Science.gov

Sample records for adding motivational interviewing

  1. [Motivational interview: supporting change].

    PubMed

    Fond, Guillaume; Ducasse, Déborah

    2015-01-01

    The motivational interview aims to help patients to resolve their ambivalence regarding problematic behaviors and to guide them into change. It differs from other therapeutic approaches mainly through the attitude of the therapist. In motivational interviewing, the therapist defends the statu quo. By reactance, the patient defends the change and enhance her/his motivation. This article provides a summary of the other concepts of motivational interviewing and its applications in the psychiatric daily practice.

  2. Motivational Interviewing and Adolescent Psychopharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilallo, John J.; Weiss, Gony

    2009-01-01

    The use of motivational interviewing strategies in the practice of adolescent psychopharmacology is described. Motivational interviewing is an efficient and collaborative style of clinical interaction and this helps adolescent patients to integrate their psychiatric difficulties into a more resilient identity.

  3. Motivational Interviewing in Relational Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2010-01-01

    Responds to M. Stanton's comments on the current author's original article. One of the puzzles of motivational interviewing is why it works at all. How can it be that an individual interview or two yields change in a long-standing problem behavior even without any effort to alter social context? The time involved is such a tiny part of the…

  4. Motivational interviewing in adolescent treatment.

    PubMed

    Naar-King, Sylvie

    2011-11-01

    This paper briefly reviews the research literature on motivational interviewing (MI) and behaviour change in adolescents and then discusses the implications of adolescent cognitive and social-emotional developmental processes for the relational and technical components of MI. Research suggests that MI is efficacious in improving substance use in adolescents. Research has been slower to emerge in other behaviours, but available randomized controlled trials suggest that MI has great promise for improving mental and physical health outcomes in this developmental period. The relational and technical components of MI are highly relevant for the adolescent developmental period, and studies have shown that these components are related to outcomes in this population. There are several ways to include MI in clinical interventions for adolescents, ranging from MI in brief settings to using MI as a platform from which all other treatments are offered. Future research is necessary to test the effects of MI in adolescent group settings and the full integration of MI into other adolescent treatment approaches.

  5. A Motivational Interviewing Intervention for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reich, Catherine M.; Howard Sharp, Katianne M.; Berman, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite attempts to engage students, undergraduate instructors are often challenged by low motivation among students to study outside of the classroom. The current study adapted motivational interviewing, which is often used with therapy clients ambivalent to change, to target college student motivation to study for exams. Findings indicated…

  6. Using Motivational Interviewing to Help Your Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Lisa A.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which began as a counseling technique in addiction recovery, is a client-centered tool for making changes, increasing helpful behaviors and decreasing unhelpful behaviors. It relies on an individual's intrinsic motivation and interest in change, using a non-confrontational approach to frame goals in a practical,…

  7. Creative Approaches to Motivational Interviewing: Addressing the Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe, Allison; Parmenter, Anthony S.

    2012-01-01

    Scholars have suggested that counseling theory is greatly enhanced by adding creative approaches (Degges-White & Davis, 2011). However, few suggestions have been made in the counseling literature indicating how motivational interviewing can be creatively used. In addition, the majority of creative approaches for problem behaviors within the…

  8. Measuring Client Experiences of Motivational Interviewing during a Lifestyle Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Michael B.; Mohn, Richard S.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Landry, Alicia S.

    2015-01-01

    The Client Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing was used to assess motivational interviewing experiences in a predominantly female, African American sample from the Southeastern United States who received motivational interviewing-based feedback during a multicomponent lifestyle intervention. Motivational interviewing was experienced…

  9. Toward a Theory of Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The widely disseminated clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) arose through a convergence of science and practice. Beyond a large base of clinical trials, advances have been made toward "looking under the hood" of MI to understand the underlying mechanisms by which it affects behavior change. Such specification of outcome-relevant…

  10. Motivational Interviewing and the Social Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Comments on the article by Miller and Rose (September 2009). As Miller and Rose opened "the black box of treatment to examine linkages between processes of delivery and client outcomes" (p. 529) in motivational interviewing (MI), it is important that their model include factors from the social context that may explain conditions that enhance or…

  11. Motivational interviewing in the health care setting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alcohol use disorders are related to many negative health, emotional, societal, and economic consequences. These disorders are often difficult to treat because individuals suffering from them tend to be ambivalent about and resistant to change. Motivational interviewing (MI) provides healthcare prov...

  12. Cross-Cultural Training in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, William R.; Hendrickson, Stacey M. L.; Venner, Kamilla; Bisono, Ani; Daugherty, Mikyta; Yahne, Carolina E.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the cross-cultural transportability of motivational interviewing (MI), an evidence-based addiction treatment method. Free clinical training in MI was offered in separate targeted workshops for 86 African American, Native American, and Spanish-speaking addiction treatment providers. Audiotaped pre- and posttraining clinical…

  13. What Can Motivational Interviewing Do for You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Brian L.

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a promising 25-year-old therapeutic approach that integrates relationship-building principles and more directive strategies to move clients toward behavioral change. A large and expanding number of controlled research studies of MI have demonstrated its efficacy for addictive behaviors ranging from use of alcohol,…

  14. Implementing Motivational Interviewing: Lessons from Clinical Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Daniel M.; Edmundson, Eldon; Tomlin, Kathyleen

    2006-01-01

    Addiction treatment agencies face challenges in adopting and sustaining Motivational Interviewing (MI) use. Addiction Educators can assist agencies in changing practices by preparing new practitioners to have some beginning skills in adoption and sustaining strategies. Investigators assessed three types of agency training and six administrative…

  15. Toward a Theory of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Miller, William R.; Rose, Gary S.

    2009-01-01

    The widely-disseminated clinical method of motivational interviewing (MI) arose through a convergence of science and practice. Beyond a large base of clinical trials, advances have been made toward “looking under the hood” of MI to understand the underlying mechanisms by which it affects behavior change. Such specification of outcome-relevant aspects of practice is vital to theory development, and can inform both treatment delivery and clinical training. An emergent theory of MI is proposed, emphasizing two specific active components: a relational component focused on empathy and the interpersonal spirit of MI, and a technical component involving the differential evocation and reinforcement of client change talk A resulting causal chain model links therapist training, therapist and client responses during treatment sessions, and post-treatment outcomes. PMID:19739882

  16. School Nurses' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing for Preventing Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonde, Ane Høstgaard; Bentsen, Peter; Hindhede, Anette Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a counseling method used to bring about behavior change; its application by school nurses for preventing obesity in children is still new. This study, based on in-depth interviews with 12 school nurses, shows how school nurses adapted motivational interviewing and integrated it into their daily practice along with…

  17. The Effects of Training Medical Students in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opheim, Arild; Andreasson, Sven; Eklund, Astri Brandell; Prescott, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of brief training in Motivational interviewing (MI) for medical students. Design: Video recordings of consultations between 113 final-year medical students and simulated patients were scored blind by two independent raters with the Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC). Half of the students participated in a…

  18. Utilizing Motivational Interviewing to Address Resistant Behaviors in Clinical Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahesh, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is presented as an approach to address resistant behaviors in clinical supervision. A case example is used to illustrate the process in which the relational and technical elements of motivational interviewing can be applied to supervisee resistance. Implications for supervisors and researchers are discussed.

  19. Motivational interviewing: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rubak, Sune; Sandbæk, Annelli; Lauritzen, Torsten; Christensen, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Background Motivational Interviewing is a well-known, scientifically tested method of counselling clients developed by Miller and Rollnick and viewed as a useful intervention strategy in the treatment of lifestyle problems and disease. Aim To evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing in different areas of disease and to identify factors shaping outcomes. Design of study A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials using motivational interviewing as the intervention. Method After selection criteria a systematic literature search in 16 databases produced 72 randomised controlled trials the first of which was published in 1991. A quality assessment was made with a validated scale. A meta-analysis was performed as a generic inverse variance meta-analysis. Results Meta-analysis showed a significant effect (95% confidence interval) for motivational interviewing for combined effect estimates for body mass index, total blood cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, blood alcohol concentration and standard ethanol content, while combined effect estimates for cigarettes per day and for HbA1c were not significant. Motivational interviewing had a significant and clinically relevant effect in approximately three out of four studies, with an equal effect on physiological (72%) and psychological (75%) diseases. Psychologists and physicians obtained an effect in approximately 80% of the studies, while other healthcare providers obtained an effect in 46% of the studies. When using motivational interviewing in brief encounters of 15 minutes, 64% of the studies showed an effect. More than one encounter with the patient ensures the effectiveness of motivational interviewing. Conclusion Motivational interviewing in a scientific setting outperforms traditional advice giving in the treatment of a broad range of behavioural problems and diseases. Large-scale studies are now needed to prove that motivational interviewing can be implemented into daily

  20. Examining How Motivational Interviewing May Foster College Student Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iarussi, Melanie M.

    2013-01-01

    Professional counselors practicing in higher education settings aspire to meet the developmental needs of college students in addition to addressing their mental health and substance use concerns. Motivational interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based counseling approach that focuses on enhancing motivation and commitment to change. This article…

  1. Using Student Interviews to Understand Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanich, Laurie B.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the construction and development of a course assignment that uses student interviews as an instructional tool to bridge the gap between theory and practice in a graduate educational psychology course. The first part of the article describes the student interview assignment used to examine theories of motivation. The second…

  2. Applying Motivational Interviewing to Counselling Overweight and Obese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindhe Soderlund, Lena; Nordqvist, Cecilia; Angbratt, Marianne; Nilsen, Per

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' application of motivational interviewing (MI) to counselling overweight and obese children aged 5 and 7 years, accompanied by their parents. Ten welfare centre and school health service nurses trained and practiced MI for 6 months, then participated in focus group…

  3. Motivational Interviewing to Affect Behavioral Change in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Sherry M.; Cooper, R. Lyle; Cassie, Kim McClure

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews and assesses the existing research literature on the efficacy of motivational interviewing (MI) to promote lifestyle changes and improve functioning among older adults confronting serious health challenges. A comprehensive literature review was conducted of intervention studies that tested the use of MI to achieve behavioral…

  4. Using Motivational Interviewing within the Early Stages of Group Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents developmentally appropriate applications of Motivational Interviewing (MI; Miller & Rollnick, 2002) for use in preparing group members for the working stages of group. Practical strategies are offered for using MI to facilitate an atmosphere of trust, recognize member readiness for change, identify and resolve members'…

  5. Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hettema, Jennifer E.; Hendricks, Peter S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Motivational interviewing (MI) is a treatment approach that has been widely examined as an intervention for tobacco dependence and is recommended in clinical practice guidelines. Previous reviews evaluating the efficacy of MI for smoking cessation noted effects that were modest in magnitude but included few studies. The current study is…

  6. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  7. Therapist influence on client language during motivational interviewing sessions.

    PubMed

    Moyers, Theresa B; Martin, Tim

    2006-04-01

    Client language in favor of change is hypothesized to be a causal mechanism for motivational interviewing (MI), and specific therapist behaviors are prescribed to elicit such speech. This project examined 38 motivational enhancement therapy sessions from Project MATCH (Matching Alcoholism Treatments to Client Heterogeneity), using a sequential behavioral coding system to investigate the relationship between therapist behaviors and client speech. Conditional probabilities were calculated between MI-consistent (MICO) therapist behaviors, MI-inconsistent (MIIN) therapist behaviors, and immediately subsequent client speech. MICO behaviors were more likely to be followed by self-motivational statements, whereas MIIN behaviors were more likely to be followed by client resistance. These results lend support to the importance of therapist behaviors in shaping client speech during MI sessions.

  8. Beyond Cognition: Broadening the Emotional Base of Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christopher C.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) techniques have been described in cognitive and behavioral terms, as means to positively resolve tension created by unresolved ambivalence about change. This view of motivation is consistent with a negative reinforcement model, in which behaviors are performed to escape from negative states. In contrast, the concept of positive reinforcement involves seeking positive states through behaviors that lead toward more satisfying conditions. From this perspective, motivation involves a desire to experience positive emotions. This paper focuses on the potential role that emotions may play in MI, particularly positive emotions. The authors posit that MI elicits positive emotions of interest, hope, contentment and inspiration by inviting clients to envision a better future, to remember past successes, and to gain confidence in their abilities to improve their lives. PMID:20631922

  9. Beyond Cognition: Broadening the Emotional Base of Motivational Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Christopher C; Ingersoll, Karen S

    2008-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) techniques have been described in cognitive and behavioral terms, as means to positively resolve tension created by unresolved ambivalence about change. This view of motivation is consistent with a negative reinforcement model, in which behaviors are performed to escape from negative states. In contrast, the concept of positive reinforcement involves seeking positive states through behaviors that lead toward more satisfying conditions. From this perspective, motivation involves a desire to experience positive emotions. This paper focuses on the potential role that emotions may play in MI, particularly positive emotions. The authors posit that MI elicits positive emotions of interest, hope, contentment and inspiration by inviting clients to envision a better future, to remember past successes, and to gain confidence in their abilities to improve their lives.

  10. Motivational interviewing in dental hygiene education: curriculum modification and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Bray, Kimberly Krust; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Liston, Robin; Williams, Karen B

    2013-12-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a person-centered, goal-directed method of communication for eliciting and strengthening intrinsic motivation for behavior change. Originally developed in the field of addiction therapy, MI has been increasing applied in the health professions with a growing body of successful outcomes for tobacco cessation and diabetic control, which can significantly impact oral health. MI has shown preliminary value for impacting oral behaviors that reduce early childhood caries, plaque, and gingival inflammation. While the training in and use of MI by oral health providers is emerging, full integration into dental and dental hygiene curricula has yet to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this project was to evaluate the full implementation of MI in the classroom and clinic of a dental hygiene curriculum.

  11. Motivational Interviewing: moving from why to how with autonomy support

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI), a counseling style initially used to treat addictions, increasingly has been used in health care and public health settings. This manuscript provides an overview of MI, including its theoretical origins and core clinical strategies. We also address similarities and differences with Self-Determination Theory. MI has been defined as person-centered method of guiding to elicit and strengthen personal motivation for change. Core clinical strategies include, e.g., reflective listening and eliciting change talk. MI encourages individuals to work through their ambivalence about behavior change and to explore discrepancy between their current behavior and broader life goals and values. A key challenge for MI practitioners is deciding when and how to transition from building motivation to the goal setting and planning phases of counseling. To address this, we present a new three-phase model that provides a framework for moving from WHY to HOW; from building motivation to more action oriented counseling, within a patient centered framework. PMID:22385702

  12. Motivational pharmacotherapy: combining motivational interviewing and antidepressant therapy to improve treatment adherence.

    PubMed

    Balán, Iván C; Moyers, Theresa B; Lewis-Fernández, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Treatment non-adherence in psycho-pharmacotherapy remains a significant challenge to the effective clinical management of psychiatric disorders, especially among underserved racial/ethnic groups. This article introduces motivational pharmacotherapy, an approach that integrates motivational interviewing into psycho-pharmacotherapy sessions in order to increase treatment adherence. We describe what aspects of motivational interviewing were incorporated into motivational pharmacotherapy and how we tailored the intervention to the clinical and cultural characteristics of monolingual Spanish-speaking immigrants with major depressive disorder. Transcriptions of the interactions between psychiatrists and patients help illustrate this approach. In our experience, motivational pharmacotherapy differs substantially from standard pharmacotherapy in how it recasts clinicians and patients as equal experts, prioritizes patients' motivation to engage in treatment rather than clinicians' multiple inquiries about symptoms, encourages patients' self-efficacy to overcome barriers, and attends to the momentum of patients' language about commitment to change. We also found that motivational pharmacotherapy can be feasibly incorporated into medication treatment, can be tailored to patients' culture and disorder, and may help increase adherence to psycho-pharmacotherapy.

  13. Beyond Behavior: Eliciting Broader Change With Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christopher C.; Ingersoll, Karen S.

    2010-01-01

    Descriptions of Motivational interviewing (MI) usually focus on helping clients change a single problematic behavior. In contrast, the current case study shows that MI can serve as a more comprehensive psychotherapy, focused not only on multiple problem behaviors but also on broader change consistent with its roots in client-centered therapy. In this case, the therapist interwove a focus on several discrete behaviors with a focus on broader lifestyle change as well as increased clarity of client cognitions, values, and choices, resulting in several lasting changes. PMID:19760743

  14. A Systematic Review of Psychometric Evaluation of Motivational Interviewing Integrity Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Lloyd; Turner, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code (MISC) has been developed to measure motivational interviewing skill, but a need has been identified for more economical instruments. This study expands on a previous systematic review by Madson and Campbell (2006) and examines the extent to which motivational interviewing integrity measures other than the…

  15. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  16. Dual Diagnosis Motivational Interviewing: a modification of Motivational Interviewing for substance-abusing patients with psychotic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Steve; Carroll, Kathleen; Kostas, Demetrios; Perkins, Jennifer; Rounsaville, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a brief treatment approach for helping patients develop intrinsic motivation to change addictive behaviors. While initially developed to target primary substance using populations, professionals are increasingly recognizing the promise this approach has for addressing the motivational dilemmas faced by patients who have co-occurring psychiatric and psychoactive substance use disorders. Unfortunately, this recognition has not lead to a clear explication of how MI might be adopted for specific diagnostic populations of dually diagnosed patients. In this article we describe how we have applied the principles and practices of MI to patients who have psychotic disorders and co-occurring drug or alcohol use problems. Specifically, we provide two supplemental guidelines to augment basic MI principles (adopting an integrated dual diagnosis approach, accommodating cognitive impairments and disordered thinking). We present recommended modifications to primary MI skill sets (simplifying open-ended questions, refining reflective listening skills, heightening emphasis on affirmations, integrating psychiatric issues into personalized feedback and decisional balance matrices). Finally, we highlight other clinical considerations (handling psychotic exacerbation and crisis events, recommended professional qualifications) when using MI with psychotic disordered dually diagnosed patients. PMID:12495791

  17. Ambivalence: Prerequisite for success in motivational interviewing with adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Feldstein Ewing, S. W.; Apodaca, T. R.; Gaume, J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The exploration and resolution of ambivalence play an essential role in motivational interviewing (MI) theory. However, most adolescent MI studies have not examined ambivalence as a contributor to behaviour change. This paper reviewed research findings on the role of ambivalence in the adolescent change process. Methods and results We undertook a narrative review of the published empirical and theoretical literature on ambivalence and mechanisms of change in MI for adolescents and found that current MI evaluations appear not to have access to reliable and valid measures of ambivalence in adolescence or neuroimaging methods to evaluate the mechanisms of treatment response. Conclusions Improved instrumentation is needed to assess adolescents’ ambivalence in clinical and research settings. Innovative methodology, including neuroimaging, may help identify factors mediating relationships between adolescents’ ambivalence and treatment response. PMID:26814983

  18. [Current evidence on the motivational interview in the approach to health care problems in primary care].

    PubMed

    Bóveda Fontán, Julia; Pérula de Torres, Luis Ángel; Campiñez Navarro, Manuel; Bosch Fontcuberta, Josep M; Barragán Brun, Nieves; Prados Castillejo, Jose Antonio

    2013-11-01

    The motivational interview has been widely used as a clinical method to promote behavioural changes in patients, helping them to resolve their ambivalence to obtain their own motivations. In the present article, a review is made of the main meta-analyses and systematic and narrative reviews on the efficacy of the motivational interview in the primary health care environment.

  19. Motivational Interviewing With Personalized Feedback: A Brief Intervention for Motivating Smokers With Schizophrenia to Seek Treatment for Tobacco Dependence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Marc L.; Ziedonis, Douglas M.; Krejci, Jonathan A.; Brandon,Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia have a much higher prevalence of tobacco smoking, a lower cessation rate, and a higher incidence of tobacco-related diseases than the general population. The initial challenge has been to motivate these individuals to quit smoking. This study tested whether motivational interviewing is effective in motivating smokers…

  20. Training a Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation Team in Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina

    2015-01-01

    Background. An acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) is a severe condition that requires extensive and very specialized management of both physical and psychological dimensions of injured patients. Objective. The aim of the part of the study reported here was twofold: (1) to describe burnout, empathy, and satisfaction at work of these professionals and (2) to explore whether a tailored program based on motivational interviewing (MI) techniques modifies and improves such features. Methods. This paper presents findings from an intervention study into a tailored training for professionals (N = 45) working in a spinal cord injury (SCI) unit from a general hospital. Rehabilitation professionals' empathy skills were measured with the Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy (JSPE), burnout was measured with the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and additional numeric scales were used to assess the perceived job-related stress and perceived satisfaction with job. Results. Findings suggest that professionals are performing quite well and they refer to satisfactory empathy, satisfaction at work, and no signs of burnout or significant stress both before and after the training. Conclusions. No training effect was observed in the variables considered in the study. Some possible explanations for these results and future research directions are discussed in depth in this paper. The full protocol of this study is registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01889940). PMID:26770827

  1. Computerized versus motivational interviewing alcohol interventions: impact on discrepancy, motivation, and drinking.

    PubMed

    Murphy, James G; Dennhardt, Ashley A; Skidmore, Jessica R; Martens, Matthew P; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan E

    2010-12-01

    The authors conducted two randomized clinical trials with ethnically diverse samples of college student drinkers in order to determine (a) the relative efficacy of two popular computerized interventions versus a more comprehensive motivational interview approach (BASICS) and (b) the mechanisms of change associated with these interventions. In Study 1, heavy drinking participants recruited from a student health center (N = 74, 59% women, 23% African American) were randomly assigned to receive BASICS or the Alcohol 101 CD-ROM program. BASICS was associated with greater post-session motivation to change and self-ideal and normative discrepancy relative to Alcohol 101, but there were no group differences in the primary drinking outcomes at 1-month follow-up. Pre to post session increases in motivation predicted lower follow-up drinking across both conditions. In Study 2, heavy drinking freshman recruited from a core university course (N = 133, 50% women, 30% African American) were randomly assigned to BASICS, a web-based feedback program (e-CHUG), or assessment-only. BASICS was associated with greater post-session self-ideal discrepancy than e-CHUG, but there were no differences in motivation or normative discrepancy. There was a significant treatment effect on typical weekly and heavy drinking, with participants in BASICS reporting significantly lower follow-up drinking relative to assessment only participants. In Study 2, change in the motivation or discrepancy did not predict drinking outcomes. Across both studies, African American students assigned to BASICS reported medium effect size reductions in drinking whereas African American students assigned to Alcohol 101, e-CHUG, or assessment did not reduce their drinking.

  2. Adoption of Motivational Interviewing and Motivational Enhancement Therapy Following Clinical Trials†

    PubMed Central

    Guydish, Joseph; Jessup, Martha; Tajima, Barbara; Manser, Sarah Turcotte

    2012-01-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network (CTN) is designed to test drug abuse treatment interventions in multisite clinical trials and to support the translation of effective interventions into practice. In this study, qualitative methods were applied to examine adoption of motivational interviewing and motivational enhancement therapy (MI/MET) in five clinics where these interventions were tested. Participants were clinic staff (n = 17) who were interviewed about the MI/MET study, and about whether MI/MET was adopted after the study ended. Although clinics’ participation in a clinical trial includes many elements thought to be necessary for later adoption of the intervention, we found that there was “adoption” in one clinic, “partial adoption” in one clinic, “counselor adoption” in one clinic, and “no adoption” in two clinics. These findings highlight a distinction between adoption at the organizational and counselor levels, and suggest that a range of adoption outcomes may be observed in the field. Findings are relevant to clinical staff, program directors, administrators and policy makers concerned with improvement of drug abuse treatment systems through adoption of evidence-based practices. PMID:21138198

  3. Motivational interviewing for modifying diabetes risk: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Greaves, Colin J; Middlebrooke, Andrew; O'Loughlin, Lucy; Holland, Sandra; Piper, Jane; Steele, Anna; Gale, Tracy; Hammerton, Fenella; Daly, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Background Around 10–15% of adults aged over 40 years have pre-diabetes, which carries a high risk of progression to type 2 diabetes. Intensive lifestyle intervention reduces progression by as much as 58%. However, the cost and personnel requirements of these interventions are major obstacles to delivery in NHS primary care. Aim To assess the effectiveness of a low-cost intervention, delivered in primary care by non-NHS staff, to reduce the risk of diabetes through weight loss and physical activity. Design of study Pragmatic single-blind randomised controlled trial with researchers and statistician blinded to group allocation. Setting UK primary care. Method One-hundred and forty-one participants with a body mass index of 28 kg/m2 or more, but without diabetes or heart disease, received either information leaflets or individual behavioural counselling using motivational interviewing techniques. The intervention was delivered by five counsellors recruited from the local community. The primary outcomes were the proportions of participants meeting predefined targets for weight loss (5%) and moderate physical activity (150 minutes/week) after 6 months. Results Using intention-to-treat analysis, more people in the intervention group achieved the weight-loss target (24% versus 7% for controls; odds ratio [OR] = 3.96; 95% confidence interval [Cl] = 1.4 to 11.4; number needed to treat [NNT] = 6.1 (95% Cl = 4 to 21). The proportion achieving the physical activity target did not increase significantly (38% versus 28% for controls; OR = 1.6; 95% Cl = 0.7 to 3.8). Conclusion Short-term weight loss, at a level which, if sustained, is clinically meaningful for reducing diabetes risk, is achievable in primary care, without excessive use of NHS monetary or personnel resources. PMID:18682011

  4. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Reduction of Alcohol Use

    PubMed Central

    Nyamathi, Adeline; Shoptaw, Steven; Cohen, Allan; Greengold, Barbara; Nyamathi, Kamala; Marfisee, Mary; de Castro, Viviane; Khalilifard, Farinaz; George, Daniel; Leake, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background Methadone-Maintained (MM) clients who engage in excessive alcohol use are at high risk for HIV and Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Nurse-led Hepatitis Health Promotion (HHP) may be one strategy to decrease alcohol use in this population. Objective To evaluate the impact of nurse-led HHP, delivered by nurses compared to Motivational Interviewing (MI), delivered by trained therapists in group sessions or one-on-one on reduction of alcohol use. Methods A three-arm randomized, controlled trial, conducted with 256 MM adults attending one of five MM outpatient clinics in the Los Angeles area. Within each site, moderate-to-heavy alcohol-using MM participants were randomized into one of three conditions: 1) nurse-led hepatitis health promotion group sessions (n=87); 2) MI delivered in group sessions (MI-group; n=90), or 3) MI delivered one-on-one sessions (MI-single, n=79). Results Self-reported alcohol use was reduced from a median of 90 drinks/month at baseline to 60 drinks/month at six month follow-up. A Wilcoxon sign-rank test indicated a significant reduction in alcohol use in the total sample (p < .05). In multiple logistic regression analysis controlling for alcohol consumption at baseline and other covariates, no differences by condition were found. Discussion As compared to two programs delivered by MI specialists, a culturally-sensitive and easy to implement nurse-led HHP program produced similar reductions in alcohol use over six months. Employing nurse-led programs may allow cost savings for treatment programs as well as a greater integration of alcohol reduction counseling along with a more comprehensive focus on general health-related issues than previously conducted. PMID:19836904

  5. Motivational Interviewing (MINT) Improves Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Acceptance and Adherence: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Sara; Smith, Simon S.; Oei, Tian P. S.; Douglas, James

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is poor. We assessed the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing intervention (motivational interview nurse therapy [MINT]) in addition to best practice standard care to improve acceptance and adherence to CPAP therapy in people with…

  6. Treatment Fidelity of Motivational Interviewing Delivered by a School Nurse to Increase Girls' Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Lorraine B.; Pfeiffer, Karin A.; Maier, Kimberly S.; LaDrig, Stacey M.; Berg-Smith, Steven Malcolm

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing, which involves the use of person-centered, directive counseling techniques, shows promise for changing adolescent behaviors. The purpose of this article was to describe the methodology and findings related to the treatment fidelity of three face-to-face motivational interviewing sessions involving middle school girls and…

  7. Group Motivational Interviewing in Schools: Development of a Health Promotion Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jemma L.; Bravo, Paulina; Gobat, Nina; Rollnick, Stephen; Jerzembek, Gabrielle; Whitehead, Sarah; Chanon, Sue; Kelson, Mark; Adams, Orla; Murphy, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the light of the shortcomings of curriculum-based health promotion in secondary schools, group motivational interviewing provides a potential alternative approach. This two-phase study set out to establish the key components, feasibility and acceptability of a group motivational interviewing intervention, focused on alcohol…

  8. Building a foundation for brief motivational interviewing: communication to promote health literacy and behavior change.

    PubMed

    Welch, Joanne

    2014-12-01

    The use of collaborative communication styles such as motivational interviewing promotes patient engagement, health literacy, self-management, and improved outcomes for individuals with chronic illness. Brief motivational interviewing is an adaptation developed for use with medical populations in time-limited encounters. Inpatient nurses caring for individuals with chronic diagnoses may lack knowledge regarding brief motivational interviewing. This evidence-based quality improvement project used an online approach to introduce continuing education regarding brief motivational interviewing within the constraints of the inpatient setting. Nurses on four units in a community hospital completed a web-based learning module in preparation for context-based skills training. A significant increase in knowledge scores, combined with strong positive attitudes prior to and following the module, indicated a reliable foundation for skills training within the practice setting. Nurses' enhanced ability to recognize the practice of motivational interviewing in scenarios following online education supported the potential value of a hybrid approach to education.

  9. Implementing a predictive modeling program, part II: Use of motivational interviewing in a predictive modeling program.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Jean; Admire, Kaye S

    2005-01-01

    This is the second article of a two-part series about issues encountered in implementing a predictive modeling program. Part I looked at how to effectively implement a program and discussed helpful hints and lessons learned for case managers who are required to change their approach to patients. In Part II, we discuss the readiness to change model, examine the spirit of motivational interviewing and related techniques, and explore how motivational interviewing is different from more traditional interviewing and assessment methods.

  10. Advances in Motivational Interviewing for Pediatric Obesity: Results of the Brief Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Body Mass Index Trial and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Resnicow, Ken; Harris, Donna; Wasserman, Richard; Schwartz, Robert P; Perez-Rosas, Veronica; Mihalcea, Rada; Snetselaar, Linda

    2016-06-01

    Rates of childhood obesity in the United States remain at historic highs. The pediatric primary care office represents an important yet underused setting to intervene with families. One factor contributing to underuse of the primary care setting is lack of effective available interventions. One evidence-based method to help engage and motivate patients is motivational interviewing, a client-centered and goal-oriented style of counseling used extensively to increase autonomous motivation and modify health behaviors. This article summarizes the methods and results from a large trial implemented in primary care pediatric office and concludes with recommendations for improving the intervention and increasing its dissemination.

  11. Motivational Interviewing in the Reciprocal Engagement Model of Genetic Counseling: a Method Overview and Case Illustration.

    PubMed

    Ash, Erin

    2016-12-28

    Motivational Interviewing is a well-described counseling method that has been applied to a broad range of health behavior encounters. Genetic counseling is an emerging area of utilization for the method of Motivational Interviewing. The relational and technical elements of the MI method are described within the context of genetic counseling encounters. Case excerpts will be used to illustrate incorporation of MI methods into the Reciprocal Engagement Model of the genetic counseling encounter.

  12. Teaching Motivational Interviewing Skills to Third-Year Psychiatry Clerkship Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Brenda; Borges, Nicole; Morrison, Ann K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a large percentage of health care costs being related to smoking, obesity, and substance abuse, most physicians are not confident in motivating patients to change health behaviors. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a directive, patient-centered approach for eliciting behavior change. The purpose of this study was to teach…

  13. The value-adding CFO: an interview with Disney's Gary Wilson. Interview by Geraldine E. Willigan.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G

    1990-01-01

    Financing a company is more complex than ever-and more important to its economic success. The demands on a CFO are tremendous. Optimizing capital costs requires an unprecedented level of technical sophistication. Yet the best CFOs today are not mere technicians. They are also strategists and innovators. Gary Wilson exemplifies the new CFO. In his 5 years as executive vice president and CFO of the Walt Disney Company and his 12 years at Marriott Corporation, he has shown how the finance function can add value-not just account for it. How does a CFO create value for shareholders? "Just like all the great marketing and operating executives," Wilson says, "by being creative." To Wilson, being creative means rethinking assumptions and finding clever ways to achieve financial and strategic goals. Some of Wilson's innovative deal making-like the off-balance-sheet financing he used at Marriott-is well known. At Marriott, he discovered the power of separating the ownership of an asset from its control. Marriott's strength was in operations, yet the company had a great deal of money tied up in real estate. Growth would require even more investment in real estate. Wilson's solution was to sell the hotels-in effect, removing them and the debt used to finance them from the balance sheet-and contract to operate them. In this interview, Wilson gives his view of the role of finance in today's corporation and explains the thinking behind some of the successful deals he has engineered-including Disney's Silver Screen movie-making partnerships and Euro Disneyland.

  14. The Motivational Interviewing Navigation Guide: A Process for Enhancing Teachers' Motivation to Adopt and Implement School-Based Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    There is a critical need to engage theory-driven research related to the deployment of mental health promotion initiatives and student outcomes. A growing body of research supporting the use of motivational interviewing and engagement strategies in education suggests that this approach may be promising to better understand mechanisms through which…

  15. Which individual therapist behaviors elicit client change talk and sustain talk in motivational interviewing?

    PubMed Central

    Apodaca, Timothy R.; Jackson, Kristina M.; Borsari, Brian; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Mastroleo, Nadine R.; Barnett, Nancy P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify individual therapist behaviors which elicit client change talk or sustain talk in motivational interviewing sessions. Method Motivational interviewing sessions from a single-session alcohol intervention delivered to college students were audio-taped, transcribed, and coded using The Motivational Interviewing Skill Code (MISC), a therapy process coding system. Participants included 92 college students and eight therapists who provided their treatment. The MISC was used to code 17 therapist behaviors related to the use of motivational interviewing, and client language reflecting movement toward behavior change (change talk), away from behavior change (sustain talk), or unrelated to the target behavior (follow/neutral). Results Client change talk was significantly more likely to immediately follow individual therapist behaviors [affirm (p = .013), open question (p < .001), simple reflection (p < .001), and complex reflection (p < .001)], but significantly less likely to immediately follow others (giving information (p < .001) and closed question (p < .001)]. Sustain talk was significantly more likely to follow therapist use of open questions (p < .001), simple reflections (p < .001), and complex reflections (p < .001), and significantly less likely to occur following therapist use of therapist affirm (p = .012), giving information (p < .001), and closed questions (p < .001). Conclusions Certain individual therapist behaviors within motivational interviewing can either elicit both client change talk and sustain talk or suppress both types of client language. Affirm was the only therapist behavior that both increased change talk and also reduced sustain talk. PMID:26547412

  16. Integrative Health Coaching and Motivational interviewing: Synergistic Approaches to Behavior Change in Healthcare.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Leigh Ann; Wolever, Ruth Q

    2013-07-01

    As rates of preventable chronic diseases and associated costs continue to rise, there has been increasing focus on strategies to support behavior change in healthcare. Health coaching and motivational interviewing are synergistic but distinct approaches that can be effectively employed to achieve this end. However, there is some confusion in the literature about the relationship between these two approaches. The purpose of this review is to describe a specific style of health coaching-integrative health coaching-and motivational interviewing, including their origins, the processes and strategies employed, and the ways in which they are similar and different. We also provide a case example of how integrative health coaching and motivational interviewing might be employed to demonstrate how these approaches are synergistic but distinct from each other in practice. This information may be useful for both researchers and clinicians interested in investigating or using behavior change interventions to improve health and cost outcomes in chronic disease.

  17. Integrative Health Coaching and Motivational interviewing: Synergistic Approaches to Behavior Change in Healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Wolever, Ruth Q.

    2013-01-01

    As rates of preventable chronic diseases and associated costs continue to rise, there has been increasing focus on strategies to support behavior change in healthcare. Health coaching and motivational interviewing are synergistic but distinct approaches that can be effectively employed to achieve this end. However, there is some confusion in the literature about the relationship between these two approaches. The purpose of this review is to describe a specific style of health coaching—integrative health coaching—and motivational interviewing, including their origins, the processes and strategies employed, and the ways in which they are similar and different. We also provide a case example of how integrative health coaching and motivational interviewing might be employed to demonstrate how these approaches are synergistic but distinct from each other in practice. This information may be useful for both researchers and clinicians interested in investigating or using behavior change interventions to improve health and cost outcomes in chronic disease. PMID:24416683

  18. How to Measure Motivational Interviewing Fidelity in Randomized Controlled Trials: Practical Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Jelsma, Judith G M; Mertens, Vera-Christina; Forsberg, Lisa; Forsberg, Lars

    2015-07-01

    Many randomized controlled trials in which motivational interviewing (MI) is a key intervention make no provision for the assessment of treatment fidelity. This methodological shortcoming makes it impossible to distinguish between high- and low-quality MI interventions, and, consequently, to know whether MI provision has contributed to any intervention effects. This article makes some practical recommendations for the collection, selection, coding and reporting of MI fidelity data, as measured using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. We hope that researchers will consider these recommendations and include MI fidelity measures in future studies.

  19. Managing resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy: the application of motivational interviewing in mixed anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Westra, Henny A

    2004-01-01

    While cognitive behavioural therapy is highly effective in the treatment of anxiety and depression, a substantive number of individuals either refuse treatment, fail to respond to treatment or respond only partially. Arguably, ambivalence about change or about engaging in treatment tasks may in part be related to incomplete recovery rates in cognitive behavioural therapy. Motivational interviewing is a client-centred, directive treatment originally developed in the addictions domain whose goal is to enhance motivation for change by understanding and resolving ambivalence. This method has consistently received support for enhancing outcomes in the addictions domain, particularly when used as an adjunct to further treatment. As yet, motivational methods have not been generalized to the treatment of prevalent mental health problems, such as anxiety and depression. The present paper presents the application of a treatment targeting motivation (motivational interviewing adapted for anxiety and depression) to the management of resistance in cognitive behavioural therapy for 3 clients with mixed anxiety and depression. Motivational interviewing is conceived as an adjunct to highly effective traditional cognitive behavioural therapy methods, which is indicated for use with clients resistant to and significantly ambivalent about change-based techniques for managing anxiety or alleviating depression.

  20. The Impact of Motivational Interviewing on Client Experiences of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kertes, Angela; Westra, Henny A.; Angus, Lynne; Marcus, Madalyn

    2011-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) has recently been applied to the treatment of anxiety disorders in an effort to bolster engagement with and response rates to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). In a recent randomized control trial, the addition of MI as a pretreatment compared to no pretreatment was found to significantly improve response to CBT…

  1. Motivational Interviewing as a Supervision Strategy in Probation: A Randomized Effectiveness Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Scott T.; Vader, Amanda M.; Nguyen, Norma; Harris, T. Robert; Eells, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been recommended as a supervision style in probation. This project examined the effectiveness of an MI training curriculum on probation officer MI skill and subsequent probationer outcome. Twenty probation officers were randomized to receive MI training, or to a waiting list control, while an additional group of…

  2. Motivational Interviewing May Improve Exercise Experience for People with Multiple Sclerosis: A Small Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Douglas C.; Lanesskog, Deirdre; Cleeland, Leah; Motl, Robert; Weikert, Madeline; Dlugonski, Deirdre

    2012-01-01

    People with multiple sclerosis (MS) are likely to benefit from regular exercise, but physical inactivity is more common among people with MS than among the general population. This small randomized study evaluated whether motivational interviewing (MI) affects adherence to and personal experience in an exercise program. Inactive people with MS…

  3. Motivational Interviewing Skills are Positively Associated with Nutritionist Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira; Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between physical and social self-concepts, motivational interviewing (MI), and nutrition assessment skills with dimensions of counseling self-efficacy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Participants: Sixty-five WIC…

  4. Training Substance Abuse Clinicians in Motivational Interviewing Using Live Supervision via Teleconferencing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Carpenter, Kenneth M.; Amrhein, Paul C.; Brooks, Adam C.; Levin, Deborah; Schreiber, Elizabeth A.; Travaglini, Laura A.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Nunes, Edward V.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Training through traditional workshops is relatively ineffective for changing counseling practices. Teleconferencing supervision (TCS) was developed to provide remote, live supervision for training motivational interviewing (MI). Method: Ninety-seven drug treatment counselors completed a 2-day MI workshop and were randomized to live…

  5. Solution-Focused Counseling and Motivational Interviewing: A Consideration of Confluence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Osborn, Cynthia J.

