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Sample records for adding raw wastewater

  1. 76 FR 44855 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... 319 and 381 [Docket No. FSIS-2010-0012] RIN 0583-AD41 Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry... a common or usual name for raw meat and poultry products that do not meet standard of identity... accurate description of the raw meat or poultry component, the percentage of added solution...

  2. Amplicon-based profiling of bacteria in raw and secondary treated wastewater from treatment plants across Australia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Warish; Staley, Christopher; Sidhu, Jatinder; Sadowsky, Michael; Toze, Simon

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the use of Illumina high-throughput sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) amplicons to explore microbial diversity and community structure in raw and secondary treated wastewater (WW) samples from four municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs A-D) across Australia. Sequence reads were analyzed to determine the abundance and diversity of bacterial communities in raw and secondary treated WW samples across the four WWTPs. In addition, sequence reads were also characterized to phenotypic features and to estimate the abundance of potential pathogenic bacterial genera and antibiotic-resistant genes in total bacterial communities. The mean coverage, Shannon diversity index, observed richness (S obs), and abundance-based coverage estimate (ACE) of richness for raw and secondary treated WW samples did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among the four WWTPs examined. Generally, raw and secondary treated WW samples were dominated by members of the genera Pseudomonas, Arcobacter, and Bacteroides. Evaluation of source contributions to secondary treated WW, done using SourceTracker, revealed that 8.80-61.4% of the bacterial communities in secondary treated WW samples were attributed to raw WW. Twenty-five bacterial genera were classified as containing potential bacterial pathogens. The abundance of potentially pathogenic genera in raw WW samples was higher than that found in secondary treated WW samples. Among the pathogenic genera identified, Pseudomonas and Arcobacter had the greatest percentage of the sequence reads. The abundances of antibiotic resistance genes were generally low (<0.5%), except for genes encoding ABC transporters, which accounted for approximately 3% of inferred genes. These findings provided a comprehensive profile of bacterial communities, including potential bacterial pathogens and antibiotic-resistant genes, in raw and secondary treated WW samples from four WWTPs across Australia and demonstrated that Illumina

  3. Strategies for dephenolization of raw olive mill wastewater by means of Pleurotus ostreatus.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Giardina, Paola; Marzocchella, Antonio; Sannia, Giovanni; Salatino, Piero

    2012-05-01

    The reduction of polyphenols content in olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major issue in olive oil manufacturing. Although researchers have pointed out the potential of white-rot fungus in dephenolizing OMW, the results available in the literature mainly concern pretreated (sterilized) OMW. This paper deals with the reduction of polyphenols content in untreated OMW by means of a white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. Dephenolization was performed both in an airlift bioreactor and in aerated flasks. The process was carried out under controlled non-sterile conditions, with different operating configurations (batch, continuous, biomass recycling) representative of potential industrial operations. Total organic carbon, polyphenols concentration, phenol oxidase activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, oxygen consumption rate, and pH were measured during every run. Tests were carried out with or without added nutrients (potato starch and potato dextrose) and laccases inducers (i.e., CuSO₄). OMW endogenous microorganisms were competing with P. ostreatus for oxygen during simultaneous fermentation. Dephenolization of raw OMW by P. ostreatus under single batch was as large as 70%. Dephenolization was still extensive even when biomass was recycled up to six times. OMW pre-aeration had to be provided under continuous operation to avoid oxygen consumption by endogenous microorganisms that might spoil the process. The role of laccases in the dephenolization process has been discussed. Dephenolization under batch conditions with biomass recycling and added nutrients proved to be the most effective configuration for OMW polyphenols reduction in industrial plants (42-68% for five cycles).

  4. Helminth eggs in raw and treated wastewater in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mahvi, A H; Kia, E B

    2006-01-01

    To assess the type and load of helminths in wastewater and the quality of treatment, we examined the raw and treated wastewater of 8 wastewater treatment plants (WTP) in Tehran and 2 in Isfahan for the presence of helminth eggs during 2002-2003. Wastewater samples obtained from both inlet and effluent of each treatment plant were examined on several occasions using the modified Bailenger method. Untreated entry wastewater in Tehran WTPs contained a larger variety of helminth eggs than those of Isfahan, as well as higher total egg counts. The helminths identified in the influent of Tehran included Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworms, Enterobius vermicularis, Trichostrongylus spp., Taenia spp., Hymenolepis nana and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, while in Isfahan only A. lumbricoides, Trichostriogylus and H. nana were isolated. After treatment, the number of eggs/L fell to < or = 1 egg/L.

  5. Suitability of artificial sweeteners as indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Hu, Jiangyong; Li, Jinhua; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-01-01

    There is no quantitative data on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in the aquatic environment in Southeast Asian countries, particularly no information on their suitability as indicators of raw wastewater contamination on surface water and groundwater. This study provided the first quantitative information on the occurrence of artificial sweeteners in raw wastewater, surface water and groundwater in the urban catchment area in Singapore. Acesulfame, cyclamate, saccharin, and sucralose were ubiquitous in raw wastewater samples at concentrations in the range of ng/L-μg/L, while other sweeteners were not found or found only in a few of the raw wastewater samples. Residential and commercial effluents were demonstrated to be the two main sources of artificial sweeteners entering the municipal sewer systems. Relatively higher concentrations of the detected sweeteners were frequently found in surface waters at the sampling sites located in the residential/commercial areas. No significant difference in the concentrations of the detected sweeteners in surface water or groundwater was noted between wet and dry weather conditions (unpaired T-test, p> 0.05). Relatively higher concentrations and detection frequencies of acesulfame, cyclamate and saccharin in surface water samples were observed at the potentially impacted sampling sites, while these sweeteners were absent in most of the background surface water samples. Similarly, acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin were found in most groundwater samples at the monitoring well (GW6), which is located close to known leaking sewer segment; whereas these were absent in the background monitoring well, which is located in the catchment with no known wastewater sources. Taken together, the results suggest that acesulfame, cyclamate, and saccharin can be used as potential indicators of raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

  6. Raw wastewater agricultural re-use and risk of protozoal infection in Beni-Mellal, Morocco.

    PubMed

    Habbari, K; Tifnouti, A; Bitton, G; Mandil, A

    1999-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the potential risk of protozoal infection associated with raw wastewater use for agricultural purposes, among children of Beni-Mellal, Morocco. In a randomly-selected sample of 1343 children 740 from 5 regions which use raw wastewater for agriculture (exposed), while 603 were from 4 control regions that do not practice wastewater irrigation (unexposed). A questionnaire-interview with children and parents was used to collect data on demographic, hygienic, and risky water contact risk factors One or more protozoal infection was identified among 276(37.2%) of children living in the wastewater re-use regions, versus only among 22 (3.6%) living in control regions. The overall prevalence of 40.1% was observed among boys, and 33.3% among girls residing in exposed areas. The two identified protozoa were Entaemoeba histolytica and Giardia intestinalis, which infected 34.3% and 5.1% in the exposed population compared to only 3.3% and 0.3% in the control population, respectively. We also noted that the G. intestinalis prevalence was more than 40% among the children under 9 years, but less than 17% for those who were more than 12 years. Also, a significant excess of protozoal infection was observed among children who had risky contact with agricultural lands (p<0.001). In conclusion, raw wastewater use in Beni-Mellal can lead to a high risk of protozoal infections. Adequate treatment of wastewater prior to re-use, as well as public health education are highly recommended.

  7. Distribution of Giardia duodenalis Genotypes and Subgenotypes in Raw Urban Wastewater in Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, Irshad M.; Jiang, Jianlin; Singh, Ajaib; Xiao, Lihua

    2004-01-01

    Giardia cysts in 131 raw wastewater samples from Milwaukee, Wis., were genotyped by sequence analysis of the triosephosphate isomerase gene which showed the presence of two distinct genotypes (assemblages A and B) of Giardia duodenalis. Of the 131 samples, 111 belonged to assemblage A, and the remaining samples belonged to assemblage B. A high degree of genetic polymorphism was evident within the assemblage B cluster, with 10 distinct subgenotypes identified, eight of which have not been reported before. PMID:15184191

  8. Peroxide test strips detect added hydrogen peroxide in raw milk at levels affecting bacterial load.

    PubMed

    Martin, Nicole H; Friedlander, Adam; Mok, Allen; Kent, David; Wiedmann, Martin; Boor, Kathryn J

    2014-10-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) has a long-established history of use as a preservative in milk worldwide. The use of H2O2 to activate the inherent lactoperoxidase enzyme system has dramatically improved the quality of raw dairy products in areas in which cooling is not widely available. In the United States, however, where refrigeration is widely available, the addition of H2O2 to milk is not permitted, with the exception of certain applications prior to cheesemaking and during the preparation of modified whey. Due to the relatively quick deterioration of H2O2 in fluid milk, the detection of raw milk adulterated with the compound can be challenging. In this study we evaluated (i) total aerobic bacterial counts and (ii) ability of peroxide test strips to detect H2O2 in raw milk with various concentrations (0, 100, 300, 500, 700, and 900 ppm) of added H2O2, incubated at both 6 and 21°C for 0, 24, and 48 h. Results showed that at both 6 and 21°C the H2O2 concentration and time had a significant effect on bacterial loads in raw milk. Additionally, commercially available test strips were able to detect H2O2 in raw milk, with predicted probability of >90%, immediately after addition and after 24 and 48 h for the higher concentrations used, offering a viable method for detecting raw milk adulteration with H2O2.

  9. 76 FR 69146 - Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions-Reopening of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions--Reopening of Comment Period AGENCY: Food Safety..., ``Common or Usual Name for Raw Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions.'' It is also providing... Meat and Poultry Products Containing Added Solutions'' (76 FR 44855) to amend its regulations...

  10. One-year Surveillance of Human Enteric Viruses in Raw and Treated Wastewaters, Downstream River Waters, and Drinking Waters.

    PubMed

    Iaconelli, M; Muscillo, M; Della Libera, S; Fratini, M; Meucci, L; De Ceglia, M; Giacosa, D; La Rosa, G

    2017-03-01

    Human enteric viruses are a major cause of waterborne diseases, and can be transmitted by contaminated water of all kinds, including drinking and recreational water. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of enteric viruses (enterovirus, norovirus, adenovirus, hepatitis A and E virus) in raw and treated wastewaters, in rivers receiving wastewater discharges, and in drinking waters. Wastewater treatment plants' (WWTP) pathogen removal efficiencies by adenovirus quantitative real-time PCR and the presence of infectious enterovirus, by cell culture assays, in treated wastewaters and in surface waters were also evaluated. A total of 90 water samples were collected: raw and treated wastewaters (treated effluents and ultrafiltered water reused for industrial purposes), water from two rivers receiving treated discharges, and drinking water. Nested PCR assays were used for the identification of viral DNA/RNA, followed by direct amplicon sequencing. All raw sewage samples (21/21), 61.9 % of treated wastewater samples (13/21), and 25 % of ultrafiltered water samples (3/12) were contaminated with at least one viral family. Multiple virus families and genera were frequently detected. Mean positive PCRs per sample decreased significantly from raw to treated sewage and to ultrafiltered waters. Moreover, quantitative adenovirus data showed a reduction in excess of 99 % in viral genome copies following wastewater treatment. In surface waters, 78.6 % (22/28) of samples tested positive for one or more viruses by molecular methods, but enterovirus-specific infectivity assays did not reveal infectious particles in these samples. All drinking water samples tested negative for all viruses, demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment in removing viral pathogens from drinking water. Integrated strategies to manage water from all sources are crucial to ensure water quality.

  11. Scale-up of biopesticide production processes using wastewater sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D; Valèro, J R; Surampalli, R Y; Smith, J

    2004-12-01

    Studies were conducted on the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-based biopesticides to ascertain the performance of the process in shake flasks, and in two geometrically similar fermentors (15 and 150 l) utilizing wastewater sludge as a raw material. The results showed that it was possible to achieve better oxygen transfer in the larger capacity fermentor. Viable cell counts increased by 38-55% in the bioreactor compared to shake flasks. As for spore counts, an increase of 25% was observed when changing from shake flask to fermentor experiments. Spore counts were unchanged in bench (15 l) and pilot scale (5.3-5.5 e(+08) cfu/ml; 150 l). An improvement of 30% in the entomotoxicity potential was obtained at pilot scale. Protease activity increased by two to four times at bench and pilot scale, respectively, compared to the maximum activity obtained in shake flasks. The maximum protease activity (4.1 IU/ml) was obtained in pilot scale due to better oxygen transfer. The Bt fermentation process using sludge as raw material was successfully scaled up and resulted in high productivity for toxin protein yield and a high protease activity.

  12. Comparison of biological and advanced treatment processes for ciprofloxacin removal in a raw hospital wastewater.

    PubMed

    Guney, Gokce; Sponza, Delia Teresa

    2016-12-01

    The treatability of ciprofloxacin (CIP) antibiotic was investigated using a single aerobic, a single anaerobic, an anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system, a sonicator and a photocatalytic reactor with TiO2 nanoparticles in a raw hospital wastewater in Izmir, Turkey. The effects of increasing organic loading on the performance of all biological systems were investigated, while the effects of power and time on the yields of sonication and photocatalysis were determined. The maximum COD and CIP yields were 95% and 83% in anaerobic/aerobic sequential reactor system at an HRT of 10 days and at an OLR of 0.19 g COD/L × day after 50 days of incubation, respectively. The maximum CH4 gas production was 580 mL day(-1) at an HRT of 6.7 days. The maximum COD and CIP yields were 95% and 81% after 45 min sonication time at a power of 640 W and a frequency of 35 kHz while the maximum yield of COD and CIP were 98% and 88% after 45 min UV irradiation time with a UV power of 210 W using 0.5 g L(-1) TiO2. Among the aforementioned treatment processes, it was found that the highest treatment yields for COD (98%) and CIP (88%) pollutants were obtained with the photocatalytic process due to high OH((●)) radical productions.

  13. Study on submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor (SAMBR) treating high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater for biogas production.

    PubMed

    Umaiyakunjaram, R; Shanmugam, P

    2016-09-01

    This study deals with the treatment of high suspended solids raw tannery wastewater using flat sheet Submerged Anaerobic Membrane (0.4μm) Bioreactor (SAMBR) acclimatized with hypersaline anaerobic seed sludge for recovering biogas. The treatability of SAMBR achieved higher CODremoval efficiency (90%) and biogas yield (0.160L.g(-1) CODremoved) coincided with high r(2) values between permeate flux and TSS (0.95), biogas and COD removed (0.96). The acidification of hypersaline influent wastewater by biogas mixing with high CO2, achieved quadruplet benefit of gas liquid and solid separation, in-situ pH and NH3 control, in-situ CH4 enrichment, and prevention of membrane fouling. The initial high VFA became stable as time elapsed reveals the hydrolysing ability of particulate COD into soluble COD and into biogas, confirms the suitability of SAMBR for high suspended solids tannery wastewater.

  14. Treatment of textile wastewater by submerged membrane bioreactor: In vitro bioassays for the assessment of stress response elicited by raw and reclaimed wastewater.

    PubMed

    Friha, Inès; Bradai, Mohamed; Johnson, Daniel; Hilal, Nidal; Loukil, Slim; Ben Amor, Fatma; Feki, Firas; Han, Junkuy; Isoda, Hiroko; Sayadi, Sami

    2015-09-01

    The performance of a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) system for the treatment of textile wastewater was investigated. The MBR was continuously operated for 7 months. Very high treatment efficiencies were achieved (color, 100%; chemical oxygen demand (COD), 98%; biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), 96%; suspended solids (SS), 100%). Furthermore, the MBR treatment efficiency was analyzed from a toxicological-risk assessment point of view, via different In vitro bioassays using Caco-2 cells, a widely used cell model in toxicological studies. Results showed that MBR treatment significantly reduced the raw textile wastewater (RTWW) cytotoxicity on Caco-2 cells by 53% for a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2 days. Additionally, the RTWW-induced disruption in the barrier function (BF) of the Caco-2 cell monolayer was also significantly reduced after MBR treatment under a HRT of 2 days (no disruption of BF was observed). Moreover, the effect of RTWW and treated wastewater on stress response was investigated using different stress genes: AHSA1, HSPD1, HSPA1A, HSPA5 and HSPA8. The cell exposure to RTWW significantly increased the expression of all used stress genes; interestingly, the treated wastewater (HRT 2 days) did not show any significant modulation of the stress genes.

  15. Start-up period investigation of pilot-scale submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) treating raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shadi W; Elektorowicz, Maria; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

    2014-02-01

    Submerged membrane electro-bioreactor (SMEBR) is a new hybrid technology for wastewater treatment employing electrical field and microfiltration in a nutrient-removing activated sludge process. A pilot SMEBR system was located at the wastewater treatment plant in the City of l'Assomption (Quebec, Canada) with the objective of investigating the start-up period performance under variable organic loadings and environmental conditions with respect to effluent quality, membrane fouling, and sludge properties. The pilot SMEBR facility was fed with the raw de-gritted municipal wastewater. At steady state operation, the removal efficiencies of ammonia (as NH3(+)-N), phosphorus (as PO4(3-)-P), and COD were 99%, 99%, and 92%, respectively. No substantial increase in the monitored transmembrane pressure as 0.02kPad(-1) was reported. The time necessary to filter 100mL of the sludge sample has decreased by 78% after treatment whilst the sludge volume index averaged 119mLg(-1). Energy requirements were in the range of 1.1-1.6kWhm(-3) of wastewater. It was concluded that the SMEBR is a very competitive technology when compared to conventional membrane systems as it can enhance treatment performance to an appreciable extent, remove phosphorus and reduce fouling.

  16. Concentration evolution of pharmaceutically active compounds in raw urban and industrial wastewater.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Martín, Julia; Santos, Juan Luis; Aparicio, Irene; Alonso, Esteban

    2014-09-01

    The distribution of pharmaceutically active compounds in the environment has been reported in several works in which wastewater treatment plants have been identified as the main source of these compounds to the environment. The concentrations of these compounds in influent wastewater can vary widely not only during the day but also along the year, because of the seasonal-consumption patterns of some pharmaceuticals. However, only few studies have attempted to assess the hourly variability of the concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds in wastewater. In this work, the distribution and seasonal and hourly variability of twenty-one pharmaceuticals, belonging to seven therapeutic groups, have been investigated in urban and industrial wastewater. The highest concentrations of pharmaceutically active compounds, except salicylic acid, were found in urban wastewater, especially in the case of anti-inflammatory drugs and caffeine. The highest concentrations of salicylic acid were measured in industrial wastewater, reaching concentration levels up to 3295μgL(-)(1). The studied pharmaceutically active compounds showed different distribution patterns during winter and summer periods. Temporal variability of pharmaceutically active compounds during a 24-h period showed a distribution in concordance with their consumption and excretion patterns, in the case of urban wastewater, and with the schedule of industrial activities, in the case of industrial wastewater.

  17. Industrial wastewater as raw material for exopolysaccharide production by Rhizobium leguminosarum.

    PubMed

    Sellami, Mohamed; Oszako, Tomasz; Miled, Nabil; Ben Rebah, Faouzi

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production by Rhizobium leguminosarum cultivated in wastewater generated by oil companies (WWOC1 and WWOC2) and fish processing industry (WWFP). The results obtained in Erlenmeyer flasks indicated that the rhizobial strain grew well in industrial wastewater. Generally, wastewater composition affected the growth and the EPS production. WWFP allowed good bacterial growth similar to that obtained with the standard medium (YMB). During growth, various quantities of EPS were produced and yields varied depending on the media. Growing in YMB, EPS production did not exceed 9.7 g/L obtained after 72 h of growth. In wastewater, the maximum EPS value reached 11.1 g/L obtained with the fish processing wastewater, after 72 h of growth. The use of a mixture of the oil company wastewater (WWOC2) and the fish processing wastewater (WWFP) as culture medium affected not only the rhizobial strain growth, but also EPS production. The highest EPS (42.4 g/L, after 96 h of culture) was obtained using a ratio of WWFP and WWOC2 of 50:50 (v:v). Therefore, this work shows the ability of Rhizobium leguminosarum, growing in industrial wastewater as new economic medium, to produce EPS. This biopolymer could be applied in enormous biotechnological areas.

  18. Production integrated treatment of textile wastewater by closing raw material cycles.

    PubMed

    Krull, R

    2005-01-01

    A method for the in-house treatment of partial wastewater flows and the recycling of treated process water into the textile finishing process was developed in order to recycle effluents from textile finishing industry and feed them back into the production process. The method is based on a two-stage biological anaerobic-aerobic process to split colouring wastewater agents and to degrade organic substances contained in the water as well as a chemical stage to remove the remaining color of the water with the help of ozone. In the framework of a research and development project a demonstration plant for a treatment capacity of 1440 m3 per working day was installed and started in a textile finishing company. At the plant, a wastewater flow and a recycling flow are treated separately in two different treatment lanes. Approximately 40% of the total wastewater flows, i.e. 576 m3/d are treated in the wastewater lane, and a maximum of 60% of total wastewater, i.e. 864 m3/d are treated in the recycling lane. Thanks to the preliminary treatment of wastewater flows, which are discharged into the municipal sewage works, a reduction of average COD levels in the sewage works effluents could be achieved.

  19. Raw and biologically treated paper mill wastewater effluents and the recipient surface waters: Cytotoxic and genotoxic activity and the presence of endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Balabanič, Damjan; Filipič, Metka; Krivograd Klemenčič, Aleksandra; Žegura, Bojana

    2017-01-01

    Paper mill effluents are complex mixtures containing different toxic compounds including endocrine-disrupting (EDCs) and genotoxic compounds. In the present study non-concentrated raw and biologically treated wastewaters from two paper mill plants with different paper production technologies i) Paper mill A uses virgin fibres, and ii) Paper mill B uses recycled fibres for paper production and the corresponding receiving surface waters, were assessed for their cytotoxic/genotoxic activity with SOS/umuC, Ames MPF 98/100 Aqua, and comet assay with human hepatoma HepG2 cells. In addition the levels of seven selected EDCs were quantified in wastewater samples and receiving surface waters. All investigated EDCs were confirmed in raw and biologically treated effluents from both paper mills with concentrations being markedly higher in Paper mill B effluents. In the receiving surface waters three of the studied EDCs were determined downstream of both paper mills effluent discharge. The wastewater samples and the recipient surface water samples from Paper mill A were not mutagenic for bacteria and did not induce DNA damage in HepG2 cells. On the contrary, half of the raw wastewater samples from Paper mill B were mutagenic whereas biologically treated wastewater and the recipient surface water samples were negative. In HepG2 cells most of the raw and biologically treated wastewater samples from Paper mill B as well as surface water samples collected downstream of Paper mill B effluent discharge induced DNA damage. The results confirmed that genotoxic contaminants were present only in wastewaters from Paper mill B that uses recycled fibres for paper production, and that the combined aerobic and anaerobic wastewater treatment procedure efficiently reduced contaminants that are bacterial mutagens, but not those that induce DNA damage in HepG2 cells. This study highlights that in addition to chemical analyses bioassays are needed for a comprehensive toxicological evaluation of

  20. Occurrence and suitability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as molecular markers for raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Li, Jinhua; Hu, Jiangyong; Ong, Say Leong

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to provide the first and comprehensive data on the occurrence of 17 target pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in urban water environment in Singapore. Meanwhile, this study also verified the suitability of these PPCPs as specific markers of raw wastewater contamination in receiving water bodies in highly urbanized areas where both surface water and groundwater are not impacted by the discharge of treated wastewater effluents. Analytical results of wastewater showed that among 17 target PPCPs examined, only 5 PPCPs were detected in 100 % of raw wastewater samples, including acetaminophen (ACT), carbamazepine (CBZ), caffeine (CF), diethyltoluamide (DEET), and salicylic acid (SA). Similarly, these PPCPs were found in most surface water and groundwater. Interestingly, the three PPCPs (ACT, CBZ, and SA) were only detected in surface water and groundwater in the sampling sites close to relatively older sewer systems, while they were absent in background samples that were collected from the catchment with no known wastewater sources. This suggests that ACT, CBZ, and SA can be used as specific molecular markers of raw wastewater in surface water and groundwater. This study also confirmed that CF and DEET were not really associated with wastewater sources, thus cannot serve well as specific molecular markers of wastewater contamination in receiving water bodies. To the best knowledge of the authors, the use of ACT and SA as specific molecular markers of raw wastewater contamination in urban surface waters and groundwater was first reported. Further studies on the use of ACT, CBZ, and SA along with other chemical/microbial markers are recommended to identify and differentiate contamination sources of surface waters/groundwater.

  1. Comparative evaluation of three attached growth systems and a constructed wetland for in situ treatment of raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Loupasaki, E; Diamadopoulos, E

    2013-01-01

    The necessity to treat municipal wastewaters in situ, with a low cost, yet effective system, led to the research of alternative methods for wastewater treatment. Attached growth systems can be an alternative option. Three attached growth systems with different media substrate, a rockwool cubes unit, a Kaldnes rings unit and a plastic bottle caps unit were studied in comparison with a constructed wetland in order to evaluate their ability to treat raw municipal wastewater. The selection of the three different media was based on their high porosity and surface area, as well as their availability and price. Three different operating periods were carried out with variations in the organic loading rate and the feeding frequency. The units were fed intermittently with short resting periods, less than 32 h, and relative high mean organic loading rates of 70, 50 and 30 g chemical oxygen demand (COD)/(m2d), respectively for each operating period. The constructed wetland and the rockwool cubes unit were the most effective, with mean COD reduction as mass rate (mg/d) 88% and 88%, biological oxygen demand 78% and 76%, dissolved organic carbon 73% and 67%, and total suspended solids 91% and 92%, respectively. Total nitrogen reduction was significantly higher at the constructed wetland with mean reduction as mass rate 51%, 60% and 83% for each period, compared to 41%, 43% and 60%, respectively, of the rockwool cubes unit. This study showed that it is possible to design, build and operate in situ small and decentralized treatment systems by using readily available packing materials and with minimum wastewater pretreatment.

  2. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J

    2015-09-09

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages--GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1--had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5-15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment.

  3. Bacteriophages of wastewater foaming-associated filamentous Gordonia reduce host levels in raw activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei; Gill, Jason J.; Young, Ry; Summer, Elizabeth J.

    2015-01-01

    Filamentous bacteria are a normal and necessary component of the activated sludge wastewater treatment process, but the overgrowth of filamentous bacteria results in foaming and bulking associated disruptions. Bacteriophages, or phages, were investigated for their potential to reduce the titer of foaming bacteria in a mixed-microbial activated sludge matrix. Foaming-associated filamentous bacteria were isolated from activated sludge of a commercial wastewater treatment plan and identified as Gordonia species by 16S rDNA sequencing. Four representative phages were isolated that target G. malaquae and two un-named Gordonia species isolates. Electron microscopy revealed the phages to be siphophages with long tails. Three of the phages - GordTnk2, Gmala1, and GordDuk1 - had very similar ~76 kb genomes, with >93% DNA identity. These genomes shared limited synteny with Rhodococcus equi phage ReqiDocB7 and Gordonia phage GTE7. In contrast, the genome of phage Gsput1 was smaller (43 kb) and was not similar enough to any known phage to be placed within an established phage type. Application of these four phages at MOIs of 5–15 significantly reduced Gordonia host levels in a wastewater sludge model by approximately 10-fold as compared to non-phage treated reactors. Phage control was observed for nine days after treatment. PMID:26349678

  4. Low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater reduced labile C and enhanced organic-inorganic N and enzymatic activities in a semiarid alkaline soil.

    PubMed

    Roohi, Mahnaz; Riaz, Muhammad; Arif, Muhammad Saleem; Shahzad, Sher Muhammad; Yasmeen, Tahira; Ashraf, Muhammad Arslan; Riaz, Muhammad Atif; Mian, Ishaq A

    2017-02-01

    Application of raw and treated wastewater for irrigation is an extensive practice for agricultural production in arid and semiarid regions. Raw textile wastewater has been used for cultivation in urban and peri-urban areas in Pakistan without any systematic consideration to soil quality. We conducted a laboratory incubation study to investigate the effects of low C/N ratio raw textile wastewater on soil nitrogen (N) contents, labile carbon (C) as water-soluble C (WSC) contents, and activities of urease and dehydrogenase enzymes. The 60-day incubation study used an alkaline clay loam aridisol that received 0 (distilled water), 25, 50, and 100% wastewater concentrations, and microcosms were incubated aerobically under room temperature at 70% water holding capacity. Results revealed that raw wastewater significantly (p < 0.05) changed soil N pools and processes, WSC contents, and enzymatic activities. The organic and inorganic N species increased with increasing wastewater concentrations, whereas WSC contents followed an opposite trend. The highest NH4(+)-N and NO3(-)-N contents were observed in soil treated with 100% wastewater. The extractable organic N (EON) contents always represented >50% of the soil total Kjeldahl N (TKN) contents and served as the major N pool. However, nitrification index (NO3(-)-N/NH4(+)-N ratio) decreased at high wastewater concentrations. A significant negative correlation was observed between EON and WSC (p < 0.05) and between net nitrification and WSC/EON ratio (p < 0.01). In contrast, nitrification index and WSC contents were correlated, positively suggesting WSC potentially controlling N turnover in nutrient-poor aridisol. We found significant (p < 0.0001) positive correlations of soil urease and dehydrogenase enzymatic activities with soil-extractable mineral N contents indicating coupled N cycling and soil biological activity. Higher production and accumulation of soil NO3(-)-N and EON contents in concentrated wastewater

  5. Use of wastewater sludge as a raw material for production of L-lactic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Nakasaki, Kiyohiko; Akakura, Naoki; Adachi, Tomohiko; Akiyama, Tetsuo

    1999-01-01

    This study utilizes wastewater sludges to produce L-lactic acid, a precursor of biodegradable plastic. The high concentrations of cellulose contained in the sludge, derived from a paper manufacturing facility, have been found to be convertible to L-lactic acid at a rate as high as 6.91 g/L. To achieve such a high conversion rate, the sludge must be pretreated with cellulase. This pretreatment includes inoculation of the sludge with lactic acid bacteria, strain LA1, after the sludge has been subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis.

  6. Studies on the production of B. thuringiensis based biopesticides using wastewater sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Vidyarthi, A S; Tyagi, R D; Valero, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2002-11-01

    Growth and delta-endotoxin yield of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp kurstaki in tryptic soy yeast extract (TSY) medium, soybean meal based commercial medium and wastewater sludge medium were studied. The viable spores (VS) count in sludge medium was comparable to that obtained in laboratory and commercial media. The entomotoxicity of the fermentation liquid (Bt grown sludge) against Choristoneura fumiferana was comparable to the concentrated commercial Bt formulation available in the market (Foray 48B). A higher entomotoxicity was observed in a sludge medium than in the TSY or soybean meal media. The secondary and mixed (mixture of primary and secondary) sludges from various wastewater treatment plants were also evaluated for spore formation and entomotoxicity yield. The VS count was higher in a mixed sludge compared to the secondary sludge at a similar sludge solids concentration. Both VS count and entomotoxicity yield was found to be a function of sludge solids concentration in the medium. The optimum value of solids concentration for Bt production was found to be 25 g (-1) (dry weight basis). Beyond this concentration, a drop in VS count and entomotoxicity yield was observed. A low C:N ratio in the secondary sludge and a high C:N ratio in the mixed sludge resulted in a higher entomotoxicity. The optimum value of C:N ratio in combined sludge for Bt production was found to be 7.9-9.9. Relationships between entomotoxicity and maximum specific growth as well as with specific sporulation rate were developed.

  7. Wastewater treatment sludge as a raw material for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides.

    PubMed

    Montiel, M D; Tyagi, R D; Valero, J R

    2001-11-01

    Seven wastewater sludges of different origins and types were used as an alternate culture medium for producing Bacillus thuringiensis variety kurstaki HD-1. The sludge samples were used under three different preparations: without pre-treatment, with acid treatment (hydrolysed sludge) and the supernatant obtained after centrifugation of the hydrolysed sludge. The sludge composition varied widely with origin and the type of sludge. Growth and sporulation were evaluated by the total viable cell count and spore count of the preparations. Growth, sporulation and endotoxin production were affected by the sludge origin. Hydrolysed sludge gave the highest viable cell and spore counts while the liquid phase (supernatant) gave the lowest. Non-hydrolysed primary sludge from Valcartier was unable to sustain bacterial growth because of its low pH. Bioassays were conducted against larvae of spruce budworm to evaluate entomotoxic potential of the preparations obtained. In general, sludge hydrolysis increased the entomotoxicity yields. Similar entomotoxicity was observed in Black Lake secondary sludge (4100 IU/microL) as that obtained in the reference soya medium (3800 IU/microL). The use of the sludge supernatant (liquid phase) was not recommended due to the low entomotoxic potential obtained.

