 values of medium fraction ranges C13, and C16 were discernible after 21 days. This study has established the potentials of P. aeruginosa strains RM1 and SK1 in the degradation of aliphatic, aromatic and branched alkane components of waste engine oils.

  11. Engineered microbes and methods for microbial oil production

    DOEpatents

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Tai, Mitchell; Chakraborty, Sagar

    2015-02-10

    Some aspects of this invention provide engineered microbes for oil production. Methods for microbe engineering and for use of engineered microbes are also provided herein. In some embodiments, microbes are provided that are engineered to modulate a combination of rate-controlling steps of lipid synthesis, for example, a combination of a step generating metabolites, acetyl-CoA, ATP or NADPH for lipid synthesis (a push step), and a step sequestering a product or an intermediate of a lipid synthesis pathway that mediates feedback inhibition of lipid synthesis (a pull step). Such push-and-pull engineered microbes exhibit greatly enhanced conversion yields and TAG synthesis and storage properties.

  12. Biodiesel from plant seed oils as an alternate fuel for compression ignition engines-a review.

    PubMed

    Vijayakumar, C; Ramesh, M; Murugesan, A; Panneerselvam, N; Subramaniam, D; Bharathiraja, M

    2016-12-01

    The modern scenario reveals that the world is facing energy crisis due to the dwindling sources of fossil fuels. Environment protection agencies are more concerned about the atmospheric pollution due to the burning of fossil fuels. Alternative fuel research is getting augmented because of the above reasons. Plant seed oils (vegetable oils) are cleaner, sustainable, and renewable. So, it can be the most suitable alternative fuel for compression ignition (CI) engines. This paper reviews the availability of different types of plant seed oils, several methods for production of biodiesel from vegetable oils, and its properties. The different types of oils considered in this review are cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) oil, ginger oil, eucalyptus oil, rice bran oil, Calophyllum inophyllum, hazelnut oil, sesame oil, clove stem oil, sardine oil, honge oil, polanga oil, mahua oil, rubber seed oil, cotton seed oil, neem oil, jatropha oil, egunsi melon oil, shea butter, linseed oil, Mohr oil, sea lemon oil, pumpkin oil, tobacco seed oil, jojoba oil, and mustard oil. Several methods for production of biodiesel are transesterification, pre-treatment, pyrolysis, and water emulsion are discussed. The various fuel properties considered for review such as specific gravity, viscosity, calorific value, flash point, and fire point are presented. The review also portrays advantages, limitations, performance, and emission characteristics of engine using plant seed oil biodiesel are discussed. Finally, the modeling and optimization of engine for various biofuels with different input and output parameters using artificial neural network, response surface methodology, and Taguchi are included.

  13. Short-term performance of diesel oil and sunflower oil mixtures in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, K.R.; Ziejewski, M.; Marohl, M.; Kucera, H.L.

    1982-05-01

    A series of short tests were run on two different makes of diesel tractor. The fuel used in addition to the No. 2 diesel fuel were refined sunflower oil, crude sunflower oil and five blends of each of these fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine performance parameters measured include: engine power, volumetric fuel efficiency, thermal efficiency, exhaust temperature, Bosch smoke number and fuel flow. (Refs. 3).

  14. Remaining useful life measurements of diesel engine oils, automotive engine oils, hydraulic fluids, and greases using cyclic voltammetric methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    This paper presents the results of research designed to develop a remaining useful life evaluation rig (RULER) from cyclic voltammetric methods for diesel engine oils, automotive engine oils, hydraulic fluids, and greases. The RULER requires less than one millimeter of sample, less than one minute to perform, and very little technical expertise. Samples of laboratory-stressed and authentic-used oils, fluids, and greases were used in the development of the RULER. The results of this research demonstrate that remaining useful life measurements made by the RULER can be used by oil analysis programs to quantify antioxidant levels of incoming and stored supplies, to predict and extend oil change intervals for normally operating equipment, and to detect abnormally operating equipment prior to malfunction. 13 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Magnetorheology of suspensions based on graphene oxide coated or added carbonyl iron microspheres and sunflower oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kaikai; Zhang, Wen Ling; Shan, Lei; Zhang, Xiangjun; Meng, Yonggang; Choi, Hyoung Jin; Tian, Yu

    2014-10-01

    Magnetorheological (MR) fluids based on carbonyl iron (CI) particles coated with graphene oxide (GO) and sunflower oils were studied and compared with MR fluids (MRFs) prepared with CI particles added with GO sheets. Adding GO sheets into CI had a negligible effect on the rheological properties of the MRF. Coating the spheres with GO markedly decreased the shear strength at high shear rates due to the remarkable lubricating function of the GO surface. Different behaviors were observed in the shear thickening phenomenon when the GO surface changed the mechanical interaction between particles. The results demonstrated the importance of the role of interparticle friction for MRF in shear mode and discussed the weak shear thickening phenomenon with fine lubricating coating layers and oils.

  16. Recycling of waste engine oil for diesel production.

    PubMed

    Maceiras, R; Alfonsín, V; Morales, F J

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this work was to recycle waste engine oil until converting it into reusable product, diesel fuel. The waste oil was treated using pyrolytic distillation. The effect of two additives (sodium hydroxide and sodium carbonate) in the purification of the obtained fuel was also studied. Moreover, the influence of the number of distillations were analysed. Some thermal and physicochemical properties (density, viscosity, colour, turbidity, acidity value, distillation curves, cetane number, corrosiveness to Cu, water content, flash point and hydrocarbons) were determined to analyse the quality of the obtained fuel. The best results were obtained with 2% of sodium carbonate and two successive distillations. The obtained results showed that pyrolytic distillation of waste engine oil is an excellent way to produce diesel fuel to be used in engines.

  17. Microbial chemical factories: recent advances in pathway engineering for synthesis of value added chemicals.

    PubMed

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Prather, Kristala L J

    2011-08-01

    The dwindling nature of petroleum and other fossil reserves has provided impetus towards microbial synthesis of fuels and value added chemicals from biomass-derived sugars as a renewable resource. Microbes have naturally evolved enzymes and pathways that can convert biomass into hundreds of unique chemical structures, a property that can be effectively exploited for their engineering into Microbial Chemical Factories (MCFs). De novo pathway engineering facilitates expansion of the repertoire of microbially synthesized compounds beyond natural products. In this review, we visit some recent successes in such novel pathway engineering and optimization, with particular emphasis on the selection and engineering of pathway enzymes and balancing of their accessory cofactors.

  18. The Feasibility of Oil Analysis for Air Force Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-06-01

    period 18 September 1978 to 18 June 1979. The Air F’orce Project Monitor was MrW~ le MaW e, - an rton16h ALC /MMET,’ . Mr. J,P. Cuellar, Jr., of SwRI...insolub les 28 TABLE 5. RELATION OF USED CRANKCASE OIL ANALYSIS TO ENGINE CONDITION OR OPERATION (Cont’d) Contributing Engine Condition Test Result...guidelines for wearmetal and lubricant control limits. 46. Schilling, A. (Chief Engineer, Institut Francais du Petrole ), Automobile Engine Lubrication, 1972

  19. Single-cylinder diesel engine study of four vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobus, M.J.; Geyer, S.M.; Lestz, S.S.; Risby, T.M.; Taylor, W.D.

    1983-10-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36l, D.I. Diesel engine was operated on Diesel fuel, sunflowerseed oil, cottonseed oil, soybean oil, and peanut oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed comparison of performance and emissions data and to characterize the biological activity of the particulate soluble organic fraction for each fuel using the Ames Salmonella typhimurium test. In addition, exhaust gas aldehyde samples were collected using the DNPH method. These samples were analyzed gravimetrically and separated into components from formaldehyde to heptaldehyde with a gas chromatograph. Results comparing the vegetable oils to Diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and indicated specific energy consumption; equal or higher gas-phase emissions; lower indicated specific revertant emissions; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde.

  20. Antifungal activity by vapor contact of essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; Navarro Cruz, Addí Rhode; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2012-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents can be incorporated into edible films to provide microbiological stability, since films can be used as carriers of a variety of additives to extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of microbial growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of small antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition by vapor contact of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium digitatum by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer), cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) or lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) essential oils (EOs) added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Essential oils were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0.00, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 2.00, or 4.00%. Antifungal activity was evaluated by determining the mold radial growth on agar media inoculated with A. niger and P. digitatum after exposure to vapors arising from essential oils added to amaranth, chitosan or starch films using the inverted lid technique. The modified Gompertz model adequately described mold growth curves (mean coefficient of determination 0.991 ± 0.05). Chitosan films exhibited better antifungal effectiveness (inhibition of A. niger with 0.25% of Mexican oregano and cinnamon EO; inhibition of P. digitatum with 0.50% EOs) than amaranth films (2.00 and 4.00% of cinnamon and Mexican oregano EO were needed to inhibit the studied molds, respectively). For chitosan and amaranth films a significant increase (p<0.05) of lag phase was observed among film concentrations while a significant decrease (p<0.05) of maximum specific growth was determined. Chitosan edible films incorporating Mexican oregano or cinnamon essential oil could improve the quality of foods by the action of the volatile compounds on surface growth

  1. Virgin and recycled engine oil differentiation: a spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Al-Atoum, Lina

    2009-01-01

    As a result of the changes that occur during their use, used engine oils tend to differ in chemical and physical composition from a virgin oil. In general recycled oils have: much higher water and sediment levels than virgin oil; relatively higher concentrations of organic compounds (oxidation products); and relatively higher levels of metals such as Fe, Cd, Cr, Pb, etc. Therefore, the aim of this work was to investigate, assess and to observe, by means of the physical and the chemical properties of the oils, atomic absorption (AA), inductive couple plasma (ICP) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analyses the extent of the differences occurring between the virgin and recycled oil. In important part of this work was also the development of analytical techniques based on the use of FTIR spectroscopy; in relation to the rapid analysis of lubricants; in particular for the differentiation of virgin and recycled oil. The results obtained were expected to be useful for differentiation purposes, providing information on whether the metal concentrations and oxidation products could be an appropriate feature for differentiating a particular oil sample from the others. This work is categorized into a two-step procedure. Firstly, an evaluation of a typical FTIR spectrum of an engine oil sample (mono- and multigrade) is presented. The broad feature centered at 1716 cm(-1) is due to the presence of carbonyl containing degradation products of oil. A band observed at 1732, 1169, 1154 and 1270 cm(-1) assigned to the polymethacrylate stretching vibrations, allows the determination of viscosity modifier and pour point depressant additives. The observed differences in the specific spectral bands (1732, 1169, 1154 and 1270 and 1716 cm(-1)) are investigated and discussed. Secondly, an analytical technique for the measurement of the levels of the wear metals is also applied.

  2. Quality improvement of pyrolysis oil from waste rubber by adding sawdust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-liang; Chang, Jian-min; Cai, Li-ping; Shi, Sheldon Q

    2014-12-01

    This work was aimed at improving the pyrolysis oil quality of waste rubber by adding larch sawdust. Using a 1 kg/h stainless pyrolysis reactor, the contents of sawdust in rubber were gradually increased from 0%, 50%, 100% and 200% (wt%) during the pyrolysis process. Using a thermo-gravimetric (TG) analyzer coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of evolving products (TG-FTIR), the weight loss characteristics of the heat under different mixtures of sawdust/rubber were observed. Using the pyrolysis-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), the vapors from the pyrolysis processes were collected and the compositions of the vapors were examined. During the pyrolysis process, the recovery of the pyrolysis gas and its composition were measured in-situ at a reaction temperature of 450 °C and a retaining time of 1.2s. The results indicated that the efficiency of pyrolysis was increased and the residual carbon was reduced as the percentage of sawdust increased. The adding of sawdust significantly improved the pyrolysis oil quality by reducing the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitrogen and sulfur compounds contents, resulting in an improvement in the combustion efficiency of the pyrolysis oil.

  3. Viscosity of diesel engine fuel oil under pressure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hersey, Mayo D

    1929-01-01

    In the development of Diesel engine fuel injection systems it is necessary to have an approximate knowledge of the absolute viscosity of the fuel oil under high hydrostatic pressures. This report presents the results of experimental tests conducted by Mr. Jackson Newton Shore, utilizing the A.S.M.E. high pressure equipment.

  4. The use of tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Murugan, S; Ramaswamy, M C; Nagarajan, G

    2008-12-01

    Tests have been carried out to evaluate the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine fueled with 10%, 30%, and 50% of tyre pyrolysis oil (TPO) blended with diesel fuel (DF). The TPO was derived from waste automobile tyres through vacuum pyrolysis. The combustion parameters such as heat release rate, cylinder peak pressure, and maximum rate of pressure rise also analysed. Results showed that the brake thermal efficiency of the engine fueled with TPO-DF blends increased with an increase in blend concentration and reduction of DF concentration. NO(x), HC, CO, and smoke emissions were found to be higher at higher loads due to the high aromatic content and longer ignition delay. The cylinder peak pressure increased from 71 bars to 74 bars. The ignition delays were longer than with DF. It is concluded that it is possible to use tyre pyrolysis oil in diesel engines as an alternate fuel in the future.

  5. Oil cooling system for a gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffinberry, G. A.; Kast, H. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A gas turbine engine fuel delivery and control system is provided with means to recirculate all fuel in excess fuel control requirements back to the aircraft fuel tank. This increases the fuel pump heat sink and decreases the pump temperature rise without the addition of valving other than normally employed. A fuel/oil heat exchanger and associated circuitry is provided to maintain the hot engine oil in heat exchange relationship with the cool engine fuel. Where anti-icing of the fuel filter is required, means are provided to maintain the fuel temperature entering the filter at or above a minimum level to prevent freezing thereof. In one embodiment, a divider valve is provided to take all excess fuel from either upstream or downstream of the fuel filter and route it back to the tanks, the ratio of upstream to downstream extraction being a function of fuel pump discharge pressure.

  6. Engineering Lesquerella for Safe Castor Oil Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a part of genetic approach to engineering ricinoleate synthesis, we investigated the seed development in L. fendleri. The morphological, physiological and biochemical changes during seed development of Lesquerella fendleri were characterized from 7 days after pollination (DAP) to desiccation. The...

  7. 7 Processes that Enable NASA Software Engineering Technologies: Value-Added Process Engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housch, Helen; Godfrey, Sally

    2011-01-01

    The presentation reviews Agency process requirements and the purpose, benefits, and experiences or seven software engineering processes. The processes include: product integration, configuration management, verification, software assurance, measurement and analysis, requirements management, and planning and monitoring.

  8. Biodegradation of [(sup14)C]Benzo[a]pyrene Added in Crude Oil to Uncontaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, R.; Bartha, R.; Fogel, S.; Findlay, M.

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the possible cometabolic biodegradation of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), crude oil spiked with [7-(sup14)C]BaP and unlabeled BaP was added to soil with no known pollution history, to give 34 g of oil and 67 mg of BaP/kg of dry soil. The oil-soil mixture was amended with mineral nutrients and incubated in an airtight container with continuous forced aeration. Total CO(inf2) and (sup14)CO(inf2) in the off-gas were trapped and quantified. Soil samples were Soxhlet extracted with dichloromethane at seven time points during the 150-day incubation period, and the extracted soil was subjected to further fractionation in order to recover reversibly and irreversibly bound radiocarbon. Radiocarbon recovery was 100% (plusmn) 3% for each time point. During the first 50 days of incubation, no (sup14)CO(inf2) was evolved, but over the next 100 days, 50% of the BaP radiocarbon was evolved as (sup14)CO(inf2). At 150 days, only 5% of the intact BaP and 23% of the crude oil remained. Of the remaining radiolabel, 20% was found in solvent-extractable metabolites and 25% was incorporated into soil organic matter. Only 1/10 of this could be solubilized by chemical hydrolysis. An abiotic control experiment exhibited binding of only 2% of the BaP, indicating the microbial nature of the BaP transformations. We report that in soil containing suitable cosubstrates, BaP can be completely degraded. PMID:16535735

  9. Esterified sago waste for engine oil removal in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Ngaini, Zainab; Noh, Farid; Wahi, Rafeah

    2014-01-01

    Agro-waste from the bark of Metroxylon sagu (sago) was studied as a low cost and effective oil sorbent in dry and aqueous environments. Sorption study was conducted using untreated sago bark (SB) and esterified sago bark (ESB) in used engine oil. Characterization study showed that esterification has successfully improved the hydrophobicity, buoyancy, surface roughness and oil sorption capacity of ESB. Sorption study revealed that water uptake of SB is higher (30 min static: 2.46 g/g, dynamic: 2.67 g/g) compared with ESB (30 min static: 0.18 g/g, dynamic: 0.14 g/g). ESB, however, showed higher oil sorption capacity in aqueous environment (30 min static: 2.30 g/g, dynamic: 2.14) compared with SB (30 min static: 0 g/g, dynamic: 0 g/g). ESB has shown great poTENTial as effective oil sorbent in aqueous environment due to its high oil sorption capacity, low water uptake and high buoyancy.

  10. Gas Turbine Engine Carbon Oil Seals Computerized Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In a bearing compartment there are a series of parts when assembled determine the location of the bearing and seal as related to the centerline of rotation. We see part datums that do not establish A coincident path from the bearing to the seal. High engine vibration can cause severe oil leakage. The inability of the seal to respond fast enough to the rotating element Radial Seal: Sensitive to housing air pressure Sensitive to seal runout ? Axial Seal: Very sensitive to seal perpendicularity to shaft. Goals include: 1) Repeatable assembly process; 2) Accurate assembly process; 3) Minimize seal runout; 4) Design to engine centerline of rotation, i.e. bearings.

  11. Biodegradation of engine oil by fungi from mangrove habitat.

    PubMed

    Ameen, Fuad; Hadi, Sarfaraz; Moslem, Mohamed; Al-Sabri, Ahmed; Yassin, Mohamed A

    2015-01-01

    The pollution of land and water by petroleum compounds is a matter of growing concern necessitating the development of methodologies, including microbial biodegradation, to minimize the impending impacts. It has been extensively reported that fungi from polluted habitats have the potential to degrade pollutants, including petroleum compounds. The Red Sea is used extensively for the transport of oil and is substantially polluted, due to leaks, spills, and occasional accidents. Tidal water, floating debris, and soil sediment were collected from mangrove stands on three polluted sites along the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia and forty-five fungal isolates belonging to 13 genera were recovered from these samples. The isolates were identified on the basis of a sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene fragment. Nine of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association with engine oil, as the sole carbon source, under in vitro conditions. These selected isolates and their consortium accumulated greater biomass, liberated more CO2, and produced higher levels of extracellular enzymes, during cultivation with engine oil as compared with the controls. These observations were authenticated by gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (GC-MS) analysis, which indicated that many high mass compounds present in the oil before treatment either disappeared or showed diminished levels.

  12. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, D.L.; Baraszu, D.J.; Foulkes, D.M.; Gomes, E.G.

    1998-12-29

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine`s crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages. 4 figs.

  13. High Thermal Conductivity Carbon Foam used for the Thermal Management of Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, R.D.; McMillan, A.D.; Choudhury, A.

    2006-02-02

    The need for maintaining a lower specific engine oil temperature is essential in enhancing the longevity of the oil and of the engine and its components. By decreasing the engine oil temperature the oil is able to perform its job more efficiently. It is proposed to use the carbon foam, with its exceptional thermal management capabilities, to aid in reducing and stabilizing the engine oil temperature during steady state operation. Also, it is possible to use the carbon foam to heat the engine oil during startup to reduce emissions and possibly engine wear. The mesophase pitch derived carbon foam, developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, is a material that offers excellent thermal management capability. The foam has an open cell structure (0.98 fraction open porosity) with graphitic ligaments aligned parallel to the cell walls. The alignment of the graphitic ligaments in a three dimensional array gives the foam homogeneous thermal properties, unlike graphite fibers. The bulk thermal conductivity of the foam has been measured to be 175 W/m{center_dot}K, placing it on the level of 6061 aluminum, which has a bulk thermal conductivity of 180 W/m{center_dot}K. Copper has a bulk thermal conductivity over two times higher, at 400 W/m{center_dot}K. The proposed research will entail using the carbon foam, with its excellent thermal management capabilities, as a cooling and heating medium for engine oil, or in other words an oil temperature regulator. The foam will aid in maintaining a specific oil temperature during steady state operation and in heating of the engine oil at startup. Being able to maintain a consistent oil temperature will ensure better operation of engine oil, by extending the life of the oil and engine. All Parties will conduct research efforts in order to determine the best utilization of the carbon foam in managing engine oil temperatures.

  14. Oil supply system for a valve operating mechanism in internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sonoda, T.; Hiro, T.; Matsubara, T.

    1988-03-08

    A system for supplying oil to a camshaft and hydraulic lash adjusters of a valve operating mechanism in an internal combustion engine having an engine body is described comprising: a supply passage in the engine body for supplying oil under pressure; a distribution passage in the engine body connected to the supply passage for distributing oil from the supply passage as working oil to the hydraulic lash adjusters; a lubricating oil passage connected the distribution passage for supplying oil from the distribution passage as lubricating oil to lubricate journals and cams of the camshaft; and a relief passage communicating between the distribution passage and one of the journals and having a relief valve openable when the pressure of oil in the distribution passage rises beyond a predetermined level.

  15. Application of microwave irradiation for the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls from siloxane transformer and hydrocarbon engine oils.

    PubMed

    Antonetti, Claudia; Licursi, Domenico; Raspolli Galletti, Anna Maria; Martinelli, Marco; Tellini, Filippo; Valentini, Giorgio; Gambineri, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    The removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) both from siloxane transformer oil and hydrocarbon engine oil was investigated through the application of microwave (MW) irradiation and a reaction system based on polyethyleneglycol (PEG) and potassium hydroxide. The influence of the main reaction parameters (MW irradiation time, molecular weight of PEG, amount of added reactants and temperature) on the dechlorination behavior was studied. Promising performances were reached, allowing about 50% of dechlorination under the best experimental conditions, together time and energy saving compared to conventional heating systems. Moreover, an interesting dechlorination degree (up to 32%) was achieved for siloxane transformer oil when MW irradiation was employed as the unique driving force. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time in which MW irradiation is tested as the single driving force for the dechlorination of these two types of PCB-contaminated oils.

  16. Direct Utilization of Crude Oils as Fuels in U.S. Army Diesel Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    availability of crude oil properties throughout the world were investigated, and these properties were divided into two groups (1) Those properties which...of crude oil use on engine subsystem hardware such as fuel filters and fuel injection pumps were investigated, with particular attention being paid...CLR diesel engine operating on various crude oils. Performance data, wear, and deposition effects of crude oil use were obtained using the TACOM

  17. Antifriction and antiwear characteristics of molybdenum dithiophosphate in engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Yichao Lin

    1995-10-01

    Antifriction and antiwear studies of lubricating oil compounded with engine oil additives such as petroleum calcium sulfonate (PCS) metal detergents, polyisobutylene succinimide (PSI) ashless dispersant, zinc dithiophosphate (ZnDTP) antioxidant and molybdenum dithiophosphate (MoDTP) using the four-ball machine (FBM) are reported. The results show that binary or ternary mixtures of MoDTP with ZnDTP, or ZnDTP and dipolyisobutylene succinimide (DPSI) obviously have beneficial effects on the antifriction and antiwear properties of MoDTP. However, binary or ternary mixtures of MoDTP with PCS, multipolyisobutylene succinimide (MPSI), or PCS and ZnDTP show different responses to the MoDTP antifriction and antiwear properties which depend upon different compositions. The molecular structures of the components of the MoDTP additive are analyzed by {sup 31}P-NMR spectroscopy. 18 refs., 11 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Used sunflower oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Cigizoglu, K.B.; Oezaktas, T.; Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1997-07-01

    Used sunflower oil was blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The fuel blend was tested in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. The fuel blend and the diesel fuel were rated according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use the fuel blend has characteristics similar to those of the baseline diesel fuel and that it displayed less smoke emission than the diesel fuel.

  19. Internal combuston engine having separated cylinder head oil drains and crankcase ventilation passages

    DOEpatents

    Boggs, David Lee; Baraszu, Daniel James; Foulkes, David Mark; Gomes, Enio Goyannes

    1998-01-01

    An internal combustion engine includes separated oil drain-back and crankcase ventilation passages. The oil drain-back passages extend from the cylinder head to a position below the top level of oil in the engine's crankcase. The crankcase ventilation passages extend from passages formed in the main bearing bulkheads from positions above the oil level in the crankcase and ultimately through the cylinder head. Oil dams surrounding the uppermost portions of the crankcase ventilation passages prevent oil from running downwardly through the crankcase ventilation passages.

  20. Improved formula for estimating added resistance of ships in engineering applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shukui; Shang, Baoguo; Papanikolaou, Apostolos; Bolbot, Victor

    2016-12-01

    The authors previously introduced a semi-empirical formula that enabled fast estimation of the added resistance of ships in head waves, and in this study the formula is further refined for easy use in engineering applications. It includes an alternative ship draft correction coefficient, which better accounts for the wave pressure decay with ship's draft. In addition, it only uses the speed and main characteristics of the ship and wave environment as input, and has been simplified to the extent that it can be readily processed using a pocket calculator. Extensive validations are conducted for different ship types at low to moderate speeds in various typical irregular sea conditions, and encouraging results are obtained. This relevant and topical research lies within the framework of the recent IMO MEPC.232(65) (2013) EEDI guidelines for estimating the minimum powering of ships in adverse weather conditions, which specify for the use of simple methods in current Level 2 assessment within engineering applications.

  1. EXPLORING LOW EMISSION DIESEL ENGINE OILS WORKSHOP - A SUMMARY REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, Joseph

    2000-08-20

    This paper discusses and summarizes some of the results of the title workshop. The workshop was held January 31-February 2, 2000 in Phoenix, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop was ''To craft a shared vision for Industry-Government (DOE) research and development collaboration in Diesel Engine Oils to minimize emissions while maintaining or enhancing engine performance''. The final report of the workshop (NREL/SR-570-28521) was issued in June 2000 by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393. There were some 95 participants at the workshop representing industry, government and academia, Figure 1. The format for the workshop is described in Figure 2. This format allowed for considerable discussion of the various issues prior to deliberations in breakout groups. This process resulted in recommendations to solve the issues related to the next generation of diesel engine oils. Keynote addresses by SAE President Rodica Baranescu (International Truck and Engine Corporation), James Eberhardt of DOE and Paul Machiele of EPA focused on diesel progress, workshop issues and regulatory fuel issues. A panel of experts further defined the issues of interest, presenting snapshots of the current status in their areas of expertise. A Q&A session was followed by a series of technical presentations discussing the various areas. Some two dozen presentations covered the technical issues, Figure 3. An open forum was held to allow any participant to present related studies or comment on any of the technical issues. The participants broke into work groups addressing the various areas found on Figure 2. A group leader was appointed and reported on their findings, recommendations, suggested participants for projects and on related items.

  2. Rapid engine test to measure injector fouling in diesel engines using vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Korus, R.A.; Jaiduk, J.; Peterson, C.L.

    1985-11-01

    Short engine tests were used to determine the rate of carbon deposition on direct injection diesel nozzles. Winter rape, high-oleic and high-linoleic safflower blends with 50% diesel were tested for carbon deposit and compared to that with D-2 Diesel Control Fuel. Deposits were greatest with the most unsaturated fuel, high-linoleic safflower, and least with winter rape. All vegetable oil blends developed power similar to diesel fueled engines with a 6 to 8% greater fuel consumption. 8 references.

  3. A study on needle crystals formation in engine oils containing a magnesium-based detergent

    SciTech Connect

    Minamitani, H.; Hirose, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Kumakura, A.; Kanai, S.

    1988-01-01

    In the case of some engine oils, under specific conditions, engine oil additives may precipitate in the form of needle crystals which cause clogging of oil filters. A simple laboratory test has been developed to study the formation of needle crystal precipitates in engine oils. The influences of various conditions and the combination of engine oil additives on this formation were investigated using this test procedure. This laboratory testing showed that needle crystals form when the engine oil containing a magnesium-based detergent comes into contact with both water and carbonic acid under restricted conditions. It was discovered that there is a large difference in the formation of needle crystals between different magnesium-based detergents.

  4. A Comparative Study of Engine Performance and Exhaust Emissions Characteristics of Linseed Oil Biodiesel Blends with Diesel Fuel in a Direct Injection Diesel Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvi, B. L.; Jindal, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is aimed at study of the performance and emissions characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fueled with linseed oil biodiesel blends and diesel fuel. The comparison was done with base fuel as diesel and linseed oil biodiesel blends. The experiments were conducted with various blends of linseed biodiesel at different engine loads. It was found that comparable mass fraction burnt, better rate of pressure rise and BMEP, improved indicated thermal efficiency (8-11 %) and lower specific fuel consumption (3.5-6 %) were obtained with LB10 blend at full load. The emissions of CO, un-burnt hydrocarbon and smoke were less as compared to base fuel, but with slight increase in the emission of NOx. Since, linseed biodiesel is renewable in nature, so practically negligible CO2 is added to the environment. The linseed biodiesel can be one of the renewable alternative fuels for transportation vehicles and blend LB10 is preferable for better efficiency.

  5. The MYRRHA ADS Project in Belgium Enters the Front End Engineering Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruyn, Didier; Abderrahim, Hamid Aït; Baeten, Peter; Leysen, Paul

    The MYRRHA project started in 1998 by SCK•CEN. MYRRHA is a MTR, based on the ADS concept, for material and fuel research, for studying the feasibility of transmutation of Minor Actinides and Long-Lived Fission Products arising from radioactive waste reprocessing and finally for demonstrating at a reasonable power scale the principle of the ADS. The MYRRHA design has progressed through various framework programmes of the European Commission in the context of Partitioning and Transmutation. The design has now entered into the Front End Engineering Phase (FEED) covering the period 2012-2015. The engineering company, which will handle this phase, has been selected and the works have begun in the late 2013. In the mean time we have made some refinements in both primary systems and plant layout, including reactor building design. In this paper, we present the most recent developments of the MYRRHA design in terms of reactor building and plant layout as existing today as well as a preliminary study concerning the spent fuel building of the facility. During the oral presentation we add some preliminary results of the interaction with the FEED contractor and the most recent version of the primary systems.

  6. Physisporinus vitreus: a versatile white rot fungus for engineering value-added wood products.

    PubMed

    Schwarze, Francis W M R; Schubert, Mark

    2011-11-01

    The credo of every scientist working in the field of applied science is to transfer knowledge "from science to market," a process that combines (1) science (fundamental discoveries and basic research) with (2) technology development (performance assessment and optimization) and (3) technology transfer (industrial application). Over the past 7 years, we have intensively investigated the potential of the white rot fungus, Physisporinus vitreus, for engineering value-added wood products. Because of its exceptional wood degradation pattern, i.e., selective lignification without significant wood strength losses and a preferential degradation of bordered pit membranes, it is possible to use this fungus under controlled conditions to improve the acoustic properties of tonewood (i.e., "mycowood") as well as to enhance the uptake of preservatives and wood modification substances in refractory wood species (e.g., Norway spruce), a process known as "bioincising." This minireview summarizes the research that we have performed with P. vitreus and critically discusses the challenges encountered during the development of two distinct processes for engineering value-added wood products. Finally, we peep into the future potential of the bioincising and mycowood processes for additional applications in the forest and wood industry.

  7. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Faes López, Teresa; Fernández González, Alfonso; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E.; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-10-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol-gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives.

  8. Engineered silica nanoparticles as additives in lubricant oils

    PubMed Central

    López, Teresa Díaz-Faes; González, Alfonso Fernández; Del Reguero, Ángel; Matos, María; Díaz-García, Marta E; Badía-Laíño, Rosana

    2015-01-01

    Silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) synthesized by the sol–gel approach were engineered for size and surface properties by grafting hydrophobic chains to prevent their aggregation and facilitate their contact with the phase boundary, thus improving their dispersibility in lubricant base oils. The surface modification was performed by covalent binding of long chain alkyl functionalities using lauric acid and decanoyl chloride to the SiO2 NP surface. The hybrid SiO2 NPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, simultaneous differential thermal analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance and dynamic light scattering, while their dispersion in two base oils was studied by static multiple light scattering at low (0.01% w/v) and high (0.50%w/v) concentrations. The nature of the functional layer and the functionalization degree seemed to be directly involved in the stability of the suspensions. The potential use of the functional SiO2 NPs as lubricant additives in base oils, specially designed for being used in hydraulic circuits, has been outlined by analyzing the tribological properties of the dispersions. The dendritic structure of the external layer played a key role in the tribological characteristics of the material by reducing the friction coefficient and wear. These nanoparticles reduce drastically the waste of energy in friction processes and are more environmentally friendly than other additives. PMID:27877840

  9. Oil-Free Turbomachinery Team Passed Milestone on Path to the First Oil-Free Turbine Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bream, Bruce L.

    2002-01-01

    The Oil-Free Turbine Engine Technology Project team successfully demonstrated a foil-air bearing designed for the core rotor shaft of a turbine engine. The bearings were subjected to test conditions representative of the engine core environment through a combination of high speeds, sustained loads, and elevated temperatures. The operational test envelope was defined during conceptual design studies completed earlier this year by bearing manufacturer Mohawk Innovative Technologies and the turbine engine company Williams International. The prototype journal foil-air bearings were tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Glenn is working with Williams and Mohawk to create a revolution in turbomachinery by developing the world's first Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine. NASA's General Aviation Propulsion project and Williams International recently developed the FJX-2 turbofan engine that is being commercialized as the EJ-22. This core bearing milestone is a first step toward a future version of the EJ-22 that will take advantage of recent advances in foil-air bearings by eliminating the need for oil lubrication systems and rolling element bearings. Oil-Free technology can reduce engine weight by 15 percent and let engines operate at very high speeds, yielding power density improvements of 20 percent, and reducing engine maintenance costs. In addition, with NASA coating technology, engines can operate at temperatures up to 1200 F. Although the project is still a couple of years from a full engine test of the bearings, this milestone shows that the bearing design exceeds the expected environment, thus providing confidence that an Oil-Free turbine aircraft engine will be attained. The Oil-Free Turbomachinery Project is supported through the Aeropropulsion Base Research Program.

  10. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    SciTech Connect

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; Papke, Brian L.; Luo, Huimin; West, Brian H.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  11. Tribological bench and engine dynamometer tests of a low viscosity SAE 0W-16 engine oil using a combination of ionic liquid and ZDDP as anti-wear additives

    DOE PAGES

    Barnhill, William C.; Gao, Hong; Kheireddin, Bassem; ...

    2015-09-29

    We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL) with an effective anti-wear (AW) functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated containing a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: AW performance in boundary lubrication (BL) and friction behavior (Stribeck curves) in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and BL. In addition, the forthcoming standardmore » Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content). The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperforms the ZDDP-only formulation in friction reduction and wear protection, and results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.« less

  12. Fungal inactivation by Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films.

    PubMed

    Avila-Sosa, Raúl; Hernández-Zamoran, Erika; López-Mendoza, Ingrid; Palou, Enrique; Jiménez Munguía, María Teresa; Nevárez-Moorillón, Guadalupe Virginia; López-Malo, Aurelio

    2010-04-01

    Edible films can incorporate antimicrobial agents to provide microbiological stability, since they can be used as carriers of a wide number of additives that can extend product shelf life and reduce the risk of pathogenic bacteria growth on food surfaces. Addition of antimicrobial agents to edible films offers advantages such as the use of low antimicrobial concentrations and low diffusion rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate inhibition of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium spp. by selected concentrations of Mexican oregano (Lippia berlandieri Schauer) essential oil added to amaranth, chitosan, or starch edible films. Oregano essential oil was characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis. Amaranth, chitosan, and starch edible films were formulated with essential oil concentrations of 0%, 0.25%, 0.50%, 0.75%, 1%, 2%, and 4%. Mold radial growth was evaluated inoculating spores in 2 ways: edible films were placed over inoculated agar, Film/Inoculum mode (F/I), or the edible films were first placed in the agar and then films were inoculated, Inoculum/Film mode (I/F). The modified Gompertz model adequately described growth curves. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in growth parameters between the 2 modes of inoculation. Antifungal effectiveness of edible films was starch > chitosan > amaranth. In starch edible films, both studied molds were inhibited with 0.50% of essential oil. Edible films added with Mexican oregano essential oil could improve the quality of foods by controlling surface growth of molds.

  13. Assessing the Value-Added by the Environmental Testing Process with the Aide of Physics/Engineering of Failure Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornford, S.; Gibbel, M.

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Code QT Test Effectiveness Program is funding a series of applied research activities focused on utilizing the principles of physics and engineering of failure and those of engineering economics to assess and improve the value-added by the various validation and verification activities to organizations.

  14. Adsorption of crude and engine oils from water using raw rice husk.

    PubMed

    Razavi, Zahra; Mirghaffari, Nourollah; Rezaei, Behzad

    2014-01-01

    The raw rice husk (RRH) was used as a low cost adsorbent to remove three oil compounds with different viscosities (crude oil, engine oil and spent engine oil) from an aqueous environment. Some of the sorbent specifications were characterized using a CHNSO analyzer, Fourier transform infrared, scanning electron microscope and inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy. With decreasing RRH particles size, the oil adsorption percentage was reduced for crude, spent and engine oils from 50 to 30%, 65 to 20% and 70 to 0.01%, respectively. This was probably due to damage of the microcavities. The removal percentage by sorbent at optimized conditions was 88, 80 and 55% for engine, spent and crude oils, respectively, corresponding to their descending viscosity. The adsorption of crude and spent oils on rice husk followed the Freundlich isotherm model, while the adsorption of engine oil was fitted by the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity (qmax), calculated from the Langmuir model for the adsorption of engine oil on RRH, was 1,250 mg/g.

  15. CFD analysis of turboprop engine oil cooler duct for best rate of climb condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalia, Saurabh; CA, Vinay; Hegde, Suresh M.

    2016-09-01

    Turboprop engines are widely used in commuter category airplanes. Aircraft Design bureaus routinely conduct the flight tests to confirm the performance of the system. The lubrication system of the engine is designed to provide a constant supply of clean lubrication oil to the engine bearings, the reduction gears, the torque-meter, the propeller and the accessory gearbox. The oil lubricates, cools and also conducts foreign material to the oil filter where it is removed from further circulation. Thus a means of cooling the engine oil must be provided and a suitable oil cooler (OC) and ducting system was selected and designed for this purpose. In this context, it is relevant to study and analyse behaviour of the engine oil cooler system before commencing actual flight tests. In this paper, the performance of the oil cooler duct with twin flush NACA inlet housed inside the nacelle has been studied for aircraft best rate of climb (ROC) condition using RANS based SST K-omega model by commercial software ANSYS Fluent 13.0. From the CFD analysis results, it is found that the mass flow rate captured and pressure drop across the oil cooler for the best ROC condition is meeting the oil cooler manufacturer requirements thus, the engine oil temperature is maintained within prescribed limits.

  16. Performance of Several Combustion Chambers Designed for Aircraft Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, William F; Kemper, Carlton

    1928-01-01

    Several investigations have been made on single-cylinder test engines to determine the performance characteristics of four types of combustion chambers designed for aircraft oil engines. Two of the combustion chambers studied were bulb-type precombustion chambers, the connecting orifice of one having been designed to produce high turbulence by tangential air flow in both the precombustion chamber and the cylinder. The other two were integral combustion chambers, one being dome-shaped and the other pent-roof shaped. The injection systems used included cam and eccentric driven fuel pumps, and diaphragm and spring-loaded fuel-injection valves. A diaphragm type maximum cylinder pressure indicator was used in part of these investigations with which the cylinder pressures were controlled to definite valves. The performance of the engines when equipped with each of the combustion chambers is discussed. The best performance for the tests reported was obtained with a bulb-type combustion chamber designed to give a high degree of turbulence within the bulb and cylinder. (author)

  17. Comparison of diesel engine performance and emissions from neat and transesterified vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Geyer, S.M.; Jacobus, M.J.; Lestz, S.S.

    1984-01-01

    A single-cylinder, 0.36 L, D1 diesel engine was operated on a certified No. 2 diesel fuel, cottonseed oil, sunflowerseed oil, methyl ester of cottonseed oil, and methyl ester of sunflowerseed oil. The purpose of this study was to provide a comparison of performance and emission data when operating on net vegetable oils, transesterified vegetable oils, and diesel fuel. Results comparing the various vegetable oil fuels with No. 2 diesel fuel generally show slight improvements in thermal efficiency and higher exhaust gas temperatures when operating on vegetable oils; equal or higher gas-phase emissions with vegetable oils; lower indicated specific revertant emissions with vegetable oils; and significantly higher aldehyde emissions, including an increased percentage of formaldehyde. (Refs. 14).

  18. Study on the engine oil's wear based on the flash point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculescu, R.; Iorga-Simăn, V.; Trică, A.; Clenci, A.

    2016-08-01

    Increasing energy performance of internal combustion engines is largely influenced by frictional forces that arise between moving parts. Thus, in this respect, the nature and quality of the engine oil used is an important factor. Equally important is the effect of various engine injection strategies upon the oil quality. In other words, it's of utmost importance to maintain the quality of engine oil during engine's operation. Oil dilution is one of the most common causes that lead to its wear, creating lubrication problems. Moreover, at low temperatures operating conditions, the oil dilution with diesel fuel produces wax. When starting the engine, this may lead to lubrication deficiencies and even oil starvation with negative consequences on the engine mechanism parts wear (piston, rings and cylinders) but also crankcase bearings wear.Engine oil dilution with diesel fuel have several causes: wear of rings and/or injectors, late post-injection strategy for the sake of particulate filter regeneration, etc.This paper presents a study on the degree of deterioration of engine oils as a result of dilution with diesel fuel. The analysed oils used for this study were taken from various models of engines equipped with diesel particulate filter. The assessment is based on the determination of oil flash point and dilution degree using the apparatus Eraflash produced by Eralytics, Austria. Eraflash measurement is directly under the latest and safest standards ASTM D6450 & D7094), which are in excellent correlation with ASTM D93 Pensky - Martens ASTM D56 TAG methods; it uses the Continuous Closed Cup method for finding the Flash Point (CCCFP).

  19. A novel concept of dielectrophoretic engine oil filter.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yueyang; Elele, Ezinwa; Khusid, Boris

    2011-09-01

    A novel concept of an alternating current (AC) dielectrophoretic filter with a three-dimensional electrode array is presented. A filter is constructed by winding into layers around the core tube two sheets of woven metal wire-mesh with several sheets of woven insulating wire-mesh sandwiched in between. Contrary to conventional dielectrophoretic devices, the proposed design of electrodes generates a high-gradient field over a large working volume by applying several hundred volts at a standard frequency of 60 Hz. The operating principle of filtration is based on our recently developed method of AC dielectrophoretic gating for microfluidics. The filtration efficiency is expressed in terms of two non-dimensional parameters, which describe the combined influence of the particle polarizability and size, the oil viscosity and flow rate, and the field gradient on the particle captivity. The proof-of-concept is tested by measuring the single-pass performance of two filters on positively polarized particles dispersed in engine oil: spherical glass beads, fused aluminum oxide powder, and silicon metal powder, all smaller than the mesh opening. The results obtained are used to consider the potential of using AC dielectrophoretic filtration and provide critical design guidelines for the development of a filter based on the retention capability of challenge particles.

  20. [Progress in engineering Escherichia coli for production of high-value added organic acids and alcohols].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiming; Liu, Wei; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Xian, Mo

    2013-10-01

    Confronted with the gradual exhaustion of the earth's fossil energy resources and the grimmer environmental deterioration, the bio-based process to produce high-value added platform chemicals from renewable biomass is attracting growing interest. Escherichia coli has been chosen as a workhouse for the production of many valuable chemicals due to various advantages, such as clear genetic background, convenient to be genetically modified and good growth properties with low nutrient requirements. Rational strain development of E. coli achieved by metabolic engineering strategies has provided new processes for efficiently biotechnological production of various high-value chemical building blocks. This review focuses on recent progresses in metabolic engineering of E. coli that lead to efficient recombinant biocatalysts for production of high-value organic acids such as succinic acid, 3-hydroxypropanoic acid and glucaric acid as well as alcohols like glycerol and xylitol. Besides, this review also discusses several other platform chemicals, including 2,5-furan dicarboxylic acid, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, itaconic acid, levulinic acid, 3-hydroxy-gamma-butyrolactone and sorbitol, which have not been produced by E. coli until now.