    2004-01-01

    Solution-focused counseling (SFC) and motivational interviewing (MI) have gained recognition over the past 2 decades. A review of the features of these counseling approaches is provided, as well as an examination of the similarities and differences on several dimensions of counseling. Attention is given to empirical research, and it is proposed…

  6. The perfect marriage: solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing in medical family therapy.

    PubMed

    Stermensky, Gage; Brown, Kristina S

    2014-01-01

    Medical family therapy has many potential uses in behavioral medicine and primary care. Current research was reviewed to determine the most advantageous way to apply solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing as a perfect marriage in medical family therapy. An extensive literature review was done in the following databases for medical family therapy: Proquest, EBSCO, Medline, and PsychInfo. The search resulted in 86 relevant articles, of which 46 of the most recent were selected for review. Medical family therapy lacks current research that supports solution-focused therapy or motivational interviewing. However, evidence supports the use of solution-focused therapy as a brief format, as well as the closely related intervention, motivational interviewing. While medical family therapy presents many hopeful possibilities in the fields of behavioral medicine, psychology, and marriage and family therapy, little evidence currently exists for the most effective implementation. This review found evidence supporting solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing as the perfect marriage of the collaborative team approaches for the future implementation and use of specific interventions in medical family therapy.

  7. The Perfect Marriage: Solution-Focused Therapy and Motivational Interviewing in Medical Family Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Stermensky, Gage; Brown, Kristina S.

    2014-01-01

    Medical family therapy has many potential uses in behavioral medicine and primary care. Current research was reviewed to determine the most advantageous way to apply solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing as a perfect marriage in medical family therapy. An extensive literature review was done in the following databases for medical family therapy: Proquest, EBSCO, Medline, and PsychInfo. The search resulted in 86 relevant articles, of which 46 of the most recent were selected for review. Medical family therapy lacks current research that supports solution-focused therapy or motivational interviewing. However, evidence supports the use of solution-focused therapy as a brief format, as well as the closely related intervention, motivational interviewing. While medical family therapy presents many hopeful possibilities in the fields of behavioral medicine, psychology, and marriage and family therapy, little evidence currently exists for the most effective implementation. This review found evidence supporting solution-focused therapy and motivational interviewing as the perfect marriage of the collaborative team approaches for the future implementation and use of specific interventions in medical family therapy. PMID:25657948

  8. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing Interventions for Adolescent Substance Use Behavior Change: A Meta-Analytic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Chad D.; Cushing, Christopher C.; Aylward, Brandon S.; Craig, James T.; Sorell, Danielle M.; Steele, Ric G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) interventions for adolescent substance use behavior change. Method: Literature searches of electronic databases were undertaken in addition to manual reference searches of identified review articles. Databases searched include…

  9. Rogers Redux: Relevance and Outcomes of Motivational Interviewing across Behavioral Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    Very little work regarding C. Rogers's (1961) client-centered counseling has been published in the counseling discipline's journals over the last 20 years. However, during this time there has been an impressive output of empirical research using motivational interviewing (MI) in which C. Rogers's theory and approach are foundational. A review of…

  10. Dismantling Motivational Interviewing and Feedback for College Drinkers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Scott T.; Vader, Amanda M.; Harris, T. Robert; Field, Craig A.; Jouriles, Ernest N.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a counseling style that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. To date, all studies of MI among college students have used a format that includes a feedback profile delivered in an MI style. This study was a dismantling trial of MI and feedback among heavy-drinking college students. After…

  11. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing to Improve Middle School Students' Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strait, Gerald Gill; Smith, Bradley H.; McQuillin, Sam; Terry, John; Swan, Suzanne; Malone, Patrick S.

    2012-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an effective method of promoting change in adults, but research on adolescents is limited. This study tests the efficacy of MI for promoting academic achievement in middle school students. Participants were 103 6th-, 7th-, and 8th-grade students randomly assigned to either a MI (n = 50) or a waitlist control…

  12. Effect of a Significant Other on Client Change Talk in Motivational Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apodaca, Timothy R.; Magill, Molly; Longabaugh, Richard; Jackson, Kristina M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To examine significant-other (SO) and therapist behaviors as predictors of client change language within motivational interviewing (MI) sessions. Method: Participants from an emergency department received a single session of MI that included SO participation (N = 157). Sessions were coded using therapy process coding systems. Sessions…

  13. The Straight Path to Healing: Using Motivational Interviewing to Address Spiritual Bypass

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Philip B.; Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.; Lewis, Todd F.

    2013-01-01

    Spiritual bypass is the avoidance of underlying emotional issues by focusing solely on spiritual beliefs, practices, and experiences. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, compassionate approach to effectively addressing resistance among those who present with spiritual bypass. In this article, the authors provide background…

  14. Evidence, Fidelity, and Organisational Rationales: Multiple Uses of Motivational Interviewing in a Social Services Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Björk, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In discussions and empirical investigations of the implementation of evidence-based interventions there is often a narrow focus on treatment fidelity. Studying a social services agency trying to incorporate Motivational Interviewing (MI), commonly regarded as evidence-based, this paper problematises a one-sided attention to treatment fidelity by…

  15. Learning Motivational Interviewing: Exploring Primary Health Care Nurses' Training and Counselling Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderlund, Lena Lindhe; Nilsen, Per; Kristensson, Margareta

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the training and counselling experiences of 20 nurses, aiming to identify key elements in the process of learning and applying motivational interviewing (MI) counselling skills with adherence to protocols. Setting/method: The nurses were recruited from 10 primary health care units in Ostergotland, Sweden. The study…

  16. A Meta-Analysis of Motivational Interviewing: Twenty-Five Years of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Brad W.; Kunz, Chelsea; Brownell, Cynthia; Tollefson, Derrik; Burke, Brian L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigated the unique contribution motivational interviewing (MI) has on counseling outcomes and how MI compares with other interventions. Method: A total of 119 studies were subjected to a meta-analysis. Targeted outcomes included substance use (tobacco, alcohol, drugs, marijuana), health-related behaviors (diet,…

  17. Exploring the Use of Motivational Interviewing with a Disengaged Primary-Aged Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cryer, Sarah; Atkinson, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests motivational interviewing (MI) techniques are both widely-used by educational psychologists (EPs) and effective in supporting young people of secondary age. To date, there has been no published research investigating the use of MI with primary-aged children. This study details the use of a short MI-based intervention with a…

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing to Meet Core Competencies in Psychiatric Resident Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sebastian; Elliott, Harold

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The authors propose that motivational interviewing (MI), a brief intervention designed to manage ambivalence regarding complex behavior change, is well suited for integration into psychiatric residency training programs. Methods: The authors provide a brief description of MI. In addition, based on a review of the literature the authors…

  19. A Randomized Trial of Motivational Interviewing and Feedback with Heavy Drinking College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Patricia; Walters, Scott T.; Daugherty, Mikyta; Radi, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief intervention that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. Because all college studies of MI to date have included a personalized feedback report, it remains unclear which of the components is necessary to produce behavior change. This study evaluated the separate and collective…

  20. An Interview with Allan Wigfield: A Giant on Research on Expectancy Value, Motivation, and Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bembenutty, Hefer

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Allan Wigfield, professor and chair of the Department of Human Development and distinguished scholar-teacher at the University of Maryland. He has authored more than 100 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters on children's motivation and other topics. He is a fellow of Division 15 (Educational…

  1. Clinicians' Perspectives on Motivational Interviewing-Based Brief Interventions in College Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rash, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Brief interventions based on motivational interviewing (MI) are emerging as effective strategies for behavior change in college students. However, implementation of MI-based brief interventions may be challenging in the college health environment, and their practicality is controversial. The author explored college health clinicians' perspectives…

  2. Complementary Tools to Empower and Sustain Behavior Change: Motivational Interviewing and Mindfulness.

    PubMed

    Sohl, Stephanie Jean; Birdee, Gurjeet; Elam, Roy

    2016-11-01

    Improving health behaviors is fundamental to preventing and controlling chronic disease. Healthcare providers who have a patient-centered communication style and appropriate behavioral change tools can empower patients to engage in and sustain healthy behaviors. This review highlights motivational interviewing and mindfulness along with other evidence-based strategies for enhancing patient-centered communication and the behavior change process. Motivational interviewing and mindfulness are especially useful for empowering patients to set self-determined, or autonomous, goals for behavior change. This is important because autonomously motivated behavioral change is more sustainable. Additional strategies such as self-monitoring are discussed as useful for supporting the implementation and maintenance of goals. Thus, there is a need for healthcare providers to develop such tools to empower sustained behavior change. The additional support of a new role, a health coach who specializes in facilitating the process of health-related behavior change, may be required to substantially impact public health.

  3. Experts: despite time constraints, motivational interviewing techniques can have lasting impact on drinkers, drug abusers.

    PubMed

    2013-04-01

    Researchers have found that the Brief Negotiation Interview (BNI), a tool developed at Yale School of Medicine in New Haven, CT, can curb harmful drinking in patients when the tool is used with these patients in the emergency setting. Further, by using the same motivational interviewing techniques employed in the tool, experts say providers can help patients curb other harmful behaviors as well. The BNI consists of a series of questions that take about seven minutes to discuss with patients. The tool prompts patients to come up with their own reasons for changing harmful behaviors. To implement the BNI, emergency providers need training and constant reinforcement. Ideally, experts say the motivational interviewing techniques employed in the BNI need to become routine to have a lasting impact on patient care.

  4. Value-Added Models of Assessment: Implications for Motivation and Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderman, Eric M.; Anderman, Lynley H.; Yough, Michael S.; Gimbert, Belinda G.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relations of value-added models of measuring academic achievement to student motivation. Using an achievement goal orientation theory perspective, we argue that value-added models, which focus on the progress of individual students over time, are more closely aligned with research on student motivation than are more…

  5. Promoting healthy lifestyles: Behavior modification and motivational interviewing in the treatment of childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Limbers, Christine A; Turner, Erlanger A; Varni, James W

    2008-06-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short- and long-term health consequences associated with obesity and the strong tracking of obesity from childhood to adulthood. Lifestyle plays an important role in the development and maintenance of obesity. Behavior modification programs targeting eating, exercise, and diet behaviors continue to be the mainstay for treating obese children. Although family-based behavioral weight management programs have resulted in significant improvements in weight status, maintaining improvements in weight status continues to be a challenge, with many interventions resulting in considerable relapse. Motivational interviewing is one innovative approach, used alone or in conjunction with standard behavioral modification programs, which has been proposed to have the potential to enhance motivation for change and therefore improve long-term treatment outcomes for obese children. A broad literature search using two electronic databases, Medline and PsycINFO, to identify studies that used an intervention with a motivational interviewing component to modify diet and/or physical activity in the prevention or treatment of childhood obesity identified two studies that targeted weight as a primary outcome. The studies reviewed indicate that, although initial findings are encouraging, further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of motivational interviewing for prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. Concerted efforts are clearly needed to elucidate the mechanisms for maintenance of initial treatment gains, as well as the ultimate achievement of more ideal weight once formal treatment ceases.

  6. Motivational interviewing group at inpatient detoxification, its influence in maintaining abstinence and treatment retention after discharge.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Diana; Grau-López, Lara; Barral, Carmen; Daigre, Constanza; Alberich, Cristina; Rodríguez-Cintas, Laia; Valero, Sergi; Casas, Miquel; Roncero, Carlos

    2015-06-17

    The relapse rate after discharge from inpatient detoxification is high. The objective of this pilot study is to assess the sociodemographic, clinical and therapeutic factors associated with maintaining abstinence in patients who participated in a brief motivational interviewing group during admission for detoxification. A total of 46 patients, diagnosed substance dependent according to DSM -IV, and admitted to the Hospital Detoxification Unit, participated in a brief motivational interviewing group. Sociodemographic, clinical, motivation to change (University of Rhode Island Change Assessment, URICA) and satisfaction with the treatment group (Treatment Perceptions Questionnaire, CPT) data were collected. Abstinence and treatment retention two months after discharge were assessed by weekly telephone calls. A survival analysis was performed. Being male, having more cognitions of the maintenance stage of change at discharge, being satisfied with group therapy and therapist during hospitalization are associated with longer abstinence after discharge. The brief motivational interviewing group approach with patients admitted for detoxification is related to greater likelihood of maintaining abstinence and subsequent treatment retention.

  7. Motivational Interviewing at the Intersections of Depression and Intimate Partner Violence among African American Women

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Stéphanie; Trimble, Jammie; Mejia, Angie; Mitchell, S. Renee; Thomas, Mary Jo; Timmons, Vanessa; Waters, A. Star; Raymaker, Dora; Nicolaidis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on design, training, and delivery of a culturally-tailored, multi-faceted intervention which used motivational interviewing (MI) and case management to reduce depression severity among African American survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). We present the details of the intervention and discuss its implementation as a means of creating and providing culturally appropriate depression and violence services to African American women. We used a CBPR approach to develop and evaluate the multi-faceted intervention. As part of the evaluation, we collected process measures about the use of MI, assessed MI fidelity, and interviewed participants about their experiences with the program. PMID:24857557

  8. Therapist empathy and client anxiety reduction in motivational interviewing: "She carries with me, the experience".

    PubMed

    Angus, Lynne E; Kagan, Fern

    2009-11-01

    In this article, we examine the use of motivational interviewing (MI) to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) by means of case illustration that focuses on four categories drawn from the client's experience of the key ingredients in MI therapy. The case illustration, drawn from the York study on combining MI and cognitive behavior therapy in the treatment of GAD (uses the client's pre- and post-therapy narrative interviews) to arrive at categories representative of the client's experience of MI therapy. The results of the qualitative analysis highlight the key contributions to positive client outcomes and readiness for change in brief MI therapy for GAD.

  9. Motivational interviewing in permanent supportive housing: the role of organizational culture.

    PubMed

    van den Berk-Clark, Carissa; Patterson Silver Wolf, David A; Ramsey, Alex

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated motivational interviewing (MI) in a permanent supportive housing agency. The agency's contradictory social service and business missions resulted in an incompatible organizational culture theorized to diminish MI's effectiveness. A combination of observational, interview, and archival data collected over 3 years were used to examine MI implementation within an incompatible supportive housing agency. Two major themes arose: how MI is used to categorize and change clients in permanent supportive housing and how worker-worker relationships affect MI implementation. The results suggest that within incompatible organizational environments, key elements of effective MI implementation are greatly weakened.

  10. Motivational Interviewing to Enhance Treatment Initiation in Substance Abusers: An Effectiveness Study

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Kathleen M.; Libby, Bryce; Sheehan, Joseph; Hyland, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Sixty individuals referred for a substance abuse evaluation by a child welfare worker were randomly assigned to either a standard evaluation or an evaluation enhanced by Motivational Interviewing techniques, each delivered in a single session. Participants who received the enhanced evaluation were significantly more likely to attend at least one additional treatment session after the initial evaluation (59% versus 29%). This finding suggests that comparatively inexpensive modifications of “standard” initial evaluations with substance-using parents may increase engagement of substance-abusing parents in treatment. Moreover, this study adds to an overwhelmingly positive literature supporting Motivational Interviewing with alcohol-using populations and extends prior findings to non-research community settings. PMID:11783748

  11. A parent motivational interviewing program for dental care in children of a rural population

    PubMed Central

    González-Del-Castillo-McGrath, Mauricio; Madrigal-Orozco, Catalina; Anguiano-Flores, Laura; Amador-Licona, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based educational program in reducing the number and intensity of new caries and bacterial dental plaque levels at 6 months post randomization. Study Design: A randomized and single blind clinical trial in 100 schoolchildren between 6-10 years of age presenting the highest risk score of caries according to the Caries Management by Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) criteria was performed. These patients were randomized to two groups: control (in which the mothers initially received an oral prevention informative session) and experimental (in which the mothers received the initial informative session, followed by individual motivational interviewing sessions during a period of 6 months). The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) scores and bacterial plaque were evaluated at baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Results: After 12 months, children in the experimental group had 2.12 ± 0.8 new caries versus 3.5 ± 0.9 in the control group (t=7.39; p<0.001). Caries in the experimental group was seen to be limited to the enamel, with a median intensity of 2 (range 0-3) versus 3 (0-6) in the control group (U=1594; p<0.0001). Bacterial plaque determined by the O’Leary index decreased in both groups; however, it decreased more in the experimental than in the control group (34.3 vs. 20.6; t=-3.12, p= 0.002) respectively. Conclusions: Motivational interviewing is better than traditional educational programs in preventing caries and decreasing bacterial plaque. Key words:Health educational, motivational interviewing, caries risk. PMID:25674320

  12. Evidence for Optimism: Behavior Therapies and Motivational Interviewing in Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Macgowan, Mark J.; Engle, Bretton

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews behavior therapies (n = 12), motivational interviewing interventions (n = 12), and combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies (n = 12), across thirty-four peer-reviewed publications. Studies were included if they involved youth with alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, included measures of AOD outcomes, and utilized controlled research designs with a control or comparison condition. Across the studies, there were mild to very serious AOD problems including comorbidity. The level of empirical support of the interventions was evaluated using established guidelines to determine if the interventions could be considered “well-established,” “probably efficacious,” or “promising.” The review determined that behavior therapies were “probably efficacious,” and motivational interviewing interventions easily met the criteria for “promising.” Due to small sample sizes, combined behavioral-psychosocial therapies marginally met the criteria for “promising.” The findings from this review underscore the value of individual and group behavior therapies and motivational interviewing in helping reduce mild to serious AOD use among adolescents. PMID:20682219

  13. Preconceptional motivational interviewing interventions to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Karen S; Ceperich, Sherry D; Hettema, Jennifer E; Farrell-Carnahan, Leah; Penberthy, J Kim

    2013-04-01

    Alcohol exposed pregnancy (AEP) is a leading cause of preventable birth defects. While randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have shown that multi-session motivational interviewing-based interventions reduce AEP risk, a one-session intervention could facilitate broader implementation. The purposes of this study were to: (1) test a one-session motivational AEP prevention intervention for community women and (2) compare outcomes to previous RCTs. Participants at risk for AEP (N=217) were randomized to motivational interviewing+assessment feedback (EARLY), informational video, or informational brochure conditions. Outcomes were drinks per drinking day (DDD), ineffective contraception rate, and AEP risk at 3 and 6 months. All interventions were associated with decreased DDD, ineffective contraception rate, and AEP risk. Participants who received EARLY had larger absolute risk reductions in ineffective contraception and AEP risk, but not DDD. Effect sizes were compared to previous RCTs. The one-session EARLY intervention had less powerful effects than multi-session AEP prevention interventions among community women, but may provide a new option in a continuum of preventive care.

  14. Scaling up the evaluation of psychotherapy: evaluating motivational interviewing fidelity via statistical text classification

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Behavioral interventions such as psychotherapy are leading, evidence-based practices for a variety of problems (e.g., substance abuse), but the evaluation of provider fidelity to behavioral interventions is limited by the need for human judgment. The current study evaluated the accuracy of statistical text classification in replicating human-based judgments of provider fidelity in one specific psychotherapy—motivational interviewing (MI). Method Participants (n = 148) came from five previously conducted randomized trials and were either primary care patients at a safety-net hospital or university students. To be eligible for the original studies, participants met criteria for either problematic drug or alcohol use. All participants received a type of brief motivational interview, an evidence-based intervention for alcohol and substance use disorders. The Motivational Interviewing Skills Code is a standard measure of MI provider fidelity based on human ratings that was used to evaluate all therapy sessions. A text classification approach called a labeled topic model was used to learn associations between human-based fidelity ratings and MI session transcripts. It was then used to generate codes for new sessions. The primary comparison was the accuracy of model-based codes with human-based codes. Results Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analyses of model-based codes showed reasonably strong sensitivity and specificity with those from human raters (range of area under ROC curve (AUC) scores: 0.62 – 0.81; average AUC: 0.72). Agreement with human raters was evaluated based on talk turns as well as code tallies for an entire session. Generated codes had higher reliability with human codes for session tallies and also varied strongly by individual code. Conclusion To scale up the evaluation of behavioral interventions, technological solutions will be required. The current study demonstrated preliminary, encouraging findings regarding the utility

  15. The effects of motivational interviewing on health promoting behaviors of patients with multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Dashti, Alireza; Yousefi, Hojatollah; Maghsoudi, Jahangir; Etemadifar, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that can reduce health promoting behaviors in patients. One method of increasing health promoting behaviors is motivational interviewing that can explore and resolve client ambivalence. Materials and Methods: The present clinical trial was carried out among 60 patients with MS. The participants were selected through convenience sampling, and then, allocated to two groups using Mini Pay software. The intervention group participated in three sessions of motivational interviewing per week (1 session every 2 days, and each session lasting 1 h). A two-part questionnaire consisting of demographic data and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP) II questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected data were analyzed using statistical tests such as independent t-test, and Mann–Whitney and Chi-square tests. Results: No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups in terms of the demographic variables (P > 0.05). The results also showed no significant difference in the overall score of the health promoting behaviors and its dimensions between the two groups before the intervention (P > 0.05). However, 2 weeks and 1 month after the intervention, there was a significant difference between the groups in terms of the overall score and the scores of dimensions, except the spiritual growth dimension (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that motivational interviewing can improve health promoting behaviors in patients with MS. Therefore, this method can be used by nurses to improve health promoting behaviors among these patients. PMID:28194207

  16. Motivational Interviewing to Promote Adherence Behaviors in Pediatric Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hilliard, Marisa E.; Anderson, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Suboptimal regimen adherence among youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a common challenge for patients, families, and providers. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief communication style designed to elicit intrinsic motivation and strengthen commitment to behavior change goals. As pediatric MI research expands, a critical review of its evidence base and applicability to promote adherence behaviors for youth with T1D is needed. This review introduces the core tenets of MI and clinical applications in T1D, synthesizes the existing MI research in T1D, and discusses the next steps in MI research. Overall, mixed results for MI interventions in T1D reflect variations in research study design and clinical implementation. Targeting adherence rather than glycemic outcomes typically demonstrates greater results, highlighting the promise of MI to facilitate meaningful and enduring improvements in youths’ T1D adherence behaviors. PMID:25142716

  17. Motivational Interviewing and the Transtheoretical Model of Change: Under-Explored Resources for Suicide Intervention.

    PubMed

    Hoy, Janet; Natarajan, Aravindhan; Petra, Megan M

    2016-07-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a robust evidence-based intervention that has been used to evoke intrinsic motivation to change behaviors. MI as an intervention focuses on facilitating movement through the stages of the transtheoretical model of change. A study by Coombs et al. (Substance abuse treatment and the stages of change: Selecting and planning interventions, Guilford Press, New York, 2001) demonstrated that suicidal individuals move through such stages toward suicidal behavior, yet research and applications of MI for suicide have been minimal. In hopes of generating increased exploration of MI for suicidality, this article reviews the theoretical rationale and existing empirical research on applications of MI with suicidal individuals. Potential uses of MI in suicide risk assessment/crisis intervention, as well as an adjunct to longer-term treatment, are discussed.

  18. Identifying content-based and relational techniques to change behaviour in motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Hardcastle, Sarah J; Fortier, Michelle; Blake, Nicola; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-03-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a complex intervention comprising multiple techniques aimed at changing health-related motivation and behaviour. However, MI techniques have not been systematically isolated and classified. This study aimed to identify the techniques unique to MI, classify them as content-related or relational, and evaluate the extent to which they overlap with techniques from the behaviour change technique taxonomy version 1 [BCTTv1; Michie, S., Richardson, M., Johnston, M., Abraham, C., Francis, J., Hardeman, W., … Wood, C. E. (2013). The behavior change technique taxonomy (v1) of 93 hierarchically clustered techniques: Building an international consensus for the reporting of behavior change interventions. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 46, 81-95]. Behaviour change experts (n = 3) content-analysed MI techniques based on Miller and Rollnick's [(2013). Motivational interviewing: Preparing people for change (3rd ed.). New York: Guildford Press] conceptualisation. Each technique was then coded for independence and uniqueness by independent experts (n = 10). The experts also compared each MI technique to those from the BCTTv1. Experts identified 38 distinct MI techniques with high agreement on clarity, uniqueness, preciseness, and distinctiveness ratings. Of the identified techniques, 16 were classified as relational techniques. The remaining 22 techniques were classified as content based. Sixteen of the MI techniques were identified as having substantial overlap with techniques from the BCTTv1. The isolation and classification of MI techniques will provide researchers with the necessary tools to clearly specify MI interventions and test the main and interactive effects of the techniques on health behaviour. The distinction between relational and content-based techniques within MI is also an important advance, recognising that changes in motivation and behaviour in MI is a function of both intervention content and the interpersonal style

  19. Measuring adaptations of motivational interviewing: the development and validation of the behavior change counseling index (BECCI).

    PubMed

    Lane, Claire; Huws-Thomas, Michelle; Hood, Kerenza; Rollnick, Stephen; Edwards, Karen; Robling, Michael

    2005-02-01

    One of the most common challenges faced by health professionals is encouraging patients to change their behavior to improve their health. This paper reports the development of a checklist, the behavior change counseling index (BECCI). This aims to measure practitioner competence in behavior change counseling (BCC), an adaptation of motivational interviewing suitable for brief consultations in healthcare settings. The checklist has demonstrated acceptable levels of validity, reliability and responsiveness, and aims to assist trainers and researchers in assessing change in practitioner behavior before, during and after training in BCC. BECCI will also provide valuable information about the standard of BCC that practitioners were trained to deliver in studies of BCC as an intervention.

  20. Motivational interviewing as a pedagogical approach in behavioral science education: "walking the talk".

    PubMed

    Triana, A Catalina; Olson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an evidence-based approach to facilitating behavior change. This approach has been applied in multiple settings (e.g., healthcare, drug and alcohol treatment, psychotherapy, health and wellness coaching, etc.). This article applies MI in a pedagogical context with medical residents as a semi-directive, learner-centered teaching style for eliciting clinical behavior change. Herein we present the foundational theories that inform this approach, describe the process of teaching, address barriers and challenges, and conclude with a review of performance to date including residents' narrative accounts of their experience with the curriculum.

  1. Motivations for Contributing to Health-Related Articles on Wikipedia: An Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wikipedia is one of the most accessed sources of health information online. The current English-language Wikipedia contains more than 28,000 articles pertaining to health. Objective The aim was to characterize individuals’ motivations for contributing to health content on the English-language Wikipedia. Methods A set of health-related articles were randomly selected and recent contributors invited to complete an online questionnaire and follow-up interview (by Skype, by email, or face-to-face). Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis and a realist grounded theory approach. Results A total of 32 Wikipedians (31 men) completed the questionnaire and 17 were interviewed. Those completing the questionnaire had a mean age of 39 (range 12-59) years; 16 had a postgraduate qualification, 10 had or were currently studying for an undergraduate qualification, 3 had no more than secondary education, and 3 were still in secondary education. In all, 15 were currently working in a health-related field (primarily clinicians). The median period for which they have been an active editing Wikipedia was 3-5 years. Of this group, 12 were in the United States, 6 were in the United Kingdom, 4 were in Canada, and the remainder from another 8 countries. Two-thirds spoke more than 1 language and 90% (29/32) were also active contributors in domains other than health. Wikipedians in this study were identified as health professionals, professionals with specific health interests, students, and individuals with health problems. Based on the interviews, their motivations for editing health-related content were summarized in 5 strongly interrelated categories: education (learning about subjects by editing articles), help (wanting to improve and maintain Wikipedia), responsibility (responsibility, often a professional responsibility, to provide good quality health information to readers), fulfillment (editing Wikipedia as a fun, relaxing, engaging, and

  2. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior

    PubMed Central

    Klonek, Florian E.; Güntner, Amelie V.; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals’ self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) — an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation — can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients’ verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents’ level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients’ expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents’ verbal threats and change recipients’ verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations. PMID:26257676

  3. Using Motivational Interviewing to reduce threats in conversations about environmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Klonek, Florian E; Güntner, Amelie V; Lehmann-Willenbrock, Nale; Kauffeld, Simone

    2015-01-01

    Human behavior contributes to a waste of environmental resources and our society is looking for ways to reduce this problem. However, humans may perceive feedback about their environmental behavior as threatening. According to self-determination theory (SDT), threats decrease intrinsic motivation for behavior change. According to self-affirmation theory (SAT), threats can harm individuals' self-integrity. Therefore, individuals should show self-defensive biases, e.g., in terms of presenting counter-arguments when presented with environmental behavior change. The current study examines how change recipients respond to threats from change agents in interactions about environmental behavior change. Moreover, we investigate how Motivational Interviewing (MI) - an intervention aimed at increasing intrinsic motivation - can reduce threats at both the social and cognitive level. We videotaped 68 dyadic interactions with change agents who either did or did not use MI (control group). We coded agents verbal threats and recipients' verbal expressions of motivation. Recipients also rated agents' level of confrontation and empathy (i.e., cognitive reactions). As hypothesized, threats were significantly lower when change agents used MI. Perceived confrontations converged with observable social behavior of change agents in both groups. Moreover, behavioral threats showed a negative association with change recipients' expressed motivation (i.e., reasons to change). Contrary to our expectations, we found no relation between change agents' verbal threats and change recipients' verbally expressed self-defenses (i.e., sustain talk). Our results imply that MI reduces the adverse impact of threats in conversations about environmental behavior change on both the social and cognitive level. We discuss theoretical implications of our study in the context of SAT and SDT and suggest practical implications for environmental change agents in organizations.

  4. An Evaluation of Training for Lay Providers in the Use of Motivational Interviewing to Promote Academic Achievement among Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a motivational interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban, low-income minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of workshop training in MI. Additionally, two 2-hour…

  5. Dosage Effects of Motivational Interviewing on Middle-School Students' Academic Performance: Randomized Evaluation of One versus Two Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, John; Strait, Gill; McQuillin, Sam; Smith, Bradley H.

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a brief client-centred intervention that increases intrinsic motivation for change. Little research has been conducted on MI to promote academic behaviours, but two studies found that one session of MI did improve middle-school students' math grades [Strait, G., Smith, B., McQuillin, S., Terry, J., Swan, S., &…

  6. An Interview Study of Learner Motivation and Learner Involvement in Mandatory College-Level Academic Writing Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanniarajan, Swathi M.

    2011-01-01

    Scholarship in applied linguistics has not sufficiently addressed learner motivation in mandatory writing classes in postsecondary settings. The data collected through short interviews from 20 students enrolled in a mandatory academic writing program at the junior/senior level in a California State University indicated that learner motivation in…

  7. Patient-Provider Concordance with Behavioral Change Goals Drives Measures of Motivational Interviewing Consistency

    PubMed Central

    Laws, M. Barton; Rose, Gary S.; Beach, Mary Catherine; Lee, Yoojin; Rogers, William S.; Velasco, Alyssa Bianca; Wilson, Ira B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motivational Interviewing (MI) consistent talk by a counselor is thought to produce “change talk” in clients. However, it is possible that client resistance to behavior change can produce MI inconsistent counselor behavior. Methods We applied a coding scheme which identifies all of the behavioral counseling about a given issue during a visit (“episodes”), assesses patient concordance with the behavioral goal, and labels providers’ counseling style as facilitative or directive, to a corpus of routine outpatient visits by people with HIV. Using a different data set of comparable encounters, we applied the concepts of episode and concordance, and coded using the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity system. Results Patient concordance/discordance was not observed to change during any episode. Provider directiveness was strongly associated with patient discordance in the first study, and MI inconsistency was strongly associated with discordance in the second. Conclusion Observations that MI-consistent behavior by medical providers is associated with patient change talk or outcomes should be evaluated cautiously, as patient resistance may provoke MI-inconsistency. Practice Implications Counseling episodes in routine medical visits are typically too brief for client talk to evolve toward change. Providers with limited training may have particular difficulty maintaining MI consistency with resistant clients. PMID:25791372

  8. Contingent Vouchers and Motivational Interviewing for Cigarette Smokers in Residential Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rohsenow, Damaris J.; Tidey, Jennifer W.; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Colby, Suzanne M.; Sirota, Alan D.; Swift, Robert M.; Monti, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Residential drug treatment provides an opportunity to intervene with smokers substance use disorders (SUD). A randomized controlled clinical trial compared: (1) Contingent Vouchers (CV) for smoking abstinence to Noncontingent Vouchers (NCV), crossed with (2) Motivational Interviewing (MI) or Brief Advice (BA), for 184 smokers in SUD treatment. During the voucher period, 36% of carbon monoxide readings indicated smoking abstinence for those receiving CV versus 13% with NCV (p < .001). Post-treatment point-prevalence abstinence rates were low (3–4% at each follow up), with more abstinence when CV was combined with MI (6.6% on average) than with BA (0% on average). No differential effects on drug use or motivation to quit smoking occurred. Thus, CV had limited effects on long-term smoking abstinence in this population but effects were improved when CV was combined with MI. More effective methods are needed to increase motivation to quit smoking and quit rates in this high-risk population. PMID:25805668

  9. Effect of motivational interviewing-based health coaching on employees' physical and mental health status.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, Susan; Linden, Ariel; McClay, Wende; Leo, Michael C

    2006-10-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) based health coaching is a relatively new behavioral intervention that has gained popularity in public health because of its ability to address multiple behaviors, health risks, and illness self-management. In this study, 276 employees at a medical center self-selected to participate in either a 3-month health coaching intervention or control group. The treatment group showed significant improvement in both SF-12 physical (p = .035) and mental (p = .0001) health status compared to controls. Because of concerns of selection bias, a matched case-control analysis was also performed, eliciting similar results. These findings suggest that MI-based health coaching is effective in improving both physical and mental health status in an occupational setting.

  10. Motivational Interviewing to Reduce Substance Use in Adolescents with Psychiatric Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Richard A.; Abrantes, Ana M.; Minami, Haruka; Prince, Mark A.; Bloom, Erika Litvin; Apodaca, Timothy R.; Strong, David R.; Picotte, Dawn M.; Monti, Peter M.; MacPherson, Laura; Matsko, Stephen V.; Hunt, Jeffrey I.

    2016-01-01

    Substance use among adolescents with one or more psychiatric disorders is a significant public health concern. In this study, 151 psychiatrically hospitalized adolescents, ages 13-17 with comorbid psychiatric and substance use disorders, were randomized to a two-session Motivational Interviewing intervention to reduce substance use plus treatment as usual (MI) vs. treatment as usual only (TAU). Results indicated that the MI group had a longer latency to first use of any substance following hospital discharge relative to TAU (36 days versus 11 days). Adolescents who received MI also reported less total use of substances and less use of marijuana during the first 6 months post-discharge, although this effect was not significant across 12 months. Finally, MI was associated with a significant reduction in rule-breaking behaviors at 6-month follow-up. Future directions are discussed, including means of extending effects beyond 6 months and dissemination of the intervention to community-based settings. PMID:26362000

  11. "It sounds like...": A natural language processing approach to detecting counselor reflections in motivational interviewing.

    PubMed

    Can, Doğan; Marín, Rebeca A; Georgiou, Panayiotis G; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Narayanan, Shrikanth S

    2016-04-01

    The dissemination and evaluation of evidence-based behavioral treatments for substance abuse problems rely on the evaluation of counselor interventions. In Motivational Interviewing (MI), a treatment that directs the therapist to utilize a particular linguistic style, proficiency is assessed via behavioral coding-a time consuming, nontechnological approach. Natural language processing techniques have the potential to scale up the evaluation of behavioral treatments such as MI. We present a novel computational approach to assessing components of MI, focusing on 1 specific counselor behavior-reflections, which are believed to be a critical MI ingredient. Using 57 sessions from 3 MI clinical trials, we automatically detected counselor reflections in a maximum entropy Markov modeling framework using the raw linguistic data derived from session transcripts. We achieved 93% recall, 90% specificity, and 73% precision. Results provide insight into the linguistic information used by coders to make ratings and demonstrate the feasibility of new computational approaches to scaling up the evaluation of behavioral treatments.

  12. Cost and Cost-effectiveness of Three Strategies for Training Clinicians in Motivational Interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Todd; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Canning-Ball, Monica; Martino, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the cost and cost-effectiveness of three strategies for teaching community program clinicians motivational interviewing (MI): self-study (SS), expert-led (EX), and train-the-trainer (TT). Methods This economic analysis was conducted as part of a three-arm clinician training trial comprising 12 community treatment programs randomly assigned to the three conditions (n = 92 clinician participants). EX and TT conditions used skill-building workshops and three monthly supervision sessions. SS provided clinicians MI training materials only. The primary outcome measure was the number of clinicians meeting MI performance standards at 12-week follow-up. Unit costs were obtained via surveys administered at the 12 participating programs. Resource utilizations and clinician outcomes were obtained from the training trial. Costs and outcomes were normalized to account for differing numbers of clinicians across programs and conditions. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were used to evaluate the relative cost-effectiveness of the three training strategies. Results SS is likely to be the most cost-effective training strategy if the threshold value to decision makers of an additional clinician meeting MI performance standards at 12-week follow-up is less than approximately $2,870, and EX is likely to be the most cost-effective strategy when the threshold value is greater than approximately $2,870. Conclusions This study provides accurate estimates of the economic costs and relative cost-effectiveness of three different strategies for training community program clinicians in motivational interviewing and should be of interest to decision makers seeking to implement empirically supported addiction treatments with scarce resources. PMID:21277713

  13. More than reflections: Empathy in motivational interviewing includes language style synchrony between therapist and client

    PubMed Central

    Lord, Sarah Peregrine; Sheng, Elisa; Imel, Zac E.; Baer, John; Atkins, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Empathy is a basic psychological process that involves the development of synchrony in dyads. It is also a foundational ingredient in specific, evidence-based behavioral treatments like motivational interviewing (MI). Ratings of therapist empathy typically rely on a gestalt, “felt sense” of therapist understanding and the presence of specific verbal behaviors like reflective listening. These ratings do not provide a direct test of psychological processes like behavioral synchrony that are theorized to be an important component of empathy in psychotherapy. To explore a new objective indicator of empathy, we hypothesized that synchrony in language style (i.e., matching how statements are phrased) between client and therapists would predict gestalt ratings of empathy over and above the contribution of reflections. We analyzed 122 MI transcripts with high and low empathy ratings based on the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) global rating scale. Linguistic inquiry and word count was used to estimate language style synchrony (LSS) of adjacent client and therapist talk turns. High empathy sessions showed greater LSS across 11 language style categories compared to low empathy sessions (p < .01), and overall, average LSS was notably higher in high empathy vs. low empathy sessions (d = 0.62). Regression analyses showed that LSS was predictive of empathy ratings over and above reflection counts; a 1 SD increase in LSS is associated with 2.4 times increase in the odds of a high empathy rating, controlling for therapist reflections (odds ratio = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.36, 4.24, p < .01). These findings suggest empathy ratings are related to synchrony in language style, over and above synchrony of content as measured by therapist reflections. Novel indicators of therapist empathy may have implications for the study of MI process as well as the training of therapists. PMID:25892166

  14. Motivational interviewing: a part of the weight loss program for overweight and obese women prior to fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Karlsen, Kamilla; Humaidan, Peter; Sørensen, Lise H; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Ravn, Pernille

    2013-09-01

    This is a retrospective study to investigate whether motivational interviewing increases weight loss among obese or overweight women prior to fertility treatment. Women with body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) approaching the Fertility Clinic, Regional Hospital Skive, were given advice about diet and physical activity with the purpose of weight loss. In addition, they were asked if they wanted to receive motivational interviewing. Among other data, age, height and weight were obtained. Main outcomes were weight loss measured in kg and decrease in BMI. We studied 187 women: 110 received sessions of motivational interviewing (intervention group, n = 110), 64 received motivational support by phone or e-mail only and 13 women did not wish any motivational support (control group, n = 77). The mean weight loss and decrease in BMI was greater in the intervention group compared with the control group (9.3 kg versus 7.3 kg, difference p = 0.01, 3.3 kg/m(2) versus 2.6 kg/m(2), difference p = 0.02). The mean period of intervention was comparable in the two groups, 7.9 month and 7.3 month, respectively, (difference non significant: NS). The study indicates that motivational interviewing may be a valuable tool in weight loss programs for obese and overweight women prior to fertility treatment.