  8. Effect of Turbulent-Flow Pasteurization on Survival of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Added to Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Lindsay E.; Truong, H. Tuan; Crawford, Robert A.; Yates, Gary F.; Cavaignac, Sonia; de Lisle, Geoffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    A pilot-scale pasteurizer operating under validated turbulent flow (Reynolds number, 11,050) was used to study the heat sensitivity of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis added to raw milk. The ATCC 19698 type strain, ATCC 43015 (Linda, human isolate), and three bovine isolates were heated in raw whole milk for 15 s at 63, 66, 69, and 72°C in duplicate trials. No strains survived at 72°C for 15 s; and only one strain survived at 69°C. Means of pooled D values (decimal reduction times) at 63 and 66°C were 15.0 ± 2.8 s (95% confidence interval) and 5.9 ± 0.7 s (95% confidence interval), respectively. The mean extrapolated D72°C was <2.03 s. This was equivalent to a >7 log10 kill at 72°C for 15 s (95% confidence interval). The mean Z value (degrees required for the decimal reduction time to traverse one log cycle) was 8.6°C. These five strains showed similar survival whether recovery was on Herrold's egg yolk medium containing mycobactin or by a radiometric culture method (BACTEC). Milk was inoculated with fresh fecal material from a high-level fecal shedder with clinical Johne's disease. After heating at 72°C for 15 s, the minimum M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis kill was >4 log10. Properly maintained and operated equipment should ensure the absence of viable M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis in retail milk and other pasteurized dairy products. An additional safeguard is the widespread commercial practice of pasteurizing 1.5 to 2° above 72°C. PMID:11525992

  9. Impact of Raw and Bioaugmented Olive-Mill Wastewater and Olive-Mill Solid Waste on the Content of Photosynthetic Molecules in Tobacco Plants.

    PubMed

    Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero

    2016-08-03

    Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.

  10. Modelling of the temperature-phased batch anaerobic digestion of raw sludge from an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Riau, Víctor; De la Rubia, M Angeles; Pérez, Montserrat; Martín, Antonio; Borja, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    The disposal of excess sludge from wastewater treatment plants is a serious problem that needs to be addressed. Temperature-phased anaerobic digestion (TPAD) which combines thermophilic and mesophilic processes in one, brings together the advantages of both systems. The aim of the present work was to develop a simple kinetic model to describe the TPAD of sewage sludge in batch completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and to determine the kinetic parameters of both thermophilic and mesophilic stages. A zero-order kinetic equation described the thermophilic step after 2, 4 and 6 days of digestion time (experiment 1, 2 and 3, respectively), yet a first-order equation was found to be adequate to correlate the methane gas accumulated with time in the mesophilic step, the kinetic constant being 0.21 days(-1). The methane yield coefficient obtained was found to be almost proportional to the digestion time used in the thermophilic step with values of 0.067, 0.132 and 0.193 L CH(4) STP/g VS(added) for experiments 1, 2 and 3, respectively. By contrast, the kinetic constant of the mesophilic stage was not influenced by the digestion time used in the thermophilic phase.

  11. IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND SOURCES IN RAW WASTEWATER USING A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED PCR-RFLP TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  12. Organic carbon, influent microbial diversity and temperature strongly influence algal diversity and biomass in raceway ponds treating raw municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dae-Hyun; Ramanan, Rishiram; Heo, Jina; Kang, Zion; Kim, Byung-Hyuk; Ahn, Chi-Yong; Oh, Hee-Mock; Kim, Hee-Sik

    2015-09-01

    Algae based wastewater treatment coupled to biofuel production has financial benefits and practical difficulties. This study evaluated the factors influencing diversity and growth of indigenous algal consortium cultivated on untreated municipal wastewater in a high rate algal pond (HRAP) for a period of 1 year using multivariate statistics. Diversity analyses revealed the presence of Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta. Dominant microalgal genera by biovolume in various seasons were Scenedesmus sp., Microcystis sp., and Chlorella sp. Scenedesmus sp., persisted throughout the year but none of three strains co-dominated with the other. The most significant factors affecting genus dominance were temperature, inflow cyanophyta and organic carbon concentration. Cyanophyta concentration affected microalgal biomass and diversity, whereas temperature impacted biomass. Preferred diversity of microalgae is not sustained in wastewater systems but is obligatory for biofuel production. This study serves as a guideline to sustain desired microalgal consortium in wastewater treatment plants for biofuel production.

  13. Production of Fused Portland Cement and Sulphur Gas from Sulphatic Phosphorus-Containing Raw Materials with Added Fluorine,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    was conducted to use this system to produce Portland cement clinker without having to employ huge rotary kilns. Studies were made of the process of...dissociation of CaSO4 in a molten Portland cement raw materials mix in oxidising and in slightly reducing media.

  14. Molecular Surveillance of Cryptosporidium spp. in Raw Wastewater in Milwaukee: Implications for Understanding Outbreak Occurrence and Transmission Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling; Singh, Ajaib; Jiang, Jianlin; Xiao, Lihua

    2003-01-01

    Six Cryptosporidium spp. were found in 50 of 179 Milwaukee wastewater samples collected weekly over a year. Of the eight subtypes of Cryptosporidium hominis and Cryptosporidium parvum present, allele Ib was found in 14 of 16 samples, and its sequence was identical to that of the subtype in human samples from the 1993 Milwaukee outbreak of cryptosporidiosis. PMID:14605176

  15. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) inhibits the inflammatory response in Raw 264.7 cells and atopic dermatitis (AD) mouse model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Li, Jianping; Qu, Hai'e; Song, Zhou; Yang, Zhanqing; Huo, Jinlong; Jiang, Huaizhi; Huang, Qinghua; Huo, Meixia; Liu, Bo; Zhang, Qiaoling

    2013-02-01

    The alpha melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R) is one of five G-protein coupled receptors belonging to the melanocortin subfamily, MC1R gene has been known to play a major role in regulating of fur color in mammals, and α-MSH and ACTH are endogenous nonselective agonists for MC1R. However, we found that MC1R was highly expressed in Raw 264.7 cells which were important inflammatory cells involved in the initiation of inflammatory responses. In addition, Cyclic AMP is not only a key molecule in the MC1R signal transduction pathway, but dampen innate immune-mediated responses. These intriguing biological results triggered the further conformation studies; it suggested that MC1R was very likely to be an important role in immunoregulation. In this study, we were to investigate the immunosuppressive effects of MC1R on inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated Raw 264.7 cells and LPS induced vivo 2-chloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene (TNCB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) model. The effects of the MC1R antagonist psoralen on pro-inflammatory cytokines and signaling pathways were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, western blot, real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Histological analysis. Our results show a consistent and marked effect of high concentrations of MC1R antagonist psoralen increased the level of MC1R mRNA in Raw 264.7 cells by cumulative feedback regulation through preferential binding of MC1R. Moreover, as evidenced by inhibiting the LPS-induced TNF-α, IL-6 and enhancing the expression level of cyclic AMP protein in vitro. In vivo study it was also observed that psoralen promoted on histopathologic changes in the skin tissue of TNCB-induced AD mice. Taken together, our results suggest that MC1R decrease the inflammation in vitro and vivo, and might be a therapeutic signaling pathway to against inflammatory diseases.

  16. Remediation of nitrate-contaminated wastewater using denitrification biofilters with straws of ornamental flowers added as carbon source.

    PubMed

    Chang, Junjun; Ma, Luyao; Zhou, Yuanyang; Zhang, Shenghua; Wang, Weilu

    Straws of four ornamental flowers (carnation, rose, lily, and violet) were added into denitrification biofilters using gravel as matrix through vertically installed perforated polyvinylchloride pipes to provide organic carbon for the treatment of nitrate-contaminated wastewater operating in batch mode. Removal efficiencies of nitrate and phosphate, as well as temporal variations of nitrogen and carbon during batches 10 and 19, were investigated and assessed. Nitrate removal was efficiently enhanced by the addition of flower straws, but decreased gradually as the organic substances were consumed. Phosphate removal was also improved, although this very limited. High nitrate removal rates were achieved during the initial 12 h in the two batches each lasting for 3 days, along with the depletion of influent dissolved oxygen due to aerobic degradation of the organic compounds. NO2(-)-N of 0.01-2.83 mg/L and NH4(+)-N of 0.02-1.69 mg/L were formed and both positively correlated to the nitrate reduced. Inorganic carbon (IC) concentrations increased during the batches and varied conversely with the nitrate contents, and could be indicative of nitrate removal due to the highly significant positive correlation between NO3(-)-N removed and IC concentration (r(2) = 0.881, p < 0.0001). It is feasible and economical to use the denitrification biofilter to treat nitrate-contaminated wastewater, although further optimization of carbon source addition is still required.

  17. Characteristics of C-, N-DBPs formation from nitrogen-enriched dissolved organic matter in raw water and treated wastewater effluent.

    PubMed

    Chang, Huihsien; Chen, Chiayang; Wang, Genshuh

    2013-05-15

    The objective of this study is to clarify the relationships between the characteristics of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) formation. Treated wastewater effluents from the Neihu wastewater treatment plant in Taipei City (TN) and source waters from the Tai Lake water treatment plant in Kinmen (KT) were evaluated. These water samples were fractionated to obtain 7 DON isolates with different characteristics. The DON isolates were freeze-dried and re-dissolved to different DON fraction solutions containing 10 mg-C/L of non-purgeable dissolved organic carbon (NPDOC). The DBPs formation potentials (DBPFPs) (trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and nitrosamines) of different DON fraction solutions were then assessed with chlorine and monochloramine treatments. After fractionation schemes, mass concentrations of dried DON-enriched isolates ranged from 0.2 to 46.4 mg/L. Both TN effluents and KT raw waters had similar compositions of DON fractions except for the amounts of amphiphilic bases/neutrals (AMPB/N) isolates: hydrophobic acids (HPOA) > hydrophilic acids/neutrals (HPIA/N) > AMPB/N of KT raw waters > hydrophilic bases (HPIB) > amphiphilic acids (AMPA) > hydrophobic bases/neutrals (HPOB/N) > AMPB/N of TN effluents > amino acids (AA). For carbonated DBPs (C-DBPs), AA fraction treated with NaOCl formed the greatest amounts of C-DBPs (up to 1258.2 μg/L of THMs and 1140.6 μg/L of HAAs). For nitrogenated DBPs (N-DBPs), the AMPB/N fraction (DON = 1.4 mg-N/L) treated with NH2Cl was the most important precursor to form N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) and generated up to 9238.0 ng/L of NDMA from KT raw water. Taking both DBP formation and organic composition into account, the HPOA (31.9%-38.4%)/HPIA/N (17.6%-35.7%) fractions and AMPB/N fraction (38.4%-93.9%) were the most important contributors to the overall C-DBPFPs and N-DBPFPs, respectively.

  18. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution.

    PubMed

    Mayer, R E; Bofill-Mas, S; Egle, L; Reischer, G H; Schade, M; Fernandez-Cassi, X; Fuchs, W; Mach, R L; Lindner, G; Kirschner, A; Gaisbauer, M; Piringer, H; Blaschke, A P; Girones, R; Zessner, M; Sommer, R; Farnleitner, A H

    2016-03-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml(-1)) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2-6.5 ME 100 ml(-1)), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53-65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3-3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7-4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support

  19. Occurrence of human-associated Bacteroidetes genetic source tracking markers in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin and comparison to standard and alternative indicators of faecal pollution

    PubMed Central

    Mayer, R.E.; Bofill-Mas, S.; Egle, L.; Reischer, G.H.; Schade, M.; Fernandez-Cassi, X.; Fuchs, W.; Mach, R.L.; Lindner, G.; Kirschner, A.; Gaisbauer, M.; Piringer, H.; Blaschke, A.P.; Girones, R.; Zessner, M.; Sommer, R.; Farnleitner, A.H.

    2016-01-01

    This was a detailed investigation of the seasonal occurrence, dynamics, removal and resistance of human-associated genetic Bacteroidetes faecal markers (GeBaM) compared with ISO-based standard faecal indicator bacteria (SFIB), human-specific viral faecal markers and one human-associated Bacteroidetes phage in raw and treated wastewater of municipal and domestic origin. Characteristics of the selected activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) from Austria and Germany were studied in detail (WWTPs, n = 13, connected populations from 3 to 49000 individuals), supported by volume-proportional automated 24-h sampling and chemical water quality analysis. GeBaM were consistently detected in high concentrations in raw (median log10 8.6 marker equivalents (ME) 100 ml−1) and biologically treated wastewater samples (median log10 6.2–6.5 ME 100 ml−1), irrespective of plant size, type and time of the season (n = 53–65). GeBaM, Escherichia coli, and enterococci concentrations revealed the same range of statistical variability for raw (multiplicative standard deviations s* = 2.3–3.0) and treated wastewater (s* = 3.7–4.5), with increased variability after treatment. Clostridium perfringens spores revealed the lowest variability for raw wastewater (s* = 1.5). In raw wastewater correlations among microbiological parameters were only detectable between GeBaM, C. perfringens and JC polyomaviruses. Statistical associations amongst microbial parameters increased during wastewater treatment. Two plants with advanced treatment were also investigated, revealing a minimum log10 5.0 (10th percentile) reduction of GeBaM in the activated sludge membrane bioreactor, but no reduction of the genetic markers during UV irradiation (254 nm). This study highlights the potential of human-associated GeBaM to complement wastewater impact monitoring based on the determination of SFIB. In addition, human-specific JC polyomaviruses and adenoviruses seem to be a valuable support if

  20. Optimization of Fenton oxidation pre-treatment for B. thuringiensis - based production of value added products from wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Pham, T T H; Brar, S K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2010-08-01

    Fenton oxidation pretreatment was investigated for enhancement of biodegradability of wastewater sludge (WWS) which was subsequently used as substrate for the production of value- added products. The Response surface method with fractional factorial and central composite designs was applied to determine the effects of Fenton parameters on solubilization and biodegradability of sludge and the optimization of the Fenton process. Maximum solubilization and biodegradability were obtained as 70% and 74%, respectively at the optimal conditions: 0.01 ml H(2)O(2)/g SS, 150 [H(2)O(2)](0)/[Fe(2+)](0), 25 g/L TS, at 25 degrees C and 60 min duration. Further, these optimal conditions were tested for the production of a value added product, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) which is being used as a biopesticide in the agriculture and forestry sector. It was observed that Bt growth using Fenton oxidized sludge as a substrate was improved with a maximum total cell count of 1.63 x 10(9)CFU ml(-1) and 96% sporulation after 48 h of fermentation. The results were also tested against ultrasonication treatment and the total cell count was found to be 4.08 x 10(8)CFU ml(-1) with a sporulation of 90%. Hence, classic Fenton oxidation was demonstrated to be a rather more promising chemical pre-treatment for Bt - based biopesticide production using WWS when compared to ultrasonication as a physical pre-treatment.

  1. Saline landfill leachate disposal in facultative lagoons for wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Orta de Velasquez, M T; Monje-Ramirez, I; Yañez Noguez, I

    2012-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of disposing of saline landfill leachates in a Facultative Lagoon Wastewater Treatment Plant (FLWTP). The FLWTP is near a landfill and presents two characteristics: a wastewater influent with low organic matter, and high lagoon salinity due to the soil characteristics. These characteristics made the FLWTP a viable candidate to evaluate the feasibility of adding landfill leachates to the wastewater influent. Different mixtures of leachate with raw wastewater using volumetric ratios of 4%, 6%, and 10% (v/v) were evaluated in facultative lagoon reactors (FLRs). A 10% concentration of leachates in raw wastewater increased BOD5 and COD in the influent from 45 to 110 mg L(-1) and from 219 to 711 mg L(-1), respectively. It was found that the increase in salinity given by the raw wastewater and leachate mixture did not inhibit algae diversity. The types of algae present were Microcystis sp., Merismopedia sp., Euglena sp., Scenedesmus sp., Chlorella, Diatomea and Anacystis sp. However, decreased algae densities were observed, as measured by the decrease in chlorophyll concentration. The results showed that a 100% leachate concentration combined with wastewater did not upset biological treatment in the FLRs. Mean removal efficiencies for BOD5 and COD were 75% and 35%, respectively, giving a final BOD5 lower than 25 mg L(-1). There was also a significant decrease in the leachate heavy metal content when diluted with raw wastewater as result of natural precipitation.

  2. Bacillus licheniformis proteases as high value added products from fermentation of wastewater sludge: pre-treatment of sludge to increase the performance of the process.

    PubMed

    Drouin, M; Lai, C K; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    Wastewater sludge is a complex raw material that can support growth and protease production by Bacillus licheniformis. In this study, sludge was treated by different thermo-alkaline pre-treatment methods and subjected to Bacillus licheniformis fermentation in bench scale fermentors under controlled conditions. Thermo-alkaline treatment was found to be an effective pre-treatment process in order to enhance the proteolytic activity. Among the different pre-treated sludges tested, a mixture of raw and hydrolysed sludge caused an increase of 15% in the protease activity, as compared to the untreated sludge. The benefit of hydrolysis has been attributed to a better oxygen transfer due to decrease in media viscosity and to an increase in nutrient availability. Foam formation was a major concern during fermentation with hydrolysed sludge. The studies showed that addition of a chemical anti-foaming agent (polypropylene glycol) during fermentation to control foam could negatively influence the protease production by increasing the viscosity of sludge.

  3. Effect of adding brewery wastewater to pulp and paper mill effluent to enhance the photofermentation process: wastewater characteristics, biohydrogen production, overall performance, and kinetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Hay, Jacqueline Xiao Wen; Wu, Ta Yeong; Juan, Joon Ching; Md Jahim, Jamaliah

    2017-04-01

    Although a significant amount of brewery wastewater (BW) is generated during beer production, the nutrients in the BW could be reused as a potential bio-resource for biohydrogen production. Therefore, improvements in photofermentative biohydrogen production due to a combination of BW and pulp and paper mill effluent (PPME) as a mixed production medium were investigated comprehensively in this study. The experimental results showed that both the biohydrogen yield and the chemical oxygen demand removal were improved through the combination of BW and PPME. The best biohydrogen yield of 0.69 mol H2/L medium was obtained using the combination of 10 % BW + 90 % PPME (10B90P), while the reuse of the wastewater alone (100 % BW and 100 % PPME) resulted in 42.3 and 44.0 % less biohydrogen yields than the highest yield, respectively. The greatest light efficiency was 1.97 % and was also achieved using the combination of both wastewaters at 10B90P. This study revealed the potential of reusing and combining two different effluents together, in which the combination of BW and PPME improved the nutrients and light penetration into the mixed production medium.

  4. IDENTIFICATION OF CRYPTOSPORIDIUM SPECIES AND THE SOURCES IN RAW WASTEWATER USING A SMALL SUBUNIT RRNA-BASED PCR-RFLP TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The species composition and source of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater have never been determined, even though it is widely assumed that these oocysts are from human sewage. Recent molecular characterizations of Cryptosporidium parasites make it possible to differentiate hum...

  5. Biohydrogen production from industrial wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Andrade, Iván; Moreno, Gloria; Kumar, Gopalakrishnan; Buitrón, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of producing hydrogen from various industrial wastes, such as vinasses (sugar and tequila industries), and raw and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and toilet aircraft wastewater, was evaluated. The results showed that the tequila vinasses presented the maximum hydrogen generation potential, followed by the raw plastic industry wastewater, aircraft wastewater, and physicochemical-treated wastewater from the plastic industry and sugar vinasses, respectively. The hydrogen production from the aircraft wastewater was increased by the adaptation of the microorganisms in the anaerobic sequencing batch reactor.

  6. Potential effects of desalinated water quality on the operation stability of wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori

    2009-03-15

    Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.

  7. Extended Suspect and Non-Target Strategies to Characterize Emerging Polar Organic Contaminants in Raw Wastewater with LC-HRMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Schymanski, Emma L; Bletsou, Anna A; Aalizadeh, Reza; Hollender, Juliane; Thomaidis, Nikolaos S

    2015-10-20

    An integrated workflow based on liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-QTOF-MS) was developed and applied to detect and identify suspect and unknown contaminants in Greek wastewater. Tentative identifications were initially based on mass accuracy, isotopic pattern, plausibility of the chromatographic retention time and MS/MS spectral interpretation (comparison with spectral libraries, in silico fragmentation). Moreover, new specific strategies for the identification of metabolites were applied to obtain extra confidence including the comparison of diurnal and/or weekly concentration trends of the metabolite and parent compounds and the complementary use of HILIC. Thirteen of 284 predicted and literature metabolites of selected pharmaceuticals and nicotine were tentatively identified in influent samples from Athens and seven were finally confirmed with reference standards. Thirty four nontarget compounds were tentatively identified, four were also confirmed. The sulfonated surfactant diglycol ether sulfate was identified along with others in the homologous series (SO4C2H4(OC2H4)xOH), which have not been previously reported in wastewater. As many surfactants were originally found as nontargets, these compounds were studied in detail through retrospective analysis.

  8. Daily precipitation statistics in a EURO-CORDEX RCM ensemble: added value of raw and bias-corrected high-resolution simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, A.; Kotlarski, S.; Herrera, S.; Fernández, J.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; Boberg, F.; Colette, A.; Christensen, O. B.; Goergen, K.; Jacob, D.; Keuler, K.; Nikulin, G.; Teichmann, C.; Vautard, R.

    2016-08-01

    Daily precipitation statistics as simulated by the ERA-Interim-driven EURO-CORDEX regional climate model (RCM) ensemble are evaluated over two distinct regions of the European continent, namely the European Alps and Spain. The potential added value of the high-resolution 12 km experiments with respect to their 50 km resolution counterparts is investigated. The statistics considered consist of wet-day intensity and precipitation frequency as a measure of mean precipitation, and three precipitation-derived indicators (90th percentile on wet days—90pWET, contribution of the very wet days to total precipitation—R95pTOT and number of consecutive dry days—CDD). As reference for model evaluation high resolution gridded observational data over continental Spain (Spain011/044) and the Alpine region (EURO4M-APGD) are used. The assessment and comparison of the two resolutions is accomplished not only on their original horizontal grids (approximately 12 and 50 km), but the high-resolution RCMs are additionally regridded onto the coarse 50 km grid by grid cell aggregation for the direct comparison with the low resolution simulations. The direct application of RCMs e.g. in many impact modelling studies is hampered by model biases. Therefore bias correction (BC) techniques are needed at both resolutions to ensure a better agreement between models and observations. In this work, the added value of the high resolution (before and after the bias correction) is assessed and the suitability of these BC methods is also discussed. Three basic BC methods are applied to isolate the effect of biases in mean precipitation, wet-day intensity and wet-day frequency on the derived indicators. Daily precipitation percentiles are strongly affected by biases in the wet-day intensity, whereas the dry spells are better represented when the simulated precipitation frequency is adjusted to the observed one. This confirms that there is no single optimal way to correct for RCM biases, since

  9. Quantification of the inert chemical oxygen demand of raw wastewater and evaluation of soluble microbial product production in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors under different operational conditions.

    PubMed

    Aquino, Sergio F; Gloria, Roberto M; Silva, Silvana Q; Chernicharo, Carlos A L

    2009-06-01

    This paper investigates the production of soluble microbial products (SMPs) in demonstration-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors operated under different conditions and fed with raw wastewater. The results showed that 9.2 +/- 1.3% of the influent soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) could be considered inert to anaerobic treatment and that the amount of COD produced by biomass varied from 30 to 70 mg x L(-1), accounting for 45 to 63% of the soluble effluent COD. The accumulation of SMP appeared to be dependent on the hydraulic retention time (HRT) applied to the reactors, with a larger accumulation of SMP observed at the lowest HRT (5 hours); this may have been due to stress conditions caused by high upflow velocity (1.1 m x h(-1)). In terms of residual COD characterization, ultrafiltration results showed that higher amounts of high molecular weight compounds were found when HRT was the lowest (5 hours), and that the molecular weight distribution depended on the operational condition of the reactors. Biodegradability tests showed that the low and high molecular weight SMPs were only partially degraded anaerobically (10 to 60%) and that the high molecular weight SMPs were difficult to degrade aerobically.

  10. Alkaline hydrothermal conversion of fly ash precipitates into zeolites 3: the removal of mercury and lead ions from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Somerset, Vernon; Petrik, Leslie; Iwuoha, Emmanuel

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, the utilisation of zeolites synthesised from fly ash (FA) and related co-disposal filtrates as low-cost adsorbent material were investigated. When raw FA and co-disposal filtrates were subjected to alkaline hydrothermal zeolite synthesis, the zeolites faujasite, sodalite and zeolite A were formed. The synthesised zeolites were explored to establish its ability to remove lead and mercury ions from aqueous solution in batch experiments, to which various dosages of the synthesised zeolites were added. The test results indicated that when increasing synthesised zeolite dosages of 5-20 g/L were added to the acid mine drainage (AMD) wastewater, the concentrations of lead and mercury in the wastewater were reduced accordingly. The lead concentrations were reduced from 3.23 to 0.38 and 0.17 microg/kg, respectively, at an average pH of 4.5, after the addition of raw FA zeolite and co-disposal filtrate zeolite to the AMD wastewater. On the other hand, the mercury concentration was reduced from 0.47 to 0.17 microg/kg at pH=4.5 when increasing amounts of co-disposal filtrate zeolite were added to the wastewater. The experimental results had shown that the zeolites synthesised from the co-disposal filtrates were effective in reducing the lead and mercury concentrations in the AMD wastewater by 95% and 30%, respectively.

  11. Prevalence and fate of Giardia cysts in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Nasser, A M; Vaizel-Ohayon, D; Aharoni, A; Revhun, M

    2012-09-01

    The present study was conducted to review factors affecting the prevalence and concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater. The removal and inactivation efficiency of Giardia by wastewater treatment technologies was also reviewed. Data published for the prevalence of Giardia in wastewater and the removal by wastewater treatment plants was reviewed. Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in wastewater in various parts of the world, which may reflect the infection rate in the population. In 23 of 30 (76.6%) studies, all of the tested raw wastewater samples were positive for Giardia cysts at concentrations ranging from 0.23 to 100 000 cysts l(-1). The concentration of Giardia in raw wastewater was not affected by the geographical region or the socio-economic status of the community. Discharge of raw wastewater or the application of raw wastewater for irrigation may result in Giardia transmission. Activated sludge treatment resulted in a one to two orders of magnitude reduction in Giardia, whereas a stabilization pond with a high retention time removed up to 100% of the cysts from wastewater. High-rate sand filtration, ultrafiltration and UV disinfection were reported as the most efficient wastewater treatment methods for removal and disinfection of Giardia cysts. Wastewater treatment may not totally prevent the environmental transmission of Giardia cysts. The reviewed data show that a combination of wastewater treatment methods may results in efficient removal of Giardia cysts and prevent their environmental transmission.

  12. Effect of gradual transition of substrate on performance of flat-panel air-cathode microbial fuel cells to treat domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Park, Younghyun; Park, Seonghwan; Nguyen, Van Khanh; Kim, Jung Rae; Kim, Hong Suck; Kim, Byung Goon; Yu, Jaecheul; Lee, Taeho

    2017-02-01

    In order to confirm the effects of the low conductivity and biodegradability of wastewater, flat-panel air-cathode microbial fuel cells (FA-MFCs) were operated by supplying substrates with different volume ratios of domestic wastewater mixed with an artificial medium: the artificial medium only, 25% wastewater, 50% wastewater, 75% wastewater, 100% of wastewater with 500mg-COD/L by adding acetate, and raw domestic wastewater (230mg-COD/L). With the increase of wastewater ratio, the maximum power density and organic removal efficiency decreased from 187 to 60W/m(3) and 51.5 to 37.4%, respectively, but the Coulombic efficiency was maintained in the range of 18.0-18.9%. The FA-MFCs could maintain their low internal resistances and overcome the decreasing conductivity. The acetate concentration was more important than the total organics for power production. This study suggests that the FA-MFC configuration has great applicability for practical applications when supplied by domestic wastewater with low conductivity and biodegradability.

  13. Upgrading of an activated sludge wastewater treatment plant by adding a moving bed biofilm reactor as pre-treatment and ozonation followed by biofiltration for enhanced COD reduction: design and operation experience.

    PubMed

    Kaindl, Nikolaus

    2010-01-01

    A paper mill producing 500,000 ton of graphic paper annually has an on-site wastewater treatment plant that treats 7,240,000 m³ of wastewater per year, mechanically first, then biologically and at last by ozonation. Increased paper production capacity led to higher COD load in the mill effluent while production of higher proportions of brighter products gave worse biodegradability. Therefore the biological capacity of the WWTP needed to be increased and extra measures were necessary to enhance the efficiency of COD reduction. The full scale implementation of one MBBR with a volume of 1,230 m³ was accomplished in 2000 followed by another MBBR of 2,475 m³ in 2002. An ozonation step with a capacity of 75 kg O₃/h was added in 2004 to meet higher COD reduction demands during the production of brighter products and thus keeping the given outflow limits. Adding a moving bed biofilm reactor prior to the existing activated sludge step gives: (i) cost advantages when increasing biological capacity as higher COD volume loads of MBBRs allow smaller reactors than usual for activated sludge plants; (ii) a relief of strain from the activated sludge step by biological degradation in the MBBR; (iii) equalizing of peaks in the COD load and toxic effects before affecting the activated sludge step; (iv) a stable volume sludge index below 100 ml/g in combination with an optimization of the activated sludge step allows good sludge separation--an important condition for further treatment with ozone. Ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration pre-treated waste water provide: (i) reduction of hard COD unobtainable by conventional treatment; (ii) controllable COD reduction in a very wide range and therefore elimination of COD-peaks; (iii) reduction of treatment costs by combination of ozonation and subsequent bio-filtration; (iv) decrease of the color in the ozonated wastewater. The MBBR step proved very simple to operate as part of the biological treatment. Excellent control of the COD

  14. Effects of gamma radiation on cork wastewater: Antioxidant activity and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Madureira, Joana; Pimenta, Andreia I; Popescu, Larisa; Besleaga, Alexandra; Dias, Maria Inês; Santos, Pedro M P; Melo, Rita; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Cabo Verde, Sandra; Margaça, Fernanda M A

    2017-02-01

    A comprehensive assessment of the toxicity and antioxidant activity of cork boiling wastewater and the effects of gamma radiation on these parameters was performed. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using different methodologies as DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of β-carotene bleaching. The results have shown that gamma radiation can induce an increase on the antioxidant activity of cork boiling wastewater. Toxicity tests were performed to access the potential added value of the irradiated wastewaters and/or minimization of the impact for discharge in the environment. Two different methods for toxicity evaluation were followed, bacterial growth inhibition test and cytotoxicity assay, in order to predict the behavior of different cells (prokaryotic and eukaryotic) in the presence of cork wastewater. Non-treated cork boiling wastewater seemed to be non-toxic for prokaryotic cells (Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis) but toxic for eukaryotic cells (A549 human cells and RAW264.7 mouse cells). The gamma radiation treatment at doses of 100 kGy appeared to increase the toxicity of cork compounds for all tested cells, which could be related to a toxic effect of radiolytic products of cork compounds in the wastewaters.

  15. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  16. Pre-treatment of wastewater sludge--biodegradability and rheology study.