  1. Catalytic modification of fats and oils to value-added biobased products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biobased materials derived from fats and oils can be relatively benign to the environment because they tend to have good biodegradability. Oils are used in a myriad of applications, including foods, cosmetics, paints, biodegradable lubricants and polymers, biodiesel, and more. For many of these ap...

  2. Compression-ignition engine performance with undoped and doped fuel oils and alcohol mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Charles S; Foster, Hampton H

    1939-01-01

    Several fuel oils, doped fuel oils, and mixtures of alcohol and fuel oil were tested in a high-speed, single-cylinder, compression-ignition engine to determine power output, fuel consumption, and ignition and combustion characteristics. Fuel oils or doped fuel oils of high octane number had shorter ignition lags, lower rates of pressure rise, and gave smoother engine operation than fuel oils or doped fuel oils of low octane number. Higher engine rotative speeds and boost pressures resulted in smoother engine operation and permitted the use of fuel oils of relatively low octane number. Although the addition of a dope to a fuel oil decreased the ignition lag and the rate of pressure rise, the ensuing rate of combustion was somewhat slower than for the undoped fuel oil so that the effectiveness of combustion was practically unchanged. Alcohol used as an auxiliary fuel, either as a mixture or by separate injection, increased the rates of pressure rise and induced roughness. In general, the power output decreased as the proportion of alcohol increased and, below maximum power, varied with the heating value of the total fuel charge.

  3. Lubrication System 1. Check and Change the Engine Oil. Student Manual. Small Engine Repair Series. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Pamela

    This student manual on checking and changing the engine oil is the second of three in an instructional package on the lubrication system in the Small Engine Repair Series for handicapped students. The stated purpose for the booklet is to help students learn what tools and equipment to use and all the steps of the job. Informative material and…

  4. Bioremediation of engine oil polluted soil by the tropical white rot fungus, Lentinus squarrosulus Mont. (Singer).

    PubMed

    Adenipekun, Clementina O; Isikhuemhen, Omoanghe S

    2008-06-15

    This study was conducted to test the efficacy of an indigenous white rot fungus Lentinus squarrosulus in degrading engine oil in soil. Flasks containing sterilized garden soil (100 g) moistened with 75% distilled water (w/v) were contaminated with engine oil 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 and 40% w/w concentrations, inoculated with L. squarrosulus and incubated at room temperature for 90 days. Levels of organic matter, pH, total hydrocarbon and elemental content (C, Cu, Fe, K, N, Ni, Zn and available P) were determined post-fungal treatment. Results indicate that contaminated soils inoculated with L. squarrosulus had increased organic matter, carbon and available phosphorus, while the nitrogen and available potassium was reduced. A relatively high percentage degradation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) was observed at 1% engine oil concentration (94.46%), which decreased to 64.05% TPH degradation at 40% engine oil contaminated soil after 90 days of incubation. The concentrations of Fe, Cu, Zn and Ni recovered from straw/fungal biomass complex increased with the increase of engine-oil contamination and bio-accumulation by the white-rot fungus. The improvement of nutrient content values as well as the bioaccumulation of heavy metals at all levels of engine oil concentrations tested through inoculations with L. squarrosulus is of importance for the bioremediation of engine-oil polluted soils.

  5. Remedial processing of oil shale fly ash (OSFA) and its value-added conversion into glass-ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhikun; Zhang, Lei; Li, Aimin

    2015-12-01

    Recently, various solid wastes such as sewage sludge, coal fly ash and slag have been recycled into various products such as sintered bricks, ceramics and cement concrete. Application of these recycling approaches is much better and greener than conventional landfills since it can solve the problems of storage of industrial wastes and reduce exploration of natural resources for construction materials to protect the environment. Therefore, in this study, an attempt was made to recycle oil shale fly ash (OSFA), a by-product obtained from the extracting of shale oil in the oil shale industry, into a value-added glass-ceramic material via melting and sintering method. The influence of basicity (CaO/SiO2 ratio) by adding calcium oxide on the performance of glass-ceramics was studied in terms of phase transformation, mechanical properties, chemical resistances and heavy metals leaching tests. Crystallization kinetics results showed that the increase of basicity reduced the activation energies of crystallization but did not change the crystallization mechanism. When increasing the basicity from 0.2 to 0.5, the densification of sintering body was enhanced due to the promotion of viscous flow of glass powders, and therefore the compression strength and bending strength of glass-ceramics were increased. Heavy metals leaching results indicated that the produced OSFA-based glass-ceramics could be taken as non-hazardous materials. The maximum mechanical properties of compression strength of 186 ± 3 MPa, bending strength of 78 ± 6 MPa, good chemical resistances and low heavy metals leaching concentrations showed that it could be used as a substitute material for construction applications. The proposed approach will be one of the potential sustainable solutions in reducing the storage of oil shale fly ash as well as converting it into a value-added product.

  6. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification. PMID:27087362

  7. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-01

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.

  8. A new nano-engineered hierarchical membrane for concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from oil-in-water nanoemulsion.

    PubMed

    Qin, Detao; Liu, Zhaoyang; Bai, Hongwei; Sun, Darren Delai; Song, Xiaoxiao

    2016-04-18

    Surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsions pose a severe threat to both the environment and human health. Recent development of membrane filtration technology has enabled efficient oil removal from oil/water nanoemulsion, however, the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil remains unsolved because the existing filtration membranes still suffer from low surfactant removal rate and serious surfactant-induced fouling issue. In this study, to realize the concurrent removal of surfactant and oil from nanoemulsion, a novel hierarchically-structured membrane is designed with a nanostructured selective layer on top of a microstructured support layer. The physical and chemical properties of the overall membrane, including wettability, surface roughness, electric charge, thickness and structures, are delicately tailored through a nano-engineered fabrication process, that is, graphene oxide (GO) nanosheet assisted phase inversion coupled with surface functionalization. Compared with the membrane fabricated by conventional phase inversion, this novel membrane has four times higher water flux, significantly higher rejections of both oil (~99.9%) and surfactant (as high as 93.5%), and two thirds lower fouling ratio when treating surfactant stabilized oil-in-water nanoemulsion. Due to its excellent performances and facile fabrication process, this nano-engineered membrane is expected to have wide practical applications in the oil/water separation fields of environmental protection and water purification.

  9. Improving magnetic properties of MgB2 bulk superconductors by synthetic engine oil treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylan Koparan, E.; Savaskan, B.; Yanmaz, E.

    2016-08-01

    The present study focuses on the effects of standby time of the MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil on the critical current density (Jc(H)), magnetic field dependence of the pinning force density fp(b) and Tc performances of MgB2 bulk superconductors. Synthetic engine oil was used as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source. Manufactured MgB2 pellet samples were immersed at different standby time of 30 min, 120 min, 300 min and 1440 min in synthetic engine oil after the first heating process. Finally, MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil were sintered at 1000 °C and kept for 15 min in Ar atmosphere. The critical current density of all of MgB2 samples immersed at different standby time in engine oil in whole field range was better than that of the pure MgB2 sample because of the number of the pinning centers. The MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in synthetic engine oil has the best performance compared to other samples. The Jc value for the pure sample is 2.0 × 103 A/cm2, whereas for the MgB2 sample immersed at 300 min standby time in engine oil the Jc is enhanced to 4.8 × 103A/cm2 at 5 K and 3 T. The superconducting transition temperature (Tc) did not change with the increasing standby time of the samples in synthetic engine oil at all. The best diamagnetic property was obtained from the sample which kept in synthetic engine oil for 300 min. Synthetic engine oil treatment results in remarkable improvement of the critical current density and pinning force performances of MgB2 superconductors. It was found that all MgB2 samples have a different pinning property at different measuring temperatures. Using synthetic engine oil as a product which is cheap and a rich carbon source in MgB2 bulk superconductors makes MgB2 samples immersed in synthetic engine oil a good candidate for industrial applications.

  10. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  11. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  12. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? No person may introduce used motor oil, or used motor oil blended with... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  13. Failure Analysis and Regeneration Performances Evaluation on Engine Lubricating Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Zhang, J. Y.; Yin, Y. L.; Xu, Y.

    To investigate the behavior of failure and recycling of lubricating oils, three sorts of typical 10w-40 lubricating oils used in heavy-load vehicle including the new oil, waste oil and regeneration oil regenerated by self-researched green regeneration technology were selected. The tribology properties were tested by four-ball friction wear tester as well. The results indicated that the performance of anti-extreme pressure of regeneration oil increase by 34.1% compared with the waste one and its load- carrying ability is close to the new oil; the feature of wear spot are better than those of the waste oil and frictional coefficient almost reach the level of the new oil's. As a result, the performance of anti-wear and friction reducing are getting better obviously.

  14. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  15. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    While little has been accomplished in obtaining an abundant supply of light oils from coal and heavy oils, progress has been made on engine design to make use of the heavier oils. Progress has been made in two different directions which are outlined in this paper: the group of engines with medium and high-pressure carburetion in the cylinder; and the group of engines with low-pressure carburetion of the heavy oils before reaching the cylinder.

  16. Effect of added citrus fibre and spice essential oils on quality characteristics and shelf-life of mortadella.

    PubMed

    Viuda-Martos, M; Ruiz-Navajas, Y; Fernández-López, J; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of adding orange dietary fibre (1%), rosemary essential oil (0.02%) or thyme essential oil (0.02%) and the storage conditions on the quality characteristics and the shelf-life of mortadella, a bologna-type sausage. The moisture, fat, ash content and colour coordinates lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) were affected by the fibre content. The treatments analysed lowered the levels of residual nitrite (57.56% and 57.61%) and the extent of lipid oxidation, while analysis of the samples revealed the presence of the flavonoids, hesperidin and narirutin. No enterobacteria or psychotropic bacteria were found in any of the treatments. The treated samples stored in vacuum packaging showed the lowest aerobic and lactic acid bacteria counts. Sensorially, the most appreciated sample was the one containing orange dietary fibre and rosemary essential oil, stored in vacuum packaging. Orange dietary fibre and spice essential oils could find a use in the food industry to improve the shelf-life of meat products.

  17. Effect of added caffeic acid and tyrosol on the fatty acid and volatile profiles of camellia oil following heating.

    PubMed

    Haiyan, Zhong; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2006-12-13

    Camellia oil is widely used in some parts of the world partly because of its high oxidative stability. The effect of heating a refined camellia oil for 1 h at 120 degrees C or 2 h at 170 degrees C with exogenous antioxidant, namely, caffeic acid and tyrosol, was studied. Parameters used to assess the effect of heating were peroxide and K values, volatile formation, and fatty acid profile. Of these, volatile formation was the most sensitive index of change as seen in the number of volatiles and the total area count of volatiles in gas chromatograms. Hexanal was generally the dominant volatile in treated and untreated samples with a concentration of 2.13 and 5.34 mg kg(-1) in untreated oils heated at 120 and 170 degrees C, respectively. The hexanal content was significantly reduced in heated oils to which tyrosol and/or caffeic acid had been added. Using volatile formation as an index of oxidation, tyrosol was the more effective antioxidant of these compounds. This is contradictory to generally accepted antioxidant structure-activity relationships. Changes in fatty acid profiles after heating for up to 24 h at 180 degrees C were not significant.

  18. Fuel economy opportunities for internal combustion engines by means of oil-cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. F.; Li, J. C.; Qin, W. X.; Wei, Z. Y.; Chen, J.

    1997-06-01

    Comparative experiments of oil and water-cooling were performed on a 4-cylinder automotive gasoline engine and a single-cylinder direct injection Diesel engine. Measurements were made to investigate the variation of fuel consumption, combustor wall temperature and engine emissions (HC, CO, NOx and smoke) with two cooling media at steady-state conditions. Significant improvement of fuel economy was found mainly at partial load conditions with oil-cooling in comparison with the baseline water-cooling both for the two engines. The experimental results also showed general trend of reduction in engine emissions using oil as the coolant. Measurements of wall temperature demonstrated that oil-cooling resulted in considerable increase of the combustor wall temperature and reduce of warm-up period in starting process. For automotive gasoline engine, road tests indicated the same trend of fuel economy improvement with oil-cooling. The performance of the automotive oil-cooled engine was further improved by internal cooling with water or methanol injection.

  19. Value-added utilization of oil palm ash: a superior recycling of the industrial agricultural waste.

    PubMed

    Foo, K Y; Hameed, B H

    2009-12-30

    Concern about environmental protection has increased over the years from a global viewpoint. To date, the infiltration of oil palm ash into the groundwater tables and aquifer systems which poses a potential risk and significant hazards towards the public health and ecosystems, remain an intricate challenge for the 21st century. With the revolution of biomass reutilization strategy, there has been a steadily growing interest in this research field. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents a state of art review of oil palm ash industry, its fundamental characteristics and environmental implications. Moreover, the key advance of its implementations, major challenges together with the future expectation are summarized and discussed. Conclusively, the expanding of oil palm ash in numerous field of application represents a plausible and powerful circumstance, for accruing the worldwide environmental benefit and shaping the national economy.

  20. Field endurance test of diesel engines fueled with sunflower oil/diesel fuel blends

    SciTech Connect

    German, T.J.; Kaufman, K.R.; Pratt, G.L.; Derry, J.

    1985-01-01

    Four John Deere and two J.I. Case tractors were fueled with 25% or 50% blends of alkali-refined, winterized sunflower oil and No. 2 diesel fuel while in farm service. All engines were turbocharged, direct injection diesel engines and each was operated for approximately 1000 hours. No power losses were detected during the test period. However, one engine experienced camshaft/valve train failure while in service. Engine deposits were measured according to the CRC Diesel Engine Rating system after the test period was completed. Statistical analysis revealed heavier deposits in most areas of the combustion chamber of the three engines fueled with the 50% sunflower oil/50% No. 2 diesel fuel blend. No detrimental engine deposits due to differences in engine size were observed. No injector coking problems or ring sticking problems were encountered. Bearing wear was normal.

  1. Performance of commercial laying hens when six percent corn oil is added to the diet at various ages and with different levels of tryptophan and protein.

    PubMed

    Antar, R S; Harms, R H; Shivazad, M; Faria, D E; Russell, G B

    2004-03-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the use of corn oil in the diet of commercial layers as a method of increasing egg weight. In the first experiment, the performance of commercial layers receiving 6% added corn oil beginning at 18 to 30 wk at 2-wk intervals was evaluated. In the second experiment, comparisons were made between performance of young and old commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to the diet. The third experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects upon commercial layers when 6% corn oil was added to diets varying in Trp content. In experiment 1, egg weights increased during the first 2 wk that corn oil was added to the diet. During this time, the intake of Trp was greater than or equal to the hen requirements. However, during the last 2 wk of the experiment, when Trp intakes were low, egg weights decreased when corn oil was added to the diet. In experiment 2, egg weights from young and old hens increased during the first 2 wk after corn oil was added to the diet. During the last 2 wk, egg weights from young hens decreased, whereas egg weights from old hens increased. In experiment 3, egg weight was not affected when the diet contained 0.166 or 0.176% Trp. However, egg weights significantly increased when corn oil was added to the diet containing 0.193% Trp. The data in these experiments indicate that the diet of a laying hen must contain a high level of Trp to get an increase in egg weight from the addition of corn oil to the diet. Also the need for other amino acids must be met. Therefore, the hen eats to meet her energy requirement for maximum egg production, and her amino acid intake determines the egg weight.

  2. Engineering evaluation of plant oils as diesel fuel. Final report. Vol. I

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; Johnson, L.A.; Lepori, W.A.; Yarbrough, C.M.

    1983-09-13

    This project includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil ethyl esters in both direct injection and precombustion chamber design diesel engines. It is one part of a major research program at Texas A and M University to study the technical feasibility of using plant oils or animal fats as alternative diesel fuels. Goals for the overall program are to define physical and chemical characteristics and optimum processing methods required for high quality alternative diesel fuels from plant or animal oils and to investigate effects of engine design on alternative fuel performance. This report describes work done under the current contract which includes evaluations of cottonseed oils and sunflower oil interesterified with ethanol as alternative diesel fuels. 15 figures, 18 tables.

  3. Impacts of Biodiesel Fuel Blends Oil Dilution on Light-Duty Diesel Engine Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, M. J.; Alleman, T. L.; Luecke, J.; McCormick, R. L.

    2009-08-01

    Assesses oil dilution impacts on a diesel engine operating with a diesel particle filter, NOx storage, a selective catalytic reduction emission control system, and a soy-based 20% biodiesel fuel blend.

  4. Fuel properties and engine performance of biodiesel from waste cooking oil collected in Dhaka city

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, R. B.; Islam, R.; Uddin, M. N.; Ehsan, Md.

    2016-07-01

    Waste cooking oil can be a potential source of biodiesel that has least effect on the edible oil consumption. Increasing number of hotel-restaurants and more active monitoring by health authorities have increased the generation of waste cooking oil significantly in densely populated cities like Dhaka. If not used or disposed properly, waste cooking oil itself may generate lot of environmental issues. In this work, waste cooking oils from different restaurants within Dhaka City were collected and some relevant properties of these waste oils were measured. Based on the samples studied one with the highest potential as biodiesel feed was identified and processed for engine performance. Standard trans-esterification process was used to produce biodiesel from the selected waste cooking oil. Biodiesel blends of B20 and B40 category were made and tested on a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine. Engine performance parameters included - bhp, bsfc and exhaust emission for rated and part load conditions. Results give a quantitative assessment of the potential of using biodiesel from waste cooking oil as fuel for diesel engines in Bangladesh.

  5. Ferrographic and spectrographic analysis of oil sampled before and after failure of a jet engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph as well as plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism, nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the oil sample from the engine just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure.

  6. Investigation of engine performance and emissions of a diesel engine with a blend of marine gas oil and synthetic diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil (MGO) and a blend of MGO and synthetic diesel fuel. Ten per cent by volume of Fischer-Tropsch (FT), a synthetic diesel fuel, was added to MGO to investigate its influence on the diesel engine performance and emissions. The blended fuel was termed as FT10 fuel, while the neat (100 vol%) MGO was termed as MGO fuel. The experiments were conducted with a fourstroke, six-cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, Scania DC 1102 diesel engine. It is interesting to note that all emissions including smoke (filter smoke number), total particulate matter (TPM), carbon monoxide (CO), total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and engine noise were reduced with FT10 fuel compared with the MGO fuel. Diesel fine particle number and mass emissions were measured with an electrical low pressure impactor. Like other exhaust emissions, significant reductions in fine particles and mass emissions were observed with the FT10 fuel. The reduction was due to absence of sulphur and aromatic compounds in the FT fuel. In-cylinder gas pressure and engine thermal efficiency were identical for both FT10 and MGO fuels.

  7. Value-added potential of expeller-pressed canola oil refining: characterization of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols from byproducts.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yougui; Thiyam-Hollander, Usha; Barthet, Veronique J; Aachary, Ayyappan A

    2014-10-08

    Valuable phenolic antioxidants are lost during oil refining, but evaluation of their occurrence in refining byproducts is lacking. Rapeseed and canola oil are both rich sources of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols. The retention and loss of sinapic acid derivatives and tocopherols in commercially produced expeller-pressed canola oils subjected to various refining steps and the respective byproducts were investigated. Loss of canolol (3) and tocopherols were observed during bleaching (84.9%) and deodorization (37.6%), respectively. Sinapic acid (2) (42.9 μg/g), sinapine (1) (199 μg/g), and canolol (344 μg/g) were found in the refining byproducts, namely, soap stock, spent bleaching clay, and wash water, for the first time. Tocopherols (3.75 mg/g) and other nonidentified phenolic compounds (2.7 mg sinapic acid equivalent/g) were found in deodistillates, a byproduct of deodorization. DPPH radical scavenging confirmed the antioxidant potential of the byproducts. This study confirms the value-added potential of byproducts of refining as sources of endogenous phenolics.

  8. Headspace microdrop analysis--an alternative test method for gasoline diluent and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in used engine oils.

    PubMed

    Kokosa, John M; Przyjazny, Andrzej

    2003-01-03

    The primary standard test method used for the determination of gasoline diluent in used engine oils is method D 3525-93 of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM), which involves direct injection of used oil onto a packed GC column and flame ionization detection. Recently, we have utilized a new headspace sampling method: headspace solvent microextraction (HSM), for GC and GC-MS analysis of gasoline diluent in used engine oils. High resolution capillary columns can be used without the necessity for the use of inlet cryogenic cooling or expensive sampling interfaces. This analytical method, which we generically refer to as headspace microdrop analysis yields results comparable to those obtained using the ASTM method, with the added benefit that it allows the quantification of individual volatile diluent components, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and the xylenes.

  9. Analysis of oil consumption in cylinder of diesel engine for optimization of piston rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Junhong; Zhang, Guichang; He, Zhenpeng; Lin, Jiewei; Liu, Hai

    2013-01-01

    The performance and particulate emission of a diesel engine are affected by the consumption of lubricating oil. Most studies on oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder have been done by using the experimental method, however they are very costly. Therefore, it is very necessary to study oil consumption mechanism of the cylinder and obtain the accurate results by the calculation method. Firstly, four main modes of lubricating oil consumption in cylinder are analyzed and then the oil consumption rate under common working conditions are calculated for the four modes based on an engine. Then, the factors that affect the lubricating oil consumption such as working conditions, the second ring closed gap, the elastic force of the piston rings are also investigated for the four modes. The calculation results show that most of the lubricating oil is consumed by evaporation on the liner surface. Besides, there are three other findings: (1) The oil evaporation from the liner is determined by the working condition of an engine; (2) The increase of the ring closed gap reduces the oil blow through the top ring end gap but increases blow-by; (3) With the increase of the elastic force of the ring, both the left oil film thickness and the oil throw-off at the top ring decrease. The oil scraping of the piston top edge is consequently reduced while the friction loss between the rings and the liner increases. A neural network prediction model of the lubricating oil consumption in cylinder is established based on the BP neural network theory, and then the model is trained and validated. The main piston rings parameters which affect the oil consumption are optimized by using the BP neural network prediction model and the prediction accuracy of this BP neural network is within 8%, which is acceptable for normal engineering applications. The oil consumption is also measured experimentally. The relative errors of the calculated and experimental values are less than 10%, verifying the

  10. Performance of an IDI Engine Fueled with Fatty Acid Methyl Esters Formulated from Cotton Seeds Oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluates the performance of an indirect injection (IDI) diesel engine fueled with cottonseed biodiesel while assessing the IDI engine multi-fuel capability. Millions of tons of cotton seeds are available in the southeast of the USA every year and they contain oils that can be transesteri...

  11. 78 FR 1728 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. This AD requires inspection of the oil...

  12. Combined air-oil cooling on a supercharged TC IC TAM diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Trenc, F. ); Pavletic, R. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1993-10-01

    In order to reduce the maximum cylinder wall temperatures of an air-cooled TC IC diesel engine with large longitudinal and circumferential temperature gradients, a curved, squared cross-sectional channel supplied with engine lubrication oil was introduced into the upper part of the cylinder wall. Numerical analyses of the heat transfer within the baseline air-cooled cylinder and intensive experimental work helped to understand the temperature situation in the cylinder at diverse engine running conditions. The results of the combined cooling were greatly affected by the design, dimensions, position of the channel, and the distribution of the cooling oil flow, and are presented in the paper.

  13. Compression ignition engine fuel properties of a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend

    SciTech Connect

    Oezaktas, T.

    2000-05-01

    Vegetable oils may be used with dilution modification technique as an alternative diesel fuel. In this study, a used sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend (20:80 {nu}/{nu}%) was investigated in a Pancar Motor E-108-type diesel engine to observe engine characteristics and exhaust emission. The effect of the compression ratio on ignition delay characteristics and smoke emissions of blend fuel was determined in this CFR engine. The results of fuel blends were compared with the reference grade No. 2-D diesel fuel.

  14. The antioxidants in oils heated at frying temperature, whether natural or added, could protect against postprandial oxidative stress in obese people.

    PubMed

    Perez-Herrera, Aleyda; Rangel-Zuñiga, Oriol A; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Marin, Carmen; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Tasset, Inmaculada; Tunez, Isaac; Quintana-Navarro, Gracia M; Lopez-Segura, Fernando; Luque de Castro, Maria D; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Camargo, Antonio; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-06-15

    We have investigated the effects of the intake of oils heated at frying temperature in order to find an oil model for deep-frying that prevents postprandial oxidative stress. Twenty obese people received four breakfasts following a randomised crossover design consisting of different oils (virgin olive oil (VOO), sunflower oil (SFO), and a mixed seed oil (SFO/canola oil) with added dimethylpolysiloxane (SOX) or natural antioxidants from olives (SOP)), which were subjected to 20 heating cycles. The intake of SFO-breakfast reduced plasma GSH levels and the GSH/GSSG ratio, increased protein carbonyl levels, and induced a higher gene expression of the different NADPH-oxidase subunits, Nrf2-Keap1 activation, gene expression of the antioxidant enzymes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and antioxidant plasma activities than the intake of the breakfasts prepared with VOO, SOP and SOX. Oils with phenolic compounds, whether natural (VOO) or artificially added (SOP), or with artificial antioxidant (SOX), could reduce postprandial oxidative stress compared with sunflower oil.

  15. Metabolic engineering of cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway via RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhongping; Li, Jingwen; Guo, Xiaoping; Jin, Shuangxia; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Cottonseed oil is recognized as an important oil in food industry for its unique characters: low flavor reversion and the high level of antioxidants (VitaminE) as well as unsaturated fatty acid. However, the cottonseed oil content of cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) is only around 20%. In this study, we modified the accumulation of oils by the down-regulation of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase 1 (GhPEPC1) via RNA interference in transgenic cotton plants. The qRT-PCR and enzyme activity assay revealed that the transcription and expression of GhPEPC1 was dramatically down-regulated in transgenic lines. Consequently, the cottonseed oil content in several transgenic lines showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase (up to 16.7%) without obvious phenotypic changes under filed condition when compared to the control plants. In order to elucidate the molecular mechanism of GhPEPC1 in the regulation of seed oil content, we quantified the expression of the carbon metabolism related genes of transgenic GhPEPC1 RNAi lines by transcriptome analysis. This analysis revealed the decrease of GhPEPC1 expression led to the increase expression of triacylglycerol biosynthesis-related genes, which eventually contributed to the lipid biosynthesis in cotton. This result provides a valuable information for cottonseed oil biosynthesis pathway and shows the potential of creating high cottonseed oil germplasm by RNAi strategy for cotton breeding. PMID:27620452

  16. Special single-cylinder engine contributes to lube-oil development

    SciTech Connect

    Chellini, R.

    1994-12-01

    This article reports on the newly installed test engine called ELF Optimizer developed to carry out research on lubricants that will match future lube oils with future engine technology, new environmental legislation and changes in fuel quality. ELF Optimizer is expected to allow important improvements in lubricants as well as provide useful information to engine components and systems, such as fuel injection equipment, filters and separators. 3 figs.

  17. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, a plasma, an atomic absorption, and an emission spectrometer to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations ( 2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure.

  18. Ferrographic and spectrometer oil analysis from a failed gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    An experimental gas turbine engine was destroyed as a result of the combustion of its titanium components. It was concluded that a severe surge may have caused interference between rotating and stationary compressor parts that either directly or indirectly ignited the titanium components. Several engine oil samples (before and after the failure) were analyzed with a Ferrograph, and with plasma, atomic absorption, and emission spectrometers to see if this information would aid in the engine failure diagnosis. The analyses indicated that a lubrication system failure was not a causative factor in the engine failure. Neither an abnormal wear mechanism nor a high level of wear debris was detected in the engine oil sample taken just prior to the test in which the failure occurred. However, low concentrations (0.2 to 0.5 ppm) of titanium were evident in this sample and samples taken earlier. After the failure, higher titanium concentrations (2 ppm) were detected in oil samples taken from different engine locations. Ferrographic analysis indicated that most of the titanium was contained in spherical metallic debris after the failure. The oil analyses eliminated a lubrication system bearing or shaft seal failure as the cause of the engine failure. Previously announced in STAR as N83-12433

  19. Deposit information in gasoline engines: Part I. Base oil effects in sequence VE deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Supp, J.A.; Kornbrekke, R.E.; Roby, S.H.

    1994-12-01

    Base oil effects on sludge and deposit formation in the ASTM Sequence VE were studied with blends made using the same American Petroleum Institute (API) SG performance package and the same viscosity improver. One percent of the dispersant was removed from the formulation to accentuate base oil effects. Nine tests on six different 100N base oils were run. Sequence VE test lubricant drain analyses show differences in insolubles, viscosity, and particle size with base stock variations. The most significant base oil factors which can be used to predict Sequence VE sludge ratings are the base oil saturate content, polar content, and volatility. While all oils studied passed the Sequence VE API SG engine varnish and piston varnish requirements, higher levels of poly-nuclear aromatics (PNA`s) are shown to increase the severity of these ratings.

  20. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  1. Beneficiation-hydroretort processing of US oil shales, engineering study

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.; Riley, R.H.

    1988-12-01

    This report describes a beneficiation facility designed to process 1620 tons per day of run-of-mine Alabama oil shale containing 12.7 gallons of kerogen per ton of ore (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay). The beneficiation facility will produce briquettes of oil shale concentrate containing 34.1 gallons of kerogen per ton (based on Fischer Assay) suitable for feed to a hydroretort oil extraction facility of nominally 20,000 barrels per day capacity. The beneficiation plant design prepared includes the operations of crushing, grinding, flotation, thickening, filtering, drying, briquetting, conveying and tailings empoundment. A complete oil shale beneficiation plant is described including all anticipated ancillary facilities. For purposes of determining capital and operating costs, the beneficiation facility is assumed to be located on a generic site in the state of Alabama. The facility is described in terms of the individual unit operations with the capital costs being itemized in a similar manner. Additionally, the beneficiation facility estimated operating costs are presented to show operating costs per ton of concentrate produced, cost per barrel of oil contained in concentrate and beneficiation cost per barrel of oil extracted from concentrate by hydroretorting. All costs are presented in fourth quarter of 1988 dollars.

  2. Dietary supplementation of pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium protects against oxidative stress and liver damage in laying hens fed an oxidized sunflower oil-added diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhang, H J; Xu, L; Long, C; Samuel, K G; Yue, H Y; Sun, L L; Wu, S G; Qi, G H

    2016-07-01

    The protective effects of dietary pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium (PQQ.Na2) supplementation against oxidized sunflower oil-induced oxidative stress and liver injury in laying hens were examined. Three hundred and sixty 53-week-old Hy-Line Gray laying hens were randomly allocated into one of the five dietary treatments. The treatments included: (1) a diet containing 2% fresh sunflower oil; (2) a diet containing 2% thermally oxidized sunflower oil; (3) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 100 mg/kg of added vitamin E; (4) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.08 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2; and (5) an oxidized sunflower oil diet with 0.12 mg/kg of PQQ.Na2. Birds fed the oxidized sunflower oil diet showed a lower feed intake compared to birds fed the fresh oil diet or oxidized oil diet supplemented with vitamin E (P=0.009). Exposure to oxidized sunflower oil increased plasma malondialdehyde (P<0.001), hepatic reactive oxygen species (P<0.05) and carbonyl group levels (P<0.001), but decreased plasma glutathione levels (P=0.006) in laying hens. These unfavorable changes induced by the oxidized sunflower oil diet were modulated by dietary vitamin E or PQQ.Na2 supplementation to levels comparable to the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation with PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E increased the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in plasma and the liver, when compared with the oxidized sunflower oil group (P<0.05). PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E diminished the oxidized sunflower oil diet induced elevation of liver weight (P=0.026), liver to BW ratio (P=0.001) and plasma activities of alanine aminotransferase (P=0.001) and aspartate aminotransferase (P<0.001) and maintained these indices at the similar levels to the fresh oil diet. Furthermore, oxidized sunflower oil increased hepatic DNA tail length (P<0.05) and tail moment (P<0.05) compared with the fresh oil group. Dietary supplementation of PQQ.Na2 or vitamin E decreased the oxidized oil diet induced DNA tail length

  3. Dynamic Oil Consumption Measurement of Internal Combustion Engines using Laser Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sellmeier, Stefan; Alonso, Eduardo; Boesl, Ulrich

    2014-01-07

    A new approach has been developed to measure dynamic consumption of lubricant oil in an internal combustion engine. It is based on the already known technique where sulfur is used as a natural tracer of the engine oil. Since ejection of motor oil in gaseous form into the exhaust is by far the main source of engine oil consumption, detection of sulfur in the exhaust emission is a valuable way to measure engine oil consumption in a dynamic way. In earlier approaches, this is done by converting all sulfur containing chemical components into SO2 by thermal pyrolysis in a high temperature furnace at atmospheric pressure. The so-formed SO2 then is detected by broadband-UV-induced fluorescence or mass spectrometric methods. The challenge is to reach the necessary detection limit of 50 ppb. The new approach presented here includes sulfur conversion in a low-pressure discharge cell and laser-induced fluorescence with wavelength and fluorescence lifetime selection. A limit of detection down to 10 ppb at a temporal resolution in the time scale of few seconds is reached. Extensive, promising studies have been performed at a real engine test bench. Future developments of a compact, mobile device based on these improvements are discussed.

  4. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase and diacylglycerol acyltransferase: potential targets for metabolic engineering of microorganism oil.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hong-Hao; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2015-04-01

    Oleaginous microorganism is becoming one of the most promising oil feedstocks for biodiesel production due to its great advantages in triglyceride (TAG) accumulation. Previous studies have shown that de novo TAG biosynthesis can be divided into two parts: the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway (the upstream part which generates acyl-CoAs) and the glycerol-3-phosphate acylation pathway (the downstream part in which three acyl groups are sequentially added onto a glycerol backbone). This review mainly focuses on two enzymes in the G3P pathway, phosphatidic acid phosphatase (PAP) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT). The former catalyzes a dephosphorylation reaction, and the latter catalyzes a subsequent acylation reaction. Genes, functional motifs, transmembrane domains, action mechanism, and new studies of the two enzymes are discussed in detail. Furthermore, this review also covers diacylglycerol kinase, an enzyme that catalyzes the reverse reaction of diacylglycerol formation. In addition, PAP and DGAT are the conjunction points of the G3P pathway, the Kennedy pathway, and the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway (CDP-DAG pathway), and the mutual transformation between TAGs and phospholipids is discussed as well. Given that both the Kennedy and CDP-diacylglycerol pathways are in metabolic interlock (MI) with the G3P pathway, it is suggested that, via metabolic engineering, TAG accumulation can be improved by the two pathways based on the pivotal function of PAP and DGAT.

  5. Effects of adding bulking agent, inorganic nutrient and microbial inocula on biopile treatment for oil-field drilling waste.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Yang, Yongqi; Dai, Xiaoli; Chen, Yetong; Deng, Hanmei; Zhou, Huijun; Guo, Shaohui; Yan, Guangxu

    2016-05-01

    Contamination from oil-field drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem. This study investigated the performance of four bench-scale biopiles in treating drilling waste: 1) direct biopile (DW), 2) biopile plus oil-degrading microbial consortium (DW + M), 3) biopile plus microbial consortium and bulking agents (saw dust) (DW + M + BA), 4) biopile plus microbial consortium, bulking agents, and inorganic nutrients (Urea and K2HPO4) (DW + M + BA + N). Ninety days of biopiling removed 41.0%, 44.0%, 55.7% and 87.4% of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in the pile "DW", "DW + M", "DW + M + BA", and "DW + M + BA + N" respectively. Addition of inorganic nutrient and bulking agents resulted in a 56.9% and 26.6% increase in TPH removal efficiency respectively. In contrast, inoculation of hydrocarbon-degrading microorganisms only slightly enhanced the contaminant removal (increased 7.3%). The biopile with stronger contaminant removal also had higher pile temperature and lower pile pH (e.g., in "DW + M + BA + N"). GC-MS analysis shows that biopiling significantly reduced the total number of detected contaminants and changed the chemical composition. Overall, this study shows that biopiling is an effective remediation technology for drilling waste. Adding inorganic nutrients and bulking agents can significantly improve biopile performance while addition of microbial inocula had minimal positive impacts on contaminant removal.

  6. University of Idaho tests engines with biodiesel from waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, C.; Fleischman, G.

    1995-12-31

    This article reports on preliminary work at the University of Idaho that investigates the possibilities of capitalizing on Idaho`s large volumes of waste oil and potatoes-generated ethanol to produce biodiesel fuel. This fuel would be hydrogenated soy ethyl ester, MySEE for short, made through a reaction between waste oil and ethanol made from potato waste. Address for full report is given.

  7. Brassicaceae seed oil identified as illuminant in Nilotic shells from a first millennium AD Coptic church in Bawit, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Romanus, Kerlijne; Van Neer, Wim; Marinova, Elena; Verbeke, Kristin; Luypaerts, Anja; Accardo, Sabina; Hermans, Ive; Jacobs, Pierre; De Vos, Dirk; Waelkens, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Burned greasy deposits were found inside shells of the large Nile bivalve Chambardia rubens, excavated in an eight- to tenth- century AD church of the Coptic monastery of Bawit, Egypt, and supposedly used as oil lamps. The residues were subjected to a combination of chromatographic residue analysis techniques. The rather high concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, as analysed by gas chromatography (GC) in the methylated extract, suggest the presence of a vegetal oil. Analysis of the stable carbon isotopes (delta 13C values) of the methyl esters also favoured plants over animals as the lipid source. In the search for biomarkers by GC coupled to mass spectrometry on a silylated extract, a range of diacids together with high concentrations of 13,14-dihydroxydocosanoate and 11,12-dihydroxyeicosanoate were found. These compounds are oxidation products of erucic acid and gondoic acid, which are abundantly present in seeds of Brassicaceae plants. Liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analysis showed low concentrations of unaltered triglycerides, but revealed sizeable amounts of triglycerides with at least one dihydroxylated acyl chain. The unusual preservation of dihydroxylated triglycerides and alpha,omega-dicarboxylic acids can be related to the dry preservation conditions. Analysis of the stereoisomers of the dihydroxylated fatty acids allows one to determine whether oxidation took place during burning of the fuel or afterwards. The results prove that the oil of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) or radish (Raphanus sativus L.) was used as illuminant in early Islamic Egypt, and that not only ceramic lamps but also mollusk shells were used as fuel containers.

  8. Some Adverse Effects of Used Engine Oil (Common Waste Pollutant) On Reproduction of Male Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Akintunde, Wasiu Olalekan; Olugbenga, Ojo A.; Olufemi, Ogundipe O.

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Used oil is contaminated not only with heavy metals but also with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are insignificant in the unused oil. In our study we determined possible reproductive effects of used engine oil on male rats. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty eight male Wistar rats were used for the study. The rats had average weight of 181.5 ± 10 g, animal feeds and portable water was provided ad-libitum. The rats were assigned to 4 groups (n = 7) including control. The treated groups orally received 0.1 ml/rat, 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil every other day for 28 days using oral canulla. The spermatozoa were collected from epididymis for sperm analysis and testes were removed and preserved in Bouin’s fluid for routine histological analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that there was progressive weight increase among the control group of rats that received distilled water. Meanwhile, rats that received 0.4 ml/rat of the used engine oil showed significant (P < 0.05) weight loss in second and third week of administration while rats that received 0.2 ml/rat and 0.1 ml/rat of the used engine oil showed non-significant (P > 0.05) weight reduction. The spermatozoa number was decreased with significance (P < 0.05) at 0.2 ml/rat (2.38 ± 0.29) and 0.4 ml/rat (1.98 ± 0.08) when compared with the control (5.00 ± 0.89). However, the percentage of motile sperms was reduced significantly (P <0.05) at 0.2 ml/rat (52.86 ± 3.59) and 0.4 ml/rat (45.71 ± 2.94) except at 0.1 ml/rat where the reduction (64.00 ± 7.5) was not significant (P> 0.05). The percentage of head deformity been 41.43 ± 2.61 and 42.00 ± 3.74 at 0.2 ml/rat and 0.4 ml/rat respectively, also significant increase of middle piece deformity was observed only at 0.1 ml/rat (45.71 ± 2.02) while tail deformity significantly decreased (15.71 ± 2.02, 20.00 ± 4.36 and 20.00 ± 4.47) when compared with the control (30.00 ± 1.29). The testicular seminiferous tubules were slightly

  9. Soil stabilization using oil shale solid wastes: Laboratory evaluation of engineering properties

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Oil shale solid wastes were evaluated for possible use as soil stabilizers. A laboratory study was conducted and consisted of the following tests on compacted samples of soil treated with water and spent oil shale: unconfined compressive strength, moisture-density relationships, wet-dry and freeze-thaw durability, and resilient modulus. Significant increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a silty sand with combusted western oil shale. Moderate increases in strength, durability, and resilient modulus were obtained by treating a highly plastic clay with combusted western oil shale. Solid waste from eastern shale can be used for soil stabilization if limestone is added during combustion. Without limestone, eastern oil shale waste exhibits little or no cementation. The testing methods, results, and recommendations for mix design of spent shale-stabilized pavement subgrades are presented. 11 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Hydraulic fluids and jet engine oil: pyrolysis and aircraft air quality.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2001-01-01

    Incidents of smoke in aircraft cabins often result from jet engine oil and/or hydraulic fluid that leaks into ventilation air, which can be subjected to temperatures that exceed 500 degrees C. Exposed flight-crew members have reported symptoms, including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision, and tingling in the legs and arms. In this study, the authors investigated pyrolysis products of one jet engine oil and two hydraulic fluids at 525 degrees C. Engine oil was an important source of carbon monoxide. Volatile agents and organophosphate constituents were released from all the agents tested; however, the neurotoxin trimethyl propane phosphate was not found. The authors hypothesized that localized condensation of pyrolysis products in ventilation ducts, followed by mobilization when cabin heat demand was high, accounted for mid-flight incidents. The authors recommended that carbon monoxide data be logged continuously to capture levels during future incidents.

  11. Effect of cooking on the chemical composition of low-salt, low-fat Wakame/olive oil added beef patties with special reference to fatty acid content.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Cañeque, V; Díaz, M T; López, O; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2011-09-01

    Changes in chemical composition, with special reference to fatty acids, as affected by cooking, were studied in low-salt (0.5%)/low-fat patties (10%) with added Wakame (3%) and partial or total replacement of pork backfat with olive oil-in-water emulsion. The addition of Wakame and olive oil-in-water emulsion improved (P < 0.05) the binding properties and the cooking retention values of moisture, fat, fatty acids and ash, which were close to 100%. Partial and total replacement of animal fat with olive oil-in-water emulsion reduced (P < 0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while total replacement also reduced (P < 0.05) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFAs) contents. The fatty acid concentration in cooked patties was affected by product formulation. Unlike the case of all animal fat patties, when olive oil was added the cooking process increased (P < 0.05) SFAs, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) and PUFA n-3 (linolenic acid) and n-6 (linoleic acid) contents. Cooked formulated patties with seaweed and partial or total replacement of pork backfat by oil-in-water emulsion and with seaweed added were less calorie-dense and had lower SFAs levels, while samples with olive oil had higher MUFAs levels.

  12. Properties of cholesterol-reduced butter made with beta-cyclodextrin and added evening primrose oil and phytosterols.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Jung, T H; Ahn, J; Kwak, H S

    2006-12-01

    The present study was carried out to examine changes in the chemical and sensory properties of butter in which the cholesterol was reduced and to which evening primrose oil (EPO) and phytosterols were added. Crosslinked beta-cyclodextrin (beta-CD) made from adipic acid was used, and approximately 90% of the cholesterol was removed. The color measurement values "L" and "a" were significantly different between the control (butter with no beta-CD treatment and no added EPO and phytosterols) and treatment A (butter treated with 10% crosslinked beta-CD); however, the color values for "L" and "a" were similar. The color value "b" in treatment B (butter treated with 10% crosslinked beta-CD and 5% phytosterols and 3% EPO added) was significantly higher than in the other treatments. The thiobarbituric acid value of treatment B was significantly higher than that of the control and treatment A. Scores for hardness, elasticity, and cohesiveness were significantly lower in the control than in treatment A. Differences in sensory characteristics did not result from the beta-CD treatment but from the addition of EPO and phytosterols. In microscopic examinations, no noticeable differences were found among the treatments, and a smooth texture and a fine, uniform crystalline structure were observed. Results indicated that about 90% of the cholesterol was reduced by crosslinked beta-CD and that the beta-CD treatment itself did not adversely influence the chemical and sensory properties of the butter. However, the addition of EPO and phytosterols to the butter appeared to impair its sensory properties, especially in terms of rancidity and overall acceptability.