  15. Adaptation of a Motivational Interviewing Intervention to Improve Antidepressant Adherence among Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Interian, Alejandro; Martinez, Igda; Rios, Lisbeth Iglesias; Krejci, Jonathan; Guarnaccia, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Poor antidepressant adherence is a significant issue in depression treatment that adversely affects treatment outcomes. While being a common problem, it tends to be more common among Latinos. To address this problem, the current study adapted a Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention to improve adherence among Latinos with depression. The adaptation process included six focus groups that elicited participants’ perspectives (N = 30), applying the intervention with test cases (N = 7) to fine tune the intervention, and eliciting feedback on the intervention (N = 5). The findings generated from these adaptation phases are described, along with a case example. Examples of adaptations to the MI included reframing antidepressant adherence as a way to luchar (struggle) against problems, focusing on motivation for improving depression and not just medication, refining methods for imparting antidepressant information, and inclusion of personalized visual feedback on dose-taking. The findings provide a description of the antidepressant issues experienced by a group of Latinos, as well as considerations for applying MI with this population. The intervention remained grounded in MI principles, but was contextualized for this Latino group. PMID:20438160

  16. Community Program Therapist Adherence and Competence in a Motivational Interviewing Assessment Intake Session

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Carly J.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Ball, Samuel A.; Nich, Charla; Frankforter, Tami L.; Martino, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Background Teaching community program therapists to use motivational interviewing (MI) strategies for addictions treatment with sufficient frequency (i.e., adherence) and skill (i.e., competence) is a priority and challenge for the field. The development of psychometrically valid MI integrity measures that can be used for supervision and evaluation and be both sensitive and robust across clinical situations is needed. Objective This article examines the performance of the Independent Tape Rating Scale (ITRS) (1) when used to evaluate the delivery of MI within a one-session assessment intake (2). Methods Audiotapes of 315 sessions of therapists in MI and counseling-as-usual conditions were rated according to the ITRS by raters blind to treatment condition. Results Results indicate that community therapists were successfully trained and supervised to use MI within an assessment intake session, with MI adherence and competence that was discriminable from counseling-as-usual practices. Increased therapist MI adherence and competence was associated with increases in an index of client motivation for change, though unrelated to treatment outcome. Conclusions and Scientific Significance The ITRS appears to be a valid instrument for measuring therapist MI adherence and competence within an assessment intake. PMID:20942726

  17. Exploring motivational interviewing and its philosophical alignment to an undergraduate behavioural science programme in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Curtin, S; Trace, A

    2013-05-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centred, directive, therapeutic approach that enhances clients' readiness to change by exploring their ambivalence about doing so, thus increasing their motivation to change, and by helping them to commit to the process of change. MI is now being applied to dentistry in the area of oral health e.g. smoking cessation and the prevention of early childhood caries. This aligns dentistry with other healthcare professions in their focus on utilising MI to bring about behavioural change. This paper focuses on how the profession of dentistry would benefit from examining how to integrate MI both in undergraduate teaching and practice. Currently the teaching focus in relation to MI has centred on the theoretical content and less on underlying philosophy. This paper explores how a teaching philosophy, as delivered in the behavioural science programme in the School of Dentistry, University College Cork, Ireland, can provide a framework for teaching MI. Key components within this teaching philosophy are: teaching for understanding, developing reflective practice and student-centred teaching.

  18. Comparison of Motivational Interviewing with Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: A conceptual and clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Bricker, J.B.; Tollison, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Motivational Interviewing (MI) and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) are two emerging therapies that focus on commitment to behavior change. Aim Provide the first systematic comparison of MI with ACT. Methods A systematic comparison of MI and ACT at the conceptual level, with a focus on their philosophical and theoretical bases, and at the clinical level, with a focus on the therapeutic relationship, use of language in therapy, and use of values in therapy. Results Conceptually, MI & ACT have distinct philosophical bases. MI’s theoretical basis focuses on language content, whereas ACT’s theoretical basis focuses on language process. Clinically, ACT and MI have distinct approaches to the therapeutic relationship, fundamentally different foci on client language, and different uses of client values to motivate behavior change. ACT, but not MI, directly targets the willingness to experience thoughts, feelings, and sensations. Conclusions Despite their conceptual and clinical differences, MI and ACT are complementary interventions. Collaborations between MI and ACT researchers may yield fruitful cross-fertilization research on core processes and clinical outcomes. PMID:21338532

  19. Multicultural web-based motivational interviewing for clients with a first-time DUI offense.

    PubMed

    Osilla, Karen Chan; D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Díaz-Fuentes, Claudia M; Lara, Marielena; Watkins, Katherine E

    2012-04-01

    Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions are needed to reduce the risk of driving under the influence (DUI) recidivism among diverse populations. Using core elements of Motivational Interviewing, we developed a culturally relevant web-MI intervention (web-MI) in English and Spanish to serve as a standalone or adjunctive program in DUI educational settings and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability among clients with first-time DUI offenses. We conducted an iterative formative assessment using focus groups with staff (n = 8) and clients (n = 27), and usability interviews with clients (n = 21). Adapting MI for the web was widely accepted by staff and clients. Clients stated the web-MI was engaging, interactive and personal, and felt more comfortable than past classes and programs. Spanish-speaking clients felt less shame, embarrassment, and discomfort with the web-MI compared to other in-person groups. Results support the viability of web-MI for DUI clients at risk for recidivism and highlight the importance of adapting the intervention for diverse populations. Key decisions used to develop the web-MI are discussed.

  20. Multicultural Web–Based Motivational Interviewing for Clients with a first-time DUI Offense

    PubMed Central

    Osilla, Karen Chan; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Díaz-Fuentes, Claudia M.; Lara, Marielena; Watkins, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Culturally and linguistically appropriate interventions are needed to reduce the risk of DUI recidivism among diverse populations. Using core elements of Motivational Interviewing, we developed a culturally-relevant web-MI intervention (web-MI) in English and Spanish to serve as a standalone or adjunctive program in DUI educational settings and evaluated its feasibility and acceptability among clients with first-time DUI offenses. We conducted an iterative formative assessment using focus groups with staff (n = 8) and clients (n = 27), and usability interviews with clients (n = 21). Adapting MI for the web was widely accepted by staff and clients. Clients stated the web-MI was engaging, interactive and personal, and felt more comfortable than past classes and programs. Spanish-speaking clients felt less shame, embarrassment, and discomfort with the web-MI compared to other in-person groups. Results support the viability of web-MI for DUI clients at risk for recidivism and highlight the importance of adapting the intervention for diverse populations. Key decisions used to develop the web-MI are discussed. PMID:22506822

  1. Ethnicity as a moderator of motivational interviewing for incarcerated adolescents after release

    PubMed Central

    Clair, Mary; Stein, L.A.R.; Soenksen, Shayna; Martin, Rosemarie A.; Lebeau, Rebecca; Golembeske, Charles

    2013-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been found to be an effective treatment for substance using populations, including incarcerated adolescents. Although some studies suggest MI is more successful with individuals from minority backgrounds, the research remains mixed. The current study investigated the impact of ethnicity on treatment in reducing alcohol and marijuana use among incarcerated adolescents. Adolescents (14–19 years of age) were recruited from a state juvenile correctional facility and randomly assigned to receive MI or relaxation therapy (RT) (N = 147; 48 White, 51 Hispanic, and 48 African American; 126 male; 21 female). Interviews were conducted at admission to the facility and 3 months after release. Results suggest that the effects of MI on treatment outcomes are moderated by ethnicity. Hispanic adolescents who received MI significantly decreased total number of drinks on heavy drinking days (NDHD) and percentage of heavy drinking days (PHDD) as compared to Hispanic adolescents who received RT. These findings suggest that MI is an efficacious treatment for an ethnic minority juvenile justice-involved population in need of evidence-based treatments. PMID:23810265

  2. The trans-theoretical stages of change model and motivational interviewing for building maternal supportiveness in cases of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Jacqueline

    2002-01-01

    When a child has been sexually abused, the non-offending parent plays a crucial role in determining that child's recovery. However, the disclosure of sexual abuse in families often throws non-offending parents into a dilemma about whether or not to side with the perpetrator or child, leaving them in an ambivalent position. In order to enhance the ability of parents to protect and support their children, this paper proposes the use of the Trans-theoretical Stages of Change model and Motivational Interviewing. Techniques of Motivational Interviewing will be discussed and then illustrated with a case example.

  3. Mindfulness and motivational interviewing: two candidate methods for promoting self-management.

    PubMed

    Benzo, Roberto P

    2013-08-01

    There is no conclusive evidence about the way to a promote behavior change in self-management programs for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The latter is a significant knowledge gap as there is a need to promote a sustained effect in interventions like Pulmonary Rehabilitation or Supporting Programs. Embracing patient's values seems to be a key ingredient to ignite genuine motivation for behavior change. This manuscript describes two pilot qualitative studies carried out in patients with severe COPD aimed to engage the patient inner experience and promote self-management: a trial testing motivational interviewing (MI) as one style of helping patients with severe COPD make changes in their behavior and second a trial testing a mindfulness-based intervention. The MI study consisted of a 3-month program of weekly coaching phone calls after one face-to-face visit. The following themes were outstanding: patients value the supportive communication with coach and believe the MI-based coaching created increased level of awareness and accountability. They perceived an increase in physical activity and reported "feeling better" or other benefits not directly related to exercise. The Mindfulness for Health Program was a mandatory 8-week program that consisted on 2-hour classes aimed to cultivate nonjudgmental attention in the moment (through different meditative practices and sharing) plus monthly face-to-face encounters aimed to sustain practice and sharing of life experiences for 1 year. The following themes (at 1 year) were outstanding: appreciating life by seeing hardships as opportunities, valuing the self through compassion and awareness, cultivating connectedness with others, acquiring joy, and adopting healthy behaviors. In the search for the "holy grail" for self-management programs that can promote a behavior change, mindfulness and MI seem promising for cultivating a way to live a life in which people are fully present and consciously

  4. Motivational Interviewing Support for a Behavioral Health Internet Intervention for Drivers with Type 1 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ingersoll, Karen S; Banton, Thomas; Gorlin, Eugenia; Vajda, Karen; Singh, Harsimran; Peterson, Ninoska; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Cox, Daniel J

    2015-05-01

    While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes, DD.com, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to DD.com plus MI vs. DD.com only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df= -2.25; p<.03) and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df= -1.69; p<. 10) or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data.

  5. Motivational Interviewing Support for a Behavioral Health Internet Intervention for Drivers with Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Ingersoll, Karen S.; Banton, Thomas; Gorlin, Eugenia; Vajda, Karen; Singh, Harsimran; Peterson, Ninoska; Gonder-Frederick, Linda; Cox, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    While Internet interventions can improve health behaviors, their impact is limited by program adherence. Supporting program adherence through telephone counseling may be useful, but there have been few direct tests of the impact of support. We describe a Telephone Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention targeting adherence to an Internet intervention for drivers with Type 1 Diabetes, DD.com, and compare completion of intervention benchmarks by those randomized to DD.com plus MI vs. DD.com only. The goal of the pre-intervention MI session was to increase the participant's motivation to complete the Internet intervention and all its assignments, while the goal of the post-treatment MI session was to plan for maintaining changes made during the intervention. Sessions were semi-structured and partially scripted to maximize consistency. MI Fidelity was coded using a standard coding system, the MITI. We examined the effects of MI support vs. no support on number of days from enrollment to program benchmarks. Results show that MI sessions were provided with good fidelity. Users who received MI support completed some program benchmarks such as Core 4 (t176 df= -2.25; p<.03) and 11 of 12 monthly driving diaries significantly sooner, but support did not significantly affect time to intervention completion (t177 df= -1.69; p<. 10) or rates of completion. These data suggest that there is little benefit to therapist guidance for Internet interventions including automated email prompts and other automated minimal supports, but that a booster MI session may enhance collection of follow-up data. PMID:25774342

  6. Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Weight Efficacy Lifestyle among Women with Overweight and Obesity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mirkarimi, Kamal; Kabir, Mohammad Javad; Honarvar, Mohammad Reza; Ozouni-Davaji, Rahman Berdi; Eri, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Obesity and overweight have become increasingly a major public health problem across the world. This study aimed at exploring the effects of motivational interviewing on weight efficacy lifestyle among women with obesity and overweight. A single-blind randomized clinical trial study was conducted on 100 overweight and obese women who attended a nutrition clinic. The samples were selected based on the clinical records and assigned into two groups, namely motivational interviewing arm (50 samples) and nutrition education arm (50 samples). Data were collected using a standard validated questionnaire entitled “weight efficacy lifestyle”. The intervention was designed according to five motivation sessions and four nutrition education programs, such that the participants of the nutrition education arm were also provided with the nutrition pamphlets related to weight control. Data were finally analyzed using the SPSS statistical software by performing the independent t-test, chi-square, LSD and repeated measures ANOVA tests. P<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The mean age of women was 39.9±9.1 and 36.3±8.9 years in the control and motivational interviewing arms, respectively. Compared with the control group, the score of the motivational interviewing group was statistically significant in terms of weight efficacy lifestyle P=0.0001) and all subscales including social pressure (P=0.0001), physical discomfort (P=0.005), food accessibility (P=0.0001), positive and entertainment activities (P=0.0001), as well as negative emotions (P=0.003). Motivational interviewing appeared to be effective in increasing weight efficacy lifestyle among women with overweight and obesity. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2014051817736N1 PMID:28360445

  7. Is the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals motivational skills?: EVEM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lifestyle is one of the main determinants of people’s health. It is essential to find the most effective prevention strategies to be used to encourage behavioral changes in their patients. Many theories are available that explain change or adherence to specific health behaviors in subjects. In this sense the named Motivational Interviewing has increasingly gained relevance. Few well-validated instruments are available for measuring doctors’ communication skills, and more specifically the Motivational Interviewing. Methods/Design The hypothesis of this study is that the Scale for Measuring Motivational Interviewing Skills (EVEM questionnaire) is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring the primary care professionals skills to get behavior change in patients. To test the hypothesis we have designed a prospective, observational, multi-center study to validate a measuring instrument. –Scope: Thirty-two primary care centers in Spain. -Sampling and Size: a) face and consensual validity: A group composed of 15 experts in Motivational Interviewing. b) Assessment of the psychometric properties of the scale; 50 physician- patient encounters will be videoed; a total of 162 interviews will be conducted with six standardized patients, and another 200 interviews will be conducted with 50 real patients (n=362). Four physicians will be specially trained to assess 30 interviews randomly selected to test the scale reproducibility. -Measurements for to test the hypothesis: a) Face validity: development of a draft questionnaire based on a theoretical model, by using Delphi-type methodology with experts. b) Scale psychometric properties: intraobservers will evaluate video recorded interviews: content-scalability validity (Exploratory Factor Analysis), internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), intra-/inter-observer reliability (Kappa index, intraclass correlation coefficient, Bland & Altman methodology), generalizability, construct validity and sensitivity to change

  8. Design and Methods of a Synchronous Online Motivational Interviewing Intervention for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    DiLillo, Vicki; Ingle, Krista; Harvey, Jean Ruth; West, Delia Smith

    2016-01-01

    Background While Internet-based weight management programs can facilitate access to and engagement in evidence-based lifestyle weight loss programs, the results have generally not been as effective as in-person programs. Furthermore, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promise as a technique for enhancing weight loss outcomes within face-to-face programs. Objective This paper describes the design, intervention development, and analysis of a therapist-delivered online MI intervention for weight loss in the context of an online weight loss program. Methods The MI intervention is delivered within the context of a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an 18-month, group-based, online behavioral weight control program plus individually administered, synchronous online MI sessions relative to the group-based program alone. Six individual 30-minute MI sessions are conducted in private chat rooms over 18 months by doctoral-level psychologists. Sessions use a semistructured interview format for content and session flow and incorporate core MI components (eg, collaborative agenda setting, open-ended questions, reflective listening and summary statements, objective data, and a focus on evoking and amplifying change talk). Results The project was funded in 2010 and enrollment was completed in 2012. Data analysis is currently under way and the first results are expected in 2016. Conclusions This is the first trial to test the efficacy of a synchronous online, one-on-one MI intervention designed to augment an online group behavioral weight loss program. If the addition of MI sessions proves to be successful, this intervention could be disseminated to enhance other distance-based weight loss interventions. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01232699; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01232699 PMID:27095604

  9. An Experimental Study of Interventions for the Acquisition and Retention of Motivational Interviewing Skills among Probation Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asteris, Mark M., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the differences in Motivational Interviewing (MI) skill acquisition and retention among probation officers. This study had a randomized, experimental, pretest-posttest control group design using the MITI 3.1.1 and the VASE-R to measure MI skill acquisition and retention. A random sample (n = 24) of probation…

  10. Using Motivational Interviewing with School-Age Bullies: A New Use for a Proven, Evidence-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhnke, Brenna A.; Juhnke, Gerald A.; Curtis, Russell C.; Thompson, E. Heather; Coll, Kenneth M.; Yu, Fangzhou; Moyer, Michael S.; Mullett, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Motivational interviewing is a proven, evidence-based intervention. It has been successfully utilized as a potent intervention with students presenting a broad range of concerns from substance abuse to obesity. To date, however, no articles exist within the general counseling literature or the "Journal of School Counseling" specifically…

  11. "Let's Talk about Drugs": Pilot Study of a Community-Level Drug Prevention Intervention Based on Motivational Interviewing Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newbery, Natasha; McCambridge, Jim; Strang, John

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The feasibility of a community-level drug prevention intervention based upon the principles of motivational interviewing within a further education college was investigated in a pilot study. Design/methodology/approach: The implementation over the course of a single term of "Let's Talk about Drugs" was studied with both action…

  12. Reinventing the Reel: An Innovative Approach to Resident Skill-Building in Motivational Interviewing for Brief Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J. Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J. Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI…

  13. Examining the Feasibility and Acceptability of a Motivational Interviewing Early Intervention Program to Prevent High School Dropout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iachini, Aidyn L.; Rogelberg, Sandra; Terry, John David; Lutz, Amy

    2016-01-01

    This article describes Aspire, a new motivational interviewing (MI) early intervention program designed to prevent dropout among students repeating the ninth grade, and then examines the feasibility and acceptability of this program through a mixed-methods approach. The Aspire program is a nine-lesson curriculum grounded in MI with an emphasis on…

  14. A Cross-Cultural Three-Step Process Model for Assessing Motivational Interviewing Treatment Fidelity in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koken, Juline A.; Naar-King, Sylvie; Umasa, Sanya; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan; Rongkavilit, Chokechai

    2012-01-01

    The provision of culturally relevant yet evidence-based interventions has become crucial to global HIV prevention and treatment efforts. In Thailand, where treatment for HIV has become widely available, medication adherence and risk behaviors remain an issue for Thai youth living with HIV. Previous research on motivational interviewing (MI) has…

  15. Correlates of Motivational Interviewing Use Among Substance Use Treatment Programs Serving American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel; Moore, Laurie A; Rieckmann, Traci; Croy, Calvin D; Venner, Kamilla; Moghaddam, Jacquelene; Gueco, Rebekah; Novins, Douglas K

    2017-02-24

    Motivational interviewing (MI) offers a treatment modality that can help meet the treatment needs of American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) with substance use disorders. This report presents results from a national survey of 192 AI/AN substance abuse treatment programs with regard to their use of MI and factors related to its implementation, including program characteristics, workforce issues, clinician perceptions of MI, and how clinicians learned about MI. Sixty-six percent of programs reported having implemented the use of MI in their programs. In the final logistic regression model, the odds of implementing MI were significantly higher when programs were tribally owned (OR = 2.946; CI95 1.014, 8.564), where more than 50% of staff were Certified Alcohol and Drug Counselors (CADCs) (OR = 5.469; CI95 1.330, 22.487), and in programs in which the survey respondent perceived that MI fit well with their staff's expertise and training (OR = 3.321; CI95 1.287, 8.569).

  16. Using distance education to promote the transfer of motivational interviewing skills among behavioral health professionals.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Michael S; Rhode, Robert; Chong, Jenny

    2004-03-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of distance education for training behavioral health professionals. Five live video workshops that covered key elements of Motivational Interviewing (MI) were delivered. The programs occurred a month apart, each 3 hours long. The programs used compressed video, transmitting the video signal through telephone lines. The audience was staff at substance abuse treatment organizations throughout the state of Arizona. Participants completed assessments regarding their training experiences, knowledge and self-efficacy in MI, and their satisfaction with the training, prior to, during, and subsequent to the workshops. Participation in the five workshops varied; the first workshop had the largest attendance of 351, the fourth the lowest of 92; 145 participants attended all five workshops. Participants expressed moderate levels of satisfaction with most aspects of the training, although some expressed frustration with interrupted audio or video signals during the programs. The handouts and videotaped examples of MI were identified as the more helpful aspects of the training. Participants reported statistically significant improvements in their self-perceived knowledge and skills. They demonstrated a statistically significant but clinically insignificant increase in knowledge. A small group of participants provided audiotapes of actual counseling sessions. These participants demonstrated minimal improvement in skills across the study that were not statistically significant. These results are discussed in terms of their implications for future research in the use of distance education as a technology transfer tool in the addiction treatment profession.

  17. [Motivational interviewing use for promoting health behavior: an approach of doctor/patient relationship].

    PubMed

    Benarous, X; Legrand, C; Consoli, S M

    2014-05-01

    Many situations in common medical practice, especially in chronic diseases, require patients to be mobilized for health behavior decisions: for daily intake of an antihypertensive drug, performing a mammography for cancer screening, as well as adopting new diet habits in diabetes. Ability to initiate a health behavior depends on several parameters. Some of them are related to the patient, his personality, his illness and treatment's perception; others directly rely on the physician, his attitude and his communication style during the visit, independently of patient's level of resistance to change. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a communication technique, first developed for patients presenting a substance abuse disorder, to explore their ambivalence, overcome their resistances and give them the willingness of a better self-care. Its general principles and basic techniques can be applied by every practitioner and deserve to be better known, given that scientific literature provides evidence for generalizing it in a variety of medical conditions, in structured patient education programs as well as in usual follow-up, for which time is generally restricted. This article provides an overview of MI recent applications and argues for its diffusion in everyday medical practice.

  18. Effectiveness of motivational interviewing at improving oral health: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cascaes, Andreia Morales; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Clark, Valerie Lyn; Barros, Aluísio J D

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) at improving oral health behaviors (oral hygiene habits, sugar consumption, dental services utilization or use of fluoride) and dental clinical outcomes (dental plaque, dental caries and periodontal status). METHODS A systematic search of PubMed, LILACS, SciELO, PsyINFO, Cochrane and Google Scholar bibliographic databases was conducted looking for intervention studies that investigated MI as the main approach to improving the oral health outcomes investigated. RESULTS Of the 78 articles found, ten met the inclusion criteria, all based on randomized controlled trials. Most studies (n = 8) assessed multiple outcomes. Five interventions assessed the impact of MI on oral health behaviors and nine on clinical outcomes (three on dental caries, six on dental plaque, four on gingivitis and three on periodontal pockets). Better quality of evidence was provided by studies that investigated dental caries, which also had the largest population samples. The evidence of the effect of MI on improving oral health outcomes is conflicting. Four studies reported positive effects of MI on oral health outcomes whereas another four showed null effect. In two interventions, the actual difference between groups was not reported or able to be recalculated. CONCLUSIONS We found inconclusive effectiveness for most oral health outcomes. We need more and better designed and reported interventions to fully assess the impact of MI on oral health and understand the appropriate dosage for the counseling interventions. PMID:24789647

  19. Dismantling Motivational Interviewing and Feedback for College Drinkers: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Walters, Scott T.; Vader, Amanda M.; Harris, T. Robert; Field, Craig A.; Jouriles, Ernest N.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a counseling style that has been shown to reduce heavy drinking among college students. To date, all studies of MI among college students have used a format that includes a feedback profile delivered in an MI style. This study was a dismantling trial of MI and feedback among heavy drinking college students. After an initial screen, 279 heavy drinking students were randomized to: 1) Web feedback only, 2) a single MI session without feedback, 3) a single MI session with feedback, or 4) assessment only. At 6 months, MI with feedback significantly reduced drinking, as compared with assessment only (effect size = .54), MI without feedback (effect size = .63) and feedback alone (effect size = .48). Neither MI alone nor feedback alone differed from assessment only. Neither sex, race/ethnicity, nor baseline severity of drinking moderated the effect of the intervention. Norm perceptions mediated the effect of the intervention on drinking. MI with feedback appears to be a robust intervention for reducing drinking, and may be mediated by changes in normative perceptions. PMID:19170454

  20. The effectiveness of motivational interviewing for health behaviour change in primary care settings: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Morton, Katie; Beauchamp, Mark; Prothero, Anna; Joyce, Lauren; Saunders, Laura; Spencer-Bowdage, Sarah; Dancy, Bernadette; Pedlar, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is a patient-centred approach to behaviour change that was originally developed in the addiction field but has increasingly been applied to public health settings with a focus on health promotion. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence base for MI interventions in primary care settings with non-clinical populations to achieve behaviour change for physical activity, dietary behaviours and/or alcohol intake. We also sought to explore the specific behaviour change techniques included in MI interventions within primary care. Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles and 33 papers met inclusion criteria and were included. Approximately 50% of the included studies (n = 18) demonstrated positive effects in relation to health behaviour change. The efficacy of MI approaches is unclear given the inconsistency of MI descriptions and intervention components. Furthermore, research designs that do not isolate the effects of MI make it difficult to determine the effectiveness of such approaches. We offer a number of recommendations for researchers and practitioners seeking to include MI within behaviour change interventions to help improve the quality of the research and the effectiveness of MI-based interventions within primary care settings.

  1. Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mounting evidence implicates health behaviors (e.g., nutrition, physical activity, tobacco abstinence) in various health outcomes. As the science of behavior change has emerged, increasing emphasis has been placed on the use of theory in developing and testing interventions. Self-determination theory (SDT)-a theoretical perspective-and motivational interviewing (MI)-a set of clinical techniques-have both been used in health behavior intervention contexts. Although developed for somewhat different purposes and in relatively different domains, there is a good deal of conceptual overlap between SDT and MI. Accordingly, SDT may offer the theoretical backing that historically has been missing from MI, and MI may offer SDT some specific direction with respect to particular clinical techniques that have not been fully borne out within the confines of health related applications of SDT. Research is needed to empirically test the overlap and distinctions between SDT and MI and to determine the extent to which these two perspectives can be combined or co-exist as somewhat distinct approaches. PMID:22385676

  2. Parental perceptions of a motivational interviewing-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Woo Baidal, Jennifer A; Price, Sarah N; Gonzalez-Suarez, Elizabeth; Gillman, Matthew W; Mitchell, Kathleen; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Horan, Christine M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Taveras, Elsie M

    2013-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) shows promise for pediatric obesity prevention, but few studies address parental perceptions of MI. The aim of this study was to identify correlates of parental perceptions of helpfulness of and satisfaction with a MI-based pediatric obesity prevention intervention. We studied 253 children 2 to 6 years of age in the intervention arm of High Five for Kids, a primary care-based randomized controlled trial. In multivariable models, parents born outside the United States (odds ratio [OR] = 8.81; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.44, 31.8), with lower household income (OR = 3.60; 95% CI = 1.03, 12.55), and with higher BMI (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.07, 7.65) were more likely to perceive MI-based visits as helpful in improving children's obesity-related behaviors after the first year of the intervention. Parents of female (vs male), black (vs white), and Latino (vs white) children had lower intervention satisfaction. Our findings underscore the importance of tailoring pediatric obesity prevention efforts to target populations.

  3. Motivational Interviewing: A Pilot Test of Active Ingredients and Mechanisms of Change

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Jon; Kuerbis, Alexis; Amrhein, Paul; Hail, Lisa; Lynch, Kevin; McKay, James

    2012-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is an effective treatment for substance use disorders (SUD) that focuses on resolving ambivalence and increasing commitment to positive behavior change. While MI has a well developed clinical theory, research findings have been mixed in supporting its view of how change occurs. The primary aim of this pilot study was to test hypothesized MI active ingredients and mechanisms of change in reducing drinking during the initiation of a behavior change episode. Problem drinkers (N=89) seeking treatment were randomly assigned to MI, relational MI without directive elements (Spirit-Only MI, SOMI), or a self-change (SC) control condition. Participants were followed during an eight week treatment period. The first two of four treatment sessions were videotaped and coded for fidelity, discriminability, and change talk. Overall, conditions demonstrated high fidelity. As predicted, change talk significantly increased in MI relative to the SOMI condition. Drinking was significantly reduced at end treatment, but the reduction was equivalent across conditions. Post-hoc analyses found that MI reduced drinking more rapidly than SOMI and SC and that increased change talk mediated the effects of MI relative to SOMI during the week immediately following the first session. Findings are discussed in the context of the pilot nature of the study and the relative absence of experimental tests of mechanisms of behavior change in SUD treatment research. PMID:22905896

  4. Motivations for AdS/QCD from 10D supergravity solutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Paula, Wayne

    2016-04-01

    We discuss some attempts for the construction of gravity duals of QCD-like theories. It is analysed some properties of solutions of 10D Type IIB supergravity theory that attempt to be dual to N=1 gauge theories, in particular the solutions that belong to Papadoulos-Tseytlin ansatz. We argue that one could obtain 5D effective theories from 10d solutions and it motivates the use of phenomenological AdS/QCD models.

  5. A Comparison of Natural Language Processing Methods for Automated Coding of Motivational Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Tanana, Michael; Hallgren, Kevin A; Imel, Zac E; Atkins, David C; Srikumar, Vivek

    2016-06-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) is an efficacious treatment for substance use disorders and other problem behaviors. Studies on MI fidelity and mechanisms of change typically use human raters to code therapy sessions, which requires considerable time, training, and financial costs. Natural language processing techniques have recently been utilized for coding MI sessions using machine learning techniques, rather than human coders, and preliminary results have suggested these methods hold promise. The current study extends this previous work by introducing two natural language processing models for automatically coding MI sessions via computer. The two models differ in the way they semantically represent session content, utilizing either 1) simple discrete sentence features (DSF model) and 2) more complex recursive neural networks (RNN model). Utterance- and session-level predictions from these models were compared to ratings provided by human coders using a large sample of MI sessions (N=341 sessions; 78,977 clinician and client talk turns) from 6 MI studies. Results show that the DSF model generally had slightly better performance compared to the RNN model. The DSF model had "good" or higher utterance-level agreement with human coders (Cohen's kappa>0.60) for open and closed questions, affirm, giving information, and follow/neutral (all therapist codes); considerably higher agreement was obtained for session-level indices, and many estimates were competitive with human-to-human agreement. However, there was poor agreement for client change talk, client sustain talk, and therapist MI-inconsistent behaviors. Natural language processing methods provide accurate representations of human derived behavioral codes and could offer substantial improvements to the efficiency and scale in which MI mechanisms of change research and fidelity monitoring are conducted.

  6. Is Motivational Interviewing Effective at Reducing Alcohol Misuse in Young Adults?

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Eun-Young; Atkins, David C.; Walters, Scott T.

    2015-01-01

    Foxcroft, Coombes, Wood, Allen, and Almeida Santimano (2014) recently conducted a meta-analysis evaluating the effectiveness of motivational interviewing (MI) in reducing alcohol misuse for youth up to age 25. They concluded that the overall effect sizes of MI in this population were too small to be clinically meaningful. The present paper critically reviews the Foxcroft et al. meta-analysis, highlighting weaknesses, such as problems with search strategies, flawed screening and reviews of full-text articles, incorrect data abstraction and coding, and, accordingly, improper effect size estimation. In addition, between-study heterogeneity and complex data structures were not thoughtfully considered or handled using best practices for meta-analysis. These limitations undermine the reported estimates and broad conclusion made by Foxcroft et al. about the lack of MI effectiveness for youth. We call for new evidence on this question from better-executed studies by independent researchers. Meta-analysis has many important utilities for translational research. When implemented well, the overall effectiveness as well as different effectiveness for different populations can be examined via meta-analysis. Emerging methods utilizing individual participant-level data, such as integrative data analysis, may be particularly helpful for identifying the sources of clinical and methodological heterogeneity that matter. The need to better understand the mechanisms of alcohol interventions has never been louder in the addiction field. Through more concerted efforts throughout all phases of generating evidence, we may achieve large-scale evidence that is efficient and robust and provides critical answers for the field. PMID:26237287

  7. Motivational Interviewing As an Adjunct to Periodontal Therapy—A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kopp, Svenja L.; Ramseier, Christoph A.; Ratka-Krüger, Petra; Woelber, Johan P.

    2017-01-01

    Aim: Periodontal therapy is highly dependent on a patient's long-term adherence with regard to oral hygiene, diet, and regular check-ups at the dentist. Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a client-centered, directive method for encouraging a patients' behavioral health change. The aim of this systematic review was to reveal the effects of MI as an adjunct to periodontal therapy. Methods: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) were reviewed for randomized controlled clinical trials. Articles were included when using MI as an adjunct to periodontal therapy and presenting clinical periodontal and oral hygiene related parameters. Two authors independently coded the relevant articles. Results: The search yielded 496 articles. After analysis and exclusion, a total of five papers could be included. The quality of the articles ranged between 72–88%. The two independent raters showed a high inter-rater reliability (Cohens-Kappa = 0.89). In two studies MI showed a significant positive effect on bleeding on probing and plaque values. One study showed improvement of self-efficacy in interdental cleaning. Two studies showed no influence of MI on periodontal parameters of the patients. Conclusion: The use of MI as an adjunct to periodontal therapy might have a positive influence on clinical periodontal parameters (plaque values, gingival, and periodontal inflammation) and psychological factors related to oral hygiene (self-efficacy). Due to the low body of evidence further studies are needed. Future studies should include fidelity measures of the applied MI, a high number of counselors, several MI sessions, and long-term study follow-up to show potential effects. PMID:28293208

  8. Temporal variation in facilitator and client behavior during group motivational interviewing sessions

    PubMed Central

    Houck, Jon M.; Hunter, Sarah B.; Benson, Jennifer G.; Cochrum, Linda L.; Rowell, Lauren N.; D’Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    There is considerable evidence for Motivational interviewing (MI) in changing problematic behaviors. Research on the causal chain for MI suggests influence of facilitator speech on client speech. This association has been examined using macro (session-level) and micro (utterance-level) measures; however, effects across sessions have largely been unexplored, particularly with groups. We evaluated a sample of 129 adolescent group MI sessions, using a behavioral coding system and timing information to generate information on facilitator and client speech (CT: change talk) within 5 successive segments (quintiles) of each group session. We hypothesized that facilitator speech (open-ended questions and reflections of CT) would be related to subsequent CT. Repeated measures analysis indicated significant quadratic and cubic trends for facilitator and client speech across quintiles. Across quintiles, cross-lagged panel analysis using a zero-inflated negative binomial model showed minimal evidence of facilitator speech on client CT, but did indicate several effects of client CT on facilitator speech, and of client CT on subsequent client CT. Results suggest that session-level effects of facilitator speech on client speech do not arise from long-duration effects of facilitator speech; instead, we detected effects of facilitator speech on client speech only at the beginning and end of sessions, when open questions respectively suppressed and enhanced client expressions of CT. Findings suggest that clinicians must remain vigilant to client CT throughout the group session, reinforcing it when it arises spontaneously and selectively employing open-ended questions to elicit it when it does not, particularly towards the end of the session. PMID:26415055

  9. Research to Encourage Exercise for Fibromyalgia (REEF): use of motivational interviewing design and method.

    PubMed

    Ang, Dennis C; Kaleth, Anthony S; Bigatti, Silvia; Mazzuca, Steve; Saha, Chandan; Hilligoss, Janna; Lengerich, Mimi; Bandy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), defined as the presence of both chronic widespread pain and the finding of 11/18 tender points on examination, is an illness associated with major personal and societal burden. Supervised aerobic exercise is an important treatment modality to improve patient symptoms. Unfortunately, adherence to an exercise regimen after a structured supervised program is disappointingly low. Since FM is a chronic illness, studies are needed to test strategies that would enhance exercise adherence in these individuals. Individuals who are able to adhere to exercise almost always maintain the symptomatic benefits of exercise. The objective of this paper was to describe the protocol of the Research to Encourage Exercise for Fibromyalgia (REEF). REEF is a randomized attention-controlled trial that seeks to test the efficacy of 6 sessions of telephone delivered motivational interviewing (MI) that targets exercise adherence to improve FM-relevant clinical outcomes (i.e., physical function and pain severity). The trial has recently completed enrolling 216 subjects, and randomization has resulted in well-balanced groups. Details on the study design, MI program, and treatment fidelity are provided in the paper. Outcome assessments at week 12, week 24 and week 36 will test the immediate, intermediate and long-term effects of exercise-based MI on adherence (as measured by the Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors/CHAMPS and accelerometer) and clinical outcomes. When completed, REEF will determine whether exercise-based MI could be utilized as a management strategy to sustain the clinical benefits of exercise for FM.

  10. A Randomized Trial Using Motivational Interviewing for Maintenance of Blood Pressure Improvements in a Community-Engaged Lifestyle Intervention: HUB City Steps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, Alicia; Madson, Michael; Thomson, Jessica; Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. The purpose of this study was to compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention conducted with…

  11. A randomized trail using motivational interviewing for maintenance of blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Little is known about the effective dose of motivational interviewing for maintaining intervention-induced health outcome improvements. Purpose: To compare effects of two doses of motivational interviewing for maintaining blood pressure improvements in a community-engaged lifestyle int...

  12. Effects of motivational interviewing on smoking cessation in adolescents with psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Brown, R; Ramsey, S; Strong, D; Myers, M; Kahler, C; Lejuez, C; Niaura, R; Pallonen, U; Kazura, A; Goldstein, M; Abrams, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To test the hypothesis that among adolescent smokers hospitalised for psychiatric and substance use disorders, motivational interviewing (MI) would lead to more and longer quit attempts, reduced smoking, and more abstinence from smoking over a 12 month follow up. Design:Randomised control trial of MI versus brief advice (BA) for smoking cessation, with pre- and post-intervention assessment of self efficacy and intentions to change, and smoking outcome variables assessed at one, three, six, nine, and 12 month follow ups. Setting:A private, university affiliated psychiatric hospital in Providence, Rhode Island, USA. Patients or other participants:Consecutive sample (n = 191) of 13–17 year olds, admitted for psychiatric hospitalisation, who smoked at least one cigarette per week for the past four weeks, had access to a telephone, and did not meet DSM-IV criteria for current psychotic disorder. Interventions:MI versus BA. MI consisted of two, 45 minute individual sessions, while BA consisted of 5–10 minutes of advice and information on how to quit smoking. Eligible participants in both conditions were offered an eight week regimen of transdermal nicotine patch upon hospital discharge. Main outcome measures:Point prevalence abstinence, quit attempts, changes in smoking rate and longest quit attempt. Proximal outcomes included intent to change smoking behaviour (upon hospital discharge), and self efficacy for smoking cessation. Results:MI did not lead to better smoking outcomes compared to BA. MI was more effective than BA for increasing self efficacy regarding ability to quit smoking. A significant interaction of treatment with baseline intention to quit smoking was also found. MI was more effective than BA for adolescents with little or no intention to change their smoking, but was actually less effective for adolescents with pre-existing intention to cut down or quit smoking. However, the effects on these variables were relatively modest and only

  13. The potential for motivational interviewing to improve outcomes in the management of diabetes and obesity in paediatric and adult populations: a clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Christie, D; Channon, S

    2014-01-01

    Having good intentions to engage in healthy behaviours, to change our lives in a positive direction and make substantial, lasting changes may not always translate into actions or behaviour that is maintained. Motivational Interviewing is a directive person-centred approach designed to explore ambivalence and activate motivation for change [Miller WR, Rollnick S. Motivational Interviewing: Preparing People to Change Addictive Behaviour. London: Guilford Press, 1991]. A key component of a motivational interviewing conversation is to acknowledge that clients have every right to make no change. It uses a guiding communication style which invites people to consider their own situation and find their own solutions to situations that they identify as problematic that are preventing change. Motivational Interviewing was first introduced in adult health addiction services in the early 1980s. It has developed in the physical health specialties, and in the last 20 years or so attention has turned to the potential of Motivational Interviewing in the paediatric setting and the challenges of using it in families with children at differing ages and developmental stages. This article summarizes studies published from 2006 to 2011 of Motivational Interviewing in individuals across the lifespan with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and obesity. PMID:23927612

  14. No identifiable Hb1Ac or lifestyle change after a comprehensive diabetes programme including motivational interviewing: A cluster randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective To study the effectiveness of a comprehensive diabetes programme in general practice that integrates patient-centred lifestyle counselling into structured diabetes care. Design and setting Cluster randomised trial in general practices. Intervention Nurse-led structured diabetes care with a protocol, record keeping, reminders, and feedback, plus training in motivational interviewing and agenda setting. Subjects Primary care nurses in 58 general practices and their 940 type 2 diabetes patients with an HbA1c concentration above 7%, and a body mass index (BMI) above 25 kg/m2. Main outcome measures HbA1c, diet, and physical activity (medical records and patient questionnaires). Results Multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses adjusted for baseline outcomes showed that despite active nurse participation in the intervention, the comprehensive programme was no more effective than usual care after 14 months, as shown by HbA1c levels (difference between groups = 0.13; CI 20.8–0.35) and diet (fat (difference between groups = 0.19; CI 20.82–1.21); vegetables (difference between groups = 0.10; CI-0.21–0.41); fruit (difference between groups = 20.02; CI 20.26–0.22)), and physical activity (difference between groups = 21.15; CI 212.26–9.97), or any of the other measures of clinical parameters, patient's readiness to change, or quality of life. Conclusion A comprehensive programme that integrated lifestyle counselling based on motivational interviewing principles integrated into structured diabetes care did not alter HbA1c or the lifestyle related to diet and physical activity. We thus question the impact of motivational interviewing in terms of its ability to improve routine diabetes care in general practice. PMID:23659710

  15. A Group Motivational Interviewing Intervention Reduces Drinking and Alcohol-Related Consequences in Adjudicated College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Lamb, Toby F.; Pedersen, Eric R.; Quinlan, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a single-session group motivational enhancement intervention with college students adjudicated for violation of alcohol policy. The intervention consisted of a timeline Followback assessment of drinking, social norms re-education, decisional balance for behavior change, relapse prevention, expectancy…

  16. Transporting Motivational Interviewing to School Settings to Improve the Engagement and Fidelity of Tier 2 Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, Andy J.; Lee, Jon; Small, Jason W.; Seeley, John R.; Walker, Hill M.; Feil, Edward G.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of Tier 2 interventions are facilitated by specialized instructional support personnel, such as a school psychologists, school social workers, school counselors, or behavior consultants. Many professionals struggle to involve parents and teachers in Tier 2 behavior interventions. However, attention to the motivational issues for…

  17. Client Retrospective Accounts of Corrective Experiences in Motivational Interviewing Integrated With Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, Christianne; Angus, Lynne; Khattra, Jasmine; Westra, Henny; Ip, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    A corrective experience (CE) is one "in which a person comes to understand or experience affectively an event or relationship in a different and unexpected way" (Castonguay & Hill, 2012, p. 5). CEs disconfirm clients' expectations based on past problematic experiences, and can be emotional, relational, behavioral, and/or cognitive. This qualitative study explored corrective shifts among recovered participants (N = 8) who had received motivational interviewing (MI) integrated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a randomized controlled trial comparing CBT alone to MI-CBT for generalized anxiety disorder (Westra, Constantino, & Antony, 2016). We administered a posttherapy interview querying their experience of, and explanations for, any shifts in therapy. Grounded theory analysis yielded three core themes: in command of the worry train, experiencing myself in new ways in therapy, and oriented toward change. Findings are discussed in terms of MI theory, and clinical implications for therapists are provided.