    PubMed

    Verma, M; Brar, Satinder K; Riopel, A R; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2007-03-01

    This study investigates the changes in biodegradability, rheology and metal concentration of wastewater sludge--non-hydrolyzed (raw), sterilized, and hydrolyzed (thermal alkaline pre-treatment) at total solids concentration from 10-50 g l(-1) to ascertain the bioavailability of nutrients for subsequent fermentation. The dissolved solids concentration increased linearly with total solids. Irrespective of the wastewater sludge (raw or, pre-treated), percentage biodegradability in terms of total solids (26.5-44.5%), total COD (25.8-56.5%) and dissolved solids (41.9-66.9%) was maximum around 20 g l(-1) solids concentration. The pseudoplasticity of sludge decreased (consistency index decreased from 895.1 to 5.2 and flow behaviour index increased from 0.28 to 0.88, for all sludge types) with pre-treatment and increased with total solids concentration. The pre-treated sludge, namely, sterilized and hydrolyzed sludge showed higher microbial growth (1-2 log cycles increase in comparison to raw sludge) suggesting their susceptibility to microbial degradation. The C:N ratio decreased with pre-treatment (raw sludge > sterilized > hydrolyzed) during biodegradation. Although the metal concentration increased in incubated hydrolyzed sludge, the final concentration was within the regulatory norms for agriculture application. Thus, pretreatment of sludge resulted in increase in biodegradability making it an excellent proponent for fermented value-added products.

  17. Raw liquid waste treatment process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, Marshall F. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, which is suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter is dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material absorbs organic matter and heavy metal ions, it is believed, are dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter current flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. The used carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  18. Assessing the feasibility of N and P recovery by struvite precipitation from nutrient-rich wastewater: a review.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ramesh; Pal, Parimal

    2015-11-01

    Literature on recovery of nitrogen and phosphorous from wastewater in the form of value-added struvite fertilizer has been critically reviewed towards the evolution of a sustainable management strategy. Presence of nitrogen and phosphorus is widespread in both domestic as well as industrial wastewater streams such as swine wastewater, landfill leachate, urine waste, dairy manure, coke wastewater, and beverage wastewater. Where these nitrogen and phosphorus compounds cause eutrophication of water bodies and considered as harmful discharges to the environment, they can be turned useful through simple chemical conversion into struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). In extensive studies on wastewater treatment, aspects of recovery of valuable materials remain dispersed. In the present article, almost all relevant aspects of sources of raw materials, chemistry and technology of struvite production, and its detailed characterization have been captured in a systematic and classified way so as to help in planning and designing an integrated scheme of struvite production through conversion of nitrogen and phosphorus components of waste streams. The study will help in formulating a new waste management strategy in this context by shifting focus from removal to recovery of nutrients from waste streams.

  19. Treatment of Arctic wastewater by chemical coagulation, UV and peracetic acid disinfection.

    PubMed

    Chhetri, Ravi Kumar; Klupsch, Ewa; Andersen, Henrik Rasmus; Jensen, Pernille Erland

    2017-02-16

    Conventional wastewater treatment is challenging in the Arctic region due to the cold climate and scattered population. Thus, no wastewater treatment plant exists in Greenland, and raw wastewater is discharged directly to nearby waterbodies without treatment. We investigated the efficiency of physicochemical wastewater treatment, in Kangerlussuaq, Greenland. Raw wastewater from Kangerlussuaq was treated by chemical coagulation and UV disinfection. By applying 7.5 mg Al/L polyaluminium chloride (PAX XL100), 73% of turbidity and 28% phosphate was removed from raw wastewater. E. coli and Enterococcus were removed by 4 and 2.5 log, respectively, when UV irradiation of 0.70 kWh/m(3) was applied to coagulated wastewater. Furthermore, coagulated raw wastewater in Denmark, which has a chemical quality similar to Greenlandic wastewater, was disinfected by peracetic acid or UV irradiation. Removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 6 and 12 mg/L peracetic acid was 2.8 and 3.1 log, respectively. Similarly, removal of heterotrophic bacteria by applying 0.21 and 2.10 kWh/m(3) for UV irradiation was 2.1 and greater than 4 log, respectively. Physicochemical treatment of raw wastewater followed by UV irradiation and/or peracetic acid disinfection showed the potential for treatment of arctic wastewater.

  20. Distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion and land application of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qianwen; Zhang, Junya; Chen, Meixue; Tong, Juan; Wang, Rui; Wei, Yuansong

    2016-06-01

    Swine farm and the adjacent farmland are hot spots of ARGs. However, few studies have investigated the on-site occurrence of ARGs distributed in the process of anaerobic digestion (AD) followed by land application of swine wastewater. Two typical swine farms, in southern and northern China respectively, with AD along with land application were explored on ARG distributions. ARGs were highly abundant in raw swine wastewater, AD effectively reduced the copy number of all detected ARGs (0.21-1.34 logs removal), but the relative abundance with different resistance mechanisms showed distinctive variation trends. The reduction efficiency of ARGs was improved by stable operational temperature and longer solid retention time (SRT) of AD. ARGs in soil characterized the contamination from the irrigation of the digested liquor. The total ARGs quantity in soil fell down by 1.66 logs in idle period of winter compared to application period of summer in the northern region, whereas the total amount was steady with whole-year application in south. Some persistent (sul1 and sul2) and elevated ARGs (tetG and ereA) in AD and land application need more attention.

  1. Process Design Manual: Wastewater Treatment Facilities for Sewered Small Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leffel, R. E.; And Others

    This manual attempts to describe new treatment methods, and discuss the application of new techniques for more effectively removing a broad spectrum of contaminants from wastewater. Topics covered include: fundamental design considerations, flow equalization, headworks components, clarification of raw wastewater, activated sludge, package plants,…

  2. Factors governing the pre-concentration of wastewater using forward osmosis for subsequent resource recovery.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Ashley J; Hai, Faisal I; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Hao H; Price, William E; Nghiem, Long D

    2016-10-01

    This study demonstrated a technique using forward osmosis (FO) to pre-concentrate the organic matter in raw wastewater, thereby transforming low strength wastewater into an anaerobically digestible solution. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) of raw wastewater was concentrated up to approximately eightfold at a water recovery of 90%. Thus, even low strength wastewater could be pre-concentrated by FO to the range suitable for biogas production via anaerobic treatment. Excessive salinity accumulation in pre-concentrated wastewater was successfully mitigated by adopting ionic organic draw solutes, namely, sodium acetate, and EDTA-2Na. These two draw solutes are also expected to benefit the digestibility of the pre-concentrated wastewater compared to the commonly used draw solute sodium chloride. Significant membrane fouling was observed when operating at 90% water recovery using raw wastewater. Nevertheless, membrane fouling was reversible and was effectively controlled by optimising the hydrodynamic conditions of the cross-flow FO system.

  3. Ball Powder Production Wastewater Biodegradation Support Studies - With Nitroglycerine

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    aerobic biological oxidation wastewater treatment technologies, extended aeration and sequencing batch reactor ( SBR ). Near the conclusion of the initial...ability of both extended aeration and SBR systems to produce a treated wastewater capable of meeting anticipated National Pollutant Discharge...nitrogen 5 averaged a much higher 57 ppm. The phosphorous level in the raw wastewater was, on average, 1 ppm which does not meet the requirement

  4. Wastewater Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterjee, Samar; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastewater collection systems and components. This review covers: (1) planning, (2) construction; (3) sewer system evaluation; (4) maintenance; (5) rehabilitation; (6) overview prevention; and (7) wastewater pumping. A list of 111 references is also presented. (HM)

  5. Wastewater Treatment: The Natural Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wolverton Environmental Services, Inc. is widely acclaimed for innovative work in natural water purification which involves use of aquatic plants to remove pollutants from wastewater at a relatively low-cost. Haughton, Louisiana, visited Wolverton's artificial marsh test site and decided to use this method of wastewater treatment. They built an 11 acre sewage lagoon with a 70 by 900 foot artificial marsh called a vascular aquatic plant microbial filter cell. In the cell, microorganisms and rooted aquatic plants combine to absorb and digest wastewater pollutants, thereby converting sewage to relatively clean water. Raw waste water, after a period in the sewage lagoon, flows over a rock bed populated by microbes that digest nutrients and minerals from the sewage thus partially cleaning it. Additional treatment is provided by the aquatic plants growing in the rock bed, which absorb more of the pollutants and help deodorize the sewage.

  6. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

    SciTech Connect

    AlDhowalia, K.H. )

    1987-01-01

    The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

  7. Raw Sewage Harbors Diverse Viral Populations

    PubMed Central

    Cantalupo, Paul G.; Calgua, Byron; Zhao, Guoyan; Hundesa, Ayalkibet; Wier, Adam D.; Katz, Josh P.; Grabe, Michael; Hendrix, Roger W.; Girones, Rosina; Wang, David; Pipas, James M.

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT At this time, about 3,000 different viruses are recognized, but metagenomic studies suggest that these viruses are a small fraction of the viruses that exist in nature. We have explored viral diversity by deep sequencing nucleic acids obtained from virion populations enriched from raw sewage. We identified 234 known viruses, including 17 that infect humans. Plant, insect, and algal viruses as well as bacteriophages were also present. These viruses represented 26 taxonomic families and included viruses with single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), positive-sense ssRNA [ssRNA(+)], and dsRNA genomes. Novel viruses that could be placed in specific taxa represented 51 different families, making untreated wastewater the most diverse viral metagenome (genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples) examined thus far. However, the vast majority of sequence reads bore little or no sequence relation to known viruses and thus could not be placed into specific taxa. These results show that the vast majority of the viruses on Earth have not yet been characterized. Untreated wastewater provides a rich matrix for identifying novel viruses and for studying virus diversity. Importance At this time, virology is focused on the study of a relatively small number of viral species. Specific viruses are studied either because they are easily propagated in the laboratory or because they are associated with disease. The lack of knowledge of the size and characteristics of the viral universe and the diversity of viral genomes is a roadblock to understanding important issues, such as the origin of emerging pathogens and the extent of gene exchange among viruses. Untreated wastewater is an ideal system for assessing viral diversity because virion populations from large numbers of individuals are deposited and because raw sewage itself provides a rich environment for the growth of diverse host species and thus their viruses. These studies suggest that

  8. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  9. RAW to UIMF Converter

    SciTech Connect

    2016-06-09

    The RAW to Unified Ion Mobility File (UIMF) converter is a software application that takes LC MS scans from a Thermo RAW file and translates them into ion mobility scans compatible with the UIMF file format. The converter calculates the number of points to generate for the UIMF format by estimating the coefficients of a power function, which models the way in which FTMS data is collected. Once the coefficients are estimated (using a standard Gauss-Newton solver), an m/z mesh is created using standard m/z ppm calculations. This mesh is then used as a basis for translating the m/z intensity pairs from the Thermo RAW file to the UIMF format. Due to non-uniform spacing of m/z values in RAW spectra, a simple linear interpolation is applied to the UIMF format after assigning all m/z values in the mesh in order to fill in gaps. Finally, the converter can perform singly or doubly demultiplexing of encoded ion mobility chromtograms, depending on user selected options during the conversion process. This operation is performed after the UIMF file has been generated.

  10. Wastewater Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoltek, J., Jr.; Melear, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. This review covers: (1) process application; (2) coagulation and solids separation; (3) adsorption; (4) ion exchange; (5) membrane processes; and (6) oxidation processes. A list of 123 references is also presented. (HM)

  11. Improvement of the anaerobic treatment of potato processing wastewater in a UASB reactor by co-digestion with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jingxing; Van Wambeke, Mariane; Carballa, Marta; Verstraete, Willy

    2008-05-01

    The effect of three different types of glycerol on the performance of up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors treating potato processing wastewater was investigated. High COD removal efficiencies were obtained in both control and supplemented UASB reactors (around 85%). By adding 2 ml glycerol product per liter of raw wastewater, the biogas production could be increased by 0.74 l biogas ml(-1) glycerol product, which leads to energy values in the range of 810-1270 kWh(electric) per m(3) product. Moreover, a better in-reactor biomass yield was observed for the supplemented UASB reactor (0.012 g VSS g(-1) COD(removed)) compared to the UASB control (0.002 g VSS g(-1) COD(removed)), which suggests a positive effect of glycerol on the sludge blanket growth.

  12. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  13. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  14. Wastewater treatment with microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Oswald, W.J. )

    1992-01-01

    In locations where total solar energy inputs average 400 langeleys or more, microscopic algae, grown in properly designed ponds, can contribute significantly and economically to wastewater treatment. While growing, microalgae produce an abundance of oxygen for microbial and biochemical oxidation of organics and other reduced compounds and for odor control. Microalgae also accelerate the inactivation of disease bacteria and parasitic ova by increasing water temperature and pH. Microalgae remove significant amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus and adsorb most polyvalent metals, including those that are toxic. After growth in properly designed paddle wheel mixed high rate ponds, microalgae settle readily, leaving a supernatant free of most pollutants. Such effluents are suitable for irrigation of ornamental plants, crops not eaten raw, aquaculture, and grounwater recharge. The settled and concentrated microalgae may be used for fertilizer, for fermentation to methane, or, assuming no toxicity, for fish, bivalve, or animal feed.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of oilfield produced wastewater containing refractory organic pollutants in the presence of high concentration of chloride ions.

    PubMed

    Li, Guiying; An, Taicheng; Chen, Jiaxin; Sheng, Guoying; Fu, Jiamo; Chen, Fanzhong; Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun

    2006-11-16

    The feasibility study of the application of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of high saline produced water containing refractory organic pollutants was investigated in the slurry photoelectrocatalytic reactor with nanometer TiO2 particle prepared with sol-gel method using the acetic acid as hydrolytic catalyst. The efficiency of the photoelectrocatalytic decontamination of produced water was determined with both COD removal from the tested wastewater and the decrease of mutagenic activity evaluated by Ames tests. The experimental results showed that the photoelectrocatalysis is a quite efficient process for decontaminating the produced water, although there are high concentration of salt existed in oilfield wastewater. We found that the COD removal efficiencies by photoelectrocatalytic process are much higher than that of by photocatalytic or electrochemical oxidation individually in the photoelectrocatalytic reactor. The COD removal can be substantially improved by the added H2O2 and the generation of active chlorine from high concentration chlorides in the wastewater. The effects of various operating conditions, such as initial COD concentration, applied cell voltage, catalyst amount and initial pH value of solution, on the photoelectrocatalytic efficiencies, is also investigated in detail. The results showed that when the raw produced wastewater was diluted in a 1:1 (v/v) ratio, there is a highest COD removal efficiency. And the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants in saline water is much favored in acidic solution than that in neutral and/or alkaline solution.

  16. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Burmistrz, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The subject of examinations presented in this paper is the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between solid and liquid phases in samples of raw wastewater and wastewater after treatment. The content of 16 PAHs according to the US EPA was determined in the samples of coke plant wastewater from the Zdzieszowice Coke Plant, Poland. The samples contained raw wastewater, wastewater after physico-chemical treatment as well as after biological treatment. The ΣPHA16 content varied between 255.050 μg L(-1) and 311.907 μg L(-1) in raw wastewater and between 0.940 and 4.465 μg L(-1) in wastewater after full treatment. Investigation of the distribution of PAHs showed that 71-84% of these compounds is adsorbed on the surface of suspended solids and 16-29% is dissolved in water. Distribution of individual PAHs and ΣPHA16 between solid phase and liquid phase was described with the use of statistically significant, linear equations. The calculated values of the partitioning coefficient Kp changed from 0.99 to 7.90 for naphthalene in samples containing mineral-organic suspension and acenaphthylene in samples with biological activated sludge, respectively.

  17. Wastewater Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... amazing ability to cope with small amounts of water wastes and pollution, but it would be overwhelmed if we didn't treat the billions of gallons of wastewater and sewage produced every day before ... is used water. It includes substances such as human waste, food ...

  18. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  19. Treatability studies with granular activated carbon (GAC) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system for textile wastewater containing direct dyes.

    PubMed

    Sirianuntapiboon, Suntud; Sansak, Jutarat

    2008-11-30

    The GAC-SBR efficiency was decreased with the increase of dyestuff concentration or the decrease of bio-sludge concentration. The system showed the highest removal efficiency with synthetic textile wastewater (STWW) containing 40 mg/L direct red 23 or direct blue 201 under MLSS of 3,000 mg/L and hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 7.5 days. But, the effluent NO(3)(-) was higher than that of the influent. Direct red 23 was more effective than direct blue 201 to repress the GAC-SBR system efficiency. The dyes removal efficiency of the system with STWW containing direct red 23 was reduced by 30% with the increase of direct red 23 from 40 mg/L to 160 mg/L. The system with raw textile wastewater (TWW) showed quite low BOD(5) TKN and dye removal efficiencies of only 64.7+/-4.9% and 50.2+/-6.9%, respectively. But its' efficiencies could be increased by adding carbon sources (BOD(5)). The dye removal efficiency with TWW was increased by 30% and 20% by adding glucose (TWW+glucose) or Thai rice noodle wastewater (TWW+TRNWW), respectively. SRT of the systems were 28+/-1 days and 31+/-2 days with TWW+glucose and TWW+TRNWW, respectively.

  20. Raw Liquid Waste Treatment System and Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Humphrey, M. F. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A raw sewage treatment process is disclosed in which substantially all the non-dissolved matter, suspended in the sewage water is first separated from the water, in which at least organic matter remains dissolved. The non-dissolved material is pyrolyzed to form an activated carbon and ash material without the addition of any conditioning agents. The activated carbon and ash material is added to the water from which the non-dissolved matter was removed. The activated carbon and ash material adsorbs the organic matter dissolved in the water and is thereafter supplied in a counter flow direction and combined with the incoming raw sewage to at least facilitate the separation of the non-dissolved settleable materials from the sewage water. Carbon and ash material together with the non-dissolved matter which was separated from the sewage water are pyrolyzed to form the activated carbon and ash material.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF REACTIVE DYES IN SPENT DYEBATHS AND WASTEWATER BY CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS/MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Capillary electrophoresis with diode array detection and mass spectrometry combined with solid-phase extraction were employed for the identification of reactive vinylsulfone and chlorotriazine dyes and their hydrolysis products in spent dyebaths and raw and treated wastewater. Re...

  2. Detection of a wide variety of human and veterinary fluoroquinolone antibiotics in municipal wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water.

    PubMed

    He, Ke; Soares, Ana Dulce; Adejumo, Hollie; McDiarmid, Melissa; Squibb, Katherine; Blaney, Lee

    2015-03-15

    As annual sales of antibiotics continue to rise, the mass of these specially-designed compounds entering municipal wastewater treatment systems has also increased. Of primary concern here is that antibiotics can inhibit growth of specific microorganisms in biological processes of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) or in downstream ecosystems. Growth inhibition studies with Escherichia coli demonstrated that solutions containing 1-10 μg/L of fluoroquinolones can inhibit microbial growth. Wastewater samples were collected on a monthly basis from various treatment stages of a 30 million gallon per day WWTP in Maryland, USA. Samples were analyzed for the presence of 11 fluoroquinolone antibiotics. At least one fluoroquinolone was detected in every sample. Ofloxacin and ciprofloxacin exhibited detection frequencies of 100% and 98%, respectively, across all sampling sites. Concentrations of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater were as high as 1900 ng/L for ciprofloxacin and 600 ng/L for ofloxacin. Difloxacin, enrofloxacin, fleroxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin, and orbifloxacin were also detected at appreciable concentrations of 9-170 ng/L. The total mass concentration of fluoroquinolones in raw wastewater was in the range that inhibited E. coli growth, suggesting that concerns over antibiotic presence in wastewater and wastewater-impacted surface water are valid. The average removal efficiency of fluoroquinolones during wastewater treatment was approximately 65%; furthermore, the removal efficiency for fluoroquinolones was found to be negatively correlated to biochemical oxygen demand removal and positively correlated to phosphorus removal.

  3. Cryptosporidium and Giardia removal by secondary and tertiary wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Taran-Benshoshan, Marina; Ofer, Naomi; Dalit, Vaizel-Ohayon; Aharoni, Avi; Revhun, Menahem; Nitzan, Yeshayahu; Nasser, Abidelfatah M

    2015-01-01

    Wastewater disposal may be a source of environmental contamination by Cryptosporidium and Giardia. This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated wastewater effluents. A prevalence of 100% was demonstrated for Giardia cysts in raw wastewater, at a concentration range of 10 to 12,225 cysts L(-1), whereas the concentration of Cryptosporidium oocysts in raw wastewater was 4 to 125 oocysts L(-1). The removal of Giardia cysts by secondary and tertiary treatment processes was greater than those observed for Cryptosporidium oocysts and turbidity. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were present in 68.5% and 76% of the tertiary effluent samples, respectively, at an average concentration of 0.93 cysts L(-1) and 9.94 oocysts L(-1). A higher detection limit of Cryptosporidium oocysts in wastewater was observed for nested PCR as compared to immune fluorescent assay (IFA). C. hominis was found to be the dominant genotype in wastewater effluents followed by C. parvum and C. andersoni or C. muris. Giardia was more prevalent than Cryptosporidium in the studied community and treatment processes were more efficient for the removal of Giardia than Cryptosporidium. Zoonotic genotypes of Cryptosporidium were also present in the human community. To assess the public health significance of Cryptosporidium oocysts present in tertiary effluent, viability (infectivity) needs to be assessed.

  4. Disinfection of septic tank and cesspool wastewater with peracetic acid.

    PubMed

    Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Savolainen, Ritva

    2003-08-01

    Wastewaters of private household septic tanks and cesspools have been treated with peracetic acid (1-2 g L(-1)). Adding 1 g L(-1) peracetic acid to wastewaters was easy and has been found to be effective in destroying enteric indicator microorganisms. The careful mixing of peracetic acid and wastewater was found to be important. Winter periods with frozen soil, ice and snow did not constitute extra problems. The bad smell of these wastewaters almost totally disappeared during the treatment. When wastewaters treated with peracetic acid were emptied into animal slurry tanks, hygienization still continued in the mixture of animal slurry and the wastewaters. These wastewaters could thus be released into agricultural soil without risk of microbiological pollution to groundwaters.

  5. Microbial Community Profiles in Wastewaters from Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems Technology

    PubMed Central

    Jałowiecki, Łukasz; Chojniak, Joanna Małgorzata; Dorgeloh, Elmar; Hegedusova, Berta; Ejhed, Helene; Magnér, Jörgen; Płaza, Grażyna Anna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the potential of community-level physiological profiles (CLPPs) methodology as an assay for characterization of the metabolic diversity of wastewater samples and to link the metabolic diversity patterns to efficiency of select onsite biological wastewater facilities. Metabolic fingerprints obtained from the selected samples were used to understand functional diversity implied by the carbon substrate shifts. Three different biological facilities of onsite wastewater treatment were evaluated: fixed bed reactor (technology A), trickling filter/biofilter system (technology B), and aerated filter system (the fluidized bed reactor, technology C). High similarities of the microbial community functional structures were found among the samples from the three onsite wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), as shown by the diversity indices. Principal components analysis (PCA) showed that the diversity and CLPPs of microbial communities depended on the working efficiency of the wastewater treatment technologies. This study provided an overall picture of microbial community functional structures of investigated samples in WWTPs and discerned the linkages between microbial communities and technologies of onsite WWTPs used. The results obtained confirmed that metabolic profiles could be used to monitor treatment processes as valuable biological indicators of onsite wastewater treatment technologies efficiency. This is the first step toward understanding relations of technology types with microbial community patterns in raw and treated wastewaters. PMID:26807728

  6. Multispecies acute toxicity evaluation of wastewaters from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater-treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Liang; Jiang, Yu-Xia; Yan, Bo; Wei, Chaohai; Zhang, Li-Juan; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2014-09-01

    Coking wastewater contributes approximately 5% of the total discharge volume of industrial wastewaters every year in China. The toxicity of coking wastewater to aquatic organisms is still unknown. The authors evaluated the toxicity of wastewater from different treatment stages in a coking wastewater treatment plant, South China, using 5 test species belonging to different trophic levels: luminous bacteria, green alga, a crustacean, duckweed, and zebrafish embryos. The raw influent displayed the highest toxicity to the test species, with toxic units ranging from 16.2 to 1176. The toxicity in the wastewater was then gradually removed by sequential primary treatment, biological fluidized-bed treatment, and secondary clarifier treatment. The toxic unit of the final effluent was reduced to 2.26 for the green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) and to 0 for the other 4 organisms. Quantitative analysis of metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and qualitative scanning by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed the presence of a variety of pollutants in the coking wastewaters. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed that the toxicity in the coking wastewater was correlated to the chemical oxygen demand, total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenols, sulfide, metals (Cr, As, Sb, Hg, Pb, and Ni), and ΣPAHs. Based on the results, it is required to set a safety emission limit value for the discharge of coking wastewater to protect aquatic organisms in the receiving water bodies.

  7. Wastewater treatment using ferrous sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boetskaya, K.P.; Ioffe, E.M.

    1980-01-01

    Treatment of industrial wastewater with coagulants is used extensively in the thorough removal of emulsified tars and oils. The central plant laboratory at the Zhdanov Coke Works conducted investigations of the treatment of wastewater, subsequently used for quenching coke, with ferrous sulfate. Laboratory tests and subsequent industrial tests demonstrated the efficiency of the method. In order to further intensify the wastewater treatment process we conducted laboratory tests with the addition of certain quantities of other coagulation reagents, for example polyacrylamide (PAA) and caustic soda, in addition to the ferrous sulfate. The combined use of polyacrylamide and ferrous sulfate permits instant coagulation of the sludge and very rapid (5 to 10 min) clarification of the water. In addition, in this case the degree of purification of the water is less dependent on the initial concentration of impurities. The purification is also improved when caustic soda is added, raising the pH. From the data it is apparent that an identical degree of purification of the water may be achieved either by increasing the consumption of ferrous sulfate, or by adding PAA or NaOH. During industrial tests of the purification of wastewater with ferrous sulfate, we also investigated the resulting sludge. The use of ferrous sulfate causes a significant increase in its quantity (by a factor of 1.5 to 1.8) and in its oil content (by a factor of 2 to 2.5). The water content in the sludge decreases. The sludge (in the quantity of 0.6% of the charge) may be added to the coking charge.

  8. Comparison of concentration methods for rapid detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices using quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    Hookworm infection contributes around 700 million infections worldwide especially in developing nations due to increased use of wastewater for crop production. The effective recovery of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices is difficult due to their low concentrations and heterogeneous distribution. In this study, we compared the recovery rates of (i) four rapid hookworm ova concentration methods from municipal wastewater, and (ii) two concentration methods from sludge samples. Ancylostoma caninum ova were used as surrogate for human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). Known concentration of A. caninum hookworm ova were seeded into wastewater (treated and raw) and sludge samples collected from two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Brisbane and Perth, Australia. The A. caninum ova were concentrated from treated and raw wastewater samples using centrifugation (Method A), hollow fiber ultrafiltration (HFUF) (Method B), filtration (Method C) and flotation (Method D) methods. For sludge samples, flotation (Method E) and direct DNA extraction (Method F) methods were used. Among the four methods tested, filtration (Method C) method was able to recover higher concentrations of A. caninum ova consistently from treated wastewater (39-50%) and raw wastewater (7.1-12%) samples collected from both WWTPs. The remaining methods (Methods A, B and D) yielded variable recovery rate ranging from 0.2 to 40% for treated and raw wastewater samples. The recovery rates for sludge samples were poor (0.02-4.7), although, Method F (direct DNA extraction) provided 1-2 orders of magnitude higher recovery rate than Method E (flotation). Based on our results it can be concluded that the recovery rates of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices, especially sludge samples, can be poor and highly variable. Therefore, choice of concentration method is vital for the sensitive detection of hookworm ova in wastewater matrices.

  9. Diphyllobothriasis after eating raw salmon.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J W; Bass, J W; Demers, D M; Myers, G B

    1997-07-01

    An 11-year-old boy in Hawaii passed mucus and a moving object in his stool. The object was identified as a segment of the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium species which is not indigenous to Hawaii. Diphyllobothrium ova were also found in the stool. The only raw fish he recalled eating in previous months were tuna sushi and lomi-lomi salmon which usually contains raw but previously frozen salmon. Of these two fish, only salmon which is not native to Hawaiian waters, has been incriminated as a significant source of diphyllobothrium fish tapeworm infection. Freezing kills this parasite, however, we speculate that the raw fish in the lomi-lomi salmon that our patient had eaten had not been pre-frozen or was not adequately pre-frozen. Eating raw salmon without certainty that it has been adequately pre-frozen carries the risk of diphyllobothriasis or fish tapeworm infection.

  10. Food Safety and Raw Milk

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn more WATCH THIS: Real Stories About the Dangers of Raw Milk “My daughter turned into a ... yogurt–are safe if they come from healthy animals. No, even the healthiest animals can carry pathogens, ...

  11. Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.

    2002-01-01

    Cycling nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through natural, forested wetlands is a practice that municipal waste treatment managers are considering as a viable option for disposing of wastewater. In this wastewater cycling process, sewer effluent that has been circulated through aerated ponds is discharged into neighboring wetland systems. To understand how wastewater cycling affects forest and species productivity, researchers at the USGS National Wetlands Research Center conducted dendroecological investigations in a swamp system and in a bog system that have been exposed to wastewater effluent for many decades. Dendroecology involves the study of forest changes over time as interpreted from tree rings. Tree-ring chronologies describe the pattern and history of growth suppression and release that can be associated with aging and disturbances such as hurricanes, floods, and fires. But because of limited monitoring, little is known about the potential for long-term effects on forested wetlands as a result of wastewater flooding. USGS researchers used tree rings to detect the effect of wastewater cycling on tree growth. Scientists expected to find that tree-ring width would be increased as a result of added nutrients.

  12. Towards energy positive wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Gikas, Petros

    2016-06-14

    Energy requirement for wastewater treatment is of major concern, lately. This is not only due to the increasing cost of electrical energy, but also due to the effects to the carbon footprint of the treatment process. Conventional activated sludge process for municipal wastewater treatment may consume up to 60% of the total plant power requirements for the aeration of the biological tank. One way to deal with high energy demand is by eliminating aeration needs, as possible. The proposed process is based on enhanced primary solids removal, based on advanced microsieving and filtration processes, by using a proprietary rotating fabric belt MicroScreen (pore size: 100-300 μm) followed by a proprietary Continuous Backwash Upflow Media Filter or cloth media filter. About 80-90% reduction in TSS and 60-70% reduction in BOD5 has been achieved by treating raw municipal wastewater with the above process. Then the partially treated wastewater is fed to a combination low height trickling filters, combined with encapsulated denitrification, for the removal of the remaining BOD and nitrogen. The biosolids produced by the microsieve and the filtration backwash concentrate are fed to an auger press and are dewatered to about 55% solids. The biosolids are then partially thermally dried (to about 80% solids) and conveyed to a gasifier, for the co-production of thermal (which is partly used for biosolids drying) and electrical energy, through syngas combustion in a co-generation engine. Alternatively, biosolids may undergo anaerobic digestion for the production of biogas and then electric energy. The energy requirements for complete wastewater treatment, per volume of inlet raw wastewater, have been calculated to 0.057 kWh/m(3), (or 0.087 kWh/m(3), if UV disinfection has been selected), which is about 85% below the electric energy needs of conventional activated sludge process. The potential for net electric energy production through gasification/co-generation, per volume of

  13. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  14. Biological removal of antiandrogenic activity in gray wastewater and coking wastewater by membrane reactor process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dehua; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Cong; Bao, Chenjun; Liu, Rui

    2015-07-01

    A recombinant human androgen receptor yeast assay was applied to investigate the occurrence of antiandrogens as well as the mechanism for their removal during gray wastewater and coking wastewater treatment. The membrane reactor (MBR) system for gray wastewater treatment could remove 88.0% of antiandrogenic activity exerted by weakly polar extracts and 97.3% of that by moderately strong polar extracts, but only 32.5% of that contributed by strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms in the MBR contributed to 95.9% of the total removal. After the treatment, the concentration of antiandrogenic activity in the effluent was still 1.05 μg flutamide equivalence (FEQ)/L, 36.2% of which was due to strong polar extracts. In the anaerobic reactor, anoxic reactor, and membrane reactor system for coking wastewater treatment, the antiandrogenic activity of raw coking wastewater was 78.6 mg FEQ/L, and the effluent of the treatment system had only 0.34 mg FEQ/L. The antiandrogenic activity mainly existed in the medium strong polar and strong polar extracts. Biodegradation by microorganisms contributed to at least 89.2% of the total antiandrogenic activity removal in the system. Biodegradation was the main removal mechanism of antiandrogenic activity in both the wastewater treatment systems.