  13. Comparison of the constituents of two jet engine lubricating oils and their volatile pyrolytic degradation products.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C; Leung, V

    2000-03-01

    Leaking oil seals in jet engines, at locations prior to the compressor stage, can be a cause of smoke in the cabins of BAe-146 aircraft. Compressed combustion air is bled off to pressurize the cabin and to provide a source of fresh air. Bleed air is diverted from a location just prior to the combustion chamber at a temperature around 500 degrees C. To prevent oil breakdown products from entering the cabin air, catalytic converters have been used to clean the air. During an oil seal failure this device becomes overloaded and smoke is observed in the cabin. Some aircraft companies have removed the catalytic converters and claim an improvement in air quality. During an oil seal failure, however, the flight crew is potentially exposed to the thermal breakdown products of the engine oils. Because very little is known regarding the thermal breakdown products of jet engine lubrication oils, two commercially available oils were investigated under laboratory conditions at 525 degrees C to measure the release of CO, CO2,NO2, and HCN as well as volatiles which were analyzed using GC-Mass spectrometry in an attempt to see if the neurotoxic agents tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and trimethyl propane phosphate (TMPP) would be present or formed. TMPP was not found in these experiments. Some CO2 was generated along with CO which reached levels in excess of 100 ppm. HCN and NO2 were not detected. GC compositions of the two bulk oils and their breakdown products were almost identical. The presence of TCPs was confirmed in the bulk oils and in the volatiles. Localized condensation in the ventilation ducts and filters in the air conditioning packs are likely the reason why the presence of TCPs has not been demonstrated in cabin air. It was recommended that this needed to be verified in aircraft.

  14. Infrared absorptivities of several diesel engine soots; application to the analysis of soot in used engine oils

    SciTech Connect

    Ryason, P.R.; Hillyer, M.J.; Hansen, T.P.

    1994-10-01

    Soot was recovered from end-of-test (EOT) oils from several different Diesel engines. After resuspending the recovered soots in fresh high dispersancy engine oil, the infrared absorptivities of the soots were determined over a range of frequencies. On the basis of a statistical analysis of the data, recommended 1870 c{sup -1} absorptivities for soots from various engine tests are: GM 6.2 L, Mack T-8, Cummins L-10 HST, 59.0 {+-} 0.5; GM 6.2 L, Mack T-8, Caterpillar 3176, 0.02% sulfur fuel, 58.2 {+-} 0.4; Caterpillar 3176, 0.02% sulfur fuel and 0.2% sulfur fuel, 56.7 {+-} 0.3; Caterpillar 3116, 53.3{+-} 0.4 and OM 602A, 47.8 {+-} 0.2. In all cases, the units for the absorptivity are cm{sup -2}/centigram. Over the range of 3800 cm{sup -1} to 1870 cm{sup -1}, the dependence of absorptivity on frequency was linear for all the soots. Use of these absorptivities to determine soot concentrations in used engine oils is discussed. Of particular concern are the procedures required to obtain reproducible results. Special care must be taken to assure compositional uniformity of samples. 6 refs., 6 tabs.

  15. Characterization of vegetable oils for use as fuels in diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, T.W. III.; Callahan, T.J.; Dodge, L.G.

    1982-01-01

    The current specifications for petroleum fuels have evolved over the history of the petroleum industry and the development of the internal combustion engine. Present day fuel specifications are based on a wealth of empirical data and practical experience. A similar data base is only now being developed for the specification of vegetable oil fuels for diesel engines. Four different types of vegetable oil (soy, sunflower, cottonseed and peanut) have been obtained, each in at least three different stages of processing. All of the oils (14) have been characterized with respect to their physical and chemical properties. The spray characteristics of five of the oils have been determined at a variety of fuel temperatures using a high-pressure, high-temperature injection bomb and high-speed motion picture camera. These same oils have been tested in a direct injection farm tractor engine. The engine data consists of the normal performance measurements as well as the determination of heat release rates from cylinder pressure data. 3 figures, 7 tables.

  16. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid.

    PubMed

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-04

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2-16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  17. Combustion Performance and Exhaust Emission of DI Diesel Engine Using Various Sources of Waste Cooking Oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afiq, Mohd; Azuhairi, Mohd; Jazair, Wira

    2010-06-01

    In Malaysia, more than 200-tone of cooking oil are used by domestic users everyday. After frying process, about a quarter of these cooking oil was remained and drained into sewage system. This will pollutes waterways and affects the ecosystem. The use of waste cooking oil (WCO) for producing bio-diesel was considered in economical factor which current production cost of bio-diesel production is higher in Malaysia due to higher price of palm oil. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate the most suitable source of WCO to become a main source of bio-diesel for bio-diesel production in this country. To perform this research, three type of WCO were obtained from house's kitchen, cafeteria and mamak's restaurant. In this study, prospect of these bio-diesel source was evaluated based on its combustion performance and exhaust emissions operated in diesel engine in the form of waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME) and have been compared with pure diesel fuel. A 0.6 liter, single-cylinder, air-cooled direct injection diesel engine was used to perform this experiment. Experiment was done at variable engine loads and constant engine speed. As the result, among three stated WCOMEs, the one collected from house's kitchen gives the best performance in term of brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) and brake power (BP) with lowest soot emission.

  18. Usability of food industry waste oils as fuel for diesel engines.

    PubMed

    Winfried, Russ; Roland, Meyer-Pittroff; Alexander, Dobiasch; Jürgen, Lachenmaier-Kölch

    2008-02-01

    Two cogeneration units were each fitted with a prechamber (IDI) diesel engine in order to test the feasibility of using waste oils from the food industry as a fuel source, and additionally to test emissions generated by the combustion of these fuels. Esterified waste oils and animal fats as well as mustard oil were tested and compared to the more or less "common" fuels: diesel, rapeseed oil and rapeseed methyl ester. The results show that, in principle, each of these fuels is suitable for use in a prechamber diesel engine. Engine performance can be maintained at a constant level. Without catalytic conversion, the nitrogen oxides emissions were comparable. A significant reduction in NO(x) was achieved through the injection of urea. Combining a urea injection with the SCR catalytic converter reduced NO(x) emissions between 53% and 67%. The carbon monoxide emissions from waste oils are not significantly different from those of "common" fuels and can be reduced the same way as of hydrocarbon emissions, through utilization of a catalytic converter. The rate of carbon monoxide reduction by catalytic conversion was 84-86%. A lower hydrocarbon concentration was associated with fuels of agricultural origin. With the catalytic converter a reduction of 29-42% achieved. Each prechamber diesel engine exhibited its own characteristic exhaust, which was independent of fuel type. The selective catalytic reduction of the exhaust emissions can be realized without restriction using fuels of agricultural origin.

  19. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-08-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process.

  20. Supercritical Fluid Synthesis and Tribological Applications of Silver Nanoparticle-decorated Graphene in Engine Oil Nanofluid

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Yuan; Su, Fenghua; Chen, Yangzhi

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticle-decorated graphene nanocomposites were synthesized by a facile chemical reduction approach with the assistance of supercritical CO2 (ScCO2). The silver nanoparticles with diameters of 2–16 nm are uniformly distributed and firmly anchored on graphene nanosheets. The tribological properties of the as-synthesized nanocomposites as lubricant additives in engine oil were investigated by a four-ball tribometer. The engine oil with 0.06~0.10 wt.% Sc-Ag/GN nanocomposites displays remarkable lubricating performance, superior than the pure engine oil, the engine oil containing zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate (ZDDP), as well as the oil dispersed with the single nanomaterial of graphene oxides (GOs) and nano-Ag particles alone. The remarkable lubricating behaviors of Sc-Ag/GN probably derive from the synergistic interactions of nano-Ag and graphene in the nanocomposite and the action of the formed protective film on the contact balls. The anchored nano-Ag particles on graphene expand the interlamination spaces of graphene nanosheets and can prevent them from restacking during the rubbing process, resulting in the full play of lubricating activity of graphene. The formed protective film on the friction pairs significantly reduces the surface roughness of the sliding balls and hence preventing them from direct interaction during the sliding process. PMID:27488733

  1. Diesel engine evaluation of a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejeuski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-10-01

    A nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion was formulated, characterized and evaluated as a fuel in a direct injection, turbocharged, intercooled, 4 cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200 hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Differences in engine operation between a baseline Phillips 2D reference fuel and the experimental fuel were observed. The major problem experienced while operating with the microemulsion was an incomplete combustion process at low-load engine operation. Significant lubricating oil dilution was observed initially, followed by an abnormal increase in the viscosity of the lubricative oil. Heavier carbon residue on the piston lands, in the piston ring grooves and in the intake ports were noted. In addition, premature injection-nozzle deterioration (sticking of the needle) was experienced. At present, the sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion studied cannot be recommended for long-term use in a direct-injection diesel engine, but further modifications in formulation may produce acceptable sunflower oil microemulsions as alternative diesel fuels. 15 references.

  2. Automated small scale oil seed processing plant for production of fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.C.; Peterson, C.L.

    1982-01-01

    University of Idaho seed processing research is centered about a CeCoCo oil expeller. A seed preheater-auger, seed bin, meal auger, and oil pump have been constructed to complete the system, which is automated and instrumented. The press, preheater, cake removal auger, and oil transfer pump are tied into a central panel where energy use is measured and the process controlled. Extracted oil weight, meal weight, process temperature, and input energy are all recorded during operation. The oil is transferred to tanks where it settles for 48 hours or more. It is then pumped through a filtering system and stored ready to be used as an engine fuel. The plant has processed over 11,000 kg of seed with an average extraction efficiency of 78 percent. 5 tables.

  3. Soy-Based, Water-Cooled, TC W-III Two Cycle Engine Oil

    SciTech Connect

    Scharf, Curtis R.; Miller, Mark E.

    2003-08-30

    The objective of this project was to achieve technical approval and commercial launch for a biodegradable soy oil-based, environmentally safe, TC W-III performance, water-cooled, two cycle engine oil. To do so would: (1) develop a new use for RBD soybean oil; (2) increase soybean utilization in North America in the range of 500 K-3.0 MM bushels; and (3) open up supply opportunities of 1.5-5.0 MM bushels worldwide. These goals have been successfully obtained.

  4. Adding to the Students' Toolbox: Using Directories, Search Engines, and the Hidden Web in Search Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mardis, Marcia A.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of searching for information on the Web focuses on resources that are not always found by traditional Web searches. Describes sources on the hidden Web, including full-text databases, clearinghouses, digital libraries, and learning objects; explains how search engines operate; and suggests that traditional print sources are still…

  5. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2017-03-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  6. Exhaust emissions reduction from diesel engine using combined Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends and antioxidant additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-07-01

    The limited resources, rising petroleum prices and depletion of fossil fuel have now become a matter of great concern. Hence, there is an urgent need for researchers to find some alternate fuels which are capable of substituting partly or wholly the higher demanded conventional diesel fuel. Lot of research work has been conducted on diesel engine using biodiesel and its blends with diesel as an alternate fuel. Very few works have been done with combination of biodiesel-Eucalypts oil without neat diesel and this leads to lots of scope in this area. The aim of the present study is to analyze the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder, direct injection, compression ignition engine using eucalyptus oil-biodiesel as fuel. The presence of eucalyptus oil in the blend reduces the viscosity and improves the volatility of the blends. The methyl ester of Annona oil is blended with eucalypts oil in 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 %. The performance and emission characteristics are evaluated by operating the engine at different loads. The performance characteristics such as brake thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption and exhaust gas temperature are evaluated. The emission constituents measured are Carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and Smoke. It is found that A50-Eu50 (50 Annona + 50 % Eucalyptus oil) blend showed better performance and reduction in exhaust emissions. But, it showed a very marginal increase in NOx emission when compared to that of diesel. Therefore, in order to reduce the NOx emission, antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) is mixed with Annona-Eucalyptus oil blends in various proportions by which NOx emission is reduced. Hence, A50-Eu50 blend can be used as an alternate fuel for diesel engine without any modifications.

  7. Experimental investigation on performance and exhaust emissions of castor oil biodiesel from a diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Shojaeefard, M H; Etgahni, M M; Meisami, F; Barari, A

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, produced from plant and animal oils, is an important alternative to fossil fuels because, apart from dwindling supply, the latter are a major source of air pollution. In this investigation, effects of castor oil biodiesel blends have been examined on diesel engine performance and emissions. After producing castor methyl ester by the transesterification method and measuring its characteristics, the experiments were performed on a four cylinder, turbocharged, direct injection, diesel engine. Engine performance (power, torque, brake specific fuel consumption and thermal efficiency) and exhaust emissions were analysed at various engine speeds. All the tests were done under 75% full load. Furthermore, the volumetric blending ratios of biodiesel with conventional diesel fuel were set at 5, 10, 15, 20 and 30%. The results indicate that lower blends of biodiesel provide acceptable engine performance and even improve it. Meanwhile, exhaust emissions are much decreased. Finally, a 15% blend of castor oil-biodiesel was picked as the optimized blend of biodiesel-diesel. It was found that lower blends of castor biodiesel are an acceptable fuel alternative for the engine.

  8. Experimental investigation of engine emissions with marine gas oil-oxygenate blends.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Md Nurun; Hustad, Johan Einar

    2010-07-15

    This paper investigates the diesel engine performance and exhaust emissions with marine gas oil-alternative fuel additive. Marine gas oil (MGO) was selected as base fuel for the engine experiments. An oxygenate, diethylene glycol dimethyl ether (DGM), and a biodiesel (BD) jatropha oil methyl ester (JOME) with a volume of 10% were blended with the MGO fuel. JOME was derived from inedible jatropha oil. Lower emissions with diesel-BD blends (soybean methyl ester, rapeseed methyl ester etc.) have been established so far, but the effect of MGO-BD (JOME) blends on engine performance and emissions has been a growing interest as JOME (BD) is derived from inedible oil and MGO is frequently used in maritime transports. No phase separation between MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends was found. The neat MGO, MGO-DGM and MGO-JOME blends are termed as MGO, Ox10 and B10 respectively. The experiments were conducted with a six-cylinder, four-stroke, turbocharged, direct-injection Scania DC 1102 (DI) diesel engine. The experimental results showed significant reductions in fine particle number and mass emissions, PM and smoke emissions with Ox10 and B10 fuels compared to the MGO fuel. Other emissions including total unburned hydrocarbon (THC), carbon monoxide (CO) and engine noise were also reduced with the Ox10 and B10 fuels, while maintaining similar brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) and thermal efficiency with MGO fuel. Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions, on the other hand, were slightly higher with the Ox10 and B10 fuels at high engine load conditions.

  9. Effects of Adding Essential Oil to the Diet of Weaned Pigs on Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immune Response and Intestinal Health

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  10. Effects of adding essential oil to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengfei; Piao, Xiangshu; Ru, Yingjun; Han, Xu; Xue, Lingfeng; Zhang, Hongyu

    2012-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding essential oils to the diet of weaned pigs on performance, nutrient utilization, immune response and intestinal health. A total of 96 weaning pigs (8.37±1.58 kg) were allotted to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments consisted of an unsupplemented basal diet (negative control, NC) or similar diets supplemented with 0.01% of an essential oil product which contained 18% thymol and cinnamaldehyde (EOD) as well as a diet supplemented with 0.19% of an antibiotic mixture which provided 150 ppm chlortetracycline, 80 ppm colistin sulfate and 50 ppm kitasamycin (positive control, PC). Each treatment was provided to eight pens of pigs with four pigs per pen. Over the entire 35 d experiment, ADG and fecal score were improved (p<0.05) for pigs fed the PC and EOD compared with the NC. Dry matter and crude protein digestibility as well as lymphocyte proliferation for pigs fed the PC and EOD diets were increased significantly compared with NC (p<0.05). IGF-I levels in plasma were significantly increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC diet compared with pigs fed the NC diet. Interleukin-6 concentration was lower (p<0.05) and the tumor necrosis factor-α level was higher (p<0.05) in the plasma of pigs fed the EOD diet than the NC diet. Plasma total antioxidant capacity level increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with pigs fed the NC. Villus height to crypt depth ratio in the jejunum was greater (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets than the NC. The numbers of E. coli in the cecum, colon and rectum were reduced (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. In the colon, the ratio of Lactobacilli to E. coli was increased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the EOD diet compared with NC diet. Total aerobe numbers in the rectum were decreased (p<0.05) in pigs fed the PC and EOD diets compared with the control. Collectively, these results indicate that blends of essential oils could be a

  11. Molecularly imprinted sol-gel nanoparticles for mass-sensitive engine oil degradation sensing.

    PubMed

    Lieberzeit, Peter A; Afzal, Adeel; Glanzing, Gerd; Dickert, Franz L

    2007-09-01

    Titanate sol-gel layers imprinted with midchain carbonic acids have proven highly useful for detecting engine oil degradation processes owing to selective incorporation of oxidised base oil components. Synthesising the material from TiCl(4) in CCl(4) and precipitating with water leads to imprinted TiO(2) nanoparticles with a diameter of 200-300 nm. Replacing the water by a 1 M ammonium hydroxide solution reduces the average particle size to 50-100 nm with retention of the interaction capabilities. Experiments with the latter solution revealed that the 100-nm particles take up substantially more analyte, indicating a size-dependent phenomenon. As the number of interaction sites within each material is the same, this cannot be a consequence of thermodynamics but must be one of accessibility. The sensor characteristic of water-precipitated particles towards engine oil degradation products shows substantially increased sensitivity and dynamic range compared with the corresponding thin films. Coating quartz crystal microbalances with such nanoparticle materials leads to engine oil degradation sensors owing to incorporation of acidic base oil oxidation products. Interaction studies over a large range of layer thicknesses revealed that both the absolute signal and the steepness of the correlation between the sensor signal and the layer height is 2 times higher for the particles.

  12. Adding a Visualization Feature to Web Search Engines: It’s Time

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Pak C.

    2008-11-11

    Since the first world wide web (WWW) search engine quietly entered our lives in 1994, the “information need” behind web searching has rapidly grown into a multi-billion dollar business that dominates the internet landscape, drives e-commerce traffic, propels global economy, and affects the lives of the whole human race. Today’s search engines are faster, smarter, and more powerful than those released just a few years ago. With the vast investment pouring into research and development by leading web technology providers and the intense emotion behind corporate slogans such as “win the web” or “take back the web,” I can’t help but ask why are we still using the very same “text-only” interface that was used 13 years ago to browse our search engine results pages (SERPs)? Why has the SERP interface technology lagged so far behind in the web evolution when the corresponding search technology has advanced so rapidly? In this article I explore some current SERP interface issues, suggest a simple but practical visual-based interface design approach, and argue why a visual approach can be a strong candidate for tomorrow’s SERP interface.

  13. Emission reduction from a diesel engine fueled by pine oil biofuel using SCR and catalytic converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallinayagam, R.; Vedharaj, S.; Yang, W. M.; Saravanan, C. G.; Lee, P. S.; Chua, K. J. E.; Chou, S. K.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we propose pine oil biofuel, a renewable fuel obtained from the resins of pine tree, as a potential substitute fuel for a diesel engine. Pine oil is endowed with enhanced physical and thermal properties such as lower viscosity and boiling point, which enhances the atomization and fuel/air mixing process. However, the lower cetane number of the pine oil hinders its direct use in diesel engine and hence, it is blended in suitable proportions with diesel so that the ignition assistance could be provided by higher cetane diesel. Since lower cetane fuels are prone to more NOX formation, SCR (selective catalyst reduction), using urea as reducing agent, along with a CC (catalytic converter) has been implemented in the exhaust pipe. From the experimental study, the BTE (brake thermal efficiency) was observed to be increased as the composition of pine oil increases in the blend, with B50 (50% pine oil and 50% diesel) showing 7.5% increase over diesel at full load condition. The major emissions such as smoke, CO, HC and NOX were reduced by 70.1%, 67.5%, 58.6% and 15.2%, respectively, than diesel. Further, the average emissions of B50 with SCR and CC assembly were observed to be reduced, signifying the positive impact of pine oil biofuel on atmospheric environment. In the combustion characteristics front, peak heat release rate and maximum in-cylinder pressure were observed to be higher with longer ignition delay.

  14. Oil Folliculitis: A Study of 200 Men Employed in an Engineering Factory*

    PubMed Central

    Finnie, J. S.

    1960-01-01

    Occupational skin disease is a problem of major importance in the engineering industry. Little is known about the occupational distribution of oil folliculitis and its varying degrees of severity. This investigation was undertaken in an attempt to discover which occupations are at risk and why. The study was conducted at an engineering factory where 200 men, whose daily work brought them in contact with mineral oils, petroleum products, or greases, were surveyed. The survey comprised a personal interview and clinical examination. The object was to determine the severity of the folliculitis and the nature of certain environmental factors which might be associated with the development of this condition. It was found that in the occupations of capstan lathe operator and automatic lathe operator there was a significantly higher proportion of men with the more severe degrees of oil folliculitis. It was also demonstrated that in these occupations men were exposed to oil to a significant degree. The apparent inefficiency of personal hygiene as a preventive measure was thought to be due to insufficient cleansing so that oil was not properly removed from the skin. This type of occupational skin disease will remain prevalent until machines can be so designed as to eliminate or reduce contamination of the workers' skin by oil. Images PMID:13822949

  15. Engineering industrial oil biosynthesis: cloning and characterization of Kennedy pathway acyltransferases from novel oilseed species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For more than twenty years, various industrial, governmental, and academic laboratories have developed and refined genetic engineering strategies aimed at manipulating lipid metabolism in plants and microbes. The goal of these projects is to produce renewable specialized oils that can effectively c...

  16. Microbial desalination cell for enhanced biodegradation of waste engine oil using a novel bacterial strain Bacillus subtilis moh3.

    PubMed

    Sabina, K; Fayidh, Mohammed A; Archana, G; Sivarajan, M; Babuskin, S; Babu, P Azhagu Saravana; Radha, K Krishnan; Sukumar, M

    2014-01-01

    Microbial desalination cell (MDC) is a bioelectrochemical system developed recently from microbial fuel cells (MFCs), for producing green energy from organic wastes along with desalination of saltwater. MDC is proved to be a better performer than MFC in terms of power output and chemical oxygen demand removal, with desalination as an additional feature. This study investigates the application potential of MDC for integrated biodegradation of waste engine oil. This study showed, for the first time, that waste engine oil could be used as an organic substrate in MDC, achieving biodegradation of engine oil along with considerable desalination and power production. Utilization of these wastes in MDC can protect the environment from waste engine oil contamination. Indigenous oil-degrading bacteria were isolated and identified from engine oil contaminated sludge. Degradation of waste engine oil by these novel isolates was studied in batch cultures and optimized the growth conditions. The same cultures when used in MDC, gave enhanced biodegradation (70.1 +/- 0.5%) along with desalination (68.3 +/- 0.6%) and power production (3.1 +/- 0.3 mW/m2). Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses were performed to characterize the degradation metabolites in the anolyte of MDC which clearly indicated the biodegradation of long chain, branched and cyclic hydrocarbons present in waste engine oil.

  17. Quantifying the Contribution of Lubrication Oil Carbon to Particulate Emissions from a Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect

    Buchholz, B A; Dibble, R W; Rich, D; Cheng, A S

    2003-01-31

    The contribution of lubrication oil to particulate matter (PM) emissions from a Cummins B5.9 Diesel engine was measured using accelerator mass spectrometry to trace carbon isotope concentrations. The engine operated at fixed medium load (285 N-m (210 ft.lbs.) at 1600 rpm) used 100% biodiesel fuel (8100) with a contemporary carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) concentration of 103 amol {sup 14}C mg C. The {sup 14}C concentration of the exhaust CO{sub 2} and PM were 102 and 99 amol {sup 14}C/mg C, respectively. The decrease in {sup 14}C content in the CO, and PM are due to the consumption of lubrication oil which is {sup 14}C-free. Approximately 4% of the carbon in PM came from lubrication oil under these operating conditions.

  18. Diesel Engine Endurance Tests Using JP-8 Fuel Blended With Used Engine Oil.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-07-01

    of used oil, and each gallon of used oil consumed as fuel is equal to one less gallon of JP-8 purchased. in FORWORD /ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This work was...CECEREN P O BOX 9005 CHAMPAIGN IL 61826-9005 DIR AMC FAST PROGRAM 10101 GRIDLEY RD STE 104 FT BELVOIR VA 22060-5818 CDR I CORPS AND FT LEWIS ATTN

  19. Recent advances in engineering propionyl-CoA metabolism for microbial production of value-added chemicals and biofuels.

    PubMed

    Srirangan, Kajan; Bruder, Mark; Akawi, Lamees; Miscevic, Dragan; Kilpatrick, Shane; Moo-Young, Murray; Chou, C Perry

    2016-08-25

    Diminishing fossil fuel reserves and mounting environmental concerns associated with petrochemical manufacturing practices have generated significant interests in developing whole-cell biocatalytic systems for the production of value-added chemicals and biofuels. Although acetyl-CoA is a common natural biogenic precursor for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites, propionyl-CoA is unpopular and non-native to most organisms. Nevertheless, with its C3-acyl moiety as a discrete building block, propionyl-CoA can serve as another key biogenic precursor to several biological products of industrial importance. As a result, engineering propionyl-CoA metabolism, particularly in genetically tractable hosts with the use of inexpensive feedstocks, has paved an avenue for novel biomanufacturing. Herein, we present a systematic review on manipulation of propionyl-CoA metabolism as well as relevant genetic and metabolic engineering strategies for microbial production of value-added chemicals and biofuels, including odd-chain alcohols and organic acids, bio(co)polymers and polyketides. [Formula: see text].

  20. Exopolysaccharide production by a genetically engineered Enterobacter cloacae strain for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanshan; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Luo, Yijing; Zhong, Weizhang; Xiao, Meng; Yi, Wenjing; Yu, Li; Fu, Pengcheng

    2011-05-01

    Microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is a petroleum biotechnology for manipulating function and/or structure of microbial environments existing in oil reservoirs for prolonged exploitation of the largest source of energy. In this study, an Enterobacter cloacae which is capable of producing water-insoluble biopolymers at 37°C and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at higher temperature. The resultant transformants, GW3-3.0, could produce exopolysaccharide up to 8.83 g l(-1) in molasses medium at 54°C. This elevated temperature was within the same temperature range as that for many oil reservoirs. The transformants had stable genetic phenotype which was genetically fingerprinted by RAPD analysis. Core flooding experiments were carried out to ensure effective controlled profile for the simulation of oil recovery. The results have demonstrated that this approach has a promising application potential in MEOR.

  1. TEM and HRTEM of Soot-in-oil particles and agglomerates from internal combustion engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fay, M. W.; La Rocca, A.; Shayler, P. J.

    2014-06-01

    Over time, the performance of lubricating oil in a diesel engine is affected by the build-up of carbon soot produced by the combustion process. TEM and HRTEM are commonly used to investigate the characteristics of individual and agglomerated particles from diesel exhaust, to understand the structure and distribution of the carbon sheets in the primary particles and the nanostructure morphology. However, high resolution imaging of soot-in-oil is more challenging, as mineral oil is a contaminant for the electron microscope and leads to instability under the electron beam. In this work we compare solvent extraction and centrifugation techniques for removing the mineral oil contaminant, and the effect on particle size distribution.

  2. Role of lubrication oil in particulate emissions from a hydrogen-powered internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Miller, Arthur L; Stipe, Christopher B; Habjan, Matthew C; Ahlstrand, Gilbert G

    2007-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that trace metals emitted by internal combustion engines are derived mainly from combustion of lubrication oil. This hypothesis was examined by investigation of the formation of particulate matter emitted from an internal combustion engine in the absence of fuel-derived soot. Emissions from a modified CAT 3304 diesel engine fueled with hydrogen gas were characterized. The role of organic carbon and metals from lubrication oil on particle formation was investigated under selected engine conditions. The engine produced exhaust aerosol with log normal-size distributions and particle concentrations between 10(5) and 10(7) cm(-3) with geometric mean diameters from 18 to 31 nm. The particles contained organic carbon, little or no elemental carbon, and a much larger percentage of metals than particles from diesel engines. The maximum total carbon emission rate was estimated at 1.08 g h(-1), which is much lower than the emission rate of the original diesel engine. There was also evidence that less volatile elements, such as iron, self-nucleated to form nanoparticles, some of which survive the coagulation process.

  3. The use of surface layer with boron in friction pairs lubricated by engine oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczypiński-Sala, W.; Lubas, J.

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to determine the influence of surface layers with boron and engine oil on the processes of friction and wear in friction pairs. The ring samples with borided surface layer cooperated under test conditions with counterparts made with CuPb30 and AlSn20 bearing alloys. During the tests, the friction pairs were lubricated with 15W/40 Lotos mineral oil and 5W/40 Lotos synthetic oil. The lubrication of friction area with Lotos mineral oil causes the reduction of the friction force, the temperature in the friction area and the wear of the bearing alloys under study, whereas the lubrication with Lotos synthetic oil reduces the changes in the geometrical structure of the cooperating friction pair elements. Lubrication of the friction area in the start-up phase of the friction pair by mineral oil causes faster stabilization of the friction conditions in the contact area than in the cause of lubrication of the friction pair by synthetic oil. The intensity of wear of the AlSn20 bearing alloy cooperating with the borided surface layer is three times smaller than the intensity of use of the CuPb30 alloy bearing.

  4. Genotoxic potential of organic extracts from particle emissions of diesel and rapeseed oil powered engines.

    PubMed

    Topinka, Jan; Milcova, Alena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Mazac, Martin; Pechout, Martin; Vojtisek-Lom, Michal

    2012-07-07

    The present study was performed to identify possible genotoxicity induced by organic extracts from particulate matter in the exhaust of two typical diesel engines run on diesel fuel and neat heated fuel-grade rapeseed oil: a Cummins ISBe4 engine tested using the World Harmonized Steady State Test Cycle (WHSC) and modified Engine Steady Cycle (ESC) and a Zetor 1505 engine tested using the Non-Road Steady State Cycle (NRSC). In addition, biodiesel B-100 (neat methylester of rapeseed oil) was tested in the Cummins engine run on the modified ESC. Diluted exhaust was sampled with high-volume samplers on Teflon coated filters. Filters were extracted with dichlormethane (DCM) and DNA adduct levels induced by extractable organic matter (EOM) in an acellular assay of calf thymus DNA coupled with (32)P-postlabeling in the presence and absence of rat liver microsomal S9 fraction were employed. Simultaneously, the chemical analysis of 12 priority PAHs in EOM, including 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) was performed. The results suggest that diesel emissions contain substantially more total PAHs than rapeseed oil emissions (for the ESC) or that these concentrations were comparable (for the WHSC and NRSC), while c-PAHs levels were comparable (for the ESC) or significantly higher (for the WHSC and NRSC) for rapeseed oil emissions. DNA adduct levels induced by diesel and rapeseed oil derived EOM were comparable, but consistently slightly higher for diesel than for rapeseed oil. Highly significant correlations were found between 12 priority PAHs concentrations and DNA adduct levels (0.980; p<0.001) and these correlations were even stronger for c-PAHs (0.990; p<0.001). Metabolic activation by the microsomal S9 fraction resulted in several fold higher genotoxicity, suggesting a major contribution of PAHs to genotoxicity. Directly acting compounds, other than c-PAHs, and not requiring S9 to exhibit DNA reactivity were also significant. Generally, DNA adduct levels were more dependent on

  5. Metabolic engineering of plant oils and waxes for use as industrial feedstocks.

    PubMed

    Vanhercke, Thomas; Wood, Craig C; Stymne, Sten; Singh, Surinder P; Green, Allan G

    2013-02-01

    Society has come to rely heavily on mineral oil for both energy and petrochemical needs. Plant lipids are uniquely suited to serve as a renewable source of high-value fatty acids for use as chemical feedstocks and as a substitute for current petrochemicals. Despite the broad variety of acyl structures encountered in nature and the cloning of many genes involved in their biosynthesis, attempts at engineering economic levels of specialty industrial fatty acids in major oilseed crops have so far met with only limited success. Much of the progress has been hampered by an incomplete knowledge of the fatty acid biosynthesis and accumulation pathways. This review covers new insights based on metabolic flux and reverse engineering studies that have changed our view of plant oil synthesis from a mostly linear process to instead an intricate network with acyl fluxes differing between plant species. These insights are leading to new strategies for high-level production of industrial fatty acids and waxes. Furthermore, progress in increasing the levels of oil and wax structures in storage and vegetative tissues has the potential to yield novel lipid production platforms. The challenge and opportunity for the next decade will be to marry these technologies when engineering current and new crops for the sustainable production of oil and wax feedstocks.

  6. The potential of Chromolaena odorata (L) to decontaminate used engine oil impacted soil under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Atagana, Harrison Ifeanyichukwu

    2011-08-01

    This study reports on the use of Chromolaena odorata (L) R.M. King and H. Robinson, an Asteraceae (compositae) and an invasive alien weed in Africa for the remediation of soil contaminated with used engine oil. Used engine oilfrom a motor service garage was used to artificially contaminate soil taken from a garden to give total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of between 1 and 40 g kg(-1). Chromolaena odorata (L), propagated by stem cuttings were transplanted into the contaminated soil and watered just enough to keep the soil at about 70% water holding capacity for 90 day. A set of control experiments containing 40 g kg(-1) used engine oil but without plants was set up. All experiments were set up in triplicates. Although the plants in the experiments containing higher than 30 g kg(-1) used engine oil showed relatively slower growth (fewer branches and leaves, and shorter in height) compared to those containing lower concentrations, the plants in all the experiments continued to grow until the end of the 90 day period. Residual TPH after 90 days showed that between 21 and 100% of oil was lost from the planted soil while only 11.5% was lost in the control, which did not contain plants during the same period. Analysis of plant tissues showed that both shoot and root tissues contained detectable levels of TPH and selected PAHs were also detectable. Biomass accumulation by Chromolaena odorata was affected adversely by concentrations of oil higher than 20 g kg(-1). Results of germination rates and germination energy measurements showed that Chromolaena odorata was able to reduce the toxicity of the contaminated soil after 90 days as compared to soils containing freshly contaminated soiL

  7. High-speed Oil Engines for Vehicles. Part II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hausfelder, Ludwig

    1927-01-01

    Further progress toward the satisfactory solution of the difficult problem of the distribution and atomization of the injected fuel was made by extensive experimentation with various fuel valves, nozzles, and atomizing devices. Valuable information was also obtained through numerous experimental researches on the combustion of oils and the manner of introducing the combustion air into the cylinder, as well as on the physical processes of atomization, the determination of the size of drops, etc. These researches led to the conclusion that it is possible, even without producing great turbulence in the combustion chamber and at moderate pump pressure, if the degree of atomization and the penetrative power of the fuel jet are adapted to the shape of the combustion chamber and to the dimensions of the cylinder.

  8. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  9. Feasibility of Field Test Kits for Assessing In-Service Condition of Army Engine Oils.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-03-01

    spark-ignition engine service, and shotild not be used for diesel and/or synthetic motor oils possibly because the diesel oil contains soot . Also, a...NVKINII$i \\21110 ~ N LiO.\\ Ams4 iiiNNPNI.N it,182i 0I14 4iII iKIN%IPHOIbSI \\ \\41)1 I 11(.11 NI I N I)K4.’M I I \\I I 4OMiNINI H I’ N K\\IN I INk Nt

  10. Preliminary Analysis for an Optimized Oil-Free Rotorcraft Engine Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.; Bruckner, Robert J.; DellaCorte, Christopher; Radil, Kevin C.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in gas foil bearing technology have led to numerous advanced high-speed rotating system concepts, many of which have become either commercial products or experimental test articles. Examples include Oil-Free microturbines, motors, generators and turbochargers. The driving forces for integrating gas foil bearings into these high-speed systems are the benefits promised by removing the oil lubrication system. Elimination of the oil system leads to reduced emissions, increased reliability, and decreased maintenance costs. Another benefit is reduced power plant weight. For rotorcraft applications, this would be a major advantage, as every pound removed from the propulsion system results in a payload benefit. Implementing foil gas bearings throughout a rotorcraft gas turbine engine is an important long-term goal that requires overcoming numerous technological hurdles. Adequate thrust bearing load capacity and potentially large gearbox applied radial loads are among them. However, by replacing the turbine end, or hot section, rolling element bearing with a gas foil bearing many of the above benefits can be realized. To this end, engine manufacturers are beginning to explore the possibilities of hot section gas foil bearings in propulsion engines. This paper presents a logical follow-on activity by analyzing a conceptual rotorcraft engine to determine the feasibility of a foil bearing supported core. Using a combination of rotordynamic analyses and a load capacity model, it is shown to be reasonable to consider a gas foil bearing core section.

  11. Effect of water on overbased sulfonate engine oil additives.

    PubMed

    Tavacoli, J W; Dowding, P J; Steytler, D C; Barnes, D J; Routh, A F

    2008-04-15

    The presence and effect of water on calcium carbonate nanoparticles used in engine additives, stabilized with a sulfonate surfactant, is investigated using small-angle neutron scattering, dynamic light scattering, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and rheometry. These techniques provide complementary data that suggests the formation of a layer of water around the core of the particles ensuring continued colloidal stability yet increasing the dispersion viscosity. Through the use of small-angle neutron scattering, the dimensions of this layer have been quantified to effectively one or two water molecules in thickness. The lack of a significant electrostatic repulsion is evidence that the water layer is insufficient to cause major dissociation of surface ions.

  12. Preliminary Investigation for Engine Performance by Using Tire-Derived Pyrolysis Oil-Diesel Blended Fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rofiqul, Islam M.; Haniu, Hiroyuki; Alam, Beg R.; Takai, Kazunori

    In the first phase of the present study, the pyrolysis oil derived from light automotive tire waste has been characterized including fuel properties, elemental analyses, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, GC-MS and distillation. The studies on the oil show that it can be used as liquid fuel with a gross calorific value (GCV) of 42.00 MJ/kg and empirical formula of CH1.27O0.025N0.006. In the second phase of the investigation, the performance of a diesel engine was studied blending the pyrolysis oil with diesel fuel in different ratios. The experimental results show that the bsfc of pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels slightly increases and hence the brake thermal efficiency decreases compared to those of neat diesel. The pyrolysis oil-diesel blends show lower carbon monoxide (CO) emission but higher oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions than those of neat diesel. However, NOx emissions with pyrolysis oil-diesel blended fuels reduced when EGR was applied.

  13. Engineering vitamin E content: from Arabidopsis mutant to soy oil.

    PubMed

    Van Eenennaam, Alison L; Lincoln, Kim; Durrett, Timothy P; Valentin, Henry E; Shewmaker, Christine K; Thorne, Greg M; Jiang, Jian; Baszis, Susan R; Levering, Charlene K; Aasen, Eric D; Hao, Ming; Stein, Joshua C; Norris, Susan R; Last, Robert L

    2003-12-01

    We report the identification and biotechnological utility of a plant gene encoding the tocopherol (vitamin E) biosynthetic enzyme 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase. This gene was identified by map-based cloning of the Arabidopsis mutation vitamin E pathway gene3-1 (vte3-1), which causes increased accumulation of delta-tocopherol and decreased gamma-tocopherol in the seed. Enzyme assays of recombinant protein supported the hypothesis that At-VTE3 encodes a 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol methyltransferase. Seed-specific expression of At-VTE3 in transgenic soybean reduced seed delta-tocopherol from 20 to 2%. These results confirm that At-VTE3 protein catalyzes the methylation of 2-methyl-6-phytylbenzoquinol in planta and show the utility of this gene in altering soybean tocopherol composition. When At-VTE3 was coexpressed with At-VTE4 (gamma-tocopherol methyltransferase) in soybean, the seed accumulated to >95% alpha-tocopherol, a dramatic change from the normal 10%, resulting in a greater than eightfold increase of alpha-tocopherol and an up to fivefold increase in seed vitamin E activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of a gene identified in Arabidopsis to alter the tocopherol composition of commercial seed oils, a result with both nutritional and food quality implications.

  14. A study on the performance and emission characteristics of esterified pinnai oil tested in VCR engine.

    PubMed

    Ashok Kumar, T; Chandramouli, R; Mohanraj, T

    2015-11-01

    Biodiesel is a clean renewable fuel derived from vegetable oils and animal fats. It is biodegradable, oxygenated, non toxic and free from sulfur and aromatics. The biodiesel prepared from pinnai oil undergoes acid esterification followed by alkaline transesterification process. The fatty acid methyl esters components were identified using gas chromatography and compared with the standard properties. The properties of biodiesel are comparable with diesel. The yield of the biodiesel production depends upon the process parameters such as reaction temperature, pH, time duration and amount of catalyst. The yield of biodiesel by transesterification process was 73% at 55°C. This fuel was tested in a variable compression ratio engine with blend ratios of B10 and B20. During the test runs the compression ratio of the engine was varied from 15:1 to 18:1 and the torque is adjusted from zero to maximum value of 22Nm. The performance characteristics such as the brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption and exhaust gas temperature of the engine are analyzed. The combustion characteristics of biodiesel like ignition delay, combustion duration and maximum gas temperature and the emission characteristics are also analyzed. The performance characteristics, combustion characteristics and engine emission are effective in the variable compression ratio engine with biodiesel and it is compared with diesel.

  15. Study on production of biodiesel from Jatropha oil and the performance and emission of a diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nor, N. F. M.; Hafidzal, M. H. M.; Shamsuddin, S. A.; Ismail, M. S.; Hashim, A. H.

    2015-05-01

    The use of nonedible oil as a feedstock is needed to replace edible oil as an alternative fuel for diesel engine. This nonedible oils in diesel engine however leads to low performance and higher emission due to its high viscosity. The characteristics of the fuel can be improved through transesterification process. The yield of biodiesel from Jatropha oil using potassium hydroxide catalyst concentration of 1%, reaction temperature 60°C, reaction time 40 minutes and molar ratio methanol to oil 6:1 was 70.1% from the lab scale. The experimental study on the performances and emissions of a diesel engine is carried out using the Jatropha biodiesel produced from the transesterification process and compared with pure diesel. Results show that B20 has closer performance to diesel and lower emission compared to B5 and diesel in terms of CO2 and HC.

  16. Efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents for oil removal from engine washing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Guilharduci, Viviane Vasques da Silva; Martelli, Patrícia Benedini; Gorgulho, Honória de Fátima

    2017-01-01

    This work evaluates the efficiency of sugarcane bagasse-based sorbents in the sorption of oil from engine washing wastewater. The sorbents were obtained from sugarcane bagasse in the natural form (SB-N) and modified with either acetic anhydride (SB-Acet) or 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (SB-APTS). The results showed that the sorption capacity of these materials decreased in the following order: SB-APTS > SB-N > SB-Acet. The superior oil sorption capacity observed for SB-APTS was attributed to the polar amino end groups in the silane structure, which acted to increase the hydrophilic character of the fibers. However, all the sorbents obtained in this study were able to clean a real sample of wastewater from engine washing, leading to significant reductions in suspended matter, sediment, anionic surfactants, and turbidity.