  18. The benefits of motivational interviewing and coaching for improving the practice of comprehensive family assessments in child welfare.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Elizabeth H; Lawrence, C Nicole; Weatherholt, Tara N; Nagy, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The engagement of families in child welfare services is critical for successful outcomes related to safety, permanency, and child and family well-being. Motivational interviewing (MI), an effective approach to working with individuals struggling with alcohol and drug addiction, has great appeal for use with families involved with the child welfare system. Consequently, many social service agencies are beginning to integrate MI into their training curriculum. However, research has shown that training in MI alone is not enough; ongoing coaching is crucial in order to transfer learned MI skills into practice.The current study employs qualitative interview data from case-workers in order to examine the implementation of MI and long-term coaching within the child welfare system. Findings showed that MI can be implemented successfully within the child welfare system, and that caseworkers believed MI, supported by ongoing coaching, to be a valuable tool in engaging families in the assessment process.

  19. Motivating and hindering factors during the reemployment process: the added value of employment counselors' assessment.

    PubMed

    van Hooft, Edwin A J

    2014-01-01

    Because unemployment negatively affects people's well-being, it is of crucial importance that unemployed individuals move back to work. The process of getting reemployed, however, is difficult and complex. Therefore, many unemployed job seekers are assisted by employment counselors. The present study focuses on motivating and hindering factors in the reemployment process, examining the added value of the counselors' assessment of job seekers' attitudes, perceptions, and behaviors. The results of a 3-wave study with job seeker self-ratings and counselor-ratings indicated that perceived health problems is the most consistent predictor of job search and reemployment status. The findings further provide some convergent validity evidence for self- and counselor-rated situational-level motivators (i.e., attitude, social pressure, self-efficacy) and job search intensity. Although method effects did not seem to threaten the validity of the prediction of job search intensity and procrastination, employment counselors' assessments of job seekers' job search intensity and procrastination were significantly more strongly related to reemployment success than job seekers' self-ratings. Future research should therefore include other-reports, in addition to job seeker self-reports, to get a more complete view of people's job search behavior. Also reemployment counseling firms may want to use the expert knowledge of their employment counselors more systematically.

  20. Toward an understanding of motivational influences on prospective memory using value-added intentions

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Gabriel I.; Rummel, Jan; Dummel, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This study examined value-added intentions by manipulating the cognitive frame associated with monetary contingencies for detecting prospective memory (PM) cues. We associated a loss-frame with a monetary punishment for failing to respond to cues and a gain-frame with a monetary reward for remembering to respond to cues and compared those frames to a no-frame control condition with no contingency linked to performance. Across two experiments, we find increased PM performance for participants in the loss-frame (Experiments 1 and 2) and in the gain-frame (Experiment 2) conditions relative to the no-frame condition. This value-related improvement in PM was not accompanied by a significant increase in cue monitoring as measured by intention-induced interference to an ongoing task and recognition memory for ongoing-task items. The few previous studies investigating motivational PM showed mixed results regarding whether PM improves due to incentives or not. Our results provide further evidence that, under some experimental conditions, PM improves with rewards and that the benefit generalizes to penalizing performance. The results have both practical implications and theoretical implications for motivation models of PM. PMID:26042017

  1. The MOTIV-HEART Study: A Prospective, Randomized, Single-Blind Pilot Study of Brief Strategic Therapy and Motivational Interviewing among Cardiac Rehabilitation Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pietrabissa, Giada; Manzoni, Gian Mauro; Rossi, Alessandro; Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    Background: Psychological distress, biomedical parameters, and unhealthy lifestyles contribute to a poorer prognosis for cardiac disease. Public health's challenge is to motivate patients to utilize self-care. Objective: This prospective, randomized, single-blind pilot study aimed at testing the incremental efficacy of Brief Strategic Therapy (BST) combined with Motivational Interviewing (MI) in improving selected biomedical and psychological outcomes over and beyond those of the stand-alone BST in a residential Cardiac Rehabilitation (CR) program. Method: Fourty-two inpatients (17 females), enrolled in a 1-month CR program, were randomly allocated into two conditions: (a) Three sessions of BST and (b) Three sessions of BST plus MI. Data were collected at baseline, discharge, and after 3 months through phone interviews. Results: At discharge, no significant between-group difference was found in any outcome variable. Changes from pre- to post-treatment within each condition showed significant improvements only in the BST group, where the level of external regulation diminished, and both the participants' self-regulation (Relative Autonomous Motivation Index, RAI) and willingness to change improved. At the 3-month follow-up, within-group analyses on responders (BST = 9; BST + MI = 11) showed a statistically significant improvement in the level of systolic blood pressure in both groups. Discussion: Findings showed no evidence of the incremental efficacy of combining BST and MI over and beyond BST alone on either selected biomedical or psychological outcomes among CR patients. Conclusions: Ends and limitations from the present pilot study should be considered and addressed in future investigations. PMID:28223950

  2. Motivational aftercare planning to better care: Applying the principles of advanced directives and motivational interviewing to discharge planning for people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Kisely, Steve; Wyder, Marianne; Dietrich, Josie; Robinson, Gail; Siskind, Dan; Crompton, David

    2017-02-01

    Improving the input of people with mental illness into their recovery plans can potentially lead to better outcomes. In the present study, we evaluated the introduction of motivational aftercare planning (MAP) into the discharge planning of psychiatric inpatients. MAP is a manualized intervention combining motivational interviewing with advance directives. We measured changes in the level of patient input into discharge planning following training staff in the use of MAP. This included the following: (i) documentation of early relapse signs along with successful past responses; (ii) evidence of aftercare planning; and (iii) the use of the patients' own words in the plan. We used a ward-level controlled before-and-after design comparing one intervention ward with two control wards. We used anonymized recovery plans, with a goal of 50 plans per ward before and after the intervention, to look for evidence of patient input into care planning with a standardized checklist. There were also qualitative interviews with individuals discharged from the unit. We reviewed 100 intervention ward plans and 197 control ones (total n = 297). There were no significant differences in recovery plans from intervention and control wards at baseline. Following MAP training, the intervention ward improved significantly (e.g. identification of triggers increased from 52 to 94%, χ(2)  = 23.3, d.f. =1, P < 0.001). This did not occur in the control wards. The qualitative data (n = 20 interviews) showed improvements in participants' experiences of discharge planning. MAP increased inpatient input into discharge planning and was valued by participants. The effect on subsequent health service use needs evaluation.

  3. Technology-delivered adaptations of motivational interviewing for health-related behaviors: A systematic review of the current research

    PubMed Central

    Shingleton, Rebecca M.; Palfai, Tibor P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this paper were to describe and evaluate the methods and efficacy of technology-delivered motivational interviewing interventions (TAMIs), discuss the challenges and opportunities of TAMIs, and provide a framework for future research. Methods We reviewed studies that reported using motivational interviewing (MI) based components delivered via technology and conducted ratings on technology description, comprehensiveness of MI, and study methods. Results The majority of studies were fully-automated and included at least one form of media rich technology to deliver the TAMI. Few studies provided complete descriptions of how MI components were delivered via technology. Of the studies that isolated the TAMI effects, positive changes were reported. Conclusion Researchers have used a range of technologies to deliver TAMIs suggesting feasibility of these methods. However, there are limited data regarding their efficacy, and strategies to deliver relational components remain a challenge. Future research should better characterize the components of TAMIs, empirically test the efficacy of TAMIs with randomized controlled trials, and incorporate fidelity measures. Practice Implications TAMIs are feasible to implement and well accepted. These approaches offer considerable potential to reduce costs, minimize therapist and training burden, and expand the range of clients that may benefit from adaptations of MI. PMID:26298219

  4. Questions and Reflections: The Use of Motivational Interviewing Microskills in a Peer-Led Brief Alcohol Intervention for College Students

    PubMed Central

    Tollison, Sean J.; Lee, Christine M.; Neighbors, Clayton; Neil, Teryl A.; Olson, Nichole D.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between peer facilitator adherence to motivational interviewing (MI) microskills and college student drinking behavior. First year students (N=67) took part in a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students (BASICS) led by peer facilitators trained in MI and BASICS. Participants were assessed pre- and 2 weeks post-intervention on contemplation to change, as well as, pre- and 3 months post-intervention on drinking quantity. Independent coders used the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (MITI, Moyers, Martin, Manuel, & Miller, 2003) to evaluate therapist MI adherence. Peer facilitators met beginning proficiency in MI on scores of empathy, the ratio of MI adherent behaviors to non-adherent behaviors and the ratio of open questions to total questions as defined by the MITI. Results indicated that a higher number of closed questions was related to less contemplation and a higher number of open questions was related to more contemplation post intervention. A higher number of simple reflections was associated with increased drinking at the 3 month assessment, however, complex reflections were found to attenuate the effect of simple reflections on changes in drinking. These findings highlight the importance of competent reflective listening skills and the need for continual training and supervision for peer facilitators. PMID:18502251

  5. An evaluation of training for lay providers in the use of Motivational Interviewing to promote academic achievement among urban youth.

    PubMed

    Simon, Patricia; Ward, Nadia L

    This study examined training outcomes for lay service providers who participated in a Motivational Interviewing (MI) training program designed to help increase intrinsic motivation and academic achievement among urban low-income and minority youth. Seventeen lay academic advisors received 16 hours of training in MI. Two, two-hour booster sessions plus five, two- hour weekly group supervision sessions were conducted with lay advisors over a period of seven months. One-hundred percent of lay advisors (n =17) participated in all training, booster sessions and assessments. Seventy-one percent of lay advisors (n=12) completed all group supervision sessions and submitted tapes for review. MI training was associated with increased knowledge of MI principles among lay service providers; increased proficiency in responding to simulated clients in an MI consistent style; increased use of MI adherent behaviors in sessions with real clients and maintenance of high motivation to use MI from pretest to posttest. Although lay advisors increased their knowledge of MI, further training is required for advisors to increase competence in delivering MI. Overall, Implications for using MI in the context of school-based settings is discussed.

  6. Changes in Physical Activity and Psychological Variables Following a Web-Based Motivational Interviewing Intervention: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara B; Berger, Lisa M; Brondino, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Background Web-based interventions for enhancing physical activity participation are in demand for application in health care settings. Recent research suggests Web-based interventions that are based on motivational interviewing are effective to increase physical activity. It is unclear whether motivational interviewing can influence targeted psychological variables such as perceived readiness, willingness, and ability to participate in physical activity. Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether there were changes in physical activity and psychological variables associated with readiness, willingness, and perceived ability to participate in physical activity following completion of a novel Web-based intervention. The goal of the motivational interviewing–based intervention was to increase physical activity. Methods Twenty-three underactive or inactive urban dwelling adults were recruited at a medical office for participation in a 4-session Web-based intervention lasting approximately 15 minutes per week. Sessions were based on principles of motivational interviewing. Assessment of physical activity was conducted using pedometers immediately prior to intervention participation (pre) and immediately post intervention (post1). Self-report assessments of physical activity and psychological variables were conducted using online surveys at pre, post1, and again at one month following intervention participation (post2). Results Comparisons of pre and post1 pedometer recordings revealed significant increases in steps per day (t 22=2.09, P=.049). There were also significant changes in total physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ2 2=8.4, P=.02) and in moderate intensity physical activity energy expenditure per week (χ2 2=13.9, P<.001) over time following participation in the Web-based intervention. Significant changes in psychological variables following participation in the Web-based intervention included: (1) change in stage classification

  7. Single-session motivational interviewing for drug detoxification inpatients: effects on self-efficacy, stages of change and substance use.

    PubMed

    Berman, Anne H; Forsberg, Lars; Durbeej, Natalie; Källmén, Håkan; Hermansson, Ulric

    2010-02-01

    Thirty-five inpatients at a Stockholm hospital drug user detoxification unit received single-session Motivational Interviewing (MI) between 2006 and 2008. At baseline and after 3 months, they were compared to a semi-randomized control group of 52 patients with treatment as usual. In the MI group, self-efficacy increased regarding abstention in connection with positive feelings, appreciation of positive drug effects increased, and participants tended to transition toward preparation/action stages of change. Despite implementation challenges, the study demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of single-session MI delivery in the inpatient drug detoxification setting and suggests paths for future research on delivery of single-session MI.

  8. Integrating Motivational Interviewing and Traditional Practices to Address Alcohol and Drug Use Among Urban American Indian/Alaska Native Youth.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Brown, Ryan A; Johnson, Carrie L; Schweigman, Kurt; D'Amico, Elizabeth J

    2016-06-01

    American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/AN) exhibit high levels of alcohol and drug (AOD) use and problems. Although approximately 70% of AI/ANs reside in urban areas, few culturally relevant AOD use programs targeting urban AI/AN youth exist. Furthermore, federally-funded studies focused on the integration of evidence-based treatments with AI/AN traditional practices are limited. The current study addresses a critical gap in the delivery of culturally appropriate AOD use programs for urban AI/AN youth, and outlines the development of a culturally tailored AOD program for urban AI/AN youth called Motivational Interviewing and Culture for Urban Native American Youth (MICUNAY). We conducted focus groups among urban AI/AN youth, providers, parents, and elders in two urban communities in northern and southern California aimed at 1) identifying challenges confronting urban AI/AN youth and 2) obtaining feedback on MICUNAY program content. Qualitative data were analyzed using Dedoose, a team-based qualitative and mixed methods analysis software platform. Findings highlight various challenges, including community stressors (e.g., gangs, violence), shortage of resources, cultural identity issues, and a high prevalence of AOD use within these urban communities. Regarding MICUNAY, urban AI/AN youth liked the collaborative nature of the motivational interviewing (MI) approach, especially with regard to eliciting their opinions and expressing their thoughts. Based on feedback from the youth, three AI/AN traditional practices (beading, AI/AN cooking, and prayer/sage ceremony) were chosen for the workshops. To our knowledge, MICUNAY is the first AOD use prevention intervention program for urban AI/AN youth that integrates evidence-based treatment with traditional practices. This program addresses an important gap in services for this underserved population.

  9. Proficiency in Motivational Interviewing among Nurses in Child Health Services Following Workshop and Supervision with Systematic Feedback

    PubMed Central

    Bohman, Benjamin; Forsberg, Lars; Beckman, Maria; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn; Ghaderi, Ata

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on training in motivational interviewing (MI) has shown eroding skills after workshops not followed by additional training input (supervision/coaching). There is a need for more research evaluating different types and lengths of post-workshop training with follow-up periods extending six months. This study is an extension of a previous evaluation of the level of proficiency in MI after workshop and four sessions of supervision among nurses in Swedish child health services. Aims To explore the level of MI proficiency among nurses participating in an intervention to prevent childhood obesity (n = 33), after receiving five additional sessions of supervision including feedback on observed practice, as well as level of proficiency at follow-up. Methods Level of proficiency was measured 4 and 12 months after completed supervision using recorded practice samples coded according to the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity (MITI) Code. Potential predictors of outcome were investigated. Results Proficiency remained on the same levels after nine sessions of supervision as after four sessions, and was generally low. The percentage of nurses reaching the proficiency level ranged from 18.2 to 54.5% across indicators. MI-spirit had increased significantly at follow-up, and the rest of the indicators remained on the same levels. No predictors of outcome were found. Conclusions Comprehensive training programs with prolonged post-workshop supervision and feedback on observed practice may help to sustain but not improve participants’ proficiency in MI. Potential explanations to the results and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27685152

  10. Patient and Caregiver Opinions of Motivational Interviewing Techniques In Role-Played Palliative Care Conversations: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pollak, Kathryn I.; Jones, Jacqueline; Lum, Hillary D.; De La Cruz, Scott; Felton, Susanne; Gill, Arvin; Kutner, Jean S.

    2015-01-01

    Context Although many have examined the role of motivational interviewing (MI) in diverse health care encounters, no one has explored whether patients and caregivers facing serious illnesses identify specific MI techniques as helpful. Objectives The aim of this pilot study was to describe how patients and caregivers perceived MI techniques in palliative care role-play encounters. Methods About 21 patients and caregivers participated in a role-play encounter where we asked the participant to act out being ambivalent or reluctant regarding the goals of care decision. The participant met with either an MI-trained physician or a physician who was not trained in MI (usual care). After the simulated encounter, we conducted cognitive interviews (“think-aloud” protocol) asking participants to identify “helpful” or “unhelpful” things physicians said. Participants also completed a perceived empathy instrument as a fidelity test of the MI training of the physician. Results Qualitative analyses revealed that participants independently identified the following helpful communication elements that are consistent with core MI techniques: reflection and validation of values, support of autonomy and flexibility, and open questions acting as catalysts for discussion. Participants rated the MI-trained physician slightly higher on the perceived empathy scale. Conclusion This pilot study represents the first exploration of patient and caregiver perceptions of helpful techniques in palliative care conversations. Use of MI techniques shows promise for improving palliative care discussions. PMID:25701055

  11. Motivating first-time, group O blood donors to return: Rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial of a post-donation telephone interview.

    PubMed

    France, Janis L; France, Christopher R; Carlson, Bruce W; Kessler, Debra A; Rebosa, Mark; Shaz, Beth H; Madden, Katrala; Carey, Patricia M

    2015-08-03

    First-time blood donors are essential to the US donor pool, providing nearly a third of all donations. Unfortunately, there are a wide variety of obstacles to repeat donation and new donors are extremely difficult to retain. Because each donor experiences a unique set of deterrents, we developed a post-donation interview based on motivational interview principles in order to flexibly address individual barriers. The primary aim of this randomized clinical trial is to examine retention of first-time, group O blood donors who are randomly assigned to receive either a telephone-delivered interview with motivational and action planning components or a standard-of-care control call approximately six weeks after their donation. Measures of donation attitude, perceived behavioral control, intention, and motivational autonomy will be measured before and after the telephone contact using online surveys, and donation attempts will be tracked for one year using blood center donor databases. We hypothesize that, compared to controls, donors who receive the telephone interview will be more likely to make a donation attempt over the following year. In addition, we will examine possible mechanisms of action of the interview using key predictors of donation behavior as described by Self Determination Theory (i.e., motivational autonomy) and the Theory of Planned Behavior (i.e., attitude, perceived behavioral control, and intention). Results of this intervention may help to support a novel strategy to enhance retention of selected blood donors in an effort to better meet the nation's blood supply needs.

  12. Adding Badging to a Marketing Simulation to Increase Motivation to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxton, M. Kim

    2015-01-01

    Badging has become a popular tool for obtaining social recognition for personal accomplishments. This innovation describes a way to add badging to a marketing simulation to increase student motivation to achieve the simulation's goals. Assessments indicate that badging both motivates students to perform better and helps explain students' perceived…

  13. SafeTalk, a multicomponent, motivational interviewing-based, safer sex counseling program for people living with HIV/AIDS: a qualitative assessment of patients' views.

    PubMed

    Golin, Carol E; Davis, Rebecca A; Przybyla, Sarahmona M; Fowler, Beth; Parker, Sharon; Earp, Jo Anne; Quinlivan, E Byrd; Kalichman, Seth C; Patel, Shilpa N; Grodensky, Catherine A

    2010-04-01

    With the continued transmission of HIV each year, novel approaches to HIV prevention are needed. Since 2003, the U.S. HIV prevention focus has shifted from primarily targeting HIV-negative at-risk persons to including safer sex programs for people already infected with HIV. At least 20-30% of people infected with HIV engage in risky sexual practices. Based on these data, policymakers have recommended that interventionists develop strategies to help HIV-infected people reduce their risky sexual behaviors. In the past, the few safer sex interventions that targeted HIV-infected people met with limited success because they basically adapted strategies previously used with HIV-uninfected individuals. In addition, often these adaptations did not address issues of serostatus disclosure, HIV stigma, or motivation to protect others from HIV. We had previously tested, in a demonstration project named the Start Talking About Risks (STAR) Program, a monthly three-session motivational interviewing (MI)-based intervention to help people living with HIV practice safer sex. In this study, we refined that program by enhancing its frequency and intensity and adding written and audio components to support the counseling. We theorized that an intervention such as MI, which is tailored to each individual's circumstances more than standardized prevention messages, would be more successful when supplemented with other components. We qualitatively assessed participants' perceptions, reactions, and preferences to the refined prevention with positives counseling program we called SafeTalk and learned that participants found the SafeTalk MI counseling and educational materials appealing, understandable, and relevant to their lives.

  14. Motives for choosing growth-enhancing hormone treatment in adolescents with idiopathic short stature: a questionnaire and structured interview study

    PubMed Central

    Visser – van Balen, Hanneke; Geenen, Rinie; Kamp, Gerdine A; Huisman, Jaap; Wit, Jan M; Sinnema, Gerben

    2005-01-01

    Background Growth-enhancing hormone treatment is considered a possible intervention in short but otherwise healthy adolescents. Although height gain is an obvious measure for evaluating hormone treatment, this may not be the ultimate goal for the person, but rather a means to reach other goals such as the amelioration of current height-related psychosocial problems or the enhancement of future prospects in life and society. The aim of our study was to clarify the motives of adolescents and their parents when choosing to participate in a growth-enhancing trial combining growth hormone and puberty-delaying hormone treatment. Methods Participants were early pubertal adolescents (25 girls, 13 boys) aged from 11 to 13 years (mean age 11.5 years) with a height standard deviation score (SDS) ranging from -1.03 to -3.43. All had been classified as idiopathic short stature or persistent short stature born small for the gestational age (intrauterine growth retardation) on the basis of a height SDS below -2, or had a height SDS between -1 and -2 and a predicted adult height SDS below -2. The adolescents and their parents completed questionnaires and a structured interview on the presence of height-related stressors, parental worries about their child's behavior and future prospects, problems in psychosocial functioning, and treatment expectations. Questionnaire scores were compared to norms of the general Dutch population. Results The adolescents reported normal psychosocial functioning and highly positive expectations of the treatment in terms of height gain, whereas the parents reported that their children encountered some behavioral problems (being anxious/depressed, and social and attention problems) and height-related stressors (being teased and juvenilized). About 40% of the parents were worried about their children's future prospects for finding a spouse or job. The motives of the adolescents and their parents exhibited rather different profiles. The most prevalent

  15. A values-based Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention for pediatric obesity: study design and methods for MI Values.

    PubMed

    Bean, Melanie K; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2011-09-01

    To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity remains relatively understudied. MI Values was developed to implement within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program for obese, ethnically diverse adolescents, the T.E.E.N.S. Program (Teaching, Encouragement, Exercise, Nutrition, Support). T.E.E.N.S. participants who consent to MI Values are randomized to either MI or an education control condition. At weeks 1 and 10 of T.E.E.N.S. participation, the subset of participants assigned to the MI condition engages in individual MI sessions and control participants view health education videos. All MI sessions are audiotaped and coded to monitor treatment fidelity, which has been satisfactory thus far. Participants complete comprehensive assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. We hypothesize that MI participants will demonstrate greater reductions in Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile, improved diet and physical activity behaviors, better compliance with T.E.E.N.S., and lower attrition than participants in the control group. We present study design and methods for MI Values as well as data on feasibility of recruitment methods and treatment integrity. At study completion, findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI in the treatment of pediatric obesity.

  16. Learning and Motivational Characteristics of Boys with AD/HD and/or Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zentall, Sydney S.; Moon, Sidney M.; Hall, Arlene M.; Grskovic, Janice A.

    2001-01-01

    A study compared the academic and learning characteristics of three students with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (AD/HD), three gifted students, and three gifted students with AD/HD. Giftedness conferred benefits related to specific talents but did not offer protection from the negative outcomes of AD/HD, such as inattention and…

  17. Pathways to Health: A Cluster Randomized Trial of Nicotine Gum and Motivational Interviewing for Smoking Cessation in Low-Income Housing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; James, Aimee S.; Mayo, Matthew S.; Nollen, Nicole; Catley, Delwyn; Choi, Won S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2007-01-01

    Despite high smoking rates among those living in poverty, few cessation studies are conducted in these populations. This cluster-randomized trial tested nicotine gum plus motivational interviewing (MI) for smoking cessation in 20 low-income housing developments (HDs). Intervention participants (10 HDs, n = 66) received educational materials, 8…

  18. Does Motivational Interviewing (MI) Work with Nonaddicted Clients? A Controlled Study Measuring the Effects of a Brief Training in MI on Client Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Tabitha L.; Gutierrez, Daniel; Hagedorn, W. Bryce

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between motivational interviewing (MI) and client symptoms, attendance, and satisfaction. Seventy-nine clients attending a university-based counseling center were purposefully assigned to treatment or control conditions. Statistical analyses revealed client symptoms in both groups improved. However,…

  19. Reinventing the reel: an innovative approach to resident skill-building in motivational interviewing for brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Cole, Bonnie; Clark, Denice Crowe; Seale, J Paul; Shellenberger, Sylvia; Lyme, Alan; Johnson, J Aaron; Chhabria, Aruna

    2012-01-01

    To enhance the skills of primary care residents in addressing substance misuse, residency screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) programs increasingly offer motivational interviewing (MI) training, but seldom include feedback and coaching. This innovative 2-round "Virginia Reel" approach, supplementing 3 hours of basic MI instruction, was designed to teach and coach residents to use MI while providing ongoing medical care. SBIRT/MI-competent facilitators served as both trainers and actors at 8 carefully sequenced Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) stations, providing instruction, role-play practice, and feedback on 17 microskills in 2 successive clinical "visits"/rounds addressing alcohol misuse and diabetes management. Evaluation included OSCE checklists, overall competency assessments, and responses to open-ended questions. Three residents showed improvement between rounds. Resident evaluations were strongly positive, identifying practice of MI skills and receipt of coaching and feedback from MI experts as particularly valuable. Further study is needed to confirm effectiveness of the approach and explore the impact of fewer OSCE stations of longer duration.

  20. Motivational Interviewing Targeting Risky Sex in HIV-Positive Young Thai Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Rongkavilit, Chokechai; Wang, Bo; Naar-King, Sylvie; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Panthong, Apirudee; Koken, Juline A.; Saengcharnchai, Pichai; Phanuphak, Praphan

    2014-01-01

    Motivational interviewing (MI) has been shown to reduce sexual risks among HIV-positive men who have sex with men (HMSM) in the U.S. We conducted a randomized trial of Healthy Choices, a 4-session MI intervention, targeting sexual risks among 110 HIV-positive youth ages 16–25 years in Thailand. Risk assessments were conducted at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months post-intervention. This report presents the analysis of 74 HMSM in the study. There were 37 HMSM in the Intervention group and 37 in the control group. The proportions of participants having anal sex and having sex with either HIV-uninfected or unknown partners in past 30 days were significantly lower in Intervention group than in control group at 6 months post-intervention (38% vs. 65%, p = .04; and 27% vs. 62%, p < .01, respectively). There were no significant differences in general mental health scores and HIV stigma scores between the two groups at any study visit. Thirty-five (95%) HMSM in the Intervention group vs. 31 (84%) in control group attended ≥3 sessions. Loss to follow-up was 8% and 30%, respectively (p = .04). Healthy Choices for young Thai HMSM was associated with sexual risk reduction. Improvements in mental health and HIV stigma were noted in Intervention group. Healthy Choices is a promising behavioral intervention and should be further developed to serve the needs of young HMSM in resource-limited countries. PMID:24668304

  1. Does Motivational Interviewing Counseling Time Influence HIV-Positive Persons’ Self-Efficacy to Practice Safer Sex?

    PubMed Central

    Chariyeva, Zulfiya; Golin, Carol E.; Earp, Jo Anne; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined the impact of motivational interviewing (MI) counseling time on self-efficacy to practice safer sex for people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Methods In 4 month intervals we followed a cohort of 490 PLWHA for 12 months. We conducted hierarchical linear regression models to examine changes in safer sex self-efficacy when participants received zero, low to moderate (5–131 minutes) and high (132–320 minutes) doses of MI time. We conducted a similar analysis using number of counseling sessions as the predictor variable. Results Participants with low to moderate doses of MI counseling had 0.26 higher self-efficacy scores than participants with zero MI time (p=0.01). Also, they had 0.26 lower self-efficacy scores than participants with high amounts of MI time (p=0.04). Participants with high doses of MI had a 0.5 higher self-efficacy score than participants with zero amount of MI time (p<0.0001). Participants who received 3–4 counseling sessions had 0.41 greater self-efficacy scores than participants who did not receive any sessions (p<0.0001) but did not differ from participants receiving 1–2 sessions. Conclusion MI time is a key to enhancing safer sex self-efficacy among PLWHA. Practice Implications Safer sex self-efficacy improves the more MI counseling time and sessions PLWHA receive. PMID:21890300

  2. The Effect of Motivational Interviewing on Medication Adherence and Hospitalization Rates in Nonadherent Patients with Multi-Episode Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Barkhof, Emile

    2013-01-01

    Background: Medication nonadherence in patients with schizophrenia presents a serious clinical problem. Research on interventions incorporating motivational interviewing (MI) to improve adherence have shown mixed results. Aims: Primary aim is to determine the effectiveness of a MI intervention on adherence and hospitalization rates in patients, with multi-episode schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, who have experienced a psychotic relapse following medication nonadherence. Secondary aim is to evaluate whether MI is more effective in specific subgroups. Methods: We performed a randomized controlled study including 114 patients who experienced a psychotic relapse due to medication nonadherence in the past year. Participants received an adapted form of MI or an active control intervention, health education (HE). Both interventions consisted of 5–8 sessions, which patients received in adjunction to the care as usual. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Results: Our results show that MI did not improve medication adherence in previously nonadherent patients who experienced a psychotic relapse. Neither were there significant differences in hospitalization rates at follow-up between MI and HE (27% vs 40%, P = .187). However, MI resulted in reduced hospitalization rates for female patients (9% vs 63%, P = .041), non-cannabis users (20% vs 53%, P = .041), younger patients (14% vs 50%, P = .012), and patients with shorter illness duration (14% vs 42%, P = .040). Conclusions: Targeted use of MI may be of benefit for improving medication adherence in certain groups of patients, although this needs further examination. PMID:24072808

  3. Alcohol and Marijuana Use Outcomes in the Healthy Choices Motivational Interviewing Intervention for HIV-Positive Youth

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xinguang; Naar-King, Sylvie; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Healthy Choices is a motivational interviewing intervention targeting multiple risk behaviors among HIV-positive youth. This study investigated the effects of this intervention program specifically on alcohol and marijuana use. Youth living with HIV (n=143, mean age=20.7, 51.5% male) were recruited from four sites in the United States, and randomly assigned to intervention or control conditions. The four-session intervention focused on two of three possible problem behaviors based on entry screening; this study focused on 143 HIV-positive youth who received the intervention for substance use. At 15-month follow-up past-week alcohol use was significantly lower for intervention youth than control youth (39.7% versus 53.6%, χ2=2.81, 0.05

  4. A feasibility test of a brief motivational interview intervention to reduce dating abuse perpetration in a hospital setting

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Emily F.; Wang, Na

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the intervention development process and feasibility testing of a hospital-based brief intervention to reduce the perpetration of adolescent dating abuse (ADA). To our knowledge, this intervention is the first to focus exclusively on ADA perpetration reduction via a motivational interview-type intervention in this setting. Method The rationale for and the six Intervention Mapping steps used to generate the intervention are described. Feasibility is conceptualized as intervention acceptability, demand, implementation, practicality, integration, and limited-efficacy. Results The Real Talk intervention was integrated smoothly into the emergency department setting. Participants did not experience any negative impact, and the vast majority (86%) reported that they felt helped. Quantitative assessments suggest that the intervention reduced the number of participants in the pre-contemplation stage of change regarding their use of relationship violence, and may have moved them forward into the action stage. Real Talk participants were more likely than those in the control group to tell friends to help them stay calm around their partner after drinking alcohol, and to talk with their doctor to get help for their problems. Conclusions Real Talk was developed to meet an unmet need for tertiary ADA interventions in non-school settings. It was developed in accordance with a recommended framework, informed by theory, and subsequently tested for feasibility. Feasibility assessment results suggest that Real Talk can be implemented in health care settings and may influence attitudinal and behavioral outcomes in the desired directions. PMID:27525169

  5. Motivation.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2007-01-01

    Motivation is short-term focused energy. The oldest theories of motivation explain motivated activity as effort to overcome primary deficiencies, such as hunger or boredom. Such theories are difficult to apply because individuals learn idiosyncratic secondary motives as alternative ways of responding to these needs. Three prominent needs theories are discussed: Herzberg's theory of hygiene and motivational factors; McClelland's needs for achievement, power, and affiliation; and Maslow's hierarchy and theory of self-actualization. A second approach to motivation holds that individuals may be thought of as engaging in rational processes to maximize their self-interests. The presented examples of this approach include Vroom's expectancy theory, Adam's theory of inequality, and the Porter-Lawler model that addresses the question of whether satisfaction leads to high performance or vice versa. Finally, several theories of motivation as life orientation are developed.

  6. People with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits benefit more from motivational interviewing than from cognitive behavioral group therapy

    PubMed Central

    Carlbring, Per; Forsberg, Lars; Rosendahl, Ingvar

    2016-01-01

    Background. Effective psychological treatment, including cognitive behavioral therapy and motivational interviewing (MI), is available for people with problematic gambling behaviors. To advance the development of treatment for gambling disorder, it is critical to further investigate how comorbidity impacts different types of treatments. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether screening for risky alcohol habits can provide guidance on whether people with gambling disorder should be recommended cognitive behavioral group therapy (CBGT) or MI. Methods. The present study is a secondary analysis of a previous randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of CBGT, MI and a waitlist control group in the treatment of disordered gambling. Assessment and treatment was conducted at an outpatient dependency clinic in Stockholm, Sweden, where 53 trial participants with gambling disorder began treatment. A modified version of the National Opinion Research Centre DSM-IV Screen for gambling problems was used to assess gambling disorder. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to screen for risky alcohol habits. Results. The interaction between treatment and alcohol habits was significant and suggests that patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits were better helped by MI, while those without risky alcohol habits were better helped by CBGT. Conclusions. The results support a screening procedure including the AUDIT prior to starting treatment for gambling disorder because the result of the screening can provide guidance in the choice of treatment. Patients with gambling disorder and risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to MI, while those without risky alcohol habits are likely to be best helped if they are referred to CBGT. PMID:27069823

  7. Reviewing and interpreting the effects of brief alcohol interventions: comment on a Cochrane review about motivational interviewing for young adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Eric R.; Osilla, Karen Chan; Kulesza, Magdalena; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Cochrane recently published a systematic review on motivational interviewing (MI) for alcohol misuse in young adults. The review authors concluded that ‘there are no substantive, meaningful benefits of MI interventions for the prevention of alcohol misuse’ (p. 2), as effect sizes were ‘small and unlikely to be of any meaningful benefit in practice’ (p. 27). As most of these interventions were quite brief, we wish to open a dialogue about interpreting effect sizes in this review and of (brief) alcohol interventions more generally. Analysis We analyze four methodological aspects of the review that likely influenced the author's conclusions about intervention effects: (1) risk of bias assessments, (2) search strategies, (3) assessing the quality of the body of evidence and (4) definitions of sustainability and clinical significance. Conclusions We interpret the effect sizes found in this review to indicate modest yet beneficial and potentially meaningful effects of these interventions, given their brevity and low cost. This interpretation is consistent with other reviews on brief, MI‐based interventions and brief interventions more generally. We therefore encourage the field to re‐open dialogue about the clinical importance of the effects of MI on alcohol misuse by young adults. Rather than dismissing interventions with small effects, we believe a more fruitful way forward for the field would be to catalogue effect sizes for various alcohol interventions. Such a catalogue would help stakeholders themselves to choose which interventions meet their minimum desired impact, and thus may be suitable given their targeted populations, setting and resources. PMID:26508301

  8. Research to Encourage Exercise for Fibromyalgia (REEF): Use of Motivational Interviewing, Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Dennis C.; Kaleth, Anthony S.; Bigatti, Silvia; Mazzuca, Steven A.; Jensen, Mark P.; Hilligoss, Janna; Slaven, James; Saha, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Regular exercise is associated with important benefits in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). Unfortunately, long-term maintenance of exercise after a structured program is rare. The present study tested the efficacy of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to promote exercise and improve symptoms in patients with FM. Methods 216 patients with FM were randomized to 6 MI sessions (n=107) or an equal number of FM self-management lessons (education control/EC, n=109). Co-primary endpoints were an increase of 30 minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity and improvement in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Physical Impairment (FIQ-PI) score, assessed at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes included clinically meaningful improvements in FIQ score, pain severity ratings, and a 6-minute walk test. Results There were no significant treatment group differences in either co-primary endpoint at 6-month follow-up. However, more MI participants than controls exhibited meaningful improvements in FIQ score at 6-month follow-up (62.9% vs. 49.5%, p=0.06). Compared to EC subjects, MI subjects also displayed a larger increment in their 6-minute walk test (43.9 vs. 24.8 meters, p=0.03). Additionally, MI was superior to EC in increasing the number of hours of physical activity immediately post-intervention and in reducing pain severity both immediately after the intervention and at 3-month follow-up. Conclusions Despite a lack of benefits on long term outcome, MI appears to have short-term benefits with respect to self-report physical activity and clinical outcomes. This is the first study in FM that explicitly addresses exercise maintenance as a primary aim. PMID:23042474

  9. Modeling the Innovation-Decision Process: Dissemination and Adoption of a Motivational Interviewing Preparatory Procedure In Addiction Outpatient Clinics.