  15. Shuttle Wastewater Solution Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adam, Niklas; Pham, Chau

    2011-01-01

    During the 31st shuttle mission to the International Space Station, STS-129, there was a clogging event in the shuttle wastewater tank. A routine wastewater dump was performed during the mission and before the dump was completed, degraded flow was observed. In order to complete the wastewater dump, flow had to be rerouted around the dump filter. As a result, a basic chemical and microbial investigation was performed to understand the shuttle wastewater system and perform mitigation tasks to prevent another blockage. Testing continued on the remaining shuttle flights wastewater and wastewater tank cleaning solutions. The results of the analyses and the effect of the mitigation steps are detailed in this paper.

  16. Improving the geotechnical properties of expansive soils by mixture with olive mill wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.

    2012-04-01

    In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the

  17. Removal of ecotoxicity and COD from tank truck cleaning wastewater.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; De Schepper, Wim; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2013-01-01

    Tank truck cleaning (TTC) activities generate highly complex wastewater. In a previous study, we found that a significant ecotoxic effect was still present in biologically treated TTC wastewater. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate the removal of acute toxicity from TTC wastewater by a sequence of technologies routinely applied for industrial wastewater. Acute toxicity was assayed with the widely applied and standardized Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test. During a 5-month period, raw wastewater was grab-sampled from a full-scale TTC company and treated by the different unit operations on a laboratory scale. Chemical pretreatment of the wastewater by coagulation with FeCl3 removed approx. 38% of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and reduced the bioluminescence inhibition by 8%. Biological treatment with activated sludge subsequently removed another 77% of the remaining COD. This treatment step also reduced the bioluminescence inhibition but the removal efficiency varied strongly from 5 to 92% for the different samples. Powdered activated carbon almost completely removed the remaining COD and inhibition in all samples. The results suggest that conventional technologies did not suffice for complete removal of toxicity from TTC wastewater, and that advanced wastewater treatment technologies such as activated carbon are required for a satisfactory detoxification.

  18. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  19. Bioconversion of industrial wastewater and wastewater sludge into Bacillus thuringiensis based biopesticides in pilot fermentor.

    PubMed

    Yezza, A; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2006-10-01

    Starch industry wastewater (SWW), slaughterhouse wastewater (SHWW) and secondary sludges from three different wastewater treatment plants (Jonquière--JQS, Communauté Urbaine de Québec--CUQS and Black lake-BLS) were used as raw materials for the production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticides in a pilot scale fermentor (100 L working volume). The slaughterhouse wastewater exhibited the lowest Bt growth and entomotoxcity (Tx) potential (measured against spruce budworm) due to low availability of carbon, nitrogen and other nutrients. Performance variation (growth, sporulation, proteolytic activity and Tx potential) within the three types of sludges was directly related to the availability of nitrogen and carbohydrates, which could change with sludge origin and methods employed for its generation. The Tx potential of Bt obtained in different secondary sludges (JQS: 12 x 10(9) SBU/L; CUQS: 13 x 10(9) SBU/L and BLS: 16 x 10(9) SBU/L) and SWW (18 x 10(9) SBU/L) was higher than the soybean based synthetic medium (10 x 10(9) SBU/L). The maximum protease activity was obtained in CUQ secondary sludge (4.1 IU/mL) due to its high complex protein concentration. Nevertheless, high carbohydrate concentration in SWW repressed enzyme production. The secondary sludges and SWW were found to be suitable raw materials for high potency Bt biopesticide production.

  20. Fate of volatile aromatic hydrocarbons in the wastewater from six textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Ning, Xun-An; Wang, Jing-Yu; Li, Rui-Jing; Wen, Wei-Bin; Chen, Chang-Min; Wang, Yu-Jie; Yang, Zuo-Yi; Liu, Jing-Yong

    2015-10-01

    The occurrence and removal of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes, styrene and isopropylbenzene (BTEXSI) from 6 textile dyeing wastewater treatment plants (TDWTPs) were investigated in this study. The practical capacities of the 6 representative plants, which used the activated sludge process, ranged from 1200 to 26000 m(3) d(-1). The results indicated that BTEXSI were ubiquitous in the raw textile dyeing wastewater, except for isopropylbenzene, and that toluene and xylenes were predominant in raw wastewaters (RWs). TDWTP-E was selected to study the residual BTEXSI at different stages. The total BTEXSI reduction on the aerobic process of TDWTP-E accounted for 82.2% of the entire process. The total BTEXSI concentrations from the final effluents (FEs) were observed to be below 1 μg L(-1), except for TDWTP-F (2.12 μg L(-1)). Volatilization and biodegradation rather than sludge sorption contributed significantly to BTEXSI removal in the treatment system. BTEXSI were not found to be the main contaminants in textile dyeing wastewater.

  1. Conversion of raw carbonaceous fuels

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.

    2007-08-07

    Three configurations for an electrochemical cell are utilized to generate electric power from the reaction of oxygen or air with porous plates or particulates of carbon, arranged such that waste heat from the electrochemical cells is allowed to flow upwards through a storage chamber or port containing raw carbonaceous fuel. These configurations allow combining the separate processes of devolatilization, pyrolysis and electrochemical conversion of carbon to electric power into a single unit process, fed with raw fuel and exhausting high BTU gases, electric power, and substantially pure CO.sub.2 during operation.

  2. Incorporation of Listeria monocytogenes strains in raw milk biofilms.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Christiane; Ifland, Andrea; Naumann, Annette; Kleta, Sylvia; Noll, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    Biofilms develop successively on devices of milk production without sufficient cleaning and originate from the microbial community of raw milk. The established biofilm matrices enable incorporation of pathogens like Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause a continuous contamination of food processing plants. L. monocytogenes is frequently found in raw milk and non-pasteurized raw milk products and as part of a biofilm community in milk meters and bulk milk tanks. The aim of this study was to analyze whether different L. monocytogenes strains are interacting with the microbial community of raw milk in terms of biofilm formation in the same manner, and to identify at which stage of biofilm formation a selected L. monocytogenes strain settles best. Bacterial community structure and composition of biofilms were analyzed by a cloning and sequencing approach and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis (T-RFLP) based on the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. The chemical composition of biofilms was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), while settled L. monocytogenes cells were quantified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Addition of individual L. monocytogenes strains to raw milk caused significant shifts in the biofilm biomass, in the chemical as well as in the bacterial community composition. Biofilm formation and attachment of L. monocytogenes cells were not serotype but strain specific. However, the added L. monocytogenes strains were not abundant since mainly members of the genera Citrobacter and Lactococcus dominated the bacterial biofilm community. Overall, added L. monocytogenes strains led to a highly competitive interaction with the raw milk community and triggered alterations in biofilm formation.

  3. The Value-Added of Primary Schools: What Is It Really Measuring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorard, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This paper compares the official value-added scores in 2005 for all primary schools in three adjacent Local Educational Authorities (LEAs) in England with the raw-score Key Stage 2 (KS2) results for the same schools. The correlation coefficient for the raw- and value-added scores of these 457 schools is around +0.75. Scatterplots show that there…

  4. Treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater by wet air oxidation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Yan, Xiuyi; Zhou, Jinghui; Ma, Jiuli

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater produced by hydraulic fracturing for oil and gas production is characterized by high salinity and high chemical oxygen demand (COD). We applied a combination of flocculation and wet air oxidation technology to optimize the reduction of COD in the treatment of hydraulic fracturing wastewater. The experiments used different values of flocculant, coagulant, and oxidizing agent added to the wastewater, as well as different reaction times and treatment temperatures. The use of flocculants for the pretreatment of fracturing wastewater was shown to improve treatment efficiency. The addition of 500 mg/L of polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and 20 mg/L of anionic polyacrylamide (APAM) during pretreatment resulted in a COD removal ratio of 8.2% and reduced the suspended solid concentration of fracturing wastewater to 150 mg/L. For a solution of pretreated fracturing wastewater with 12 mL of added H2O2, the COD was reduced to 104 mg/L when reacted at 300 °C for 75 min, and reduced to 127 mg/L when reacted at the same temperature for 45 min while using a 1 L autoclave. An optimal combination of these parameters produced treated wastewater that met the GB 8978-1996 'Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard' level I emission standard.

  5. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  6. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  7. Possible impact of treated wastewater discharge on incidence of antibiotic resistant bacteria in river water.

    PubMed

    Iwane, T; Urase, T; Yamamoto, K

    2001-01-01

    Escherichia coli and coliform group bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics were investigated in the Tama River, a typical urbanized river in Tokyo, Japan, and at a wastewater treatment plant located on the river. The percentages of antibiotic resistance in the wastewater effluent were, in most cases, higher than the percentages in the river water, which were observed increasing downstream. Since the possible increase in the percentages in the river was associated with treated wastewater discharges, it was concluded that the river, which is contaminated by treated wastewater with many kinds of pollutants, is also contaminated with antibiotic resistant coliform group bacteria and E. coli. The percentages of resistant bacteria in the wastewater treatment plant were mostly observed decreasing during the treatment process. It was also demonstrated that the percentages of resistance in raw sewage are significantly higher than those in the river water and that the wastewater treatment process investigated in this study works against most of resistant bacteria in sewage.

  8. Landfill Leachate Toxicity Removal in Combined Treatment with Municipal Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Kalka, J.

    2012-01-01

    Combined treatment of landfill leachate and municipal wastewater was performed in order to investigate the changes of leachate toxicity during biological treatment. Three laboratory A2O lab-scale reactors were operating under the same parameters (Q-8.5–10 L/d; HRT-1.4–1.6 d; MLSS 1.6–2.5 g/L) except for the influent characteristic and load. The influent of reactor I consisted of municipal wastewater amended with leachate from postclosure landfill; influent of reactor II consisted of leachate collected from transient landfill and municipal wastewater; reactor III served as a control and its influent consisted of municipal wastewater only. Toxicity of raw and treated wastewater was determinted by four acute toxicity tests with Daphnia magna, Thamnocephalus platyurus, Vibrio fischeri, and Raphidocelis subcapitata. Landfill leachate increased initial toxicity of wastewater. During biological treatment, significant decline of acute toxicity was observed, but still mixture of leachate and wastewater was harmful to all tested organisms. PMID:22623882

  9. Heavy metals content of municipal wastewater and sludges in Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Al Enezi, G; Hamoda, M F; Fawzi, N

    2004-01-01

    Municipal wastewater may contain heavy metals, which are hazardous to the environment and humans. With stringent regulations concerning water reuse and sludge utilization in agriculture, there is a great need to determine levels of heavy metals in liquid wastes, sludges and agricultural crops. The state of Kuwait has programs to utilize waste sludge produced at wastewater treatment plants as soil conditioner and fertilizer for greenery and agricultural development projects and to reuse treated wastewater effluents in irrigation. The common metals found in Kuwait's raw wastewater and sludge are Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn. The effects of accumulation of heavy metals in soil are long lasting and even permanent. In this study, the variations in the concentration levels of heavy metals were measured in wastewater and sludge produced at Ardiya municipal wastewater treatment plant in Kuwait. A relationship was observed between the concentrations of heavy metals in treated wastewater and sludge used for agriculture and the level of accumulated heavy metals found in residual tissues of some crops.

  10. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  11. Toxicities of raw Alocasia odora.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Mi; Lee, Byeong Kook; Chun, Byeong Jo

    2011-10-01

    Alocasia, the Araceae family, is a genus of more than 100 species of perennial, herbaceous, diminutive to extremely large, usually robust herbs with a clear-to-milky latex. They are distributed throughout subtropical and tropical Asia and in the tropical western pacific as well as eastern Australia. Despite easy access to A odora, there have been no published reports in English regarding the toxic symptoms following the ingestion of raw A odora. Here, the clinical manifestations of 2 patients that ingested raw A odora are described. Two patients experienced oral numbness and intractable tongue pain, and 1 patient required endotracheal intubation because of upper respiratory tract obstruction. Although conservative treatment is the primary approach to A odora poisoning, physicians should be aware of the potential for upper respiratory obstruction in patients exposed to A odora, as well as the need for controlling tongue pain.

  12. Ammonia stripping for enhanced biomethanization of piggery wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yong-Woo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2012-01-15

    In this study, the effects of ammonia removal by air stripping as a pretreatment on the anaerobic digestion of piggery wastewater were investigated. Ammonia stripping results indicated that ammonia removal was strongly dependent on pH and aeration rate, and the ammonia removal rate followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. A significant enhancement of biomethanization was observed for wastewaters of which ammonia was air-stripped at pH 9.5 and pH 10.0. The methane productivity increased from 0.23 ± 0.08 L CH(4)/Ld of the control (raw piggery wastewater) to 0.75 ± 0.11 L CH(4)/Ld (ammonia-stripped at pH 9.5) and 0.57 ± 0.04 L CH(4)/Ld (ammonia-stripped at pH 10.0). However, the improvement of methane production from the piggery wastewater pretreated at pH 11.0 was negligible compared to the control, which was thought to be due to the high concentration of sodium ions supplied from sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. From these results, it was concluded that ammonia removal through air stripping at the alkaline pH could be a viable option for preventing the failure of anaerobic digestion of the raw piggery wastewater. Additionally, it was also found that a high concentration of sodium ion originated from sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment inhibited methane production.

  13. Bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

    PubMed

    Eglezos, Sofroni; Dykes, Gary A; Huang, Bixing; Fegan, Narelle; Stuttard, Ed

    2008-03-01

    The bacteriological profile of raw, frozen chicken nuggets manufactured at a chicken processing facility in Queensland, Australia, was determined. Chicken nuggets are manufactured by grinding poultry, adding premixes to incorporate spices, forming the meat to the desired size and shape, applying a batter and breading, freezing, and packaging. A total of 300 frozen batches were analyzed for aerobic plate count, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella over a period of 4 years. The mean of the aerobic plate count was 5.4 log CFU/g, and counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 5.7, 5.9, and 6.5 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of bacteria detected was 6.6 log CFU/g. E. coli prevalence was 47%, and of the positive samples, the mean was 1.9 log CFU/g; counts at the 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles were 2.3, 2.4, and 2.8 log CFU/g, respectively. The maximum number of E. coli was 2.9 log CFU/g. The Salmonella prevalence was 8.7%, and 57.7% of these isolates were typed as Salmonella subspecies II 4,12,[27]:b:[e,n,x] (Sofia), a low-virulence serotype well adapted to Australian poultry flocks. There was a significant relationship (P < 0.05) between season and both aerobic plate counts and E. coli counts, and no correlation between E. coli counts and Salmonella prevalence. This study provides valuable data on the bacteriological quality of raw, frozen chicken nuggets.

  14. Small Wastewater Systems Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Small communities face barriers to building and maintaining effective wastewater treatment services, challenges include financial/economic limitations, lack of managerial training and geographic isolation/remoteness.

  15. Presence of human immunodeficiency virus nucleic acids in wastewater and their detection by polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, S A; Farrah, S R; Chaudhry, G R

    1992-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) released by infected individuals or present in human and hospital wastes can potentially cause contamination problems. The presence of HIV-1 was investigated in 16 environmental samples, including raw wastewater, sludge, final effluent, soil, and pond water, collected from different locations. A method was developed to extract total nucleic acids in intact form directly from the raw samples or from the viral concentrates of the raw samples. The isolated nucleic acids were analyzed for the presence of HIV-1 by using in vitro amplification of the target sequences by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. HIV-1-specific proviral DNA and viral RNA were detected in the extracted nucleic acids obtained from three wastewater samples by this method. The specificity of the PCR-amplified products was determined by Southern blot hybridization with an HIV-1-specific oligonucleotide probe, SK19. The isolated nucleic acids from wastewater samples were also screened for the presence of poliovirus type 1, representing a commonly found enteric virus, and simian immunodeficiency virus, representing, presumably, rare viruses. While poliovirus type 1 viral RNA was found in all of the wastewater samples, none of the samples yielded a simian immunodeficiency virus-specific product. No PCR-amplified product was yielded when wastewater samples were directly used for the detection of HIV-1 and poliovirus type 1. The wastewater constituents appeared to be inhibitory to the enzymes reverse transcriptase and DNA polymerase.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:1476440

  16. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  17. Aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Steffensen, Charlotte L; Andersen, Henrik J; Nielsen, Jacob H

    2002-12-04

    In the present study, the aldehyde-induced pro-oxidative activity of xanthine oxidase was followed in an accelerated raw milk system using spin-trap electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The aldehydes acetaldehyde, propanal, hexanal, trans-2-hexenal, trans-2-heptenal, trans-2-nonenal, and 3-methyl-2-butenal were all found to initiate radical reactions when added to milk. Formation of superoxide through aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity is suggested as the initial reaction, as all tested aldehydes were shown to trigger superoxide formation in an ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk model system with added xanthine oxidase. It was found that addition of aldehydes to milk initially increased the ascorbyl radical concentration with a subsequent decay due to ascorbate depletion, which renders the formation of superoxide in milk with added aldehyde. The present study shows for the first time potential acceleration of oxidative events in milk through aldehyde-induced xanthine oxidase activity.

  18. Analysis of Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancy, K. H.; Weber, W. J., Jr.

    A comprehensive, documented discussion of certain operating principles useful as guidelines for the analysis of industrial wastewaters is presented. Intended primarily for the chemist, engineer, or other professional person concerned with all aspects of industrial wastewater analysis, it is not to be considered as a substitute for standard manuals…

  19. Decentralized wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tchobanoglous, G.

    1998-07-01

    Decentralized wastewater management systems maintain both the solid and liquid fractions of the wastewater near their point of origin. In the future, as long-term strategies are developed to optimize the use of water resources and to protect the environment, it is clear that decentralized systems will become an important element of those strategies.

  20. Analysis of thyroid hormones in raw and treated waste water.

    PubMed

    Svanfelt, Jesper; Eriksson, Johan; Kronberg, Leif

    2010-10-15

    An analytical method for the quantification of thyroid hormones (3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine, 3,3',5-triiodo-L-thyronine, 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine, 3,5-diiodothyronine, 3,3'-diiodothyronine) in different water matrices has been developed. The method, consisting of solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), was validated for tap and surface water as well as raw and treated waste water. The limits of quantifications (LOQs) were lowest in tap water, where they ranged from 1.1 to 13.3 ng L(-1), and highest in raw wastewater (10.5-84.9 ng L(-1)). Of the target analytes 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-L-thyronine (T(4)) could be quantified in the influent and effluent of a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) in Finland. The study showed that despite a relatively high removal rate during treatment (66%), part of the incoming T(4) will reach the aquatic environment and, due to the high endocrine activity of this compound, further studies are needed in order to assess its environmental fate and impact on natural ecosystems.

  1. A critical review on characterization strategies of organic matter for wastewater and water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Tran, Ngoc Han; Ngo, Huu Hao; Urase, Taro; Gin, Karina Yew-Hoong

    2015-10-01

    The presence of organic matter (OM) in raw wastewater, treated wastewater effluents, and natural water samples has been known to cause many problems in wastewater treatment and water reclamation processes, such as treatability, membrane fouling, and the formation of potentially toxic by-products during wastewater treatment. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the methods for characterization and quantification of OM in water samples in relation to wastewater and water treatment processes including: (i) characterization based on the biodegradability; (ii) characterization based on particle size distribution; (iii) fractionation based on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties; (iv) characterization based on the molecular weight (MW) size distribution; and (v) characterization based on fluorescence excitation emission matrix. In addition, the advantages, disadvantages and applications of these methods are discussed in detail. The establishment of correlations among biodegradability, hydrophobic/hydrophilic fractions, MW size distribution of OM, membrane fouling and formation of toxic by-products potential is highly recommended for further studies.

  2. Cheese whey wastewater: characterization and treatment.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Fátima; Prazeres, Ana R; Rivas, Javier

    2013-02-15

    Cheese whey wastewater (CWW) is a strong organic and saline effluent whose characterization and treatment have not been sufficiently addressed. CWW composition is highly variable due to raw milk used, the fraction of non valorized cheese whey and the amount of cleaning water used. Cheese whey wastewater generation is roughly four times the volume of processed milk. This research tries to conduct an exhaustive compilation of CWW characterization and a comparative study between the different features of CWW, cheese whey (CW), second cheese whey (SCW) and dairy industry effluents. Different CWW existing treatments have also been critically analyzed. The advantages and drawbacks in aerobic/anaerobic processes have been evaluated. The benefits of physicochemical pre-stages (i.e. precipitation, coagulation-flocculation) in biological aerobic systems are assessed. Pre-treatments based on coagulation or basic precipitation might allow the application of aerobic biodegradation treatments with no dilution requirements. Chemical precipitation with lime or NaOH produces a clean wastewater and a sludge rich in organic matter, N and P. Their use in agriculture may lead to the implementation of Zero discharge systems.

  3. Examination of food waste co-digestion to manage the peak in energy demand at wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Lensch, D; Schaum, C; Cornel, P

    2016-01-01

    Many digesters in Germany are not operated at full capacity; this offers the opportunity for co-digestion. Within this research the potentials and limits of a flexible and adapted sludge treatment are examined with a focus on the digestion process with added food waste as co-substrate. In parallel, energy data from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) are analysed and lab-scale semi-continuous and batch digestion tests are conducted. Within the digestion tests, the ratio of sewage sludge to co-substrate was varied. The final methane yields show the high potential of food waste: the higher the amount of food waste the higher the final yield. However, the conversion rates directly after charging demonstrate better results by charging 10% food waste instead of 20%. Finally, these results are merged with the energy data from the WWTP. As an illustration, the load required to cover base loads as well as peak loads for typical daily variations of the plant's energy demand are calculated. It was found that 735 m³ raw sludge and 73 m³ of a mixture of raw sludge and food waste is required to cover 100% of the base load and 95% of the peak load.

  4. Production of Spirulina sp by utilization of wastewater from the powder type energy drinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumantri, Indro; Priyambada, Ika Bagus

    2015-12-01

    Wastewater of energy drink type of powder produced when the the production equipment required cleaning treatment to produce one taste to others. These equipments washed by water, so that, it produced wastewater. It contains high organic substances and classified as high degradable due to food product. The content of wastewater is high carbon and nitrogen substances. Microalgae is an autotrophic microorganism, live without carbon presence, utilized to digest the substances in wastewater especially for nitrogen substances. Spirulina sp is the type of microalgae selected to utilize the wastewater of energy drink, the selection criteria is the size of Spirulina sp is relatively large and easy to separated from its solution. The experiment conducted by cultivate the seeding microalgae with certain nutrients until the certain volume. The synthetic wastewater obtained from one of energy drink type of powder with commercial brand as Kuku Bima Ener-G, the wastewater concentration selected under the close to the real condition of wastewater as basis of COD measurement (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L) and aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L). The batch experiments with 1L volume conducted and with variable of percent volume of wastewater added in order to observe the growth of microlagae. The response of the microalgae growth obtained by increasing the optical density of the microalgae solution and continued by calculation for the growth rate of microalgae. The result of the experiments indicated that for the aqueous concentration (1 sachet/L or COD of 2080mg/L) the optimum added of wastewater is 40 % with growrate of 0.55/day while for the concentrated wastewater (6 sachet/L or COD of 12.480mg/L), the optimum condition is 25 % wastewater added with growth rate of 0.43/day.

  5. Task 5.10 -- Value-added coproducts. Semi-annual report, January 1--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.; Aulich, T.R.

    1997-08-01

    Research focused on end-use products is needed to integrate value-added coproducts with power generation and to reduce escalating waste disposal costs by developing profit centers from recycling. Substantial public benefits can be derived from by-products utilization through conservation of energy and resources, reduction in gaseous emissions, and prevention of solid waste pollution. Continued research on carbon products under the base Cooperative Agreement addresses the central question of whether uniquely cost-effective activated carbons can be produced by taking advantage of the inherently porous and reactive structure of low-rank coals (LRCs). Carbon products will be evaluated in reference to their potential use in air toxics control and other applications. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) designated value-added carbon as a product line, with the goal of developing superior carbon products at competitive prices for a range of applications, including SOx/NOx/air toxics adsorption, wastewater treatment, molecular sieves, catalyst supports, metallurgical and foundry carbons, and clean-burning solid fuels using EERC processes previously developed under the US Department of Energy (DOE) Mild Gasification program. The approach to be used in meeting specifications for marketable activated carbon products is to develop a fundamental understanding of the extent and quality of the porous surface needed to achieve rapid, high-capacity adsorption of pollutant gases or toxic metals and the processing conditions needed to transform coal and other raw materials into products possessing these superior properties.

  6. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in raw and treated sewage sludges.

    PubMed

    Amorós, Inmaculada; Moreno, Yolanda; Reyes, Mariela; Moreno-Mesonero, Laura; Alonso, Jose L

    2016-11-01

    Treated sludge from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) is commonly used in agriculture as fertilizers and to amend soils. The most significant health hazard for sewage sludge relates to the wide range of pathogenic microorganisms such as protozoa parasites.The objective of this study was to collect quantitative data on Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the treated sludge in wastewater treatment facilities in Spain. Sludge from five WWTPs with different stabilization processes has been analysed for the presence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the raw sludge and after the sludge treatment. A composting plant (CP) has also been assessed. After a sedimentation step, sludge samples were processed and (oo)cysts were isolated by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) and detected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Results obtained in this study showed that Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were present in 26 of the 30 samples (86.6%) of raw sludge samples. In treated sludge samples, (oo)cysts have been observed in all WWTP's analysed (25 samples) with different stabilization treatment (83.3%). Only in samples from the CP no (oo)cysts were detected. This study provides evidence that (oo)cysts are present in sewage sludge-end products from wastewater treatment processes with the negative consequences for public health.

  7. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM BEARING RAW MATERIALS

    DOEpatents

    Michal, E.J.; Porter, R.R.

    1959-06-16

    Uranium leaching from ground uranium-bearing raw materials using MnO/sub 2/ in H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ is described. The MnO/sub 2/ oxidizes U to the leachable hexavalent state. The MnO/sub 2/ does not replace Fe normally added, because the Fe complexes P and catalyzes the MnO/sub 2/ reaction. Three examples of continuous processes are given, but batch operation is also possible. The use of MnO/sub 2/ makes possible recovery of very low U values. (T.R.H.)

  8. The purification mechanism of wastewater by underwater discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kangil; Ma, Suk Hwal; Huh, Jin Young; Hong, Yong Cheol; National Fusion Research Institute Team; Chonbuk National University Team; Kwangwoon University Team; NPAC Team

    2016-09-01

    There is a continuing need for development of effective, cheap and environmentally friendly processes for purification of wastewater. In this regard, the plasmas can be a promising candidate for next-generation method to purify the wastewater. It is well known that the plasmas generate many reactive species and thus they are predominant for degradation of organic pollutants from water. In order to generate plasma in wastewater, the capillary electrodes are used with ac power supply. After plasma treatment, the coagulants are added to purify the wastewater. The efficiency of coagulation is significantly improved by plasma treatment of wastewater. These results may come from the reactions among radicals of plasma-treated water, electron reduction and oxidation of ions in waste water, and coagulant. In order to verify the hypothesis, we measured characteristics changes of water by underwater discharge. In this study, we propose the purification mechanism of wastewater by underwater discharge. We expect that the underwater discharge can be applied to purify wastewater in near future.

  9. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  10. Occurrence of Listeria spp. in Effluents of French Urban Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Paillard, Delphine; Dubois, Véronique; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Nathier, Fany; Hoogland, Emilie; Caumette, Pierre; Quentin, Claudine

    2005-01-01

    Listeria spp. were found in most treated waters (84.4%) and raw sludge (89.2%) of six French urban wastewater treatment plants and one composting facility, examined monthly over a 1-year period. Most strains belonged to Listeria monocytogenes, serotypes 4b/4e being predominant. Sludge composting and liming reduced or prevented Listeria contamination. PMID:16269804

  11. Pathogenic parasites and enteroviruses in wastewater: support for a regulation on water reuse.

    PubMed

    Hachich, Elayse M; Galvani, Ana T; Padula, Jose A; Stoppe, Nancy C; Garcia, Suzi C; Bonanno, Vilma M S; Barbosa, Mikaela R F; Sato, Maria Inês Z

    2013-01-01

    Brazilian regulations for nonpotable reuse are being established using World Health Organization guidelines, however, they should be developed based on local monitoring studies. This study intended to analyze enteroviruses, protozoa and viable Ascaris sp. eggs in raw (24) and treated (24) effluents from four Wastewater Treatment Plants of São Paulo State, Brazil. The protozoa were detected with the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Method 1623 in the treated effluents and by centrifugation/Immunomagnetic Separation in the raw influent samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were analyzed according to a modified USEPA method. Enteroviruses were quantified by using human rhabdomyosarcoma cells after adequate concentration procedures. All wastewater influents were positive for Giardia sp. whereas Cryptosporidium sp. was detected in 58.3% of the samples. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. were present in 79.2 and 25.0% respectively, of the treated wastewater samples. Viable Ascaris sp. eggs were detected in 50.0 and 12.5% of influent and treated wastewater samples. Enteroviruses were isolated in the 24 raw influent samples and in 46% of the treated samples. Taking into account the densities of Giardia sp. in some treated wastewaters intended to be used as reclaimed water, Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment studies should be conducted to establish pathogen quantitative criteria for a future Brazilian regulation for water reuse.

  12. TENORM: Wastewater Treatment Residuals

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Water and wastes which have been discharged into a municipal sewers are treated at wastewater treatment plants. These may contain both man-made and naturally occurring radionuclides which can accumulate in the treatment plant.

  13. Reduction of mercury, copper, nickel, cadmium, and zinc levels in solution by competitive adsorption onto peanut hulls, and raw and aged bark.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R W; Andrews, D S; Lightsey, G R; Poonawala, N A

    1977-03-01

    The competitive adsorption of common heavy metal ions by peanut hulls, raw bark, and composted bark was studied. These solid wastes were found to adsorb significant amounts of one or more of the heavy metals (Hg, Cu, Ni, Cd, Zn) commonly found in municipal sludge and wastewater.

  14. 7 CFR 29.6033 - Raw.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Raw. 29.6033 Section 29.6033 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6033 Raw. Tobacco as it appears between the time of harvesting and...

  15. Future Sources of Organic Raw Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Irving S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines the need for industrial organization, academic institutions, and national governments to agree on cooperative roles in planning the future raw materials demands of the chemical industry. Political and social concerns, as well as technical and economic considerations, are important to the raw material future of the industry. (MA)

  16. MIUS wastewater technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poradek, J. C.

    1976-01-01

    A modular integrated utility system wastewater-treatment process is described. Research in the field of wastewater treatment is reviewed, treatment processes are specified and evaluated, and recommendations for system use are made. The treatment processes evaluated are in the broad categories of preparatory, primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment, physical-chemical processing, dissolved-solids removal, disinfection, sludge processing, and separate systems. Capital, operating, and maintenance costs are estimated, and extensive references are given.

  17. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Jiang, Yi; Lee, Gordon; Kokabian, Bahareh; Fast, Sara; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L; Magbanua, Benjamin S; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

    2015-10-01

    This paper provides a review of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment. In particular, this paper primarily focuses on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (single and multiple pollutants, and metals), and emerging pollutant removal (pharmaceuticals). A summary of studies involving the plant (vegetation) effects, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  18. Reduction of greenhouse gases from anaerobic piggery wastewater treatment by bromochloromethane in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Liu, Bee-Yang; Chang, Yuan-Chie

    2004-01-01

    This work establishes methods of reducing the amount of methane produced from the anaerobic treatment of piggery wastewater by either reducing the storage time before solid/liquid separation or inhibiting the activity of methanogens in anaerobic wastewater treatment system. Experimental results showed these two methods can be adopted effectively to reduce methane production resulting from anaerobic piggery wastewater treatment. First, the wastewater must be processed using solid/liquid separation immediately after washing pig houses. This process can reduce by 62% the biogas production and indirectly decrease the methane production from the anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor. Second, adding 10 mg L(-1) bromochloromethane (BCM) daily into the anaerobic wastewater treatment reactor can significantly reduce the amount of biogas and methane produced during the anaerobic fermentation process. Furthermore, biogas production can be completely inhibited after 4 days. Adding BCM (< or =10 mg L(-1)) to wastewater only slightly affected the efficiency of the anaerobic wastewater treatment process. Results in this study can provide the basis for further research on reduction of the amount of methane produced from anaerobic wastewater treatments.