  17. Oil consumption measurements of a production engine using the sulfur-trace method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Verlyn Royal

    Controlling the oil consumption of diesel engines is important for customer satisfaction. Existing oil consumption measurement methods are adequate; however, improved methods offer the possibility of faster and more comprehensive results. The sulfur-trace method is an example. Major objectives of this investigation were to adopt a sulfur-trace analyzer for oil consumption measurements, to improve the oil consumption measurement process, and to demonstrate application of the sulfur-trace instrument to individual cylinder sampling. To achieve these objectives, four research questions were applied: (1) What procedures and attention to detail are required? (2) how can results be reported to maximize data interpretation? (3) how do the advantages of the sulfur-trace method compare with the drain-and-weigh method? and (4) what is recommended as an optimized test method? Addressing Research Question 1 required careful attention to numerous parts of the sulfur-trace instrument. These parts included: (a) insulating and heating the exhaust sample lines, (b) ensuring continuous and proper operation of the ozone generator, (c) controlling the precise flow rate of the sample, and (d) removing excess water from the sample. Addressing Research Question 2 required a strip chart recorder, a spreadsheet template, and a chart template to organize, record, and report data. The strip chart recorder provided a backup analog record and a means to document daily activity. Raw data were entered into a spreadsheet for subsequent analyses required for chart reporting. Addressing Research Question 3 included a comparison of sulfur-trace vs. drain-and-weigh method durations and capabilities. After optimization, the same oil consumption results were collected in 10 minutes using the sulfur-trace method as compared with the 100 hours required for the drain-and-weigh method. More importantly, the sulfur-trace method may be used to collect oil consumption data from each individual cylinder, which

  18. Direct Observation of Oil Consumption Mechanisms in a Production Spark Ignition Engine Using Fluorescence Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-05-01

    investigated for different piston ring end-gap configurations. A radiotracer was used to perform direct measurement of the oil consumption while Laser- induced ...and Instrumentation . . . . 43 3.1 General .......... ................... .. 43 3.2 Engine Description ....... ............. .. 43 3.3 Laser Induced ...Duty Diesels h" Non-dimensionalized Ah. k Proportionality constant for surface tension 11 (NI [mK]). Kpa kilo-Pascal LIF Laser Induced Fluorescence

  19. Biorefining of by-product streams from sunflower-based biodiesel production plants for integrated synthesis of microbial oil and value-added co-products.

    PubMed

    Leiva-Candia, D E; Tsakona, S; Kopsahelis, N; García, I L; Papanikolaou, S; Dorado, M P; Koutinas, A A

    2015-08-01

    This study focuses on the valorisation of crude glycerol and sunflower meal (SFM) from conventional biodiesel production plants for the separation of value-added co-products (antioxidant-rich extracts and protein isolate) and for enhancing biodiesel production through microbial oil synthesis. Microbial oil production was evaluated using three oleaginous yeast strains (Rhodosporidium toruloides, Lipomyces starkeyi and Cryptococcus curvatus) cultivated on crude glycerol and nutrient-rich hydrolysates derived from either whole SFM or SFM fractions that remained after separation of value-added co-products. Fed-batch bioreactor cultures with R. toruloides led to the production of 37.4gL(-1) of total dry weight with a microbial oil content of 51.3% (ww(-1)) when a biorefinery concept based on SFM fractionation was employed. The estimated biodiesel properties conformed with the limits set by the EN 14214 and ASTM D 6751 standards. The estimated cold filter plugging point (7.3-8.6°C) of the lipids produced by R. toruloides is closer to that of biodiesel derived from palm oil.

  20. Sensitivity and Antioxidant Response of Chlorella sp. MM3 to Used Engine Oil and Its Water Accommodated Fraction.

    PubMed

    Ramadass, Kavitha; Megharaj, Mallavarapu; Venkateswarlu, Kadiyala; Naidu, Ravi

    2016-07-01

    We exposed the microalgal strain, Chlorella sp. MM3, to unused or used engine oil, or their water accommodated fractions (WAFs) to determine growth inhibition and response of antioxidant enzymes. Oil type and oil concentration greatly affected the microalgal growth. Used oil at 0.04 % (0.4 g L(-1)) resulted in 50 % inhibition in algal growth, measured in terms of chlorophyll-a, while the corresponding concentration of unused oil was nontoxic. Similarly, used oil WAF showed significant toxicity to the algal growth at 10 % level, whereas WAF from unused oil was nontoxic even at 100 % concentration. Peroxidase enzyme in the microalga significantly increased with used oil at concentrations above 0.04 g L(-1) whereas the induction of superoxide dismutase and catalase was apparent only at 0.06 g L(-1). Activities of the antioxidant enzymes increased significantly when the microalga was exposed to 75 and 100 % WAF obtained from used oil. The used oil toxicity on microalga could be due to the presence of toxic soluble mono- and polyaromatic compounds, heavy metals, and other compounds attained by the oil during its use in the motor engines.

  1. Tritium Method Oil Consumption and its Relation to Oil Film Thickness in a Production Diesel Engine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    Sealed Power Corporation. 1988. 11. Manual for Meriam Laminar Flow Elements, Meriam Instruments. 12. Heywood. J.B., Internal Combustion Engine...Speed Sensor Minarik, Visi-Tach Load Cell Eaton, Model #3169 Laminar Air Flow Element Meriam Instr., Model 50MW20-2 Liquid Scintillation Counter Packard

  2. Value-added oil and animal feed production from corn-ethanol stillage using the oleaginous fungus Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Debjani; Rasmussen, Mary L; Chand, Priyanka; Chintareddy, Venkat Reddy; Yao, Linxing; Grewell, David; Verkade, John G; Wang, Tong; van Leeuwen, J Hans

    2012-03-01

    This study highlights the potential of oleaginous fungus, Mucor circinelloides in adsorbing/assimilating oil and nutrients in thin stillage (TS), and producing lipid and protein-rich fungal biomass. Fungal cultivation on TS for 2 days in a 6-L airlift bioreactor, resulted in a 92% increase in oil yield from TS, and 20 g/L of fungal biomass (dry) with a lipid content of 46% (g of oil per 100g dry biomass). Reduction in suspended solids and soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) in TS were 95% and 89%, respectively. The polyunsaturated fatty acids in fungal oil were 52% of total lipids. Fungal cells grown on Yeast Malt (YM) broth had a higher concentration of γ-linolenic acid (17 wt.%) than those grown on TS (1.4 wt.%). Supplementing TS with crude glycerol (10%, v/v) during the stationary growth phase led to a further 32% increase (from 46% to 61%) in cellular oil content.

  3. Distinguishing Gasoline Engine Oils of Different Viscosities Using Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adbul-Munaim, Ali Mazin; Reuter, Marco; Koch, Martin; Watson, Dennis G.

    2015-07-01

    Terahertz-time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) in the range of 0.5-2.0 THz was evaluated for distinguishing among gasoline engine oils of three different grades (SAE 5W-20, 10W-40, and 20W-50) from the same manufacturer. Absorption coefficient showed limited potential and only distinguished ( p < 0.05) the 20W-50 grade from the other two grades in the 1.7-2.0-THz range. Refractive index data demonstrated relatively flat and consistently spaced curves for the three oil grades. ANOVA results confirmed a highly significant difference ( p < 0.0001) in refractive index among each of the three oils across the 0.5-2.0-THz range. Linear regression was applied to refractive index data at 0.25-THz intervals from 0.5 to 2.0 THz to predict kinematic viscosity. All seven linear regression models, intercepts, and refractive index coefficients were highly significant ( p < 0.0001). All models had a similar fit with R 2 ranging from 0.9773 to 0.9827 and RMSE ranging from 6.33 to 7.75. The refractive indices at 1.25 THz produced the best fit. The refractive indices of these oil samples were promising for identification and distinction of oil grades.

  4. Sealing device for an oil pan adapter in an internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Y.

    1987-06-02

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, an oil pan under the cylinder block, and a fly-wheel housing mounted to one end of the cylinder block. The improvement comprises: an oil pan adapter mounted between the cylinder block and the oil pan and having an end face held against the fly-wheel housing; there being a generally U shaped groove in the end face of the oil pan adapter, the U shaped groove including a pair of vertical limbs each having a horizontal limb joined to its top end. Each horizontal limb is open both toward the cylinder block and the fly-wheel housing; and a generally U shaped sealing strip including a pair of vertical limbs each having a horizontal limb joined to its top end. The sealing strip is engaged in the U shaped groove in the end face of the oil pan adapter and fluid is tightly held against the fly-wheel housing and the cylinder block.

  5. Aquatic model for engine oil degradation by rhamnolipid producing Nocardiopsis VITSISB.

    PubMed

    Roy, Suki; Chandni, Shreta; Das, Ishita; Karthik, Loganathan; Kumar, Gaurav; Bhaskara Rao, Kokati Venkata

    2015-04-01

    The present study was focused on isolation, screening, characterization and application of biosurfactant producing marine actinobacteria. Twenty actinobacteria were isolated from marine water sample and were primarily screened for biosurfactant production using hemolytic activity method. Among the 20 isolates, six showed positive result for hemolytic activity and those were taken for further secondary screening tests such as oil collapse method, oil spreading method and emulsification method. From the results of secondary screening analysis, two isolates (SIS-3 and SIS-20) were selected and further used to carry out biosurfactant characterization test such as pH, density, surface tension and viscosity determination. Comparing biosurfactant characterization results, SIS-3 was chosen for further analysis and application. FT-IR and GC-MS were carried out for analysis of biosurfactant from isolate SIS-3 and the compound detected was rhamnolipid. The isolate (SIS-3) was identified as Nocardiopsis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and named as 'Nocardiopsis VITSISB' (KC958579) which was further applied for immobilizing whole cells for engine oil degradation by constructing an aquatic model and using natural products such as soybean meal, sugarcane juice as nutrient source. The oil was efficiently degraded by rhamnolipid producing Nocardiopsis VITSISB (KC958579) within 25 days which indicated that the strain can act as a natural candidate for the bioremediation of oil spill in ocean.

  6. Identification of lubrication oil in the particulate matter emissions from engine exhaust of in-service commercial aircraft.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhong; Herndon, Scott C; Ziemba, Luke D; Timko, Michael T; Liscinsky, David S; Anderson, Bruce E; Miake-Lye, Richard C

    2012-09-04

    Lubrication oil was identified in the organic particulate matter (PM) emissions of engine exhaust plumes from in-service commercial aircraft at Chicago Midway Airport (MDW) and O'Hare International Airport (ORD). This is the first field study focused on aircraft lubrication oil emissions, and all of the observed plumes described in this work were due to near-idle engine operations. The identification was carried out with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF AMS) via a collaborative laboratory and field investigation. A characteristic mass marker of lubrication oil, I(85)/I(71), the ratio of ion fragment intensity between m/z = 85 and 71, was used to distinguish lubrication oil from jet engine combustion products. This AMS marker was based on ion fragmentation patterns measured using electron impact ionization for two brands of widely used lubrication oil in a laboratory study. The AMS measurements of exhaust plumes from commercial aircraft in this airport field study reveal that lubrication oil is commonly present in organic PM emissions that are associated with emitted soot particles, unlike the purely oil droplets observed at the lubrication system vent. The characteristic oil marker, I(85)/I(71), was applied to quantitatively determine the contribution from lubrication oil in measured aircraft plumes, which ranges from 5% to 100%.

  7. 77 FR 30881 - Airworthiness Directives; Continental Motors, Inc. (CMI) Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...-13] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Continental Motors, Inc. (CMI) Reciprocating Engines... are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Continental Motors, Inc. (CMI... starter adapter gear shaft failure which could cause oil scavenge pump failure and engine...

  8. A low cost mid-infrared sensor for on line contamination monitoring of lubricating oils in marine engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Kullmann, F.; Holzki, M.; Sigloch, S.; Klotzbuecher, T.; Spiesen, J.; Tommingas, T.; Weismann, P.; Kimber, G.

    2010-04-01

    The chemical and physical condition of oils in marine engines must be monitored to ensure optimum performance of the engine and to avoid damage by degraded oil not adequately lubricating the engine. Routine monitoring requires expensive laboratory testing and highly skilled analysts. This work describes the adaptation and implementation of a mid infrared (MIR) sensor module for continued oil condition monitoring in two-stroke and four-stroke diesel engines. The developed sensor module will help to reduce costs in oil analysis by eliminating the need to collect and send samples to a laboratory for analysis. The online MIR-Sensor module measures the contamination of oil with water, soot, as well as the degradation indicated by the TBN (Total Base Number) value. For the analysis of water, TBN, and soot in marine engine oils, four spectral regions of interest have been identified. The optical absorption in these bands correlating with the contaminations is measured simultaneously by using a four-field thermopile detector, combined with appropriate bandpass filters. Recording of the MIR-absorption was performed in a transmission mode using a flow-through cell with appropriate path length. Since in this case no spectrometer is required, the sensor including the light source, the flowthrough- cell, and the detector can be realised at low cost and in a very compact manner. The optical configuration of the sensor with minimal component number and signal intensity optimisation at the four-field detector was implemented by using non-sequential ray tracing simulation. The used calibration model was robust enough to predict accurately the value for soot, water, and TBN concentration for two-stroke and four-stroke engine oils. The sensor device is designed for direct installation on the host engine or machine and, therefore, becoming an integral part of the lubrication system. It can also be used as a portable stand-alone system for machine fluid analysis in the field.

  9. Heavy Duty Diesel Exhaust Particles during Engine Motoring Formed by Lube Oil Consumption.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Panu; Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Murtonen, Timo; Wihersaari, Hugo; Simonen, Pauli; Mylläri, Fanni; Nylund, Nils-Olof; Keskinen, Jorma; Rönkkö, Topi

    2016-11-15

    This study reports high numbers of exhaust emissions particles during engine motoring. Such particles were observed in the exhaust of two heavy duty vehicles with no diesel particle filter (DPF), driven on speed ramp tests and transient cycles. A significant fraction of these particles was nonvolatile in nature. The number-weighted size distribution peak was below 10 nm when a thermodenuder was used to remove semivolatile material, growing up to 40 nm after semivolatile species condensation. These particles were found to contribute to 9-13% of total particle number emitted over a complete driving cycle. Engine motoring particles originated from lube oil and evidence suggests that these are of heavy organic or organometallic material. Particles of similar characteristics have been observed in the core particle mode during normal fired engine operation. Their size and chemical character has implications primarily on the environmental toxicity of non-DPF diesel and, secondarily, on the performance of catalytic devices and DPFs. Lube oil formulation measures can be taken to reduce the emission of such particles.

  10. Characterization and effect of using Mahua oil biodiesel as fuel in compression ignition engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapilan, N.; Ashok Babu, T. P.; Reddy, R. P.

    2009-12-01

    There is an increasing interest in India, to search for suitable alternative fuels that are environment friendly. This led to the choice of Mahua Oil (MO) as one of the main alternative fuels to diesel. In this investigation, Mahua Oil Biodiesel (MOB) and its blend with diesel were used as fuel in a single cylinder, direct injection and compression ignition engine. The MOB was prepared from MO by transesterification using methanol and potassium hydroxide. The fuel properties of MOB are close to the diesel and confirm to the ASTM standards. From the engine test analysis, it was observed that the MOB, B5 and B20 blend results in lower CO, HC and smoke emissions as compared to diesel. But the B5 and B20 blends results in higher efficiency as compared to MOB. Hence MOB or blends of MOB and diesel (B5 or B20) can be used as a substitute for diesel in diesel engines used in transportation as well as in the agriculture sector.

  11. 77 FR 12450 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... one-time inspection of the oil system for leaks and a torque check of the oil pump attachment bolts, and if leaks are detected, performing a one-time inspection of the oil pump and engine valve train, on... had the oil pump attachment bolts torqued to specification. We are issuing this AD to prevent...

  12. Effect of storage and packaging on fatty acid composition and oxidation in dry fermented sausages made with added olive oil and antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-06-01

    Dry fermented sausages produced by a partial substitution of pork backfat with pre-emulsified olive oil were manufactured and stored (2 and 5 months) using different packaging conditions (aerobic/vacuum piece/vacuum slices) in order to evaluate the intensity of the oxidation process. Also the effect of the addition of butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylhydroxyanisole (BHA) to one of the modified batches was studied. Addition of olive oil, especially with antioxidants, was more effective than using vacuum storing methods in avoiding lipid oxidation during storage. After 5 months of storage at 4 °C, the combination of the increase in oleic acid and the preservation of PUFA by the antioxidant activity of the olive oil emulsion and antioxidants (when added), lead to better MUFA+PUFA/SFA ratios in olive oil containing sausages (1.90-1.98 g/100 g fatty acids) and particularly in antioxidants containing sausages (2.02-2.16 g/100 g) than in control ones (1.72 g/100 g). Vacuum packaging of the piece was the best method to minimise formation of lipid oxidation volatile compounds.

  13. Performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil.

    PubMed

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5-17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7-33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6-52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NO X ) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10-39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine).

  14. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Diesel B3 Mixed with Crude Palm Oil

    PubMed Central

    Namliwan, Nattapong; Wongwuttanasatian, Tanakorn

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the performance of diesel engine using diesel B3 mixed with crude palm oil in ratios of 95 : 5, 90 : 10, and 85 : 15, respectively, and to compare the results with diesel B3. According to the tests, they showed that the physical properties of the mixed fuel in the ratio of 95 : 5 were closest to those of diesel B3. The performance of the diesel engine that used mixed fuels had 5–17% lower torque and power than that of diesel B3. The specific fuel consumption of mixed fuels was 7–33% higher than using diesel B3. The components of gas emissions by using mixed fuel had 1.6–52% fewer amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and oxygen (O2) than those of diesel B3. On the other hand, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrogen oxides (NOX) emissions when using mixed fuels were 10–39% higher than diesel B3. By comparing the physical properties, the performance of the engine, and the amount of gas emissions of mixed fuel, we found out that the 95 : 5 ratio by volume was a suitable ratio for agricultural diesel engine (low-speed diesel engine). PMID:24688402

  15. Particle-Size Analysis of Engine Oils. A Supplement to Spectrometric Analysis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    Applying the 46 Beer - Lambert law, we write I/I o = 1-0.35 = 0.65 = 0.925 exp (-kLc) for the diluted sample. The factor 0.925 in this expression is the...entirely to reflection at the cell windows) contained in a conventional spectrophotometer cell of 5 cm path length. The engine oil was pipetted in to...additional period of sampling. How long? Agaiii, one-time analysis affords no answer. Our basic premise is that an X/Y-defective sample is in fact a genuine

  16. Out-of-plane piezoelectric microresonator and oscillator circuit for monitoring engine oil contamination with diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toledo, J.; Manzaneque, T.; Ruiz-Díez, V.; Jiménez-Márquez, F.; Kucera, M.; Pfusterschmied, G.; Wistrela, E.; Schmid, U.; Sánchez-Rojas, J. L.

    2015-05-01

    Real-time monitoring of the physical properties of liquids is an important subject in the automotive industry. Contamination of lubricating oil by diesel soot has a significant impact on engine wear. Resonant microstructures are regarded to be a precise and compact solution for tracking the viscosity and density of lubricant oils. Since the measurement of pure shear forces do not allow an independent determination of the density and viscosity, two out-of-plane modes for the monitoring of oil dilution with diesel have been selected. The first one (12-mode) is working at 51 kHz and the second mode (14-mode) at 340 kHz. Two parameters were measured: the quality factor and the resonance frequency from which the viscosity and density of the fluids under test can be determined, requiring only a small amount of test liquid. A PLL-based oscillator circuit was implemented based on each resonator. Our results demonstrate the performance of the resonator in oils with viscosity up to 90 mPa·s. The quality factor measured at 25°C was 7 for the 12-mode and 19 for the 14-mode. A better resolution in density and viscosity was obtained for the 14-mode, showing a resolution of 3.92·10-5 g/ml for the density and 1.27·10-1 mPa·s for the viscosity, in pure lubricant oil SAE 0W30. An alternative tracking system, based on a discrete oscillator circuit, was tested with the same resonator, showing a comparable stability and supporting our approach.

  17. Human factors engineering in oil and gas--a review of industry guidance.

    PubMed

    Robb, Martin; Miller, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Oil and gas exploration and production activities are carried out in hazardous environments in many parts of the world. Recent events in the Gulf of Mexico highlight those risks and underline the importance of considering human factors during facility design. Ergonomic factors such as machinery design, facility and accommodation layout and the organization of work activities have been systematically considered over the past twenty years on a limited number of offshore facility design projects to a) minimize the occupational risks to personnel, b) support operations and maintenance tasks and c) improve personnel wellbeing. During this period, several regulators and industry bodies such as the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS), the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM), the UK's Health and Safety Executive (HSE), Oil and Gas Producers (OGP), and Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) have developed specific HFE design standards and guidance documents for the application of Human Factors Engineering (HFE) to the design and operation of Oil and Gas projects. However, despite the existence of these guidance and recommended design practise documents, and documented proof of their value in enhancing crew safety and efficiency, HFE is still not well understood across the industry and application across projects is inconsistent. This paper summarizes the key Oil and Gas industry bodies' HFE guidance documents, identifies recurring themes and current trends in the use of these standards, provides examples of where and how these HFE standards have been used on past major offshore facility design projects, and suggests criteria for selecting the appropriate HFE strategy and tasks for future major oil and gas projects. It also provides a short history of the application of HFE to the offshore industry, beginning with the use of ASTM F 1166 to a major operator's Deepwater Gulf of Mexico facility in 1990 and the application of HFE to diverse world regions. This

  18. Analysis of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content of petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and determination of DNA adducts in topically treated mice by 32P-postlabelling.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Jacob, J; Grimmer, G; Phillips, D H

    1990-11-01

    Engine lubricating oils are known to accumulate carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during engine running. Oils from nine petrol-powered and 11 diesel-powered vehicles, in addition to samples of unused oil, were analysed for PAH content and ability to form DNA adducts when applied topically to mouse skin. The levels of 19 PAHs, determined by GC, were in total, approximately 22 times higher in used oils from petrol engines than in oils from diesel engines. Male Parkes mice were treated with 50 microliters of oil daily for 4 days before they were killed and DNA isolated from skin and lung tissue. DNA samples were analysed by nuclease P1-enhanced 32P-postlabelling. Used oils from both diesel and petrol engines showed several adduct spots on PEI-cellulose plates at total adduct levels of up to 0.57 fmol/microgram DNA [approximately 60 times greater than in experiments with samples of unused oil in which adduct levels (0.01-0.02 fmol adducts/microgram DNA) were close to the limit of detection]. Higher adduct levels were generally formed by petrol engine oils than by diesel engine oils. Lung DNA contained similar total adduct levels to those in skin although the adduct maps were less complex. Total adduct levels correlated with extent of oil use in the engine, the total PAH concentration in oils and with the concentrations of certain individual PAHs present in the oils. An adduct spot that co-eluted with that of the major benzo[a]pyrene-DNA adduct accounted for 9-26% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and approximately 8% of the adducts in lung DNA, of mice treated with petrol engine oils. A major, and as yet unidentified, adduct spot comprised up to 30% of the total adducts in skin DNA, and up to 89% of the total adducts in lung DNA, of these animals.

  19. Bio-derived Fuel Blend Dilution of Marine Engine Oil and Imapct on Friction and Wear Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, Oyelayo O.; Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta; Fenske, George R.; Corlett, John; Murphy, Chris; Przesmitzki, Steve

    2016-04-01

    To reduce the amount of petroleum-derived fuel used in vehicles and vessels powered by internal combustion engines, the addition of bio-derived fuel extenders is a common practice. Ethanol is perhaps the most common bio-derived fuel used for blending, and butanol is being evaluated as a promising alternative. The present study determined the fuel dilution rate of three lubricating oils (E0, E10, and i-B16) in a marine engine operating in on-water conditions with a start-and-stop cycle protocol. The level of fuel dilution increased with the number of cycles for all three fuels. The most dilution was observed with i-B16 fuel, and the least with E10 fuel. In all cases, fuel dilution substantially reduced the oil viscosity. The impacts of fuel dilution and the consequent viscosity reduction on the lubricating capability of the engine oil in terms of friction, wear, and scuffing prevention were evaluated by four different tests protocols. Although the fuel dilution of the engine oil had minimal effect on friction, because the test conditions were under the boundary lubrication regime, significant effects were observed on wear in many cases. Fuel dilution also was observed to reduce the load-carrying capacity of the engine oils in terms of scuffing load reduction.

  20. Influence of vegetable oil based alternate fuels on residue deposits and components wear in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbocharged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during a 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance test. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. This investigation employed an analysis of variance to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings and wear of engine parts for all tested fuels. The paper deals with carbon and lacquer formation and its effect on long-term engine performance as experienced during the operation with the alternate fuels. Significantly heavier deposits than for the diesel fuel were observed for the microemulsion and 25-75 sunflower oil blend. particularly on the exhaust and intake valve stems, on the piston lands, and in the piston grooves. In all tests engine wear was not significant. The final dimensions of the measured elements did not exceed the manufacturer's initial parts specifications.

  1. Laboratory endurance test of a sunflower oil blend in a diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper compares the effects of using a 25 to 75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel in a diesel engine as compared to a baseline test on diesel fuel. There were no significant problems with engine operation during the baseline test. However, problems were experienced while using the blended fuel. The major problems were (1) abnormal buildup on the injection nozzle tips, (2) injector needle sticking, (3) secondary injection, (4) carbon buildup in the intake ports, (5) carbon deposits on the exhaust valve stems, (6) carbon filling of the compression ring grooves, and (7) abnormal lacquer and varnish buildup on the third piston land. 6 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Feasibility of Using Full Synthetic Low Viscosity Engine Oil at High Ambient Temperatures in U.S. Army Engines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    Average Std. Dev. Average Std. Dev. Engine Speed RPM 3200 1.1 900 5.4 Torque ft*lb 283.6 4.7 3.4 0.8 Fuel Flow lb/hr 75.7 0.9 3.9 0.1 Power bhp 172.8...2.9 0.6 0.1 BSFC lb/ bhp *hr 0.438 0.005 6.879 1.664 Temperatures: Coolant In °F 192.0 0.8 93.6 1.1 Coolant Out °F 205.9 0.7 99.8 0.9 Oil Sump °F 263.0...Average Std. Dev. Average Std. Dev. Engine Speed RPM 2400.0 1.0 750.2 6.2 Torque* ft*lb 618.0 21.7 4.3 10.1 Fuel Flow lb/hr 101.0 10.5 2.8 0.8 Power* bhp

  3. Bioactive compounds with added value prepared from terpenes contained in solid wastes from the olive oil industry.

    PubMed

    Parra, Andres; Lopez, Pilar E; Garcia-Granados, Andres

    2010-02-01

    Starting from solid wastes from two-phase olive-oil extraction, the pentacyclic triterpenes oleanolic acid and maslinic acid were isolated. These natural compounds were transformed into methyl olean-12-en-28-oate (5), which then was transformed into several seco-C-ring triterpene compounds by chemical and photolytic modifications. The triene seco-products were fragmented through several oxidative procedures to produce, simultaneously, cis- and trans-decalin derivatives, both potential synthons for bioactive compounds. The chemical behavior of the isolated fragments was investigated, and a suitable approach to several low-molecular-weight terpenes was performed. These are interesting processes for the value-addition to solid waste from the olive-oil industry.

  4. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

  5. A novel route to utilize waste engine oil by blending it with water and coal.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kang; Cao, Qing; Jin, Li'e; Li, Ping; Zhang, Xiaohua

    2017-03-01

    Coal-oil-water slurry (COWS) synfuel can be prepared successfully by waste engine oil (WEO), water and coal in the existence of Tween 80 and SL. The effects of coal type, coal particle size distribution, and WEO blending proportion (α) on the slurryability of COWS were investigated, and certain essential properties, such as slurryability, rheology, thixotropy, and stability of COWS were examined. The results show that the maximum coal content of COWS decreases with an increment in α, ranging from 60wt.% at α=0 to 48wt.% at α=15wt.%. The apparent viscosity of COWS becomes high when the amount of WEO is increased for the same coal content. The lower heating value (19.15kJ/g) of 48wt.% COWS (α=15wt.%) is equivalent to that of CWS with 67.88wt.% coal. The mass ratio of separated supernatant to oil-water emulsion for COWS with 49wt.% coal decreases by 1.12% while the amount of WEO is increased to 15wt.% from 10wt.%. COWS exhibits the non-Newtonian pseudoplastic fluid behavior. Its pseudoplasticity and thixotropy are also promoted as the coal content of COWS is increased. And the dispersion and stabilization mechanism of COWS is discussed.

  6. Engineering and Economics of the USGS Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) Project

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, Mahendra K.; White, Loring P.; Gautier, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    This Open-File report contains illustrative materials, in the form of PowerPoint slides, used for an oral presentation given at the Fourth U.S. Geological Survey Workshop on Reserve Growth of petroleum resources held on March 10-11, 2008. The presentation focused on engineering and economic aspects of the Circum-Arctic Oil and Gas Resource Appraisal (CARA) project, with a special emphasis on the costs related to the development of hypothetical oil and gas fields of different sizes and reservoir characteristics in the North Danmarkshavn Basin off the northeast coast of Greenland. The individual PowerPoint slides highlight the topics being addressed in an abbreviated format; they are discussed below, and are amplified with additional text as appropriate. Also included in this report are the summary results of a typical ?run? to generate the necessary capital and operating costs for the development of an offshore oil field off the northeast coast of Greenland; the data are displayed in MS Excel format generated using Questor software (IHS Energy, Inc.). U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acknowledges that this report includes data supplied by IHS Energy, Inc.; Copyright (2008) all rights reserved. IHS Energy has granted USGS the permission to publish this report.

  7. Nurturing the geology-reservoir engineering team: Vital for efficient oil and gas recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Sessions, K.P.; Lehman, D.H. )

    1990-05-01

    Of an estimated 482 billion bbl (76.6 Gm{sup 3}) of in-place oil discovered in the US, 158 billion (25.1 Gm{sup 3}) can be recovered with existing technology and economic conditions. The cost-effective recovery through infill drilling and enhanced oil recovery methods to recover any portion of the remaining 323 billion bbl (51.4 Gm3) will require a thorough understanding of reservoirs and the close cooperation of production geologists and reservoir engineers. This paper presents the concept of increased interaction between geologists and reservoir engineers through multifunctional teams and cross-training between the disciplines. A discussion of several factors supporting this concept is covered, including educational background, technical manpower trends, employee development, and job satisfaction. There are several ways from an organizational standpoint to achieve this cross-training, with or without a formal change in job assignment. This paper outlines three approaches, including case histories where each of the approaches has been implemented and the resulting benefits.

  8. Effect of adding essential oils of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) and hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis L.) on the shelf life of ground beef.

    PubMed

    Michalczyk, Magdalena; Macura, Ryszard; Tesarowicz, Iwona; Banaś, Joanna

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the effect of adding essential oils of hyssop and coriander at the highest concentration (0.02% v/w) sensorially acceptable to a panel of assessors on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of stored ground beef. Vacuum-packed meat was stored at 0.5±0.5°C and 6±1°C for 15days. The greatest beneficial effect of both additives was in inhibiting the development of undesirable sensory changes (extending acceptability by up to 3days) and the growth of Enterobacteriaceae (by up to approximately 1-2 log cycles compared with the controls). The effect on lactic acid bacteria, total viable bacterial count and other groups of microorganisms investigated was minor (up to 1 log cycle) and similar for both oils. Neither did these additives significantly affect amino nitrogen levels, protease activity, the proportions of meat pigments, protein electropherograms and pH levels. This indicates the limited effect of these essential oils in the concentrations applied on preserving vacuum-packed minced beef.

  9. 77 FR 53154 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 Reciprocating Engines... reciprocating engines. This proposed AD was prompted by an in-flight shutdown of an airplane equipped with a TAE 125-02-99 engine. This proposed AD would require inspection of the oil filler plug vent hole at...

  10. Biodegradation of complex hydrocarbons in spent engine oil by novel bacterial consortium isolated from deep sea sediment.

    PubMed

    Ganesh Kumar, A; Vijayakumar, Lakshmi; Joshi, Gajendra; Magesh Peter, D; Dharani, G; Kirubagaran, R

    2014-10-01

    Complex hydrocarbon and aromatic compounds degrading marine bacterial strains were isolated from deep sea sediment after enrichment on spent engine (SE) oil. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the isolates were related to members of the Pseudoalteromonas sp., Ruegeria sp., Exiguobacterium sp. and Acinetobacter sp. Biodegradation using 1% (v/v) SE oil with individual and mixed strains showed the efficacy of SE oil utilization within a short retention time. The addition of non-ionic surfactant 0.05% (v/v) Tween 80 as emulsifying agent enhanced the solubility of hydrocarbons and renders them more accessible for biodegradation. The degradation of several compounds and the metabolites formed during the microbial oxidation process were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses. The potential of this consortium to biodegrade SE oil with and without emulsifying agent provides possible application in bioremediation of oil contaminated marine environment.

  11. Acute, delayed neurotoxicity evaluation of two jet-engine-oil formulations. Final report, May-October 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Kinkead, E.R.; Bunger, S.R.; Wolfe, R.E.; Wall, H.G.

    1990-04-01

    This study was designed to determine the potential of two jet oils to produce acute, delayed neurotoxicity. The hydrocarbon-based ester oil formulation contained 3% tricresyl phosphate isomers, including triorthocresyl phosphate (TOCP) in one of the formulations. Hens were orally dosed over a five-day period and then observed for a total period of 30 days. All TOCP-positive control hens demonstrated signs of acute, delayed neurotoxicity. Hens from both jet engine oil groups remained asymptomatic throughout the observation period. No neurotoxic hazard would be expected for military or civilian personnel involved in the manufacture, transportation, or handling of these compounds.

  12. Numerical investigation of exhaust gas emissions for a dual fuel engine configuration using diesel and pongamia oil.

    PubMed

    Mohamed Ibrahim, N H; Udayakumar, M

    2016-12-01

    The investigation presented in this paper focuses on determination of gaseous exhaust emissions by computational simulation during combustion in compression ignition engine with pongamia oil substitution. Combustion is modeled using Equilibrium Constants Method (ECM) with MATLAB program to calculate the mole fraction of 10 combustion products when pongamia oil is burnt along with diesel at variable equivalence ratio and blend ratio. It had been observed that pongamia oil substitution causes decrease in the CO emission and increase in the NOx emission as the blend ratio as well as equivalence ratio increases.

  13. Strong mutagenic effects of diesel engine emissions using vegetable oil as fuel.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Ruschel, Yvonne; Schröder, Olaf; Emmert, Birgit; Westphal, Götz; Müller, Michael; Hallier, Ernst; Brüning, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Diesel engine emissions (DEE) are classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. In recent years every effort was made to reduce DEE and their content of carcinogenic and mutagenic polycyclic aromatic compounds. Since 1995 we observed an appreciable reduction of mutagenicity of DEE driven by reformulated or newly designed fuels in several studies. Recently, the use of rapeseed oil as fuel for diesel engines is rapidly growing among German transportation businesses and agriculture due to economic reasons. We compared the mutagenic effects of DEE from two different batches of rapeseed oil (RSO) with rapeseed methyl ester (RME, biodiesel), natural gas derived synthetic fuel (gas-to-liquid, GTL), and a reference diesel fuel (DF). The test engine was a heavy-duty truck diesel running the European Stationary Cycle. Particulate matter from the exhaust was sampled onto PTFE-coated glass fibre filters and extracted with dichloromethane in a soxhlet apparatus. The gas phase constituents were sampled as condensates. The mutagenicity of the particle extracts and the condensates was tested using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian microsome assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Compared to DF the two RSO qualities significantly increased the mutagenic effects of the particle extracts by factors of 9.7 up to 59 in tester strain TA98 and of 5.4 up to 22.3 in tester strain TA100, respectively. The condensates of the RSO fuels caused an up to factor 13.5 stronger mutagenicity than the reference fuel. RME extracts had a moderate but significant higher mutagenic response in assays of TA98 with metabolic activation and TA100 without metabolic activation. GTL samples did not differ significantly from DF. In conclusion, the strong increase of mutagenicity using RSO as diesel fuel compared to the reference DF and other fuels causes deep concern on future usage of this biologic resource as a replacement of established diesel fuels.

  14. Comparative analysis of the long-term performance of a diesel engine on vegetable oil based alternate fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Goettler, H.; Pratt, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    A 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend (v/v) of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a non-ionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil were evaluated as fuels in a direct injected, turbo-charged, intercooled, 4-cylinder Allis-Chalmers diesel engine during 200-hour EMA cycle laboratory screening endurance tests. Engine performance on Phillips 2-D reference fuel served as baseline for the experimental fuels. The experiment was conducted to develop prediction equations to determine the effects of alternate fuels on long-term engine performance. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze long-term effects the test fuels had on engine performance and to simultaneously compare the test fuels. Several variables were used to measure engine performance. These response variables were volumetric fuel flow, energy input, power output, brake specific energy consumption, exhaust temperature and exhaust smoke. The predictor variables were time of the EMA cycle and fuel type. Two multivariate tests were performed in this analysis. The first tested the significance of time on the response variable. The second tested the fuel effect. Both tests were significant. The results of the univariate regressions indicated that time had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. In all other cases, time was not a factor. However, significant difference in the intercepts of the prediction equations were found between tested fuels.

  15. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    PubMed

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  16. Wear Studies of MIL-L-23699 Aircraft Turbine Engine. Synthetic Base Lubricating Oils - I. The Development of a Procedure and Initial Findings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and contaminants in MIL-L-23699 aircraft turbine engine synthetic base lubricating oils . The procedure employs a linear ball-on-flat principle and is...wear of water in gas-turbine lubricating oils . The MIL-L-23699 oils exhibit a linear relationship between the removal of bearing surface material (wear

  17. Adding value to the oil cake as a waste from oil processing industry: production of lipase and protease by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation.

    PubMed

    Moftah, Omar Ali Saied; Grbavčić, Sanja; Zuža, Milena; Luković, Nevena; Bezbradica, Dejan; Knežević-Jugović, Zorica

    2012-01-01

    Olive oil cake is a by-product from the olive oil processing industry and can be used for the lipase and protease production by Candida utilis in solid state fermentation. Different carbon and nitrogen sources were evaluated, and the results showed that the supplementation of the substrate with maltose and starch as carbon sources and yeast extract as a nitrogen source significantly increased the lipase production. The best results were obtained with maltose, whereas rather low lipase and protease activities were found with glucose and oleic acid. Response surface methodology and a five-level-three-factor central composite rotatable design were used to evaluate the effects of the initial moisture content, inoculum size and fermentation time on both lipase and protease activity levels. A lipase activity value of ≈25 U g(-1) and a protease activity value of 110 U g(-1) were obtained under the optimized fermentation conditions. An alkaline treatment of the substrate appeared to be efficient, leading to increases of 39% and 133% in the lipase and protease production, respectively. The results showed that the olive cake could be a good source for enzyme production by solid state fermentation.

  18. Performance and emission of generator Diesel engine using methyl esters of palm oil and diesel blends at different compression ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldhaidhawi, M.; Chiriac, R.; Bădescu, V.; Pop, H.; Apostol, V.; Dobrovicescu, A.; Prisecaru, M.; Alfaryjat, A. A.; Ghilvacs, M.; Alexandru, A.

    2016-08-01

    This study proposes engine model to predicate the performance and exhaust gas emissions of a single cylinder four stroke direct injection engine which was fuelled with diesel and palm oil methyl ester of B7 (blends 7% palm oil methyl ester with 93% diesel by volume) and B10. The experiment was conducted at constant engine speed of 3000 rpm and different engine loads operations with compression ratios of 18:1, 20:1 and 22:1. The influence of the compression ratio and fuel typeson specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency has been investigated and presented. The optimum compression ratio which yields better performance has been identified. The result from the present work confirms that biodiesel resulting from palm oil methyl ester could represent a superior alternative to diesel fuel when the engine operates with variable compression ratios. The blends, when used as fuel, result in a reduction of the brake specific fuel consumption and brake thermal efficiency, while NOx emissions was increased when the engine is operated with biodiesel blends.

  19. A Study on Performance, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Compression Ignition Engine Using Fish Oil Biodiesel Blends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesha, D. K.; Thimmannachar, Rajiv K.; Simhasan, R.; Nagappa, Manjunath; Gowda, P. M.

    2012-07-01

    Bio-fuel is a clean burning fuel made from natural renewable energy resource; it operates in C. I. engine similar to the petroleum diesel. The rising cost of diesel and the danger caused to the environment has led to an intensive and desperate search for alternative fuels. Among them, animal fats like the fish oil have proven to be a promising substitute to diesel. In this experimental study, A computerized 4-stroke, single cylinder, constant speed, direct injection diesel engine was operated on fish oil-biodiesel of different blends. Three different blends of 10, 20, and 30 % by volume were used for this study. Various engine performance, combustion and emission parameters such as Brake Thermal Efficiency, Brake Specific Fuel Consumption, Heat Release Rate, Peak Pressure, Exhaust Gas Temperature, etc. were recorded from the acquired data. The data was recorded with the help of an engine analysis software. The recorded parameters were studied for varying loads and their corresponding graphs have been plotted for comparison purposes. Petroleum Diesel has been used as the reference. From the properties and engine test results it has been established that fish oil biodiesel is a better replacement for diesel without any engine modification.

  20. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

    PubMed Central

    Karthikeya Sharma, T.

    2014-01-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied. PMID:26644918

  1. Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes: application to oil-film measurements in an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Ghandhi, J B

    2000-10-20

    Single- and dual-fiber fluorescence probes have been utilized to study oil-film behavior in a firing Diesel engine. A detailed analysis of the response characteristics of these probes was performed, and universal response curves have been generated through identification of the appropriate nondimensional parameters. For single-fiber probes a single curve was obtained, and for dual-fiber probes families of curves were identified based on three geometric dimensionless parameters. The complementary response characteristics of the single- and dual-fiber probes allows determination of the oil distribution within the piston-liner gap. The dual-fiber probe is not sensitive at small distances. Thus its signal originates solely from the piston surface, whereas the single-fiber probe is most sensitive at small distances and hence to the wall oil film. The engine data from the dual-fiber probe confirmed the presence of an oil film on the piston and provided a means of quantifying the transport of this oil within the engine.

  2. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed.

  3. A study of oil lubrication in a rotating engine using stroboscopic neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schillinger, Burkhard; Brunner, Johannes; Calzada, Elbio

    2006-11-01

    Even at modern high-flux neutron sources, the required exposure time for one neutron radiography image with high counting statistics is in the order of 1 s. Continuous time-resolved imaging of objects in motion is thus very limited in time resolution and signal dynamics. However, repetitive motions can be recorded with a stroboscopic technique: A triggerable accumulating detector is triggered for many identical time windows of the cyclic motion until sufficient fluence is accumulated for one image. The image is read out, the delay for the time window is shifted and the recording repeated until a complete movie of the cyclic motion can be put together. We report about a study of oil flux in a running, electrically driven BMW engine out of current production.

  4. Monitoring of the Physical and Chemical Properties of a Gasoline Engine Oil during Its Usage

    PubMed Central

    Rahimi, Behnam; Semnani, Abolfazl; Nezamzadeh-Ejhieh, Alireza; Shakoori Langeroodi, Hamid; Hakim Davood, Massoud

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of a mineral-based gasoline engine oil have been monitored at 0, 500, 1000, 2000, 3500, 6000, 8500, and 11500 kilometer of operation. Tracing has been performed by inductively coupled plasma and some other techniques. At each series of measurements, the concentrations of twenty four elements as well as physical properties such as: viscosity at 40 and 100°C; viscosity index; flash point; pour point; specific gravity; color; total acid and base numbers; water content have been determined. The results are indicative of the decreasing trend in concentration of additive elements and increasing in concentration for wear elements. Different trends have been observed for various physical properties. The possible reasons for variations in physical and chemical properties have been discussed. PMID:22567569

  5. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines? 80.522 Section 80.522 Protection of Environment... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel...

  6. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  7. Renewable sugars from oil palm frond juice as an alternative novel fermentation feedstock for value-added products.

    PubMed

    Zahari, Mior Ahmad Khushairi Mohd; Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Ariffin, Hidayah; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Salihon, Jailani; Shirai, Yoshihito; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2012-04-01

    In this paper, we report that pressed juice from oil palm frond (OPF) contained renewable sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose. By using a simple sugarcane press, 50% (wt/wt) of OPF juice was obtained from fresh OPF. The glucose content in the juice was 53.95±2.86g/l, which accounts for 70% of the total free sugars. We have examined the effect of various OPF juice concentrations on the production of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate), P(3HB) by Cupriavidus necator CCUG 52238(T). The cell dry mass in shake flask experiment reached 8.42g/l, with 32wt.% of P(3HB) at 30% (v/v) of OPF juice, comparable with using technical grade sugars. The biopolymer had a molecular mass, M(w) of 812kDa, with a low polydispersity index of 1.61. This result indicates that OPF juice can be used as an alternative renewable carbon source for P(3HB) production and has potential as a renewable carbon source.