    PubMed

    Walitzer, Kimberly S; Dermen, Kurt H; Barrick, Christopher; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Widespread adoption of empirically-supported treatment innovations has the potential to improve effectiveness of treatment received by individuals with substance use disorders. However, the process of disseminating such innovations has been complex, slow, and difficult. We empirically describe the dissemination and adoption of a treatment innovation--an alcohol-treatment preparatory therapeutic procedure based on motivational interviewing (MI)--in the context of Rogers' (2003) five stages of innovation-decision process (knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation). To this end, 145 randomly-chosen outpatient addiction treatment clinics in New York State received an onsite visit from a project trainer delivering one of three randomly-assigned dissemination intensities: a 15-minute, a half-day or a full-day presentation. Across these clinics, 141 primary administrators and 837 clinicians completed questionnaires assessing aspects of five innovation-decision stages. At each clinic, questionnaire administration occurred immediately pre- and post-dissemination, as well as 1 and 6 months after dissemination. Consistent with Rogers' theory, earlier stages of the innovation-decision process predicted later stages. As hypothesized, dissemination intensity predicted clinicians' post-dissemination knowledge. Clinician baseline characteristics (including gender, pre-dissemination knowledge regarding the MI preparatory technique, education, case load, beliefs regarding the nature of alcohol problems, and beliefs and behavior with regard to therapeutic style) predicted knowledge and persuasion stage variables. One baseline clinic characteristic (i.e., clinic mean beliefs and behavior regarding an MI-consistent therapeutic style) predicted implementation stage variables. Findings suggest that dissemination strategies should accommodate clinician and clinic characteristics.

  10. Modeling the Innovation-Decision Process: Dissemination and Adoption of a Motivational Interviewing Preparatory Procedure in Addiction Outpatient Clinics

    PubMed Central

    Walitzer, Kimberly S.; Dermen, Kurt H.; Barrick, Christopher; Shyhalla, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Widespread adoption of empirically-supported treatment innovations has the potential to improve effectiveness of treatment received by individuals with substance use disorders. However, the process of disseminating such innovations has been complex, slow, and difficult. We empirically describe the dissemination and adoption of a treatment innovation – an alcohol-treatment preparatory therapeutic procedure based on motivational interviewing (MI) – in the context of Rogers’ (2003) five stages of innovation-decision process (knowledge, persuasion, decision, implementation and confirmation). To this end, 145 randomly-chosen outpatient addiction treatment clinics in New York State received an onsite visit from a project trainer delivering one of three randomly-assigned dissemination intensities: a 15-minute, a half-day or a full-day presentation. Across these clinics, 141 primary administrators and 837 clinicians completed questionnaires assessing aspects of five innovation-decision stages. At each clinic, questionnaire administration occurred immediately pre- and post-dissemination, as well as one and six months after dissemination. Consistent with Rogers’ theory, earlier stages of the innovation-decision process predicted later stages. As hypothesized, dissemination intensity predicted clinicians’ post-dissemination knowledge. Clinician baseline characteristics (including gender, pre-dissemination knowledge regarding the MI preparatory technique, education, case load, beliefs regarding the nature of alcohol problems, and beliefs and behavior with regard to therapeutic style) predicted knowledge and persuasion stage variables. One baseline clinic characteristic (i.e., clinic mean beliefs and behavior regarding an MI-consistent therapeutic style) predicted implementation stage variables. Findings suggest that dissemination strategies should accommodate clinician and clinic characteristics. PMID:25934460

  11. Schema Therapy, Motivational Interviewing, and Collaborative-Mapping as Treatment for Depression among Low Income, Second Generation Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Heilemann, MarySue V.; Pieters, Huibrie C.; Kehoe, Priscilla; Yang, Qing

    2011-01-01

    US-born Latinos report significantly more depression than foreign-born Latinos in the US, and Latinas have twice the rate of depression than Latino men. The purpose of this pilot study was to test the feasibility of an innovative, short term program of Schema Therapy (ST) combined with Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques to reduce depression and increase resilience among second generation Latinas of low income in the US. In addition to blending ST and MI strategies with a focus on resilience, a novel technique called collaborative-mapping was a crucial strategy within treatment. Scheduling for sessions was flexible and patients had unlimited cell phone access to the therapist outside of sessions, although few used it. A mixed linear regression model for BDI-II scores of 8 women who completed all eight 2-hour sessions demonstrated that the treatment significantly decreased BDI-II scores during the course of treatment (p =.0003); the average decreasing rate in BDI-II scores was 2.8 points per visit. Depression scores remained sub-threshold for 12 months after treatment completion. Resilience scores significantly increased after treatment completion and remained high at all follow up visits through 1 year (p <.01). Thus, this short-term, customized intervention was both feasible and effective in significantly decreasing depression and enhancing resilience for this sample with effects enduring one year after treatment. This study is the first to combine ST and MI in therapy, which resulted in an appealing, desirable, and accessible depression treatment for this severely understudied, underserved sample of low income, second generation Latinas in the US. PMID:21619859

  12. Reducing HIV and partner violence risk among women with criminal justice system involvement: A randomized controlled trial of two Motivational Interviewing-based interventions

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Brian W.; O’Brien, Kerth; Bard, Ronda S.; Casciato, Carol J.; Maher, Julie E.; Dent, Clyde W.; Dougherty, John A.; Stark, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Women with histories of incarceration show high levels of risk for HIV and intimate partner violence (IPV). This randomized controlled trial with women at risk for HIV who had recent criminal justice system involvement (n=530) evaluated two interventions based on Motivational Interviewing to reduce either HIV risk or HIV and IPV risk. Baseline and 3, 6, and 9-month follow-up assessments measured unprotected intercourse, needle sharing, and IPV. Generalized estimating equations revealed that the intervention groups had significant decreases in unprotected intercourse and needle sharing, and significantly greater reductions in the odds and incidence rates of unprotected intercourse compared to the control group. No significant differences were found in changes in IPV over time between the HIV and IPV group and the control group. Motivational Interviewing-based HIV prevention interventions delivered by county health department staff appear helpful in reducing HIV risk behavior for this population. PMID:18636325

  13. The journey from opposition to recovery from eating disorders: multidisciplinary model integrating narrative counseling and motivational interviewing in traditional approaches

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the world of today’s of ever-briefer therapies and interventions, people often seem more interested in outcome than process. This paper focuses on the processes used by a multidisciplinary team in the journey from opposition to change to recovery from eating disorders. The approach outlined is most relevant to those with severe and enduring illness. Methods This paper describes a five-phase journey from eating-disorder disability and back to health as it occurs for patients in a community-based facility. This integrative model uses narrative and motivational interviewing counseling weaved into traditional approaches. It approaches illness from a transdiagnostic orientation, addressing the dynamics and needs demanded by the comorbidities and at the same time responding effectively in a way that reduces the influence of the eating disorder. The treatment described involves a five-phase journey: Preliminary phase (choosing a shelter of understanding); Phase 1: from partial recognition to full acknowledgment; Phase 2: from acknowledgment to clear cognitive stance against the eating disorder; Phase 3: towards clear stance against the “patient” status; Phase 4: towards re-authoring life and regaining self-agency; Phase 5: towards recovery and maintenance. Results In a longitudinal study of patients with a severe and debilitating eating disorder treated with this approach. The drop-out rate was less than 10%. This was during the first two months of treatment for those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, and this was higher than in those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa. At the end of treatment (15 months to 4 years later) 65% of those treated with anorexia nervosa and 81% of those treated with bulimia nervosa were either in a fully recovered state or in much improved. At the four-year follow-up, 68% of those diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and 83% of those diagnosed with bulimia nervosa were categorized as either fully recovered or much improved. All

  14. From appetitive to aversive: motivational interviewing reverses the modulation of the startle reflex by tobacco cues in smokers not ready to quit.

    PubMed

    Gantiva, Carlos; Guerra, Pedro; Vila, Jaime

    2015-03-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI) is a treatment method that has proven effective for increasing motivation to change and decreasing the consumption of different drugs. However, the results of studies examining the impact of MI on tobacco consumption are contradictory. Moreover, evidence of the effectiveness of MI for modifying well-validated psychophysiological indices of motivational change is still lacking. The aim of the present study was to use the startle probe paradigm and self-report measures of motivational change to assess the effectiveness of MI, compared to Prescriptive Advice (PA) and no treatment, in a sample of 53 smokers (28 male) who were not ready to quit smoking. After the intervention, the MI group reported increased motivation to change compared to both the PA and control groups. MI participants also had a potentiated startle reflex in response to tobacco-related pictures compared to the other two groups. These findings provide evidence that MI reverses the underlying motivational system activated by tobacco related cues.

  15. The relationship between baseline drinking status, peer motivational interviewing microskills, and drinking outcomes in a brief alcohol intervention for matriculating college students: a replication.

    PubMed

    Tollison, Sean J; Mastroleo, Nadine R; Mallett, Kimberly A; Witkiewitz, Katie; Lee, Christine M; Ray, Anne E; Larimer, Mary E

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate and extend previous findings (Tollison et al., 2008) on the association between peer facilitator adherence to motivational interviewing (MI) microskills and college student drinking behavior. This study used a larger sample size, multiple follow-up time-points, and latent variable analyses allowing for more complex models to be tested in a sample with different characteristics than Tollison et al. Matriculating students who participated in high school sports (N=327) took part in a Brief Alcohol Screening and Intervention for College Students led by peer facilitators trained in motivational interviewing (MI). Participants were assessed pre- and immediately postintervention on contemplation to change, as well as pre-, 5months, and 10months postintervention on drinking quantity. Independent coders used the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity scale (Moyers, Martin, Manuel, & Miller, 2003) to evaluate therapist MI adherence. Contrary to our previous study, results indicated that a higher number of open questions was positively related to increases in drinking, especially for heavier drinkers. Congruent with the previous study, more simple reflections was positively related to increases in drinking. Finally, this study revealed that heavier baseline drinking was associated with more simple reflections. There were no significant results found for changes in contemplation. Results corroborate previous findings that the excessive use of simple reflections may be indicative of countertherapeutic outcomes while raising questions about the relationship between the frequency of open questions and therapeutic outcomes.

  16. Effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in improving lipid level in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by general practitioners: Dislip-EM study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The non-pharmacological approach to cholesterol control in patients with hyperlipidemia is based on the promotion of a healthy diet and physical activity. Thus, to help patients change their habits, it is essential to identify the most effective approach. Many efforts have been devoted to explain changes in or adherence to specific health behaviors. Such efforts have resulted in the development of theories that have been applied in prevention campaigns, and that include brief advice and counseling services. Within this context, Motivational Interviewing has proven to be effective in changing health behaviors in specific cases. However, more robust evidence is needed on the effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing in treating chronic pathologies -such as dyslipidemia- in patients assisted by general practitioners. This article describes a protocol to assess the effectiveness of MI as compared with general practice (brief advice), with the aim of improving lipid level control in patients with dyslipidemia assisted by a general practitioner. Methods/Design An open, two-arm parallel, multicentre, cluster, controlled, randomized, clinical trial will be performed. A total of 48-50 general practitioners from 35 public primary care centers in Spain will be randomized and will recruit 436 patients with dyslipidemia. They will perform an intervention based either on Motivational Interviewing or on the usual brief advice. After an initial assessment, follow-ups will be performed at 2, 4, 8 and 12 months. Primary outcomes are lipid levels (total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides) and cardiovascular risk. The study will assess the degree of dietary and physical activity improvement, weight loss in overweight patients, and adherence to treatment guidelines. Discussion Motivational interview skills constitute the primary strategies GPs use to treat their patients. Having economical, simple, effective and applicable techniques is essential

  17. The Validity of Value-Added Estimates from Low-Stakes Testing Contexts: The Impact of Change in Test-Taking Motivation and Test Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finney, Sara J.; Sundre, Donna L.; Swain, Matthew S.; Williams, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    Accountability mandates often prompt assessment of student learning gains (e.g., value-added estimates) via achievement tests. The validity of these estimates have been questioned when performance on tests is low stakes for students. To assess the effects of motivation on value-added estimates, we assigned students to one of three test consequence…

  18. Creating a Collaborative "Hot Clock": Using Smart Phones to Motivate Students' Learning in News Interviewing and Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Fang-Yi Flora

    2016-01-01

    This unit activity is integrated into the chapters on radio of the appropriate course--Survey of Mass Media, Broadcast Journalism, News Writing, Media Programing, or Communication Technology. Employing the concept of a "hot-clock radio format," the purpose of this unit activity is to motivate students' collaborative learning in news…

  19. Motivational Interviewing for Effective Classroom Management: The Classroom Check-Up. Practical Intervention in the Schools Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Wendy M.; Herman, Keith C.; Sprick, Randy

    2011-01-01

    Highly accessible and user-friendly, this book focuses on helping K-12 teachers increase their use of classroom management strategies that work. It addresses motivational aspects of teacher consultation that are essential, yet often overlooked. The Classroom Check-Up is a step-by-step model for assessing teachers' organizational, instructional,…

  20. Motivational Interviewing among HIV Health Care Providers: Challenges and opportunities to enhance engagement and retention in care in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen M; Lucas, Mar; Bordato, Alejandra; Dorigo, Analia; Fernandez-Cabanillas, Graciela; Aristegui, Ines; Lopez, Maria; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jones, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Providers’ response to Motivational Interviewing (MI) to improve engagement and retention in care among challenging patients with HIV in Argentina were evaluated. 12 HIV care physicians participated and video recordings pre- and post-MI training were obtained. One week post-training 11/12 participants were committed to using MI strategies during consult session. 9/12 participants demonstrated appropriate utilization of MI techniques and increased adherence focused discussion and care (t = 3.59, p = .006). MI appears to be a viable strategy to enhance engagement and retention in challenging HIV patients. PMID:26056148

  1. Changing Reasons as Reasoning Changes: A Narrative Interview on Second Language Classroom Motivation, Telecollaboration, and the Learning of Foreign Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negueruela-Azarola, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    This narrative interview study of a Spanish learner documents and explains apparent contradictions in a student's story when reporting on why she continues to take Spanish even when she does not like it or perform well in foreign language courses. A dialectical approach to human activity based on sociocultural theory is used to make sense of her…

  2. The Effect of Motivational Interviewing-Based Counseling During Outpatient Provider Initiated HIV Testing on High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kiene, Susan M; Bateganya, Moses H; Lule, Haruna; Wanyenze, Rhoda K

    2016-09-01

    Provider-initiated HIV testing and counseling (PITC) has rapidly expanded in many countries including Uganda. However, because it provides HIV prevention information without individualized risk assessment and risk reduction counseling it may create missed opportunities for effective HIV prevention counseling. Our objective was to assess the effect of a brief motivational interviewing-based intervention during outpatient PITC in rural Uganda compared to Uganda's standard-of-care PITC at reducing HIV transmission-relevant sexual risk behavior. We enrolled 333 (160 control, 173 intervention) participants in a historical control trial to test the intervention vs. standard-of-care. Participants received PITC and standard-of-care or the intervention counseling and we assessed sexual risk behavior at baseline and 3 and 6 months follow-up. The intervention condition showed 1.5-2.4 times greater decreases in high risk sexual behavior over time compared to standard-of-care (p = 0.015 and p = 0.004). These data suggest that motivational interviewing based counseling during PITC may be a promising intervention to reduce high-risk sexual behavior and potentially reduce risk of HIV infection.

  3. A feasibility study of a randomised controlled trial comparing fall prevention using exercise with or without the support of motivational interviewing

    PubMed Central

    Arkkukangas, Marina; Johnson, Susanna Tuvemo; Hellström, Karin; Söderlund, Anne; Eriksson, Staffan; Johansson, Ann-Christin

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this investigation was to study the feasibility of a randomised controlled trial (RCT) based on a multicentre fall prevention intervention including exercise with or without motivational interviewing compared to standard care in community-living people 75 years and older. Method The feasibility of a three-armed, randomised controlled trial was evaluated according to the following: process, resources, management by questionnaire, and treatment outcomes. The outcome measures were fall frequency, physical performance and falls self-efficacy evaluated after three months. Twelve physiotherapists conducted the measurements and treatments and responded to the questionnaire. The first 45 participants recruited to the ongoing RCT were included: 16 individuals in the Otago Exercise Program group (OEP), 16 individuals in the OEP combined with motivational interviewing group (MI), and 13 individuals in the control group. The study was conducted from November 2012 to December 2013. Results The feasibility of the study process, resources and management reached the set goals in most aspects; however, the set goal regarding the MI guide and planned exercise for the participating older people was not completely reached. No significant differences were found between the groups regarding the outcome measures. Conclusion This study confirmed the acceptable feasibility for the study protocol in the ongoing RCT. PMID:26844061

  4. Dietary and body weight control: therapeutic education, motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral approaches for long-term weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Golay, Alain

    2006-01-01

    A diet always induces weight loss in the short term. The loss does not depend on the dietary composition but rather on the caloric deficit. However, a drastic diet often induces binge eating disorders and can lead to a weight gain in the long term. A cognitive-behavioral-nutritional approach allows lasting weight loss and best results with low fat diets in the long term. Therapeutic education is a patient-centered humanistic approach which allows patients to be actors in their own treatment and own diet to improve their success in losing weight and their quality of life. Motivational interviewing and cognitive-behavioral approaches are perfect complements to therapeutic education for long-term weight loss maintenance. Finally, the best diet is the one that the patient can follow in the long term.

  5. Motivational Interviewing with computer assistance as an intervention to empower women to make contraceptive choices while incarcerated: study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are important and costly public health problems in the United States resulting from unprotected sexual intercourse. Risk factors for unplanned pregnancies and STIs (poverty, low educational attainment, homelessness, substance abuse, lack of health insurance, history of an abusive environment, and practice of commercial sex work) are especially high among women with a history of incarceration. Project CARE (Contraceptive Awareness and Reproductive Education) is designed to evaluate an innovative intervention, Motivational Interviewing with Computer Assistance (MICA), aimed at enhancing contraceptive initiation and maintenance among incarcerated women who do not want a pregnancy within the next year and who are anticipated to be released back to the community. This study aims to: (1) increase the initiation of highly effective contraceptives while incarcerated; (2) increase the continuation of highly effective contraceptive use at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months after release; and (3) decrease unsafe sexual activity. Methods/Design This randomized controlled trial will recruit 400 women from the Rhode Island Department of Corrections (RI DOC) women’s jail at risk for an unplanned pregnancy (that is, sexually active with men and not planning/wanting to become pregnant in the next year). They will be randomized to two interventions: a control group who receive two educational videos (on contraception, STIs, and pre-conception counseling) or a treatment group who receive two sessions of personalized MICA. MICA is based on the principles of the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and on Motivational Interviewing (MI), an empirically supported counseling technique designed to enhance readiness to change targeted behaviors. Women will be followed at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months post release and assessed for STIs, pregnancy, and reported condom use. Discussion Results from this study are expected to enhance our

  6. Feasibility of teaching motivational interviewing to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Smeerdijk, Maarten; Keet, René; de Haan, Lieuwe; Barrowclough, Christine; Linszen, Don; Schippers, Gerard

    2014-03-01

    This study examined the feasibility of providing motivational interviewing (MI) training to parents of young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and co-occurring cannabis use. The training was offered in a mental health care setting as part of a family motivational intervention (FMI). Ninety-seven parents were randomly assigned to either FMI or routine family support (RFS). To obtain a measure of parent's MI skills at baseline and 3 months after they completed FMI, their role-play interactions with an actor portraying their child were coded. The coding method had satisfactory inter-rater reliability and internal consistency. At follow-up, parents in FMI showed significantly greater adherence to (p=.03) and competence in (p=.04) MI than parents in RFS. Parents in FMI also demonstrated significantly greater increases in expressing empathy (p=.01). These results demonstrate that FMI is a feasible method for increasing MI skills in parents. Additional research is needed to better understand the unique application of MI to parent-child interactions.

  7. Development of a Fully Automated, Web-Based, Tailored Intervention Promoting Regular Physical Activity Among Insufficiently Active Adults With Type 2 Diabetes: Integrating the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing Components

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Michel; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major challenge for Canadian public health authorities, and regular physical activity is a key factor in the management of this disease. Given that fewer than half of people with type 2 diabetes in Canada are sufficiently active to meet the recommendations, effective programs targeting the adoption of regular physical activity (PA) are in demand for this population. Many researchers argue that Web-based, tailored interventions targeting PA are a promising and effective avenue for sedentary populations like Canadians with type 2 diabetes, but few have described the detailed development of this kind of intervention. Objective This paper aims to describe the systematic development of the Web-based, tailored intervention, Diabète en Forme, promoting regular aerobic PA among adult Canadian francophones with type 2 diabetes. This paper can be used as a reference for health professionals interested in developing similar interventions. We also explored the integration of theoretical components derived from the I-Change Model, Self-Determination Theory, and Motivational Interviewing, which is a potential path for enhancing the effectiveness of tailored interventions on PA adoption and maintenance. Methods The intervention development was based on the program-planning model for tailored interventions of Kreuter et al. An additional step was added to the model to evaluate the intervention’s usability prior to the implementation phase. An 8-week intervention was developed. The key components of the intervention include a self-monitoring tool for PA behavior, a weekly action planning tool, and eight tailored motivational sessions based on attitude, self-efficacy, intention, type of motivation, PA behavior, and other constructs and techniques. Usability evaluation, a step added to the program-planning model, helped to make several improvements to the intervention prior to the implementation phase. Results The intervention development cost was

  8. Evaluation of a Web-Based E-Learning Platform for Brief Motivational Interviewing by Nurses in Cardiovascular Care: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Cossette, Sylvie; Heppell, Sonia; Boyer, Louise; Mailhot, Tanya; Simard, Marie-Josée; Tanguay, Jean-Francois

    2016-01-01

    Background Brief motivational interviewing (MI) can contribute to reductions in morbidity and mortality related to coronary artery disease, through health behavior change. Brief MI, unlike more intensive interventions, was proposed to meet the needs of clinicians with little spare time. While the provision of face-to-face brief MI training on a large scale is complicated, Web-based e-learning is promising because of the flexibility it offers. Objective The primary objective of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a Web-based e-learning platform for brief MI (MOTIV@CŒUR), which was evaluated by nurses in cardiovascular care. The secondary objective was to assess the preliminary effect of the training on nurses’ perceived brief MI skills and self-reported clinical use of brief MI. Methods We conducted a single-group, pre-post pilot study involving nurses working in a coronary care unit to evaluate MOTIV@CŒUR, which is a Web-based e-learning platform for brief MI, consisting of two sessions lasting 30 and 20 minutes. MOTIV@CŒUR covers 4 real-life clinical situations through role-modeling videos showing nurse-client interactions. A brief introduction to MI is followed by role playing, during which a nurse practitioner evaluates clients’ motivation to change and intervenes according to the principles of brief MI. The clinical situations target smoking, medication adherence, physical activity, and diet. Nurses were asked to complete both Web-based training sessions asynchronously within 20 days, which allowed assessment of the feasibility of the intervention. Data regarding acceptability and preliminary effects (perceived skills in brief MI, and self-reported clinical use of conviction and confidence interventions) were self-assessed through Web-based questionnaires 30 days (±5 days) after the first session. Results We enrolled 27 women and 4 men (mean age 37, SD 9 years) in March 2016. Of the 31 participants, 24 (77%, 95% CI 63%

  9. "Payment by Results"--financial incentives and motivational interviewing, adherence interventions in young adults with perinatally acquired HIV-1 infection: a pilot program.

    PubMed

    Foster, Caroline; McDonald, Susan; Frize, Graham; Ayers, Sarah; Fidler, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests financial incentives (FIs) improve medication adherence in select populations. A small proportion of adolescents with perinatal HIV (PaHIV) transfer to adult services with established poor adherence and advanced disease. We describe a single center adherence intervention combining FIs with motivational interviewing (MI). Eligible patients (PaHIV,16-25 years, CD4 count ≤ 200, off ART despite multiple attempts) received MI, and FI dependent on viral load (VL) reduction for 1 year. Outcome measures compared CD4 gain from baseline at 1 year and 12 months post cessation of FI/MI. Eleven young people enrolled; median age 19 years, 8 female. Baseline median CD4 count 30 cells/μL (IQR 10-160), VL 12,870 c/mL. Outcomes at 12 months: 9/11 ever achieved VL < 50, 5 sustained undetectable VL, median CD4 140, mean CD4 gain 90 cells/μL at 1 year. Twelve months post cessation of MI/FI; six VL < 50, median CD4 75, mean CD4 gain 122 cells/μL. Total FI expenditure £1,350: £68 per 50 CD4 cells at 1 year, £55 at 24 months. To prevent death, adolescents with PaHIV require novel interventions to reverse poor patterns of adherence established since childhood. FI/MI improved virological and immunological outcomes with minimal expenditure. Extension of this pilot work for vulnerable individuals is now indicated.

  10. Motivational Interventions to Reduce Alcohol Use in a Military Population

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Booster Training for MI Counselors and Tape Coders Motivational interviewing booster training was conducted for ADAPT staff and study personnel at...added as a study site and MI training was conducted there in June 2007, and booster training was conducted in December 2007. The training and... booster training included reinforcing skills needed for administering the two motivational interviewing conditions (IMI and GMI), as well as study

  11. Motivational interviewing and problem solving treatment to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk in real life: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intensive lifestyle interventions in well-controlled settings are effective in lowering the risk of chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but there are still no effective lifestyle interventions for everyday practice. In the Hoorn Prevention Study we aimed to assess the effectiveness of a primary care based lifestyle intervention to reduce the estimated risk of developing T2DM and for CVD mortality, and to motivate changes in lifestyle behaviors. Methods The Hoorn Prevention Study is a parallel group randomized controlled trial, implemented in the region of West-Friesland, the Netherlands. 622 adults with ≥10% estimated risk of T2DM and/or CVD mortality were randomly assigned and monitored over a period of 12 months. The intervention group (n=314) received a theory-based lifestyle intervention based on an innovative combination of motivational interviewing and problem solving treatment, provided by trained practice nurses in 12 general practices. The control group (n=308) received existing health brochures. Primary outcomes was the estimated diabetes risk according to the formula of the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study, and the estimated risk for CVD mortality according to the Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) formula. Secondary outcomes included lifestyle behavior (diet, physical activity and smoking). The research assistants, the principal investigator and the general practitioners were blinded to group assignment. Linear and logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the between-group differences in each outcome measure, adjusted for baseline values. Results 536 (86.2%) of the 622 participants (age 43.5 years) completed the 6-month follow-up, and 502 (81.2%) completed the 12-month follow-up. The mean baseline T2DM risk was 18.9% (SD 8.2) and the mean CVD mortality risk was 3.8% (SD 3.0). The intervention group participated in a median of 2 sessions. Intention

  12. Motivational interviewing + feedback intervention to reduce alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk among college binge drinkers: determinants and patterns of response.

    PubMed

    Ceperich, Sherry Dyche; Ingersoll, Karen S

    2011-10-01

    Many college women are at risk for pregnancy, and binge drinking college women are often at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Brief interventions with sustainable outcomes are needed, particularly for college women who are binge drinking, at risk for pregnancy, and at increased risk of alcohol-exposed pregnancy. Two-hundred-twenty-eight women at a Mid-Atlantic urban university at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy enrolled in the randomized clinical trial, and 207 completed the 4 month follow-up. The BALANCE intervention used Motivational Interviewing plus feedback to target drinking and contraception behaviors. Main outcome measures included (1) the rate of risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy, (2) the rate of risk drinking, and (3) the rate of pregnancy risk. At 4-month follow-up, the rate of alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk was significantly lower in the intervention (20.2%) than the control condition (34.9%), (P < .02). Assignment to the intervention condition halved the odds of women remaining at risk for alcohol-exposed pregnancy, while not receiving the intervention doubled the odds of continued alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk (OR = 2.18; 95% CI = 1.16-4.09). A baseline history of blackouts, continued high blood alcohol drinking days at 1 month, and continued risk for pregnancy at 1 month independently contributed to a multivariate model of continued alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk at 4 month follow-up. BALANCE reduced alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk, with similar outcomes to longer interventions. Because early response predicted sustained alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk reduction, those who fail to achieve initial change could be identified for further intervention. The BALANCE intervention could be adopted into existing student health or university alcohol programs. The risks of unintended pregnancy and alcohol-exposed pregnancy among binge drinking women in college merit greater prevention efforts.

  13. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Brief Motivational Interviewing in Impaired Driving Recidivists: A 5-Year Follow-Up of Traffic Offenses and Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Ouimet, Marie Claude; Dongier, Maurice; Di Leo, Ivana; Legault, Lucie; Tremblay, Jacques; Chanut, Florence; Brown, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Background In a previously published randomized controlled trial (Brown et al. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2010; 34, 292–301), our research team showed that a 30-minute brief motivational interviewing (BMI) session was more effective in reducing percentages of risky drinking days in drunk driving recidivists than a control information–advice intervention at 12-month follow-up. In this sequel to the initial study, 2 main hypotheses were tested: (i) exposure to BMI increases the time to further arrests and crashes compared with exposure to the control intervention (CTL) and (ii) characteristics, such as age, moderate the benefit of BMI. Methods A sample of 180 community-recruited recidivists who had drinking problems participated in the study. Participants gave access to their provincial driving records at baseline and were followed up for a mean of 1,684.5 days (SD = 155.7) after randomization to a 30-minute BMI or CTL session. Measured outcomes were driving arrests followed by convictions including driving while impaired (DWI), speeding, or other moving violations as well as crashes. Age, readiness to change alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse severity, and number of previous DWI convictions were included as potential moderators of the effect of the interventions. Results For arrests, Cox proportional hazards modeling revealed no significant differences between the BMI and the CTL group. When analyses were adjusted to age tertile categories, a significant effect of BMI in the youngest age tertile (<43 years old) emerged. For crashes, no between-group differences were detected. Conclusions BMI was better at delaying DWI and other dangerous traffic violations in at-risk younger drivers compared with a CTL similar to that provided in many remedial programs. BMI may be useful as an opportunistic intervention for DWI recidivism prevention in settings such as DWI courts. Treatment effectiveness studies are needed to ascertain how the present findings generalize to the

  14. Motivational interviewing targeting diet and physical activity improves adherence to pediatric obesity treatment: Results from the MI Values randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Bean, Melanie K.; Powell, Priscilla; Quinoy, Alexis; Ingersoll, Karen; Wickham, Edmond P.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Adherence is a challenge in obesity treatment. Motivational interviewing (MI) may promote patient adherence. MI Values is a randomized controlled trial of MI implemented as an adjunct to an adolescent obesity treatment (T.E.E.N.S.). Objective Assess effects of MI Values on T.E.E.N.S. attrition and adherence. Methods Participants were randomized to MI (n=58) or control (n=41). At weeks 1 and 10, MI participants had brief MI sessions; controls viewed health education videos. All participants continued with T.E.E.N.S. (biweekly dietitian and behavioral support visits; 3x/week supervised physical activity). Assessments were repeated at baseline, 3 and 6-months. T-tests and chi-square analyses examined T.E.E.N.S. attrition and adherence by group. Results Adolescents (N=99) were primarily African American (73%) females (74%); age=13.8±1.8 years, body mass index percentile=98.0±1.2. Compared with controls, MI participants had greater 3-month adherence overall (89.2% vs. 81.0%, p=0.040), and to dietitian (91.3% vs. 84.0%; p=0.046) and behavioral support (92.9% vs. 85.2%; p=0.041) visits, and greater 6-month adherence overall (84.4% vs. 76.2%, p=0.026) and to behavioral support visits (87.5% vs. 78.8%, p=0.011). Conclusions MI enhanced adherence to this obesity intervention. MI Values is the first study to examine the impact of MI on treatment adherence among obese, primarily African American adolescents. PMID:24729537

  15. Nurse-led motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes (MILD-project): protocol for a cluster, randomized, controlled trial on implementing lifestyle recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Jansink, Renate; Braspenning, Jozé; van der Weijden, Trudy; Niessen, Louis; Elwyn, Glyn; Grol, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Background The diabetes of many patients is managed in general practice; healthcare providers aim to promote healthful behaviors, such as healthful diet, adequate physical activity, and smoking cessation. These measures may decrease insulin resistance, improve glycemic control, lipid abnormalities, and hypertension. They may also prevent cardiovascular disease and complications of diabetes. However, professionals do not adhere optimally to guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Motivational interviewing to change the lifestyle of patients with type 2 diabetes is intended to improve diabetes care in accordance with the national guidelines for lifestyle counseling. Primary care nurses will be trained in motivational interviewing embedded in structured care in general practice. The aim of this paper is to describe the design and methods of a study evaluating the effects of the nurses' training on patient outcomes. Methods/Design A cluster, randomized, controlled trial involving 70 general practices (35 practices in the intervention arm and 35 in the control arm) starting in March 2007. A total of 700 patients with type 2 diabetes will be recruited. The patients in the intervention arm will receive care from the primary care nurse, who will receive training in an implementation strategy with motivational interviewing as the core component. Other components of this strategy will be adaptation of the diabetes protocol to local circumstances, introduction of a social map for lifestyle support, and educational and supportive tools for sustaining motivational interviewing. The control arm will be encouraged to maintain usual care. The effect measures will be the care process, metabolic parameters (glycosylated hemoglobin, blood pressure and lipids), lifestyle (diet, physical activity, smoking, and alcohol), health-related quality of life, and patients' willingness to change behaviors. The measurements will take place at baseline and after 14 months. Discussion Applying

  16. Efficacy of brief motivational interviewing to improve adherence to inhaled corticosteroids among adult asthmatics: results from a randomized controlled pilot feasibility trial

    PubMed Central

    Lavoie, Kim L; Moullec, Gregory; Lemiere, Catherine; Blais, Lucie; Labrecque, Manon; Beauchesne, Marie-France; Pepin, Veronique; Cartier, André; Bacon, Simon L

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Daily adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) regimens is one of the most important factors linked to achieving optimal asthma control. Motivational interviewing (MI) is a client-centered communication style that focuses on enhancing intrinsic motivation to engage in appropriate self-management behaviors. MI has been shown to improve a variety of health behaviors including medication adherence in other disorders, but its efficacy for the improvement of ICS adherence in asthmatics has yet to be examined. This pilot “proof of concept” trial assessed the feasibility of MI to improve daily ICS adherence and asthma control levels in adult asthmatics. Methods Fifty-four poorly controlled (Asthma Control Questionnaire [ACQ] score ≥1.5), highly nonadherent (filled <50% of ICS medication in the last year) adult asthmatics were recruited from the outpatient asthma clinic of a university-affiliated hospital. Participants underwent baseline assessments and were randomly assigned to MI (3×30 minutes sessions within a 6-week period, n=26) or a usual care (UC) control group (n=28). ICS adherence (% pharmacy refills) and asthma control (ACQ, Asthma Control Test [ACT]) were measured at 6 and 12 months postintervention. Mixed model repeated measure analyses for both intent-to-treat and per-protocol were used. Results were adjusted for a priori-defined covariates including baseline adherence. Patients in the MI group also reported their impressions of the intervention. Results Six-month adjusted intent-to-treat analyses revealed a mean change in the percentage of ICS refills of 13% in the MI group vs 6% in the UC group (between group net improvement associated with MI =+6% [−12% to 24%]). Twelve-month analyses revealed a mean change in the percentage of ICS refills of 11% (MI group) vs 7% in the UC group (between group net improvement associated with MI =+3% [−11% to 18%]) representing an effect size (ES) of d=0.20 (medium). Six-month adjusted net improvement in

  17. Adding value and motivating employees.

    PubMed

    Thatcher, John

    2016-03-01

    Choosing or designing training that ensures that your engineers are meeting standards and gaining competencies to operate safely and effectively means that a lot rests on the skills and expertise of the training provider. John Thatcher, CEO at Eastwood Park, explains how the right training has the potential to improve service and organisational-level performance.

  18. Effects of nurse-led motivational interviewing of patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain in preparation of rehabilitation treatment (PREPARE) on societal participation, attendance level, and cost-effectiveness: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-adherence and drop-out are major problems in pain rehabilitation. For patients with various health problems, motivational interviewing (MI) has shown promising effects to tackle these problems. In chronic pain patients, the effectiveness of MI is however unknown. Therefore, a MI-based pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) addressing motivation, expectations, and beliefs has been developed to prepare eligible patients for rehabilitation treatment. Methods/design Study design: A parallel randomized controlled trial including two interventions: a motivational interviewing pre-pain rehabilitation intervention (MIP) and a usual care (UC) control arm. Follow-up will be 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Study population: One hundred and sixty (n = 80 per arm) patients with chronic non-specific musculoskeletal pain visiting an outpatient rehabilitation department, who are eligible to participate in an outpatient cognitive behavioral pain rehabilitation program. Intervention: MIP consists of two sessions to prepare and motivate the patient for pain rehabilitation treatment and its bio psychosocial approach. UC consists of information and education about the etiology and the general rehabilitation approach of chronic pain. Both the MIP and UC contain two sessions of 45 to 60 minutes each. Objective: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effectiveness of MIP compared to UC in terms of an increase in the long-term level of societal participation and decrease of drop-out during rehabilitation treatment. Main study endpoints: Primary outcome is the change in level of participation (according to the ICF-definition: ‘involvement in a life situation’) 6 months after completion of rehabilitation treatment. Secondary outcomes are adherence and treatment drop-out, disability, pain intensity, self-reported main complaints, (pain-specific) self-efficacy, motivation, and quality of life. Costs are calculated including the costs

  19. Interviewing Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzen, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    Directed especially at graduating college seniors, this paper contains information about employment interviews and how to prepare for them. Subjects discussed include the following: preparing for interviews (analyzing strengths and weaknesses, gathering information about the company); points to remember (dress codes, follow up thank-you letters);…

  20. Creating Motivating Job Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tilaro, Angie; Rossett, Allison

    1993-01-01

    Explains how to create job aids that employees will be motivated to use, based on a review of pertinent literature and interviews with professionals. Topics addressed include linking motivation with job aids; Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model of motivation; and design strategies for job aids based on Keller's…

  1. Adding insult to injury: partner depression moderates the association between partner-regulation attempts and partners' motivation to resolve interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Baker, Levi R; McNulty, James K

    2015-06-01

    Intimates regularly confront their partners to motivate them to change undesirable behaviors. Nevertheless, contextual perspectives suggest that qualities of the partner may determine the implications of such attempts. Consistent with these ideas, a pilot study of romantic relationships, an observational study of newlyweds, and a diary study of married couples demonstrated that partner depression moderates the association between confrontational partner-regulation behaviors and partners' motivation, such that confrontational behaviors were associated with marginally greater motivation to resolve problems among partners who were experiencing relatively few depressive symptoms, but significantly less motivation among partners who were experiencing relatively more depressive symptoms. Furthermore, Study 2 provided evidence for the mechanism of these effects--relationship self-efficacy. Finally, these studies also demonstrated that benevolent behaviors were particularly motivating for partners who were experiencing more depressive symptoms. These findings highlight the important roles played by depression, relationship self-efficacy, and context in interpersonal communication.

  2. [The medical interview motivated by the discovery of markers of viral hepatitis permits the identification, in blood donors, of behavior at risk for HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Guillard, A; Tirtaine, C; Ouzan, D; Follana, R

    1990-07-01

    From December 1988 to September 1989, 973 blood donors, deferred for anti-HBc reactivity, Ag-HBs positivity, elevated ALT, isolated or associated, but negative for anti-HIV, were interviewed in our blood center in the weeks after donation. Among these 973 donors, 53 (5.4%, 46 males, 7 females) were found at risk for HIV infection: intravenous drug abuse: 24 cases; heterosexuality with multiple partners: 17 cases; homosexuality: 8 cases; sexual relations with persons at risk: 4 cases. These 53 donors did not recognize their risk behaviour during the medical talk before donation. 25 out of these 53 donors were seen afterwards and one of them, homosexual man, seroconverted for anti-HIV seven months after the anti HIV negative but anti-HBc positive blood donation. We conclude that, in our experience, director surrogate viral hepatitis markers help to identify donors at risk for HIV infection, and, in one case, earlier in the course of demonstrated HIV infection than the enzyme immunoassays currently licensed.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of primary care physician motivational interviewing versus brief advice to engage adolescents with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention: 6-month outcomes and predictors of improvement.