  19. Removal of phenolic compounds from wastewaters using soybean peroxidase

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, H.; Nicell, J.A.

    1996-11-01

    Toxic and odiferous phenolic compounds are present in wastewaters generated by a variety of industries including petroleum refining, plastics, resins, textiles, and iron and steel manufacturing among others. Due to its commercial availability in purified form, its useful presence in raw plant material, and its proven ability to remove a variety of phenolic contaminants from wastewaters over a wide range of pH and temperature, horseradish peroxidase (HRP) appears to be the peroxidase enzyme of choice in enzymatic wastewater treatment studies. Problems with HRP catalyzed phenol removal, however, include the formation of toxic soluble reaction by-products, the cost of the enzyme, and costs associated with disposal of the phenolic precipitate generated. Enzyme costs are incurred because the enzyme is inactivated during the phenol removal process by various side reactions. While recent work has shown that enzyme inactivation can be reduced using chemical additives, the problem of enzyme cost could be circumvented by using a less expensive source of enzyme. In 1991, the seed coat of the soybean was identified as a very rich source of peroxidase enzyme. Since the seed coat of the soybean is a waste product of the soybean food industry, soybean peroxidase (SBP) has the potential of being a cost effective alternative to HRP in wastewater treatment. In this study, SBP is characterized in terms of its catalytic activity, its stability, and its ability to promote removal of phenolic compounds from synthetic wastewaters. Results obtained are discussed and compared to similar investigations using HRP.

  20. Assessment of endotoxin activity in wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Guizani, Mokhtar; Dhahbi, Mahmoud; Funamizu, Naoyuki

    2009-07-01

    Endotoxic material, commonly associated to biological reactions, is thought to be one of the most important constituents in water. This has become a very important topic because of the common interest in microbial products governed by the possible shift to water reuse for drinking purposes. In this light, this study was conducted to provide an assessment of endotoxic activity in reclaimed wastewater. A bacterial endotoxin test (LAL test) was applied to water samples from several wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) in Sapporo, Japan keeping in view the seasonal variation. Samples were taken from several points in WWTP (influent, effluent, return sludge, advanced treatment effluent). The findings of this study indicated that wastewater shows high endotoxin activity. The value of Endotoxin (Endo) to COD ratio in the effluent is usually higher than that of the influent. Moreover, it is found that wastewater contains initially endotoxic active material. Some of those chemicals are biodegradable and but most of them are non-biodegradable. Batch scale activated sludge studies were undertaken to understand the origin of endotoxic active material in the effluent. This study showed that those chemicals are mainly produced during biological reactions, more precisely during decay process. Moreover, raw wastewater (RWW) contains high amounts of organic matter having endotoxicity which remains in the effluent.

  1. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A heat recovery system with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature.

  2. Wastewater heat recovery apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-01

    A heat recovery system is described with a heat exchanger and a mixing valve. A drain trap includes a heat exchanger with an inner coiled tube, baffle plate, wastewater inlet, wastewater outlet, cold water inlet, and preheated water outlet. Wastewater enters the drain trap through the wastewater inlet, is slowed and spread by the baffle plate, and passes downward to the wastewater outlet. Cold water enters the inner tube through the cold water inlet and flows generally upward, taking on heat from the wastewater. This preheated water is fed to the mixing valve, which includes a flexible yoke to which are attached an adjustable steel rod, two stationary zinc rods, and a pivoting arm. The free end of the arm forms a pad which rests against a valve seat. The rods and pivoting arm expand or contract as the temperature of the incoming preheated water changes. The zinc rods expand more than the steel rod, flexing the yoke and rotating the pivoting arm. The pad moves towards the valve seat as the temperature of the preheated water rises, and away as the temperature falls, admitting a variable amount of hot water to maintain a nearly constant average process water temperature. 6 figs.

  3. Influence of wastewater type on the impact generated by TiO2 nanoparticles on the oxygen uptake rate in activated sludge process.

    PubMed

    Cervantes-Avilés, Pabel; Camarillo Piñas, Nayeli; Ida, Junichi; Cuevas-Rodríguez, Germán

    2017-04-01

    Physicochemical characteristics of wastewater have a relationship with the stability of TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs). This in turn has an effect on the toxicity of TiO2 NPs in microorganisms. In this work, the effect of TiO2 NPs on activated sludge process was evaluated using three different types of wastewater: synthetic, raw, and filtered. The results showed that aggregate size of TiO2 NPs and their specific adsorption of substrates were influenced by the type of substrates and the presence of suspended solids in the wastewater. It was also shown that TiO2 NPs in raw wastewater severely inhibited oxygen uptake by microorganisms as compared to uptake in synthetic or filtered wastewater. The attachment of TiO2 NP aggregates on cell membranes was observed for all types of wastewater. However, the internalization of TiO2 NPs by microorganisms was observed only for raw and filtered wastewater. These results indicate that the effects caused by TiO2 NPs on activated sludge were different depending on the wastewater used for the experiment.

  4. Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma-Induced Photocatalysis and Ozonation for the Treatment of Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mok, Young Sun; Jo, Jin-Oh; Lee, Heon-Ju

    2008-02-01

    The physicochemical processes of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) such as in-situ formation of chemically active species and emission of ultraviolet (UV)/visible light were utilized for the treatment of a simulated wastewater formed with Acid Red 4 as the model organic contaminant. The chemically active species (mostly ozone) produced in the DBD reactor were well distributed in the wastewater using a porous gas diffuser, thereby increasing the gas-liquid contact area. For the purpose of making the best use of the light emission, a titanium oxide-based photocatalyst was incorporated in the wastewater treating system. The experimental parameters chosen were the voltage applied to the DBD reactor, the initial pH of the wastewater, and the concentration of hydrogen peroxide added to the wastewater. The results have clearly shown that the present system capable of degrading organic contaminants in two ways (photocatalysis and ozonation) may be a promising wastewater treatment technology.

  5. Effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal in wastewater-based algae cultivation system.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaochen; Zhou, Wenguang; Fu, Zongqiang; Cheng, Yanling; Min, Min; Liu, Yuhuan; Zhang, Yunkai; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2014-09-01

    Centrate, a type of nutrient-rich municipal wastewater was used to determine the effect of wastewater-borne bacteria on algal growth and nutrients removal efficiency in this study. The characteristics of algal and bacterial growth profiles, wastewater nutrient removal and effect of initial algal inoculums were systematically examined. The results showed that initial algal concentration had apparent effect on bacterial growth, and the presence of bacteria had a significant influence on algal growth pattern, suggesting symbiotic relationship between algae and bacteria at the initial stage of algae cultivation. The maximum algal biomass of 2.01 g/L with 0.1g/L initial algal inoculums concentration can be obtained during algae cultivation in raw centrate medium. The synergistic effect of centrate-borne bacteria and microalgae on algae growth and nutrient removal performance at initial fast growth stage has great potential to be applied to pilot-scale wastewater-based algae wastewater system cultivated in continuous or semi-continuous mode.

  6. Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) Value-Added Product

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK; Sivaraman, C; McFarlane, SA

    2012-10-31

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Raman Lidar Profiles–Temperature (RLPROFTEMP) value-added product (VAP) and the procedures used to derive atmospheric temperature profiles from the raw RL measurements. Sections 2 and 4 describe the input and output variables, respectively. Section 3 discusses the theory behind the measurement and the details of the algorithm, including calibration and overlap correction.

  7. Modification of plant oils for value-added uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant oils are valuable agricultural commodities and useful raw materials for the preparation of value-added products. In this article, a review is made of the various structural modifications made on plant oils in the authors’ laboratories. The reactions include Diels-Alder, ene reaction, transeste...

  8. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E M; Cook, M M; McQuaig, S M; Ulrich, R M; Schenck, R O; Lukasik, J O; Van Vleet, E S; Breitbart, M

    2015-03-23

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  9. Potential of combining mechanical and physicochemical municipal wastewater pre-treatment with direct membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tobias; Väänänen, Janne; Heinen, Nicolas; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2017-01-01

    At a full-scale wastewater treatment plant, raw municipal wastewater from the sand trap outlet was mechanically and physicochemically pre-treated before microfiltration (MF) in a large pilot-scale study. MF was performed using a low transmembrane pressure (0.03 bar) without backflushing for up to 159 h (∼6.6 d). Pre-filtration ensured stable MF operation compared with the direct application of raw wastewater on the membrane. The combination of physicochemical pre-treatment, such as coagulation, flocculation, and microsieving, with MF meets the European and Swedish discharge limits for small- and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The specific electricity footprint was 0.3-0.4 kWh·m(-3), which is an improvement compared to the median footprint of 0.75 kWh·m(-3) found in 105 traditional Swedish WWTPs with sizes of 1500-10,000 person equivalents. Furthermore, the biological treatment step can be omitted, and the risk of releasing greenhouse gases was eliminated. The investigated wastewater treatment process required less space than conventional wastewater treatment processes, and more carbon was made available for biogas production.

  10. Wastewater-based epidemiology as a new tool for estimating population exposure to phthalate plasticizers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Marino, Iria; Rodil, Rosario; Barrio, Ivan; Cela, Rafael; Quintana, Jose Benito

    2017-02-27

    This study proposes the monitoring of phthalate metabolites in wastewater as a non-intrusive and economic alternative to urine analysis for estimating human exposure to phthalates. To this end, a solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed, allowing for the determination of eight phthalate metabolites in wastewater (limits of quantification between 0.5 and 32 ng L-1). The analysis of samples from the NW region of Spain showed that these substances occur in raw wastewater up to ca.1.6 µg L-1 and in treated wastewater up to ca. 1 µg L-1. Concentrations in raw wastewater were converted into levels of exposure to six phthalate diesters. For three of them, these levels were always below the daily exposure thresholds recommended by the US-Environmental Protection Agency and the European Food Safety Authority. For the other three, however, estimates of exposure surpassed such threshold (especially the toddler threshold) in some cases, highlighting the significance of the exposure to phthalates in children. Finally, concentrations in wastewater were also used to estimate metabolite concentrations in urine, providing a reasonable concordance between our results and the data obtained in two previous biomonitoring studies.

  11. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-03-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation.

  12. Reduction of nutrients, microbes, and personal care products in domestic wastewater by a benchtop electrocoagulation unit

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, E. M.; Cook, M. M.; McQuaig, S. M.; Ulrich, R. M.; Schenck, R. O.; Lukasik, J. O.; Van Vleet, E. S.; Breitbart, M.

    2015-01-01

    To preserve environmental and human health, improved treatment processes are needed to reduce nutrients, microbes, and emerging chemical contaminants from domestic wastewater prior to discharge into the environment. Electrocoagulation (EC) treatment is increasingly used to treat industrial wastewater; however, this technology has not yet been thoroughly assessed for its potential to reduce concentrations of nutrients, a variety of microbial surrogates, and personal care products found in domestic wastewater. This investigation's objective was to determine the efficiency of a benchtop EC unit with aluminum sacrificial electrodes to reduce concentrations of the aforementioned biological and chemical pollutants from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. EC treatment resulted in significant reductions (p < 0.05, α = 0.05) in phosphate, all microbial surrogates, and several personal care products from raw and tertiary-treated domestic wastewater. When wastewater was augmented with microbial surrogates representing bacterial, viral, and protozoan pathogens to measure the extent of reduction, EC treatment resulted in up to 7-log10 reduction of microbial surrogates. Future pilot and full-scale investigations are needed to optimize EC treatment for the following: reducing nitrogen species, personal care products, and energy consumption; elucidating the mechanisms behind microbial reductions; and performing life cycle analyses to determine the appropriateness of implementation. PMID:25797885

  13. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  14. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  15. Lignin as renewable raw material.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Flores, Francisco García; Dobado, José A

    2010-11-22

    Lignin is by far the most abundant substance based on aromatic moieties in nature, and the largest contributor to soil organic matter. Millions of tonnes of several lignin preparations are produced by the paper industry every year, and a minimal amount of lignin is isolated by direct extraction of lignin from plants. Lignin is used either directly or chemically modified, as a binder, dispersant agent for pesticides, emulsifier, heavy metal sequestrant, or component for composites and copolymers. For value-added applications of lignin to be improved, medium- and long-term conversion technologies must be developed, especially for the preparation of low-molecular-weight compounds as an alternative to the petrochemical industry.

  16. Learn about Small Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many small and rural communities, including those in Indian Country and along the U.S.-Mexico border, struggle with aging or inadequate wastewater treatment systems, or do not have access to basic wastewater services.

  17. [Modern approaches to wastewater treatment].

    PubMed

    Ivan'ko, O M

    2013-01-01

    The present state and prospects of new methods for cleaning in the water and wastewater using membrane separation, are examples of application of this technology in the treatment of surface and subsurface natural waters, seawater desalination, wastewater treatment plants.

  18. Novel passive co-treatment of acid mine drainage and municipal wastewater.

    PubMed

    Strosnider, William H J; Winfrey, Brandon K; Nairn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory-scale, four-stage continuous-flow reactor system was constructed to test the viability of high-strength acid mine drainage (AMD) and municipal wastewater (MWW) passive co-treatment. Synthetic AMD of pH 2.6 and acidity of 1870 mg L(-1) as CaCO3 equivalent containing a mean 46, 0.25, 2.0, 290, 55, 1.2, and 390 mg L(-1) of Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn, respectively, was added at a 1:2 ratio with raw MWW from the City of Norman, OK, to the system which had a total residence time of 6.6 d. During the 135-d experiment, dissolved Al, As, Cd, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn concentrations were consistently decreased by 99.8, 87.8, 97.7, 99.8, 13.9, 87.9, and 73.4%, respectively, pH increased to 6.79, and net acidic influent was converted to net alkaline effluent. At a wasting rate of 0.69% of total influent flow, the system produced sludge with total Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn concentrations at least an order of magnitude greater than the influent mix, which presents a metal reclamation opportunity. Results indicate that AMD and MWW passive co-treatment is a viable approach to use wastes as resources to improve water quality with minimal use of fossil fuels and refined materials.

  19. Enhanced ethanol fermentation of brewery wastewater using the genetically modified strain E. coli KO11.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kripa; Chaudhari, Vaibhav; Varanasi, Sasidhar; Kim, Dong-Shik

    2007-02-01

    We have used liquid waste obtained from a beer brewery process to produce ethanol. To increase the productivity, genetically modified organism, Escherichia coli KO11, was used for ethanol fermentation. Yeast was also used to produce ethanol from the same feed stock, and the ethanol production rates and resulting concentrations of sugars and ethanol were compared with those of KO11. In the experiments, first the raw wastewater was directly fermented using two strains with no saccharification enzymes added. Then, commercial enzymes, alpha-amylase, pectinase, or a combination of both, were used for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation, and the results were compared with those of the no-enzyme experiments for KO11 and yeast. Under the given conditions with or without the enzymes, yeast produced ethanol more rapidly than E. coli KO11, but the final ethanol concentrations were almost the same. For both yeast and KO11, the enzymes were observed to enhance the ethanol yields by 61-84% as compared to the fermentation without enzymes. The combination of the two enzymes increased ethanol production the most for the both strains. The advantages of using KO11 were not demonstrated clearly as compared to the yeast fermentation results.

  20. Food fears and raw-milk cheese.

    PubMed

    West, Harry G

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the debate over the safety of raw-milk cheese. Departing from Nestle's categories of "science-based" and "value-based" approaches to risk assessment, the author argues that raw-milk cheese advocates, as well as proponents of pasteurisation, invoke science to support their positions, and measure risk against potential costs and benefits. Additionally, the author argues, each position is animated by, albeit differing, values and their attendant fears. While artisan cheesemakers associations have successfully averted bans on raw-milk cheesemaking in various contexts in recent years, the author concludes that they remain vulnerable to future food scares unless consumer interest in raw-milk cheese is sustained.

  1. Our Finished Product--Industry's Raw Product

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, L. Myron

    1978-01-01

    Comparing students in agribusiness sales, supply, and service courses to raw products in need of development, the author discusses the backgrounds of these students and their developing maturity through supervised occupational experience. (BM)

  2. Co-digestion of food waste in a municipal wastewater treatment plant: Comparison of batch tests and full-scale experiences.

    PubMed

    Koch, Konrad; Plabst, Markus; Schmidt, Andreas; Helmreich, Brigitte; Drewes, Jörg E

    2016-01-01

    The effects of co-digestion of food waste in a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) were studied in batch tests. The results obtained were compared with the mass balance of a digester at a full-scale WWTP for a one-year period without and with the addition of co-substrate. The specific methane yield calculated from the balance was 18% higher than the one in the batch tests, suggesting a stimulation of methane generation by co-digestion. It was hypothesized that this increase was caused by shifting the C/N ratio of raw sludge (8.8) to a more favourable ratio of the added food waste (17.7). In addition, potential benefits by adding food waste for energy autarky was investigated. While just 25% of the total energy demand of the plant could be recovered by biogas generation when no co-substrate was fed, this percentage has more than doubled when food waste was added at a ratio of 10% (w/w).

  3. Two-stage soil infiltration treatment system for treating ammonium wastewaters of low COD/TN ratios.

    PubMed

    Lei, Zhongfang; Wu, Ting; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiang; Wan, Chunli; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Soil infiltration treatment (SIT) is ineffective to treat ammonium wastewaters of total nitrogen (TN) > 100 mg l(-1). This study applied a novel two-stage SIT process for effective TN removal from wastewaters of TN>100 mg l(-1) and of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/TN ratio of 3.2-8.6. The wastewater was first fed into the soil column (stage 1) at hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 0.06 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) for COD removal and total phosphorus (TP) immobilization. Then the effluent from stage 1 was fed individually into four soil columns (stage 2) at 0.02 m(3) m(-2) d(-1) of HLR with different proportions of raw wastewater as additional carbon source. Over the one-year field test, balanced nitrification and denitrification in the two-stage SIT revealed excellent TN removal (>90%) from the tested wastewaters.

  4. Wetlands for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yi; Martinez-Guerra, Edith; Gnaneswar Gude, Veera; Magbanua, Benjamin; Truax, Dennis D; Martin, James L

    2016-10-01

    An update on the current research and development of the treatment technologies, which utilize natural processes or passive components in wastewater treatment, is provided in this paper. The main focus is on wetland systems and their applications in wastewater treatment (as an advanced treatment unit or decentralized system), nutrient and pollutant removal (metals, industrial and emerging pollutants including pharmaceutical compounds). A summary of studies involving the effects of vegetation, wetland design and modeling, hybrid and innovative systems, storm water treatment and pathogen removal is also included.

  5. Ozone inactivation of infectious prions in rendering plant and municipal wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ning; Neumann, Norman F; Price, Luke M; Braithwaite, Shannon L; Balachandran, Aru; Belosevic, Miodrag; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2014-02-01

    Disposal of tissues and organs associated with prion accumulation and infectivity in infected animals (designated as Specified Risk Materials [SRM]) is strictly regulated by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA); however, the contamination of wastewater from slaughterhouses that handle SRM still poses public concern. In this study, we examined for the first time the partitioning of infectious prions in rendering plant wastewater and found that a large proportion of infectious prions were partitioned into the scum layer formed at the top after gravity separation, while quite a few infectious prions still remained in the wastewater. Subsequently, we assessed the ozone inactivation of infectious prions in the raw, natural gravity-separated and dissolved air flotation (DAF)-treated (i.e., primary-treated) rendering plant wastewater, and in a municipal final effluent (i.e., secondary-treated municipal wastewater). At applied ozone doses of 43.4-44.6 mg/L, ozone was instantaneously depleted in the raw rendering plant wastewater, while a greater than 4-log10 inactivation was achieved at a 5 min exposure in the DAF-treated rendering plant wastewater. Prion inactivation in the municipal final effluent was conducted with two levels of applied ozone doses of 13.4 and 22.5mg/L, and a greater than 4-log10 inactivation was achieved at a 5 min exposure with the higher ozone dose. Efficiency factor Hom (EFH) models were used to model (i.e., fit) the experimental data. The CT (disinfectant concentration multiplied by contact time) values were determined for 2- and 3-log10 inactivation in the municipal final effluent treated with an ozone dose of 13.4 mg/L. Our results indicate that ozone could serve as a final barrier for prion inactivation in primary- and/or secondary-treated wastewaters.

  6. Olive mill wastewater treatment: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C

    2006-01-01

    Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.

  7. From hazardous waste to valuable raw material: hydrolysis of CCA-treated wood for the production of chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hakola, Maija; Kallioinen, Anne; Leskelä, Markku; Repo, Timo

    2013-05-01

    Solid wood, metal finnish: Instead of burning waste wood treated with chromated copper arsenite (CCA) or disposing of it in landfills, the CCA-treated wood can be used as a raw material for the production of chemicals. Catalytic or alkaline oxidation together with very mild sulfuric acid extraction produces an easily enzymatically hydrolyzable material. Usage as a raw material for the chemical industry in this manner demonstrates a sustainable and value-added waste management process.

  8. INTRAW, the EU Observatory for raw materials: fostering international cooperation and developing new opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Victor; Allington, Ruth; Keane, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    A secure supply of raw materials is a European priority that extends beyond country borders and national policies. Recent European initiatives have pioneered the development of an EU strategy on raw materials emphasizing the concept of the "added value chain", which continues to pursue the three pillar strategy to: (1) ensure the fair and sustainable supply of raw materials from international markets, promoting international cooperation with developed and developing countries; (2) foster sustainable supply of raw materials from European sources, and (3) reduce consumption of primary raw materials by increasing resource efficiency and promoting recycling. This contribution presents the Horizon 2020 funded project INTRAW, the objective of which is to establish the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials. The creation and maintenance of the European Union's International Observatory for Raw Materials is designed to have a strong impact in two dimensions: 1. To narrow the existing gap in aspects of the raw materials knowledge infrastructure in the EU by providing a link with the same knowledge infrastructure in technologically advanced reference countries. This should contribute to the harmonization of mineral policies all over the EU, by providing data that enables evidence-based policies and appropriate, cost-effective management, planning and adaptation decisions by the public sector. This will benefit businesses, industry and society. The Observatory will also provide to policy makers in the EU and its Member States the data they need to facilitate discussion in multilateral forums. 2. To enable a better alignment of the R&I activities among the individual EU members and international cooperation countries AND between the European Union and international cooperation countries by boosting synergies with international research and innovation programmes. This way the EU's role and scientific capabilities in the raw materials area will be

  9. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  10. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  11. Treatment of Wastewater From Car Washes Using Natural Coagulation and Filtration System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Gheethi, A. A.; Mohamed, R. M. S. R.; Rahman, M. A. A.; Johari, M. R.; Kassim, A. H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Wastewater generated from carwash is one of the main wastewater resources, which contribute effectively in the increasing of environmental contamination due to the chemical characteristics of the car wastes. The present work aimed to develop an integrated treatment system for carwash wastewater based on coagulation and flocculation using Moringa oleifera and Ferrous Sulphate (FeSO4.7H2O) as well as natural filtration system. The carwash wastewater samples were collected from carwash station located at Parit Raja, Johor, Malaysia. The treatment system of car wash wastewater was designed in the lab scale in four stages included, aeration, coagulation and flocculation, sedimentation and filtration. The coagulation and flocculation unit was carried out using different dosage (35, 70, 105 and 140 mg L-1) of M. oleifera and FeSO4.7H2O, respectively. The efficiency of the integrated treatment system to treat carwash wastewater and to meet Environmental Quality Act (EQA 1974) was evaluated based on the analysis of pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity (NTU). The integrated treatment system was efficient for treatment of raw carwash wastewater. The treated carwash wastewaters meet EQA 1974 regulation 2009 (Standards A) in the term of pH and DO while, turbidity and COD reduced in the wastewater to meet Standards B. The integrated treatment system designed here with natural coagulant (M. oleifera) and filtration unit were effective for primary treatment of carwash wastewater before the final disposal or to be reused again for carwash process.

  12. Continuous treatment of coloured industry wastewater using immobilized Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor reactor.

    PubMed

    Pakshirajan, Kannan; Kheria, Sumeet

    2012-06-30

    Coloured industry wastewaters often contain dyes and other toxic ingredients, and, therefore, pose serious threat to the receiving environment. Among the available methods the eco-friendly biological method has gained maximum attention due to its many advantages over the traditional methods. In the present study, continuous biological treatment of coloured wastewater from a textile dyeing industry was investigated using the white rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium in a rotating biological contactor (RBC) reactor. The raw wastewater was diluted with an equal volume of either distilled water or media containing glucose at varying concentrations to study its effect on the decolourization process. Results revealed that the wastewater could be decolourized to an extent of more than 64% when diluted with media containing glucose; and, a maximum decolourization efficiency of 83% was obtained with 10 g/l glucose concentration. COD removal efficiencies were also found to be consistent with the decolourization efficiencies of the wastewaters. Further, the results were correlated with the enzyme activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and lignin peroxidase (LiP) by the fungus, which were found to play some significant role in decolourization of the wastewater. Results of replacing the costly carbon source glucose in the decolourization media with the more cheap molasses, however, revealed very high COD removal efficiency, but low decolourization efficiency of the industry wastewater.

  13. Biological treatment of tannery wastewater by using salt-tolerant bacterial strains

    PubMed Central

    Sivaprakasam, Senthilkumar; Mahadevan, Surianarayanan; Sekar, Sudharshan; Rajakumar, Susheela

    2008-01-01

    Background High salinity (1–10% w/v) of tannery wastewater makes it difficult to be treated by conventional biological treatment. Salt tolerant microbes can adapt to these saline conditions and degrade the organics in saline wastewater. Results Four salt tolerant bacterial strains isolated from marine and tannery saline wastewater samples were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus flexus, Exiguobacterium homiense and Staphylococcus aureus. Growth factors of the identified strains were optimized. Tannery saline wastewater obtained from a Common Effluent Treatment Plant (CETP) near Chennai (southern India) was treated with pure and mixed consortia of four salt tolerant bacterial strains. Experiments with optimized conditions and varying salt content (between 2 and 10% (w/v) were conducted. Salt inhibition effects on COD removal rate were noted. Comparative analysis was made by treating the tannery saline wastewater with activated sludge obtained from CETP and with natural habitat microbes present in raw tannery saline wastewater. Conclusion Salt tolerant bacterial mixed consortia showed appreciable biodegradation at all saline concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% w/v) with 80% COD reduction in particular at 8% salinity level the consortia could be used as suitable working cultures for tannery saline wastewater treatment. PMID:18445252

  14. Cotton: a sustainable raw material for value-added nonwoven textiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sustainability of the materials and services we use today and protection of our environment are very strong initiatives, worldwide. Cotton is an annually renewable cash crop that is critically important to national economies of many countries, including the United States which is the 3rd largest pr...

  15. Microalgae and wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Raouf, N.; Al-Homaidan, A.A.; Ibraheem, I.B.M.

    2012-01-01

    Organic and inorganic substances which were released into the environment as a result of domestic, agricultural and industrial water activities lead to organic and inorganic pollution. The normal primary and secondary treatment processes of these wastewaters have been introduced in a growing number of places, in order to eliminate the easily settled materials and to oxidize the organic material present in wastewater. The final result is a clear, apparently clean effluent which is discharged into natural water bodies. This secondary effluent is, however, loaded with inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus and causes eutrophication and more long-term problems because of refractory organics and heavy metals that are discharged. Microalgae culture offers an interesting step for wastewater treatments, because they provide a tertiary biotreatment coupled with the production of potentially valuable biomass, which can be used for several purposes. Microalgae cultures offer an elegant solution to tertiary and quandary treatments due to the ability of microalgae to use inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus for their growth. And also, for their capacity to remove heavy metals, as well as some toxic organic compounds, therefore, it does not lead to secondary pollution. In the current review we will highlight on the role of micro-algae in the treatment of wastewater. PMID:24936135

  16. WASTEWATER INFRASTRUCTURE TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many of the wastewater collection systems in the United States were developed in the early part of the last century. Maintenance, retrofits, and rehabilitations since then have resulted in patchwork systems consisting of technologies from different eras. More advanced and cos...

  17. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2015-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2014 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents advances in noteworthy research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations and system design; operation and maintenance; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  18. Disinfection. [Wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, C.N.; McCreary, J.J.

    1982-06-01

    Methods of disinfection of wastewater including chlorination, ultraviolet radiation, ozone, and quaternary compounds are reviewed. Various analytical methods to detect residues of the disinfectants are described. The production of inorganic and nonvolatile organic compounds in conventional water treatment processes is reviewed. (KRM)

  19. The effects of physicochemical wastewater treatment operations on forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tobias; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-10-24

    Raw municipal wastewater from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant was physicochemically pretreated in a large pilot-scale system comprising coagulation, flocculation, microsieve and microfiltration operated in various configurations. The produced microsieve filtrates and microfiltration permeates were then concentrated using forward osmosis (FO). Aquaporin Inside(TM) FO membranes were used for both the microsieve filtrate and microfiltration permeates, and Hydration Technologies Inc.-thin-film composite membranes for the microfiltration permeate using only NaCl as the draw solution. The FO performance was evaluated in terms of the water flux, water flux decline and solute rejections of biochemical oxygen demand, and total and soluble phosphorus. The obtained results were compared with the results of FO after only mechanical pretreatment. The FO permeates satisfied the Swedish discharge demands for small and medium-sized wastewater treatment plants. The study demonstrates that physicochemical pretreatment can improve the FO water flux by up to 20%. In contrast, the solute rejection decreases significantly compared to the FO-treated wastewater with mechanical pretreatment.

  20. Municipal-wastewater treatment using upflow-anaerobic filters.

    PubMed

    Manariotis, loannis D; Grigoropoulos, Sotirios G

    2006-03-01

    Three 12.5-L upflow-anaerobic filters (AF), with ceramic-saddle, plastic-ring, and crushed-stone packing, were used to evaluate the sustained treatment of municipal wastewater. The reactors were initially fed dogfood-fortified wastewater and then raw municipal wastewater, and operated at 25.4 degrees C (32 months) and 15.5 degrees C (2 months). During 23 months, the AF units treated municipal wastewater (mean chemical oxygen demand [COD] 442 mg/L and total suspended solids [TSS] 247 mg/L), the hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranged from 3.1 to 0.30 d (empty bed), and the organic loading rate ranged from 0.115 to 1.82 kg COD/m3d. At the higher temperature and an HRT (void volume) of 1.0 d, COD and TSS removals ranged from 74 to 79% and 95 to 96%, respectively; however, efficiencies declined substantially at HRT values less than 0.4 d. Reactor performance, under the same hydraulic and organic loadings, deteriorated with time and was adversely affected by lower temperature.

  1. Coal gasification process wastewater reusability: separation of organics by membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Kermode, R.I.; Dickinson, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    The developing coal-gasification technologies generate gaseous process streams laden with water-soluble species such as H/sub 2/S, NH/sub 3/, HCN, phenols, cresols etc. The primary raw gas clean-up (gas quenching) results in large volumes of highly contaminated wastewaters. The development of a membrane separation process for the removal of selected organics, salts, and scale-forming compounds from stripped coal-conversion process wastewaters, will minimise surface-water pollution and decrease water consumption by permeate recycling. The recent industrial development of non-cellulosic thin-film composite membranes has provided membranes with high salt and low molecular weight organic separation characteristics and insignificant compaction problems. The low pressure membranes (used for brackish water) have definite advantages in terms of energy saving and lower capital cost. The composite membranes perform better than cellulose-acetate membranes. 24 references.