  8. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services.

  9. Energy Return on Investment (EROI) for Forty Global Oilfields Using a Detailed Engineering-Based Model of Oil Production

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Adam R.; Sun, Yuchi; Bharadwaj, Sharad; Livingston, David; Tan, Eugene; Gordon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Studies of the energy return on investment (EROI) for oil production generally rely on aggregated statistics for large regions or countries. In order to better understand the drivers of the energy productivity of oil production, we use a novel approach that applies a detailed field-level engineering model of oil and gas production to estimate energy requirements of drilling, producing, processing, and transporting crude oil. We examine 40 global oilfields, utilizing detailed data for each field from hundreds of technical and scientific data sources. Resulting net energy return (NER) ratios for studied oil fields range from ≈2 to ≈100 MJ crude oil produced per MJ of total fuels consumed. External energy return (EER) ratios, which compare energy produced to energy consumed from external sources, exceed 1000:1 for fields that are largely self-sufficient. The lowest energy returns are found to come from thermally-enhanced oil recovery technologies. Results are generally insensitive to reasonable ranges of assumptions explored in sensitivity analysis. Fields with very large associated gas production are sensitive to assumptions about surface fluids processing due to the shifts in energy consumed under different gas treatment configurations. This model does not currently include energy invested in building oilfield capital equipment (e.g., drilling rigs), nor does it include other indirect energy uses such as labor or services. PMID:26695068

  10. Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Streibel, Thorsten; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Czech, Hendryk; Harndorf, Horst; Jakobi, Gert; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Karg, Erwin; Lintelmann, Jutta; Matuschek, Georg; Michalke, Bernhard; Müller, Laarnie; Orasche, Jürgen; Passig, Johannes; Radischat, Christian; Rabe, Rom; Reda, Ahmed; Rüger, Christopher; Schwemer, Theo; Sippula, Olli; Stengel, Benjamin; Sklorz, Martin; Torvela, Tiina; Weggler, Benedikt; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2016-05-02

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.

  11. Particulate morphology of waste cooking oil biodiesel and diesel in a heavy duty diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Joonsik; Jung, Yongjin; Bae, Choongsik

    2014-08-01

    The effect of biodiesel produced from waste cooking oil (WCO) on the particulate matters (PM) of a direct injection (DI) diesel engine was experimentally investigated and compared with commercial diesel fuel. Soot agglomerates were collected with a thermophoretic sampling device installed in the exhaust pipe of the engine. The morphology of soot particles was analyzed using high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The elemental and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were also conducted to study chemical composition of soot particles. Based on the TEM images, it was revealed that the soot derived from WCO biodiesel has a highly graphitic shell-core arrangement compared to diesel soot. The mean size was measured from averaging 400 primary particles for WCO biodiesel and diesel respectively. The values for WCO biodiesel indicated 19.9 nm which was smaller than diesel's 23.7 nm. From the TGA results, WCO biodiesel showed faster oxidation process. While the oxidation of soot particles from diesel continued until 660°C, WCO biodiesel soot oxidation terminated at 560°C. Elemental analysis results showed that the diesel soot was mainly composed of carbon and hydrogen. On the other hand, WCO biodiesel soot contained high amount of oxygen species.

  12. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    DOE PAGES

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; ...

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are usedmore » as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.« less

  13. Feasibility of observing small differences in friction mean effective pressure between different lubricating oil formations using small, single-cylinder motored engine rig

    SciTech Connect

    Rohr, William F.; Nguyen, Ke; Bunting, Bruce G.; Qu, Jun

    2015-09-01

    Here, the feasibility of using a motored single-cylinder 517 cc diesel engine to observe small frictional differences between oil formulations is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) is measured and compared for an SAE 10W-30 and an SAE 5W-20 oil in three stages of production: base oil, commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive, and fully formulated commercial oil. In addition, a commercial SAE 5W-30 engine oil is investigated. Friction mean effective pressure is plotted versus oil dynamic viscosity to compare the lubricant FMEP at a given viscosity. Linear regressions and average friction mean effective pressure are used as a secondary means of comparing FMEP for the various oil formulations. Differences between the oils are observed with the base oil having higher friction at a given viscosity but a lower average FMEP due to the temperature distribution of the test and lower viscosities reached by the base oil. The commercial oil is shown to have both a higher FMEP at a given viscosity and a higher average FMEP than the commercial oil without a friction and wear reducing additive. The increase in friction for the oil without a friction and wear reduction additive indicates that the operational regime of the engine may be out of the bounds of the optimal regime for the additive or that the additive is more optimized for wear reduction. Results show that it is feasible to observe small differences in FMEP between lubricating oil formulations using a small, single-cylinder motored engine.

  14. 78 FR 22166 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... reciprocating engines. This AD requires a one-time visual inspection for excessive oil deposits or carbon... would require a one-time visual inspection for excessive oil deposits or carbon deposits on the No. 2... after the effective date of this AD, whichever occurs first, perform a one-time visual inspection of...

  15. Novel schemes for production of biodiesel and value-added co-products from microalgal oil using heterogeneous catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Tao

    Microalgae are promising sources of biofuels primarily because of their higher potential productivity compared to terrestrial biofuel crops. However, the production of liquid fuels from microalgae suffers from a lack of viable methods of extraction, conversion and fractionation of various components of the algal biomass. In this dissertation study, a rapid method was developed to accurately evaluate the biodiesel potential of microalgae biomass. The major advantage of this method is in situ fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) preparation directly from wet fresh microalgal and yeast biomass, without prior solvent extraction or dehydration. FAMEs were prepared by a sequential alkaline hydrolysis and acidic esterification process. This method can be used even with high amount of water in the biomass and is applicable to a vast range of microalgae and yeast species. A two-step in situ process was also investigated in this study to obtain a high FAME yield from microalgae biomass that had high free fatty acids (FFA) content. This process has the potential to reduce the production cost of microalgae-derived FAME and be more environmental compatible due to the higher FAME yield with reduced catalyst consumption. A cost-effective bio-char based catalyst was tested for the two-step biodiesel production. The results indicated that the bio-char catalyst was superior to commercial Amberly-15. A scalable chlorophyll remove process was also developed as a part of the system. The research resulted in a practical and cost-effective approach for producing biodiesel from crude microalgal oil. An integrated approach was explored in the fourth part of the study to produce biodiesel and fractionate high-value polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA). Zeolites were employed as the catalyst for selective esterification of fatty acids according to their chain length and degree of saturation. Low-value short chain FFA could be largely converted into FAME, while PUFA would remain unreacted due to

  16. Is Adding the E Enough? Investigating the Impact of K-12 Engineering Standards on the Implementation of STEM Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roehrig, Gillian H.; Moore, Tamara J.; Wang, Hui-Hui; Park, Mi Sun

    2012-01-01

    The problems that we face in our ever-changing, increasingly global society are multidisciplinary, and many require the integration of multiple science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) concepts to solve them. National calls for improvement of STEM education in the United States are driving changes in policy, particularly in…

  17. A new approach involving a multi transducer ultrasonic system for cleaning turbine engines' oil filters under practical conditions.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Ngo, Huu Hao; Yoon, Yong Soo; Chang, Soon Woong; Bui, Hong Ha

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a green technology that can clean turbine engine oil filters effectively in ships using ultrasound, with ultrasonic devices having a frequency of 25kHz and different powers of 300W and 600W, respectively. The effects of temperature, ultrasonic cleaning times, pressure losses through the oil filter, solvent washing, and ultrasonic power devices were investigated. In addition, the cleaning efficiency of three modes (hand washing, preliminary washing and ultrasonic washing) were compared to assess their relative effectiveness. Experimental results revealed that the necessary ultrasonic time varied significantly depending on which solvent was used for washing. For instance, the optimum ultrasonic cleaning time was 50-60min when the oil filter was cleaned in a solvent of kerosene oil (KO) and over 80min when in a solvent of diesel oil (DO) using the same ultrasonic generator device (25kHz, 600W) and experimental conditions. Furthermore, microscopic examination did not reveal any damage or breakdown on or within the structure of the filter after ultrasonic cleaning, even in the filter's surfaces at a constantly low frequency of 25kHz and power specific capacity (100W/gal). Overall, it may be concluded that ultrasound-assisted oil filter washing is effective, requiring a significantly shorter time than manual washing. This ultrasonic method also shows promise as a green technology for washing oil filters in turbine engines in general and Vietnamese navy ships in particular, because of its high cleaning efficiency, operational simplicity and savings.

  18. [Preparation of biodiesel from waste edible oils and performance and exhaust emissions of engines fueled with blends of the biodiesel].

    PubMed

    Ge, Yun-shan; Lu, Xiao-ming; Gao, Li-ping; Han, Xiu-kun; Ji, Xing

    2005-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of biodiesel on environment and to investigate the effect of the biodiesel made of waste edible oils on the performance and emissions of engines. Life cycle assessment (LCA) of biodiesel and diesel was introduced and the results of the LCA of both the fuels were given. The technological process of biodiesel production from waste edible oils, which is called transesterification of waste oils and methanol catalyzed with NaOH, was presented. Two turbocharged DI engines fueled with different proportions of biodiesel and diesel, namely, B50 (50% biodiesel + 50% diesel) and B20 (20% biodiesel + 80% diesel), were chosen to conduct performance and emission tests on a dynamometer. The results of the study indicate that there was a slight increase in fuel consumption by 8% and a drop in power by 3% with the blends of biodiesel, compared with diesel, and that the best improvements in emissions of smoke, HC, CO and PM were 65%, 11%, 33% and 13% respectively, but NOx emission was increased. The study also shows that it is satisfied to fuel engines with the low proportion blends of the biodiesel, without modifying engines, in performance and emissions.

  19. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P < 0.10) to have less ADFI and greater G:F than pigs fed the control diet. Barrows had greater (P < 0.01) ADG and ADFI, and less (P < 0.001) G:F than gilts. Pigs fed the DDGS diet had reduced (P < 0.05) loin eye area compared with pigs fed the control diet, but diet had no effect on other carcass characteristics. Barrows had greater (P < 0.001) final BW at the end of both phases, greater (P < 0.001) HCW and backfat thickness, and tended (P = 0.10) to have greater dressing percentage, but less (P < 0.001) fat-free lean percentage than gilts. Backfat of pigs fed the 5 DDGS-containing diets had less (P < 0.05) L* values than pigs fed the control diet and backfat of gilts had greater (P < 0.001) a* and b* values than barrows. Pigs fed the control diet had greater (P < 0.05) belly flop distance compared with pigs fed

  20. Investigation on environmental factors of waste plastics into oil and its emulsion to control the emission in DI diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Senthil; Sankaranarayanan, G

    2016-12-01

    Rapid depletion of conventional fossil fuel resources, their rising prices and environmental issues are the major concern of alternative fuels. On the other hand waste plastics cause a very serious environmental dispute because of their disposal problems. Waste plastics are one of the promising factors for fuel production because of their high heat of combustion and their increasing availability in local communities. In this study, waste plastic oil (WPO) is tested in DI diesel engine to evaluate its performance and emission characteristics. Results showed that oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emission get increased with WPO when compared to diesel oil. Further, the three phase (O/W/O) plastic oil emulsion is prepared with an aid of ultrasonicater according to the %v (10, 20 & 30). Results expose that brake thermal efficiency (BTE) is found to be increased. NOx and smoke emissions were reduced up to 247ppm and 41% respectively, when compared to diesel at full load condition with use of 30% emulsified WPO.

  1. Bioconversion of methanol to value-added mevalonate by engineered Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 containing an optimized mevalonate pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-Liang; Cui, Jin-Yu; Cui, Lan-Yu; Liang, Wei-Fan; Yang, Song; Zhang, Chong; Xing, Xin-Hui

    2016-03-01

    Methylotrophic biosynthesis using methanol as a feedstock is a promising and attractive method to solve the over-dependence of the bioindustry on sugar feedstocks derived from grains that are used for food. In this study, we introduced and engineered the mevalonate pathway into Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 to achieve high mevalonate production from methanol, which could be a platform for terpenoid synthesis. We first constructed a natural operon (MVE) harboring the mvaS and mvaE genes from Enterococcus faecalis as well as an artificial operon (MVH) harboring the hmgcs1 gene from Blattella germanica and the tchmgr gene from Trypanosoma cruzi that encoded enzymes with the highest reported activities. We achieved mevalonate titers of 56 and 66 mg/L, respectively, in flask cultivation. Introduction of the phaA gene from Ralstonia eutropha into the operon MVH increased the mevalonate titer to 180 mg/L, 3.2-fold higher than that of the natural operon MVE. Further modification of the expression level of the phaA gene by regulating the strength of the ribosomal binding site resulted in an additional 20 % increase in mevalonate production to 215 mg/L. A fed-batch fermentation of the best-engineered strain yielded a mevalonate titer of 2.22 g/L, which was equivalent to an overall yield and productivity of 28.4 mg mevalonate/g methanol and 7.16 mg/L/h, respectively. The production of mevalonate from methanol, which is the initial, but critical step linking methanol with valuable terpenoids via methylotrophic biosynthesis, represents a proof of concept for pathway engineering in M. extorquens AM1.

  2. Factors in the Design of Centrifugal Type Injection Valves for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, E G

    1928-01-01

    This research was undertaken in connection with a general study of the application of the fuel injection engine to aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effect of four important factors in the design of a centrifugal type automatic injection valve on the penetration, general shape, and distribution of oil sprays. The general method employed was to record the development of single sprays by means of special high-speed photographic apparatus capable of taking 25 consecutive pictures of the moving spray at a rate of 4,000 per second. Investigations were made concerning the effects on spray characteristics, of the helix angle of helical grooves, the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the orifice to that of the grooves, the ratio of orifice length to diameter, and the position of the seat. Maximum spray penetration was obtained with a ratio of orifice length to diameter of about 1.5. Slightly greater penetration was obtained with the seat directly before the orifice.

  3. Comparative combustion studies on various plant oil esters and the long term effects of an ethyl ester on a compression ignition engine

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, C.S.; Fuls, J.

    1982-01-01

    Combustion studies on both ethyl and methyl esters of various plant oils were carried out using the same engine for all the tests so that comparative studies could be achieved. Twelve esters were tested and the pertinent data was recorded. Some of the more important results are published in this paper to serve as a comparative guide to the study of plant oil esters as fuel. Bruwer et. al. (1980) suggested the use of plant oil esters to prevent injector coking in modern compression ignition engines. Very little information is available on the long term effects of such ester use. Cyclic endurance tests have been carried out on Perkins engines running on ethyl esters of sunflower oil. The exciting results of this work are reported, with specific reference to one tractor engine which has recorded more than 1 300 trouble free hours. 3 tables.

  4. Classification of energy-conserving engine oil for passenger cars, vans, sport utility vehicles, and light-duty trucks (revised May 97). (SAE standard)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This SAE Standard was developed cooperatively by SAE, ASTM, and API to define and identify energy conserving engine oils for passenger cars, vans, and light-duty (3856 kg (8500 lb) GVW or less) trucks.

  5. 78 FR 48795 - Airworthiness Directives; BRP-Powertrain GmbH & Co KG Rotax Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... reciprocating engines. That AD required a one-time visual inspection for excessive oil or carbon deposits on the... S4; 914 F2; 914 F3; and 914 F4 reciprocating engines. That AD required a one-time visual inspection... visual inspection of the center and grounding electrodes of both top and bottom spark plugs on...

  6. Searching for a Safe Source of Castor Oil Production through Metabolic Engineering

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Castor oil contains 90% ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-oleate) which has numerous industrial uses. The production of castor oil is hampered by the presence of the toxin ricin and hyper-allergenic 2S albumins in its seed. We are developing a safe source of castor oil by two approaches: blocking gene expres...

  7. DNA adducts in human and mouse skin maintained in short-term culture and treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Carmichael, P L; Ni Shé, M; Phillips, D H

    1991-05-24

    Human and mouse skin samples maintained in short-term organ culture were treated topically with used engine oils from petrol- and diesel-powered vehicles. Mice were also treated topically in vivo for comparison. DNA was isolated and analysed by 32P-postlabelling and the labeled DNA digests were resolved on polyethyleneimine-cellulose tlc sheets. A large number of radioactive adduct spots were observed in DNA from skin treated with the used petrol-engine oil, indicating the formation of adducts by many components of the complex oil mixture. Total adduct levels were similar in mouse skin (both in vivo and in vitro) and in human skin, although qualitative differences in the adduct maps were apparent between the human and mouse skin DNA. Treatment with the used diesel engine oil produced adduct levels no greater than that of control samples in mouse skin (in vivo and in vitro), although significant levels were found in human skin DNA from one donor. The results correlate well with the carcinogenic activity of these oils in experimental animals, helping to substantiate the conclusion that petrol engine oils (but not diesel engine oils) may present a carcinogenic risk to man if appropriate measures to minimise skin contact are not observed.

  8. Effect of the level of unsaturation and of alcohol modifications of plant oil fuels on the long-term performance of a direct injected diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.

    1985-01-01

    A 200-hour durability screening test recommended by the Engine Manufacturers Association was adopted to study the effects of four alternate fuels on the long-term performance of a four cylinder, direct injected diesel engine. Tested fuels included diesel fuel (control), a 25-75 blend by volume of alkali-refined sunflower oil and diesel fuel, a 25-75 blend by volume of high oleic safflower oil and diesel fuel, a nonionic sunflower oil-aqueous ethanol microemulsion, and a methyl ester of sunflower oil. Least squares regression procedures were used to analyze the long term effects of the test fuels on engine performance and to compare the test fuels. Time of the engine operation had a significant effect only on exhaust temperature. For all other response variables, time was not a factor. However, significant differences between tested fuels were observed. An analysis of variance was employed to compare CRC carbon and lacquer ratings, as well as wear of engine parts. The carbon deposits produced by the microemulsion and the 25-75 sunflower oil blend were significantly heavier than those generated by the other tested fuels. None of the fuels produced excessive engine wear. The 25-75 sunflower oil blend and the microemulsion caused problems with the fuel injection system.

  9. Emissions from diesel engines using fatty acid methyl esters from different vegetable oils as blends and pure fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, O.; Munack, A.; Schaak, J.; Pabst, C.; Schmidt, L.; Bünger, J.; Krahl, J.

    2012-05-01

    Biodiesel is used as a neat fuel as well as in blends with mineral diesel fuel. Because of the limited availability of fossil resources, an increase of biogenic compounds in fuels is desired. To achieve this goal, next to rapeseed oil, other sustainably produced vegetable oils can be used as raw materials. These raw materials influence the fuel properties as well as the emissions. To investigate the environmental impact of the exhaust gas, it is necessary to determine regulated and non-regulated exhaust gas components. In detail, emissions of aldehydes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), as well as mutagenicity in the Ames test are of special interest. In this paper emission measurements on a Euro III engine OM 906 of Mercedes-Benz are presented. As fuel vegetable oil methyl esters from various sources and reference diesel fuel were used as well as blends of the vegetable oil methyl esters with diesel fuel. PAH were sampled according to VDI Guideline 3872. The sampling procedure of carbonyls was accomplished using DNPH cartridges coupled with potassium iodide cartridges. The carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions of the tested methyl esters show advantages over DF. The particle mass emissions of methyl esters were likewise lower than those of DF, only linseed oil methyl ester showed higher particle mass emissions. A disadvantage is the use of biodiesel with respect to emissions of nitrogen oxides. They increased depending on the type of methyl ester by 10% to 30%. Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and the results of mutagenicity tests correlate with those of the PM measurements, at which for palm oil methyl ester next to coconut oil methyl ester the lowest emissions were detected. From these results one can formulate a clear link between the iodine number of the ester and the emission behaviour. For blends of biodiesel and diesel fuel, emissions changed linearly with the proportion of biodiesel. However, especially in the non

  10. Integration of geoscience and engineering in the oil industry - just a dream?

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, B Artur

    2003-11-20

    The past two decades of the twentieth century have been very 'rocky' for the oil industry, as shown by the overall negative perception of the oil companies by the general public. Fluctuating oil prices, many rounds of staff redundancies, environmental disasters and budget cuts supported the overall image of the oil industry as being 'the technology impaired and environmentally insensible giant'. But advances and positive changes have been quietly happening in most of the oil companies. In the twenty-first century, we will witness the metamorphosis of the oil and gas companies into energy businesses - the era of cleaner and safer oil and gas production, and alternative energy resources such as wind, solar and hydrogen is already underway.

  11. Performance and emission characteristics of a low heat rejection engine with different air gap thicknesses with Jatropha oil based bio-diesel.

    PubMed

    Murali Krishna, M V S; Sarita, G; Seshagiri Rao, V V R; Chowdary, R P; Ramana Reddy, Ch V

    2010-04-01

    The research work on alternate fuels has been the topic of wider interest in the context of depletion of fossil fuels and increasing of pollution levels of the engines with conventional fossil fuels. Alcohols and vegetable oils are considered to replace diesel fuels as they are renewable in nature. However, use of alcohols in internal combustion engines is limited in India, as these fuels are diverted to PetroChemical industries and hence much emphasis is given to the non-edible vegetable oils as alternate fuels in internal combustion engines. However, the drawbacks of low volatility and high viscosity associated with non-edible vegetable oils call for hot combustion chamber, provided by low heat rejection (LHR) diesel engine. Investigations are carried out on a LHR diesel engine with varied air gap thicknesses and injection pressures with jatropha oil based bio-diesel at normal temperature. Performance is improved with high degree of insulation with LHR engine with vegetable oil in comparison with conventional engine (CE) with pure diesel operation.

  12. Engineering of a Synthetic Metabolic Pathway for the Assimilation of (d)-Xylose into Value-Added Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Cam, Yvan; Alkim, Ceren; Trichez, Debora; Trebosc, Vincent; Vax, Amélie; Bartolo, François; Besse, Philippe; François, Jean Marie; Walther, Thomas

    2016-07-15

    A synthetic pathway for (d)-xylose assimilation was stoichiometrically evaluated and implemented in Escherichia coli strains. The pathway proceeds via isomerization of (d)-xylose to (d)-xylulose, phosphorylation of (d)-xylulose to obtain (d)-xylulose-1-phosphate (X1P), and aldolytic cleavage of the latter to yield glycolaldehyde and DHAP. Stoichiometric analyses showed that this pathway provides access to ethylene glycol with a theoretical molar yield of 1. Alternatively, both glycolaldehyde and DHAP can be converted to glycolic acid with a theoretical yield that is 20% higher than for the exclusive production of this acid via the glyoxylate shunt. Simultaneous expression of xylulose-1 kinase and X1P aldolase activities, provided by human ketohexokinase-C and human aldolase-B, respectively, restored growth of a (d)-xylulose-5-kinase mutant on xylose. This strain produced ethylene glycol as the major metabolic endproduct. Metabolic engineering provided strains that assimilated the entire C2 fraction into the central metabolism or that produced 4.3 g/L glycolic acid at a molar yield of 0.9 in shake flasks.

  13. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation. It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.

  14. Lube oil-dependent ash chemistry on soot oxidation reactivity in a gasoline direct-injection engine

    DOE PAGES

    Choi, Seungmok; Seong, Heeje

    2016-09-30

    Gasoline particulate filters (GPF) are considered an enabling technology to meet stringent particulate matter (PM) regulations for gasoline direct-injection (GDI) engines, which are known to produce significant PM emissions. While ash loading in filters has been recognized to be detrimental in filter performance by increasing back pressure, increased ash fractions in soot were observed to enhance soot oxidation. In this study, GDI soot samples derived from different gasoline/lube oil blends were evaluated to identify potential promoting factors when formulated lube oils were dosed into gasoline fuel. Ca-derived ash enhanced soot oxidation remarkably, while P- and ZDDP-derived ash deteriorated soot oxidation.more » It is apparent that the promoting effect of lube oil-derived ash is due mainly to the Ca component that is the most abundant among additive components in lube oil. Bulk and surface analyses of these ash compounds indicate that Ca-derived ash would be complex compounds, while the contribution of CaSO4, which is one of the most abundant ash compounds from diesel engines, is almost negligible. For the validation of the ash promoting impact in filters, the regeneration experiments were compared for a TWC-coated GPF in a GDI engine before and after ash loading was performed. The pressure drop of the ash-loaded GPF decreased noticeably in the initial regeneration stage and it increased gradually, whereas that of no ash-loaded GPF increased gradually without any reduction. So, it is concluded that the ash layer in the GPF assisted soot oxidation in the early regeneration stage when it was in close contact with soot.« less

  15. Mechanical Failure Prognosis Through Oil Debris Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-006 19U MECHANICAL FAILURE PROGNOSIS THROUGH OIL DEBRIS MONITORING Alan Beex"bower Exxon Research and Engineering Company Prepared...PERIOD COVERED Final Report 18 June 1973 to 1 August 197A 4. TITLE (•«id Subl/rl«) MECHANICAL FAILURE PROGNOSIS THROUGH OIL DEBRIS ...Company project entitled "Mechanical Failure Prognosis through Debris Analysis." This study was conducted for the Eustis Directorate, U.S. Army Air

  16. Combusting vegetable oils in diesel engines: the impact of unsaturated fatty acids on particle emissions and mutagenic effects of the exhaust.

    PubMed

    Bünger, Jürgen; Bünger, Jörn F; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Schröder, Olaf; Brüning, Thomas; Hallier, Ernst; Westphal, Götz A

    2016-06-01

    High particle emissions and strong mutagenic effects were observed after combustion of vegetable oil in diesel engines. This study tested the hypothesis that these results are affected by the amount of unsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils. Four different vegetable oils (coconut oil, CO; linseed oil, LO; palm tree oil, PO; and rapeseed oil, RO) and common diesel fuel (DF) were combusted in a heavy-duty diesel engine. The exhausts were investigated for particle emissions and mutagenic effects in direct comparison with emissions of DF. The engine was operated using the European Stationary Cycle. Particle masses were measured gravimetrically while mutagenicity was determined using the bacterial reverse mutation assay with tester strains TA98 and TA100. Combustion of LO caused the largest amount of total particulate matter (TPM). In comparison with DF, it particularly raised the soluble organic fraction (SOF). RO presented second highest TPM and SOF, followed by CO and PO, which were scarcely above DF. RO revealed the highest number of mutations of the vegetable oils closely followed by LO. PO was less mutagenic, but still induced stronger effects than DF. While TPM and SOF were strongly correlated with the content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the vegetable oils, mutagenicity had a significant correlation with the amount of total unsaturated fatty acids. This study supports the hypothesis that numbers of double bounds in unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable oils combusted in diesel engines influence the amount of emitted particles and the mutagenicity of the exhaust. Further investigations have to elucidate the causal relationship.

  17. Influence of Cu, TiO2 Nanoparticles and Carbon Nano-Horns on Tribological Properties of Engine Oil.

    PubMed

    Zin, V; Agresti, F; Barison, S; Colla, L; Fabrizio, M

    2015-05-01

    The addition of nanoparticles in lubricating oils recently demonstrated to reduce the coefficient of friction and to increase the load-carrying capability of lubricant in coupled surfaces. In this work, different kinds of nanoparticles were tested as additives to engine oil to improve lubrication: copper and titanium oxide nanoparticles and single walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs). Two nanoparticle sizes were also tested in case of copper. The tribological properties of these nanofluids were evaluated by Stribeck tests, in order to compare the effect of nanoparticles on friction coefficient and electric contact resistance in different lubrication regimes. Stribeck curves showed that the coefficient of friction was reduced, compared to raw oil, by the action of Cu nanoparticles having 130 nm diameter, leading to a mean decrease of about 17%, and by SWCNHs, with a mean decrease of about 12%. Conversely, no significant changes were detected in presence of Cu nanoparticles having 50 nm diameter or of TiO2. The suspension viscosity and stability were also tested. Wear tests were also carried out, showing a reduction of wear rate up to nearly 50% for Cu nanoparticles (150 nm diameter) and around 30% for SWCNHs. The measurements showed that nanoparticles having size comparable to the mean roughness of coupled surfaces significantly improved the tribological properties of bare oil. An explanation of nanoparticle action is proposed.

  18. X-ray fluorescence mapping and micro-XANES spectroscopic characterization of exhaust particulates emitted from auto engines burning MMT-added gasoline.

    PubMed

    Mölders, N; Schilling, P J; Wong, J; Roos, J W; Smith, I L

    2001-08-01

    The elemental distribution and compositional homogeneity in auto exhaust particulates emitted from methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl-(MMT-)added gasoline engines have been investigated using a newly installed synchrotron X-ray microprobe. Two representative groups of exhaust particulate matter, as defined in a recent bulk X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopic study at the Mn K-edge, were studied. The micro-X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra indicate a relatively homogeneous distribution of phases within a given particulate sample, down to a spatial extent of 40 microm (the resolution of microprobe). The micro-XANES also enabled analysis of several areas which displayed compositions different from the bulk sample, supporting the general theory describing manganese species formation in the exhaust. The ability to evaluate small regions also enabled direct verification of manganese sulfate from the S XANES despite the vast excess of sulfur present in other forms. The presence of a chloride compound, introduced through the sample dilution air and engine intake air, was also revealed. The study demonstrates the value of the combined X-ray microfluorescence with excitation by polychromatic radiation for elemental mapping and micro-XANES spectroscopy for chemical speciation in the study of dilute environmental materials containing low-Z constituents such as Cl, S, and P.

  19. Current progress towards the metabolic engineering of plant oil for hydroxy fatty acids production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable oil is not only edible but also can be used for industrial purposes. The industrial demand for vegetable oil will increase with the future depletion of fossil fuels and environmental problems such as climate change, caused by increased carbon dioxide in the air. Some plants accumulate high...

  20. Advanced airbreathing engine lubricants study with a tetraester fluid and a synthetic paraffinic oil at 492 K (425 F)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaretsky, E. V.; Bamberger, E. N.

    1972-01-01

    Groups of 120-mm-bore angular-contact ball bearings made from AISI M-50 steel were fatigue tested with a tetraester and a synthetic paraffinic oil at a bearing temperature of 492 K (425 F) in an air environment. Bearing life exceeded AFBMA-predicted (catalog) life by factors in excess of 4 and 10 for the tetraester and synthetic paraffinic fluids, respectively. The final viscosities after 500 hours of operation were 14 and 6 times the initial values, respectively. During the same time period, when the test oil is replaced at a rate approximating the replenishment rate in actual commerical engine usage, no significant increase in lubricant viscosity with time was observed.

  1. Evaluation of Oil-Industry Stimulation Practices for Engineered Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Van Dyke; Leen Weijers; Ann Robertson-Tait; Norm Warpinski; Mike Mayerhofer; Bill Minner; Craig Cipolla

    2007-10-17

    Geothermal energy extraction is typically achieved by use of long open-hole intervals in an attempt to connect the well with the greatest possible rock mass. This presents a problem for the development of Enhanced (Engineered) Geothermal Systems (EGS), owing to the challenge of obtaining uniform stimulation throughout the open-hole interval. Fluids are often injected in only a fraction of that interval, reducing heat transfer efficiency and increasing energy cost. Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. and GeothermEx, Inc. evaluated a variety of techniques and methods that are commonly used for hydraulic fracturing of oil and gas wells to increase and evaluate stimulation effectiveness in EGS wells. Headed by Leen Weijers, formerly Manager of Technical Development at Pinnacle Technologies, Inc., the project ran from August 1, 2004 to July 31, 2006 in two one-year periods to address the following tasks and milestones: 1) Analyze stimulation results from the closest oil-field equivalents for EGS applications in the United States (e.g., the Barnett Shale in North Texas) (section 3 on page 8). Pinnacle Technologies, Inc. has collected fracture growth data from thousands of stimulations (section 3.1 on page 12). This data was further evaluated in the context of: a) Identifying techniques best suited to developing a stimulated EGS fracture network (section 3.2 on page 29), and b) quantifying the growth of the network under various conditions to develop a calibrated model for fracture network growth (section 3.3 on page 30). The developed model can be used to design optimized EGS fracture networks that maximize contact with the heat source and minimize short-circuiting (section 3.4 on page 38). 2) Evaluate methods used in oil field applications to improve fluid diversion and penetration and determine their applicability to EGS (section 4 on page 50). These methods include, but are not limited to: a) Stimulation strategies (propped fracturing versus water fracturing versus injecting

  2. 32P-postlabelling analysis of DNA adducts in the skin of mice treated with petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils and exhaust condensates.

    PubMed

    Schoket, B; Hewer, A; Grover, P L; Phillips, D H

    1989-08-01

    Samples of unused or used petrol and diesel engine lubricating oils were applied to the shaved dorsal skin of 4- to 6-week-old male Parkes mice, either as a single treatment (50 microliters/mouse) or as four consecutive daily treatments (50 microliters/application). DNA isolated from the skin 24 h after the final treatment was digested to 3'-mononucleotides and analysed by 32P-postlabelling for the presence of aromatic adducts. Enhancement of sensitivity using butanol extraction or nuclease P1 digestion of the DNA hydrolysates led to the detection of up to eight adduct spots on polyethyleneimine-cellulose thin-layer chromatograms with samples of DNA from skin treated with used engine oils, at levels of 40-150 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA. Multiple treatments with the used oils gave rise to similar patterns of adducts in lung DNA. A single treatment of mouse skin with petrol engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), or diesel engine exhaust condensate (50 microliters), containing 20 and 46 micrograms benzo[a]pyrene (BaP)/g respectively, gave rise to approximately 75 amol total adducts/micrograms DNA in skin. A significant proportion, 31 and 48% respectively, of the adducts formed by the petrol and diesel engine exhaust condensates co-chromatographed with the major BaP-DNA adduct, but with the used engine oils, only petrol engine oil, and not diesel engine oil, produced significant amounts of an adduct (22% of total) that corresponded to the BaP-DNA adduct.

  3. Experimental and Analytical Determination of the Motion of Hydraulically Operated Valve Stems in Oil Engine Injection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelalles, A G; Rothrock, A M

    1930-01-01

    This research on the pressure variations in the injection system of the N.A.C.A. Spray Photography Equipment and on the effects of these variations on the motion of the timing valve stem was undertaken in connection with the study of fuel injection systems for high-speed oil engines. The methods of analysis of the pressure variations and the general equation for the motion of the spring-loaded stem for the timing valve are applicable to a spring-loaded automatic injection valve, and in general to all hydraulically operated valves. A sample calculation for a spring-loaded automatic injection valve is included.

  4. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  5. Metabolic engineering of essential oil yield and composition in mint by altering expression of deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase and menthofuran synthase

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Soheil S.; Croteau, Rodney B.

    2001-01-01

    Peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) was independently transformed with a homologous sense version of the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase cDNA and with a homologous antisense version of the menthofuran synthase cDNA, both driven by the CaMV 35S promoter. Two groups of transgenic plants were regenerated in the reductoisomerase experiments, one of which remained normal in appearance and development; another was deficient in chlorophyll production and grew slowly. Transgenic plants of normal appearance and growth habit expressed the reductoisomerase transgene strongly and constitutively, as determined by RNA blot analysis and direct enzyme assay, and these plants accumulated substantially more essential oil (about 50% yield increase) without change in monoterpene composition compared with wild-type. Chlorophyll-deficient plants did not afford detectable reductoisomerase mRNA or enzyme activity and yielded less essential oil than did wild-type plants, indicating cosuppression of the reductoisomerase gene. Plants transformed with the antisense version of the menthofuran synthase cDNA were normal in appearance but produced less than half of this undesirable monoterpene oil component than did wild-type mint grown under unstressed or stressed conditions. These experiments demonstrate that essential oil quantity and quality can be regulated by metabolic engineering. Thus, alteration of the committed step of the mevalonate-independent pathway for supply of terpenoid precursors improves flux through the pathway that leads to increased monoterpene production, and antisense manipulation of a selected downstream monoterpene biosynthetic step leads to improved oil composition. PMID:11427737

  6. 75 FR 51657 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (P&WC) PW615F-A Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (P&WC) PW615F-A Turbofan... adding the following new AD: 2010-17-06 Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. (formerly Pratt & Whitney Canada.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp. PW615F-A turbofan engines with fuel/oil...

  7. Induced regenerative cell proliferation in livers and kidneys of male F-344 rats given chloroform in corn oil by gavage or ad libitum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Wolf, D C; Butterworth, B E

    1995-01-06

    These studies were designed to establish the dose response relationships for the induction of cytolethality and regenerative cell proliferation in the liver and kidneys of male F-344 rats given chloroform by gavage or in drinking water. Rats were administered oral doses of 0, 10, 34, 90 or 180 mg/kg/day chloroform dissolved in corn oil by gavage for 4 days or for 5 days/week for 3 weeks. A second group of rats was given chloroform ad libitum in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 60, 200, 400, 900 or 1800 ppm for 4 days or 3 weeks. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered via an implanted osmotic pump 3.5 days prior to necropsy to label cells in S-phase. Cells having incorporated BrdU were visualized in tissue sections immunohistochemically and the labelling index (LI) evaluated as the percentage of S-phase cells. Rats treated with 90 or 180 mg/kg/day by gavage for 4 days had mild to moderate degeneration of renal proximal tubules and centrilobular hepatocytes. These alterations were absent or slight after 3 weeks of treatment. LI were increased in the kidney cortex only in the rats treated with 180 mg/kg/day for 4 days. A dose-dependent increase in LI was seen in rat liver after 4 days of treatment with 90 and 180 mg/kg/day by gavage, but the LI remained elevated after 3 weeks of treatment only at the 180 mg/kg/day dose. When chloroform was administered in the drinking water, no microscopic alterations were seen in the kidneys after 4 days of treatment. As a general observation, rats treated for 3 weeks with 200 ppm chloroform and greater had slightly increased numbers of focal areas of regenerating renal proximal tubular epithelium and cell proliferation than were noted in the controls, but no clear dose response relationship was evident. However, the overall renal LI was not increased at any dose or time point. Similarly, only mild hepatocyte vacuolation was observed in rats given 1800 ppm chloroform in the water for 3 weeks with no increase in the

  8. Biodegradation of used engine oil by novel strains of Ochrobactrum anthropi HM-1 and Citrobacter freundii HM-2 isolated from oil-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Haytham M M

    2016-12-01

    Used engine oil (UEO) constitutes a serious environmental problem due to the difficulty of disposal off or reuse. Ten bacterial strains with biodegradation potential were isolated from UEO-contaminated soil sample using enrichment technique. Two strains which exhibited the highest degradation %, 51 ± 1.2 and 48 ± 1.5, respectively, were selected. Based on the morphological, biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, they were identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi HM-1 (accession no: KR360745) and Citrobacter freundii HM-2 (accession no: KR360746). The different conditions which may influence their biodegradation activity, including UEO concentration (1-6 %, v/v), inoculum size (0.5-4 %, v/v), initial pH (6-8), incubation temperature (25-45 °C), and rotation speed (0-200 rpm), were evaluated. The optimum conditions were found to be 2 % UEO, 2 % inoculum size, pH 7.5, incubation temperature 37 °C, and 150 rpm. Under the optimized conditions, strains HM-1, HM-2, and their mixture efficiently degraded UEO, they achieved 65 ± 2.2, 58 ± 2.1, and 80 ± 1.9 %, respectively, after 21 days of incubation. Biodegradation of UEO was confirmed by employing gas chromatography analysis. Gamma radiation (1.5 kGy) enhanced the degradation efficiency of irradiated bacterial mixture (95 ± 2.1 %) as compared to non-irradiated (79 ± 1.6 %). Therefore, strains HM-1 and HM-2 can be employed to develop a cost-effective method for bioremediation of used engine-oil-polluted soil.

  9. The modification of plant oil composition via metabolic engineering--better nutrition by design.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Richard P; Ruiz-Lopez, Noemi; Eastmond, Peter; Moloney, Maurice; Sayanova, Olga; Napier, Johnathan A

    2013-02-01

    This article will focus on the modification of plant seed oils to enhance their nutritional composition. Such modifications will include C18 Δ6-desaturated fatty acids such as γ-linolenic and stearidonic acid, omega-6 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonic acid, as well as the omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (often named 'fish oils') such as eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. We will consider how new technologies (such as synthetic biology, next-generation sequencing and lipidomics) can help speed up and direct the development of desired traits in transgenic oilseeds. We will also discuss how manipulating triacylglycerol structure can further enhance the nutritional value of 'designer' oils. We will also consider how advances in model systems have translated into crops and the potential end-users for such novel oils (e.g. aquaculture, animal feed, human nutrition).

  10. A New Fluorinated Tyrosinase Inhibitor from a Chemically Engineered Essential Oil.

    PubMed

    García, Paula; Salazar, Mario O; Ramallo, I Ayelen; Furlan, Ricardo L E

    2016-06-13

    The generation of fluorinated essential oils as a source of bioactive compounds is described. Most of the components of the natural mixtures were altered, leading to the discovery of a new fluorinated tyrosinase inhibitor.

  11. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 2. Engineering evaluation report. Final technical report. [Oil-fired boiler to solvent-refined coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-12-01

    Volume 2 of this report gives the results of an engineering evaluation study and economic analysis of converting an existing 560-MW residual (No. 6) oil-fired unit to burn solvent refined coal (SRC) fuel forms. Volume 1 represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Three SRC forms (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) were examined. The scope of modifications necessary to convert the unit to each of the three SRC fuel forms was identified and a capital cost of the necessary modifications estimated. A fuel conversion feasibility study of the boiler was performed wherein boiler modifications and performance effects of each fuel on the boiler were identified. An economic analysis of the capital and operating fuel expenses of conversion of the unit was performed. It was determined that conversion of the unit to any one of the three SRC fuel forms was feasible where appropriate modifications were made. It also was determined that the conversion of the unit can be economically attractive if SRC fuel forms can be manufactured and sold at prices discounted somewhat from the price of No. 16 Fuel Oil. As expected, greater discounts are required for the pulverized SRC and the slurry than for the solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates.

  12. Economic and engineering evaluation of plant oils as a diesel fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Engler, C.R.; LePori, W.A.; Johnson, L.A.; Griffin, R.C.; Diehl, K.C.; Moore, D.S.; Lacewell, R.D.; Coble, C.G.; Lusas, E.W.; Hiler, E.A.

    1982-04-15

    The annual total yield of plant oils in the US is about 3.7 billion gallons. Diesel use by agriculture is about 2.0 billion gallons annually and is growing rapidly relative to gasoline use. Based on these amounts, plant oils could satisfy agriculture's diesel fuel requirements during the near future. However, diversion of large quantities of plant oils for such purposes would have dramatic impacts on plant oil prices and be reflected in numerous adjustments throughout agriculture and other sectors of the economy. The competitive position of sunflowers for plant oil production in Texas was analyzed. In those regions with a cotton alternative, sunflowers were not, for the most part, economically competitive. However, sunflower production is competitive with grain sorghum in certain cases. To develop a meaningful production base for oilseed crops in Texas, yields need to be improved or increases in oilseed prices relative to cotton must take place. This implies some limitations for the potential of Texas to produce large quantities of plant oils.

  13. The Effects of Fuel and Cylinder Gas Densities on the Characteristics of Fuel Sprays for Oil Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joachim, W F; Beardsley, Edward G

    1928-01-01

    This investigation was conducted as a part of a general research on fuel-injection engines for aircraft. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the effects of fuel and cylinder gas densities with several characteristics of fuel sprays for oil engines. The start, growth, and cut-off of single fuel sprays produced by automatic injection valves were recorded on photographic film by means of special high-speed motion-picture apparatus. This equipment, which has been described in previous reports, is capable of taking twenty-five consecutive pictures of the moving spray at the rate of 4,000 per second. The penetrations of the fuel sprays increased and the cone angles and relative distributions decreased with increase in the specific gravity of the fuel. The density of the gas into which the fuel sprays were injected controlled their penetration. This was the only characteristic of the chamber gas that had a measurable effect upon the fuel sprays. Application of fuel-spray penetration data to the case of an engine, in which the pressure is rising during injection, indicated that fuel sprays may penetrate considerably farther than when injected into a gas at a density equal to that of the gas in an engine cylinder at top center.