    PubMed

    Hoek, Willemijn; Marko, Monika; Fogel, Joshua; Schuurmans, Josien; Gladstone, Tracy; Bradford, Nathan; Domanico, Rocco; Fagan, Blake; Bell, Carl; Reinecke, Mark A; Van Voorhees, Benjamin W

    2011-12-01

    We believe that primary care physicians could play a key role in engaging youth with a depression prevention intervention. We developed CATCH-IT (Competent Adulthood Transition with Cognitive Behavioral and Interpersonal Training), which is an adolescent Internet-based behavior change model. We conducted a randomized comparison of two approaches in engaging adolescents with the Internet intervention: primary care physician (PCP) motivational interview + CATCH-IT Internet program (MI) vs PCP brief advice + CATCH-IT Internet program (BA). The participants (N = 84) were recruited by screening for risk of depression in 13 primary care practices. We compared depressive disorder outcomes between groups and within groups over 6 months and examined the potential predictors and moderators of outcomes across both study arms. Depressive symptom scores declined from baseline to 6 weeks with these statistically significant reductions sustained at the 6 months follow-up in both groups. No significant interactions with treatment condition were found. However, by 6 months, the MI group demonstrated significantly fewer depressive episodes and reported less hopelessness as compared with the BA group. Hierarchical linear modeling regressions showed higher ratings of ease of use of the Internet program predicting lower depressive symptom levels over 6 months. In conclusion, a primary care/Internet-based intervention model among adolescents demonstrated reductions in depressed mood over 6 months and may result in fewer depressive episodes.

  4. An Interview with Oliver Sacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Dale; Palo, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Presents an interview with Oliver Sachs. Discusses his approach to writing, including the physical pen-and-ink approach as opposed to using a word processor; his use of journals; his motivation for writing; his approach to revision; and his view of himself as a writer. (NH)

  5. Divergent Thinking and Interview Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batey, Mark; Rawles, Richard; Furnham, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    This study examined divergent thinking (DT) test scores of applicants taking part in a selection procedure for an undergraduate psychology degree (N = 370). Interviewers made six specific (creative intelligence, motivation, work habits, emotional stability, sociability, and social responsibility) and one overall recommendation rating on each…

  6. Job Interviews: Keys for Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Donald S.; Catt, Stephen E.; Slocombe, Thomas E.

    2014-01-01

    Many students seem disinterested in learning to handle employment interviews effectively. This article discusses students' motivation to become skilled interviewees and steps educators and counselors can take to increase students' interest in this crucial career activity. The article also discusses mistakes students frequently make during…

  7. An Interview with John Dixon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durbin, William

    1987-01-01

    Relates a question-and-answer interview with British educator John Dixon that addressed such issues as Dixon's motivations for his book "Growth through English," his personal growth model of English instruction, his idea of a learning community, and his view of the school system in America. (JD)

  8. The prevention access and risk taking in young people (PARTY) project protocol: A cluster randomised controlled trial of health risk screening and motivational interviewing for young people presenting to general practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There are growing worldwide concerns about the ability of primary health care systems to manage the major burden of illness in young people. Over two thirds of premature adult deaths result from risks that manifest in adolescence, including injury, neuropsychiatric problems and consequences of risky behaviours. One policy response is to better reorientate primary health services towards prevention and early intervention. Currently, however, there is insufficient evidence to support this recommendation for young people. This paper describes the design and implementation of a trial testing an intervention to promote psychosocial risk screening of all young people attending general practice and to respond to identified risks using motivational interviewing. Main outcomes: clinicians’ detection of risk-taking and emotional distress, young people’s intention to change and reduction of risk taking. Secondary outcomes: pathways to care, trust in the clinician and likelihood of returning for future visits. The design of the economic and process evaluation are not detailed in this protocol. Methods PARTY is a cluster randomised trial recruiting 42 general practices in Victoria, Australia. Baseline measures include: youth friendly practice characteristics; practice staff’s self-perceived competency in young people’s care and clinicians’ detection and response to risk taking behaviours and emotional distress in 14–24 year olds, attending the practice. Practices are then stratified by a social disadvantage index and billing methods and randomised. Intervention practices receive: nine hours of training and tools; feedback of their baseline data and two practice visits over six weeks. Comparison practices receive a three hour seminar in youth friendly practice only. Six weeks post-intervention, 30 consecutive young people are interviewed post-consultation from each practice and followed-up for self-reported risk taking behaviour and emotional distress

  9. Oral History Interview Transcripts Tombigbee Historic Townsites Project. Volume 5 (Interview Numbers 123-128).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    Of STANDARDS-1963-A AL HISTORY INTERVIEW TRANSCR TOMBIGBEE HISTOMRIC TOWNSITES PROJECT AD ,Id4 3 5 Volume 5 (Interview Numbers 123 -128) Compiled by...HISTORY INTERVIEW TRANSCRIPTS TOMBIGBEE HISTORIC TOWNSITES PROJECT Volume 5 (Interview Nos. 123 -128) Compiled byJames N. McClurken and Peggy Uland...OH 123 Robert Adair. .. ......... ............. 761 OH 124 Jennie Mae Lenioir. .. ................... 788 OH 125

  10. Preliminary examination of metabolic syndrome response to motivational interviewing for weight loss as compared to an attentional control and usual care in primary care for individuals with and without binge-eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rachel D; Barber, Jessica A

    2017-02-14

    Motivational interviewing (MI) treatment for weight loss is being studied in primary care. The effect of such interventions on metabolic syndrome or binge eating disorder (BED), both highly related to excess weight, has not been examined in primary care. This study conducted secondary analyses from a randomized controlled trial to test the impact of MI for weight loss in primary care on metabolic syndrome. 74 adult participants with overweight/obesity recruited through primary care were randomized to 12weeks of either MI, an attentional control, or usual care. Participants completed measurements for metabolic syndrome at pre- and post-treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in metabolic syndrome rates at pre-, X(2)(2)=0.16, p=0.921, or post-, X(2)(2)=0.852, p=0.653 treatment. The rates in metabolic syndrome, however, decreased for MI (10.2%) and attentional control (13.8%) participants, but not for usual care. At baseline, metabolic syndrome rates did not differ significantly between participants with BED or without BED across treatments. At post-treatment, participants with BED were significantly more likely to meet criteria for metabolic syndrome than participants without BED, X(2)(1)=5.145, p=0.023, phi=0.273. Across treatments, metabolic syndrome remitted for almost a quarter of participants without BED (23.1%) but for 0% of those with BED. These preliminary results are based on a small sample and should be interpreted with caution, but they are the first to suggest that relatively low intensity MI weight loss interventions in primary care may decrease metabolic syndrome rates but not for individuals with BED.

  11. Character Interviews Help Bring Literature to Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindall, Vickie; Cantrell, R. Jeffrey

    1999-01-01

    Describes "Character Interviews," a class activity that guides children, especially reluctant readers, to the meaning of a story through a thoughtful understanding of character as they consider a character's emotions and motives, to respond to a question as that character would. Describes the interview process. Offers sample interviews…

  12. Uptake and efficacy of a systematic intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing for smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome: a multicentre before–after study with parallel group comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Reto; Gencer, Baris; Tango, Rodrigo; Nanchen, David; Matter, Christian M; Lüscher, Thomas Felix; Windecker, Stephan; Mach, François; Cornuz, Jacques; Humair, Jean-Paul; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the efficacy of a proactive approach with a reactive approach to offer intensive smoking cessation intervention using motivational interviewing (MI). Design Before–after comparison in 2 academic hospitals with parallel comparisons in 2 control hospitals. Setting Academic hospitals in Switzerland. Participants Smokers hospitalised for an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Intervention In the intervention hospitals during the intervention phase, a resident physician trained in MI systematically offered counselling to all smokers admitted for ACS, followed by 4 telephone counselling sessions over 2 months by a nurse trained in MI. In the observation phase, the in-hospital intervention was offered only to patients whose clinicians requested a smoking cessation intervention. In the control hospitals, no intensive smoking cessation intervention was offered. Primary and secondary outcomes The primary outcome was 1 week smoking abstinence (point prevalence) at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were the number of smokers who received the in-hospital smoking cessation intervention and the duration of the intervention. Results In the intervention centres during the intervention phase, 87% of smokers (N=193/225) received a smoking cessation intervention compared to 22% in the observational phase (p<0.001). Median duration of counselling was 50 min. During the intervention phase, 78% received a phone follow-up for a median total duration of 42 min in 4 sessions. Prescription of nicotine replacement therapy at discharge increased from 18% to 58% in the intervention phase (risk ratio (RR): 3.3 (95% CI 2.4 to 4.3; p≤0.001). Smoking cessation at 12-month increased from 43% to 51% comparing the observation and intervention phases (RR=1.20, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.46; p=0.08; 97% with outcome assessment). In the control hospitals, the RR for quitting was 1.02 (95% CI 0.84 to 1.25; p=0.8, 92% with outcome assessment). Conclusions A proactive strategy offering

  13. The Added Value of the Combined Use of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule: Diagnostic Validity in a Clinical Swedish Sample of Toddlers and Young Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Sturm, Harald; Bölte, Sven

    2015-01-01

    The diagnostic validity of the new research algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised and the revised algorithms of the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule was examined in a clinical sample of children aged 18-47 months. Validity was determined for each instrument separately and their combination against a clinical consensus…

  14. 8 Conditions for Motivated Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The author interviewed hundreds of adolescents about what makes them interested in learning, in and out of school. The result is a formula hinging on creating eight conditions that spur kids to take active, motivated roles in their own learning.

  15. STS-109 Crew Interview: Grunsfeld

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 Payload Commander John Grunsfeld is seen during a prelaunch interview answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goal (which is to service the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)), his role during the mission, the five scheduled spacewalks, the Columbia Orbiter's recent upgrades, and what he sees as the challenges of the mission. Grunsfeld describes how his experience on the STS-103 mission, a previous HST servicing mission, has helped prepare him for the STS-109 mission. The interview ends with Grunsfeld explaining why the servicing of the Reaction Wheel Assembly, a task added late in his training, is so important.

  16. Child and Interviewer Race in Forensic Interviewing.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Amy K; Mackey, Tomiko D; Langendoen, Carol; Barnard, Marie

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential effect of child race and interviewer race on forensic interviewing outcomes. The results of the regression analysis indicated that child race and interviewer race had a significant effect on interview outcome category (no findings, inconclusive, or findings consistent with sexual abuse). Furthermore, the results indicate that the interaction of child and interviewer race had predictive value for rates of findings consistent with sexual abuse but not in the direction predicted. Cross-race dyads had significantly higher rates of interview outcomes consistent with sexual abuse. These findings suggest that more research into the effect of race on disclosure of child sexual abuse is needed.

  17. Whiffing the Airport Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, David

    2008-01-01

    An airport interview is an initial interview for a senior administrative position conducted at an airport hotel not too far from the campus in question. Meeting at an airport enables a search committee to interview a large number of candidates in a short period of time with a degree of confidentiality. At the conclusion of the airport interviews,…

  18. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  19. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  20. Argumentation in Science Class: Its Planning, Practice, and Effect on Student Motivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Anju

    Studies have shown an association between argumentative discourse in science class, better understanding of science concepts, and improved academic performance. However, there is lack of research on how argumentation can increase student motivation. This mixed methods concurrent nested study uses Bandura's construct of motivation and concepts of argumentation and formative feedback to understand how teachers orchestrate argumentation in science class and how it affects motivation. Qualitative data was collected through interviews of 4 grade-9 science teachers and through observing teacher-directed classroom discourse. Classroom observations allowed the researcher to record the rhythm of discourse by characterizing teacher and student speech as teacher presentation (TP), teacher guided authoritative discussion (AD), teacher guided dialogic discussion (DD), and student initiation (SI). The Student Motivation Towards Science Learning survey was administered to 67 students before and after a class in which argumentation was used. Analysis of interviews showed teachers collaborated to plan argumentation. Analysis of discourse identified the characteristics of argumentation and provided evidence of students' engagement in argumentation in a range of contexts. Student motivation scores were tested using Wilcoxon signed rank tests and Mann-Whitney U-tests, which showed no significant change. However, one construct of motivation---active learning strategy---significantly increased. Quantitative findings also indicate that teachers' use of multiple methods in teaching science can affect various constructs of students' motivation. This study promotes social change by providing teachers with insight about how to engage all students in argumentation.

  1. Reading Motivation: A Focus on English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Protacio, Maria Selena

    2012-01-01

    Because of the numerous challenges that ELs face, such as having to concurrently learn the curriculum and the English language, it is critical to focus on motivation. However, little attention has been given to ELs' motivation to read in English. Based on an interview study, results indicate that ELs may be motivated to read in English to learn…

  2. A Game Plan for the Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arthur F.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes five rules to help job interviewers elicit data useful in predicting job performance. Rules include: developing critical job requirements; indirect exploration of job requirements; collecting data revealing motivated work behavior (such as candidate's self-reported enjoyable achievement experiences); and summing up data. (RC)

  3. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  4. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  5. Interview with Sandra Thompson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiung-chih

    1994-01-01

    Presents an interview of Sandra Thompson on various topics relating to the Chinese language. The interview touches on conversational data on Chinese, the lack of morphological complexity in Mandarin Chinese, and the development of Chinese functionalism. (12 references) (CK)

  6. Student Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Practitioner, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Although ability partly explains why some students are eager to learn in school whereas others are disinterested, motivation is another significant factor. This newsletter discusses factors that affect students' motivation to learn, considers techniques that can increase motivation, and identifies schools that have developed activities to enhance…

  7. What Do Distance Language Tutors Say about Teacher Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiao, Junhong

    2014-01-01

    Research into motivation in education mainly centres on students' learning motivation. This article reports on an interview study of teacher motivation with the aim of investigating the effects of student-related factors and tutors' personal factors on the motivation of language tutors in the distance learning context. Findings from the study…

  8. A Brief Motivational Interview in a Pediatric Emergency Department, Plus 10-Day Telephone Follow-Up, Increases Attempts to Quit Drinking Among Youth and Young Adults Who Screen Positive for Problematic Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Judith; Heeren, Timothy; Edward, Erika; Dorfman, David; Bliss, Caleb; Winter, Michael; Bernstein, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Adolescents in their late teens and early twenties have the highest alcohol consumption in the United States; binge drinking peaks at age 21 years. Underage drinking is associated with many negative consequences, including academic problems and risk of intentional and unintentional injuries. This study tested the effectiveness of pediatric emergency department (PED) screening and brief intervention to reduce alcohol consumption and associated risks. Methods A three-group randomized assignment trial was structured to test differences between intervention (I) and standard assessed control (AC) groups in alcohol consumption and alcohol-related behaviors from baseline to 12 months, and to compare the AC group with a minimally assessed control group (MAC) to adjust for the effect of assessment reactivity on control group behavior. Patients aged 14–21 years were eligible if they screened positive on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), or for binge drinking or high-risk behaviors. The MAC group received a resource handout, written advice about alcohol-related risks, and a 12-month follow-up appointment. Patients in the AC group were assessed using standardized instruments in addition to the MAC protocol. The intervention group received a peer-conducted motivational intervention, erral to community resources and treatment if indicated, and a ten-day booster in addition to assessment. Measurements included 30 day self-report of alcohol consumption and alcohol-related behaviors, screens for depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and self-report of attempts to quit, cut back, or change conditions of use, all repeated at follow-up. Motor vehicle records and medical records were also analyzed for changes from baseline to one year follow-up. Results Among 7,807 PED patients screened, 1,202 were eligible; 853 enrolled (I n = 283; AC n = 284; MAC n = 286), with a 12-month follow-up rate of 72%. At 12 months, more than half of enrollees in RAP

  9. Motivated explanation

    PubMed Central

    Patterson, Richard; Operskalski, Joachim T.; Barbey, Aron K.

    2015-01-01

    Although motivation is a well-established field of study in its own right, and has been fruitfully studied in connection with attribution theory and belief formation under the heading of “motivated thinking,” its powerful and pervasive influence on specifically explanatory processes is less well explored. Where one has a strong motivation to understand some event correctly, one is thereby motivated to adhere as best one can to normative or “epistemic” criteria for correct or accurate explanation, even if one does not consciously formulate or apply such criteria. By contrast, many of our motivations to explain introduce bias into the processes involved in generating, evaluating, or giving explanations. Non-epistemic explanatory motivations, or following Kunda's usage, “directional” motivations, include self-justification, resolution of cognitive dissonance, deliberate deception, teaching, and many more. Some of these motivations lead to the relaxation or violation of epistemic norms; others enhance epistemic motivation, so that one engages in more careful and thorough generational and evaluative processes. We propose that “real life” explanatory processes are often constrained by multiple goals, epistemic and directional, where these goals may mutually reinforce one another or may conflict, and where our explanations emerge as a matter of weighing and satisfying those goals. We review emerging evidence from psychology and neuroscience to support this framework and to elucidate the central role of motivation in human thought and explanation. PMID:26528166

  10. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  11. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  12. Questions in Reference Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Marilyn Domas

    1998-01-01

    Characterizes the questioning behavior in reference interviews preceding delegated online searches of bibliographic databases and relates it to questioning behavior in other types of interviews/settings. Compares questions asked by the information specialist and those asked by the client; findings show the information specialist dominates the…

  13. Employee Exit Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulk, Larry J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an exit interview procedure for employees leaving the school system designed to identify potential personnel problems, maintain good employee relations, provide statistics on reasons for turnover, and provide assessment data for inservice education programs. Reports statistical data based on interview implementation, 1981-83. (TE)

  14. Interview with Ron Wasserstein

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmann, Allan; Wasserstein, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Ron Wasserstein is Executive Director of the American Statistical Association (ASA). He previously served as Vice-President for Academic Affairs and Professor of Statistics at Washburn University. This interview took place via email on January 21- February 24, 2014. Topics covered in this interview are as follows: 1) Beginnings, 2) Teaching…

  15. Literacy and Informational Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decarie, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Informational interviews are valuable tools for improving writing, editing, and interviewing skills, and they are also extremely valuable in improving the soft skills that are valued by employers, such as confidence, adaptability, the ability to set and keep deadlines, the ability to manage risk, and so on. These soft skills, this article argues,…

  16. Interviewing for a Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daresh, John C.

    2001-01-01

    When interviewing for a principal position, candidates should practice with friends and acquaintances, anticipate "sure thing" questions, listen and respond carefully, know something about the school and community, show passion and enthusiasm, and ask interviewers what the new principal ought to tackle first. (MLH)

  17. Interview with Mark Ashwill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberger, Joe

    2006-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Mark Ashwill, Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam in Ha Noi, Vietnam, a branch of the Institute of International Education (IIE). In this interview, Ashwill talks about his work as Director of the Institute of International Education-Vietnam, the role that communications technology…

  18. Winning the interviewing game.

    PubMed

    Lyons, M F

    2000-01-01

    Those who don't "interview well" are not likely to receive the job offer, despite their qualifications. A job interview is actually a fierce competitive activity that offers only two grades: an A or F. By nature, physicians are competitive; they like to win. Infrequent interviewees are prone to making easily corrected mistakes, such as showing no enthusiasm or having poor eye contact. The key for interviewing success is preparation--doing research, developing a personal statement, and role-playing practice interviews. View the interview as a sales call whose bottom-line goal is to achieve an offer, or at least to let you leave with the option to return for future discussions.

  19. Beyond Fragments: Adults, Motivation and Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Linden

    1995-01-01

    A life history approach can give better understanding of adult motivation to participate in education than quantitative surveys can. Interviews with 30 adults entering higher education illustrate the technique but also raise methodological questions about this form of research. (SK)

  20. Motivating Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tager, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    Camp directors can motivate staff by showing they are valued. Acknowledging positive actions, throwing a staff party, providing relief time, and being a good role model are all good motivators. Weekly staff meetings keep staff informed and provide time to air problems and get feedback. Keeping in touch with staff during the off-season is also…

  1. Situating Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolen, Susan Bobbitt; Horn, Ilana Seidel; Ward, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a situative approach to studying motivation to learn in social contexts. We begin by contrasting this perspective to more prevalent psychological approaches to the study of motivation, describing epistemological and methodological differences that have constrained conversation between theoretical groups. We elaborate on…

  2. Vocation Project Interview Questions--Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa; Leahy, Mary; Fredman, Nick; Moodie, Gavin; Arkoudis, Sophie; Bexley, Emmaline

    2012-01-01

    This document was produced by the authors based on their research for the report "Missing Links: The Fragmented Relation between Tertiary Education and Jobs. It is an added resource for further information. It contains interview questions for: (1) graduates; (2) learning advisors; (3) managers; (4) pathways officers; (5) students; and (6)…

  3. Employee Ownership, Motivation and Productivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michie, Jonathan; Oughton, Christine; Bennion, Yvonne

    The relationship between employee ownership, motivation, and productivity was explored. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a literature review; (2) interviews with management and employees from 10 selected companies across the United Kingdom; (3) surveys of ICOM (the federation of worker cooperatives) member companies and…

  4. Interview: interview with P Jeffrey Conn. Interview by Hannah Coaker.

    PubMed

    Conn, P Jeffrey

    2013-09-01

    Dr Conn is the Lee E Limbird Professor of Pharmacology at Vanderbilt University and Director of the Vanderbilt Center for Neuroscience Drug Discovery (VCNDD). Dr Conn received a PhD in Pharmacology from Vanderbilt in 1986 and pursued postdoctoral studies at Yale University. He served as a professor of Pharmacology at Emory University from 1988 to 2000, before moving to Merck and Co. (PA, USA) as head of the Department of Neuroscience. Dr Conn moved to Vanderbilt University in 2003 where he is the founding director of the VCNDD, with a primary mission of facilitating translation of recent advances in basic science to novel therapeutics. The VCNDD consists of approximately 100 full-time scientists and has advanced novel molecules from four major programs as development candidates for clinical testing with industry partners. Dr Conn has served in editorial positions with multiple international journals and has served the scientific advisory boards of multiple foundations and companies. He has received numerous awards based on the impact of his basic and translational research. Dr Conn's current research is focused on development of novel treatment strategies for schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease and other serious brain disorders. Interview conducted by Hannah Coaker, Assistant Commissioning Editor.

  5. Interview With Leland Melvin

    NASA Video Gallery

    Middle school student Molly Moore interviews NASA's Associate Administrator for Education, Leland Melvin. She asks about his career as an engineer and astronaut and what it was like to live and wor...

  6. Instructor Interviews Joseph Featherstone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructor, 1987

    1987-01-01

    An interview with Joseph Featherstone, a teacher at Michigan State University, reveals his attitudes regarding good teaching. Good teaching is a victory over meaninglessness, giving children the chance to hope and to have faith in their future. (CB)

  7. Interviews in qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Peters, Kath; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Interviews are a common method of data collection in nursing research. They are frequently used alone in a qualitative study or combined with other data collection methods in mixed or multi-method research. Semi-structured interviews, where the researcher has some predefined questions or topics but then probes further as the participant responds, can produce powerful data that provide insights into the participants' experiences, perceptions or opinions.

  8. Organisational Learning and Employees' Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remedios, Richard; Boreham, Nick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational learning initiatives on employee motivation. Four initiatives consistent with theories of organisational learning were a priori ranked in terms of concepts that underpin intrinsic-motivation theory. Eighteen employees in a UK petrochemical company were interviewed to ascertain their experiences of…

  9. Integrative Motivation in a Globalizing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Martin

    2004-01-01

    This article reports on research into the motivation of Indonesian children aged 11-12 years old, as they begin formal study of English in an urban junior high school. The research used closed and open questionnaire items, backed up by class observations and interviews with a selected group of learners. Very high levels of motivation to learn the…

  10. Exploring Motivational Strategies of Successful Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astuti, Sri Puji

    2016-01-01

    This multiple case study investigated how teachers implemented motivational teaching strategies and the impact of these strategies on students' motivation in an Indonesian high school context. The participants were four teachers and four groups of their students. The data were collected from teachers by conducting semi-structured interviews,…

  11. Reviving Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Stephens, Bryan; Goodman-Stephens, Pamela

    1978-01-01

    To revive students' sagging motivation in French class at the end of the term, a four-week project was designed in which the class wrote and produced slide-tape shows and super eight films in French. (SJL)

  12. Motivational Messages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, James M.

    1994-01-01

    College and university advancement managers offer these keys to motivating employees: open communication, acknowledgement of management style, team building, encouragement of innovation, spreading opportunities broadly, promoting personal growth, creating reward systems, evaluating fairly, and strong leadership. (MSE)

  13. Successful Interviewing: A Practical Guide for the Applicant and Interviewer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitzmann, Marion; Garcia, Reloy

    This booklet offers practical examples and guidelines to assist job hunters and other applicants in effectively confronting the interview process. Chapters include "Preparing for an Interview," which traces the process from making an initial inquiry to the actual interview situation and analyzes the interviewer's role; "The Job Interview: Practice…

  14. Interview with John M. Keller on Motivational Design of Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simsek, Ali

    2014-01-01

    John M. Keller is one of the most recognized and respected scholars in the field of educational technology and instructional design. He has worked at the junction of psychology, education, and technology. Along with many other contributions, he has developed an instructional design theory that can be used successfully both with traditional and…

  15. Motivational Interviewing to Increase Physical Activity in Breast Cancer Survivors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    you eat lettuce salad (with or without other vegetables)? D D D D D D D D D D Never 1-3 1-2 3-4 5-6 1 time 2 times 3 times 4 times 5 or (Go to... lettuce salad, how much did you usually eat? D About Y2 cup D About 1 cup D About 2 cups 34 D More than 2 cups 4. Over the last month, how often...cups 7. Over the last month, how often did you eat other vegetables? DO NOT COUNT: Lettuce salads White potatoes Cooked dried beans 35

  16. Motivational Interviewing in the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    are found below: Smoking Cessation (Target behavior) “Thinking Through” cravings Throwing out cigarettes Telling friends not to offer...intervention This homework assignment on logging your cravings is important because we know that cravings often lead to relapses. A craving is like a...your cravings , using this log, and bring it in next week to review with me. (Direct) Well, you are only eating two fruits per day according to this

  17. Motivational Interviewing and Its Effect on Underachieving High Potential Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richer, Ellen Thea

    2012-01-01

    Academic underachievement, a syndrome affecting nearly 50% of gifted adolescents across gender, race, and socioeconomic strata, has fueled research for decades, in an attempt to identify its antecedents, characteristics, and consequences on the individual and on society. The research bridges fields of inquiry that converge in the area of human…

  18. Using Motivational Interviewing Techniques to Address Parallel Process in Supervision

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda; Clarke, Philip; Borders, L. DiAnne

    2013-01-01

    Supervision offers a distinct opportunity to experience the interconnection of counselor-client and counselor-supervisor interactions. One product of this network of interactions is parallel process, a phenomenon by which counselors unconsciously identify with their clients and subsequently present to their supervisors in a similar fashion…

  19. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  20. Interjections in interviews.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, Daniel C; Kowal, Sabine; Ageneau, Carie

    2005-03-01

    A psycholinguistic hypothesis regarding the use of interjections in spoken utterances, originally formulated by Ameka (1992b, 1994) for the English language, but not confirmed in the German-language research of Kowal and O'Connell (2004 a & c), was tested: The local syntactic isolation of interjections is paralleled by their articulatory isolation in spoken utterances i.e., by their occurrence between a preceding and a following pause. The corpus consisted of four TV and two radio interviews of Hillary Clinton that had coincided with the publication of her book Living History (2003) and one TV interview of Robin Williams by James Lipton. No evidence was found for articulatory isolation of English-language interjections. In the Hillary Clinton interviews and Robin Williams interviews, respectively, 71% and 73% of all interjections occurred initially, i.e., at the onset of various units of spoken discourse: at the beginning of turns; at the beginning of articulatory phrases within turns, i.e., after a preceding pause; and at the beginning of a citation within a turn (either Direct Reported Speech [DRS] or what we have designated Hypothetical Speaker Formulation [HSF]. One conventional interjection (OH) occurred most frequently. The Robin Williams interview had a much higher occurrence of interjections, especially nonconventional ones, than the Hillary Clinton interviews had. It is suggested that the onset or initializing role of interjections reflects the temporal priority of the affective and the intuitive over the analytic, grammatical, and cognitive in speech production. Both this temporal priority and the spontaneous and emotional use of interjections are consonant with Wundt's (1900) characterization of the primary interjection as psychologically primitive. The interjection is indeed the purest verbal implementation of conceptual orality.

  1. Interview: Dr. Nathan Hare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pete, Gregory

    1986-01-01

    Presents an interview with Dr. Nathan Hare, who proposes to address some of the problems of lower class, Black male youth by developing a formally supervised ritual to initiate the Black boy into adult male maturity and asserts that materialism prevents rather than promotes success. (KH)

  2. The Unstructured Clinical Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2010-01-01

    In mental health, family, and community counseling settings, master's-level counselors engage in unstructured clinical interviewing to develop diagnoses based on the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; "DSM-IV-TR"; American Psychiatric Association, 2000). Although counselors receive education about…

  3. TECHNOS Interview: Esther Dyson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raney, Mardell

    1997-01-01

    This interview with Esther Dyson, who is president and owner of EDventure Holdings which focuses on emerging information technology worldwide, discusses personal responsibility for technology; government's role; content ownership and intellectual property; Internet development; education and computers; parents' role in education; teacher…

  4. Interview with Jessica Utts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Utts, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a transcript of author Allan Rossman's interview with Jessica Utts, Professor and Chair of Statistics at the University of California-Irvine. Utts is also a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and a recipient of a Founders Award from ASA. Additionally, she has been elected as President of ASA for the year 2016. The…

  5. Interview With Shelley Harwayne.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy; Koshewa, Allen

    2003-01-01

    Interviews Shelley Harwayne, founder of the Manhattan New School, who has been named one of 10 new regional superintendents for New York City's public school system. Explains that Shelley's work is renowned in literacy. Discusses leadership, diversity, teaching, and professional development. (PM)

  6. Interview with Christine Franklin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossman, Allan; Franklin, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Chris Franklin is Senior Lecturer, Undergraduate Coordinator, and Lothar Tresp Honoratus Honors Professor of Statistics at the University of Georgia. She is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the USCOTS Lifetime Achievement Award in 2013. This interview took place via email on August 16, 2013-October 9, 2013. Franklin…

  7. Interview with Louise Lonabocker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Munkwitz-Smith, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    This issue of "College and University" marks a transition in the Editor-in-Chief Position, with the interview of Louise Lonabocker, who has served in this capacity for the past ten years. She has also served as President of AACRAO, and in both positions, Lonabocker has been a role model for many AACRAO leaders. Lonabocker describes the…

  8. Interview with Deborah Andrews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Cynthia

    2005-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Deborah Andrews about her experiences during her editorship of "Business Communication Quarterly." From June 1997 to March 2005, Debby served as editor of the journal, encouraging all readers to ask important questions about their work: How should we define business communication? On which disciplines and…

  9. Interviewing Children: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Interviewing children is a critical element of the education reporter's daily work. However, practices for gaining access and avoiding harm and embarrassment vary widely depending on the news organization and individual reporter in question. This document aims to provide journalists with broad guidelines, but it stops short of advocating for the…

  10. Interview with Patrick Shannon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albers, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with Patrick Shannon, a professor of Education at Penn State University. Describes how he writes widely on the politics of literacy and, in particular, the marketing of literacy. Discusses his interpretation of how literacy is marketed in schools today. (SG)

  11. A General Interview Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ives, Edward D.

    This guide is divided into 11 sections, each containing a number of questions and suggestions for conducting successful folklore and oral history interviews. Section 1, "Settlement and Dwellings," deals with the physical environment, local inhabitants, houses and outbuildings, and public buildings. Section 2, "Livelihood and…

  12. A Course in Medical Interviewing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froelich, Robert E.

    1969-01-01

    Course develops medical interviewing skills of students through a programed manual, role-playing exercises, programed patients and medical interviewing films, and the writing of medical histories. (IR)

  13. Interviews to Assess Learners' Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seda, Ileana; Pearson, P. David

    1991-01-01

    Presents open-ended and semistructured interviews to assess reading comprehension. Highlights the potential value of interviews in aligning assessment practices with instruction and learning theory. (MG)

  14. Motivations for prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Philadelphia

    PubMed Central

    Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Corliss, Heather L.; Lankenau, Stephen E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Prescription drug misuse (i.e. opioids, tranquilizers and stimulants) has become the fastest growing area of substance abuse among young adults. Limited studies focus on prescription drug misuse among young men who have sex with men (YMSM, aged 18–29 years). Furthermore, little is known about YMSM’s motivations for misuse. The purpose of this study was to explore personal motivations for prescription drug misuse among YMSM, including the possible connection between misuse and sexual behaviors. Methods As part of a larger mixed methods study of 191 YMSM recruited in Philadelphia during 2012–2013, we conducted semi-structured qualitative interviews with 25 of these participants to gather additional contextual information about their prescription drug misuse. We conducted thematic analysis of qualitative data. Results While our results corroborated previous literature on motives for misuse of prescription drugs, our data yielded some distinct motivations specific among YMSM. These motives included social/recreational motives, facilitating sex with other men (including motives such as use of opioids for less painful anal receptive sex), and psychological motives such as depression, stress management, coping with everyday hardships (opioids and tranquilizers) or feeling more energized (stimulants). Prescription drugs were commonly misused within the broader contexts of participants' polysubstance use, adding to the significance of this problem. Conclusions Our findings offer insights into YMSM’s motivations for prescription drug misuse, and point to the importance of recognizing and addressing them. While substance use is likely related to various psychosocial issues impacting YMSM, it also may lead to significant health consequences. Results support the need to include prescription drugs and polysubstance use in harm reduction messages and treatment approaches aimed at substance using YMSM. PMID:25936445

  15. The Changing Face of Motivation: A Study of Second Language Learners' Motivation over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Elizabeth; Storch, Neomy

    2011-01-01

    Motivation to learn a second language (L2) is considered a crucial individual factor in explaining success or lack thereof in second language learning. This study examined learners' motivation to learn Chinese as a second language (L2). The study was longitudinal and cross sectional. Interviews were conducted with learners at different year levels…

  16. STS-101 Crew Interview / Scott Horowitz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Live footage of a preflight interview with Pilot Scott J. Horowitz is seen. The interview addresses many different questions including why Horowitz became an astronaut, the events that led to his interest, any role models that he had, and his inspiration. Other interesting information that this one-on-one interview discusses is the reaction and reasons for the splitting-up of the objectives for STS-101 with STS-106. Horowitz also mentions the scheduled space-walk, docking with the International Space Station (ISS), the new glass cockpit of Atlantis, the repairs of equipment and change of the batteries. Horowitz also discusses his responsibilities during the space-walk, and docking of the spacecraft. He stresses that he will have an added challenge during the space-walk, his inability to see where he needs to place the Extravehicular Activities (EVA) crew.

  17. Interviewing Practices, Conversational Practices, and Rapport: Responsiveness and Engagement in the Standardized Survey Interview.

    PubMed

    Garbarski, Dana; Schaeffer, Nora Cate; Dykema, Jennifer

    2016-08-01

    "Rapport" has been used to refer to a range of positive psychological features of an interaction -- including a situated sense of connection or affiliation between interactional partners, comfort, willingness to disclose or share sensitive information, motivation to please, or empathy. Rapport could potentially benefit survey participation and response quality by increasing respondents' motivation to participate, disclose, or provide accurate information. Rapport could also harm data quality if motivation to ingratiate or affiliate caused respondents to suppress undesirable information. Some previous research suggests that motives elicited when rapport is high conflict with the goals of standardized interviewing. We examine rapport as an interactional phenomenon, attending to both the content and structure of talk. Using questions about end-of-life planning in the 2003-2005 wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we observe that rapport consists of behaviors that can be characterized as dimensions of responsiveness by interviewers and engagement by respondents. We identify and describe types of responsiveness and engagement in selected question-answer sequences and then devise a coding scheme to examine their analytic potential with respect to the criterion of future study participation. Our analysis suggests that responsive and engaged behaviors vary with respect to the goals of standardization-some conflict with these goals, while others complement them.

  18. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  19. Effects of Interviewing Style and Interviewer Appearance on a Child Behavioral Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mader, Lothar; Quevillon, Randal

    Clinical child interviews have received little attention in the psychological literature and in the absence of empirical findings, curent interview practices are primarily based on clinical lore. In order to investigate the effects of interviewing style and interviewer mode of dress, on the quantity and quality of information obtained from 8 to 11…

  20. Intersubjectivity in video interview.

    PubMed

    Haddouk, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The concept of relationship has rapidly evolved over the past few years, since the emergence of the internet network and the development of remote communication and exchanges. The emergence of cyberculture with the development of the internet has led to a new representation of the social link, in which communication never stops. In this context, computer mediated intersubjective relationships represent a main line of thinking and research. Thus, can we consider for example that relationship is only composed of an informational exchange? Would there be other dimensions possibly missing in computer mediated relationships? In this case, how could we re-introduce these aspects, "re-humanize" the remote relationships? New practices in psychology emerge with the ICT usage, both in the fields of research and for therapeutic purposes. Some fields like medicine already use remote health platforms that have proven useful in certain situations. In the field of remote clinical psychology, different media are used that contribute to the framework definition of the remote clinical interview, where the concept of relation holds a central place. Videoconference enables the introduction of an important element from the point of view of sensoriality: the body image, which engages the subjects' interaction in a different way than in a written or verbal exchange. But is the use of videoconference sufficient to establish a clinical framework comparable to the traditional one? How can the computer-mediated relationship enable and establish a potential object relation, rather than a mirrored one? Thinking through an online adaptation of the clinical interview framework led to the elaboration of a specific tool dedicated to this purpose and to research into the access to intersubjectivity in clinical video interview. This study's encouraging results have fostered the pursuit of this experience in the form of a platform dedicated to the conduction of clinical interviews through

  1. Interviews with Mexican midwives.

    PubMed

    Bortin, S

    1993-01-01

    Mexican society contains a variety of indigenous cultures as well as European influences. Most babies in rural areas are delivered by midwives. Traditional midwives, government-trained and empirical midwives, nurse-midwives, and foreign-trained midwives all practice in Mexico. Nurse-midwives in one project are demonstrating their ability to meet the needs of urban childbearing women. A midwifery organization is developing under the leadership of midwives influenced by the contemporary midwifery movement in the United States. In this article, some traditional Mexican midwifery practices are discussed and interviews with several different Mexican midwives from a variety of backgrounds are presented.

  2. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  3. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  4. [Interview with Dr. Ricardo Bressani].

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    In an interview Dr. Ricardo Bressani, a chemical engineer by profession and a consultant of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), talks about the search for a product later given the name of Incaparina, which was eventually developed for food supplementation programs by INCAP. Experiments were made with soybeans, cottonseed, and various cereals to arrive at the optimal mixture of 62% cereal and 38% protein for this product. In addition, vitamins and lysine were added. The major demand for this biscuit occurred between 1976 and 1978. Since that time sales have ebbed partly owing to the soaring commodity prices. Incaparina is sold in Guatemala and El Salvador and there are tests going on in Mexico, Colombia, and Cuba to produce it locally. This product is also proof of the benefit of developing leguminous cereal systems. The optimal combination is 70% cereals and 30% legumes, each providing 50% protein. The potential of mixing various other cereals and fruits are also being studied. A large number (up to 60 annually) of nutritional research papers are published on the national level and in Latin America in prestigious scientific journals whose monitoring calls for coordination between different authors.

  5. Public Participation Guide: Stakeholder Interviews

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Interviews with stakeholders are one-to-one conversations about a specific topic or issue. The primary purpose of these interviews is to obtain project-relevant information and elicit stakeholder reactions and suggestions.

  6. The Art of the Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rhonda

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the qualities it takes for journalism students to be good interviewers and outlines several guidelines to follow. Lists seven "Boy Scout rules of interviewing." Gives a list of eight points on how to "punctuate what people say." (SC)

  7. Job Interviewing? Try the Telephone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kegel, Paul L.

    1979-01-01

    Telephone interviews can save college and candidates time and money while precluding the judging of job candidates by extraneous factors. A format for a successful telephone interview is suggested. (Author/MLF)

  8. Planning for the Job Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Close, Elizabeth, Ed.; Ramsey, Katherine, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    Offers advice from middle school educators (a principal, a supervisor, and a teacher) on job interviews for teaching positions: how applicants are selected from the stack of applications, what happens during an interview, and what truly makes a difference. (SR)

  9. Interviewing Skills for Supervisory Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinmetz, Lawrence L.

    This book has been designed to elaborate on what interviewing is in its basic forms and how these various forms can be utilized by the operating supervisor. Its intent is to develop, in simple language, the techniques of successful interviewing. Illustrations of real interviews are presented and the supervisor is encouraged to use role playing as…

  10. Preparing for Your Principal Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanneut, Gene

    2007-01-01

    Being invited to the initial round of interviews for a principal opening is an opportunity; preparing for it is an investment. A successful interview requires that you create a detailed plan and take specific steps. This article provides tips on how to prepare yourself for a principal interview. Before you focus on what to do during your…

  11. Mock Interviews for Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jill M.

    2007-01-01

    Each semester during student-teacher seminars, the author invites local administrators to come to campus and participate in mock job interviews. These practice interviews provide students an opportunity to prepare for a successful interview and give administrators the chance to meet graduating students who will help alleviate Arizona's teacher…

  12. Designing Competitions: How to Maintain Motivation for Losers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czaja, Rita J.; Cummings, Richard G.