  2. Effect of Selected Alternative Fuels and Raw Materials on the Cement Clinker Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strigáč, Július

    2015-11-01

    The article deals with the study of the effects of alternative fuels and raw materials on the cement clinker quality. The clinker quality was expressed by the content of two principal minerals alite C3S and belite C2S. The additions of alternative fuels ashes and raw materials, in principle, always increased the belite content and conversely reduced the amount of alite. The alternative fuels with high ash content were used such as the meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge and the used alternative raw materials were metallurgical slags - granulated blastfurnace slag, air cooled blastfurnace slag and demetallized steel slag, fluidized bed combustion fly ash and waste glass. Meat-bone meal, sewage sludge from sewage treatment plants and paper sludge were evaluated as moderately suitable alternative fuels which can be added in the amounts of 2.8 wt. % addition of meat-bone meals ash, 3.64 wt. % addition of sewage sludge ash and 3.8 wt. % addition of paper sludge ash to the cement raw mixture. Demetallised steel slag is suitable for production of special sulphate resistant cement clinker for CEM I -SR cement with addition up to 5 wt. %. Granulated blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4 wt. %. Air cooled blastfurnace slag is a suitable alternative raw material with addition 4.2 wt. %. Waste glass is not very appropriate alternative raw material with addition only 1.16 wt. %. Fluidized bed combustion fly ash appears not to be equally appropriate alternative raw material for cement clinker burning with less potential utilization in the cement industry and with addition 3.41 wt. %, which forms undesired anhydrite CaSO4 in the cement clinker.

  3. Distributions of Fecal Markers in Wastewater from Different Climatic Zones for Human Fecal Pollution Tracking in Australian Surface Waters.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, W; Sidhu, J P S; Smith, K; Beale, D J; Gyawali, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-18

    Recreational and potable water supplies polluted with human wastewater can pose a direct health risk to humans. Therefore, sensitive detection of human fecal pollution in environmental waters is very important to water quality authorities around the globe. Microbial source tracking (MST) utilizes human fecal markers (HFMs) to detect human wastewater pollution in environmental waters. The concentrations of these markers in raw wastewater are considered important because it is likely that a marker whose concentration is high in wastewater will be more frequently detected in polluted waters. In this study, quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were used to determine the concentrations of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp., HFMs Bacteroides HF183, human adenoviruses (HAdVs), and polyomaviruses (HPyVs) in raw municipal wastewater influent from various climatic zones in Australia. E. coli mean concentrations in pooled human wastewater data sets (from various climatic zones) were the highest (3.2 × 10(6) gene copies per ml), followed by those of HF183 (8.0 × 10(5) gene copies per ml) and Enterococcus spp. (3.6 × 10(5) gene copies per ml). HAdV and HPyV concentrations were 2 to 3 orders of magnitude lower than those of FIB and HF183. Strong positive and negative correlations were observed between the FIB and HFM concentrations within and across wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). To identify the most sensitive marker of human fecal pollution, environmental water samples were seeded with raw human wastewater. The results from the seeding experiments indicated that Bacteroides HF183 was more sensitive for detecting human fecal pollution than HAdVs and HPyVs. Since the HF183 marker can occasionally be present in nontarget animal fecal samples, it is recommended that HF183 along with a viral marker (HAdVs or HPyVs) be used for tracking human fecal pollution in Australian environmental waters.

  4. Biological treatment of wastewater discharged from biodiesel fuel production plant with alkali-catalyzed transesterification.

    PubMed

    Suehara, Ken-ichiro; Kawamoto, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Eiko; Kohda, Jiro; Nakano, Yasuhisa; Yano, Takuo

    2005-10-01

    The biological treatment of wastewater discharged from a biodiesel fuel (BDF) production plant conducting alkali catalysis transesterification was investigated. BDF wastewater has a high pH and high hexane-extracted oil and low nitrogen concentrations, and inhibits the growth of microorganisms. The biological treatment of BDF wastewater is difficult because the composition of such wastewater is not suitable for microbial growth. To apply the microbiological treatment of BDF wastewater using an oil degradable yeast, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, the pH was adjusted to 6.8 and several nutrients such as a nitrogen source (ammonium sulfate, ammonium chloride or urea), yeast extract, KH2PO4 and MgSO4.7H2O were added to the wastewater. The optimal initial concentration of yeast extract was 1 g/l and the optimal C/N ratio was between 17 and 68 when using urea as a nitrogen source. A growth inhibitor was also present in the BDF wastewater, and this growth inhibitor could be detected by measuring the solid content in an aqueous phase after the hexane extraction of the wastewater. Microorganisms could not grow at solid contents higher than 2.14 g/l in the wastewater. To avoid the growth inhibition, the BDF wastewater was diluted with the same volume of water. Oil degradation in the diluted BDF wastewater was observed and the best result was obtained under the determined optimal conditions. This treatment system is simple because no controllers, except for a temperature, are necessary. These results suggest that the biological treatment system developed for BDF wastewater is useful for small-scale BDF production plants.

  5. AOX contamination status and genotoxicity of AOX-bearing pharmaceutical wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yawei; Chen, Lujun; Liu, Rui

    2017-02-01

    Adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) are a general indicator for the total amount of compounds containing organically bonded halogens. AOX concentrations and components were investigated along the wastewater treatment process in four large-scale pharmaceutical factories of China, and genotoxicity based on the SOS/umu test was also evaluated. The results showed that AOX concentrations in wastewater of four factories ranged from 4.6 to 619.4mg/L, which were high but greatly different owing to differences in the raw materials and products. The wastewater treatment process removed 50.0%-89.9% of AOX, leaving 1.3-302.5mg/L AOX in the effluents. Genotoxicity levels ranged between 2.1 and 68.0μg 4-NQO/L in the raw wastewater and decreased to 1.2-41.2μg 4-NQO/L in the effluents of the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). One of the main products of factory I, ciprofloxacin, was identified as the predominant contributor to its genotoxicity. However, for the other three factories, no significant relationship was observed between genotoxicity and detected AOX compounds.

  6. [AOX Pollution in Wastewater Treatment Process of Dyeing and Dyestuff Chemical Industries].

    PubMed

    Shen, Yang-yang; Liu, Rui; Xu, Can-can; Shu, Xiao-ming; Xu, Jiang-jun; Lan, Ya-qiong; Chen, Lü-jun

    2015-09-01

    Selecting six large-scale dyeing factories and four large-scale dyestuff chemical factories in the well-developed Yangtze River Delta region, this study aimed to investigate the AOX pollution status in the raw wastewater as well as in the activated sludge treatment system. The components of AOX were characterized by GC-MS. Results showed that AOX concentration was low in wastewater from the six dyeing enterprises, ranging 0. 15-1. 62 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and 0. 06-1. 30 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. All the biologically treated effluent met the emission limits of 8 mg.L-1 in the Discharge Standard of Water Pollutants for Dyeing and Finishing of Textile Industry. Sludge in five factories with AOX was below 621 mg.kg-1, only one factory was with high AOX concentration of 3 280 mg.kg-1. By comparison, AOX concentration greatly varied between the wastewater from dyestuff chemical factories, was 1. 70 mg.L-1 to 78. 72 mg.L-1 in the raw wastewater and was 1. 88 mg.L-1 to 33. 11 mg.L-1 in the biologically treated effluent. AOX concentration in the activated sludge was as high as 960-2,297 mg.kg-1. Chlorobenzenes, chloronitrobenzenes, chloroanilines, chlorine nitroanilines and halophenols were typical TOX components detectable in the dyestuff chemical wastewater. Halophenols and chlorine nitroanilines could be efficiently removed. Single chloroanilines and single chloronitrobenzenes seemed to be easier removable than polychlorinated anilines and polychlorinated nitrobenzenes. Polychlorinated benzenes were also easily removal but the products chlorobenzene was hard to remove.

  7. Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: performance evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Theresa A; Gray, Nicholas F

    2013-11-01

    Co-treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) with municipal wastewater (MWW) using the activated sludge process is a novel treatment technology offering potential savings over alternative systems in materials, proprietary chemicals and energy inputs. The impacts of AMD on laboratory-scale activated sludge units (plug-flow and sequencing batch reactors) treating synthetic MWW were investigated. Synthetic AMD containing Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn and SO4 at a range of concentrations and pH values was formulated to simulate three possible co-treatment processes, i.e., (1) adding raw AMD to the activated sludge aeration tank, (2) pre-treating AMD prior to adding to the aeration tank by mixing with digested sludge and (3) pre-treating AMD by mixing with screened MWW. Continuous AMD loading to the activated sludge reactors during co-treatment did not cause a significant decrease in chemical oxygen demand (COD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand, or total organic carbon removal; average COD removal rates ranged from 87-93%. Enhanced phosphate removal was observed in reactors loaded with Fe- and Al-rich AMD, with final effluent TP concentrations<2 mg/L. Removal rates for dissolved Al, Cu, Fe and Pb were 52-84%, 47-61%, 74-86% and 100%, respectively, in both systems. Manganese and Zn removal were strongly linked to acidity; removal from net-acidic AMD was <10% for both metals, whereas removal from circum-neutral AMD averaged 93-95% for Mn and 58-90% for Zn. Pre-mixing with screened MWW was the best process option in terms of AMD neutralization and metal removal. However, significant MWW alkalinity was consumed, suggesting an alkali supplement may be necessary.

  8. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Sludge Thickening Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwing, Carl M.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  9. A Guide for Developing Standard Operating Job Procedures for the Screening & Grinding Process Wastewater Treatment Facility. SOJP No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Gerald A.; Montgomery, James A.

    This guide describes standard operating job procedures for the screening and grinding process of wastewater treatment facilities. The objective of this process is the removal of coarse materials from the raw waste stream for the protection of subsequent equipment and processes. The guide gives step-by-step instructions for safety inspection,…

  10. Rapid quantification of bacteria and viruses in influent, settled water, activated sludge and effluent from a wastewater treatment plant using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lili; Mao, Guannan; Liu, Jie; Yu, Hui; Gao, Guanghai; Wang, Yingying

    2013-01-01

    As microbiological parameters are important in monitoring the correct operation of wastewater treatment plants and controlling the microbiological quality of wastewater, the abundances of total bacteria (including intact and damaged bacterial cells) and total viruses in wastewater were investigated using a combination of ultrasonication and flow cytometry. The comparisons between flow cytometry (FCM) and other cultivation-independent methods (adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis for bacteria enumeration and epifluorescence microscopy (EFM) for virus enumeration) gave very similar patterns of microbial abundance changes, suggesting that FCM is suitable for targeting and obtaining reliable counts for bacteria and viruses in wastewater samples. The main experimental results obtained were: (1) effective removal of total bacteria in wastewater, with a decrease from an average concentration of 1.74 × 10(8)counts ml(-1) in raw wastewater to 3.91 × 10(6)counts ml(-1) in the effluent, (2) compared to influent raw wastewater, the average concentration of total viruses in the treated effluent (3.94 × 10(8)counts ml(-1)) exhibited no obvious changes, (3) the applied FCM approach is a rapid, easy, and convenient tool for understanding the microbial dynamics and monitoring microbiological quality in wastewater treatment processes.

  11. Novel bioevaporation process for the zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Yang, Benqin; Zhang, Lei; Lee, Yongwoo; Jahng, Deokjin

    2013-10-01

    A novel process termed as bioevaporation was established to completely evaporate wastewater by metabolic heat released from the aerobic microbial degradation of the organic matters contained in the highly concentrated organic wastewater itself. By adding the glucose solution and ground food waste (FW) into the biodried sludge bed, the activity of the microorganisms in the biodried sludge was stimulated and the water in the glucose solution and FW was evaporated. As the biodegradable volatile solids (BVS) concentration in wastewater increased, more heat was produced and the water removal ratio increased. When the volatile solids (VS) concentrations of both glucose and ground FW were 120 g L(-1), 101.7% and 104.3% of the added water was removed, respectively, by completely consuming the glucose and FW BVS. Therefore, the complete removal of water and biodegradable organic contents was achieved simultaneously in the bioevaporation process, which accomplished zero-discharge treatment of highly concentrated organic wastewater.

  12. Crystallographic raw data, education and refereeing.

    PubMed

    Helliwell, John R

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the preservation of raw diffraction data, then addresses the impact on future plans in the education and training of our community with respect to raw diffraction data and its potential reuse, and, thirdly presents the issue of referee access to the underpinning diffraction data and coordinates, as well as the Protein Data Bank Validation Report, in the review process of structural biology articles submitted for publication. Overall I pay tribute to the scientific achievements of Alex Wlodawer, who is also an ardent advocate of the importance of experimental data.

  13. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  14. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  15. Rapid concentration and sensitive detection of hookworm ova from wastewater matrices using a real-time PCR method.

    PubMed

    Gyawali, P; Sidhu, J P S; Ahmed, W; Jagals, P; Toze, S

    2015-12-01

    The risk of human hookworm infections from land application of wastewater matrices could be high in regions with high hookworm prevalence. A rapid, sensitive and specific hookworm detection method from wastewater matrices is required in order to assess human health risks. Currently available methods used to identify hookworm ova to the species level are time consuming and lack accuracy. In this study, a real-time PCR method was developed for the rapid, sensitive and specific detection of canine hookworm (Ancylostoma caninum) ova from wastewater matrices. A. caninum was chosen because of its morphological similarity to the human hookworm (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus). The newly developed PCR method has high detection sensitivity with the ability to detect less than one A. caninum ova from 1 L of secondary treated wastewater at the mean threshold cycle (CT) values ranging from 30.1 to 34.3. The method is also able to detect four A. caninum ova from 1 L of raw wastewater and from ∼4 g of treated sludge with mean CT values ranging from 35.6 to 39.8 and 39.8 to 39.9, respectively. The better detection sensitivity obtained for secondary treated wastewater compared to raw wastewater and sludge samples could be attributed to sample turbidity. The proposed method appears to be rapid, sensitive and specific compared to traditional methods and has potential to aid in the public health risk assessment associated with land application of wastewater matrices. Furthermore, the method can be adapted to detect other helminth ova of interest from wastewater matrices.

  16. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  17. Environmental aspects of wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Choudhary, Mahendra Pratap

    2007-07-01

    The population is increasing rapidly and the demand for water by cities, industries and agriculture has tended to grow even faster than the population. Wastewater reclamation consists of a combination of conventional and advanced treatment processes employed to return a wastewater to nearly original quality, reclaiming the water. The environmental health aspects associated with reclamation of wastewater include quality aspects and public health aspects. An attempt has been made in the present paper to describe these aspects and to suggest appropriate solutions.

  18. Investigation of the use of aerobic granules for the treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Kocaturk, Irem; Erguder, Tuba Hande

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of sugar beet processing wastewater in aerobic granular sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was examined in terms of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen removal efficiency. The effect of sugar beet processing wastewater of high solid content, namely 2255 ± 250 mg/L total suspended solids (TSS), on granular sludge was also investigated. Aerobic granular SBR initially operated with the effluent of anaerobic digester treating sugar beet processing wastewater (Part I) achieved average removal efficiencies of 71 ± 30% total COD (tCOD), 90 ± 3% total ammonifiable nitrogen (TAN), 76 ± 24% soluble COD (sCOD) and 29 ± 4% of TSS. SBR was further operated with sugar beet processing wastewater (Part II), where the tCOD, TAN, sCOD and TSS removal efficiencies were 65 ± 5%, 61 ± 4%, 87 ± 1% and 58 ± 10%, respectively. This study indicated the applicability of aerobic granular SBRs for the treatment of both sugar beet processing wastewater and anaerobically digested processing wastewater. For higher solids removal, further treatment such as a sedimentation tank is required following the aerobic granular systems treating solid-rich wastewaters such as sugar beet processing wastewater. It was also revealed that the application of raw sugar beet processing wastewater slightly changed the aerobic granular sludge properties such as size, structure, colour, settleability and extracellular polymeric substance content, without any drastic and negative effect on treatment performance.

  19. Bioassay and use in irrigation of untreated and treated wastewaters from phosphate fertilizer industry.

    PubMed

    Gouider, Mbarka; Feki, Mongi; Sayadi, Sami

    2010-07-01

    Wastewater from phosphate fertilizer industry that contains essentially a significant amount of both fluoride and phosphate was treated by separative precipitation of fluoride ions with hydrated lime. Thus, a phosphate-rich effluent with low content of fluoride was obtained. The microtoxicity of the treated wastewater was then monitored by LUMIStox and its phytotoxicity was investigated on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), wheat (Triticum aestivum), maize (Zea mays), ryegrass (Lolium perenne), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) seed germination and plant growth. The cress (Lepidium sativum) was used as a standard species for the germination index and phytotoxicity evaluation. Seedlings of four species (namely wheat, maize, ryegrass, and alfalfa) were grown in pots, which were irrigated with untreated wastewater, treated wastewater, aqueous solution of triple superphosphate fertilizer (TSP) or with tap water as control. LUMIStox tests showed that lime treatment allowed a significant toxicity removal. The treated water displayed beneficial fertilizing effect on plants. An increase in the germination index from 100% to 119% was observed. However, the untreated wastewater inhibited the species germination even when diluted 10 times. Neither plants mortality nor growth inhibition was observed after 90 days of treated wastewater application. Moreover, an improvement in plant growth, leaf number and a root development were noticed in these plants when compared with those irrigated with tap water or with fertilizer. In contrast, leaf necrosis and growth inhibition were observed in plants amended with raw wastewater. The irrigation with treated wastewater also improved soil labile P content. Indeed, soils amended with treated wastewater had more a double labile P concentration (38.15 mg kg(-1)) in comparison with control soil (15.53 mg kg(-1)).

  20. Assessment of the toxicity of wastewater from the metalworking industry treated using a conventional physico-chemical process.

    PubMed

    Machado, Rodrigo Matuella; Monteggia, Luiz Olinto; Arenzon, Alexandre; Curia, Ana Cristina

    2016-06-01

    This article presents results from a toxicity reduction evaluation program intended to describe wastewater from the metalworking industry that was treated using a conventional physico-chemical process. The toxicity of the wastewater for the microcrustacean Daphnia magna was predominantly expressive. Alkaline cyanide wastewater generated from electroplating accounted for the largest number of samples with expressive toxicity. When the raw wastewater concentrations in the batches were repeated, inexpressive toxicity variations were observed more frequently among the coagulated-flocculated samples. At the coagulation-flocculation step, 22.2 % of the treatments had reduced acute toxicity, 30.6 % showed increased toxicity, and 47.2 % remained unchanged. The conductivity and total dissolved solids contents of the wastewater indicated the presence of salts with charges that were inappropriate for the survival of daphnid. The wastewaters treated by neutralization and coagulation-flocculation had average metallic compound contents that were greater than the reference toxic concentrations reported in other studies, suggesting that metals likely contributed to the toxic effects of the wastewater on freshwater microcrustaceans. Thus, alternative coagulants and flocculants should be assessed, and feasible doses should be determined to improve wastewater treatment. In addition, advanced treatment processes should be assessed for their abilities to remove dissolved toxic salts and ions.

  1. A comparative study on the anaerobic membrane bioreactor performance during the treatment of domestic wastewaters of various origins.

    PubMed

    Saddoud, A; Ellouze, M; Dhouib, A; Sayadi, S

    2006-09-01

    This study examined the practical performance of a cross-flow ultrafiltration membrane coupled to an anaerobic bioreactor, for treatment of raw domestic wastewater (RDW), at a pilot-scale plant. Wastewaters used in this study originated from two different domestic wastewater treatment plans (DWTPs) (Sfax and Ksour Essef). During the treatment in the membrane bioreactor (MBR) of the RDW originating from Sfax DWTP, the bioreactor did not reach its stationary phase because the anaerobic biomass was unable to adapt to the wastewater. This was explained by the considerable fluctuations in the domestic wastewater composition and a possible contamination of Sfax wastewater by industrial discharges. However, the treatment of RDW originating from Ksour Essef (DWTP) was successful. In both cases, the treatment led to a total removal of all tested pathogens. The quality of treated wastewater fits largely with WHO guidelines for unrestricted irrigation. The phytotoxicity and the microtoxicity tests, using Lepidium sativum and Vibrio fischeri respectively, demonstrated that wastewater from Sfax exhibited higher toxicity than that from Ksour Sssef.

  2. Wastewater Collection Systems.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Srinivas

    2016-10-01

    This chapter presents a review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to wastewater collection systems. It presents noteworthy advances in research and industry experiences selected from major literature sources. This review is divided into the following sections: sewer system planning; sewer condition assessment/rehabilitation; pump stations/force mains/ system design; operation and maintenance; asset management; and regulatory issues/ integrated planning.

  3. Simultaneous production of biopesticide and alkaline proteases by Bacillus thuringiensis using sewage sludge as a raw material.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, R D; Sikati Foko, V; Barnabe, S; Vidyarthi, A S; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2002-01-01

    The simultaneous production of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) based biopesticide and proteases was studied using synthetic medium and wastewater sludge as a raw material. The studies were conducted in shake flask and computer controlled 15-L capacity fermentors. Measuring viable cell and spore counts, entomotoxicity and protease activity monitored the progress of the biopesticide production process. A higher viable cell count and spore count was observed in synthetic Soya medium, however, higher entomotoxicity and protease activity were observed in wastewater sludge medium. Thus, the wastewater sludge is a better raw material than commercial Soya medium for the biopesticides and enzyme production. The maximum entomotoxicity and protease activity observed in the fermentor was 9,332 IU/microL and 4.58 IU/mL, respectively. The proteases produced by Bt were also characterised. Two types of proteases were detected; neutral proteases with pH optimum 7.0 and alkaline proteases with pH optimum 10-11. Further, two types of alkaline proteases were detected; one having a pH and temperature optimum at 10 and 50 degrees C while the other at 11 and 70 degrees C. The protease thermal stability was found to increase in the presence of CaCl2, indicating the proteases were metalloproteases.

  4. Minimization of Salmonella Contamination on Raw Poultry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many reviews have discussed Salmonella in poultry and suggested best practices to minimize this organism on raw poultry meat. Despite years of research and conscientious control efforts by industry and regulatory agencies, human salmonellosis rates have declined only modestly and Salmonella is stil...

  5. Upgrading of raw oil into advanced fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The overall objective of the research effort is the determination of the minimum processing requirements to produce high energy density fuels (HEDF) having acceptable fuel specifications. The program encompasses assessing current technology capability; selecting acceptable processing and refining schemes; and generating samples of advanced test fuels. The Phase I Baseline Program is intended to explore the processing alternatives for producing advanced HEDF from two raw synfuel feedstocks, one from Mild Coal Gasification as exemplified by the COALITE process and one from Colorado shale oil. Eight key tasks have been identified as follows: (1) Planning and Environmental Permitting; (2) Transporting and Storage of Raw Fuel Sources and Products; (3) Screening of Processing and Upgrading Schemes; (4) Proposed Upgrading Schemes for Advanced Fuel; (5) Upgrading of Raw Oil into Advanced Fuel (6) Packaging and Shipment of Advanced Fuels; (7) Updated Technical and Economic Assessment; and, (8) Final Report of Phase I Efforts. This topical report summarizes the operations and results of the Phase I Task 5 sample preparation program. The specific objectives of Task 5 were to: Perform laboratory characterization tests on the raw COALITE feed, the intermediate liquids to the required hydroprocessing units and final advanced fuels and byproducts; and produce a minimum of 25-gal of Category I test fuel for evaluation by DOE and its contractors.

  6. Quality aspects of raw milk cheeses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cheese has been a part of the human diet for thousands of years and over the centuries cheesemakers have relied on the indigenous microflora and enzymes in raw milk to create the signature quality traits for the many different varieties of cheese found around the world. Although most of the cheese i...

  7. Bacterial spores in silage and raw milk.

    PubMed

    te Giffel, M C; Wagendorp, A; Herrewegh, A; Driehuis, F

    2002-08-01

    Spore-forming bacteria can survive food-processing treatments. In the dairy industry, Bacillus and Clostridium species determine the shelf-life of a variety of heat-treated milk products, mainly if the level of post-process contamination is low. In order to minimize problems caused by bacterial spores in foods and food production processes a chain management approach, from raw materials, ingredients and environmental sources to final product storage conditions, is most effective. Silage is considered to be a significant source of contamination of raw milk with spores. PCR-RAPD fingerprinting and heat resistance studies of populations of aerobic spore-formers isolated from grass and maize silage and from raw milk confirmed this assumption. Prevention of outgrowth of aerobic spores in silage will contribute to reduction of the total spore load of raw milk. Therefore, it is important that the silage fermentation process is controlled. Application of cultures of lactic acid bacteria or chemical additives can aid silage fermentation and improve aerobic stability.

  8. Contamination risk of raw drinking water caused by PFOA sources along a river reach in south-western Finland.

    PubMed

    Happonen, Maiju; Koivusalo, Harri; Malve, Olli; Perkola, Noora; Juntunen, Janne; Huttula, Timo

    2016-01-15

    Transport of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was simulated in the beginning of River Kokemäenjoki in Finland using one-dimensional SOBEK river model. River Kokemäenjoki is used as a raw water source for an artificial groundwater recharge plant, and the raw water intake plant is located near the downstream end of the model application area. Measured surface water and wastewater concentrations were used to determine the PFOA input to the river and to evaluate the simulation results. The maximum computed PFOA concentrations in the river at the location of the raw water intake plant during the simulation period Dec. 1, 2011-Feb. 16, 2014 were 0.92 ng/l and 3.12 ng/l for two alternative modeling scenarios. These concentration values are 2.3% and 7.8%, respectively, of the 40 ng/l guideline threshold value for drinking water. The current annual median and maximum PFOA loads to the river were calculated to be 3.9 kg/year and 10 kg/year respectively. According to the simulation results, the PFOA load would need to rise to a level of 57 kg/year for the 40 ng/l guideline value to be exceeded in river water at the raw water intake plant during a dry season. It is thus unlikely that PFOA concentration in raw water would reach the guideline value without the appearance of new PFOA sources. The communal wastewater treatment plants in the study area caused on average 11% of the total PFOA load. This raises a concern about the origin of the remaining 89% of the PFOA load and the related risk factors.

  9. Biological nutrient removal from dairy wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Danalewich, J.R.; Papagiannis, T.G.; Gerards, R.; Vriens, L.; Belyea, R.; Tumbleson, M.E.; Raskin, L.

    1998-07-01

    The authors developed a synthetic wastewater which closely represents actual milk processing wastewater. The design of this synthetic wastewater was facilitated by the collection of composite wastewater samples from 15 milk processing plants in the Upper Midwest. These samples, milk, and milk products were analyzed for various chemical parameters. Based on these results, they diluted evaporated milk and cottage cheese, as well as a number of dry chemicals to create a synthetic wastewater. The concentrations in the resulting synthetic wastewater matched average concentrations of 15 composite wastewater samples. Four continuous-flow activated sludge treatment systems are currently being operated to evaluate biological nutrient removal using this synthetic wastewater as an influent.

  10. Training Centers for Onsite Wastewater Treatment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Onsite wastewater training centers offer classes, demonstration projects and research facilities for onsite industry professionals. Classes include wastewater management, new technologies and pre-licensing.

  11. The viscoelastic behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge: strong similarities with soft-glassy materials.

    PubMed

    Baudez, Jean-Christophe; Gupta, Rahul K; Eshtiaghi, Nicky; Slatter, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Over the last few decades, municipal and industrial wastewater treatment activities have been confronted with a dramatically increasing flow of sewage sludge. To improve treatment efficiency, process and material parameters are needed but engineers are dealing with vast quantities of fundamentally poorly understood and unpredictable material Thus, accurate prediction of critically important, but analytically elusive process parameters is unattainable and is a matter of grave concern. Because engineers need reliable flow properties to simulate the process, this work is an attempt to approach sludge rheological behaviour with well-known materials which have similar characteristics. Sludge liquid-like behaviour is already well documented so, we have focused mainly on the solid-like behaviour of both raw and digested sludge by performing oscillatory measurements in the linear and non-linear regimes. We have shown that the viscoelastic behaviour of sludge presents strong similarities with soft-glassy materials but differences can be observed between raw and digested sludge. Finally, we confirm that colloidal glasses and emulsions may be used to model the rheological behaviour of raw and anaerobic digested sludge.

  12. Multiple antibiotic resistances of Enterococcus isolates from raw or sand-filtered sewage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Junyi; Gallert, Claudia; Winter, Josef

    2007-02-01

    Fifty antibiotic-resistant Enterococcus strains were isolated from raw sewage of a wastewater treatment plant and from the same sewage after trickling through a 25-cm sand column, which retained >99% of the initial population. All 50 Enterococcus isolates were resistant against triple sulfa and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and none were resistant against vancomycin. Most of the isolates from raw sewage were resistant to more antibiotics than the isolates from sand column effluent. One Enterococcus isolate from raw sewage (no. 61) and one Enterococcus isolate from sand column effluent (no. 95) had ten antibiotic resistances each. Isolate no. 95 maintained its resistances in the absence of antibiotics during the whole study. It was compared with isolate no. 70, which was one of the isolates, being resistant only against the two sulfonamides. Phenotypically and biochemically, the two organisms were strains of Enterococcus faecalis. Sequence analysis of partical 16S rDNA allowed alignment of isolate no. 95 as a strain of Enterococcus faecium and of isolate no. 70 as a strain of E. faecalis. E. faecium strain no. 95 carried at least six different plasmids, whereas for E. faecalis strain no. 70, no discrete plasmid band was seen on the gels.

  13. Release of free fatty acids from raw or processed soybeans and subsequent effects on fiber digestibilities.

    PubMed

    Reddy, P V; Morrill, J L; Nagaraja, T G

    1994-11-01

    Two in vitro experiments were conducted to determine the rates of lipolysis and the extent of biohydrogenation of fat from raw or processed soybeans and to examine the subsequent effects on fiber digestibilities. In Experiment 1, substrates containing soy oil, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, and soybeans roasted at 132, 146, or 163 degrees C were incubated with ruminal contents for 2, 4, 6, 12, or 24 h; and release of FFA was measured. The FFA released from substrates containing soy oil, extruded soybeans, and raw or roasted soybeans reached maxima at incubations of 4, 6, and 12 h, respectively. As the roasting temperature increased from 132 to 163 degrees C, release of FFA decreased at incubations of 2, 12, and 24 h. Fatty acids in roasted soybeans were subjected to less biohydrogenation than those in raw or extruded soybeans, suggesting that FFA of roasted soybeans are partially protected from ruminal bacteria. In Experiment 2, ground alfalfa hay was added to substrates used previously to determine the effect of release rate of FFA on ADF and NDF digestibilities. At all incubation times, the substrates containing soy oil and extruded soybeans had lower digestibilities, and those containing raw or roasted soybeans had higher digestibilities of NDF and ADF.

  14. [Overexpression of NHE1 suppresses ABCA1 protein expression via increasing calpain activity in RAW264.7 cells].

    PubMed

    Mo, Xiangang; Wang, Lan; Guo, Jing; Hong, Wei; Long, Shiqi; Zhang, Li; Xiang, Ning; Yang, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of over-expressed Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1) on the protein expression of adenosine three phosphate binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) in RAW264.7 cells. Methods RAW264.7 cells were infected with the adenoviral vector encoding NHE1-EGFP (AdNHE1). The infected RAW264.7 cells were subjected to Western blot analysis for NHE1-EGFP fusion protein. The subcellular localization of NHE1-EGFP fusion protein was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy. NHE1 activity was measured by the method of pH recovery in response to an acute acid pulse. Furthermore, Western blotting was performed to determine ABCA1 protein levels and calpain activity in NHE1-overexpressing RAW264.7 cells. The effect of calpain inhibitor N-acetyl-L-leucyl-L-leucyl-L-norleucinal (ALLN) on ABCA1 protein levels in the presence of TO-901317 was examined by Western blotting. Results NHE1-EGFP fusion protein was highly expressed and localized in cytoplasm and cell membrane of RAW264.7 cells infected with AdNHE1. NHE1-EGFP fusion protein reduced ABCA1 protein expression and increased calpain activity. The calpain inhibitor ALLN blocked the decrease of ABCA1 protein expression. Conclusion Overexpressed NHE1 suppresses the expression of ABCA1 protein via increasing the calpain activity in RAW264.7 cells.