  14. Study of Miller timing on exhaust emissions of a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Juha; Happonen, Matti; Murtonen, Timo; Lehto, Kalle; Sarjovaara, Teemu; Larmi, Martti; Keskinen, Jorma; Virtanen, Annele

    2012-11-01

    The effect of intake valve closure (IVC) timing by utilizing Miller cycle and start of injection (SOI) on particulate matter (PM), particle number and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions was studied with a hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO)-fueled nonroad diesel engine. HVO-fueled engine emissions, including aldehyde and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions, were also compared with those emitted with fossil EN590 diesel fuel. At the engine standard settings, particle number and NOx emissions decreased at all the studied load points (50%, 75%, and 100%) when the fuel was changed from EN590 to HVO. Adjusting IVC timing enabled a substantial decrease in NOx emission and combined with SOI timing adjustment somewhat smaller decrease in both NOx and particle emissions at IVC -50 and -70 degrees CA points. The HVO fuel decreased PAH emissions mainly due to the absence of aromatics. Aldehyde emissions were lower with the HVO fuel with medium (50%) load. At higher loads (75% and 100%), aldehyde emissions were slightly higher with the HVO fuel. However, the aldehyde emission levels were quite low, so no clear conclusions on the effect of fuel can be made. Overall, the study indicates that paraffinic HVO fuels are suitable for emission reduction with valve and injection timing adjustment and thus provide possibilities for engine manufacturers to meet the strictening emission limits.

  15. Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of variable compression ratio diesel engine fuelled with esters of crude rice bran oil.

    PubMed

    Vasudeva, Mohit; Sharma, Sumeet; Mohapatra, S K; Kundu, Krishnendu

    2016-01-01

    As a substitute to petroleum-derived diesel, biodiesel has high potential as a renewable and environment friendly energy source. For petroleum importing countries the choice of feedstock for biodiesel production within the geographical region is a major influential factor. Crude rice bran oil is found to be good and viable feedstock for biodiesel production. A two step esterification is carried out for higher free fatty acid crude rice bran oil. Blends of 10, 20 and 40 % by vol. crude rice bran biodiesel are tested in a variable compression ratio diesel engine at compression ratio 15, 16, 17 and 18. Engine performance and exhaust emission parameters are examined. Cylinder pressure-crank angle variation is also plotted. The increase in compression ratio from 15 to 18 resulted in 18.6 % decrease in brake specific fuel consumption and 14.66 % increase in brake thermal efficiency on an average. Cylinder pressure increases by 15 % when compression ratio is increased. Carbon monoxide emission decreased by 22.27 %, hydrocarbon decreased by 38.4 %, carbon dioxide increased by 17.43 % and oxides of nitrogen as NOx emission increased by 22.76 % on an average when compression ratio is increased from 15 to 18. The blends of crude rice bran biodiesel show better results than diesel with increase in compression ratio.

  16. An Experimental Investigation on Performance and Emissions Characteristics of Jatropha Oil Blends with Diesel in a Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, B.; Bose, P. K.; Panua, R. S.

    2012-07-01

    Continuous effort to reducing pollutant emissions, especially smoke and nitrogen oxides from internal combustion engines, have promoted research for alternative fuels. Vegetable oils, because of their agricultural origin and due to less carbon content compared to mineral diesel are producing less CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. It also reduces import of petroleum products. In the present contribution, experiments were conducted using Jatropha oil blends with diesel to study the effect on performance and emissions characteristics of a existing diesel engine. In this study viscosity of Jatropha oil was reduced by blending with diesel. A single cylinder, four stroke, constant speed, water cooled, diesel engine was used. The results show that for lower blend concentrations various parameters such as thermal efficiency, brake specific fuel consumption, smoke opacity, CO2, and NO x emissions are acceptable compared to that of mineral diesel. But, it was observed that for higher blend concentrations, performance and emissions were much inferior compared to diesel.

  17. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  18. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  19. Altitude-Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Oil-System Performance of XR-4360-8 Engine in XTB2D-1 Airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrad, E. William

    1946-01-01

    An investigation was conducted in the Cleveland altitude wind tunnel to determine the aerodynamic characteristics and the oil delivery critical altitude of the oil-cooler installation of an XTB2D-1 airplane. The investigation was made with the propeller removed end with the engine operating at 1800 brake horsepower, an altitude of 15,000 feet (except for tests of oil-delivery critical altitude), oil-cooler flap deflections from -20 degrees to 20 degrees and inclinations of the thrust axis of 0 degrees, 1.5 degrees, and 6 degrees. At an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and with the propeller operating, the total-pressure recovery coefficient at the face of the oil cooler varied from 0.84 to 1.10 depending on the flap deflection. With the propeller removed, the best pressure recovery at the face of the oil cooler was obtained at an inclination of the thrust axis of 1.5 degrees. Air-flow separation occurred on the inner surface of the upper lip of the oil-cooler duct inlet at an inclination of the thrust axis of 0 degrees and on the inner surface of the lower lip at 6 degrees. Static pressure coefficients over the duct lips were sufficiently low that no trouble from compressibility would be encountered in level flight. The oil-delivery critical altitude at cruising power (2230 rpm, 1675 bhp) was approximately 18,500 feet for the oil system tested.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in exhaust emissions from diesel engines powered by rapeseed oil methylester and heated non-esterified rapeseed oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtisek-Lom, Michal; Czerwinski, Jan; Leníček, Jan; Sekyra, Milan; Topinka, Jan

    2012-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) of exhaust emissions were studied in four direct-injection turbocharged four-cylinder diesel engines, with power ratings of 90-136 kW. The engines were operated on biodiesel (B-100), a blend of 30% biodiesel in diesel fuel (B-30), and heated rapeseed oil (RO) in two independent laboratories. Diesel particle filters (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems were used with B-30 and B-100. Concentrations of individual PAHs sampled in different substrates (quartz, borosilicate fiber and fluorocarbon membrane filters, polyurethane foam) were analyzed using different methods. Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents (BaP TEQ) were calculated using different sets of toxic equivalency factors (TEF). Operation on B-100 without aftertreatment devices, compared to diesel fuel, yielded a mean reduction in PAHs of 73%, consistent across engines and among TEF used. A lower PAH reduction was obtained using B-30. The BaP TEQ reductions on DPF were 91-99% using B-100, for one non-catalyzed DPF, and over 99% in all other cases. The BaP TEQ for heated RO were higher than those for B-100 and one half lower to over twice as high as that of diesel fuel. B-100 and RO samples featured, compared to diesel fuel, a relatively high share of higher molecular weight PAH and a relatively low share of lighter PAHs. Using different sets of TEF or different detection methods did not consistently affect the observed effect of fuels on BaP TEQ. The compilation of multiple tests was helpful for discerning emerging patterns. The collection of milligrams of particulate matter per sample was generally needed for quantification of all individual PAHs.

  1. Natural Oil Production from Microorganisms: Bioprocess and Microbe Engineering for Total Carbon Utilization in Biofuel Production

    SciTech Connect

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using carbon dioxide (CO2) and hydrogen generated from electricity to produce natural oils that can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels. MIT has designed a 2-stage biofuel production system. In the first stage, hydrogen and CO2 are fed to a microorganism capable of converting these feedstocks to a 2-carbon compound called acetate. In the second stage, acetate is delivered to a different microorganism that can use the acetate to grow and produce oil. The oil can be removed from the reactor tank and chemically converted to various hydrocarbons. The electricity for the process could be supplied from novel means currently in development, or more proven methods such as the combustion of municipal waste, which would also generate the required CO2 and enhance the overall efficiency of MIT’s biofuel-production system.

  2. Multigene Engineering of Triacylglycerol Metabolism Boosts Seed Oil Content in Arabidopsis1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    van Erp, Harrie; Kelly, Amélie A.; Menard, Guillaume; Eastmond, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the yield of oilseed crops is an important objective for biotechnologists. A number of individual genes involved in triacylglycerol metabolism have previously been reported to enhance the oil content of seeds when their expression is altered. However, it has yet to be established whether specific combinations of these genes can be used to achieve an additive effect and whether this leads to enhanced yield. Using Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) as an experimental system, we show that seed-specific overexpression of WRINKLED1 (a transcriptional regulator of glycolysis and fatty acid synthesis) and DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE1 (a triacylglycerol biosynthetic enzyme) combined with suppression of the triacylglycerol lipase SUGAR-DEPENDENT1 results in a higher percentage seed oil content and greater seed mass than manipulation of each gene individually. Analysis of total seed yield per plant suggests that, despite a reduction in seed number, the total yield of oil is also increased. PMID:24696520

  3. Development and validation of an environmentally friendly attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region method for the determination of ethanol content in used engine lubrication oil.

    PubMed

    Hatanaka, Rafael Rodrigues; Sequinel, Rodrigo; Gualtieri, Carlos Eduardo; Tercini, Antônio Carlos Bergamaschi; Flumignan, Danilo Luiz; de Oliveira, José Eduardo

    2013-05-15

    Lubricating oils are crucial in the operation of automotive engines because they both reduce friction between moving parts and protect against corrosion. However, the performance of lubricant oil may be affected by contaminants, such as gasoline, diesel, ethanol, water and ethylene glycol. Although there are many standard methods and studies related to the quantification of contaminants in lubricant oil, such as gasoline and diesel oil, to the best of our knowledge, no methods have been reported for the quantification of ethanol in used Otto cycle engine lubrication oils. Therefore, this work aimed at the development and validation of a routine method based on partial least-squares multivariate analysis combined with attenuated total reflectance in the mid-infrared region to quantify ethanol content in used lubrication oil. The method was validated based on its figures of merit (using the net analyte signal) as follows: limit of detection (0.049%), limit of quantification (0.16%), accuracy (root mean square error of prediction=0.089% w/w), repeatability (0.05% w/w), fit (R(2)=0.9997), mean selectivity (0.047), sensitivity (0.011), inverse analytical sensitivity (0.016% w/w(-1)) and signal-to-noise ratio (max: 812.4 and min: 200.9). The results show that the proposed method can be routinely implemented for the quality control of lubricant oils.

  4. Oil spill removal techniques and equipment. (Latest citations from Fluidex (Fluid Engineering Abstracts) database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning equipment and techniques for the control, dispersal, cleanup, and disposal of oil spills. Topics include chemical dispersants, booms, and mechanical skimmers. The citations emphasize spill removal for harbors, estuaries, and shorelines, and examine spill impact on water birds and marine life. (Contains a minimum of 195 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  5. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  6. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and lower alcohol with octanol surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A. W.; Pryde, E. H.

    1985-12-10

    Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, methanol or ethanol, A straight-chain isomer of octanol, and optionally water. The fuels are characterized by a relatively high water tolerance, acceptable viscosity, and performance properties comparable to No. 2 diesel fuel.

  7. Particulate emissions from a stationary engine fueled with ultra-low-sulfur diesel and waste-cooking-oil-derived biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture.

  8. Particulate Emissions from a Stationary Engine Fueled with Ultra-Low-Sulfur Diesel and Waste-Cooking-Oil-Derived Biodiesel.

    PubMed

    Betha, Raghu; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2011-10-01

    Stationary diesel engines, especially diesel generators, are increasingly being used in both developing countries and developed countries because of increased power demand. Emissions from such engines can have adverse effects on the environment and public health. In this study, particulate emissions from a domestic stationary diesel generator running on ultra-low-sulfur diesel (ULSD) and biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil were characterized for different load conditions. Results indicated a reduction in particulate matter (PM) mass and number emissions while switching diesel to biodiesel. With increase in engine load, it was observed that particle mass increased, although total particle counts decreased for all the fuels. The reduction in total number concentration at higher loads was, however, dependent on percentage of biodiesel in the diesel-biodiesel blend. For pure biodiesel (B100), the reduction in PM emissions for full load compared to idle mode was around 9%, whereas for ULSD the reduction was 26%. A large fraction of ultrafine particles (UFPs) was found in the emissions from biodiesel compared to ULSD. Nearly 90% of total particle concentration in biodiesel emissions comprised ultrafine particles. Particle peak diameter shifted from a smaller to a lower diameter with increase in biodiesel percentage in the fuel mixture. [Box: see text].

  9. Thiol oxidation and protein cross-link formation during chill storage of pork patties added essential oil of oregano, rosemary, or garlic.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Gema; Jongberg, Sisse; Andersen, Mogens L; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-10-01

    The effect of two levels (0.05% and 0.4%) of essential oil of rosemary, oregano, or garlic on protein oxidation in pork patties was studied during storage under modified atmosphere (MAP: 70% O2: 20% CO2: 10% N2) or under aerobic conditions (AE) at 4°C. The oxidative stability of the meat proteins was evaluated as loss of thiols for up to 9 days of storage, and as formation of myosin cross-links analyzed by SDS-PAGE after 12 days of storage. Protein thiols were lost during storage to yield myosin disulfide cross-links. Essential oils of rosemary and oregano were found to retard the loss of thiols otherwise resulting in myosin cross-links. Garlic essential oil, on the contrary, was found to promote protein oxidation, as seen by an extreme loss in thiol groups, and elevated myosin cross-link formation compared to control.

  10. Modified Thermoresponsive Hyperbranched Polymers for Improved Viscosity and Enhanced Lubricity of Engine Oils

    SciTech Connect

    Cosimbescu, Lelia; Robinson, Joshua W.; Bays, John Timothy; Qu, Jun; West, Brian

    2016-09-30

    The manuscript captures the chronological succession of the molecular design progression through multiple architectures and topologies of the polymeric viscosity index improvers and their rheology bench test performance. Tribology testing was also performed on selected analogs and their friction and wear was evaluated. Finally, a top performing polymer was selected for engine testing, scaled-up, and its rheological performance in a complete formulation was assessed. The engine performance of the viscosity index improver was examined against an industry-established baseline.

  11. A Honeycomb-Structured Ti-6Al-4V Oil-Gas Separation Rotor Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting for Aero-engine Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, H. P.; Wang, Q. B.; Yang, G. Y.; Gu, J.; Liu, N.; Jia, L.; Qian, M.

    2016-03-01

    Oil -gas separation is a key process in an aero-engine lubrication system. This study reports an innovative development in oil -gas separation. A honeycomb-structured rotor with hexagonal cone-shaped pore channels has been designed, additively manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V using selective electron beam melting (SEBM) and assessed for oil -gas separation for aero-engine application. The Ti-6Al-4V honeycomb structure showed a high compressive strength of 110 MPa compared to less than 20 MPa for metal foam structures. The oil -gas separation efficiency of the honeycomb-structured separation rotor achieved 99.8% at the rotation speed of 6000 rpm with much lower ventilation resistance (17.3 kPa) than that of the separator rotor constructed using a Ni-Cr alloy foam structure (23.5 kPa). The honeycomb-structured Ti-6Al-4V separator rotor produced by SEBM provides a promising solution to more efficient oil -gas separation in the aero-engine lubrication system.

  12. Emissions of particulate matter and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from agricultural diesel engine fueled with degummed, deacidified mixed crude palm oil blends.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Tekasakul, Surajit; Tekasakul, Perapong; Prateepchaikul, Gumpon; Jindapetch, Naret; Furuuchi, Masami; Hata, Mitsuhiko

    2013-04-01

    Mixed crude palm oil (MCPO), the mixture of palm fiber oil and palm kernel oil, has become of great interest as a renewable energy source. It can be easily extracted from whole dried palm fruits. In the present work, the degummed, deacidified MCPO was blended in petroleum diesel at portions of 30% and 40% by volume and then tested in agricultural diesel engines for long-term usage. The particulates from the exhaust of the engines were collected every 500 hr using a four-stage cascade air sampler. The 50% cut-off aerodynamic diameters for the first three stages were 10, 2.5 and 1 microm, while the last stage collected all particles smaller than 1 microm. Sixteen particle bounded polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography. The results indicated that the size distribution of particulate matter was in the accumulation mode and the pattern of total PAHs associated with fine-particles (< 1 microm) showed a dominance of larger molecular weight PAHs (4-6 aromatic rings), especially pyrene. The mass median diameter, PM and total PAH concentrations decreased when increasing the palm oil content, but increased when the running hours of the engine were increased. In addition, Commercial petroleum diesel (PB0) gave the highest value of carcinogenic potency equivalent (BaP(eq)) for all particle size ranges. As the palm oil was increased, the BaP(eq) decreased gradually. Therefore the degummed-deacidified MCPO blends are recommended for diesel substitute.

  13. Thermal stability of oils added with avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) leaf extracts during the French potatoes frying.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Paula; García, Paula; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Robert, Paz

    2017-04-15

    Effect of the addition of avocado (Persea americana cv. Hass) or olive (Olea europaea cv. Arbequina) hydroalcoholic leaf extracts (AHE and OHE, respectively) on thermal stability of canola oil (CO) and high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) during French potatoes frying at 180°C was studied. The extracts were characterized by the total phenolic content, phenol chromatographic profiles and antioxidant activity. B-type trimer procyanidins were the major phenolic compounds identified in AHE. OHE showed higher phenol content, antioxidant activity regarding AHE. CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE decreased the formation of polar compounds and showed an anti-polymeric effect with respect to oils without extracts, whereas AHE extract showed a prooxidant effect on HOSO. Therefore, OHE showed an antioxidant effect on HOSO and CO under the studied conditions. In addition, all systems (CO+AHE, HOSO+AHE, CO+OHE and HOSO+OHE) increased the retention of tocopherols. These results demonstrate the potential utility of OHE as natural antioxidant for oils.

  14. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP’s proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success.

  15. A New High-Speed Oil-Free Turbine Engine Rotordynamic Simulator Test Rig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Samuel A.

    2007-01-01

    A new test rig has been developed for simulating high-speed turbomachinery rotor systems using Oil-Free foil air bearing technology. Foil air bearings have been used in turbomachinery, primarily air cycle machines, for the past four decades to eliminate the need for oil lubrication. The goal of applying this bearing technology to other classes of turbomachinery has prompted the fabrication of this test rig. The facility gives bearing designers the capability to test potential bearing designs with shafts that simulate the rotating components of a target machine without the high cost of building "make-and-break" hardware. The data collected from this rig can be used to make design changes to the shaft and bearings in subsequent design iterations. This paper describes the new test rig and demonstrates its capabilities through the initial run with a simulated shaft system.

  16. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

    PubMed

    McNutt, Marcia K; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A; Kennedy, David M

    2012-12-11

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP's proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success.

  17. Applications of science and engineering to quantify and control the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, Marcia K.; Chu, Steven; Lubchenco, Jane; Hunter, Tom; Dreyfus, Gabrielle; Murawski, Steven A.; Kennedy, David M.

    2012-01-01

    The unprecedented engagement of scientists from government, academia, and industry enabled multiple unanticipated and unique problems to be addressed during the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. During the months between the initial blowout on April 20, 2010, and the final well kill on September 19, 2010, researchers prepared options, analyses of tradeoffs, assessments, and calculations of uncertainties associated with the flow rate of the well, well shut in, killing the well, and determination of the location of oil released into the environment. This information was used in near real time by the National Incident Commander and other government decision-makers. It increased transparency into BP’s proposed actions and gave the government confidence that, at each stage proposed, courses of action had been thoroughly vetted to reduce risk to human life and the environment and improve chances of success. PMID:23213225

  18. Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shanshan; Luo, Yijing; Cao, Siyuan; Li, Wenhong; Zhang, Zhongzhi; Jiang, Lingxi; Dong, Hanping; Yu, Li; Wu, Wei-Min

    2013-09-01

    Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests.

  19. Microemulsions from vegetable oil and aqueous alcohol with trialkylamine surfactant as alternative fuel for diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.W.; Pryde, E.H.

    1984-05-29

    Hybrid fuel microemulsions are prepared from vegetable oil, a C/sub 1/-C/sub 3/ alcohol, water, and a surfactant comprising a lower trialkylamine. For enhanced water tolerance by the fuel, the amine is reacted with a longchain fatty acid for conversion to the corresponding trialkylammonium soap. Optionally, 1-butanol is incorporated into the system as a cosurfactant for the purpose of lowering both the viscosity and the solidification temperature.

  20. Engineering bacteria for production of rhamnolipid as an agent for enhanced oil recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qinhong; Fang, Xiangdong; Bai, Baojun; Liang, Xiaolin; Shuler, Patrick J; Goddard, William A; Tang, Yongchun

    2007-11-01

    Rhamnolipid as a potent natural biosurfactant has a wide range of potential applications, including enhanced oil recovery (EOR), biodegradation, and bioremediation. Rhamnolipid is composed of rhamnose sugar molecule and beta-hydroxyalkanoic acid. The rhamnosyltransferase 1 complex (RhlAB) is the key enzyme responsible for transferring the rhamnose moiety to the beta-hydroxyalkanoic acid moiety to biosynthesize rhamnolipid. Through transposome-mediated chromosome integration, the RhlAB gene was inserted into the chromosome of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1-rhlA(-) and Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3), neither of which could produce rhamnolipid. After chromosome integration of the RhlAB gene, the constitute strains P. aeruginosa PEER02 and E. coli TnERAB did produce rhamnolipid. The HPLC/MS spectrum showed that the structure of purified rhamnolipid from P. aeruginosa PEER02 was similar to that from other P. aeruginosa strains, but with different percentage for each of the several congeners. The main congener (near 60%) of purified rhamnolipid from E. coli TnERAB was 3-(3-hydroxydecanoyloxy) decanoate (C(10)-C(10)) with mono-rhamnose. The surfactant performance of rhamnolipid was evaluated by measurement of interfacial tension (IFT) and oil recovery via sand-pack flooding tests. As expected, pH and salt concentration of the rhamnolipid solution significantly affected the IFT properties. With just 250 mg/L rhamnolipid (from P. aeruginosa PEER02 with soybean oil as substrate) in citrate-Na(2)HPO(4), pH 5, 2% NaCl, 42% of oil otherwise trapped was recovered from a sand pack. This result suggests rhamnolipid might be considered for EOR applications.

  1. n-alkane profiles of engine lubricating oil and particulate matter by molecular sieve extraction.

    PubMed

    Caravaggio, Gianni A; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Macdonald, Penny; Graham, Lisa

    2007-05-15

    As part of the Canadian Atmospheric Fine Particle Research Program to obtain reliable primary source emission profiles, a molecular sieve method was developed to reliably determine n-alkanes in lubricating oils, vehicle emissions, and mobile source dominated ambient particulate matter (PM). This work was also initiated to better calculate carbon preference index values (CPI: the ratio of the sums of odd over even n-alkanes), a parameter for estimating anthropogenic versus biogenic contributions in PM. n-Alkanes in lubricating oil and mobile source dominated PM are difficult to identify and quantify by gas chromatography due to the presence of similar components that cannot be fully resolved. This results in a hump, the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) that leads to incorrect n-alkane concentrations and CPI values. The sieve method yielded better chromatography, unambiguous identification of n-alkanes and allowed examination of differences between n-alkane profiles in light (LDV) and heavy duty vehicle (HDV) lubricating oils that would have been otherwise difficult. These profile differences made it possible to relate the LDV profile to that of the PM samples collected during a tunnel study in August 2001 near Vancouver (British Columbia, Canada). The n-alkane PM data revealed that longer sampling times result in a negative artifact, i.e., the desorption of the more volatile n-alkanes from the filters. Furthermore, the sieve procedure yielded n-alkane data that allowed calculation of accurate CPI values for lubricating oils and PM samples. Finally, this method may prove helpful in estimating the respective diesel and gasoline contributions to ambient PM.

  2. Combustion of hydrotreated vegetable oil and jatropha methyl ester in a heavy duty engine: emissions and bacterial mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Westphal, Götz A; Krahl, Jürgen; Munack, Axel; Rosenkranz, Nina; Schröder, Olaf; Schaak, Jens; Pabst, Christoph; Brüning, Thomas; Bünger, Jürgen

    2013-06-04

    Research on renewable fuels has to assess possible adverse health and ecological risks as well as conflicts with global food supply. This investigation compares the two newly developed biogenic diesel fuels hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) and jatropha methyl ester (JME) with fossil diesel fuel (DF) and rapeseed methyl ester (RME) for their emissions and bacterial mutagenic effects. Samples of exhaust constituents were compared after combustion in a Euro III heavy duty diesel engine. Regulated emissions were analyzed as well as particle size and number distributions, carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and bacterial mutagenicity of the exhausts. Combustion of RME and JME resulted in lower particulate matter (PM) compared to DF and HVO. Particle numbers were about 1 order of magnitude lower for RME and JME. However, nitrogen oxides (NOX) of RME and JME exceeded the Euro III limit value of 5.0 g/kWh, while HVO combustion produced the smallest amount of NOX. RME produced the lowest emissions of hydrocarbons (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) followed by JME. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several other carbonyls were found in the emissions of all investigated fuels. PAH emissions and mutagenicity of the exhausts were generally low, with HVO revealing the smallest number of mutations and lowest PAH emissions. Each fuel showed certain advantages or disadvantages. As proven before, both biodiesel fuels produced increased NOX emissions compared to DF. HVO showed significant toxicological advantages over all other fuels. Since jatropha oil is nonedible and grows in arid regions, JME may help to avoid conflicts with the food supply worldwide. Hydrogenated jatropha oil should now be investigated if it combines the benefits of both new fuels.

  3. Assessment of infrared spectroscopy and multivariate techniques for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils.

    PubMed

    Caneca, Arnobio Roberto; Pimentel, M Fernanda; Galvão, Roberto Kawakami Harrop; da Matta, Cláudia Eliane; de Carvalho, Florival Rodrigues; Raimundo, Ivo M; Pasquini, Celio; Rohwedder, Jarbas J R

    2006-09-15

    This paper presents two methodologies for monitoring the service condition of diesel-engine lubricating oils on the basis of infrared spectra. In the first approach, oils samples are discriminated into three groups, each one associated to a given wear stage. An algorithm is proposed to select spectral variables with good discriminant power and small collinearity for the purpose of discriminant analysis classification. As a result, a classification accuracy of 93% was obtained both in the middle (MIR) and near-infrared (NIR) ranges. The second approach employs multivariate calibration methods to predict the viscosity of the lubricant. In this case, the use of absorbance measurements in the NIR spectral range was not successful, because of experimental difficulties associated to the presence of particulate matter. Such a problem was circumvented by the use of attenuated total reflectance (ATR) measurements in the MIR spectral range, in which an RMSEP of 3.8cSt and a relative average error of 3.2% were attained.

  4. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  5. Effects of surface-engineered nanoparticle-based dispersants for marine oil spills on the model organism Artemia franciscana.

    PubMed

    Rodd, April L; Creighton, Megan A; Vaslet, Charles A; Rangel-Mendez, J Rene; Hurt, Robert H; Kane, Agnes B

    2014-06-03

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50-1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25-50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25-75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms.

  6. Effects of Surface-Engineered Nanoparticle-Based Dispersants for Marine Oil Spills on the Model Organism Artemia franciscana

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Fine particles are under active consideration as alternatives to chemical dispersants for large-scale petroleum spills. Fine carbon particles with engineered surface chemistry have been shown to stabilize oil-in-water emulsions, but the environmental impacts of large-scale particle introduction to the marine environment are unknown. Here we study the impact of surface-engineered carbon-black materials on brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) as a model marine microcrustacean. Mortality was characterized at 50–1000 mg/L, and levels of heat shock protein 70 (hsp70) were characterized at sublethal particle concentrations (25–50 mg/L). Functionalized carbon black (CB) nanoparticles were found to be nontoxic at all concentrations, while hydrophobic (annealed) and as-produced CB induced adverse effects at high concentrations. CB was also shown to adsorb benzene, a model hydrocarbon representing the more soluble and toxic low-molecular weight aromatic fraction of petroleum, but the extent of adsorption was insufficient to mitigate benzene toxicity to Artemia in coexposure experiments. At lower benzene concentrations (25–75 mg/L), coexposure with annealed and as-produced CB increased hsp70 protein levels. This study suggests that surface functionalization for increased hydrophilicity can not only improve the performance of CB-based dispersants but also reduce their adverse environmental impacts on marine organisms. PMID:24823274

  7. Performance and Emission Characteristics of a Compression Ignition Engine Operating on Blends of Castor Oil Biodiesel-Diesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanwar, Roopesh; Sharma, Pushpendra Kumar; Singh, Aditya Narayan; Agrawal, Yadvendra Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Diesel vehicles are the nerves and veins of transportation, particularly in developing countries. With the rapid rate of modernization, increasing demand of fuel is inevitable. The exponential increase in fuel prices and the scarcity of its supply from the environment have promoted interest in the development of alternative sources of fuel. In this work, genus Ricinus communis L. was studied in order to delimit their potential as a raw material for biodiesel production. Further, castor oil, ethyl ester were prepared by transesterification using potassium hydroxide (KOH) as a catalyst and tested on a four-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine. The test was carried out at a constant speed of 3000 rpm at different loads. The results represent a substantial decrease in carbon monoxide (CO) emission with an increasing biodiesel percentage. The reduction of CO in B05, B10, B15 and B20 averaged 11.75, 22.02, 24.23 and 28.79 %, respectively, compared to mineral diesel. The emission results of the comparative test indicated that CO, oxygen (O2) and smoke density emissions are found to be lower when the engine is filled with B05, B10, B15 and B20 as compared to mineral diesel, while carbon dioxide (CO2) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) with B05, B10, B15 and B20 are found to increase marginally. Brake thermal efficiency and brake specific fuel consumption decrease and increase respectively in biodiesel with different blends in comparison of mineral diesel.

  8. Role of reservoir engineering in the assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verma, M.K.; Bird, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    The geology and reservoir-engineering data were integrated in the 2002 U.S. Geological Survey assessment of the National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA). VVhereas geology defined the analog pools and fields and provided the basic information on sizes and numbers of hypothesized petroleum accumulations, reservoir engineering helped develop necessary equations and correlations, which allowed the determination of reservoir parameters for better quantification of in-place petroleum volumes and recoverable reserves. Seismic- and sequence-stratigraphic study of the NPRA resulted in identification of 24 plays. Depth ranges in these 24 plays, however, were typically greater than depth ranges of analog plays for which there were available data, necessitating the need for establishing correlations. The basic parameters required were pressure, temperature, oil and gas formation volume factors, liquid/gas ratios for the associated and nonassociated gas, and recovery factors. Finally, the re sults of U.S. Geological Survey deposit simulation were used in carrying out an economic evaluation, which has been separately published. Copyright ?? 2005. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  9. A highly resilient mesoporous SiOx lithium storage material engineered by oil-water templating.

    PubMed

    Park, Eunjun; Park, Min-Sik; Lee, Jaewoo; Kim, Ki Jae; Jeong, Goojin; Kim, Jung Ho; Kim, Young-Jun; Kim, Hansu

    2015-02-01

    Mesoporous silicon-based materials gained considerable attention as high-capacity lithium-storage materials. However, the practical use is still limited by the complexity and limited number of available synthetic routes. Here, we report carbon-coated porous SiOx as high capacity lithium storage material prepared by using a sol-gel reaction of hydrogen silsesquioxane and oil-water templating. A hydrophobic oil is employed as a pore former inside the SiOx matrix and a precursor for carbon coating on the SiOx . The anode exhibits a high capacity of 730 mAh g(-1) and outstanding cycling performance over 100 cycles without significant dimensional changes. Carbon-coated porous SiOx also showed highly stable thermal reliability comparable to that of graphite. These promising properties come from the mesopores in the SiOx matrix, which ensures reliable operation of lithium storage in SiOx . The scalable sol-gel process presented here can open up a new avenue for the versatile preparation of porous SiOx lithium storage materials.

  10. Bioremediation of oil polluted marine sediments: A bio-engineering treatment.

    PubMed

    Cappello, Simone; Calogero, Rosario; Santisi, Santina; Genovese, Maria; Denaro, Renata; Genovese, Lucrezia; Giuliano, Laura; Mancini, Giuseppe; Yakimov, Michail M

    2015-06-01

    The fate of hydrocarbon pollutants and the development of oil-degrading indigenous marine bacteria in contaminated sediments are strongly influenced by abiotic factors such as temperature, low oxygen levels, and nutrient availability. In this work, the effects of different biodegradation processes (bioremediation) on oil-polluted anoxic sediments were analyzed. In particular, as a potential bioremediation strategy for polluted sediments, we applied a prototype of the "Modular Slurry System" (MSS), allowing containment of the sediments and their physical-chemical treatment (by air insufflations, temperature regulation, and the use of a slow-release fertilizer). Untreated polluted sediments served as the blank in a non-controlled experiment. During the experimental period (30 days), bacterial density and biochemical oxygen demand were measured and functional genes were identified by screening. Quantitative measurements of pollutants and an eco-toxicological analysis (mortality of Corophium orientale) were carried out at the beginning and end of the experiments. The results demonstrated the high biodegradative capability achieved with the proposed technology and its strong reduction of pollutant concentrations and thus toxicity.

  11. 78 FR 34605 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International S.A. Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ....A. Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ] ACTION: Notice of proposed...-7B series turbofan engines with certain accessory gearboxes (AGBs) not equipped with a handcranking pad ``oil dynamic seal'' assembly. This proposed AD was prompted by 42 events of total loss of...

  12. Effects on Fuel Consumption and Diesel Engine Deposits from Nano-Particle Oil Additive

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    Products HTBCT High Temperature Benchtop Corrosion Test HwFET Highway Fuel Economy Test IF Inorganic Fullerene JP-8 A kerosene based jet fuel lbs...engine crankcase lubricants at the request of TARDEC. This additive contains inorganic fullerene -like (IF) nano- particles of WS2 which were claimed...volume and hardness change are shown in Table 4 with MIL-PRF-46167D specified limits. Table 4: Seal Compatibility Test Results Material Property

  13. 77 FR 9837 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ...; AD 2012-03-07] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines AGENCY... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lycoming Engines reciprocating engines. This AD was prompted by a... carburetor with one eligible for installation. We are issuing this AD to prevent engine in-flight...

  14. An engineering approach to design of dextran microgels size fabricated by water/oil emulsification.

    PubMed

    Salimi-Kenari, Hamed; Imani, Mohammad; Nodehi, Azizollah; Abedini, Hossein

    2016-09-01

    A correlation, based on fluid mechanics, has been investigated for the mean particle diameter of crosslinked dextran microgels (CDMs) prepared via a water/oil emulsification methodology conducted in a single-stirred vessel. To this end, non-dimensional correlations were developed to predict the mean particle size of CDMs as a function of Weber number, Reynolds number and viscosity number similar to ones introduced for liquid-liquid dispersions. Moreover, a Rosin-Rammler distribution function has been successfully applied to the microgel particle size distributions. The correlations were validated using experimentally obtained mean particle sizes for CDMs prepared at different stirring conditions. The validated correlation is especially applicable to medical and pharmaceutical applications where strict control on the mean particle size and size distribution of CDMs are extremely essential. [Formula: see text].

  15. 14 CFR 23.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10... turbine engine, that can retain any appreciable quantity of oil, must have provisions for fitting a drain... the diameter of the engine oil pump inlet. Each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have means...

  16. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  17. Seismic evaluation of NOSR 2. Naval Oil Shale Reserves management support and systems engineering project. [Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    In June 1981, the Department of Energy (DOE) elected to conduct a seismic evaluation of NOSR 2 in Utah. This survey was carried out by TRW for DOE as part of the resource assessment of the Naval Oil Shale Reserves. The objective of the seismic survey was to determine if there are any structures on the Reserve which may have trapped hydrocarbons. An evaluation of the results indicated the elongated anticlinal structure in the southeast corner (Tabyago Dome) does have dip reversal and that there is a closed structure. Centered in Section 21, T13S, R19E, that structure has a high probability of having trapped hydrocarbons. Any well drilled on that structure should test all the potential producing formations down to the Pre-Cambrian (15,000 feet). It is also possible that several stratigraphic traps exist on a north-trending anticline in R19E. The seismic survey was carried out during August-September 1981 when the Seismograph Service Corporation (SSC) shot an additional eight seismic lines over the entire Reserve. With the three existing commercial seismic lines, a total of 66.25 miles of seismic profiles were available for the evaluation. Additional geologic information from existing reports and data from producing areas which surround the Reserve also were used in making the final assessment. 9 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Experimental investigation on regulated and unregulated emissions of a diesel engine fueled with ultra-low sulfur diesel fuel blended with biodiesel from waste cooking oil.

    PubMed

    Di, Yage; Cheung, C S; Huang, Zuohua

    2009-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on a 4-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine using ultra-low sulfur diesel, bi oesel and their blends, to investigate the regulated and unregulated emissions of the engine under five engine loads at an engine speed of 1800 rev/min. Blended fuels containing 19.6%, 39.4%, 59.4% and 79.6% by volume of biodiesel, corresponding to 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% by mass of oxygen in the blended fuel, were used. Biodiesel used in this study was converted from waste cooking oil. The following results are obtained with an increase of biodiesel in the fuel. The brake specific fuel consumption and the brake thermal efficiency increase. The HC and CO emissions decrease while NO(x) and NO(2) emissions increase. The smoke opacity and particulate mass concentrations reduce significantly at high engine load. In addition, for submicron particles, the geometry mean diameter of the particles becomes smaller while the total number concentration increases. For the unregulated gaseous emissions, generally, the emissions of formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylene decrease, however, acetaldehyde and benzene emissions increase. The results indicate that the combination of ultra-low sulfur diesel and biodiesel from waste cooking oil gives similar results to those in the literature using higher sulfur diesel fuels and biodiesel from other sources.

  19. Critical review, comparative evaluation, cost update, and baseline data development services in oil shale mining, in-situ liquefaction, and above ground retorting processes from the environmental, permitting, and licensing viewpoints. Volume I. Oil-shale retorting process engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-15

    The present volume is the first of a series of three constituting the title study. It provides a brief but thorough description of six Oil Shale Retorting Processes, namely: Paraho, Tosco II, Oxidental Modified In-Situ, Rio Blanco, Union Oil, and Superior Oil. The processes are treated at Unit Operations level, including operations such as Mining, Crushing, Screening, Conveying, Hydrogenation (or Upgrading), Hydrogen Manufacturing Plant, Amine Treating, Low-Btu Gas Treating, Tail Gas Treating, Sulfur Recovery, Wastewater Treatment, Sour Waste Stripping, Refining, Spent Shale Disposal, etc. The present first volume of the study provides most process engineering information required in order for Control Requirements, at specific points of a given unit operations flowsheet, to be fully assessed. Flow sheets for unit operations presented in the present Volume I are only conceptual and qualitative. Some quantitative data on volumeric flow rates of specific flow streams are occasionally given. However, no systematic effort has been presently made to develop a numerical data base on process flow streams. This has been done in a much more systematic and thorough manner in another FMR study performed on behalf of DOE under title Source Terms for the Health and Environmental Effects Document (HEED) for Oil Shale - 1982. Additional original quantitative analysis has been performed by FMR towards developing material balances for specific oil shale feeds into specific retorting processes.

  20. Genetic enhancement of oil content in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) through an integrated metabolic engineering strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Guo, Qigao; Akbar, Sehrish; Zhi, Yao; El Tahchy, Anna; Mitchell, Madeline; Li, Zhongyi; Shrestha, Pushkar; Vanhercke, Thomas; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Liang, Guolu; Wang, Ming-Bo; White, Rosemary; Larkin, Philip; Singh, Surinder; Petrie, James

    2017-01-01

    Potato tuber is a high yielding food crop known for its high levels of starch accumulation but only negligible levels of triacylglycerol (TAG). In this study, we evaluated the potential for lipid production in potato tubers by simultaneously introducing three transgenes, including WRINKLED 1 (WRI1), DIACYLGLYCEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE 1 (DGAT1) and OLEOSIN under the transcriptional control of tuber-specific (patatin) and constitutive (CaMV-35S) promoters. This coordinated metabolic engineering approach resulted in over a 100-fold increase in TAG accumulation to levels up to 3.3% of tuber dry weight (DW). Phospholipids and galactolipids were also found to be significantly increased in the potato tuber. The increase of lipids in these transgenic tubers was accompanied by a significant reduction in starch content and an increase in soluble sugars. Microscopic examination revealed that starch granules in the transgenic tubers had more irregular shapes and surface indentations when compared with the relatively smooth surfaces of wild-type starch granules. Ultrastructural examination of lipid droplets showed their close proximity to endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria, which may indicate a dynamic interaction with these organelles during the processes of lipid biosynthesis and turnover. Increases in lipid levels were also observed in the transgenic potato leaves, likely due to the constitutive expression of DGAT1 and incomplete tuber specificity of the patatin promoter. This study represents an important proof-of-concept demonstration of oil increase in tubers and provides a model system to further study carbon reallocation during development of nonphotosynthetic underground storage organs.

  1. Emissions of EC, OC, and PAHs from cottonseed oil biodiesel in a heavy-duty diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei W; He, Ke B; Wang, Jian X; Wang, Xin T; Shi, Xiao Y; Yu, Chao; Chen, Wen M; Zheng, Liang

    2011-08-01

    Biodiesel fuels, made from renewable resources, have emerged as viable alternatives to conventional diesel fuel, but their impact on emissions is not fully understood. This study examines elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emissions from cottonseed oil biodiesel (CSO-B100). Relative to normal diesel fuel, CSO-B100 reduced EC emissions by 64% (±16%). The bulk of EC emitted from CSO-B100 was in the fine particle mode (<1.4 μm), which is similar to normal diesel. OC was found in all size ranges, whereas emissions of OC(1.4-2.5) were proportionately higher in OC(2.5) from CSO-B100 than from diesel. The CSO-B100 emission factors derived from this study are significantly lower, even without aftertreatment, than the China-4 emission standards established in Beijing and Euro-IV diesel engine standards. The toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for CSO-B100 was half the TEFs of diesel, which suggests that PAHs emitted from CSO-B100 may be less toxic.

  2. The impact of using biodiesel/marine gas oil blends on exhaust emissions from a stationary diesel engine.

    PubMed

    Karavalakis, G; Tzirakis, E; Mattheou, L; Stournas, S; Zannikos, F; Karonis, D

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the impact of marine gas oil (MGO)/biodiesel blends on the exhaust emissions and fuel consumption in a single cylinder, stationary, diesel engine. Three different origins of biodiesel were used as the blending feedstock with the reference MGO, at proportions of 5 and 10% by volume. Methyl esters were examined according to the automotive FAME standard EN 14214. The baseline MGO and biodiesel blends were examined according to ISO 8217:2005 specifications for the DMA category. Independently of the biodiesel used, a decrease of PM, HC, CO and CO(2) emissions was observed. Emissions of NO(x) were also lower with respect to MGO. This reduction in NO(x) may be attributed to some physicochemical properties of the fuels applied, such as the higher cetane number and the lower volatility of methyl esters. Reductions in PM for biodiesel blends were lower in the exhaust than those of the reference fuel which was attributed to the oxygen content and the near absence of sulphur and aromatics compounds in biodiesel. However, a slight increase in fuel consumption was observed for the biodiesel blends that may be tolerated due to the exhaust emissions benefits. Brake thermal efficiency was also determined. Unregulated emissions were characterized by determining the soluble organic fraction content of the particulate matter.