    2009-01-01

    Competition can either increase motivation by providing an added incentive or decrease motivation by threatening participants' sense of competence. The authors used two rounds of competition to examine whether competitions can be structured in ways that motivate high performance and do not discourage losers. Results indicated that a focus on…

  13. External and Internal Sport Motivations of Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollok, Sandor; Takacs, Johanna; Kalmar, Zsuzsanna; Dobay, Beata

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To determine and evaluate the spectrum of sport motivation of young adults. Material and methods: A group of 600 subjects, aged 17-19 years, participated in the study. An "ad hoc" questionnaire was applied to assess the 4 motivational factors: competition and success-oriented motivation, external accommodation, physical…

  14. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  15. [Motivations of oocytes donors].

    PubMed

    Cauvin, P

    2009-01-01

    Oocyte donation is a complex situation that requires the applicant couple to deal with the presence of the donor in the history of the child conception. Accepting the eggs is not the same thing than accepting the donor. Her place in the child's life depends on how his parents will accept her phantasmal reality beyond her real person. Paying attention to the story told by the donors on their motivations may help parents internalize this conception to three. We show from two clinical observations, that the generosity of donors is connected to personal issues that do not relate to unborn child or its parents. If there are two mothers in oocyte donation, they are not really in competition because there are also two children: the child conceived through donation is that of the project of the couple, the child to which the donor thinks, is and will remain in phantasmal domain, i.e. linked to the personal history of the donor. We also show that the psychological interview fully responds to the donor expectations when it seeks to highlight her motives.

  16. Recruiting, Training and Motivating Student Assistants in Academic Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Constantia

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of student academic library employees and reviews the related literature on the changing role of library student assistants. Highlights include changes in libraries' organizational structures; and administrative issues concerning recruitment, interviewing, training, motivation, and employee retention. (LRW)

  17. Drag force in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Gubser, Steven S.

    2006-12-15

    The AdS/CFT correspondence and a classical test string approximation are used to calculate the drag force on an external quark moving in a thermal plasma of N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory. This computation is motivated by the phenomenon of jet-quenching in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  18. Employee motivation: new perspectives of the age-old challenge of work motivation.

    PubMed

    Rantz, M J; Scott, J; Porter, R

    1996-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the 1950s-1970s work of Frederick Herzberg, the father of work motivational research, was compared, and contrasted with current data study about management effectiveness to explore how employee motivation may have changed. Staff members and managers (N = 38), primarily from healthcare settings, but also from academic, public, and private sector businesses were interviewed. Interpersonal relations now ranks first as a motivating factor in this study. Recognition, the work itself, and responsibility are still ranked as critical motivating factors. These are important to understand as work is redesigned. Supporting positive interpersonal relations among subordinates, supervisors, and peers can be viewed as an effective management strategy to facilitate employee motivation. For employees, developing positive interpersonal relations with co-workers can enhance individual motivation and may improve job satisfaction.

  19. Methodologies to Motivate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Victor C.

    A review of literature on the subject of student motivation identified five areas which could be used to increase motivation among students: (1) using an incentive program; (2) using "fun" or "unusual" activities to motivate students; (3) goal setting; (4) students motivating other students; and (5) using parents to motivate students to learn.…

  20. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  1. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  2. English Language Learners' Perceptions of Motivational Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Hsuan-Yau Tony; Ting, Kuang-yun

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the changes in Taiwanese university students' English-learning motivation and the causes of these changes. The emphasis herein is on a comparison and contrast of both English major and non-major students in three different universities in Taiwan. In the study, a qualitative approach (20 semi-structured interviews) was used. The…

  3. Motivation: The Manager's Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiernan, Donald F.

    1981-01-01

    Drawing from management models of several researchers in behavioral sciences, conclusions about how to motivate employees are presented. Some insight into the factors affecting motivation and managerial action to improve staff motivation are discussed. (Author/MLW)

  4. Stage-Matched Motivational Interventions for College Student Binge Drinkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gintner, Gary G.; Choate, Laura Hensley

    2003-01-01

    College student binge drinkers incur significant adverse consequences for themselves and others, yet often do not see their drinking as problematic. Counseling interventions should therefore be sensitive to relevant consequences, motivational level, and readiness to change. Article integrates harm-reduction principles, motivational interviewing,…

  5. School-Wide Goal Environment and Continuing Motivation in Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruenger, Susan Dill

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the school-wide motivation culture of an elementary music program that has an exceptional record of stimulating students' continuing motivation to participate in music ensembles on the middle school level. Participant observer techniques and open-ended interviews were used to gather data that were analyzed using the…

  6. Participation in Biodiversity Conservation: Motivations and Barriers of Australian Landholders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moon, Katie; Cocklin, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation programs that appeal to landholders' motivations and minimise their barriers to participation may result in both increased uptake rates and improved ecological outcomes. To understand their motivations and barriers to conserve biodiversity, qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 landholders who had participated in…

  7. Economic Motives to Attend University: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartram, Brendan

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers students' economic motives to attend university. Drawing on selected results from a tri-national survey involving online questionnaires and interviews with students at English, German and Portuguese universities, it examines and compares this particular extrinsic motivational dimension, alongside the influence of the national…

  8. Elementary Students' Motivation to Read. Reading Research Report No. 52.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; And Others

    This study explored 330 third- and fifth-grade Maryland students' motivation to read using the Motivation to Read Profile (MRP). The first part of the MRP, a Likert-type, self-report, group-administered questionnaire, was completed by all students. The second part of the MRP, the Conversational Interview, was individually administered to a random…

  9. An Investigation of Motivation to Transfer Second Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Mark Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Research on motivation in second language (L2) education has tended to focus on learning; this study took an alternative perspective, examining students' motivation to transfer L2 learning. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 40 students who were enrolled in several sections of a university English-for-academic-purposes…

  10. The Importance of Establishing Relevance in Motivating Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Ho, Amber; Hong, Celina

    2008-01-01

    This article reports findings from a study which interviewed 36 undergraduate students about aspects of the teaching and learning environment which motivated or demotivated their study. It was found that students were motivated by a teaching environment characterized by eight main elements. This article reports in detail on the element of…

  11. Motivation to Teach: The Case of Arab Teachers in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Husny Arar, Khalid; Massry-Herzllah, Asmahan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes an attempt to identify factors influencing teachers' motivation in the Arab education system. In-depth interviews with 10 school principals, 15 teachers and 3 counsellors, yielded three themes influencing Arab teachers' motivation: (1) Arab culture, (2) the school climate and (3) government policies. Arab teachers try to meet…

  12. Perception of "English" and Motivation in Learning English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Mehmet; Seçer, Sule Y. E.; Erisen, Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to present high school students' perception of "English" through the impressions and images and the effect of these perceptions on their motivation in learning English. This qualitative study is based on the data about students' metaphors and the focus group interview to determine their effect on the students' motivation.…

  13. Understanding Volunteer Peer Health Educators' Motivations: Applying Social Learning Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Nicole Aydt; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Researchers conducted focus group interviews with college student peer health educators to determine what factors motivated them to volunteer for a peer health education program. Examination of their life experiences, motivations, and program expectations indicated that life experiences, belief in the effectiveness of peer health education, and…

  14. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  15. Operating Classroom Aesthetic Reading Environment to Raise Children's Reading Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Mei-Ju; Cheng, Jui-Ching; Cheng, Ya-Wen

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to explore how preschool educators understand about raising children's reading motivation through operating classroom aesthetic reading environment. With one year qualitative research, sixteen 4-6 years old young were observed and interviewed. The first stage interviews were undergone with environmental guidance. After the…

  16. Teachers' Conceptions of Motivation and Motivating Practices in Second-Language Learning: A Self-Determination Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muñoz, Ana; Ramirez, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Based on self-determination theory, we conducted an exploratory study aimed at identifying teachers' beliefs about motivation and motivating practices in second-language teaching at a private language center in Medellin, Colombia. To gather data, 65 teachers were surveyed; from this initial group, 11 were interviewed and observed in class during…

  17. More Can Mean Less Motivation: Applying a Motivational Orientation Framework to the Expanded Entry into Higher Education in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kember, David; Hong, Celina; Ho, Amber; Ho, Amaly

    2011-01-01

    A motivational orientation framework for higher education has previously been derived from interviews with 36 undergraduate students in an elite university system. The framework consists of six interacting facets of motivation represented by continua labelled: compliance, individual goal setting, sense of belonging, interest, career and university…

  18. An Interview with Stephen Vitiello

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Stephen Vitiello is a world-renowned contemporary sound artist whom the author has known as a colleague for several years. This article presents an interview about the overall body of Vitiello's work to date, and his thoughts on teaching at Virginia Commonwealth University. The interview explores the creative and noncreative tensions between…

  19. An Interview with Noam Chomsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jack, Gavin

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of an interview that the author conducted with Noam Chomsky. In this interview, Chomsky talks about language acquisition and his theory of Universal Grammar. He then explains how the USA best exemplifies the individualist national culture. He also cites the challenges researchers should address in intercultural…

  20. Secretarial Administraton: The Interviewing Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nemesh, Anna

    1979-01-01

    Suggests classroom techniques to prepare business students for employment interviews and gives information on lawful and unlawful employment interview inquiries, as well as some fair employment legal requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1974, Civil Rights Act of 1964, Equal Pay Act of 1963, and Rehabilitation Act of 1973. (MF)

  1. Effects of intrinsic motivation on feedback processing during learning.

    PubMed

    DePasque, Samantha; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2015-10-01

    Learning commonly requires feedback about the consequences of one's actions, which can drive learners to modify their behavior. Motivation may determine how sensitive an individual might be to such feedback, particularly in educational contexts where some students value academic achievement more than others. Thus, motivation for a task might influence the value placed on performance feedback and how effectively it is used to improve learning. To investigate the interplay between intrinsic motivation and feedback processing, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during feedback-based learning before and after a novel manipulation based on motivational interviewing, a technique for enhancing treatment motivation in mental health settings. Because of its role in the reinforcement learning system, the striatum is situated to play a significant role in the modulation of learning based on motivation. Consistent with this idea, motivation levels during the task were associated with sensitivity to positive versus negative feedback in the striatum. Additionally, heightened motivation following a brief motivational interview was associated with increases in feedback sensitivity in the left medial temporal lobe. Our results suggest that motivation modulates neural responses to performance-related feedback, and furthermore that changes in motivation facilitate processing in areas that support learning and memory.

  2. Autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress.

    PubMed

    Koestner, Richard; Otis, Nancy; Powers, Theodore A; Pelletier, Luc; Gagnon, Hugo

    2008-10-01

    Although the self-concordance of goals has been repeatedly shown to predict better goal progress, recent research suggests potential problems with aggregating autonomous and controlled motivations to form a summary index of self-concordance (Judge, Bono, Erez, & Locke, 2005). The purpose of the present investigation was to further examine the relations among autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and goal progress to determine the relative importance of autonomous motivation and controlled motivation in the pursuit of personal goals. The results of three studies and a meta-analysis indicated that autonomous motivation was substantially related to goal progress whereas controlled motivation was not. Additionally, the relation of autonomous motivation to goal progress was shown to involve implementation planning. Together, the three studies highlight the importance for goal setters of having autonomous motivation and developing implementation plans, especially ones formulated in terms of approach strategies rather than avoidance strategies. The present research suggests that individuals pursuing goals should focus relatively greater attention on enhancing their autonomous motivation rather than reducing their controlled motivation.

  3. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    PubMed

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory.

  4. Expressive Behavior in Parkinson's Disease as a Function of Interview Context

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Kayoko; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Coster, Wendy J.; Latham, Nancy K.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Parkinson's disease affects the ability to express motivation through face, body, and voice; contextual factors may facilitate or inhibit expressive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine whether qualities of the interview context are associated with client motivational behavior in Parkinson's disease. METHOD Men and women with Parkinson's disease (N = 106) discussed 2 topics (enjoyable activity vs. frustrating activity) during an assessment with a female or male interviewer. From videotaped clips, displays of 4 categories of motivation and 12 verbal and 18 nonverbal behavioral patterns were rated. RESULTS During the discussion of enjoyable activities, participants used more positive words, smiled more, and were more facially expressive. Participants were less talkative about their negative feelings and appeared to be more apathetic with the same-gender interviewer. CONCLUSION Occupational therapy practitioners should vary the emotional tone of their questions to improve the validity of motivation assessments. PMID:20608279

  5. Personality traits and achievement motives: theoretical and empirical relations between the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Diseth, Age; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2009-04-01

    Theoretical and empirical relations between personality traits and motive dispositions were investigated by comparing scores of 315 undergraduate psychology students on the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised and the Achievement Motives Scale. Analyses showed all NEO Personality Inventory-Revised factors except agreeableness were significantly correlated with the motive for success and the motive to avoid failure. A structural equation model showed that motive for success was predicted by Extraversion, Openness, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism (negative relation), and motive to avoid failure was predicted by Neuroticism and Openness (negative relation). Although both achievement motives were predicted by several personality factors, motive for success was most strongly predicted by Openness, and motive to avoid failure was most strongly predicted by neuroticism. These findings extended previous research on the relations of personality traits and achievement motives and provided a basis for the discussion of motive dispositions in personality. The results also added to the construct validity of the Achievement Motives Scale.

  6. Motives and methods of under-age casino gamblers.

    PubMed

    Giacopassi, David; Stitt, B Grant; Nichols, Mark

    2006-12-01

    Numerous studies have documented that under-age gambling is quite common. The present study employs interviews of 48 university students who gambled under-age to determine the motives and methods associated with casino gambling by minors. The information gathered in these interviews indicates that access to casinos is easily attained, that the risk of exposure once gambling is minimal, and the motivations of under-age gamblers differ in important ways from that of adults, as access to alcohol, accompanying parents, and the desire to experience the "forbidden fruit" of casino gambling are commonly mentioned motivations by under-age gamblers.

  7. Interview with Paul O. Zelinsky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    1986-01-01

    Zelinsky relates thoughts on his career beginnings, motivation, and illustrations. Discusses the illustrations in such books as "How I Hunted the Little Fellows,""The Maid and the Mouse and the Odd Shaped House," and "Emily Upham's Revenge." (EL)

  8. Motivation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Nancy L.

    This paper presents basic principles and theories of motivation, attempts to provide a better understanding of the concept, and explores the role motivation plays in learning. Basic theories of motivation are reviewed including: Freud's belief in motivation by the id, unconscious forces, and sexual stages; Jung and Adler's belief that people are…

  9. Theory and Motivational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, John W.

    Motivational psychology and test theory are compared in this discussion, which focuses on distinguishing the effects of motivation and of ability on test performance and educational achievement. Recent theory in achievement motivation considers the motivational significance of future goals as they affect present activities that are instrumental in…

  10. A method of phenomenological interviewing.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Mark T

    2014-01-01

    In this article I propose a method of interviewing for descriptive phenomenological research that offers an explicit, theoretically based approach for researchers. My approach enables application of descriptive phenomenology as a total method for research, and not one just focused on data analysis. This structured phenomenological approach to interviewing applies questions based on themes of experience contextualization, apprehending the phenomenon and its clarification. The method of questioning employs descriptive and structural questioning as well as novel use of imaginative variation to explore experience. The approach will help researchers understand how to undertake descriptive phenomenological research interviews.

  11. Treatment motivation among caregivers and adolescents with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, T; Earnshaw, V A; Menino, D; Bogart, L M; Levy, S

    2017-04-01

    Substance use disorders (SUDs) in adolescence have negative long-term health effects, which can be mitigated through successful treatment. Caregivers play a central role in adolescent treatment involvement; however, studies have not examined treatment motivation and pressures to enter treatment in caregiver/adolescent dyads. Research suggests that internally motivated treatment (in contrast to coerced treatment) tends to lead to better outcomes. We used Self-determination theory (SDT) to examine intersecting motivational narratives among caregivers and adolescents in SUD treatment. Relationships between motivation, interpretation of caregiver pressures, adolescent autonomy, and relatedness were also explored. Adolescents in SUD treatment and their caregivers (NDyads=15) were interviewed about treatment experiences. Interviews were coded for treatment motivation, including extrinsic (e.g., motivated by punishment), introjected (e.g., motivated by guilt), and identified/integrated motivation (e.g., seeing a behavior as integral to the self). Internalization of treatment motivation, autonomy support/competence (e.g., caregiver support for adolescent decisions), and relatedness (e.g., acceptance and support) were also coded. Four dyadic categories were identified: agreement that treatment was motivated by the adolescent (intrinsic); agreement that treatment was motivated by the caregiver (extrinsic); agreement that treatment was motivated by both, or a shift towards adolescent control (mixed/transitional); and disagreement (adolescents and caregivers each claimed they motivated treatment; conflicting). Autonomy support and relatedness were most prominent in intrinsic dyads, and least prominent in extrinsic dyads. The mixed/transitional group was also high in autonomy support and relatedness. The extrinsic group characterized caregiver rules as an unwelcome mechanism for behavioral control; caregivers in the other groups saw rules as a way to build adolescent competence

  12. Promoting Students' Interest and Motivation Towards Science Learning: the Role of Personal Needs and Motivation Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loukomies, Anni; Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Lavonen, Jari; Spyrtou, Anna; Byman, Reijo; Kariotoglou, Petros; Juuti, Kalle

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to design a teaching sequence for science education that enabled lower secondary school students to enhance their motivation towards science. Further, it looked to examine the way the designed teaching sequence affected students with different motivational profiles. Industry site visits, with embodied theory-based motivational features were included as part of the designed teaching sequence. The sequence was implemented in Finland and Greece with 54 participants, 27 from each country. Quantitative data was collected using the Evaluation of Science Inquiry Activities Questionnaire, based on the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory but did not map the expected outcomes. Interviews, however, showed that students with different motivational profiles found aspects within the module that met their psychological needs as explained by Self-Determination Theory. The results offer a perspective to adolescents' psychological needs along with some insights into how students mediate the way they value an activity in the context of science education.

  13. Comparative Reliability of Structured Versus Unstructured Interviews in the Admission Process of a Residency Program

    PubMed Central

    Blouin, Danielle; Day, Andrew G.; Pavlov, Andrey

    2011-01-01

    Background Although never directly compared, structured interviews are reported as being more reliable than unstructured interviews. This study compared the reliability of both types of interview when applied to a common pool of applicants for positions in an emergency medicine residency program. Methods In 2008, one structured interview was added to the two unstructured interviews traditionally used in our resident selection process. A formal job analysis using the critical incident technique guided the development of the structured interview tool. This tool consisted of 7 scenarios assessing 4 of the domains deemed essential for success as a resident in this program. The traditional interview tool assessed 5 general criteria. In addition to these criteria, the unstructured panel members were asked to rate each candidate on the same 4 essential domains rated by the structured panel members. All 3 panels interviewed all candidates. Main outcomes were the overall, interitem, and interrater reliabilities, the correlations between interview panels, and the dimensionality of each interview tool. Results Thirty candidates were interviewed. The overall reliability reached 0.43 for the structured interview, and 0.81 and 0.71 for the unstructured interviews. Analyses of the variance components showed a high interrater, low interitem reliability for the structured interview, and a high interrater, high interitem reliability for the unstructured interviews. The summary measures from the 2 unstructured interviews were significantly correlated, but neither was correlated with the structured interview. Only the structured interview was multidimensional. Conclusions A structured interview did not yield a higher overall reliability than both unstructured interviews. The lower reliability is explained by a lower interitem reliability, which in turn is due to the multidimensionality of the interview tool. Both unstructured panels consistently rated a single dimension, even when

  14. Interview Questions with Bentham Scientific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, John C.

    2013-01-01

    John Mather answers questions for an interview for the Bentham Science Newsletter. He covers topics ranging from his childhood, his professional career and his thoughts on research, technology and today's scientists and engineers.

  15. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The NHIS collects data on a broad range of health topics through personal household interviews. The results of NHIS provide data to track health status, health care access, and progress toward achieving national health objectives.

  16. An Interview with John Wilson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, J. Mark; McLaughlin, Terence H.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an interview with John Wilson covering topics such as: addressing the people who influenced him, highlighting Wilson's career and home background, and providing discussions on his opinions related to religion, morality, moral education, and the concept of authority. (CMK)

  17. An Interview with Jonathan Piel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Diane J.

    1992-01-01

    This transcript of an interview with Jonathan Piel, editor of "Scientific American," discusses communication between scientists and readers; scientific research publications and the publishing industry; universities as research publishers; library budget reductions and purchasing decisions; electronic publishing; NREN (National Research…

  18. An Interview with Constance Reid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexanderson, G. L.

    1980-01-01

    Constance Reid, a well-known author of books on mathematics and mathematicians, is interviewed at her home in San Francisco in July, 1979. She discusses her studies of the lives of Hilbert, Courant and other mathematicians. (MP)

  19. Making the Transition from Traditional to Home Schooling: Home School Family Motivations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Kenneth Vance; Burroughs, Susie

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the motivations of families that operate home schools. Four intact, religiously conservative families were interviewed and observed over one year. Findings showed that families were motivated by multiple factors to leave traditional schooling and begin home schooling. Additionally, the motivations to home school influenced the…

  20. Randomized Trial of Brief Motivational Treatments for Pathological Gamblers: More Is Not Necessarily Better

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgins, David C.; Currie, Shawn R.; Currie, Gillian; Fick, Gordon H.

    2009-01-01

    The efficacy of brief treatments for media-recruited pathological gamblers was tested in a randomized clinical trial design (N = 314). Two self-directed motivational interventions were compared with a 6-week waiting list control and a workbook only control. Brief motivational treatment involved a telephone motivational interview and a mailed…

  1. A Case for Assessing Motivation from Learning a Computer-Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ChanLin, Lih-Juan

    The purpose of this paper is to report specific motivational requirements within each motivation category of Keller's ARCS (Attention, Relevance, Confidence, Satisfaction) model (1991) based on data collected on students' reactions to a computer-assisted learning lesson that incorporated motivational strategies in its design. Interview techniques…

  2. Gender, Student Motivation and Academic Achievement in a Midsized Wisconsin High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutzke, Steven Ronald

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated relationships among gender, academic motivation and achievement in a mid-sized Wisconsin high school. A questionnaire was developed that focused on perceived ability, achievement motives and achievement goals. Interviews with teachers focused on relationships among academic motivation and gender achievement.…

  3. Initial impressions: What they are, what they are not, and how they influence structured interview outcomes.

    PubMed

    Swider, Brian W; Barrick, Murray R; Harris, T Brad

    2016-05-01

    Nearly all employment interviews, even those considered highly structured, begin with a brief meet-and-greet conversation typically coalescing around non-job-related topics (i.e., rapport building). Although applicants and interviewers often view rapport building as an essential, value-adding component of the interview, it may contaminate interviewers' evaluations of answers to subsequently asked structured questions (Levashina, Hartwell, Morgeson, & Campion, 2014). Yet research has not determined the extent to which initial impressions developed during rapport building influence subsequent interviewer ratings through job-related interview content versus non-job-related content; whether these effects extend beyond more commonly examined image-related factors that can bias interviewers (i.e., self-presentation tactics); or how these effects are temporally bound when influencing interviewer ratings during the formal structured interview question-and-answer process. Addressing these questions, we integrate interview research with the extant social psychology literature to clarify rapport building's unique effects in the employment interview. In contrast to prior assumptions, findings based on 163 mock interviews suggest that a significant portion of initial impressions' influence overlaps with job-related interview content and, importantly, that these effects are distinct from other image-related constructs. Finally, initial impressions are found to more strongly relate to interviewer evaluations of applicant responses earlier rather than later in the structured interview. (PsycINFO Database Record

  4. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  5. Testing the AdS/CFT Correspondence

    SciTech Connect

    Klebanov, Igor R.

    2008-07-28

    This lecture begins with some history and basic facts about string theory and its connections with strong interactions. Comparisons of stacks of Dirichlet branes with curved backgrounds produced by them are used to motivate the AdS/CFT correspondence between superconformal gauge theory and string theory on a product of Anti-de Sitter space and a compact manifold. The ensuing duality between semi-classical spinning strings and long gauge theory operators is briefly reviewed. We go on to describe a recent test of the AdS/CFT correspondence using the Wilson loop cusp anomaly as a function of the coupling, which also enters dimensions of high-spin operators. Finally, strongly coupled thermal SYM theory is explored via a black hole in 5-dimensional AdS space, which leads to explicit results for its entropy and shear viscosity.

  6. Is the Gambling Motives Questionnaire really three-dimensional? A proposition of a four-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire - Revised.

    PubMed

    Myrseth, Helga; Notelaers, Guy

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to improve the weaknesses of the three-dimensional Gambling Motives Questionnaire and to examine the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised. The Gambling Motives Questionnaire was administered to a sample of 418 gamblers (92% men, mean age 19.5years). Participants completed the Gambling Motives Questionnaire and an additional item tapping boredom, as well as a variety of measures of gambling behavior and gambling problems as criterion measures. Results showed that the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised is better represented as a four-factor structure tapping the following four gambling motives factors; enhancement, coping, social, and self-gratification, Δχ(2) Δ(df)=24.76 (3), p<0.001. Removing two problematic items from the Gambling Motives Questionnaire and adding an extra item tapping boredom also improved the fit of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire-Revised. The subscales enhancement, social, and coping were all significant predictors of variety of gambling behaviors (p<0.05), whereas enhancement, coping, and self-gratification predicted frequency of gambling behaviors (p<0.01). Coping and self-gratification predicted loss of control (p<0.01), whereas self-gratification predicted gambling problems (p<0.001). The Gambling Motives Questionnaire - Revised, consisting of the four dimensions enhancement motives, social motives, coping motives and self-gratification motives, is a reliable and valid instrument to measuring gambling motives.

  7. HCMR interviews physician administrator leaders. Interview by Michael J. Enright.

    PubMed

    Edwards, C; Henry, R A; Kiser, W S; Mayberry, W E; Kaufman, R P

    1984-01-01

    This interview departs from HCMR's usual format, interviewing several leaders in health care administration for their ideas on current economic pressures, the impact of competition and joint ventures, attitudes toward equity and capital formation, and competition between the interest of clinical medicine and the cost of care. The physician administrators interviewed hold senior administrative positions: Charles Edwards, President and Chief Executive Officer of Scripps Clinic and Research Foundation; Robert A. Henry, President and Chief Executive Officer of Swedish-American Corporation; William S. Kiser, Chairman of the Board of Governors at Cleveland Clinic Foundation; W. Eugene Mayberry, Chairman of the Board of Governors at Mayo Clinic; and Ronald P. Kaufman, Vice-President for Medical Affairs of George Washington University Hospital. All are members of the Board of Regents or Fellows of the American College of Physician Executives.

  8. How Does Value-Added Data Affect Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jennifer L.; Pallas, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher evaluation systems can have high stakes for individual teachers, and it's important to ask how new evaluation models--including value-added measures--serve teachers as they strive to improve their practice. The authors interviewed teachers at a high-performing New York City school about their reactions to their value-added scores and…

  9. 37 CFR 1.133 - Interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Interviews. (a)(1) Interviews with examiners concerning applications and other matters pending before the... designate. Interviews will not be permitted at any other time or place without the authority of the Director... the interview as warranting favorable action must be filed by the applicant. An interview does...

  10. 37 CFR 1.133 - Interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Interviews. (a)(1) Interviews with examiners concerning applications and other matters pending before the... designate. Interviews will not be permitted at any other time or place without the authority of the Director... the interview as warranting favorable action must be filed by the applicant. An interview does...

  11. Janus Job Interview Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Arnold

    Designed for below-average-reading-level students, the purpose of this interview guide is to help young job seekers prepare for the job interview process. The first three chapters explain the nature of the personal job interview, the steps to be followed in preparing for a job interview, and the do's and don't's of the interview itself. The…

  12. An interview with Michael Fordham. Interview by Paul Roazen.

    PubMed

    Fordham, Michael

    2005-02-01

    In the course of early interviews on the history of psychoanalysis, I saw Michael Fordham in the late summer of 1965. We concentrated primarily on the differences between Freud and Jung, as well as the characteristic distinctions between the two schools that they founded. Fordham also talked about some of his personal contacts with Jung.

  13. [Interview with Professor Reinhilde Jacobs. Interview by Th van Nuijs].

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2007-01-01

    Th. van Nuijs, chief editor of the Revue Belge de Médecine Dentaire, interviews professor Reinhilde Jacobs. R. Jacobs is professor of dento-maxillo-facial radiology and radioprotection at the Catholic University of Leuven. She is also head of the Oral Imaging Centre at the same university.

  14. Motivation in medical education().

    PubMed

    Pelaccia, Thierry; Viau, Rolland

    2017-02-01

    Motivation is a concept which has fascinated researchers for many decades. The field of medical education has become interested in motivation recently, having always assumed that medical students must be motivated because of their commitment to highly specific training, leading to a very specific profession. However, motivation is a major determinant of the quality of learning and success, the lack of which may well explain why teachers sometimes observe medical students who are discouraged, have lost interest or abandon their studies, with a feeling of powerlessness or resignation. After describing the importance of motivation for learning in medicine, this Guide will define the concept of motivation, setting it within the context of a social cognitive approach. In the second part of this Guide, recommendations are made, based upon the so-called "motivational dynamic model", which provides a multitude of various strategies with positive effects on students' motivation to learn.

  15. Culture and Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maehr, Martin L.

    1974-01-01

    A framework is suggested for the cross-cultural study of motivation that stresses the importance of contextual conditions in eliciting achievement motivation and emphasizes cultural relativity in the definition of the concept. (EH)

  16. What Motivates Trainees?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Debra J.

    1990-01-01

    A study of five organizations examined employee motivation regarding the pretraining environment. Findings support the assumption that employees will be more motivated of supervisors are supportive and if they view attendance as voluntary. (JOW)

  17. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  18. Motivating the Knowledge Worker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    what ignites your passion and the passion of those around you” (p. 109). Public Service Motivation Theory (Crewson, 1997; Houston, 2000; Perry... Public Service Motivation “The theory of public service motivation (PSM) suggests public employees are more likely than private sector employees to...Prentice-Hall. Houston, D. J. (2000). Public - service motivation : Building empirical evidence of incidence and effect. Journal of Public Administration

  19. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation for Stereotypic and Repetitive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joosten, Annette V.; Bundy, Anita C.; Einfeld, Stewart L.

    2009-01-01

    This study provides evidence for intrinsic and extrinsic motivators for stereotypical and repetitive behavior in children with autism and intellectual disability and children with intellectual disability alone. We modified the Motivation Assessment Scale (MAS) (1988b); dividing it into intrinsic and extrinsic measures and adding items to assess…

  20. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  1. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  2. Explorations in achievement motivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1982-01-01

    Recent research on the nature of achievement motivation is reviewed. A three-factor model of intrinsic motives is presented and related to various criteria of performance, job satisfaction and leisure activities. The relationships between intrinsic and extrinsic motives are discussed. Needed areas for future research are described.

  3. Understanding Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seifert, Timothy

    2004-01-01

    Contemporary theories of academic motivation seek to explain students' behaviours in academic settings. While each theory seems to possess its own constructs and unique explanations, these theories are actually closely tied together. In this theoretical study of motivation, several theories of motivation were described and an underlying theme of…

  4. Job Aids and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grau, Joseph A.

    1986-01-01

    Suggests job aids have motivational benefits and discusses three ways in which they positively affect motivation: increases worker's confidence of success and amount of effort they are willing to invest in attempting tasks; increases expectancy while decreasing amount of motivation needed; and reinforces task importance. (MBR)

  5. Interview with Brian Kennedy, Ph.D. Interview by Vicki Glaser.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Brian

    2012-10-01

    Editor's note: The interview series in Rejuvenation Research is a unique and, I believe, highly valuable feature of the journal, giving readers insights into the thinking and motivation of some of the most influential movers and shakers in the many disciplines--not only scientific but also political, sociological, ethical, and more--that impinge on the crusade to defeat aging. Dissemination of the views and insights of such people is essential to the process of communication between the field of biomedical gerontology and the many constituencies that will be affected by progress against aging--a dialogue that, as I and others have noted recently, is essential if we are to develop effective interventions against aging with all possible speed.

  6. Motivations and challenges of community-based surveillance volunteers in the northern region of Ghana.

    PubMed

    Dil, Yasemin; Strachan, Daniel; Cairncross, Sandy; Korkor, Andrew Seidu; Hill, Zelee

    2012-12-01

    Community health workers (CHWs) are an important element of many health systems and programmes for the promotion and delivery of a wide range of health interventions and disease surveillance. Understanding the motivation and retention of CHWs is recognized as essential but there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa. This qualitative study explored factors that motivate, and the challenges faced by community-based surveillance volunteers (CBSVs) in the Northern Region of Ghana through semi-structured interviews with 28 CBSVs, 12 zonal coordinators, nine Ghana Health Service (GHS) sub-district level staff, ten GHS district level staff and two GHS regional level staff in the administrative capital. The community emerged as an important motivating factor in terms of altruism, a sense of duty to the community and gaining community respect and pride. This was enhanced by community selection of the volunteers. Major challenges included incorrect community perceptions of CBSVs, problems with transportation and equipment, difficulties conducting both volunteer and farm work and late or lack of payment for ad hoc tasks such as National Immunization Days. Most CBSVs recognized that they were volunteers, understood the constraints of the health system and were not demanding remuneration. However, CBSVs strongly desired something tangible to show that their work is recognized and appreciated and described a number of low cost items that could be used. They also desired equipment such as raincoats and identifiers such as tee-shirts and certificates.

  7. Interview with Joe F. Head

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Kim

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Joe F. Head, Dean of University Admissions and Enrollment Services at Kennesaw State University (KSU) in Georgia, who has more than 35 years of experience in admissions and enrollment services. After completing an M.Ed. in higher education at Georgia Southern University, Head immediately landed a position as…

  8. Ralph Mero: An Omega Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert J.

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Ralph Mero, Executive Director of Compassion in Dying, Seattle (Washington)-based organization that has brought new voice to controversial issue of physician-assisted rational suicide. Mero explains how his years as minister watching people suffer with cancer or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome led him to work for…

  9. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  10. An Interview with Ilan Stavans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prado, Jose

    2007-01-01

    This interview with Ilan Stavans addresses central experiences tied to the educational and immigrant experiences of Latinos in the United States. Culture, immigration, assimilation, and language are the prisms through which this experience is understood. Ilan Stavans responds to questions concerning cultural heterogeneity and cultural homogeneity.…

  11. An Interview with John Stokes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Ellen Bennett

    1996-01-01

    As teacher, musician, and performing artist, John Stokes has traveled widely in his efforts to promote awareness of the natural world and the integrity of indigenous peoples. In this interview, Stokes discusses life experiences that led him to establish the Tracking Project, a program that has taught traditional tracking and survival skills to…

  12. An Interview with Jamelie Hassan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lisa K.; Zine, Jasmin; Davis, Hilary E.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Jamelie Hassan. Jamelie Hassan is a visual artist and activist based in London, Ontario, Canada. Since the 1970s she has exhibited widely in Canada and internationally. In 1993 she was presented the "Canada 125 Medal" in recognition of her outstanding service to the community, and in 2001 she…

  13. International Book Review and Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dieker, Lisa; McTigue, Anna

    2001-01-01

    This article reviews the book "Helping Individuals with Disabilities and Their Families: Mexican and U.S. Perspectives," edited by Todd V. Fletcher and Candace S. Bos (1999). An interview with Todd V. Fletcher is presented in which he discusses the importance of U.S. understanding and collaboration with Mexico. (CR)

  14. An Interview with the Frontline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2009-01-01

    Encompassing a wide range of responsibilities, Access Services means many different things to many different people, with global variations in what it means to the end user. However, for almost all it means facilitating access to the wealth of information at their library. This particular interview is an attempt to shed light on how the current…

  15. Ian Stevenson: An Omega Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Presents interview with Professor of Psychiatry and Director, Division of Personality Studies, in Department of Psychiatric Medicine at University of Virginia (Charlottesville). Discusses one controversial topic in area of death studies, cases suggestive of reincarnation. Describes first case he investigated, method of inquiry used to investigate…

  16. Interview with Forrest J. Gerard.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Focusing on the current policy, organization and direction of the Bureau of Indian Affairs, this edited interview addressed such issues as BIA reorganization, delivery systems, PL 93-638, Indian Water Rights, Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, PL 95-561 and Indian Education. (RTS)

  17. Interview with Andrew C. Kadak

    SciTech Connect

    Schabes, D.

    1996-01-01

    This article is an interview with the president and Chief Executive Officer of the Yankee Atomic Electric Company about a wide variety of aspects of the decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power plant. Included are discussions of political aspects, decommissioning schedules, local impacts, technical issues of decommissioning, personnel management during decommissioning, etc.

  18. An Interview with Catherine Comet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Mary

    1992-01-01

    Offers an interview with Catherine Comet, music director of the Grand Rapids (Michigan) Symphony. Reviews her childhood and early study in France and her experiences at the Julliard School of Music and on the contest circuit. Explains how she became a professional conductor. Discusses Comet's view of the importance that classical music can have…

  19. Children's Social Relations Interview Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volpe, Richard

    The Children's Social Relations Interview Scale (CSRIS) was developed to assess the role expectations and role behaviors associated with physical disabilities, namely low status and independence. Three traits are assessed: succorance, the seeking of help and support; restraint, physical and social limitation and circumscription by others; and…

  20. Interviews with Selectively Mute Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omdal, Heidi; Galloway, David

    2007-01-01

    The assessment of selective mutism usually takes place in a clinic, where the child often refuses to speak to the therapist. The challenge when trying to understand the child's own perspective is to find a medium for communication. Three selectively mute children were interviewed using Raven's Controlled Projection for Children (RCPC). The…

  1. An Interview with Zarqa Nawaz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zine, Jasmin; Taylor, Lisa K.; Davis, Hilary E.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Zarqa Nawaz. Born in Liverpool, raised in Toronto and now living in Regina with her husband and four children, Zarqa has worked as a freelance writer/broadcaster with Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) radio, and in various capacities with CBC "Newsworld", CTV's Canada AM, and CBC's "The…

  2. Nam June Paik: An Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurbrugg, Nicholas

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with Nam June Paik, a seminal figure in video art, who candidly discusses his working processes and values. Offers his comments on such diverse problems as technology, cost, collaboration, MTV, and the artist's ego. Discusses also the values and the artists associated with the artistic movement Fluxus. (SR)

  3. An Interview with Karen Glover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, June

    2011-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Karen Glover of Georgia Tech, a key person behind the planning of the Access Services Conference held last fall, and now going into its second year. Glover started working in libraries as a part-time library assistant at her local public library during her high school years. She later became a Circulation…

  4. Narcissism as motive.

    PubMed

    Meissner, W W

    2008-07-01

    This essay proposes replacing the traditional concept of narcissism as derived from the theory of drives with a concept of narcissism that is concerned with motives and their correlative meanings-specifically, motives connected to self-organization, self-preservation, self-cohesion, self-valuation, and self-esteem. The reasons for and the metapsychological underpinnings of a motivationally based theory are discussed. This revised motivational view proposes that narcissistic dynamics can be preserved and articulated in exclusively motivational terms. Developmental aspects are explored, including formation and functioning of the ego ideal and self-esteem regulation. Implications for psychoanalytic technique are suggested in discussions of case material.

  5. Motivational profile of astronauts at the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena

    2010-11-01

    Research has demonstrated that the motive triad of needs for achievement, power, and affiliation can predict variables such as occupational success and satisfaction, innovation, aggressiveness, susceptibility to illness, cooperation, conformity, and many others. The present study documents the motivational profiles of astronauts at three stages of their expedition. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to Winter's well-established motive markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and oral histories) of 46 astronauts participating in International Space Station (ISS) expeditions. Significant pre-flight differences were found in relation to home agency and job status. NASA astronauts, compared with those from the Russian Space Agency, are motivated by higher need for power, as are commanders in comparison to flight engineers. The need for affiliation motive showed a significant change from pre-flight to in-flight stages. The implications of the relationship between the motivational profile of astronauts and the established behavioural correlates of such profiles are discussed.

  6. An interview with Rong Li. Interview by Kathryn Senior.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong

    2010-04-01

    Rong Li is an Investigator at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, USA. Her lab is made up of a lively team who are all fascinated by cellular asymmetry, division and evolution. Rong joined Development as an editor in 2009. We interviewed Rong to find out about her work and career, her interest in developmental biology and her new role with the journal.