  15. Detection of hepatitis E virus in raw and treated wastewater with the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed Central

    Jothikumar, N; Aparna, K; Kamatchiammal, S; Paulmurugan, R; Saravanadevi, S; Khanna, P

    1993-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detection of hepatitis E virus (HEV) in sewage treatment plants and establishment of the prevalence of hepatitis viral diseases in a population. Epidemics of HEV infection because of inadequate public sanitation have been reported in several developing countries. A procedure for concentration of HEV in sewage samples through adsorption to membrane filters, elution with urea-arginine phosphate buffer, and subsequent reconcentration with magnesium chloride enabled us to concentrate HEV to volumes in the microliter range. HEV-specific cDNA was prepared by reverse transcription of the total RNA extracted from samples. Specific DNA amplification by PCR in combination with slot blot hybridization was used to demonstrate the presence of HEV in sewage samples from the inlets and outlets of three sewage treatment plants. The assay was specific for HEV, and a 240-bp amplified product was visualized by ethidium bromide fluorescence. Sewage samples adjusted to pH 5.0 for adsorption of viruses to membrane filters were PCR positive, while samples adjusted to pH 3.5 were PCR negative. Images PMID:8368844

  16. Water Pollution: Part I, Municipal Wastewaters; Part II, Industrial Wastewaters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, K. E. M.

    This publication is an annotated bibliography of municipal and industrial wastewater literature. This publication consists of two parts plus appendices. Part one is entitled Municipal Wastewaters and includes publications in such areas as health effects of polluted waters, federal policy and legislation, biology and chemistry of polluted water,…

  17. Simple method for the detoxification of wastewater ultrafiltration concentrates for rotavirus assay by indirect immunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    Oragui, J I; Mara, D D

    1989-01-01

    A simple method for the detoxification of ultrafiltration concentrates of wastewaters for rotavirus assay by the indirect immunofluorescence technique has been developed. Polyacrylamide (Bio-Gel) or dextran (Sephadex G50) beads were mixed with concentrates (0.5 g/10 ml, wt/vol) of wastewaters seeded with simian rotavirus SA11 and allowed to stand for 2 h. The supernatant was decontaminated with antibiotics and then assayed for rotaviruses. Concentrates from raw sewage and treated effluents seeded with SA11 were used to infect MA104 or LLC MK2 cell lines. The concentrates, particularly those from raw sewage and anaerobic waste stabilization ponds, were very toxic to the tissue culture cells. These toxic effects were determined by the detachment and subsequent loss of cells after incubation with concentrates and assay medium for 24 h. They were either completely eliminated or were reduced by greater than 80% after treatment with beads. PMID:2541662

  18. Enhancement of bioseparation and dewaterability of domestic wastewater sludge by fungal treated dewatered sludge.

    PubMed

    Fakhru'l-Razi, Ahmadun; Molla, Abul Hossain

    2007-08-17

    A promising biological, sustainable, non-hazardous, safe and environmental friendly management and disposal technique of domestic wastewater sludge is global expectation. Fungal entrapped biosolids as a result of prior fungal treated raw wastewater sludge was recycled to evaluate its performance as inoculum for bioseparation/bioconversion of supplemented sludge in view of continuous as well as scale up wastewater sludge treatment. Encouraging results were achieved in bioseparation of suspended solids and in dewaterability/filterability of treated domestic wastewater sludge. Fungal entrapped biosolids offered 98% removal of total suspended solids (TSS) in supplemented sludge treatment at 6-day without nutrient (wheat flour, WF) supply. Consequently, 99% removal of turbidity and 87% removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) were achieved in supernatant of treated sludge. The lowest value (1.75 x 10(12)m/kg) of specific resistance to filtration (SRF) was observed at 6-day after treatment, which was equivalent to the 70% decrease of SRF. The all results except SRF were not influenced further in treatments accompanied with WF supplementation. The present treatments offered significant (Pwastewater sludge compared to the control. Furthermore, the present result is addressing a potential avenue of probable solution for expected management and disposal of domestic wastewater sludge in future.

  19. Enhancement of biodegradability of real textile and dyeing wastewater by electron beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Shijun; Sun, Weihua; Wang, Jianlong; Chen, Lvjun; Zhang, Youxue; Yu, Jiang

    2016-07-01

    A textile and dyeing wastewater treatment plant is going to be upgraded due to the stringent discharge standards in Jiangsu province, China, and electron beam irradiation is considering to be used. In order to determine the suitable location of the electron accelerator in the process of wastewater treatment plant, the effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on the biodegradability of various real wastewater samples collecting from the different stages of the wastewater treatment plant, the values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), and the ratio of BOD5 and COD (BOD5/COD), were compared before and after EB irradiation. During EB irradiation process, color indices and absorbance at 254 nm wavelength (UV254) of wastewater were also determined. The results showed that EB irradiation pre-treatment cannot improve the biodegradability of raw textile and dyeing wastewater, which contains a large amount of biodegradable organic matters. In contrast, as to the final effluent of biological treatment process, EB irradiation can enhance the biodegradability to 224%. Therefore, the promising way is to apply EB irradiation as a post-treatment of the conventional biological process.

  20. Preozonation of primary-treated municipal wastewater for reuse in biofuel feedstock generation

    SciTech Connect

    Mondala, Andro H.; Hernandez, Rafael; French, W. Todd; Estévez, L. Antonio; Meckes, Mark; Trillo, Marlene; Hall, Jacqueline

    2010-11-09

    The results of a laboratory scale investigation on ozone pretreatment of primary-treated municipal wastewater for potential reuse in fermentation processes for the production of biofuels and bio-based feedstock chemicals were presented. Semi-batch preozonation with 3.0% (w/w) ozone at 1 L min -1 resulted into a considerable inactivation of the indigenous heterotrophic bacteria in the wastewater with less than 0.0002% comprising the ozone-resistant fraction of the microbial population. The disinfection process was modeled using first-order inactivation kinetics with a rate constant of 4.39 10 -3 s -1. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) levels were reduced by 30% in 1-h experiments. COD depletion was also modeled using a pseudo-first-order kinetics at a rate constant of 9.50 10 -5 s -1. Biological oxygen demand (BOD 5) values were reduced by 60% up to 20 min of ozonation followed by a plateau and some slight increases attributed to partial oxidation of recalcitrant materials. Ozone also had no substantial effect on the concentration of ammonium and phosphate ions, which are essential for microbial growth and metabolism. Preliminary tests indicated that oleaginous microorganisms could be cultivated in the ozonated wastewater, resulting in relatively higher cell densities than in raw wastewater and comparable results with autoclave-sterilized wastewater. This process could potentially produce significant quantities of oil for biofuel production from municipal wastewater streams.

  1. A mathematical model to predict the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in sewers.

    PubMed

    Dürrenmatt, David J; Wanner, Oskar

    2014-01-01

    Raw wastewater contains considerable amounts of energy that can be recovered by means of a heat pump and a heat exchanger installed in the sewer. The technique is well established, and there are approximately 50 facilities in Switzerland, many of which have been successfully using this technique for years. The planning of new facilities requires predictions of the effect of heat recovery on the wastewater temperature in the sewer because altered wastewater temperatures may cause problems for the biological processes used in wastewater treatment plants and receiving waters. A mathematical model is presented that calculates the discharge in a sewer conduit and the spatial profiles and dynamics of the temperature in the wastewater, sewer headspace, pipe, and surrounding soil. The model was implemented in the simulation program TEMPEST and was used to evaluate measured time series of discharge and temperatures. It was found that the model adequately reproduces the measured data and that the temperature and thermal conductivity of the soil and the distance between the sewer pipe and undisturbed soil are the most sensitive model parameters. The temporary storage of heat in the pipe wall and the exchange of heat between wastewater and the pipe wall are the most important processes for heat transfer. The model can be used as a tool to determine the optimal site for heat recovery and the maximal amount of extractable heat.

  2. Influences of mechanical pretreatment on the non-biological treatment of municipal wastewater by forward osmosis.

    PubMed

    Hey, Tobias; Zarebska, Agata; Bajraktari, Niada; Vogel, Jörg; Hélix-Nielsen, Claus; la Cour Jansen, Jes; Jönsson, Karin

    2016-11-24

    Municipal wastewater treatment involves mechanical, biological and chemical treatment steps for protecting the environment from adverse effects. The biological treatment step consumes the most energy and can create greenhouse gases. This study investigates municipal wastewater treatment without the biological treatment step, including the effects of different pretreatment configurations, for example, direct membrane filtration before forward osmosis. Forward osmosis was tested using raw wastewater and wastewater subjected to different types of mechanical pretreatment, for example, microsieving and microfiltration permeation, as a potential technology for municipal wastewater treatment. Forward osmosis was performed using Aquaporin Inside™ and Hydration Technologies Inc. (HTI) membranes with NaCl as the draw solution. Both types of forward osmosis membranes were tested in parallel for the different types of pretreated feed and evaluated in terms of water flux and solute rejection, that is, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD7) and total and soluble phosphorus contents. The Aquaporin and HTI membranes achieved a stable water flux with rejection rates of more than 96% for BOD7 and total and soluble phosphorus, regardless of the type of mechanical pretreated wastewater considered. This result indicates that forward osmosis membranes can tolerate exposure to municipal waste water and that the permeate can fulfil the Swedish discharge limits.

  3. Biodegradation of wastewater of Najafgarh drain, Delhi using autochthonous microbial consortia : a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Mehra, N K; Kumar, Rita

    2002-10-01

    There are seventeen drains, which discharge their untreated urban and industrial wastewaters into the Delhi segment of river Yamuna. The Najafgarh drain is the first and the largest drain, and it alone contributes 1667.84 mld i.e. 60% of the total wastewater discharge into the river Yamuna and as such add 81.36 tons of BOD load per day. As per the available data approximately 95% of the wastewater of this drain is biodegradable. In the present study, an attempt has been made to reduce the BOD load and COD levels of wastewater of Najafgarh drain using autochthonous microbial consortium. During this study the raw wastewater samples were treated for 6 h time interval with different concentration of consortium. It was observed that by increasing the existing microbial population in the wastewater sample by 150-200% there is a significant decrease in BOD and COD levels. Finally, BOD/COD ratios before and after biotreatment have been analyzed to assess the efficacy of the natural consortium.

  4. Biodegradability enhancement of purified terephthalic acid wastewater by coagulation-flocculation process as pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Karthik, Manikavasagam; Dafale, Nishant; Pathe, Pradyumna; Nandy, Tapas

    2008-06-15

    In this work, the coagulation-flocculation process was used as pretreatment for purified terephthalic acid (PTA) wastewater with the objective of improving its overall biodegradability. PTA production generates wastewaters with toxicants p-xylene [1,4-dimethyl-benzene (C8H10)], a major raw material used in the production process, along with some of the intermediates, viz., p-toluic acid, benzoic acid, 4-carboxybenzaldehyde, phthalic acid and terephthalic acid. These compounds affect the bio-oxidation process of wastewater treatment; hence removal of these constituents is necessary, prior to conventional aerobic treatment. This paper addresses the application of coagulation-flocculation process using chemical coagulants, viz., aluminium sulphate (alum), polyaluminium chloride (PAC), ferrous sulphate and ferric chloride in combination with anionic polyelectrolyte. Polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in conjunction with lime and polyelectrolyte removed about 63.1% chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 45.2% biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) from PTA wastewater. Coagulation-flocculation process coupled with aerobic bio-oxidation treatment of PTA wastewater achieved, COD & BOD removals of 97.4% and 99.4%, respectively. The biodegradability enhancement evaluated in terms of the BOD5/COD ratio, increased from 0.45 to 0.67 at the optimum conditions. The results obtained from these studies indicate that the coagulation-flocculation process could be a suitable pretreatment method in reducing toxicity of PTA wastewater whilst enhancing biodegradability for aerobic biological treatment scheme.

  5. Spatial differences and temporal changes in illicit drug use in Europe quantified by wastewater analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ort, Christoph; van Nuijs, Alexander L N; Berset, Jean-Daniel; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Castiglioni, Sara; Covaci, Adrian; de Voogt, Pim; Emke, Erik; Fatta-Kassinos, Despo; Griffiths, Paul; Hernández, Félix; González-Mariño, Iria; Grabic, Roman; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara; Mastroianni, Nicola; Meierjohann, Axel; Nefau, Thomas; Östman, Marcus; Pico, Yolanda; Racamonde, Ines; Reid, Malcolm; Slobodnik, Jaroslav; Terzic, Senka; Thomaidis, Nikolaos; Thomas, Kevin V

    2014-01-01

    Aims To perform wastewater analyses to assess spatial differences and temporal changes of illicit drug use in a large European population. Design Analyses of raw wastewater over a 1-week period in 2012 and 2013. Setting and Participants Catchment areas of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) across Europe, as follows: 2012: 25 WWTPs in 11 countries (23 cities, total population 11.50 million); 2013: 47 WWTPs in 21 countries (42 cities, total population 24.74 million). Measurements Excretion products of five illicit drugs (cocaine, amphetamine, ecstasy, methamphetamine, cannabis) were quantified in wastewater samples using methods based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Findings Spatial differences were assessed and confirmed to vary greatly across European metropolitan areas. In general, results were in agreement with traditional surveillance data, where available. While temporal changes were substantial in individual cities and years (P ranging from insignificant to <10−3), overall means were relatively stable. The overall mean of methamphetamine was an exception (apparent decline in 2012), as it was influenced mainly by four cities. Conclusions Wastewater analysis performed across Europe provides complementary evidence on illicit drug consumption and generally concurs with traditional surveillance data. Wastewater analysis can measure total illicit drug use more quickly and regularly than is the current norm for national surveys, and creates estimates where such data does not exist. PMID:24861844

  6. Oxygen mass transfer and hydrodynamic behaviour in wastewater: determination of local impact of surfactants by visualization techniques.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Mélanie; Dietrich, Nicolas; Grace, John R; Hébrard, Gilles

    2014-07-01

    Powerful techniques, based on the Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) technique, are deployed to locally visualize and quantify the impact of surfactants in wastewaters on hydrodynamics and oxygen mass transfer. Bubble diameter, aspect ratio, rise velocity, contamination angle, as well as flux, flux density, liquid side mass transfer and diffusion coefficients of transferred oxygen are determined based on these techniques applied in the wake of rising bubbles of diameter 1 mm and through planar gas/liquid interfaces. The initial experiments were performed in demineralized water containing small amounts of surfactant. Different concentrations of surfactant were added to finally reach the Critical Micelle Concentration (CMC). Bubbles have classically been found to be more spherical with a reduced rise velocity in the presence of surfactants up to the CMC. Above the CMC, these hydrodynamic characteristics were found to be almost constant, although the oxygen mass transfer decreased due to the presence of surfactants. Experimental results were markedly lower than predicted by the well-known Frössling equation with rigid surfaces. This is believed to be caused by a barrier of surfactants hindering the oxygen mass transfer at the interface. Similar hindrance of oxygen mass transfer applies to waters from sewage plants (filtered raw water and treated water), making accurate design of aeration tanks difficult.

  7. Evidence of Naturalized Stress-Tolerant Strains of Escherichia coli in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Shuai; Banting, Graham; Li, Qiaozhi; Edge, Thomas A.; Topp, Edward; Sokurenko, Mykola; Scott, Candis; Braithwaite, Shannon; Ruecker, Norma J.; Yasui, Yutaka; McAllister, Tim; Chui, Linda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Escherichia coli has been proposed to have two habitats—the intestines of mammals/birds and the nonhost environment. Our goal was to assess whether certain strains of E. coli have evolved toward adaptation and survival in wastewater. Raw sewage samples from different treatment plants were subjected to chlorine stress, and ∼59% of the surviving E. coli strains were found to contain a genetic insertion element (IS30) located within the uspC-flhDC intergenic region. The positional location of the IS30 element was not observed across a library of 845 E. coli isolates collected from various animal hosts or within GenBank or whole-genome reference databases for human and animal E. coli isolates (n = 1,177). Phylogenetics clustered the IS30 element-containing wastewater E. coli isolates into a distinct clade, and biomarker analysis revealed that these wastewater isolates contained a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) biomarker pattern that was specific for wastewater. These isolates belonged to phylogroup A, possessed generalized stress response (RpoS) activity, and carried the locus of heat resistance, features likely relevant to nonhost environmental survival. Isolates were screened for 28 virulence genes but carried only the fimH marker. Our data suggest that wastewater contains a naturalized resident population of E. coli. We developed an endpoint PCR targeting the IS30 element within the uspC-flhDC intergenic region, and all raw sewage samples (n = 21) were positive for this marker. Conversely, the prevalence of this marker in E. coli-positive surface and groundwater samples was low (≤5%). This simple PCR assay may represent a convenient microbial source-tracking tool for identification of water samples affected by municipal wastewater. IMPORTANCE The results of this study demonstrate that some strains of E. coli appear to have evolved to become naturalized populations in the wastewater environment and possess a number of stress-related genetic

  8. The Use of Aquatic Plants in Wastewater Treatment: A Literature Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    and managed to minimize preferential flow paths and maximize treatment. 30 31 Effluent quality is judged by measuring the concentrations of the...contaminant, but is a measure of the oxy"gen demand exerted by all of the readily degraded organic contarnkiants. Pathogenic organisms include bacteria...Oxygen Demand Although some of the contaminants which are included in this measurement are unhealthy at the concentrations found in raw wastewater, the

  9. Wastewater Treatment I. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This instructor's manual provides an outline and guide for teaching Wastewater Treatment I. It consists of nine sections. An introductory note and a course outline comprise sections 1 and 2. Section 3 (the bulk of the guide) presents lesson outlines for teaching the ten chapters of the manual entitled "Operation of Wastewater Treatment…

  10. Method for treating contaminated wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Fochtman, E.G.; Forbes, F.S.; Koch, R.L.

    1983-09-06

    A method is disclosed for treating hydrazine-fuel contaminated wastewater in which hydrazine, monomethyl hydrazine, unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine and dimethylnitrosamine pollutants are effectively decomposed at a controlled pH of about 5 by an ultraviolet induced chlorination treatment of the wastewater.

  11. Electrophoretic Process For Purifying Wastewater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, David W.; Twitty, Garland E.; Sharnez, Rizwan; Egen, Ned B.

    1992-01-01

    Microbes, poisonous substances, and colloidal particles removed by combination of electric fields. Electrophoretic process removes pathogenicorganisms, toxins, toxic metals, and cooloidal soil particles from wastewater. Used to render domestic, industrial, and agricultural wastewater streams potable. Process also useful in bioregenerative and other closed systems like in space stations and submarines, where water must be recycled.

  12. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  13. Removal of organic pollutants in industrial wastewater with an integrated system of copper electrocoagulation and electrogenerated H₂O₂.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Díaz, Carlos; Frontana-Uribe, Bernado; Bilyeu, Bryan

    2014-06-01

    The effectiveness of organics removal of an integrated electrochemical process, namely, electrocoagulation with copper ions followed by the use of electrogenerated hydrogen peroxide was evaluated with an industrial wastewater. The copper (II) ions addition into the wastewater using electro-dissolution of copper electrodes, reduces the chemical oxygen demand (COD) by 56% after 30 min of treatment, under optimal conditions of pH 2,8 and 14.2 mA cm(-2) of current density. The integrated electrochemical process reduces the COD by 78%, BOD₅ by 81%, color by 97% and fecal coliforms by 99.9%. The wastewater quality was monitored using UV-Vis spectrometry and Z-potential in order to characterize raw and treated wastewater.

  14. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-01-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  15. RAWS: The spaceborne radar wind sounder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Richard K.

    1991-09-01

    The concept of the Radar Wind Sounder (RAWS) is discussed. The goals of the RAWS is to estimate the following three qualities: the echo power, to determine rain rate and surface wind velocity; the mean Doppler frequency, to determine the wind velocity in hydrometers; and the spread of the Doppler frequency, to determine the turbulent spread of the wind velocity. Researchers made significant progress during the first year. The feasibility of the concept seems certain. Studies indicate that a reasonably sized system can measure in the presence of ice clouds and dense water clouds. No sensitivity problems exist in rainy environments. More research is needed on the application of the radar to the measurement of rain rates and winds at the sea surface.

  16. New raw material for electrical porcelain

    SciTech Connect

    Khristoforov, K.K.; Portnova, I.G.; Omel'chenko, Yu.A.

    1986-09-01

    Research is described in finding new raw materials for the fabrication of porcelain electrical insulators for power transmission lines. The materials tested come from several deposits in the Soviet Union and include alumina minerals, quartz, feldspars, pegmatites, clays, and two kaolins, as well as waste materials recovered from porcelain production. Comparative electrical and mechanical properties, grain sizes, sinterabilities, and mineral compositions are tabulated for the candidate materials.

  17. Comparison of selected methods for recovery of Giardia spp. cysts and Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Raphael Corrêa; Daniel, Luiz Antonio

    2015-09-01

    More precise methods are needed to recover Giardia and Cryptosporidium (oo)cysts from wastewater in order to advance research related to their inactivation, removal, quantification, and species differentiation. This study applied different methods to recover the maximum number of (oo)cysts from wastewater samples using ColorSeed®. Immunomagnetic separation assisted in capturing oocysts mainly in samples with medium and low turbidity. A triple centrifugation method reached recovery rates of 85% and 20%, for Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts, respectively, in raw wastewater, and 62.5 and 17.5% in secondary-treated effluent. For low turbidity-treated effluent, membrane filtration reached 67.5% recovery for Giardia cysts and 22.5% for Cryptosporidium oocysts. Simple, quick and low-cost methods do not involve much handling of the samples and could be useful, particularly in developing countries.

  18. Treatment of leather industrial wastewater via combined advanced oxidation and membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Shafy, Hussein I; El-Khateeb, Mohamed A; Mansour, Mona S M

    The liming/unhairing operation is among the important processes of the leather industry. It generates large amounts of effluent that are highly loaded with organic hazard wastes. Such effluent is considered one of the most obnoxious materials in the leather industry, causing serious environmental pollution and health risks. The effluent is characterized by high concentrations of the pollution parameters. Conventional chemical and/or biological treatment of such wastewater is inefficient to meet the required limits of standard specifications, due to the presence of resistant and toxic compounds. The present investigation deals with an effective treatment approach for the lime/unhair effluent using the Fenton reaction followed by membrane filtration. The experiment was extended to a laboratory pilot-scale in a continuous treatment study. In this study the raw wastewater was treated with the predetermined Fenton's optimum dose followed by membrane filtration. The wastewater was efficiently treated and the final effluent met the standards for unrestricted water reuse.

  19. Algal biofuels from urban wastewaters: maximizing biomass yield using nutrients recycled from hydrothermal processing of biomass.

    PubMed

    Selvaratnam, T; Pegallapati, A K; Reddy, H; Kanapathipillai, N; Nirmalakhandan, N; Deng, S; Lammers, P J

    2015-04-01

    Recent studies have proposed algal cultivation in urban wastewaters for the dual purpose of waste treatment and bioenergy production from the resulting biomass. This study proposes an enhancement to this approach that integrates cultivation of an acidophilic strain, Galdieria sulphuraria 5587.1, in a closed photobioreactor (PBR); hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of the wet algal biomass; and recirculation of the nutrient-rich aqueous product (AP) of HTL to the PBR to achieve higher biomass productivity than that could be achieved with raw wastewater. The premise is that recycling nutrients in the AP can maintain optimal C, N and P levels in the PBR to maximize biomass growth to increase energy returns. Growth studies on the test species validated growth on AP derived from HTL at temperatures from 180 to 300°C. Doubling N and P concentrations over normal levels in wastewater resulted in biomass productivity gains of 20-25% while N and P removal rates also doubled.

  20. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  1. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOEpatents

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  2. Food safety hazards associated with consumption of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Stephen P; Boor, Kathryn J; Murphy, Steven C; Murinda, Shelton E

    2009-09-01

    An increasing number of people are consuming raw unpasteurized milk. Enhanced nutritional qualities, taste, and health benefits have all been advocated as reasons for increased interest in raw milk consumption. However, science-based data to substantiate these claims are limited. People continue to consume raw milk even though numerous epidemiological studies have shown clearly that raw milk can be contaminated by a variety of pathogens, some of which are associated with human illness and disease. Several documented milkborne disease outbreaks occurred from 2000-2008 and were traced back to consumption of raw unpasteurized milk. Numerous people were found to have infections, some were hospitalized, and a few died. In the majority of these outbreaks, the organism associated with the milkborne outbreak was isolated from the implicated product(s) or from subsequent products made at the suspected dairy or source. In contrast, fewer milkborne disease outbreaks were associated with consumption of pasteurized milk during this same time period. Twenty nine states allow the sale of raw milk by some means. Direct purchase, cow-share or leasing programs, and the sale of raw milk as pet food have been used as means for consumers to obtain raw milk. Where raw milk is offered for sale, strategies to reduce risks associated with raw milk and products made from raw milk are needed. Developing uniform regulations including microbial standards for raw milk to be sold for human consumption, labeling of raw milk, improving sanitation during milking, and enhancing and targeting educational efforts are potential approaches to this issue. Development of pre- and postharvest control measures to effectively reduce contamination is critical to the control of pathogens in raw milk. One sure way to prevent raw milk-associated foodborne illness is for consumers to refrain from drinking raw milk and from consuming dairy products manufactured using raw milk.

  3. [Treatment of tannery wastewater by infiltration percolation: chromium removal and speciation in soil].

    PubMed

    Tiglyene, S; Jaouad, A; Mandi, L

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper was, on one hand, to study the treatment of raw tannery effluent by infiltration percolation system and, on the other hand, to determine the distribution and speciation of chromium in the used soil. The system pilot consisted of columns filled to 15 cm of gravel and 60 cm of soil (88% of sand). The columns irrigated by raw tannery wastewater with a daily hydraulic load of 5 cm per day (approximately 10 L every day). The water flowed vertically through the soil. The speciation of Cr was investigated by using selective five steps sequential extraction method. The results indicated that the pH of the treated wastewater increases by three units in comparison to the raw wastewater. The electrical conductivity of the effluent increases also after treatment. Over the whole experimental period, results revealed significant performances of infiltration percolation system for organic load reduction. The mean elimination rate was 74% for total COD. In addition, there was a significant accumulation of organic carbon (62%) in the surface strata for the system. The total chromium undergoes an overall removal of 98%. After seven months of experiment, the results indicated that the whole retention of Cr occurring in the surface horizon of the soil (69%). Furthermore, the speciation study of Cr in the soil revealed that the oxidizable fraction is the most represented 55%. The reducible and residual phases represent 17.5% and 18.5%, respectively. The carbonate fraction presented 9% while exchangeable fraction presented only 0.02%.

  4. Health Effects Associated with Wastewater Treatment, Reuse, and Disposal.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yu, Ruoren; Li, Yuan; Falzone, Charles; Smith, Gregory; Ikehata, Keisuke

    2016-10-01

    A review of the literature published in 2015 on topics relating to public and environmental health risks associated with wastewater treatment, reuse, and disposal is presented. This review is divided into the following sections: wastewater management, microbial hazards, chemical hazards, wastewater treatment, wastewater reuse, agricultural reuse in different regions, greywater reuse, wastewater disposal, hospital wastewater, industrial wastewater, and sludge and biosolids.

  5. Use of whole crop sorghums as a raw material in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Ryoji; Ichinose, Hitomi; Honda, Mariko; Takabatake, Koji; Sotome, Itaru; Takai, Tomoyuki; Maehara, Tomoko; Okadome, Hiroshi; Isobe, Seiichiro; Gau, Mitsuru; Kaneko, Satoshi

    2009-07-01

    The possibility of using two kinds of sorghum as raw materials in consolidated bioprocessing bioethanol production using Flammulina velutipes was investigated. Enzymatic saccharification of sweet sorghum was not as high as in brown mid-rib (bmr) mutated sorghum, but the amount of ethanol production was higher. Ethanol production from bmr mutated sorghum significantly increased when saccharification enzymes were added to the culture.

  6. Prospects of rice straw as a raw material for paper making.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Daljeet; Bhardwaj, Nishi Kant; Lohchab, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-02-01

    Pulp and paper mills are indispensable for any nation as far as the growth of the nation is concerned. Due to fast growth in population, urbanization and industrialization, the demand and consumption of paper has increased tremendously. These put high load on our natural resources and force the industry to look for alternative raw material. Rice straw is a lignocellulosic material abundantly available in wood short countries like China, India, Bangladesh, etc. and can be used as raw material for this industry. Open burning of rice straw releases noxious green house gases to the air and poses serious threats to global air chemistry and human health. So, it is a dual benefit option (for farmers and industries) to use rice straw as a raw material in pulp and paper industry. Organosolv pulping using acids are the prominent choices of researchers to convert this residue into valuable pulp but in developed countries only. Developing world favours the soda and soda-AQ processes as these are economical. As a virtue of less lignin content in comparison to wood, rice straw requires less harsh conditions for cooking and can be easily pulped. Bleaching is a crucial step of paper making but also responsible for causing water pollution. Many studies revealed that during the process more than 500 chlorinated compounds are released that are highly toxic, bioaccumulative and carcinogenic in nature. Most of the industries over the globe switch on to the elemental chlorine free short sequence bleaching methods using chlorine dioxide, hypochlorite and hydrogen peroxide. This paper presented the effective need of ecofriendly, economically reliable pulping and bleaching sequences in case of rice straw to eliminate the problems of chlorinated compounds in wastewater of paper mills. Such approach of using waste as a raw material with its environmentally safe processing for making paper can prove to be valuable towards sustainable growth.

  7. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  8. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  9. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  10. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or operator of each affected source shall comply with the HON wastewater requirements in §§...

  12. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  13. 40 CFR 63.1106 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1106 Section... Technology Standards § 63.1106 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in... source shall comply with the HON process wastewater requirements in §§ 63.132 through 63.148. (1)...

  14. Oil Production by a Consortium of Oleaginous Microorganisms grown on primary effluent wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, Jacqueline; Hetrick, Mary; French, Todd; Hernandez, Rafael; Donaldson, Janet; Mondala, Andro; Holmes, William

    2011-01-01

    Municipal wastewater could be a potential growth medium that has not been considered for cultivating oleaginous microorganisms. This study is designed to determine if a consortium of oleaginous microorganism can successfully compete for carbon and other nutrients with the indigenous microorganisms contained in primary effluent wastewater. RESULTS: The oleaginous consortium inoculated with indigenous microorganisms reached stationary phase within 24 h, reaching a maximum cell concentration of 0.58 g L -1. Water quality post-oleaginous consortium growth reached a maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of approximately 81%, supporting the consumption of the glucose within 8 h. The oleaginous consortium increased the amount of oil produced per gram by 13% compared with indigenous microorganisms in raw wastewater. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results show a substantial population increase in bacteria within the first 24 h when the consortium is inoculated into raw wastewater. This result, along with the fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) results, suggests that conditions tested were not sufficient for the oleaginous consortium to compete with the indigenous microorganisms.

  15. Removal of detergents by activated petroleum coke from a clarified wastewater treated for reuse.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Zamora, R M; Durán Pilotzi, A; Domínguez Mora, R; Durán Moreno, A

    2004-01-01

    The removal of detergents from clarified wastewaters by activated petroleum coke (CAPA) was assessed. These substances, owing to their foamy properties, constitute a problem for ammonia removal by the air stripping process that could be installed in a wastewater treatment train to produce reclaimed water. CAPA was evaluated as a more economical alternative than a commercial activated carbon. Experimental work was divided in three stages: 1) production and characterisation of materials; 2) pretreatment of raw wastewater through the Fenton's reagent or coagulation-flocculation process with Al2(SO4)3; and 3) adsorption and bio-adsorption tests of clarified effluents. These tests were carried out in the laboratory in discontinuous and continuous reactors, the former by the "point-by-point" technique, with and without a previous fixing of bacteria, and the latter by the Rapid Small Scale Column Test. Detergents content, color, COD and UV254nm were measured in raw and treated wastewaters. Results show that the best pretreatment for the adsorption process was coagulation-flocculation rather than Fenton's method. Oxidation by this process decreased the adsorptive properties of detergents. Biomass fixed on the CAPA particles significantly increased the UV254nm and COD removal efficiencies (20% and 170% respectively). The breakthrough curves showed that CAPA could attain the expected detergents removal efficiency (66%) for the alum effluent.