  3. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of Kerabala: a value-added ayurvedic formulation from virgin coconut oil inhibits pathogenesis in adjuvant-induced arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ratheesh, M; Sandya, S; Pramod, C; Asha, S; Svenia, Jose P; Premlal, S; GrishKumar, B

    2017-02-01

    Kerabala (CB) is a novel ayurvedic formulation used for treating various inflammatory diseases. This formulation was made from virgin coconut oil and it comprises extracts of Sida cordifolia, coconut milk and sesame oil. The current study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory action of CB on carrageenan-induced acute and adjuvant-induced chronic experimental models. 5 mg/kg bwt was found to be potent dose from carrageenan model and evaluated its effect in adjuvant-induced chronic arthritic model. The antioxidant assays like SOD, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, lipid peroxidation product, nitrate level and GSH were measured in paw tissue. Hematological parameters like hemoglobin (HB) count, ESR, WBC count, plasma CRP levels were analyzed. By RT-PCR, the inflammatory markers like cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) expressions were evaluated. The extracellular matrix proteins like MMP-2 and MMP-9 were determined by zymography and its expression by western blotting. Histopathology and cytology of paw tissue and synovium were analyzed. The result indicated that there was a significant increment in the levels of antioxidant enzymes on CB administration. The hematological markers such as ESR, WBC and plasma CRP levels were reduced by CB treatment and it also increases the HB level. The upregulated gene level expressions of inflammatory markers like COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated by administration of CB. MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression significantly reduced by CB administration. Massive influx of inflammatory cell infiltration, proliferative collagen in histological analysis of paw tissue of arthritic rat was decreased by CB administration. Synovial cytology of CB administrated group shows reduced number of reactive mesothelial cells and synovial inflammatory cells. This current study shows that ayurvedic drug CB has an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and

  4. The Effects of Tocotrienols Added to Canola Oil on Microalbuminuria, Inflammation, and Nitrosative Stress in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo-controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Haghighat, Neda; Vafa, Mohammadreza; Eghtesadi, Shahryar; Heidari, Iraj; Hosseini, Aghafatemeh; Rostami, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tocotrienols (T3) were neglected in the past; today, get attentions due to their antioxidant and none-antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the daily intake of 200 mg T3 added in canola oil over 8 weeks on microalbuminuria, inflammation, and nitrosative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: This study was a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial. A total of 50 patients with T2DM and FBS >126 mg/dl treated by non-insulin hypoglycemic drugs were randomly assigned to receive either 15 ml T3-enriched canola oil (200 mg/day T3) or pure canola oil for 8 weeks. Urine microalbumin, volume and creatinine levels, serum hs-CRP, and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured before and after intervention. Results: From 50 patients participated in this study, 44 completed the study. There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics, dietary intake, and physical activity between groups. Urine microalbumin and serum hs-CRP were declined significantly in T3-treated group. At the end of the study, patients who treated with T3 had lower urine microalbumin (11 (9, 25) vs. 22 (15, 39.75) nmol/dl, P = 0.003) and hs-CRP changes (−10.91 ± 15.5 vs. −9.88 ± 27.5 Pg/ml, P = 0.048) than control group. A non-significant decrease was also observed in serum NO level in T3-treated group with no changes in urine volume and creatinine levels. Conclusions: These findings indicate that T3 leads to ameliorate proteinuria and can protect the kidney against inflammation (hs-CRP) and nitrosative stress (NO). PMID:24932394

  5. Carbon Nanotube-like Materials in the Exhaust from a Diesel Engine Using Gas Oil/Ethanol Mixing Fuel with Catalysts and Sulphur.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shunsuke; Mori, Shinsuke

    2017-02-28

    Particle matters from a diesel engine including soot and carbon nanomaterials were collected on a sampling holder and their structure was studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result of employing gas oil/ethanol mixing fuel with sulphur and ferrocene/molybdenum as catalyst sources, formation of carbon nanotubes (CNT)-like materials in addition to soot was observed in the exhaust gas from a diesel engine. It was revealed that CNT-like materials were included among soot in our system only when following three conditions were satisfied simultaneously; high ethanol fraction in fuel, high sulphur loading and presence of catalyst sources in fuel. This report confirmed that if at least one of above three conditions was not satisfied, CNT-like materials were not observed in the exhaust from a diesel engine. These experimental results shown in this work will provide insights into understanding of CNT-like material formation mechanism in a diesel engine. Implications Recent papers reported that carbon nanotube-like materials were included in the exhaust gas from engines, but investigating conditions for carbon nanotube-like material formation has not been well studied. This work provides required conditions for carbon nanotube-like material growth in a diesel engine and this will be helpful for understanding of carbon nanotube-like material formation mechanism and taking countermeasures to preventing carbon nanotube-like material formation in a diesel engine.

  6. Effects of fish oil and starch added to a diet containing sunflower-seed oil on dairy goat performance, milk fatty acid composition and in vivo delta9-desaturation of [13C]vaccenic acid.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Laurence; Mouriot, Julien; Rouel, Jacques; Glasser, Frédéric; Capitan, Pierre; Pujos-Guillot, Estelle; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Chilliard, Yves

    2010-08-01

    The potential benefits on human health have prompted an interest in developing nutritional strategies for specifically increasing rumenic acid (RA) in ruminant milk. The aims of the present study were to (i) compare two dietary treatments with lipid supplements on milk yield and composition, (ii) measure the in vivo delta9-desaturation of vaccenic acid (VA) to RA using 13C-labelled VA and (iii) determine the effect of the dietary treatments on this variable. Treatments were 90 g sunflower-seed oil (SO) per d or 60 g sunflower-seed oil and 30 g fish oil per d plus additional starch (SFO), in a grassland hay-based diet given to eight Alpine goats in a 2 x 2 cross-over design with 21 d experimental periods. Milk yield and composition were similar between treatments. Goats fed SFO had higher milk 6 : 0-16 : 0 concentration, lower milk sigmaC18 concentrations and showed no effect on milk VA and RA, compared with SO. At the end of the experiment, intravenous injection of 1.5 g [13C]VA followed by measurements of milk lipid 13C enrichment showed that in vivo 31.7 and 31.6 % of VA was delta9-desaturated into milk RA in the caprine with the SO and SFO treatments, respectively. The expression of genes encoding for delta9-desaturase (or stearoyl-CoA desaturase; SCD1, SCD5) in mammary tissues and four milk delta9-desaturation ratios were similar between treatments. In conclusion, the present study provides the first estimates of in vivo endogenous synthesis of RA (63-73 % of milk RA) from VA in goats, and shows no difference between the two lipid supplements compared.

  7. Effects of subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to emissions from a diesel engine burning soybean oil-derived biodiesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Finch, G L; Hobbs, C H; Blair, L F; Barr, E B; Hahn, F F; Jaramillo, R J; Kubatko, J E; March, T H; White, R K; Krone, J R; Ménache, M G; Nikula, K J; Mauderly, J L; Van Gerpen, J; Merceica, M D; Zielinska, B; Stankowski, L; Burling, K; Howell, S

    2002-10-01

    There is increasing interest in diesel fuels derived from plant oils or animal fats ("biodiesel"), but little information on the toxicity of biodiesel emissions other than bacterial mutagenicity. F344 rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 13 wk to 1 of 3 dilutions of emissions from a diesel engine burning 100% soybean oil-derived fuel, or to clean air as controls. Whole emissions were diluted to nominal NO(x) concentrations of 5, 25, or 50 ppm, corresponding to approximately 0.04, 0.2, and 0.5 mg particles/m(3), respectively. Biologically significant, exposure-related effects were limited to the lung, were greater in females than in males, and were observed primarily at the highest exposure level. There was a dose-related increase in the numbers of alveolar macrophages and the numbers of particles in the macrophages, as expected from repeated exposure, but no neutrophil response even at the highest exposure level. The macrophage response was reduced 28 days after cessation of the exposure. Among the high-level females, the group mean lung weight/body weight ratio was increased, and minimal, multifocal bronchiolar metaplasia of alveolar ducts was observed in 4 of 30 rats. Lung weights were not significantly increased, and metaplasia of the alveolar ducts was not observed in males. An increase in particle-laden macrophages was the only exposure-related finding in lungs at the intermediate and low levels, with fewer macrophages and fewer particles per macrophage at the low level. Alveolar histiocytosis was observed in a few rats in both exposed and control groups. There were statistically significant, but minor and not consistently exposure-related, differences in body weight, nonpulmonary organ weights, serum chemistry, and glial fibrillary acidic protein in the brain. There were no significant exposure-related effects on survival, clinical signs, feed consumption, ocular toxicity, hematology, neurohistology, micronuclei in bone marrow, sister

  8. Influence of lubricant contamination by methylesters of plant oils on oxidation stability and life

    SciTech Connect

    Siekmann, R.W.; Blackman, D.; Pischinger, G.H.; Carvalho, L.D.

    1982-01-01

    Lubricating oil deterioration due to contamination by methylester of plant oil is studied in laboratory tests in MacCoull apparatus and, for comparison, bench and mixed-driving tests. Methylester of soybean oil (MESO) is added intentionally to the lubricating oil. Laboratory tests show that the amount of double bonds introduced is significant in increasing viscosity and reducing TBN. Gas-chromatographic analysis of extracted ester shows degradation mainly in fatty acids with conjugated double bonds. Tests in engines, both bench and mixed-driving, gave results similar to MacCoull but respectively and much less pronounced.

  9. Adding Value to the Learning Process by Online Peer Review Activities: Towards the Elaboration of a Methodology to Promote Critical Thinking in Future Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While…

  10. 77 FR 5167 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ...-26-AD; Amendment 39-16909; AD 71-13-01R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines.... SUMMARY: We are rescinding an airworthiness directive (AD) for Lycoming Engines model TIO-540-A series reciprocating engines. The existing AD, AD 71-13-01, was prompted by a report of a failed fuel injector...

  11. Brassica carinata as an alternative oil crop for the production of biodiesel in Italy: engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions.

    PubMed

    Cardone, Massimo; Prati, Maria Vittoria; Rocco, Vittorio; Seggiani, Maurizia; Senatore, Adolfo; Vitoloi, Sandra

    2002-11-01

    A comparison of the performance of Brassica carinata oil-derived biodiesel with a commercial rapeseed oil-derived biodiesel and petroleum diesel fuel is discussed as regards engine performance and regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions. B. carinata is an oil crop that can be cultivated in coastal areas of central-southern Italy, where it is more difficult to achieve the productivity potentials of Brassica napus (by far the most common rapeseed cultivated in continental Europe). Experimental tests were carried out on a turbocharged direct injection passenger car diesel engine fueled with 100% biodiesel. The unregulated exhaust emissions were characterized by determining the SOOT and soluble organic fraction content in the particulate matter, together with analysis of the content and speciation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, some of which are potentially carcinogenic, and of carbonyl compounds (aldehydes, ketones) that act as ozone precursors. B. carinata and commercial biodiesel behaved similarly as far as engine performance and regulated and unregulated emissions were concerned. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, the engine test bench analysis did not show any appreciable variation of output engine torque values, while there was a significant difference in specific fuel consumption data at the lowest loads for the biofuels and petroleum diesel fuel. The biofuels were observed to produce higher levels of NOx concentrations and lower levels of PM with respect to the diesel fuel. The engine heat release analysis conducted shows that there is a potential for increased thermal NOx generation when firing biodiesel with no prior modification to the injection timing. It seems that, for both the biofuels, this behavior is caused by an advanced combustion evolution, which is particularly apparent at the higher loads. When compared with petroleum diesel fuel, biodiesel emissions contain less SOOT, and a greater fraction of the particulate was soluble. The

  12. Effects of hydrotreated vegetable oil on emissions of aerosols and gases from light-duty and medium-duty older technology engines.

    PubMed

    Bugarski, Aleksandar D; Hummer, Jon A; Vanderslice, Shawn

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the potential of hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) as a control strategy to reduce exposure of workers to diesel aerosols and gases. The effects of HVORD on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions were compared with those of ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD). The results of comprehensive testing at four steady-state conditions and one transient cycle were used to characterize the aerosol and gaseous emissions from two older technology engines: (1) a naturally aspirated mechanically controlled and (2) a turbocharged electronically controlled engine. Both engines were equipped with diesel oxidation catalytic converters (DOCs). For all test conditions, both engines emitted measurably lower total mass concentrations of diesel aerosols, total carbon, and elemental carbon when HVORD was used in place of ULSD. For all test conditions, the reductions in total mass concentrations were more substantial for the naturally aspirated than for the turbocharged engine. In the case of the naturally aspirated engine, HVORD also favorably affected total surface area of aerosols deposited in the alveolar region of human lungs (TSAADAR) and the total number concentrations of aerosols. In the case of the turbocharged electronically controlled engine, for some of the test conditions HVORD adversely affected the TSAADAR and total number concentrations of aerosols. In the majority of the test cases involving the naturally aspirated mechanically controlled engine, HVORD favorably affected carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations, but adversely affected NO2 and total hydrocarbon concentrations, while the effects of the fuels on carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were masked by the effects of DOC. In the case of the turbocharged electronically controlled engine, the CO2, CO, NOX, NO, and total hydrocarbon concentrations were generally lower when HVORD was used in place of ULSD. The effects of the fuels

  13. Wear-metal analysis in engine oil by microwave digestion and atomic absorption spectroscopy. Final report, August 1987-January 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Muse, W.T.

    1990-05-01

    Digestion procedures are described for the analysis of wear metals in National Bureau of Standards (NBS) oil samples by a closed vessel microwave digestion system. Samples were analyzed by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al, Fe, Ni, Cu, and Pb in the 300-ppm NBS oil ranged from 98 to 103% with standard deviations from 3 to 14%. This method serves as a relatively quick matrix destruction technique for the quantitation of metals in oil.

  14. Metabolic engineering of oilseed crops to produce high levels of novel acetyl glyceride oils with reduced viscosity, freezing point and calorific value.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinjie; Rice, Adam; McGlew, Kathleen; Shaw, Vincent; Park, Hyunwoo; Clemente, Tom; Pollard, Mike; Ohlrogge, John; Durrett, Timothy P

    2015-08-01

    Seed oils have proved recalcitrant to modification for the production of industrially useful lipids. Here, we demonstrate the successful metabolic engineering and subsequent field production of an oilseed crop with the highest accumulation of unusual oil achieved so far in transgenic plants. Previously, expression of the Euonymus alatus diacylglycerol acetyltransferase (EaDAcT) gene in wild-type Arabidopsis seeds resulted in the accumulation of 45 mol% of unusual 3-acetyl-1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols (acetyl-TAGs) in the seed oil (Durrett et al., 2010 PNAS 107:9464). Expression of EaDAcT in dgat1 mutants compromised in their ability to synthesize regular triacylglycerols increased acetyl-TAGs to 65 mol%. Camelina and soybean transformed with the EaDAcT gene accumulate acetyl-triacylglycerols (acetyl-TAGs) at up to 70 mol% of seed oil. A similar strategy of coexpression of EaDAcT together with RNAi suppression of DGAT1 increased acetyl-TAG levels to up to 85 mol% in field-grown transgenic Camelina. Additionally, total moles of triacylglycerol (TAG) per seed increased 20%. Analysis of the acetyl-TAG fraction revealed a twofold reduction in very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA), consistent with their displacement from the sn-3 position by acetate. Seed germination remained high, and seedlings were able to metabolize the stored acetyl-TAGs as rapidly as regular triacylglycerols. Viscosity, freezing point and caloric content of the Camelina acetyl-TAG oils were reduced, enabling use of this oil in several nonfood and food applications.

  15. Enzymatic production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil in a packed-bed reactor: an engineering approach to separation of hydrophilic impurities.

    PubMed

    Hama, Shinji; Yoshida, Ayumi; Tamadani, Naoki; Noda, Hideo; Kondo, Akihiko

    2013-05-01

    An engineering approach was applied to an efficient biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. In this work, an enzymatic packed-bed reactor (PBR) was integrated with a glycerol-separating system and used successfully for methanolysis, yielding a methyl ester content of 94.3% and glycerol removal of 99.7%. In the glycerol-separating system with enhanced retention time, the effluent contained lesser amounts of glycerol and methanol than those in the unmodified system, suggesting its promising ability to remove hydrophilic impurities from the oil layer. The PBR system was also applied to oils with high acid values, in which fatty acids could be esterified and the large amount of water was extracted using the glycerol-separating system. The long-term operation demonstrated the high lipase stability affording less than 0.2% residual triglyceride in 22 batches. Therefore, the PBR system, which facilitates the separation of hydrophilic impurities, is applicable to the enzymatic biodiesel production from waste cooking oil.

  16. Pilot scale biodiesel production from microbial oil of Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 using sugarcane juice: Performance in diesel engine and preliminary economic study.

    PubMed

    Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Dalmas Neto, Carlos José; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; da Costa, Eduardo Scopel Ferreira; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Vandenberghe, Luciana Porto de Souza

    2016-10-21

    A successful pilot-scale process for biodiesel production from microbial oil (Biooil) produced by Rhodosporidium toruloides DEBB 5533 is presented. Using fed-batch strategy (1000L working volume), a lipid productivity of 0.44g/L.h was obtained using a low-cost medium composed by sugarcane juice and urea. The microbial oil was used for biodiesel production and its performance was evaluated in diesel engine tests, showing very good performance, especially for the blend B20 SCO, when operating at 2500rpm with lower pollutant emissions (CO2 - 220% less; CO - 7-fold less; NOX 50% less and no detectable HC emissions (<0.11ppm)) when compared with the blends of standard biofuel from soybean oil. A preliminary analysis showed that microbial biodiesel is economically competitive (US$ 0.76/L) when compared to the vegetable biodiesel (US$ 0.81/L). Besides, the yield of biodiesel from microbial oil is higher (4172L/ha of cultivated sugarcane) that represents 6.3-fold the yield of standard biodiesel (661L/ha of cultivated soybean).

  17. Heavy oil recovery process: Conceptual engineering of a downhole methanator and preliminary estimate of facilities cost for application to North Slope Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Gondouin, M.

    1991-10-31

    The West Sak (Upper Cretaceous) sands, overlaying the Kuparuk field, would rank among the largest known oil fields in the US, but technical difficulties have so far prevented its commercial exploitation. Steam injection is the most successful and the most commonly-used method of heavy oil recovery, but its application to the West Sak presents major problems. Such difficulties may be overcome by using a novel approach, in which steam is generated downhole in a catalytic Methanator, from Syngas made at the surface from endothermic reactions (Table 1). The Methanator effluent, containing steam and soluble gases resulting from exothermic reactions (Table 1), is cyclically injected into the reservoir by means of a horizontal drainhole while hot produced fluids flow form a second drainhole into a central production tubing. The downhole reactor feed and BFW flow downward to two concentric tubings. The large-diameter casing required to house the downhole reactor assembly is filled above it with Arctic Pack mud, or crude oil, to further reduce heat leaks. A quantitative analysis of this production scheme for the West Sak required a preliminary engineering of the downhole and surface facilities and a tentative forecast of well production rates. The results, based on published information on the West Sak, have been used to estimate the cost of these facilities, per daily barrel of oil produced. A preliminary economic analysis and conclusions are presented together with an outline of future work. Economic and regulatory conditions which would make this approach viable are discussed. 28 figs.

  18. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  19. Ultra-sensitive biosensor based on genetically engineered acetylcholinesterase immobilized in poly (vinyl alcohol)/Fe-Ni alloy nanocomposite for phosmet detection in olive oil.

    PubMed

    El-Moghazy, A Y; Soliman, E A; Ibrahim, H Z; Noguer, T; Marty, J-L; Istamboulie, G

    2016-07-15

    An ultra-sensitive screen-printed biosensor was successfully developed for phosmet detection in olive oil, based on a genetically-engineered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) immobilized in a azide-unit water-pendant polyvinyl alcohol (PVA-AWP)/Fe-Ni alloy nanocomposite. Fe-Ni not only allowed amplifying the response current but also lowering the applied potential from 80 mV to 30 mV vs Ag/AgCl. The biosensor showed a very good analytical performance for phosmet detection, with a detection limit of 0.1 nM. This detection limit is lower than the allowable concentrations set by international regulations. In addition to the good reproducibility, operational and storage stability, the developed biosensor was successfully used for the determination of phosmet in olive oil samples without any laborious pre-treatment. The phosmet recovery rate was about 96% after a simple liquid-liquid extraction.

  20. Challenges in engineering microbes for biofuels production.

    PubMed

    Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    2007-02-09

    Economic and geopolitical factors (high oil prices, environmental concerns, and supply instability) have been prompting policy-makers to put added emphasis on renewable energy sources. For the scientific community, recent advances, embodied in new insights into basic biology and technology that can be applied to metabolic engineering, are generating considerable excitement. There is justified optimism that the full potential of biofuel production from cellulosic biomass will be obtainable in the next 10 to 15 years.

  1. 40 CFR 80.522 - May used motor oil be dispensed into diesel motor vehicles or nonroad diesel engines?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Diesel Fuel; Nonroad, Locomotive, and Marine Diesel Fuel; and ECA Marine Fuel Motor... later nonroad diesel engines (not including locomotive or marine diesel engines), unless both of...

  2. Analysis of archaeological triacylglycerols by high resolution nanoESI, FT-ICR MS and IRMPD MS/MS: Application to 5th century BC-4th century AD oil lamps from Olbia (Ukraine)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, Nicolas; Rolando, Christian; Høtje, Jakob Munk; Tokarski, Caroline

    2009-07-01

    This work presents the precise identification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) extracted from archaeological samples using a methodology based on nanoelectrospray and Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The archaeological TAG identification needs adapted sample preparation protocols to trace samples in advanced degradation state. More precisely, the proposed preparation procedure includes extraction of the lipid components from finely grinded ceramic using dichloromethane/methanol mixture with additional ultrasonication treatment, and TAG purification by solid phase extraction on a diol cartridge. Focusing on the analytical approach, the implementation of "in-house" species-dependent TAG database was investigated using MS and InfraRed Multiphoton Dissociation (IRMPD) MS/MS spectra; several vegetal oils, dairy products and animal fats were studied. The high mass accuracy of the Fourier transform analyzer ([Delta]m below 2.5 ppm) provides easier data interpretation, and allows distinction between products of different origins. In details, the IRMPD spectra of the lithiated TAGs reveal fragmentation reactions including loss of free neutral fatty acid and loss of fatty acid as [alpha],[beta]-unsaturated moieties. Based on the developed preparation procedure and on the constituted database, TAG extracts from 5th century BC to 4th century AD Olbia lamps were analyzed. The structural information obtained succeeds in identifying that bovine/ovine fats were used as fuel used in these archaeological Olbia lamps.

  3. A hybrid disturbance rejection control solution for variable valve timing system of gasoline engines.

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui; Song, Kang; He, Yu

    2014-07-01

    A novel solution for electro-hydraulic variable valve timing (VVT) system of gasoline engines is proposed, based on the concept of active disturbance rejection control (ADRC). Disturbances, such as oil pressure and engine speed variations, are all estimated and mitigated in real-time. A feed-forward controller was added to enhance the performance of the system based on a simple and static first principle model, forming a hybrid disturbance rejection control (HDRC) strategy. HDRC was validated by experimentation and compared with an existing manually tuned proportional-integral (PI) controller. The results show that HDRC provided a faster response and better tolerance of engine speed and oil pressure variations.

  4. Structural Oil Pan With Integrated Oil Filtration And Cooling System

    DOEpatents

    Freese, V, Charles Edwin

    2000-05-09

    An oil pan for an internal combustion engine includes a body defining a reservoir for collecting engine coolant. The reservoir has a bottom and side walls extending upwardly from the bottom to present a flanged lip through which the oil pan may be mounted to the engine. An oil cooler assembly is housed within the body of the oil pan for cooling lubricant received from the engine. The body includes an oil inlet passage formed integrally therewith for receiving lubricant from the engine and delivering lubricant to the oil cooler. In addition, the body also includes an oil pick up passage formed integrally therewith for providing fluid communication between the reservoir and the engine through the flanged lip.

  5. Natural oils as lubricants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is currently an availability of vegetable oil lubricants, with the exception of engine oils. Vegetable oils are environmentally friendly, renewable, contribute to the reduction of our dependence on imported petroleum, and add value to the farmer. However, there are inherent weaknesses in veg...

  6. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    The test equipment for studying the vaporization of heavy and medium oils is described as well as some of the experimental properties explored such as vaporization speed and diffusion coefficient. The experiemtal arrangement is also discussed.

  7. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  8. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  9. Adding value to the learning process by online peer review activities: towards the elaboration of a methodology to promote critical thinking in future engineers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Caroline; Nascimento, Maria M.; Payan-Carreira, Rita; Cruz, Gonçalo; Silva, Helena; Lopes, José; Morais, Maria da Felicidade A.; Morais, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Considering the results of research on the benefits and difficulties of peer review, this paper describes how teaching faculty, interested in endorsing the acquisition of communication and critical thinking (CT) skills among engineering students, has been implementing a learning methodology throughout online peer review activities. While introducing a new methodology, it is important to weight the advantages found and the conditions that might have restrained the activity outcomes, thereby modulating its overall efficiency. Our results show that several factors are decisive for the success of the methodology: the use of specific and detailed orientation guidelines for CT skills, the students' training on how to deliver a meaningful feedback, the opportunity to counter-argument, the selection of good assignments' examples, and the constant teacher's monitoring of the activity. Results also tackle other aspects of the methodology such as the thinking skills evaluation tools (grades and tests) that most suit our reality. An improved methodology is proposed taking in account the encountered limitations, thus offering the possibility to other interested institutions to use/test and/or improve it.

  10. Value-added products from vegetable oils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygenated fatty acids are useful as specialty chemicals, plasticizers, and biomedicals. Nocardia cholesterolicum and Flavobacterium DS5 convert oleic acid to 10 hydroxy stearic acid and linoleic acid to 10-hydroxy-12(Z)-octadecanoic acid. Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3 converts oleic acid to new comp...

  11. Antioxidant (A-tocopherol acetate) effect on oxidation stability and NOx emission reduction in methyl ester of Annona oil operated diesel engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senthil, R.; Silambarasan, R.; Pranesh, G.

    2016-11-01

    There is a major drawback while using biodiesel as a alternate fuel for compression ignition diesel engine due to lower heating value, higher viscosity, higher density and higher oxides of nitrogen emission. To minimize these drawbacks, fuel additives can contribute towards engine performance and exhaust emission reduction either directly or indirectly. In this current work, the test was conducted to investigate the effect of antioxidant additive (A-tocopherol acetate) on oxidation stability and NOx emission in a of Annona methyl ester oil (MEAO) fueled diesel engine. The A-tocopherol acetate is mixed in different concentrations such as 0.01, 0.02, 0.03 and 0.04% with 100% by vol MEAO. It is concluded that the antioxidant additive very effective in increasing the oxidation stability and in controlling the NOx emission. Further, the addition of antioxidant additive is slight increase the HC, CO and smoke emissions. Hence, A-tocopherol acetate is very effective in controlling the NOx emission with MEAO operated diesel engine without any major modification.

  12. Enhancing Engineering Education through Engineering Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pence, Kenneth R.; Rowe, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Engineering Management courses are added to a traditional engineering curriculum to enhance the value of an undergraduate's engineering degree. A four-year engineering degree often leaves graduates lacking in business and management acumen. Engineering management education covers topics enhancing the value of new graduates by teaching management…

  13. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of airborne particulate matter emitted from stationary engine fuelled with diesel and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betha, Raghu; Pavagadhi, Shruti; Sethu, Swaminathan; Hande, M. Prakash; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar

    2012-12-01

    Biodiesel derived from waste cooking oil (WCO) is gaining increased attention as an alternative fuel due to lower particulate emissions and other beneficial factors such as low cost and utilization of waste oil. However, very little information is available on toxicity of airborne particulate matter (PM) emitted from biodiesel combustion. In this study, PM emitted from WCO-derived biodiesel (B100) was analyzed for its toxic potential together with ultra low sulphur diesel (ULSD) as a reference fuel and their blend (B50). Human lung epithelial carcinoma cells (A549) were used for this comparative toxicity study. Results indicate that cytotoxicity and oxidative stress were higher for B100 relative to ULSD. Furthermore, caspase 3/7 activity indicates that cell death induced by B100 was due to either caspase independent apoptotic process or other programmed cell death pathways. The toxicity was also evaluated for different engine load conditions. It was observed that at lower loads there was no significant difference in the toxicological response of B100 and ULSD. However, with increase in the engine load, B100 and B50 showed significantly higher toxicity and oxidative stress compared to ULSD.

  14. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  15. Investigations on the effect of chlorine in lubricating oil and the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst on PCDD/F releases from an internal combustion engine.

    PubMed

    Dyke, Patrick H; Sutton, Mike; Wood, David; Marshall, Jonathan

    2007-04-01

    This paper reports on an intensive study into releases of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated furans (PCDF) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) from a diesel engine and the analysis of PCDD/F and PCB in crankcase lubricating oil. Experimental conditions were set and carefully controlled in order to maximize the possible impact of, and our ability to measure the effect of, changes in the levels of chlorine in the lubricant. Emissions to air were measured using modified EPA methods following the principles of the European EN 1948 standards. A series of 40 experimental runs were completed using three reference lubricants formulated to have three levels of chlorine present as a residual component (at levels of 12, 131 and 259 mg kg(-1) or ppm). The engine was run with and without the diesel oxidation catalyst. All lubricants were realistic oils and the use of unrealistic additives or doping of components - particularly chlorine - in the fuel and lubricant was carefully avoided. Analysis of fuel and lubricant (before and after testing) samples required strenuous attention to achieve acceptable recoveries and showed non-detectable levels of PCB and PCDD/F at a detection limit of around 1.5 ng I-TEQ kg(-1) (ppt), indistinguishable from the laboratory blank. The testing demonstrated the need for extreme care to be taken in developing measurement methods that are sufficiently sensitive for measuring chlorine content of fluids and PCDD/F in oils, the latter being particularly challenging. Mean emissions of PCDD/F with the diesel oxidation catalyst in place were 23 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel and with the diesel oxidation catalyst removed 97 pg I-TEQ l(-1) of fuel. The results of this testing showed that the emissions of PCDD/F were greatly reduced by the presence of a diesel oxidation catalyst in the exhaust, a finding that has not been explicitly tested in previous work. They also show that emissions from the engine were not controlled by the level of

  16. Vegetable oils for tractors

    SciTech Connect

    Moroney, M.

    1981-11-14

    Preliminary tests by the Agricultural Institute, show that tractors can be run on a 50:50 rape oil-diesel mixture or on pure rape oil. In fact, engine power actually increased slightly with the 50:50 blend but decreased fractionally with pure rape oil. Research at the North Dakota State University on using sunflower oil as an alternative to diesel fuel is also noted.

  17. Experimental investigation of the physical properties of medium and heavy oils, their vaporization and use in explosion engines. Part IV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinlein, Fritz

    1926-01-01

    This report presents a theoretical treatment of the vaporization process of medium and heavy oils. The results of this investigation, which were mostly obtained from the lighter components of the heavy fuels, require a 10- or 16-fold vaporization in comparison with gasoline. We must attain a still finer degree of atomization, in order to include the heavier components.

  18. Influence of sliding surface roughness and oil temperature on piston ring pack operation of an automotive IC engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, A.

    2016-09-01

    In the paper a comprehensive model of a piston ring pack motion on an oil film has been presented. The local oil film thickness can be compared to height of the combined roughness of sliding surfaces of piston rings and cylinder liner. Equations describing the mixed lubrication problem based on the empirical mathematical model formulated in works of Patir, Cheng and Greenwood, Tripp have been combined and used in this paper. The developed model takes the following phenomena into account: hydrodynamic and contact forces, spring and gas forces acting on piston rings. The rings motion concerning low and high temperature of cylinder surface has been compared. These results concern cases of hydrodynamic and mixed lubrication. Changes of oil wetted area and contact zone of piston rings have been shown. In addition the oil film thickness distribution along cylinder liner and all the forces acting on piston rings have been analysed and discussed. The results have been presented in form of relevant diagrams. The developed model and software can be utilized for optimization of piston rings design.

  19. Investigation on the emission quality, performance and combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine fueled with environmental friendly corn oil methyl ester - Diesel blends.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, S; Soorya Prakash, K; Sudhakaran, R; Sathish Kumar, M

    2016-12-01

    This paper deals with emission quality of diesel engine based on eco toxicological studies with different methods of environmental standard toxicity tests satisfy the Bharath and European emission norms. Based on the emission norms, Corn Oil Methyl Ester (COME) with diesel is tested in a compression ignition engine and the performance and combustion characteristics are discussed. The corn oil was esterified and the property of corn oil methyl ester was within the limits specified in ASTM D 6751-03. The COME was blended together with diesel in different proportion percentages along with B20, B40, B60, B80, and B100. The emission and performance tests for various blends of COME was carried out using single cylinder, four stroke diesel engine, and compared with the performance obtained with 100% diesel (D100). The results give clear information that COME has low exhaust emissions and increase in performance compared to D100 without any modifications. It gives better performance, which is nearer to the obtained results of D100. Specific Fuel Consumption (SFC) of B100 at the full load condition is found to be 4% lower than that of (D100). The maximum Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE) of B100 is found to be 8.5% higher than that of the D100 at full load. Also, the maximum BTE of part load for different blends is varied from 5.9% to 7.45% which is higher than D100. The exhaust gas emissions like Carbon Monoxide (CO), Carbon Dioxide (CO2), Hydro Carbon (HC) and Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) are found to be 2.3 to 18.8% lower compared to D100 for part as well as full load. The heat release rate of biodiesel and it blends are found to 16% to 35% lower as compared to D100 for part load, where as for full load it is 21% lower than D100. The results showed that the test of emissions norms are well within the limits of Bharath VI and European VI and it leads to less pollution, less effect on green eco system and potential substitute to fossil fuels.

  20. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  1. The Determination of Several Spray Characteristics of a High-Speed Oil Engine Injection System with an Oscilloscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Chester W; Moore, Charles S

    1928-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the injection lag, duration of injection, and spray start and cut-off characteristics of a fuel injection system operated on an engine and injecting fuel into the atmosphere.

  2. Principles and Experience of the On-Condition Application of Oils and Working Fluids to Aeronautical Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    8217: ,..,,~i:..li 1 6.0 5.0 "T• 12 "t3 "tch "t rem Fig. 1 Dynamics of varying the MH-7.5y oil kinematic viscosity taken as the governing parameter in the...Program Technical Support Center".Pensacola,Florids, USA, p. 120,1994. 5. Gerd Koolhaas , Jurgen Frank. "Experiences in the Condition Monitoring

  3. Multi-elemental analysis of jet engine lubricating oils and hydraulic fluids and their implication in aircraft air quality incidents.

    PubMed

    van Netten, C

    1999-05-07

    The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea, disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500 degrees C, a large number of different exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements, such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out. In order to assess the potential of exposure to toxic elements a multi-elemental analysis was done on two hydraulic fluids and three lubricating oils which have been implicated in a number of air quality incidents. A secondary objective was to establish if the multi-elemental concentrations of the fluids tested are different enough to allow such an analysis to be used as a possible method of identifying the source of exposure that might have been present during aircraft air quality incidents. No significant concentrations of toxic elements were identified in any of the oils or hydraulic fluids. The elemental compositions of the samples were different enough to be used for identification purposes and the measurement of only three elements was able to achieve this. Whether these findings have an application, in aircraft air quality incident investigations, needs to be established with further studies.

  4. ORNL-GM: Development of Ionic Liquid-Additized, GF-5/6 Compatible Low-Viscosity Oils for Automotive Engine and Rear Axle Lubrication for 4% Improved Fuel Economy

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Zhou, Yan; Luo, Huimin; Toops, Todd J.; Brookshear, Daniel W.; Stump, Benjamin C.; Viola, Michael B.; Zreik, Khaled; Ahmed, Tasfia

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective of this project are as follows: Further develop ionic liquid (IL)-additized lowviscosity engine oils meeting the GF-5/6 specifications and possessing superior lubricating characteristics; Expand the IL additive technology to rear axle lubricants; and Seek a combined improvement in the vehicle fuel economy

  5. Determination of ortho-cresyl phosphate isomers of tricresyl phosphate used in aircraft turbine engine oils by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    De Nola, G; Kibby, J; Mazurek, W

    2008-07-25

    Tricresyl phosphate (TCP) is used as an anti-wear additive in aircraft turbine engine oil. Concerns about its toxicity are largely based on the tri-o-cresyl phosphate isomer content. However, the presence of other and more toxic isomers has been previously suggested. In this work, the structural isomers of TCP have been determined by two methods (experimental and semi-theoretical). First, the TCP isomers were separated by gas chromatography (GC) and identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Second, after base cleavage of TCP, GC was used to quantify the cresol precursors. These results were used to calculate the TCP isomer distribution based on the assumption of a statistical distribution of the TCP isomers. The results from the two determinations showed reasonable agreement for three of the four oils studied. The o-cresyl isomers were found to be present almost exclusively as the more toxic mono-o-cresyl isomers in the concentration range 13-150 mg/L. The ability to analyse for the mono-o-cresyl isomers allows the toxicity of TCP to be based on the latter isomers rather than on the less toxic tri-o-cresyl phosphate isomer.

  6. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  7. Influence of the processed sunflower oil on the cement properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleysher, A. U.; Tokarchuk, V. V.; Sviderskiy, V. A.

    2015-01-01

    Used oils (vegetable oil, animal oil, engine oil, etc.), which are essentially industrial wastes, have found application as secondary raw materials in some braches of industry. In particular, the only well-known and commonly-used way of utilizing wastes of vegetable oils is to apply them as raw materials in the production of biodiesel. The goal of the present study is to develop a conceptually new way of vegetable oil wastes utilization in the building industry. The test admixture D-148 was obtained from the processing of wastes of sunflower oil and it mainly consists of fatty acid diethanolamide. The test admixture was added to the cement system for the purpose of studying its influence on water demand, flowability, setting times, compressive strength and moisture adsorption. The test admixture D-148 at the optimal content 0. 2 weight % causes 10% decrease in water demand, 1.7 time increase in flowability (namely spread diameter), 23% increase in grade strength and 34% decrease in moisture adsorption. The results of the present investigation make it possible to consider the final product of the waste sunflower oil processing as multifunctional plasticizing-waterproofing admixture.

  8. Preparation and performance of brown coal/oil mixtures as a fuel for diesel engines. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Bandopadhayay, P.C.; Downie, R.J.; Read, W.R.W.; Kowalczewski, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The principal aim of the project was to study the change in the thermodynamic performance of an essentially unmodified diesel engine operating on slurry fuels manufactured from ADO and fine, chemically beneficiated Victorian brown coal. Exhaust smokemeter readings were to be obtained and exhaust particulates were to be captured in an attempt to shed some light on the agglomeration tendencies of the solid coal particles. The data together with the operating experience gained throughout the test programme would constitute one of the major inputs for further feasibility study and economic analysis purposes. Resource limitations dictated that long-term engine-wear testing should be deferred at this time. Related studies concerned with combustion-rate modelling of slurry fuels and with economic considerations of operating an engine on blend fuels will be reported separately.

  9. Microbial production of value-added nutraceuticals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Guleria, Sanjay; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Yan, Yajun

    2016-02-01

    Nutraceuticals are important natural bioactive compounds that confer health-promoting and medical benefits to humans. Globally growing demands for value-added nutraceuticals for prevention and treatment of human diseases have rendered nutraceuticals a multi-billion dollar market. However, supply limitations and extraction difficulties from natural sources such as plants, animals or fungi, restrict the large-scale use of nutraceuticals. Metabolic engineering via microbial production platforms has been advanced as an eco-friendly alternative approach for production of value-added nutraceuticals from simple carbon sources. Microbial platforms like the most widely used Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been engineered as versatile cell factories for production of diverse and complex value-added chemicals such as phytochemicals, prebiotics, polysaccaharides and poly amino acids. This review highlights the recent progresses in biological production of value-added nutraceuticals via metabolic engineering approaches.

  10. Engineering E. coli for the biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) and 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) as value-added chemicals from glucose as a sole carbon source.

    PubMed

    Dhamankar, Himanshu; Tarasova, Yekaterina; Martin, Collin H; Prather, Kristala L J

    2014-09-01

    3-hydroxy-γ-butyrolactone (3HBL) is a versatile chiral synthon, deemed a top value-added chemical from biomass by the DOE. We recently reported the first biosynthetic pathway towards 3HBL and its hydrolyzed form, 3,4-dihydroxybutyric acid (3,4-DHBA) in recombinant Escherichia coli using glucose and glycolic acid as feedstocks and briefly described their synthesis solely from glucose. Synthesis from glucose requires integration of the endogenous glyoxylate shunt with the 3,4-DHBA/3HBL pathway and co-overexpression of seven genes, posing challenges with respect to expression, repression of the glyoxylate shunt and optimal carbon distribution between the two pathways. Here we discuss engineering this integration. While appropriate media and over-expression of glyoxylate shunt enzymes helped overcome repression, two orthogonal expression systems were employed to address the expression and carbon distribution challenge. Synthesis of up to 0.3g/L of 3HBL and 0.7g/L of 3,4-DHBA solely from glucose was demonstrated, amounting to 24% of the theoretical maximum.

  11. 77 FR 58003 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ...-20-AD; Amendment 39-17196; AD 2012-19-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Lycoming Engines (L)O-360, (L)IO-360,...

  12. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  13. Method and apparatus for recovering waste oil

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, A.B.

    1982-09-21

    Oil is recovered from a mixture of oil and water by heating the mixture, adding a de-emulsifier, passing the mixture through a first vibrating screen, adding a surface tension reducer, processing through a hydrocyclone, passing through a second vibrating screen, and separating the oil from water by settling.

  14. 76 FR 42609 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines Model TIO 540-A Series Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... directive (AD) for Lycoming Engines model TIO 540-A series reciprocating engines. The existing AD, AD 71-13... issued AD 71-13-01, we became aware that Lycoming Engines no longer supports Service Bulletin (SB) No. 335A, which was incorporated by reference in AD 71-13-01. The intent of the requirements of that SB...

  15. Diesel Fuel Alternatives for Engines in Civil Works Prime Movers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    AND 0.1 PCT EACH BY WT OF COAL LIQUID LECITHIN AND CAB-O-SIL ADDED. * COMMINUTION: PREGROUND 3 HIRS IN BATCH ATTRITOR, THEN FINISHED 11/2 HRS IN...oil and alcohol in a diesel engine. They prepared thermodynamically stable microemulsions of aqueous ethanol and soybean oil to be used for testing...Blends were developed and compared with SAE s ecifications for No. 2 diesel fuel, with results listed in Tables 16 and 17. V Both ionic and nonionic

  16. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of volumes of technically recoverable, conventional oil that could eventually be added to reserves in nine selected major oil fields in the San Joaquin Basin in central California. The mean total volume of potential oil reserves that might be added in the nine fields using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 6.5 billion barrels of oil.

  17. Oil degradation in soil.

    PubMed

    Raymond, R L; Hudson, J O; Jamison, V W

    1976-04-01

    The environmental effects of adding certain selected petroleum products to field soils at widely separated geographical locations under optimum conditions for biodegradation were studied. The locations selected for study of soil biodegradation of six oils (used crankcase oil from cars, used crankcase oil from trucks, an Arabian Heavy crude oil, a Coastal Mix crude oil, a home heating oil no. 2, and a residual fuel oil no. 6) were Marcus Hook, Pennsylvania, Tulsa, Oklahoma, and Corpus Christi, Texas. The investigative process, covering a period of 1 year at each location, was conducted in 14 fields plots (1.7 by 3.0 m) to which the oils were added in a single application at a rate of 11.9 m3/4 X 10(3) m2. One-half of the plots at each location were fertilized, and the incorporation of the oils and fertilizers was accomplished with rototillers to a depth of 10 to 15 cm. Concentrations of all oils decreased significantly at all locations. The average reduction ranged from 48.5 to 90.0% depending upon the type of oil and location. Rates of degradation did not exceed 2.4 m3/4 X 10(3) m2 per month. Compositional changes in the oil with time were investigated using silica gel fractionation, gas chromatography, and ultraviolet absorbance. With the possible exception of the two fuel oils, the compositional changes were generally in the same direction for all of the oils. The silica gel fractionation and gravimetric data on residual oils show that all classes of compounds were degraded, but the more polar type degrade more slowly. Analysis of runoff water, leachate, and soils indicated that at the concentration applied no oil less was observed from these plots via water movement. No significant movement of lead compounds added to the soils in the used crankcase oils was observed. Significant increases in hydrocarbon-utilizing microorganisms were demonstrated in all treated plots using either the pure hydrocarbon, n-hexadecane, or the applied oils as the growth substrate

  18. 76 FR 77108 - Airworthiness Directives; International Aero Engines Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-12

    ... Engines Turbofan Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for International Aero Engines (IAE) V2500-A1... engines. This AD was prompted by three reports of high- pressure turbine (HPT) case burn-through...