  7. An interview with Angela Nieto. Interviewed by Eva Amsen.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Angela

    2012-04-01

    Angela Nieto is Full Professor at the Instituto de Neurociencias (CSIC-UMH) in Alicante, Spain, and Head of the institute's Developmental Neurobiology Unit. She is also the current president of the Spanish Society for Developmental Biology (Sociedad Española de Biología del Desarollo, SEBD). We interviewed her to talk about the plans of the SEBD for the coming years.

  8. Personal profile: interview with Alexandra Stolzing, Ph.D. Interview by Vicki Glaser.

    PubMed

    Stolzig, Alexandra

    2011-06-01

    The interview series in Rejuvenation Research is a unique and, I believe, highly valuable feature of the journal, giving readers insights into the thinking and motivation of some of the most influential movers and shakers in the many disciplines-not only scientific(1-5) but also political,(6) sociological,(7,8) ethical,(9,10) and more-that impinge on the crusade to defeat aging. This issue's interview features one of the world's most respected and admired researchers in the biology of aging as a result of her incisive evaluations of the work of others as well as the quality of her own research. Her clarity of thought and expression, to the general public as well as to colleagues, has contributed immensely to the process of communication between the field of biomedical gerontology and the many constituencies that will be affected by progress against aging-a dialogue that, as I(11-19) and others(20-26) have noted recently, is essential if we are to develop effective interventions against aging with all possible speed.

  9. Motivations influencing the adoption of conservation easements.

    PubMed

    Farmer, James R; Knapp, Doug; Meretsky, Vicky J; Chancellor, Charles; Fischer, Burnell C

    2011-08-01

    The use of conservation easements as a conservation mechanism for private land has increased greatly in the past decade; conservation easements now protect over 15 million ha across the United States from residential and commercial development. We used a mailed survey and in-depth telephone interviews to determine factors that motivate private landowners in Iowa, Illinois, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin (U.S.A.) to place conservation easements on their properties. The mailed survey asked about characteristics of landowners, their properties, and their opinions on 9 factors related to the decision to place an easement. A follow-up telephone interview was completed with 19 mail-survey participants to gain an in-depth understanding of the action and to triangulate the results with the questionnaire. Place attachment, which is a measure of personal connection to a location or property, was the greatest motivation for implementation of an easement. Results of a principal components analysis suggested contributing to the public good underlaid several of the strong motivational factors for participation. Financial reasons were the lowest ranked motivational factor; however, financial concerns may facilitate placement of an easement that would otherwise not be realized. We believe that our results may be transferable to places where land protected by easements is not dominated by traditional farming (row crops, pastures, and hay), timber harvesting, or nonextractive uses (e.g., habitat for wild animals, recreation, and protection of ecosystem services).

  10. Motivational reserve: motivation-related occupational abilities and risk of mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Forstmeier, Simon; Maercker, Andreas; Maier, Wolfgang; van den Bussche, Hendrik; Riedel-Heller, Steffi; Kaduszkiewicz, Hanna; Pentzek, Michael; Weyerer, Siegfried; Bickel, Horst; Tebarth, Franziska; Luppa, Melanie; Wollny, Anja; Wiese, Birgitt; Wagner, Michael

    2012-06-01

    Midlife motivational abilities, that is, skills to initiate and persevere in the implementation of goals, have been related to mental and physical health, but their association with risk of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) has not yet been directly investigated. This relation was examined with data from the German Study on Ageing, Cognition, and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe). A total of 3,327 nondemented participants (50.3% of a randomly selected sample) aged 75-89 years were recruited in primary care and followed up twice (after 1.5 and 3 years). Motivation-related occupational abilities were estimated on the basis of the main occupation (assessed at follow-up II) using the Occupational Information Network (O* NET) database, which provides detailed information on worker characteristics and abilities. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relative risk of developing MCI and AD in relation to motivation-related occupational abilities, adjusting for various covariates. Over the 3 years of follow-up, 15.2% participants developed MCI and 3.0% developed AD. In a fully adjusted model, motivation-related occupational abilities were found to be associated with a reduced risk of MCI (HR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.64-0.92). Motivation-related occupational abilities were associated with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers (HR: 0.48; CI: 0.25-0.91), but not in noncarriers (HR: 0.99; CI: 0.65-1.53). These results suggest that midlife motivational abilities are associated with reduced risk of MCI in general and with reduced risk of AD in ApoE ε4 carriers. Revealing the mechanisms underlying this association may inform novel prevention strategies for decelerating cognitive decline in old age.

  11. 10 CFR 15.25 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Personal interviews. 15.25 Section 15.25 Energy NUCLEAR... interviews. (a) The NRC may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the NRC when— (1) A matter...; or (3) An agreement for payment might be negotiated. (b) The NRC shall grant an interview with...

  12. 49 CFR 1018.22 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal interviews. 1018.22 Section 1018.22... § 1018.22 Personal interviews. (a) The Board may seek an interview with the debtor at the offices of the... grant an interview with a debtor upon the debtor's request. The Board will not reimburse a...

  13. 8 CFR 245.6 - Interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 245.6 Section 245.6 Aliens and... ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may be waived in the case of a...

  14. 8 CFR 1245.6 - Interview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interview. 1245.6 Section 1245.6 Aliens and... OF STATUS TO THAT OF PERSON ADMITTED FOR PERMANENT RESIDENCE § 1245.6 Interview. Each applicant for adjustment of status under this part shall be interviewed by an immigration officer. This interview may...

  15. Use of interviews in nursing research.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gary

    2015-06-24

    Conducting interviews is one of the most common ways of collecting data in healthcare research. In particular, interviews are associated with qualitative research, where researchers seek to understand participants' experiences through their own words and perspectives. This article will help healthcare researchers prepare to carry out interviews as part of their research. It will also emphasise important skills to consider during the interview process. Consideration will also be given to remedying interviews that do not go according to plan, as well as identifying appropriate debriefing processes post-interview. With this knowledge, healthcare researchers are more likely to conduct effective interviews that will yield better quality data and protect the participant.

  16. Computer Interview Problem Assessment of Psychiatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Angle, Hugh V.; Ellinwood, Everett H.; Carroll, Judith

    1978-01-01

    Behavioral Assessment information, a more general form of Problem- Oriented Record data, appears to have many useful clinical qualities and was selected to be the information content for a computer interview system. This interview system was designed to assess problematic behaviors of psychiatric patients. The computer interview covered 29 life problem areas and took patients from four to eight hours to complete. In two reliability studies, the computer interview was compared to human interviews. A greater number of general and specific patient problems were identified in the computer interview than in the human interviews. The attitudes of computer patients and clinicians receiving the computer reports were surveyed.

  17. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  18. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  19. Profiling motives behind hedonic eating. Preliminary validation of the Palatable Eating Motives Scale.

    PubMed

    Burgess, E E; Turan, B; Lokken, K L; Morse, A; Boggiano, M M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate a new scale designed to measure individual motives for eating tasty foods and determine if any specific motive(s) are associated with obesity. The "Palatable Eating Motives Scale" (PEMS) is a self-report measure adapted from the Drinking Motives Questionnaire Revised (DMQ-R). N=150 racially-diverse college students (mean age: 24.4, BMI: 16-51kg/m(2)) were administered the PEMS along with the Binge-Eating Scale (BES) and the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) to test for convergent and incremental validity and the Sensitivity to Punishment and Reward Questionnaire (SPSRQ) for discriminant validity. The PEMS identified four motives for eating tasty food, the same ones found with the DMQ-R for alcohol intake: Social, Conformity, Enhancement, and Coping motives. The scales had good convergent validity with BES and YFAS scores but discriminated from the broader motivational constructs of inhibition and activation measured by the SPSRQ. Of the PEMS motives, Coping (eating tasty food to deal with problems and negative feelings) accounted for unique variance in BMI, and added to variance in BMI contributed by BES scores, showing incremental validity. YFAS scores did not contribute to BMI after controlling for binge-eating. Coping subscale scores were also significantly higher (p<0.001) among the severely obese (BMI>40). Motives behind palatable food intake are not homogenous and should be considered in personalized weight-loss strategies in future studies. In normal weight individuals, knowing one's dominant motive for eating tasty foods may help promote healthier food choices in times and places where they are most vulnerable to do otherwise.

  20. [Psychological theories of motivation].

    PubMed

    Quoniam, Nolwenn; Bungener, Catherine

    2004-03-01

    The comprehension of the principles guiding the human actions has always been an important aspect of philosophy. The development of experimental psychology first completely rejected all mental explanations such as will, intentions or motives. Behavior should then only be understood as determined by conditioning and learning. However, different theories denied that human behavior could be considered as purely reactive to the environment and stressed the active role of the organism on the environment. Theories from the humanist psychology and the social psychology described two kinds of motivation. The extrinsic motivation results from external stimuli and the intrinsic motivation from the organism himself. Our behavior is therefore determined by an interaction between our beliefs, expectations, needs and the environment. Actually, the concept of motivation is not well specified. It refers either to a global dynamic structure responsible for action either to a specific tendency toward some specific actions. Anyway, motivation is a concept infered from behavior. Therefore, its evaluation could only be secondary.

  1. Smiling in a job interview: when less is more.

    PubMed

    Ruben, Mollie A; Hall, Judith A; Schmid Mast, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Two studies examined the effect of applicants' smiling on hireability. In a pre-test study, participants were asked to rate the expected behavior for four types of applicants. Newspaper reporter applicants were expected to be more serious than applicants for other jobs. In Study 1, participants were randomly assigned to be an applicant or interviewer for a newspaper reporting job. Smiling was negatively related to hiring, and smiling mediated the relation between applicants' motivation to make a good impression and hiring. Hiring was maximized when applicants smiled less in the middle of the interview relative to the start and end. In Study 2, participants watched Study 1 clips and were randomly assigned to believe the applicants were applying to one of four jobs. Participants rated more suitability when applicants smiled less, especially for jobs associated with a serious demeanor. This research shows that job type is an important moderator of the impact of smiling on hiring.

  2. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Wolf

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist David Wolf is seen during this preflight interview, where he first answers questions on his career path and role models. Other questions cover mission goals, ISS (International Space Station) Expedition 5 spacecrew, crew training, the S1 Truss and its radiators, the MBS (Mobile Base Structure), his experience onboard Mir, and his EVAs (extravehicular activities) on the coming mission. The EVAs are the subject of several questions. Wolf discusses his crew members, and elsewhere discusses Pilot Pamela Melroy's role as an IV crew member during EVAs. In addition, Wolf answers questions on transfer operations, the SHIMMER experiment, and his thoughts on multinational crews and crew bonding.

  3. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Melroy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pamela A. Melroy USAF Pilot, is seen during a prelaunch interview. She gives a brief overview of the STS-112 mission which is to install the S1 truss on the International Space Station. She also gives some specific details about the structural design of the S1 truss. Pamela Melroy is also the Internal EVA (IV) coordinator for this mission. She talks about her responsibilities as the IV which are to direct the spacewalkers back into the Airlock after the S1 is installed. A detailed description about the goals of EVA (2) and EVA (3) are also given by Melroy.

  4. STS-109 Crew Interviews - Carey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 pilot Duane G. Carey is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, as well as an extended description of his role in the Orbiter's return landing. As its primary objective, this mission has the maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Following the Columbia Orbiter's rendezvous with the telescope, extravehicular activities (EVA) will focus on repairs to and augmentation of the HST.

  5. Interview with Philippe Ory of the EPFL (Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne) Career Centre. Interviewed by Debora Keller.

    PubMed

    Ory, Philippe

    2008-06-01

    EPFL's Career Centre was created in 2007 with the mission to be a bridge between EPFL's young graduates and industry, in order to facilitate the transition to active scientific life. Through courses, workshops and personalised advice, they help graduates to set up their application documents (CV, motivation letter), prepare for job interviews and manage their careers. The Centre also offers its services to companies by organising on-campus recruitment days, actively searching for fitting profiles or posting or mailing job adverts to the EPFL graduate community. The Career Centre's goal is to be the platform for the EPFL graduates to build their careers.

  6. Interview with Lisa Shipley. Interviewed by Lisa Parks.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Lisa

    2013-08-01

    Lisa Shipley is Vice President of Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics and Drug Metabolism at Merck Research Laboratories. She is responsible for preclinical and clinical ADME activities and molecular biomarker assay development activities at all Merck research sites and support of all programs from discovery through to post-product launch. Prior to joining Merck in 2008, Shipley spent over 20 years at Eli Lilly and Company in roles of increasing responsibility, including the positions of executive director at Lean Six Sigma and vice president of Drug Disposition, PK/PD and Trial Simulations. Shipley obtained her undergraduate degree from McDaniel College and her doctoral degree in Pharmacology and Toxicology from the University of Maryland at Baltimore. This interview was conducted by Lisa Parks, Assistant Commissioning Editor of Bioanalysis.

  7. Value-Added Merit Pay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twomey, Daniel F.

    The purpose of merit pay is to reward employees for their accomplishments and motivate them to continue improving. Critics of merit pay say the increased extrinsic motivation that it prompts is more than offset by the decrease in intrinsic motivation. Supporters of performance-based pay claim several benefits of the practice. This study addressed…

  8. What is this Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, T. R.

    1971-01-01

    Maslow's Hierarchial Theory, Mcgregor's X & Y Theory, and Hertsberg's Hygiene Theory all based on motivation, are examined as to their effectiveness to increase worker production. The author feels management should not concentrate on motivation and offers his own theory, Spiral Web Theory, to help increase employee productiveness. (RB)

  9. Measuring Adolescent Science Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Maximiliane F.; Bogner, Franz X.

    2016-01-01

    To monitor science motivation, 232 tenth graders of the college preparatory level ("Gymnasium") completed the Science Motivation Questionnaire II (SMQ-II). Additionally, personality data were collected using a 10-item version of the Big Five Inventory. A subsequent exploratory factor analysis based on the eigenvalue-greater-than-one…

  10. Motivating Tomorrow's Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musante, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The story of biology is far more complex and fascinating than straightforward facts or neatly labeled diagrams of structures and systems. Although exams can motivate students, the key to using these extrinsic motivators to increase student understanding lies in the way the assessments are designed and what they measure. Those involved in…

  11. Competition and Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripathi, Kailas Nath

    1992-01-01

    Reports on a study of competition, motivation, and performance among 60 adolescents in India. Finds that direct competition with another person led to higher levels of immediate performance. Also finds that indirect competition against a pre-set standard resulted in greater intrinsic motivation. (CFR)

  12. Motivation in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Martha, Ed.

    The purpose of this book is to bring together research and theory about motivation for mathematics from different perspectives. Chapters are included that present theory and research on the influence of gender, culture, the classroom environment, and curriculum on children's mathematical performance and motivation. Chapters are: (1) "Sociocultural…

  13. Driver Behavior and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Patricia

    School bus driver behavior and motivation are continuing concerns for leaders/administrators in the field of transportation. Motivation begins with selection of a potential new driver. Drivers must like children and be patient, loyal, and punctual. The applicant's background must be verified, in view of the national concern for child safety.…

  14. Motivation in Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miskel, Cecil G.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes three approaches to work motivation and six current or emerging motivational theories, involving need hierarchies, work satisfaction and dissatisfaction, expectancy, behaviorism, goals, and job characteristics. Discusses research based on each theory, critiques of the models, and implications for research on educational administrator…

  15. Methods of Motivational Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John M.; Rooke, Sally E.; Schutte, Nicola S.; Foster, Roxanne M.; Bhullar, Navjot

    2008-01-01

    As teachers, we want to motivate our students to learn during a unit and to continue learning about the topic after the unit ends. This article describes about a hundred methods we use to help motivate students to learn. The methods form 12 categories: (1) making content relevant to student values and goals; (2) helping students achieve their…

  16. Student Motivational Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mary; Burross, Heidi Legg

    2008-01-01

    Background/Context: Student motivation typically has been studied as it relates to extrinsic (e.g., reinforcement) or intrinsic (e.g., personal choice) sources of influence, with scant attention to sociocultural context. This article builds on a previous article in this special issue that (1) addresses the role of opportunity in the motivation of…

  17. Motivation and Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spithill, Alma C.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the importance of student motivation in the foreign language classroom. Suggests that although most foreign language teachers are well trained in methods and materials, the psychological principles related to motivation and reinforcement are more elusive than those related to learning activities. (NCR)

  18. Children's Theories of Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurland, Suzanne T.; Glowacky, Victoria C.

    2011-01-01

    To investigate children's theories of motivation, we asked 166 children (8-12 years of age) to rate the effect of various motivational strategies on task interest, over the short and long terms, in activities described as appealing or unappealing. Children viewed the rewards strategy as resulting in greatest interest except when implemented over…

  19. Motivation techniques for supervision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gray, N. D.

    1974-01-01

    Guide has been published which deals with various aspects of employee motivation. Training methods are designed to improve communication between supervisors and subordinates, to create feeling of achievement and recognition for every employee, and to retain personnel confidence in spite of some negative motivators. End result of training is reduction or prevention of errors.

  20. [A behavioral conceptualization of motivation in the therapeutic process].

    PubMed

    Froján Parga, María Xesús; Alpañés Freitag, Manuel; Calero Elvira, Ana; Vargas de la Cruz, Ivette

    2010-11-01

    Motivation has traditionally been conceptualized as something situated inside the person, which might explain certain behaviors and play a causal role in overt changes in behavior. This type of approach was assumed by the Transtheoretical Model of Change and Motivational Interviewing in the area of clinical and health psychology. In contrast, the behavioral concept of establishing operation is defined as a stimulus or environmental operation that momentarily alters the functions of other stimuli and the response probability, which allows us to study motivation without making inferences or assuming a cognitivist terminology. From this point of view, the study of motivation in therapy implies the analysis of the effect that certain verbalizations of the therapist have on the client's behavior. Moreover, we propose that the analysis of therapists' motivating verbalizations should focus on descriptions of the past, present and future consequences of the client's behavior.

  1. Principals and Leadership--An Interview with John Gardner. A "Bulletin" Special.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASSP Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    During this interview, John Gardner, former Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare (1965-68), comments on the substantial overlap between leaders and managers. When principals perform as leaders, they are preoccupied with vision, values, motivation, and renewal. They become politically expert at bargaining, mediating, sorting out, persuading,…

  2. Communicating Chemistry from "Molecules" to International Efforts: An Interview with Peter Atkins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardellini, Liberato

    2008-01-01

    In this interview, Peter Atkins explains the deep motivations that compel him to sit at his desk at 6 AM writing books and textbooks. He discusses the four principal elements that help to make a chemistry textbook successful, including the secret ingredient. He also discusses the importance of problem solving, the interaction of multimedia, and…

  3. Beyond Member-Checking: A Dialogic Approach to the Research Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Lou

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a dialogic qualitative interview design for a narrative study of six international UK university students' motivation for learning English. Based on the work of Mikhail Bakhtin, this design was developed in order to address the limitations of member-checking [Lincoln, Y. S., and E. G. Guba. 1985. "Naturalistic…

  4. Motivation, self-determination, and long-term weight control

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the topics of motivation and self-regulation in the context of weight management and related behaviors. We focus on the role of a qualitative approach to address motivation - not only considering the level but also type of motivation - in weight control and related behaviors. We critically discuss the operationalization of motivation in current weight control programs, present a complementary approach to understanding motivation based on self-determination theory, and review empirical findings from weight control studies that have used self-determination theory measures and assessed their association with weight outcomes. Weight loss studies which used Motivational Interviewing (MI) are also reviewed, considering MI's focus on enhancing internal motivation. We hypothesize that current weight control interventions may have been less successful with weight maintenance in part due to their relative disregard of qualitative dimensions of motivation, such as level of perceived autonomy, often resulting in a motivational disconnect between weight loss and weight-related behaviors. We suggest that if individuals fully endorse weight loss-related behavioral goals and feel not just competent but also autonomous about reaching them, as suggested by self-determination theory, their efforts are more likely to result in long-lasting behavior change. PMID:22385818

  5. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  6. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  7. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  8. STS-112 Crew Interviews - Magnus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Specialist 2 Sandra H. Magnus is seen during a prelaunch interview. She answers questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. She gives details on the mission's goals, the most significant of which will be the installation of the S-1 truss structure on the International Space Station (ISS). The installation, one in a series of truss extending missions, will be complicated and will require the use of the robotic arm as well as extravehicular activity (EVA) by astronauts. Magnus also describes her function in the performance of transfer operations. Brief descriptions are given of experiments on board the ISS as well as on board the Shuttle.

  9. STS-109 Crew Interviews - Currie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 Mission Specialist 2 Nancy Jane Currie is seen during a prelaunch interview. She answers questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. She gives details on the Columbia Orbiter mission which has as its main tasks the maintenance and augmentation of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). While she will do many things during the mission, the most important will be her role as the primary operator of the robotic arm, which is responsible for grappling the HST, bringing it to the Orbiter bay, and providing support for the astronauts during their EVAs (Extravehicular Activities). Additionally, the robotic arm will be responsible for transferring new and replacement equipment from the Orbiter to the HST. This equipment includes: two solar arrays, a Power Control Unit (PCU), the Advanced Camera for Surveys, and a replacement cooling system for NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer).

  10. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Ashby

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-112 Mission Commander Jeffrey Ashby is seen during this preflight interview, answering questions about his inspiration in becoming an astronaut and his career path and provides an overview of the mission. Ashby outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically during the docking and extravehicular activities (EVAs). He describes the payload (S1 truss) and the importance that the S1 truss will have in the development of the International Space Station (ISS). Ashby discusses the delivery and installation of the S1 truss scheduled to be done in the planned EVAs in some detail. He touches on the use and operation of the Canadarm 2 robotic arm in this process and outlines what supplies will be exchanged with the resident crew of the ISS during transfer activities. He ends with his thoughts on the value of the ISS in fostering international cooperation.

  11. STS-112 Crew Interviews: Yurchikhin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A preflight interview with mission specialist Fyodor Yurchikhin is presented. He worked for a long time in Energia in the Russian Mission Control Center (MCC). Yurchikhin discusses the main goal of the STS-112 flight, which is to install the Integrated Truss Assembly S1 (Starboard Side Thermal Radiator Truss) on the International Space Station. He also talks about the three space walks required to install the S1. After the installation of S1, work with the bolts and cameras are performed. Yurchikhin is involved in working with nitrogen and ammonia jumpers. He expresses the complexity of his work, but says that he and the other crew members are ready for the challenge.

  12. STS-109 Crew Interviews - Altman

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-109 crew Commander Scott D. Altman is seen during a prelaunch interview. He answers questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He gives details on the mission's goals and significance, which are all related to maintenance of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). After the Columbia Orbiter's rendezvous with the HST, extravehicular activities (EVA) will be focused on several important tasks which include: (1) installing the Advanced Camera for Surveys; (2) installing a cooling system on NICMOS (Near Infrared Camera Multi-Object Spectrometer); (3) repairing the reaction wheel assembly; (4) installing additional solar arrays; (5) augmenting the power control unit; (6) working on the HST's gyros. The reaction wheel assembly task, a late addition to the mission, may necessitate the abandonment of one or more of the other tasks, such as the gyro work.

  13. Interview with Philip W. Anderson

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.W.

    1988-08-01

    Phil Anderson, Professor of Physics at Princeton University, has devoted his career to research in theoretical physics. He is a member of the National Academy of Science and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a foreign member of the Royal Society, and a foreign associate of the Accademia Lincei in Rome. The Americal Physical Society awarded him the Oliver E. Buckley Solid State Physics Prize in 1964. In 1977 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics with J.H. van Vleck and N.F. Mott. His work has encompassed a broad range of subjects: quantum theory of condensed matter, broken symmetry, transport theory and localization, random statistical systems, spectral line broadening, superfluidity in helium and neutron stars, magnetism, and superconductivity. His avocations include ''hiking, the game of GO, Romanesque architecture, and the human condition.'' In this interview he explains his RVB theory of the oxide superconductors and its historical context.

  14. Using Joint Interviews to Add Analytic Value.

    PubMed

    Polak, Louisa; Green, Judith

    2016-10-01

    Joint interviewing has been frequently used in health research, and is the subject of a growing methodological literature. We review this literature, and build on it by drawing on a case study of how people make decisions about taking statins. This highlights two ways in which a dyadic approach to joint interviewing can add analytic value compared with individual interviewing. First, the analysis of interaction within joint interviews can help to explicate tacit knowledge and to illuminate the range of often hard-to-access resources that are drawn upon in making decisions. Second, joint interviews mitigate some of the weaknesses of interviewing as a method for studying practices; we offer a cautious defense of the often-tacit assumption that the "naturalness" of joint interviews strengthens their credibility as the basis for analytic inferences. We suggest that joint interviews are a particularly appropriate method for studying complex shared practices such as making health decisions.

  15. The Exit Interview for Graduating Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Paddy A.; Jacobs, Keith W.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the practice of holding exit interviews with graduating psychology students at Loyola University (Louisiana). Discusses the benefits and limitations of exit interviews, stating that they provide unique data unavailable from other sources. (GEA)

  16. College Recruiting: After the Campus Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitts, Robert A.; Swails, Richard G.

    1982-01-01

    Studied the effectiveness of off-campus recruiting in personnel selection. Suggests that after the campus interview, site visit interviews, employment-offer communication, and initial employee training are important for companies seeking new college-trained personnel. (JAC)

  17. The MLA Interview: The Department's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadoff, Dianne F.

    1999-01-01

    Offers advice about interviewing at the Modern Language Association (MLA) convention: practice or rehearse issues; allow enthusiasm about teaching to show; model good teaching practices in the interview; and listen thoughtfully and resist the temptation to talk too much. (RS)

  18. Motivations to nurse: an exploration of what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enter nursing.

    PubMed

    Usher, Kim; West, Caryn; Macmanus, Mary; Waqa, Silina; Stewart, Lee; Henry, Renee; Lindsay, David; Conaglen, Jo; Hall, Julianne; McAuliffe, Marie; Redman-MacLaren, Michelle

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the motivations of student nurses enrolled in nursing courses across a variety of Pacific Island countries. The image of nursing, the desire to help others, family and friends in the profession, personal experience, security, travel opportunities and flexibility have all been identified as motivators for people to enter nursing. To date, what motivates students in Pacific Island countries to enrol in a nursing course has not been investigated. An exploratory qualitative approach using focus group interviews with 152 nursing students was undertaken. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis, revealing four themes: (i) helping others; (ii) 'making a difference for my people'; (iii) following in the footsteps of others; and (iv) financial and professional gain. In a time of health and nursing workforce shortages, developing a deeper understanding of what drives people can be used to improve recruitment strategies in the future.

  19. Drug offenders' perceptions of motivation: the role of motivation in rehabilitation and reintegration.

    PubMed

    Gideon, Lior

    2010-08-01

    This article presents a qualitative analysis of participants' perceptions of the importance of motivation in the detoxification and rehabilitation process. As part of an outcome evaluation of recovering drug addicts who participated in a prison-based therapeutic community, 39 participants (a nonrandomized subsample) are interviewed regarding their rehabilitation and reintegration experiences. Although many studies show that participation in prison-based drug treatment programs reduces the likelihood of recidivism, clients in this study suggest that other factors might be equally important, and in particular clients' own motivation to change their lives. This study raises some questions about the true ability of drug treatment programs to treat and rehabilitate drug-abusing offenders, diverting the emphasis from the treatment program itself to the participants' motivation to change. Findings are discussed in regard to prison-based drug treatment programs, after-release impediments encountered by inmates, and inmates' expectations of successful reintegration into the normative noncriminal society.

  20. The New Generation: Characteristics and Motivations of BME Graduate Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hussain, Javed G.; Scott, Jonathan M.; Hannon, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to profile the characteristics and entrepreneurial motivations of graduate entrepreneurs from black and minority ethnic (BME) communities. Design/methodology/approach: To gather the data, the authors interviewed selected individuals from within the BME community (including current students and graduates from…

  1. Motivational Factors Affecting Online Learning by Japanese MBA Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Hisayo

    2006-01-01

    In Japan, Internet based learning is still at an early stage. However, adult learners in Japanese society expect the development of flexible e-learning programs. This case study examines motivational factors affecting online learning in a Japanese and Australian MBA program, using observations, interviews and a questionnaire survey. The data were…

  2. Motivated to Learn: A Conversation with Daniel Pink

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2014-01-01

    The author has looked at four decades of scientific research on human motivation and found a mismatch between what science tells us and what organizations actually do. In this interview with "Educational Leadership," Pink shares his insights on how schools can create more optimal conditions for learning--and how they can dial up…

  3. Ambush or Seduction? Some Creative Approaches towards Motivating Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Michael

    2001-01-01

    This study considers the place of creativity in the preparation of learning materials used on the Internet and for virtual learning space. Reports on interviews and letters from specialist media practitioners who considered techniques that lead to successful information transfer and recall that help motivate learners. (Author/LRW)

  4. Sustaining Faculty Motivation for Academic Service-Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Alexa; Knight-McKenna, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Success in academic service-learning (AS-L) comes in large measure from the work of faculty dedicated to this pedagogy. The purpose of this study was to examine how faculty who have taught nine or more sections of AS-L courses sustain their motivation despite the pedagogy's inherent challenges. Individual interviews were conducted with 10 faculty…

  5. Motivational Engagement and Video Gaming: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Bobby; Nadelson, Louis

    2010-01-01

    A mixed methods design was used to identify factors associated with motivational engagement in video gaming. Self-report instruments were administered to 189 video game players to assess goal orientations, affect, need for cognition, and perceptions of engagement and flow. Simultaneously, a sub-set of 25 participants were interviewed and results…

  6. An Examination of University Student-Athletes' Motivations to Contribute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Colin Jeffery; Camiré, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Little research has examined why student-athletes contribute. "Contribution" can be defined as the actions taken by individuals that benefit their own well-being or that of their family, community, and civil society. The purpose of this study was to examine university student-athletes' motivations to contribute. Interviews were conducted…

  7. Motivations for Adolescents' First Visit to a Family Planning Clinic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Dana Belmonte; Darabi, Katherine F.

    1986-01-01

    New adolescent patients (N=150) at a large urban clinic were interviewed to determine what events or advice led to their decision to approach a family planning clinic for the first time. The roles of pregnancy scares, advice from significant others, and situational factors in motivating service use are presented. Program implications of these…

  8. GNVQ science at advanced level: motivation and self-esteem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, J.

    1995-07-01

    An interview study carried out in the pilot year of the new GNVQ in science at A-level has shown that the use of grading criteria, which require independent learning, as a method of assessment is better for students' motivation and self-esteem.

  9. Oral History as a Motivating Factor among Adult Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Janet H.; Lehman, Esther

    An exploratory study was designed to assess (1) whether a class created around older adults' personal recollections would motivate the class's involvement in adult education activities, (2) the oral history preparation process's impact on younger interviewers and older respondents, and (3) the instructional approach's strengths and weaknesses. The…

  10. Underage "Binge Drinking": A Qualitative Study into Motivations and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Lester; Cater, Suzanne

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports findings from a qualitative study examining young people's perceived motivations for "binge drinking", and the associated harmful outcomes. Sixty-four, in-depth, one-to-one interviews were carried out with 14 to 17 year olds in southern England who had experience of binge drinking. Given the underage sample, most of…

  11. Interviews as Performance: A Professional Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smillie, Jane

    1991-01-01

    Asserts that the interview is a complex communicative interaction rather than simply an exchange of information. Discusses the goals of the interviewer and the interviewee, their hidden agendas, and the effects of confrontation. Addresses issues of power and control and examines what makes an interview work. (PRA)

  12. Telephone Interviewing Practices within Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, Debra; Robbins, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the use of telephone interviews within academic libraries by surveying the 112 academic institutional members of the Association of Research Libraries to identify how telephone interviews are utilized. By comparing the literature to the research results, the authors conclude with best practices for telephone interviews.…

  13. Qualitative Interviewing as an Embodied Emotional Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ezzy, Douglas

    2010-01-01

    The article argues that the emotional framing of interviews plays a major role in shaping the content of interviews. Drawing on the psychoanalytic theory of Jessica Benjamin and Luce Irigaray, the article describes how interviews can be experienced as either conquest or communion. Qualitative researchers typically focus on the cognitively…

  14. The Novice Researcher: Interviewing Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danby, Susan; Ewing, Lynette; Thorpe, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Being a novice researcher undertaking research interviews with young children requires understandings of the interview process. By investigating the interaction between a novice researcher undertaking her first interview and a child participant, the authors attend to theoretical principles, such as the competence of young children as informants,…

  15. Interview "Problems" as Topics for Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roulston, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    In this article the author argues that interactional difficulties and questioning practices identified in the methodological literature on qualitative interviewing as "problems" provide topics of analysis. Methodological examinations of interview data drawing on conversation analysis also explicate how interview "problems" may be conceptualized in…

  16. The Emotionally Challenging, Open-Ended Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Elizabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    For most job candidates, the interview experience is "an emotionally challenging endeavor." To succeed in interviews, candidates must understand the emotional labor needed to "manage their feelings" as they "create a publicly observable facial and bodily display." This is particularly true when recruiters use open-ended interviews that are not…

  17. 28 CFR 540.63 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may not receive compensation or anything of value for interviews with the news media. (b) Either an inmate or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at...

  18. 28 CFR 540.63 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may not receive compensation or anything of value for interviews with the news media. (b) Either an inmate or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at...

  19. 28 CFR 540.63 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may not receive compensation or anything of value for interviews with the news media. (b) Either an inmate or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at...

  20. 28 CFR 540.63 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may not receive compensation or anything of value for interviews with the news media. (b) Either an inmate or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at...

  1. 28 CFR 540.63 - Personal interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WITH PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.63 Personal interviews. (a) An inmate may not receive compensation or anything of value for interviews with the news media. (b) Either an inmate or a representative of the news media may initiate a request for a personal interview at...

  2. Qualitative Interviewing: The Art of Hearing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Herbert J.; Rubin, Irene S.

    Intended for students and for researchers who conduct interviews as part of case studies or as ethnography, this book provides a comprehensive, up-to-date introduction to the theory and practice of qualitative interviewing. It shows researchers how to design research based on interview data; to stimulate conversation; to absorb what is being said;…

  3. An Interview with Jose Eustaquio Romao

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordao, Clarissa Menezes

    2007-01-01

    In anticipation of the European Union (EU) Year of Intercultural Dialogue, 2008, Clarissa Menezes Jordao interviewed Jose Eustaquio Romao, Director of the Paulo Freire Institute in Brazil. Her edited translation of that interview is presented here. In the interview Romao, guided by the legacy of Brazilian educator, Paulo Freire, discusses the…

  4. The Structured Assessment Interview: A Psychometric Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paget, Kathleen D.

    1984-01-01

    Examines five structured interview formats for assessing psychopathology in children. Presents information illustrating specific characteristics of each interview. Includes reliability and validity data, and draws implications for use of interviews in school settings. Offers suggestions for the development of structured formats and for avenues of…

  5. 14 CFR 1213.105 - Interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA... American public. However, journalists may have access to the NASA officials they seek to interview, provided those NASA officials agree to be interviewed. (c) NASA employees may speak to the media and...

  6. 14 CFR 1213.105 - Interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA... American public. However, journalists may have access to the NASA officials they seek to interview, provided those NASA officials agree to be interviewed. (c) NASA employees may speak to the media and...

  7. 14 CFR § 1213.105 - Interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA... American public. However, journalists may have access to the NASA officials they seek to interview, provided those NASA officials agree to be interviewed. (c) NASA employees may speak to the media and...

  8. 14 CFR 1213.105 - Interviews.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... regarding NASA policy, programmatic, and budget issues. (b) In response to media interview requests, NASA... American public. However, journalists may have access to the NASA officials they seek to interview, provided those NASA officials agree to be interviewed. (c) NASA employees may speak to the media and...

  9. Adding Value to Scholarly Journals through a Citation Indexing System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zainab, A. N.; Abrizah, A.; Raj, R. G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to relate the problems identified about scholarly journal publishing in Malaysia to establish motivation for the system development; to describe the design of MyCite, a Malaysian citation indexing system and to highlight the added value to journals and articles indexed through the generation of bibliometrics…

  10. Motivating employees. Applying motivational theories to nursing.

    PubMed

    Pustai, I

    1989-12-01

    Managers provide the critical link between the delivery of nursing care and the administration. It is vital for nurse managers to provide a work environment that supports professional nursing practices. Staff nurses are taught how to carry out clinical functions. For them to develop and practice advanced clinical skills, managers have to buffer the pressures of daily operations. They must ask themselves, "Am I committed to my employees?" "Am I an enthusiastic role model for my employees?" "Do I use positive motivating techniques?" "Do I know each of my employees personally as a unique individual?" "What can I do to create an environment that supports my employees?" and "How can I make each of my employees feel respected and worthy?" If the manager, whether experienced or not, can answer these questions honestly and apply motivational techniques differently, he or she will be the best kind of manager: a true leader.

  11. Simulating motivated cognition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gevarter, William B.

    1991-01-01

    A research effort to develop a sophisticated computer model of human behavior is described. A computer framework of motivated cognition was developed. Motivated cognition focuses on the motivations or affects that provide the context and drive in human cognition and decision making. A conceptual architecture of the human decision-making approach from the perspective of information processing in the human brain is developed in diagrammatic form. A preliminary version of such a diagram is presented. This architecture is then used as a vehicle for successfully constructing a computer program simulation Dweck and Leggett's findings that relate how an individual's implicit theories orient them toward particular goals, with resultant cognitions, affects, and behavior.

  12. Promoting Speaking Proficiency through Motivation and Interaction: The Study Abroad and Classroom Learning Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Todd A.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates how motivation and interaction shape the speaking proficiency of study abroad (SA) and classroom or at home (AH) language learners. The author administered a motivation questionnaire, language contact profile, and pretest and posttest simulated oral proficiency interview. The data reveal that SA and AH students had similar…

  13. Why Teaching? Motivations Influencing Beginning Teachers' Choice of Profession and Teaching Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellsten, Laurie-Ann M.; Prytula, Michelle P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores why beginning teachers in Saskatchewan chose to enter the profession and the importance of these motivations in their first year as teachers. More specifically, using survey and interview methodologies, the purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the entry motivations of Saskatchewan beginning teachers; (2) determine if…

  14. Cross-Grade Analysis of Chinese Students' English Learning Motivation: A Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Qian-Mei; Kim, Tae-Young

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-methods study investigated the changes in Chinese students' motivation to learn English from elementary to high school and explored the reasons for these changes at different school levels. A motivational questionnaire was designed and administered to 3,777 elementary, junior high, and high school students, and follow-up interviews were…

  15. Exploring the Influences of Elementary School Students' Learning Motivation on Web-Based Collaborative Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin-Fei, Huang; Chia-Ju, Liu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the influences of students' learning motivation on Web-based collaborative learning. This study conducted learning materials of Web pages about science and collaborative learning, a motivation questionnaire and interviews were used for data collection. Eighty Grade 5 students and a science teacher were…

  16. Perceptions of Motivation in Developmental Mathematics Students: I Would Rather Drill My Own Teeth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Nancy Carol

    The purpose of this dissertation was to describe motivation in developmental mathematics students, particularly in low-performing students. Data collection involved interviews with developmental mathematics faculty members who were asked to describe the motivation of developmental mathematics students, analyses of student learning journals, and…

  17. Personal Growth as a Strong Element in the Motivation of Australian University Students to Learn German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    For the last ten years, language learning motivation research has focussed on how learners see knowledge of a language as part of their identity. This article presents the findings of a qualitative interview study that investigated whether personal growth is also a strong element in the motivation of Australian university students to learn German.…

  18. Better Myself: Motivation of African Americans to Participate in Correctional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Raphael

    2005-01-01

    This study interviewed 15 incarcerated African American males about their participation in correctional education. The data was considered in light of various motivation theories with particular emphasis on a sociocultural theory of motivation. The largest amount of data described non-educational reasons subjects participate in correctional…

  19. Elementary School Teachers' ICT Use in the Classroom and Their Motivators for Using ICT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uluyol, Çelebi; Sahin, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Teachers play a significant role in integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in schools, and motivated teachers reflect higher levels of ICT use in their classroom. In this study, we used semistructured interviews to investigate elementary school teachers' ICT use and their motivators for doing so. The participants consisted of…

  20. Opening up "Spaces for Manoeuvre": English Teacher Perspectives on Learner Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glas, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study explores teachers' perspectives on learner motivation for English in Chilean secondary schools. Drawing both on motivation theories and on concepts related to teacher cognition, autonomy and agency, the analysis of 19 semi-structured interviews with Chilean English teachers sheds light on the difficulties that many teachers…