  19. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  20. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  1. Low viscosity oils. [oxidation resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, S.W.; Schaap, L.A.; Udelhofen, J.H.

    1981-08-04

    An improved low viscosity (I.E.) 5 W to 7 1/2 W engine oil resistant to oxidation and consumption comprising a major portion of a lubricating oil stock, a sulfurized oil, a dispersant, an anti-corrosion agent, an anti-rust agent, a detergent, an antioxidant, and a viscosity index improver.

  2. Performance and emission parameters of single cylinder diesel engine using castor oil bio-diesel blended fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahimi, A.; Ghobadian, B.; Najafi, G.; Jaliliantabar, F.; Mamat, R.

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the performance and emission parameters of a CI single cylinder diesel engine operating on biodiesel-diesel blends (B0, B5, B10, B15 and E20: 20% biodiesel and 80% diesel by volume). A reactor was designed, fabricated and evaluated for biodiesel production. The results showed that increasing the biodiesel content in the blend fuel will increase the performance parameters and decrease the emission parameters. Maximum power was detected for B0 at 2650 rpm and maximum torque was belonged to B20 at 1600 rpm. The experimental results revealed that using biodiesel-diesel blended fuels increased the power and torque output of the engine. For biodiesel blends it was found that the specific fuel consumption (sfc) was decreased. B10 had the minimum amount for sfc. The concentration of CO2 and HC emissions in the exhaust pipe were measured and found to be decreased when biodiesel blends were introduced. This was due to the high oxygen percentage in the biodiesel compared to the net diesel fuel. In contrast, the concentration of CO and NOx was found to be increased when biodiesel is introduced.

  3. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion... used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 29.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion space must be provided so that— (1) Each oil tank used with a reciprocating engine has an expansion... used with a turbine engine has an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the tank capacity;...

  5. Engineered tobacco and microalgae secreting the fungal laccase POXA1b reduce phenol content in olive oil mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chiaiese, Pasquale; Palomba, Francesca; Tatino, Filippo; Lanzillo, Carmine; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Filippone, Edgardo

    2011-12-10

    Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWs) are characterised by low pH and a high content of mono- and polyaromatic compounds that exert microbial and phytotoxic activity. The laccase cDNA of the poxA1b gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying a signal peptide sequence for enzyme secretion and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector. Nuclear genetic transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cv Samsun NN leaves and cells of five different microalgae accessions belonging to the genera Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Ankistrodesmus. Transgenic plants and microalgae were able to express and secrete the recombinant laccase in the root exudates and the culture medium, respectively. In comparison to untransformed controls, the ability to reduce phenol content in OMW solution was enhanced up to 2.8-fold in transgenic tobacco lines and by up to about 40% in two microalgae accessions. The present work provides new evidence for metabolic improvement of green organisms through the transgenic approach to remediation.

  6. Medium engineering for enhanced production of undecylprodigiosin antibiotic in Streptomyces coelicolor using oil palm biomass hydrolysate as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Lee, Bo-Rahm; Sathiyanarayanan, Ganesan; Song, Hun-Seok; Kim, Junyoung; Jeon, Jong-Min; Kim, Jung-Ho; Park, Sung-Hee; Yu, Ju-Hyun; Park, Kyungmoon; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2016-10-01

    In this study, a biosugar obtained from empty fruit bunch (EFB) of oil palm by hot water treatment and subsequent enzymatic saccharification was used for undecylprodigiosin production, using Streptomyces coelicolor. Furfural is a major inhibitor present in EFB hydrolysate (EFBH), having a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1.9mM, and it reduces utilization of glucose (27%), xylose (59%), inhibits mycelium formation, and affects antibiotic production. Interestingly, furfural was found to be a good activator of undecylprodigiosin production in S. coelicolor, which enhanced undecylprodigiosin production by up to 52%. Optimization by mixture analysis resulted in a synthetic medium containing glucose:furfural:ACN:DMSO (1%, 2mM, 0.2% and 0.3%, respectively). Finally, S. coelicolor was cultured in a fermenter in minimal medium with EFBH as a carbon source and addition of the components described above. This yielded 4.2μg/mgdcw undecylprodigiosin, which was 3.2-fold higher compared to that in un-optimized medium.

  7. Metabolic regulation of triacylglycerol accumulation in the green algae: identification of potential targets for engineering to improve oil yield.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Elton C; Wilkie, Ann C; Kirst, Matias; Rathinasabapathi, Bala

    2016-08-01

    The great need for more sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels has increased our research interests in algal biofuels. Microalgal cells, characterized by high photosynthetic efficiency and rapid cell division, are an excellent source of neutral lipids as potential fuel stocks. Various stress factors, especially nutrient-starvation conditions, induce an increased formation of lipid bodies filled with triacylglycerol in these cells. Here we review our knowledge base on glycerolipid synthesis in the green algae with an emphasis on recent studies on carbon flux, redistribution of lipids under nutrient-limiting conditions and its regulation. We discuss the contributions and limitations of classical and novel approaches used to elucidate the algal triacylglycerol biosynthetic pathway and its regulatory network in green algae. Also discussed are gaps in knowledge and suggestions for much needed research both on the biology of triacylglycerol accumulation and possible avenues to engineer improved algal strains.

  8. Internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect

    Matsuura, M.; Nakamori, M.; Honda, S.; Ishida, Y.; Nakanishi, T.

    1988-05-03

    An internal combustion engine is described comprising: (a) an engine body having a chamber; (b) a crankshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (c) a camshaft rotatably mounted on the engine body; (d) an oil lubricated endless transmission member extended around and operatively engaged with the crankshaft and the camshaft, the endless transmission member being movable along a closed path of travel in the chamber; (e) a tensioner hanger comprising an upper hanger member detachably secured to the engine body and a lower hanger member secured at an upper portion thereof to the upper hanger member, the upper hanger member having oil passage means adapted to receive lubrication oil from the endless transmission member at an inlet and guide the oil downwardly therethrough to an outlet; (f) a hollow mounting member affixed at an upper portion thereof to a lower portion of the lower hanger member of the tensioner hanger; (g) a hydraulic lock mechanism comprising a hollow cylinder and a plunger slidably received in the cylinder to define a hydraulic chamber in the cylinder; (h) a replenishable oil reservoir defined by a funnel-shaped space between the mounting member and the cylinder for receiving oil from the oil passage means and for holding the oil received therein; and (i) a tensioner member movably attached to the engine body and operatively engaged with the plunger.

  9. Petroleum reservoir engineering support for the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    In accordance with the ''Procedures for the Determination and Approval of Maximum Efficient Rates of Production from the Naval Petroleum Reserves'' issued by the Office of Naval Petroleum and Oil Shale Reserves, US Department of Energy, dated January 1985, the proposed MER for the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs is herewith submitted. The subject Task Assignment was explicit as to certain operational restraints within which the MER determinations were to be made. In the case of the NWS A4-A6 reservoirs, these restraints were limited to a specification of the water injection rates, i.e., gradually building up to and maintaining an injection rate of 22,000 barrels water per day. Accordingly, the proposed MER results in an average of 8575 BOA/D for the six-month period ending March 31, 1987, and 8662 BOA/D for the nine-month period ending mid-year 1987. We believe that these rates will be both attainable and sustainable, and will be a reasonable target which is justified in terms of both maximizing ultimate recovery and providing a suitable economic return. The study was performed in the manner prescribed by the Department of Energy. It was based on the reservoir study which was made by Evans, Carey and Crozier, and which had an effective date of May 1, 1986. The proposed MER differs from that in the study only as a result of injection rates which vary slightly from those assumed in the latter. Each of the sections of this MER proposal contains a discussion, if appropriate, plus such graphical or tabular presentations as are necessary to explain and/or support the conclusions contained therein.

  10. Preliminary site visit report, UOP (Universal Oil Products) engineering offices: control-technology assessment of petroleum-refinery operations, Des Plains, Illinois, June 2, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    A visit was made to Universal Oil Products, Inc. (UOP), Des Plaines, Illinois to assess the control methods used at this facility to protect workers from harmful exposures to chemical and physical agents. Specific attention was given to control methods for hydrogen fluoride (HF) alkylation units. Engineering controls included curbs around equipment to prevent acid spills from contaminating surrounding areas, the drainage of surface liquids into a neutralization pit, the scrubbing of all vent streams leaving the HF units with a potassium hydroxide scrubber to neutralize any HF present, the provision of emergency shower booths, and the installation of a sieve dryer to remove water in entering feed. A point was developed for joints, flanges, and valves of the alkylation unit; originally the paint was orange, but on exposure to HF it turned bright yellow. Protective clothing offered included face shields, gauntlets, rubbers, booths, acid-resistant jackets, overalls, acid hoods, or complete pressurized suits. Work practices were carefully rehearsed so as to avoid accidental exposures. Workers were trained in safety measures, spill cleanups and washdowns, how to neutralize, and proper equipment-tagging procedures. Additional information was provided concerning emergency booths, the use of protective clothing, alkylation change houses, and safety procedures.

  11. Ionic Liquids as Novel Lubricants and Additives for Diesel Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    The lubricating properties of two ionic liquids with the same anion but different cations, one ammonium IL [C8H17]3NH.Tf2N and one imidazolium IL C10mim.Tf2N, were evaluated both in neat form and as oil additives. Experiments were conducted using a standardized reciprocating sliding test using a segment of a Cr-plated diesel engine piston ring against a grey cast iron flat specimen with simulated honing marks as on the engine cylinder liner. The selected ionic liquids were benchmarked against conventional hydrocarbon oils. Substantial friction and wear reductions, up to 55% and 34%, respectively, were achieved for the neat ionic liquids compared to a fully-formulated 15W40 engine oil. Adding 5 vol% ILs into mineral oil has demonstrated significant improvement in the lubricity. One blend even outperformed the 15W40 engine oil with 9% lower friction and 34% less wear. Lubrication regime modeling, worn surface morphology examination, and surface chemical analysis were conducted to help understand the lubricating mechanisms for ionic liquids. Results suggest great potential for using ionic liquids as base lubricants or lubricant additives for diesel engine applications.

  12. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  13. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  14. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  15. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  16. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  1. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1011 - Engines: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engines: General. 27.1011 Section 27.1011... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1011 Engines: General. (a) Each engine must... maximum oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable margin to ensure...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  4. 14 CFR 29.1011 - Engines: general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engines: general. 29.1011 Section 29.1011... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1011 Engines: general. (a) Each engine... the maximum allowable oil consumption of the engine under the same conditions, plus a suitable...

  5. Tea tree oil.

    PubMed

    Larson, David; Jacob, Sharon E

    2012-01-01

    Tea tree oil is an increasingly popular ingredient in a variety of household and cosmetic products, including shampoos, massage oils, skin and nail creams, and laundry detergents. Known for its potential antiseptic properties, it has been shown to be active against a variety of bacteria, fungi, viruses, and mites. The oil is extracted from the leaves of the tea tree via steam distillation. This essential oil possesses a sharp camphoraceous odor followed by a menthol-like cooling sensation. Most commonly an ingredient in topical products, it is used at a concentration of 5% to 10%. Even at this concentration, it has been reported to induce contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis reactions. In 1999, tea tree oil was added to the North American Contact Dermatitis Group screening panel. The latest prevalence rates suggest that 1.4% of patients referred for patch testing had a positive reaction to tea tree oil.

  6. Induced cytotoxicity and cell proliferation in the hepatocarcinogenicity of chloroform in female B6C3F1 mice: comparison of administration by gavage in corn oil vs ad libitum in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Larson, J L; Wolf, D C; Butterworth, B E

    1994-01-01

    Chloroform increases the incidence of liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice when administered in by gavage in corn oil, but not when given in the drinking water at similar daily doses. Since cytotoxicity and regenerative cell proliferation have been implicated in the tumorigenic process for this nongenotoxic agent, these effects of chloroform in corn oil and drinking water were evaluated under conditions similar to the two bioassays. Female B6C3F1 mice were administered oral doses of 0, 3, 10, 34, 90, 238, or 477 mg/kg chloroform dissolved in corn oil 5 days/week for periods of 4 days or 3 weeks, or were continually exposed to chloroform in the drinking water at concentrations of 0, 60, 200, 400, 900, or 1800 ppm for 4 days or 3 weeks, at which time they were necropsied. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was delivered via osmotic pumps implanted 3.5 days prior to necropsy. Cell proliferation was evaluated as the percentage of hepatocytes that entered S-phase over 3.5 days (labeling index, LI), measured by immunohistochemical detection of BrdU incorporated into the DNA. Dose-dependent changes included centrilobular necrosis and markedly elevated LI in mice given 238 or 477 mg/kg chloroform in corn oil (the average daily doses that produced tumors in the cancer bioassay). The no-observed-effect level for histopathological changes was 10 mg/kg/day and for induced cell proliferation was 34 mg/kg/day for chloroform given in corn oil. Chloroform given in the drinking water did not increase the hepatic LI after either 4 days or 3 weeks in any of the dose groups, nor were any microscopic alterations observed in the livers, even though the cumulative daily amount of chloroform ingested in the 1800-ppm exposure group was 329 mg/kg/day. The sustained increase in LI in the livers of mice administered hepatocarcinogenic doses of chloroform in corn oil, but not for chloroform in drinking water, is evidence that chloroform-induced mouse liver cancer is secondary to events associated with

  7. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  8. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  12. Single droplet combustion of sunflower oil

    SciTech Connect

    Araya, K.; Tsunematsu, S.

    1987-01-01

    When sunflower oil (or plant oil, in general) was used as diesel engine fuel, the ignitability at low temperatures was much poorer than for No. 2 diesel oil. In addition, unburned carbon accumulated in the combustion chamber when the engine was idling. The research reported in this paper was conducted to investigate the causes of these problems. A single fuel droplet set at the tip of a combustion thread was inserted into an electric furnace and ignited. The behavior of the combustion was observed and analyzed by a high speed rotary video camera. The fuels studied were sunflower oil, No. 2 diesel oil, sunflower oil methyl ester and fish oil methyl ester. As a result, even if the droplet size of sunflower oil was the same as that of No. 2 diesel oil, its ignition delay was much longer than No. 2 diesel oil. This may be the main cause of poor ignitability of sunflower oil at low temperatures.

  13. Modern alternative to oil-fired ships

    SciTech Connect

    Botts, T E; Powell, J R; Powell, J D

    1980-01-01

    A direct coal-fired turbine is a very light engine for powering ships. Weight savings over a diesel engine nearly make up for the added weight associated with fuel bunkering when converting from oil to coal-firing. A method of hot-gas-particulate cleanup based on packed and fluidized rotating beds of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ is discussed as a means of providing adequate turbine blade lifetime. Two cases, a cargo ship and large merchant tanker are considered. Present value of fuel savings equates to the value of a coal-fired turbine. For a ten-year lifetime, the value of the turbine due to fuel-lost savings is projected to be roughly 48 M$ for the cargo ship and 194 M$ for the tanker.

  14. Oil and Gas Extraction Sector (NAICS 211)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Environmental regulatory information for oil and gas extraction sectors, including oil and natural gas drilling. Includes information about NESHAPs for RICE and stationary combustion engines, and effluent guidelines for synthetic-based drilling fluids

  15. The toxicity of commercial jet oils.

    PubMed

    Winder, Chris; Balouet, Jean-Christophe

    2002-06-01

    Jet oils are specialized synthetic oils used in high-performance jet engines. They have an appreciable hazard due to toxic ingredients, but are safe in use provided that maintenance personnel follow appropriate safety precautions and the oil stays in the engine. Aircraft engines that leak oil may expose others to the oils through uncontrolled exposure. Airplanes that use engines as a source of bleed air for cabin pressurization may have this source contaminated by the oil if an engine leaks. Examination of the ingredients of the oil indicates that at least two ingredients are hazardous: N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (a skin sensitizer) and tricresyl phosphate (a neurotoxicant, if ortho-cresyl isomers are present). Publicly available information such as labels and MSDS understates the hazards of such ingredients and in the case of ortho-cresyl phosphates by several orders of magnitude.

  16. Canola, corn and vegetable oils as alternative for wheat germ oil in fruit fly liquid larval diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four wheat germ oil alternatives (corn oil, vegetable oil, canola oil with 10% vitamin E, and canola oil with 20% vitamin E) purchased from a Hawaii local supermarket were added into a fruit fly liquid larval diet as a supplement for rearing fruit fly larvae and were evaluated for the possibility to...

  17. Assessment of remaining recoverable oil in selected major oil fields of the Permian Basin, Texas and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Cook, Troy A.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Gautier, Donald L.; Klett, Timothy R.; Verma, Mahendra K.; Ryder, Robert T.; Attanasi, E.D.; Freeman, P.A.; Le, Phoung A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed an estimate of technically recoverable, conventional oil in selected oil fields in the Permian Basin in west Texas and southeastern New Mexico. The mean total volume of potential additional oil resources that might be added using improved oil-recovery technologies was estimated to be about 2.7 billion barrels of oil.

  18. Geotechnical Properties of Oil Shale Retorted by the PARAHO and TOSCO Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    outlet size set by consideration of particle interlucking, flow rate, etc. 235 .," Material Oil shale B. With vibrating equipment ] Material not suited...AD-AB.a 317 ARMY ENGINEER WATERWAYS EXPERIMENT STATION VICKSBURG--ETC F/S 8/7 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OIL SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND-ETC(U...lEEllllElhllIE MEJ I .LEVEL. TECHNICAL REPORT 66-79-22 GEOTECHNICAL PROPERTIES OF OILas SHALE RETORTED BY THE PARAHO AND C TOSCO PROCESSES by ( Frank C

  19. Biodegradation of crude oils.

    PubMed

    Bosecker, K; Teschner, M; Wehner, H

    1989-01-01

    Petroleum from well sites in the Gifhorn Trough (Lower Saxony, NW-Germany) and the Maracaibo Basin (Venezuela) contained various types of microorganisms capable of degrading crude oils. Genetically related oils were inoculated with the isolated microorganisms and the degradation of the oils was followed by chromatographic techniques. Parameters important for the reactions (pH, supply of oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus, reaction medium) were monitored and optimized. The degradation of n-alkanes was followed closely. Microorganisms active in degradation (yeast, bacteria) easily survived a period of inactivity due to missing nutrients and were reactivated within hours to degrade newly added crude oil. Under substrate-limiting conditions selectivity of degradation was found, destroying medium-chain n-alkanes (C20, C21) at a faster rate than long-chain n-alkanes (C30, C31). During degradation the physical parameters of the crude oils (e.g. density, viscosity, average molecular weight) were altered and shifted into the direction of heavy oil. In vitro degraded oil is very similar to oil degraded in nature. Aromatic hydrocarbons and biomarker molecules (steranes and triterpanes) were not degraded under the conditions used. Pyrolysis-GC analysis of asphaltenes revealed no significant changes in the composition of pyrolyzates during biodegradation. There is sufficient evidence that heavy oils - besides some other effects - are generated by the in situ-biodegradation of conventional oils.

  20. 76 FR 79051 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-AD; Amendment 39-16894; AD 2011-26-04] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. That AD currently requires inspection, replacement...

  1. 78 FR 42677 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... applies to all Austro Engine GmbH model E4 engines, with a waste gate controller, part number (P/N) E4A-41... directive (AD) for all Austro Engine GmbH model E4 engines. This AD requires removing from service certain part number waste gate controllers. This AD was prompted by several reports of power loss events due...

  2. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  3. Integrated palm oil processing

    SciTech Connect

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Googin, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    Tree palms are a promising source of fuel extenders and substitutes. They are perennials which bear oil for a period of two to three decades after a roughly four year preliminary growth period. Tree palms are now one of the most efficient energy crops: the best modern varieties can provide up to 6 tonnes per hectare per year of mesocarp and kernal oils. Palms are particularly attractive in areas where more conventional farming would pose a significant threat of laterization of cause major ecological problems. Technology for palm oil production is can range between village level manual operations and highly industrialized mills. Process energy is often supplied by combustion of byproducts. Although palm oil is a good energy crop, its physical and combustion properties preclude most use in conventional diesel engines, although palm oil could be directly blended with residual fuel oils for use in some large engines. At present, two uses for palm oil as a diesel fuel extender or substitute appear attractive: microemulsion blends using palm soapstock and monoesters produced by exchanging small alcohols for the glycerol in triglycerides. The amount of alcohols required for conversion of a substantial fraction of palm oil or palm oil soapstock to fuel extenders or substitutes is proportionately small, and, to a major extent, can be supplied by palm processing waste materials. Fermentation and gasification produced alcohols in the one to four carbon range are suitable for use in formulating palm oil based fuels. On a stoichiometric basis, it appears that the value of the palm oil and alcohols are very close to their value as export items. Use of these palm oil fuels could help to decrease balance of payments problems for developing countries, as well as provide a secure market for agricultural products and improved rural employment.

  4. Governor driven pump for an engine

    SciTech Connect

    Kronich, P.G.

    1987-05-05

    An oil pump is described for pumping engine lubricating oil in an internal combustion engine, the engine including a governor, the pump including: a support shaft adapted to be driven by the governor; a helical screw member supported on the support shaft; and a cylindrical chamber having a diameter slightly greater than the diameter of the helical screw member, the chamber having an inlet and an outlet for receiving and delivering engine lubricating oil, the helical screw member being disposed in the chamber.

  5. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  6. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  7. 14 CFR 27.1015 - Oil tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil tank tests. 27.1015 Section 27.1015... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1015 Oil tank tests. Each oil tank must be... that each pressurized oil tank used with a turbine engine must be designed and installed so that it...

  8. 14 CFR 27.1015 - Oil tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil tank tests. 27.1015 Section 27.1015... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1015 Oil tank tests. Each oil tank must be... that each pressurized oil tank used with a turbine engine must be designed and installed so that it...

  9. 14 CFR 27.1015 - Oil tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil tank tests. 27.1015 Section 27.1015... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1015 Oil tank tests. Each oil tank must be... that each pressurized oil tank used with a turbine engine must be designed and installed so that it...

  10. 14 CFR 27.1015 - Oil tank tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil tank tests. 27.1015 Section 27.1015... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 27.1015 Oil tank tests. Each oil tank must be... that each pressurized oil tank used with a turbine engine must be designed and installed so that it...

  11. 75 FR 70098 - Airworthiness Directives; Various Aircraft Equipped With Rotax Aircraft Engines 912 A Series Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... crankcase surface to remove any oil. (ii) Warm up the engine to a minimum oil temperature of 50 degrees C (120 degrees F). Information about warming up the engine can be found in the applicable line... Aircraft Engines 912 A series engine with a crankcase assembly S/N up to and including S/N...

  12. Effect of ZnO nanoparticles in R290/R600a (50/50) based vapour compression refrigeration system added via lubricant oil on compressor suction and discharge characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Singh, Jagdev

    2016-10-01

    The primary source of energy consumption in a vapour compression refrigeration system is a compressor. The possibility of a reduction in the work of compression may leads to enhance the compressor suction and discharge characteristics and the overall performance of the refrigeration system. The present experimental investigation based upon the study of ZnO nanoparticles in a vapour compression refrigeration system using hydrocarbon blend R290/R600a (50/50) as a refrigerant. The zinc oxide nanoparticles are appended with system refrigerant via compressor lubricating oil. The results observed that by using different weight concentrations of nanoparticles in R290/R600a refrigeration system, both the compressor suction and discharge pressures and temperatures were reduced compared to conventional system. The viscosity of mineral oil with the addition of nanoparticles increases. The compressor energy consumption was reduced by 7.48 % using (0.2-1.0) wt% concentrations of nanoparticles. The COP of the refrigeration system has been increased by about 46 % with the addition of nanoparticles. Thus, the ZnO nanoparticles worked efficiently in the R290/R600a refrigeration system.

  13. Seed-specific increased expression of 2S albumin promoter of sesame qualifies it as a useful genetic tool for fatty acid metabolic engineering and related transgenic intervention in sesame and other oil seed crops.

    PubMed

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Gayatri, T; Bhattacharyya, Jagannath; Basu, Asitava; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The sesame 2S albumin (2Salb) promoter was evaluated for its capacity to express the reporter gusA gene encoding β-glucuronidase in transgenic tobacco seeds relative to the soybean fad3C gene promoter element. Results revealed increased expression of gusA gene in tobacco seed tissue when driven by sesame 2S albumin promoter. Prediction based deletion analysis of both the promoter elements confirmed the necessary cis-acting regulatory elements as well as the minimal promoter element for optimal expression in each case. The results also revealed that cis-regulatory elements might have been responsible for high level expression as well as spatio-temporal regulation of the sesame 2S albumin promoter. Transgenic over-expression of a fatty acid desaturase (fad3C) gene of soybean driven by 2S albumin promoter resulted in seed-specific enhanced level of α-linolenic acid in sesame. The present study, for the first time helped to identify that the sesame 2S albumin promoter is a promising endogenous genetic element in genetic engineering approaches requiring spatio-temporal regulation of gene(s) of interest in sesame and can also be useful as a heterologous genetic element in other important oil seed crop plants in general for which seed oil is the harvested product. The study also established the feasibility of fatty acid metabolic engineering strategy undertaken to improve quality of edible seed oil in sesame using the 2S albumin promoter as regulatory element.

  14. Rheological properties of heavy oils and heavy oil emulsions

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, M.R.

    1996-06-01

    In this study, the author investigated the effects of a number of process variables such as shear rate, measurement temperature, pressure, the influence of pretreatment, and the role of various amounts of added water on the rheology of the resulting heavy oil or the emulsion. Rheological properties of heavy oils and the corresponding emulsions are important from transportation and processing standpoints.

  15. Shear rheological characterization of motor oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bair, Scott; Winer, Ward O.

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of high pressure viscosity, traction coefficient, and EHD film thickness were performed on twelve commercial automotive engine oils, a reference oil, two unformulated base oils and two unformated base oil and polymer blends. An effective high shear rate inlet viscosity was calculated from film thickness and pressure viscosity coefficient. The difference between measured and effective viscosity is a function of the polymer type and concentration. Traction measurements did not discriminate mileage formulated oils from those not so designated.

  16. Emission profile of 18 carbonyl compounds, CO, CO 2, and NO x emitted by a diesel engine fuelled with diesel and ternary blends containing diesel, ethanol and biodiesel or vegetable oils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guarieiro, Lílian Lefol Nani; de Souza, Amanda Figueiredo; Torres, Ednildo Andrade; de Andrade, Jailson B.

    The impact of vehicular emissions on air depends, among other factors, on the composition of fuel and the technology used to build the engines. The reduction of vehicular emissions requires changes in the fuel composition, and improving the technologies used in the manufacturing of engines and for the after-treatment of gases. In general, improvements to diesel engines have targeted not only emission reductions, but also reductions in fuel consumption. However, changes in the fuel composition have been shown to be a more rapid and effective alternative to reduce pollution. Some factors should been taken into consideration when searching for an alternative fuel to be used in diesel engines, such as emissions, fuel stability, availability and its distribution, as well as its effects on the engine durability. In this work, 45 fuel blends were prepared and their stability was evaluated. The following mixtures (v/v/v) were stable for the 90-day period and were used in the emission study: diesel/ethanol - 90/10%, diesel/ethanol/soybean biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/castor biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/residual biodiesel - 80/15/5%, diesel/ethanol/soybean oil - 90/7/3%, and diesel/ethanol/castor oil - 90/7/3%. The diesel/ethanol fuel showed higher reduction of NO x emission at a lower load (2 kW) when compared with pure diesel. The other fuels showed a decrease of NO x emissions in the ranges of 6.9-75% and 4-85% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. The combustion efficiencies of the diesel can be enhanced by the addition of the oxygenate fuels, like ethanol and biodiesel/vegetable oil, resulting in a more complete combustion in terms of NO x emission. In the case of CO 2 the decreases were in the ranges of 5-24% and 4-6% at 1800 rpm and 2000 rpm, respectively. Meanwhile, no differences were observed in CO emission. The carbonyl compounds (CC) studied were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, acrolein, acetone, crotonaldehyde, butyraldehyde

  17. Fuel for diesel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Mori, M.

    1983-09-20

    A fuel is disclosed for a diesel engine which comprises a mixture of (A) an alcohol, (B) gas oil and (C) castor oil, wherein the contents of the respective components satisfy requirements represented by the following formulae: 0% by volume < A 80% by volume, 10% by volume B < 50% by volume, and 10% by volume C < 50% by volume.

  18. 14 CFR 33.84 - Engine overtorque test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.84 Engine overtorque test. (a) If..., a gearbox oil temperature equal to the maximum temperature when the maximum engine overtorque could occur in service; and for all other engines, an oil temperature within the normal operating range. (4)...

  19. 14 CFR 33.84 - Engine overtorque test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.84 Engine overtorque test. (a) If..., a gearbox oil temperature equal to the maximum temperature when the maximum engine overtorque could occur in service; and for all other engines, an oil temperature within the normal operating range. (4)...

  20. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  1. 78 FR 70216 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. This AD requires applying sealant to close the engine clutch...

  2. 75 FR 39803 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... Engines GmbH Model TAE 125-01 Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... increase inside the crankcase of the engine in excess of the oil seal design pressure limits. Leaking engine oil may adversely affect the gearbox clutch or the engine lubrication system. This condition,...

  3. Technical assessment of an oil-fired residential cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The definition of cogeneration, within the context of this project, is the simultaneous production of electricity and heat energy from a single machine. This report will present the results of an engineering analysis of the efficiency and energy-conservation potential associated with a unique residential oil-fired cogeneration system that provides both heat and electric power. The system operates whenever a thermostat signals a call for heat in the home, just as a conventional heating system. However, this system has the added benefit of cogenerating electricity whenever it is running to provide space heating comfort. The system is designed to burn No. 2 heating oil, which is consumed in an 11-horsepower, two cylinder, 56.75-cubic-inch, 1850-RPM diesel engine. This unit is the only pre-production prototype residential No. 2 oil-fired cogeneration system known to exist in the world. As such, it is considered a landmark development in the field of oil-heat technology.

  4. Environmental problems and technology needs related to oil production

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, L.W.

    1985-06-01

    More stringent regulations based on potential health and environmental impacts have added responsibility on the oil producer and the states. The author describes the potential for soil and water contamination from several sources, including well drilling and well completion chemicals, corrosion, and disposal of brine and other fluid waste. He cites pit lining and solidification techniques now under study and the possibility of land farming. He also cites the information about ground water, soil characterization, plant growth, etc. that is needed. The Geologic and Engineering Environmental Information Data Base should be a valuable tool in solving some of the problems.

  5. Co-processing of carbonaceous solids and petroleum oil

    DOEpatents

    Gupta, Avinash; Greene, Marvin I.

    1992-01-01

    In a process for producing distillates from coal by a first stage thermal liquefaction followed by a catalytic hydrogenation, liquefaction solvent is added at points spaced over the length of the thermal liquefaction heater. Coal may be co-processed with petroleum oil by adding pre-hydrogenated oil to the first stage or unhydrogenated oil to the second stage.

  6. Comparison of neurotoxic effects and potential risks from oral administration or ingestion of tricresyl phosphate and jet engine oil containing tricresyl phosphate.

    PubMed

    Mackerer, C R; Barth, M L; Krueger, A J; Chawla, B; Roy, T A

    1999-07-09

    Neurotoxicity of tricresyl phosphates (TCPs) and jet engine oil (JEO) containing TCPs were evaluated in studies conducted in both rat and hen. Results for currently produced samples ("conventional" and "low-toxicity") were compared with published findings on older samples to identify compositional changes and relate those changes to neurotoxic potential. Finally, a human risk assessment for exposure by oral ingestion of currently produced TCPs in JEO at 3% (JEO + 3%) was conducted. TCPs and certain other triaryl phosphates administered as single doses inhibited brain neuropathy target esterase (B-NTE; neurotoxic esterase) in the rat and the hen (hen 3.25 times as sensitive), and both species were deemed acceptable for initial screening purposes. Neither rat nor hen was sensitive enough to detect statistically significant inhibition of B-NTE after single doses of IEO + 3% "conventional" TCP. Subacute administration of 2 g/kg/d of JEO + 3% "conventional" TCP to the hen produced B-NTE inhibition (32%), which did not result in organophosphorus-induced delayed neurotoxicity (OPIDN). Subchronic administration of JEO + 3% TCP but not JEO + 1% TCP at 2 g/kg/d produced OPIDN. Thus, the threshold for OPIDN was between 20 and 60 mg "conventional" TCP/kg/d in JEO for 10 wk. The current "conventional" TCPs used in JEO and new "low-toxicity" TCPs now used in some JEO are synthesized from phenolic mixtures having reduced levels of ortho-cresol and ortho-xylenols resulting in TCPs of very high content of meta- and para-substituted phenyl moieties; this change in composition results in lower toxicity. The "conventional" TCPs still retain enough inhibitory activity to produce OPIDN, largely because of the presence of ortho-xylyl moieties; the "low-toxicity" TCPs are largely devoid of ortho substituents and have extremely low potential to cause OPIDN. The TCPs produced in the 1940s and 1950s were more than 400 times as toxic as the "low-toxicity" TCPs produced today. Analysis of the

  7. 78 FR 47228 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of engine power loss due to engine coolant contaminating the engine clutch. The design of the...

  8. Fabrication, stability and efficacy of dual-component antimicrobial nanoemulsions: essential oil (thyme oil) and cationic surfactant (lauric arginate).

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuhua; McLandsborough, Lynne; McClements, David Julian

    2015-04-01

    The influence of a cationic surfactant (lauric arginate, LAE) on the physical properties and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions was investigated. Nanoemulsions prepared from pure thyme oil were highly unstable due to Ostwald ripening, but they could be stabilized by adding a ripening inhibitor (corn oil) to the oil phase prior to homogenisation. The loading capacity and antimicrobial efficacy of thyme oil nanoemulsions were significantly increased by adding LAE. In the absence of LAE, at least 60 wt% corn oil had to be added to the lipid phase to inhibit Ostwald ripening; but in the presence of 0.1 wt% LAE, only 30 wt% corn oil was needed. LAE addition substantially increased the antimicrobial efficacy of the thyme oil nanoemulsions: 200 μg/ml thyme oil was needed to inhibit growth of a spoilage yeast (Zygosaccharomyces bailii) if LAE was added, whereas ⩾ 400 μg/ml was needed in the absence of LAE.

  9. Linking pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion (Py-AD) for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Daniele; Torri, Cristian

    2016-04-01

    Biogas is a mixture of CO2 and CH4 produced by a consortia of Bacteria and Archeae operating in anaerobic digestion (AD) plants. Biogas can be burnt as such in engines to produce electricity and heat or upgraded into biomethane. Biomethane is a drop-in fuel that can be injected in the natural gas grid or utilised as a transport fuel. While a wide array of biomass feedstock can be degraded into biogas, unconverted lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose end up in the co-product digestate leaving a large portion of chemical energy unutilised. Pyrolysis (Py) transforms in a single step and without chemical reagents the lignocellulose matrix into gaseous (syngas), liquid (bio-oil, pyrolysis oil) and solid (biochar) fractions for the development of renewable fuels and materials. The Py route applied downstream to AD is actively investigated in order to valorise the solid digestate presently destined only for soil applications. Coupling Py upstream to AD is an emerging field of research aimed at expanding the feedstock towards biologically recalcitrant substrates (wood, paper, sludge). The biomethanation potential was demonstrated for gaseous (H2/CO) and water soluble pyrolysis products, while the influence of insoluble pyrolytic lignin remains fairly unexplored. Biochar can promote the production of biomethane by acting as a support for microorganism colonisation, conductor for direct interspecies electron transfer, sorbent for hydrophobic inhibitors, and reactant for in situ biogas upgrading. Enhancing the advantages (carbon source) over the side effects (toxicity) of Py fractions represents the main challenge of Py-AD. This can be addressed by increasing the selectivity of the thermochemical process or improving the ecological flexibility of mixed bacterial consortia towards chemically complex environments.

  10. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  11. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  12. Why ceramic engines?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, H. L.

    1984-01-01

    Oil is still a problem for the U.S. and its allies. Transportation uses 61 percent of U.S. oil and its share is increasing, so more efficient technology should be concentrated there. Trucks' share of oil use is increasing because they are already much more efficient than autos. The primary truck opportunities are streamlining, more efficient engines, and shifting freight to railroads. More efficient engines are possible using ceramics to allow elimination of cooling systems and better use of waste exhaust heat. A 60 percent improvement seems possible if ceramics can be made tough enough and durable enough.

  13. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  14. Protection against oxidation of fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions through addition of rapeseed oil or antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Let, Mette B; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Pham, Kim A; Meyer, Anne S

    2005-06-29

    The ability of rapeseed oil and/or different antioxidants (alpha- and gamma-tocopherol mixture, ascorbyl palmitate, and EDTA) to protect fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions against oxidation was investigated. Tocopherol isomers in concentrations similar to those found in natural rapeseed oil were added to rapeseed oil stripped of natural tocopherols. The rapeseed oil with added tocopherols significantly inhibited oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions. In contrast, the emulsions with only fish oil and added alpha- and gamma-tocopherol were less stable than the emulsions with fish oil alone. When added individually, the gamma-tocopherol seemed to inhibit oxidation more efficiently than alpha-tocopherol. Ascorbyl palmitate (AP) almost completely retarded oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions, as determined by PV, volatile oxidation products, and sensory evaluation. AP also prevented the otherwise prooxidant effect of tocopherols added to fish oil before emulsification. No interactions between AP, tocopherols, and EDTA were observed, and EDTA added alone to fish oil did not show antioxidant properties in the milk emulsions. Overall, the results showed that addition of AP or rapeseed oil containing natural tocopherols to fish oil was equally efficient in inhibiting oxidation in the fish-oil-enriched milk emulsions.

  15. LD in AD 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bert Kruger

    The author discusses potential problems and benefits for learning disabled (LD) students in the year 2000. Considered are developments in three areas: human engineering (such as the role of amniocentesis in prevention of disabilities), education (including new audiovisual technology and a restructuring of secondary education), and human…

  16. Regulatory steps associated with use of value-added recombinant proteins and peptides screened in high-throughput for expression in genetically engineered starch and cellulosic fuel ethanol yeast strains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recombinant proteins expressed in animals have been a public concern as a perceived risk to the consumer. Animals are currently being treated with genetically engineered biologicals, such as growth hormone, or fed genetically modified plants. Similarly, various commercially-valuable proteins or pe...

  17. Research on EHN additive on the diesel engine combustion characteristics in plateau environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Li, Ruoting; Wang, Xiancheng; Hu, Chuan

    2017-03-01

    Aiming at the combustion deterioration problem of diesel engine in plateau environment, a bench test was carried out for the effects of EHN additive on combustion characteristics of the diesel engine with intake pressure of 0.68 kPa. Test results showed that with the full load working condition of 1 400 r/min: Cylinder pressure and pressure uprising rate decreased with EHN additive added in, mechanical load on the engine could be relieved; peak value of the heat release rate decreased and its occurrence advanced, ignition delay and combustion duration were shortened; cylinder temperature and exhaust gas temperature declined, thermal load on the engine could be relieved, output torque increased while specific oil consumption decreased, and effective thermal efficiency of diesel engine increased.

  18. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion... expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1013 - Oil tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... oil tank installation must meet the requirements of § 25.967. (b) Expansion space. Oil tank expansion... expansion space of not less than the greater of 10 percent of the tank capacity or 0.5 gallon, and each oil tank used with a turbine engine must have an expansion space of not less than 10 percent of the...

  20. 78 FR 2615 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines and Continental Motors, Inc. Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-14

    ...-41-AD; Amendment 39-17279; AD 2012-24-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines and Continental Motors, Inc. Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT... published in the Federal Register. That AD applies to Lycoming Engines TSIO-540-AK1A, and Continental...

  1. 76 FR 8661 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-15

    ... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain fuel injected reciprocating engines manufactured by Lycoming Engines. The existing AD currently requires inspection, replacement if necessary, and proper clamping of externally mounted fuel injector fuel lines. That AD also exempts engines that have...

  2. 78 FR 18920 - Airworthiness Directives; Austro Engine GmbH Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... AD applies to all Austro Engine GmbH model E4 engines, with a waste gate controller, part number (P/N...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Austro Engine GmbH model E4... waste gate controller lever. This proposed AD would require removing from service certain part number...

  3. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, A.

    1995-07-11

    Lubricating compositions are disclosed including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  4. Lubrication from mixture of boric acid with oils and greases

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    1995-01-01

    Lubricating compositions including crystalline boric acid and a base lubricant selected from oils, greases and the like. The lubricity of conventional oils and greases can also be improved by adding concentrates of boric acid.

  5. 76 FR 82110 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-30

    ...-30-AD; Amendment 39-16906; AD 2010-06-12R1] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft.... SUMMARY: We are revising an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-01 reciprocating engines. That AD currently requires replacing...

  6. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil spills ...

  7. Oil Spills

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Deepwater Horizon/BP oil spill in 2010. (NOAA) Oil Spills During an oil spill in coastal ... Shoreline Assessment Manual , and the FOSC 's Guide to NOAA Scientific Support . Response Tools To better prepare response ...

  8. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil.

    PubMed

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A

    2005-01-01

    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil.

  9. Influence of vegetable oils fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization.

    PubMed

    Pinzi, S; Mata-Granados, J M; Lopez-Gimenez, F J; Luque de Castro, M D; Dorado, M P

    2011-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engines produced through transesterification of oleaginous feedstocks. To analyze the influence of the fatty-acid composition on biodiesel optimization, transesterification of several vegetable oils has been studied. Reactions were carried out in flasks filled with vegetable oils, heated to the reaction temperature and stirred at 1100 rpm. The reactions started when the methanol and potassium hydroxide solutions were added to the flasks. Concentration of catalyst, amount of methanol, reaction temperature and time were optimized using a factorial design and a surface response design. Also, a kinetics study was carried out to optimize the reaction time. Results showed that reaction parameters optimal values depend on the oil chemical and physical properties. It can be concluded from this field trial that the effect of both catalyst concentration and reaction time over the transesterification yield is greatly influenced by the saturation degree and fatty-acid chain length.

  10. Fuel-efficient lubricating oil

    SciTech Connect

    Erdman, T.R.

    1986-04-22

    A method is described of improving the fuel economy of an internal combustion engine comprising lubricating the crankcase of the engine with a lubricating composition consisting of a hydrocarbon oil of lubricating viscosity and from 15 to 25 millimols per kilogram of zinc O,O-di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphorodithioate and from 0.25 to 2 weight percent of pentaerythritol monooleate.

  11. 78 FR 70240 - Airworthiness Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ... Directives; Lycoming Engines, Fuel Injected Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... airworthiness directive (AD) 2011-26- 04 that applies to certain Lycoming Engines fuel injected reciprocating engines. AD 2011-26-04 requires inspection, replacement if necessary, and proper clamping of...

  12. 78 FR 1733 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH models TAE 125-01, TAE 125-02- 99, and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. That AD...

  13. 77 FR 4217 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Engines GmbH Reciprocating Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for all Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) ] TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125-02-114 reciprocating engines. This AD was prompted by in-flight...

  14. Lubricating oil containing VII pour depressant

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, W.P.; Mays, D.L.

    1986-08-19

    Lubricating oils for internal combustion engines typically contain a multitude of additives which function as detergents, dispersants, viscosity index improvers, pour depressants, etc. in order to improve the properties of the oil. It is found that it is particularly necessary to improve the properties exhibited by lubricating oil compositions at low temperatures. It is an object of this invention to provide a lubricating oil containing an additive which provides improved properties at low temperatures.

  15. 14 CFR 29.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 29.1019 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all...

  16. 14 CFR 25.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 25.1019 Section 25... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 25.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all of...

  17. 14 CFR 29.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 29.1019 Section 29... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Oil System § 29.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer or filter through which all...

  18. 14 CFR 23.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 23.1019 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer...

  19. 14 CFR 23.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 23.1019 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer...

  20. 14 CFR 23.1019 - Oil strainer or filter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil strainer or filter. 23.1019 Section 23... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL, UTILITY, ACROBATIC, AND COMMUTER CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Oil System § 23.1019 Oil strainer or filter. (a) Each turbine engine installation must incorporate an oil strainer...