  16. Rapid aerobic granulation in an SBR treating piggery wastewater by seeding sludge from a municipal WWTP.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Li, Jun; Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qi; Littleton, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic sludge granulation was rapidly obtained in the erlenmeyer bottle and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) using piggery wastewater. Aerobic granulation occurred on day 3 and granules with mean diameter of 0.2mm and SVI30 of 20.3mL/g formed in SBR on day 18. High concentrations of Ca and Fe in the raw piggery wastewater and operating mode accelerated aerobic granulation, even though the seed sludge was from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Alpha diversity analysis revealed Operational Taxonomic Units, Shannon, ACE and Chao 1 indexes in aerobic granules were 2013, 5.51, 4665.5 and 3734.5, which were obviously lower compared to seed sludge. The percentages of major microbial communities, such as Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes were obviously higher in aerobic granules than seed sludge. Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes, Actinobacteria, TM7 and Acidobacteria showed much higher abundances in the inoculum. The main reasons might be the characteristics of raw piggery wastewater and granule structure.

  17. Economic Barriers To Improvement Of Human Health Associated With Wastewater Irrigation In The Mezquital Valley, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagata, H.; Sedlak, D. L.

    2008-12-01

    To improve public health, the United Nations' Johannesburg Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 set Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) of reducing by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and sanitation by 2015. The Mezquital Valley of Mexico is one of the places suffering serious human health problems such as ascariasis due to agricultural irrigation with untreated wastewater discharged by Mexico City. Despite the existence of serious health problems, wastewater treatment has not been installed due to economic barriers: the agricultural benefit of nutrients in the wastewater and cost of building and operating wastewater treatment plants. To develop solutions to this problem, the human health damage and the benefits of nutrient input were evaluated. The health impact caused by untreated wastewater reuse in the Mezquital Valley was estimated to be about 14 DALYs (disability-adjusted life year) per 100,000, which was 2.8 times higher than the DALYs lost by ascariasis in Mexico in 2002 estimated by WHO. The economic damage of the health impact was evaluated at 77,000 /year using willingness-to-pay (WTP) for reducing DALYs. The value of nutrient inputs (nitrogen and phosphorus) due to reuse of untreated wastewater was evaluated at 33 million /year using fertilizer prices. Therefore, attempts to decrease public health problems associated with reuse in the Mezquital Valley need to address losses of economic benefits associated with nutrients in sewage. In 2007, the Mexican Government announced plans to install wastewater treatment plants in this area. Although nutrient inputs in irrigated water is expected to decrease by 33% due to the wastewater treatment, farmers in the Mezquital Valley would still benefit from improved public health in the community and increases of crop values due to the ability to grow raw-eaten vegetables.

  18. Tracing pharmaceuticals in a municipal plant for integrated wastewater and organic solid waste treatment.

    PubMed

    Jelic, Aleksandra; Fatone, Francesco; Di Fabio, Silvia; Petrovic, Mira; Cecchi, Franco; Barcelo, Damia

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence and removal of 42 pharmaceuticals, belonging to different therapeutic groups (analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-ulcer agent, psychiatric drugs, antiepileptic drug, antibiotics, ß-blockers, diuretics, lipid regulator and cholesterol lowering statin drugs and anti-histamines), were studied in the wastewater and sewage sludge trains of a full scale integrated treatment plant. The plant employs a biological nutrient removal (BNR) process for the treatment of municipal wastewater, and a single-stage mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion for the treatment of wasted activated sludge mixed with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), followed by a short-cut nitrification-denitrification of the anaerobic supernatant in a sequential batch reactor. Influent and effluent wastewater, as well as thickened, digested and treated sludge were sampled and analyzed for the selected pharmaceuticals in order to study their presence and fate during the treatment. Twenty three compounds were detected in influent and effluent wastewater and eleven in sludge. Infiltration of groundwater in the sewer system led to a dilution of raw sewage, resulting in lower concentrations in wastewater (up to 0.7 μg/L in influent) and sludge (70 ng/g d.w.). Due to the dilution, overall risk quotient for the mixture of pharmaceuticals detected in effluent wastewater was less than one, indicating no direct risk for the aquatic environment. A wide range of removal efficiencies during the treatment was observed, i.e. <20% to 90%. The influent concentrations of the target pharmaceuticals, as polar compounds, were undoubtedly mostly affected by BNR process in the wastewater train, and less by anaerobic-co-digestion. Mass balance calculations showed that less than 2% of the total mass load of the studied pharmaceuticals was removed by sorption. Experimentally estimated distribution coefficients (<500 L/kg) also indicated that the selected pharmaceuticals preferably remain in

  19. Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wastewater treatment processes from coke production plants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wanhui; Wei, Chaohai; Yan, Bo; Feng, Chunhua; Zhao, Guobao; Lin, Chong; Yuan, Mengyang; Wu, Chaofei; Ren, Yuan; Hu, Yun

    2013-09-01

    Identification and removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated at two coke plants located in Shaoguan, Guangdong Province of China. Samples of raw coking wastewaters and wastewaters from subunits of a coke production plant were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) to provide a detailed chemical characterization of PAHs. The identification and characterization of PAH isomers was based on a positive match of mass spectral data of sample peaks with those for PAH isomers in mass spectra databases with electron impact ionization mass spectra and retention times of internal reference compounds. In total, 270 PAH compounds including numerous nitrogen, oxygen, and sulfur heteroatomic derivatives were positively identified for the first time. Quantitative analysis of target PAHs revealed that total PAH concentrations in coking wastewaters were in the range of 98.5 ± 8.9 to 216 ± 20.2 μg/L, with 3-4-ring PAHs as dominant compounds. Calculation of daily PAH output from four plant subunits indicated that PAHs in the coking wastewater came mainly from ammonia stripping wastewater. Coking wastewater treatment processes played an important role in removing PAHs in coking wastewater, successfully removing 92 % of the target compounds. However, 69 weakly polar compounds, including PAH isomers, were still discharged in the final effluent, producing 8.8 ± 2.7 to 31.9 ± 6.8 g/day of PAHs with potential toxicity to environmental waters. The study of coking wastewater herein proposed can be used to better predict improvement of coke production facilities and treatment conditions according to the identification and removal of PAHs in the coke plant as well as to assess risks associated with continuous discharge of these contaminants to receiving waters.

  20. Parasitological risk assessment from wastewater reuse for disposal in soil in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Silvana A; Piveli, Roque P; Santos, Jéferson G; Montes, Célia R; Sundefeld, Gilberto; Campos, Fábio; Gomes, Tamara M; Melfi, Adolpho J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyze the parasitological risks of treated wastewater reuse from a stabilization pond in the city of Piracicaba, in the State of São Paulo (Brazil), and the level of treatment required to protect public health. Samples were taken from raw and treated wastewater in stabilization ponds and submitted to a parasitological, microbiological and physicochemical analysis. The study revealed on treated wastewater the presence of Ascaris sp. and Entamoeba coli with an average density of 1 cysts L(-1) and 6 eggs L(-1), respectively. For Ascaris, the annual risks of infection due to the accidental ingestion of wastewater irrigation were 7.5 × 10(-2) in 208 days and 8.7 × 10(-2) in 240 days. For Total Coliforms and Escherichia coli in treated wastewater, the average density was 1.0 × 10(5) MPN/100 ml and 2.7 × 10(4) MPN/100 ml respectively, representing 99% and 94% removal efficiency, respectively. For BOD, COD, TS and TSS removal efficiency was 69, 80, 50 and 71%, respectively. The removal efficiency for nitrogen; ammonia nitrogen and total phosphate was 24, 19 and 68%, respectively. The average density of helminths eggs in treated wastewater is higher compared to the density of the limit value of ≤1 egg L(-1) and tolerable risk is above the level recommended by the World Health Organization. Multiple barriers are necessary for the reduction of organic matter, chemical contaminants and parasites from treated wastewater. Standards for the sanitary control of treated wastewater to be reused in agricultural irrigation areas should be compiled for developing countries in order to minimize public health risks.

  1. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Raw and Pre-treated Brewery Spent Grain Utilizing Solid State Anaerobic Digestion.

    PubMed

    Panjičko, Mario; Zupančič, Gregor Drago; Zelić, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The brewery spent grain (BSG) represents approximately 85% of the total quantity of by-products from the brewing industry. The biogas production from the BSG has been the subject of several studies in recent years, due to relatively high energy consumption in the brewing process and due to the increasing energy costs. The biodegradability of raw and pre-treated BSG in a single-stage and two-stage solid-state anaerobic digestion (SS-AD) system was determined in this study. The results show that the BSG have a biogas potential of 120 L/kg(-1). In the single-stage system, the biogas yield obtained from raw BSG (87.4 L/kg(-1)) was almost equal to the yield obtained from the pre-treated BSG (89.1 L/kg(-1)), while the methane yield was 51.9 and 55.3 L/kg(-1) and the biodegradation was 62.0% and 62.2% for raw and pre-treated BSG, respectively. In two-stage SS-AD the pre-treated BSG showed better results, with the biogas yield of 103.2 L/kg(-1) and the biodegradation of 73.6%, while the biogas yield obtained from raw BSG was 89.1 L/kg(-1), with the biodegradation of 63.5%. In two-stage process the obtained methane yields from raw and pre-treated BSG were identical (58.7 L/kg(-1)).

  2. Navigating wastewater energy recovery strategies: a life cycle comparison of anaerobic membrane bioreactor and conventional treatment systems with anaerobic digestion.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam L; Stadler, Lauren B; Cao, Ling; Love, Nancy G; Raskin, Lutgarde; Skerlos, Steven J

    2014-05-20

    The objective of this study was to evaluate emerging anaerobic membrane bioreactor (AnMBR) technology in comparison with conventional wastewater energy recovery technologies. Wastewater treatment process modeling and systems analyses were combined to evaluate the conditions under which AnMBR may produce more net energy and have lower life cycle environmental emissions than high rate activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (HRAS+AD), conventional activated sludge with anaerobic digestion (CAS+AD), and an aerobic membrane bioreactor with anaerobic digestion (AeMBR+AD). For medium strength domestic wastewater treatment under baseline assumptions at 15 °C, AnMBR recovered 49% more energy as biogas than HRAS+AD, the most energy positive conventional technology considered, but had significantly higher energy demands and environmental emissions. Global warming impacts associated with AnMBR were largely due to emissions of effluent dissolved methane. For high strength domestic wastewater treatment, AnMBR recovered 15% more net energy than HRAS+AD, and the environmental emissions gap between the two systems was reduced. Future developments of AnMBR technology in low energy fouling control, increased flux, and management of effluent methane emissions would make AnMBR competitive with HRAS+AD. Rapid advancements in AnMBR technology must continue to achieve its full economic and environmental potential as an energy recovery strategy for domestic wastewater.

  3. A probabilistic quantitative microbial risk assessment model of norovirus disease burden from wastewater irrigation of vegetables in Shepparton, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mok, Hoi-Fei; Barker, S Fiona; Hamilton, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Wastewater can be an important resource for water-scarce regions of the world, but a major barrier to its use is the associated health risk. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a probabilistic modeling technique used to determine the health risks from wastewater reuse, but only a handful of QMRA studies have examined the norovirus health risks from consumption of vegetables irrigated with human wastewater, even though norovirus is a, if not the most, significant microbial cause of diarrheal disease world-wide. Furthermore, the majority of these studies have focused only on risks from lettuce consumption. To meet the knowledge gap in health risks for other vegetables, a QMRA model was constructed for agricultural wastewater irrigation in the regional city of Shepparton, Australia, using fecal shedding rates to estimate norovirus concentration in raw sewage. Annual norovirus disease burden was estimated for the consumption of lettuce, broccoli, cabbage, Asian vegetables, and cucumber after irrigation with treated wastewater. Results indicate that the waste stabilization pond treatment did not have sufficient virus removal to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold for acceptable level of risk for wastewater reuse, but addition of disinfection treatments provided acceptable results for consumption of cucumber and broccoli. This is the first QMRA study to incorporate virus accumulation from previous wastewater irrigation events.

  4. Marine carbohydrates of wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Sudha, Prasad N; Gomathi, Thandapani; Vinodhini, P Angelin; Nasreen, K

    2014-01-01

    Our natural heritage (rivers, seas, and oceans) has been exploited, mistreated, and contaminated because of industrialization, globalization, population growth, urbanization with increased wealth, and more extravagant lifestyles. The scenario gets worse when the effluents or contaminants are discharged directly. So wastewater treatment is a very important and necessary in nowadays to purify wastewater before it enters a body of natural water, or it is applied to the land, or it is reused. Various methods are available for treating wastewater but with many disadvantages. Recently, numerous approaches have been studied for the development of cheaper and more effective technologies, both to decrease the amount of wastewater produced and to improve the quality of the treated effluent. Biosorption is an emerging technology, which uses natural materials as adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Low-cost adsorbents of polysaccharide-based materials obtained from marine, such as chitin, chitosan, alginate, agar, and carrageenan, are acting as rescue for wastewater treatment. This chapter reviews the treatment of wastewater up to the present time using marine polysaccharides and its derivatives. Special attention is paid to the advantages of the natural adsorbents, which are a wonderful gift for human survival.

  5. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  6. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  7. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  8. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  9. 19 CFR 151.22 - Estimated duties on raw sugar.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Estimated duties on raw sugar. 151.22 Section 151... THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) EXAMINATION, SAMPLING, AND TESTING OF MERCHANDISE Sugars, Sirups, and Molasses § 151.22 Estimated duties on raw sugar. Estimated duties shall be taken on raw sugar, as...

  10. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  11. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  12. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  13. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with the provisions of § 161.175, except that it contains not less than 65 percent of shrimp material, as...

  14. 21 CFR 161.176 - Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. 161.176 Section 161.176 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Shellfish § 161.176 Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp. Frozen raw lightly breaded shrimp complies with...

  15. Occurrence and fate of endocrine disrupting compounds in wastewater treatment plants in Israel and the Palestinian West Bank.

    PubMed

    Dotan, Pniela; Godinger, Tal; Odeh, Wad; Groisman, Ludmila; Al-Khateeb, Nader; Rabbo, Alfred Abed; Tal, Alon; Arnon, Shai

    2016-07-01

    Israel and its Palestinian neighbors constitute a unique venue for evaluating the treatment efficiency and potential environmental risks of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), because of their physical proximity yet contrasting societal dynamics. Israel primarily relies on advanced tertiary sewage treatment and recycles over 85% of its treated wastewater, while in the Palestinian Authority (PA), there is only secondary treatment levels at WWTPs and reuse is minimal (<1%). To evaluate the extent of EDC occurrence and treatment efficiency, we conducted four sampling campaigns over two consecutive years, and measured the concentrations of selected EDCs in raw wastewater (WW), treated WW and sludge in six WWTPs in Israel, as well as in two Palestinian plants. Low concentrations of bisphenol A, octylphenol and triclosan measured in the raw WW in the Palestinian WWTPs reflected the relatively modest industrial activity and consumption habits as compared to the westernized consumer patterns in Israel. On the other hand, hormone concentrations in raw WW were higher in the Palestinian WWTPs than those in the Israeli WWTPs, presumably because of a dilution effect associated with a higher water per capita consumption among Israelis. Despite these differences in raw WW concentrations, the removal efficiency in all advanced WWTPs was relatively high when compared to averages reported internationally.

  16. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by raw and modified plant residue materials as biosorbents.

    PubMed

    Xi, Zemin; Chen, Baoliang

    2014-04-01

    Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), e.g., naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene and pyrene, from aqueous solution by raw and modified plant residues was investigated to develop low cost biosorbents for organic pollutant abatement. Bamboo wood, pine wood, pine needles and pine bark were selected as plant residues, and acid hydrolysis was used as an easily modification method. The raw and modified biosorbents were characterized by elemental analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The sorption isotherms of PAHs to raw biosorbents were apparently linear, and were dominated by a partitioning process. In comparison, the isotherms of the hydrolyzed biosorbents displayed nonlinearity, which was controlled by partitioning and the specific interaction mechanism. The sorption kinetic curves of PAHs to the raw and modified plant residues fit well with the pseudo second-order kinetics model. The sorption rates were faster for the raw biosorbents than the corresponding hydrolyzed biosorbents, which was attributed to the latter having more condensed domains (i.e., exposed aromatic core). By the consumption of the amorphous cellulose component under acid hydrolysis, the sorption capability of the hydrolyzed biosorbents was notably enhanced, i.e., 6-18 fold for phenanthrene, 6-8 fold for naphthalene and pyrene and 5-8 fold for acenaphthene. The sorption coefficients (Kd) were negatively correlated with the polarity index [(O+N)/C], and positively correlated with the aromaticity of the biosorbents. For a given biosorbent, a positive linear correlation between logKoc and logKow for different PAHs was observed. Interestingly, the linear plots of logKoc-logKow were parallel for different biosorbents. These observations suggest that the raw and modified plant residues have great potential as biosorbents to remove PAHs from wastewater.

  17. Detection and distribution of rotavirus in raw sewage and creeks in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Mehnert, D U; Stewien, K E

    1993-01-01

    Rotaviruses were concentrated from 8-liter samples of raw domestic sewage and sewage-polluted creek water by adsorption to and elution from positively charged microporous filters (Zeta Plus 60S), followed by ultracentrifugation of the filter eluates. Indirect immunofluorescence and direct immunoperoxidase methods allowed detection and enumeration of rotavirus in 6 (20.6%) of 29 sewage samples and in 19 (34.5%) of 55 creek water samples. Levels of rotaviruses ranged from < 3 to 63 focus-forming units (FFU)/liter, and the geometric means were 2.2 FFU/liter in sewage, 2.9 FFU/liter at creek Tremembé, and 2.6 FFU/liter at creek Pirajussara. Wastewater samples examined during autumn and winter months showed a higher rate positivity for rotavirus than those collected in spring and summer, corresponding to the seasonal variation of rotaviral diarrhea in the city of São Paulo. PMID:8382461

  18. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  19. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  20. Heat inactivation of enteric viruses in dewatered wastewater sludge.

    PubMed

    Ward, R L; Ashley, C S

    1978-12-01

    The effect of moisture content on the rates of heat inactivation of enteric viruses in wastewater sludge was determined. The protective effect of raw sludge on poliovirus previously observed (R. L. Ward, C. S. Ashley, and R. H. Moseley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 32:339--346, 1976) was found to be greatly enhanced in sludge dewatered by evaporation. Other enteroviruses responded in a similar fashion. This effect did not appear to be due merely to the state of dryness of the sludge samples because in humus-deficient soil, a relatively inert material, the rate of poliovirus inactivation by heat was not significantly altered through dewatering. Instead, this effect appeared to have been caused by protective substances in the sludge, such as detergents, which are concentrated through dewatering. As reported previously (R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 34:681-688, 1977; R. L. Ward and C. S. Ashley, Appl. Environ. Microbiol 36:889--897, 1978) raw sludge is not protective of reovirus, but, instead, the ionic detergents in sludge cause the rate of heat inactivation of this virus to be accelerated. Dewatering of sludge, however, was found to partially reverse this virucidal effect. Evidence is presented indicating that this reversal is caused by an unidentified protective substance in sludge also concentrated through dewatering. Finally, it was shown that the effects of raw sludge on heat inactivation of poliovirus and reovirus are greatly reduced by composting, a result that correlated with the degradation of detergents.

  1. Slaughterhouse wastewater treatment by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD(5) removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater.

  2. Membrane filtration and sonication for industrial wastewater reuse.

    PubMed

    Caretti, C; Coppini, E; Fatarella, E; Lubello, C

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental study aimed at estimating the efficiency of the innovative process of ultrafiltration (UF) combined with sonication (Son.) for the refinement of treated effluent to be reused in wet textile processes. Such a novel approach, which has not yet been employed on a full industrial scale, has been experienced at pilot scale on the secondary effluent of the Baciacavallo wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), which treats part of the effluent from one of the largest textile industry districts in Italy. The combined treatment efficiency was assessed both on ozonated and non-ozonated Baciacavallo secondary effluent. The membrane filtration process was optimized in terms of running time, backwash, chemical addition and cleaning procedures. The sonication treatment was optimized on laboratory-scale with synthetic solutions (demineralized water added with dyestuffs) in terms of hydroxyl radicals formation rate, frequency, acoustic power, hydrogen peroxide addition, contact time and pH. The optimal conditions have been applied on the pilot-scale sonicator which was used in combination with the UF treatment. According to the experimental results, the best configuration within the Baciacavallo WWTP was the sonication of non-ozonated wastewater followed by the UF. The combined treatment guaranteed the compliance with the target values for wastewater reuse in wet textile industries. This study is part of the Research Project PURIFAST (Purification of industrial and mixed wastewater by combined membrane filtration and sonochemical technologies) LIFE + ENV/IT/000439.

  3. Slaughterhouse Wastewater Treatment by Combined Chemical Coagulation and Electrocoagulation Process

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Edris; Kord Mostafapour, Ferdos; Farzadkia, Mehdi; Ownagh, Kamal Aldin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewater contains various and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat and lard). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from slaughterhouse effluent. The purpose of this work was to investigate the feasibility of treating cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater by combined chemical coagulation and electrocoagulation process to achieve the required standards. The influence of the operating variables such as coagulant dose, electrical potential and reaction time on the removal efficiencies of major pollutants was determined. The rate of removal of pollutants linearly increased with increasing doses of PACl and applied voltage. COD and BOD5 removal of more than 99% was obtained by adding 100 mg/L PACl and applied voltage 40 V. The experiments demonstrated the effectiveness of chemical and electrochemical techniques for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewaters. Consequently, combined processes are inferred to be superior to electrocoagulation alone for the removal of both organic and inorganic compounds from cattle-slaughterhouse wastewater. PMID:22768233

  4. Wastewater management through the ages: a history of mankind.

    PubMed

    Lofrano, Giusy; Brown, Jeanette

    2010-10-15

    Although much has been written about the history of water supply systems, there is a lack of corresponding information on wastewater management. This is surprising since the lack of sanitation affects human development to the same or even greater extent as the lack of clean water. While there may be an added stigma to discussing waste treatment, sanitation is widely perceived as meriting a significant claim on financial and political resources as well on the evolution of mankind. A literature review is presented on the evolution of wastewater management through the ages and its concurrent impact on human health and environment. Hopefully this information will improve the awareness of the past with a view to impacting future policies and technical developments. The review highlights the connection of environmental contamination with the ability to measure it, as well as the ways pollution control has been changed by advances in scientific knowledge. Attention is also drawn to the effects of political and societal events on wastewater management. A sanitation timeline has been constructed pointing out significant developments in the treatment of wastewater and improvements in analytical environmental chemistry. This review has been written in the belief that historical research showing the collective experience and "philosophy of sanitation" can provide inspiration to face future challenges.

  5. Engineered nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge - Evidence and impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Brar, Satinder K.; Verma, Mausam; Tyagi, R.D.; Surampalli, R.Y.

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology has widespread application in agricultural, environmental and industrial sectors ranging from fabrication of molecular assemblies to microbial array chips. Despite the booming application of nanotechnology, there have been serious implications which are coming into light in the recent years within different environmental compartments, namely air, water and soil and its likely impact on the human health. Health and environmental effects of common metals and materials are well-known, however, when the metals and materials take the form of nanoparticles - consequential hazards based on shape and size are yet to be explored. The nanoparticles released from different nanomaterials used in our household and industrial commodities find their way through waste disposal routes into the wastewater treatment facilities and end up in wastewater sludge. Further escape of these nanoparticles into the effluent will contaminate the aquatic and soil environment. Hence, an understanding of the presence, behavior and impact of these nanoparticles in wastewater and wastewater sludge is necessary and timely. Despite the lack of sufficient literature, the present review attempts to link various compartmentalization aspects of the nanoparticles, their physical properties and toxicity in wastewater and wastewater sludge through simile drawn from other environmental streams.

  6. Hydrolytic pretreatment of oily wastewater by immobilized lipase.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Jeganaesan; Nakhla, George; Bassi, Amarjeet

    2007-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hydrolysis of wastewater with high oil and grease (O&G) concentration from a pet food industry using immobilized lipase (IL) as a pretreatment step for anaerobic treatment through batch and continuous-flow experiments. The intrinsic Michaelis constant (K(m)) and maximum reaction rate (V(max)) were estimated experimentally and the K(m) value of IL (22.5g O&G/L) was six-folds higher than that of the free lipase (FL) (3.6gO&G/L), whereas V(max) of both FL (31.3mM/gmin) and IL (33.1mM/gmin) were similar. Preliminary batch anaerobic respirometric experiments showed that chemical oxygen demand (COD) and O&G reduction were 49 and 45% without pretreatment and 65 and 64% with IL pretreatment respectively, while the maximum growth rate (micromax) for pretreated wastewater (0.17d(-1)) was 3.4-folds higher than that of raw wastewater (0.05d(-1)) with similar Monod half-saturation constants (K(s) approximately 2.7gCOD/L). The continuous-flow experimental study showed the feasibility of employing the hybrid packed bed reactor (PBR)-upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) system for the treatment of high-strength oily wastewater, as reflected by its ability to operate at an oil loading rate (LR) of 4.9kgO&G/m(3)d (to the PBR) without any problems for a period of 100days. During pseudo-steady-state conditions, the hybrid UASB produced relatively higher biogas compared to the control UASB, The effluent COD and O&G concentrations of hybrid system were 100mg/L lower than that of the control UASB reactor and no foam production was observed in the hybrid UASB compared to the control UASB reactor.

  7. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  8. Performance improvement of raw water pretreatment process with pre-inoculation biofilm: feasibility and limiting factors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang-Feng; Feng, Li-Juan; Guo, Cai-Rong; Xia, Tian; Xu, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Liang

    2017-02-01

    The initial formation of biofilm and the removal performance of pollutants in biological pretreatment process for polluted raw water were limited due to the oligotrophic niche in raw water. In this study, the feasibility of using pre-inoculation biofilm formed under nutrients enhanced condition for polluted raw water treatment was analyzed in nine batch reactors. Results showed that the pollutants removal performance of biofilm was improved under nutrients enhanced conditions. Ammonia oxidation rate (AOR) was exponentially increased with the increasing in NH4(+)-N levels, and organic matter removal rate (ORR) was positively related to the initial total organic carbon (TOC) concentration. The biofilm formation and microbial diversity were further improved via adding more substrates, seeding river sediment and feeding effluent from a mature biofilm reactor. However, the biofilm formed under higher substrate conditions had higher half-saturation constant values (K S) to both NH4(+)-N and TOC, which decreased AOR and ORR values when it was used to treat polluted raw water. The reduction percentage of AOR and ORR showed logarithmic growth modes with the increase in K S values. Fortunately, improvement of nutrients flux via accelerating influent replacement could enhance the start-up performance effectively and decrease the operation risk introduced by the changes in substrate affinity.

  9. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  10. Treating Wastewater With Immobilized Enzymes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jolly, Clifford D.

    1991-01-01

    Experiments show enzymes are immobilized on supporting materials to make biocatalyst beds for treatment of wastewater. With suitable combination of enzymes, concentrations of various inorganic and organic contaminants, including ammonia and urea, reduced significantly.

  11. Prioritizing pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater

    EPA Science Inventory

    Oral presentation at SETAC North America 32nd annual meeting, describing our prioritization of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), based on estimates of risks posed by API residues originating from municipal wastewater. Goals of this project include prioritization of APIs f...

  12. The Sources and Solutions: Wastewater

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Wastewater treatment plants process water from homes and businesses, which contains nitrogen and phosphorus from human waste, food and certain soaps and detergents, and they can be a major source of nutrient pollution.

  13. Fischer-Tropsch Wastewater Utilization

    DOEpatents

    Shah, Lalit S.

    2003-03-18

    The present invention is generally directed to handling the wastewater, or condensate, from a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor. More particularly, the present invention provides a process wherein the wastewater of a hydrocarbon synthesis reactor, such as a Fischer-Tropsch reactor, is sent to a gasifier and subsequently reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas. The wastewater may also be recycled back to a slurry preparation stage, where solid combustible organic materials are pulverized and mixed with process water and the wastewater to form a slurry, after which the slurry fed to a gasifier where it is reacted with steam and oxygen at high temperatures and pressures so as to produce synthesis gas.

  14. Small and Rural Wastewater Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many tools, training, technical assistance, and funding resources are available to develop and maintain reliable and affordable wastewater treatment systems in small and rural communities including in tribal and U.S.-Mexico Border area.

  15. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  16. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  17. Transport of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts in soil columns following applications of raw and separated liquid slurries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Heidi H; Enemark, Heidi L; Olsen, Annette; Amin, M G Mostofa; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2012-09-01

    The potential for the transport of viable Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts through soil to land drains and groundwater was studied using simulated rainfall and intact soil columns which were applied raw slurry or separated liquid slurry. Following irrigation and weekly samplings over a 4-week period, C. parvum oocysts were detected from all soil columns regardless of slurry type and application method, although recovery rates were low (<1%). Soil columns with injected liquid slurry leached 73 and 90% more oocysts compared to columns with injected and surface-applied raw slurries, respectively. Among leachate samples containing oocysts, 44/72 samples yielded viable oocysts as determined by a dye permeability assay (DAPI [4',6'-diamidino-2-phenylindole]/propidium iodide) with the majority (41%) of viable oocysts found in leachate from soil columns with added liquid slurry. The number of viable oocysts was positively correlated (r = 0.63) with the total number of oocysts found. Destructively sampling of the soil columns showed that type of slurry and irrigation played a role in the vertical distribution of oocysts, with more oocysts recovered from soil columns added liquid slurry irrespective of the irrigation status. Further studies are needed to determine the effectiveness of different slurry separation technologies to remove oocysts and other pathogens, as well as whether the application of separated liquid slurry to agricultural land may represent higher risks for groundwater contamination compared to application of raw slurry.

  18. Specialty glass raw materials: Status and developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, R.J.; Gray, S.L.

    1996-12-31

    The authors highlight several key raw materials used in the specialty glass industry. The focus here is to update changes and shifts underway in the worldwide availability and processes that will impact both costs and efficient use of these products. The glass types that use these materials generally are those other than container, float, and fiber glass. Those high-volume consumers of glass raw materials are discussed in a companion paper in this volume. In the specialty glass field, the batch materials involve minerals, and the chemicals derived from them, which are less readily available domestically. These are much more critically defined by specifications of assay, contamination, and particle size, resulting in their being more expensive. They are seldom commodity products. The scope of materials for this fragmented industry includes those for leads, borosilicates, aluminosilicates, opals, sealing and frit glasses, optical glass, ophthalmic glass, cathode ray tubes (CRTs) for TV and display, and glass-ceramics as major segments. They use lead oxides, nearly all the alkalies and alkaline earth portions of the periodic table, as well as rare earths, transition element oxides, phosphates, boron minerals and chemicals, zircon, zinc, most of the halogens, and many of the anions. They often require very special particle size specifications. The requirements for these batch materials are often based on chemistry, the absence of contaminants that impact melting, very wide ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum, glass homogeneity, and freedom from solid and gaseous inclusions down to ppm levels in both size and number.

  19. Biogenic Amines in Raw and Processed Seafood

    PubMed Central

    Visciano, Pierina; Schirone, Maria; Tofalo, Rosanna; Suzzi, Giovanna

    2012-01-01

    The presence of biogenic amines (BAs) in raw and processed seafood, associated with either time/temperature conditions or food technologies is discussed in the present paper from a safety and prevention point of view. In particular, storage temperature, handling practices, presence of microbial populations with decarboxylase activity and availability of free amino acids are considered the most important factors affecting the production of BAs in raw seafood. On the other hand, some food technological treatments such as salting, ripening, fermentation, or marination can increase the levels of BAs in processed seafood. The consumption of high amount of BAs, above all histamine, can result in food borne poisoning which is a worldwide problem. The European Regulation established as maximum limits for histamine, in fishery products from fish species associated with high histidine amounts, values ranging from 100 to 200 mg/kg, while for products which have undergone enzyme maturation treatment in brine, the aforementioned limits rise to 200 and 400 mg/kg. Preventive measures and emerging methods aiming at controlling the production of BAs are also reported for potential application in seafood industries. PMID:22675321

  20. [Algae-removal effect of AS/PDM composite coagulants to winter Taihu Lake raw water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Yue-Jun; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Liu, Cheng; Zhu, Ling-Ling

    2009-04-15

    The series of stable AS/PDM composite coagulants prepared by polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride (PDM) and aluminium sulphate (AS) were used to research the algae-removal effect to winter Taihu Lake raw water. The effects of dosage of composite coagulants, composite mass ratios (20:1-5:1) of AS and PDM, intrinsic viscosity values (0.55-3.99 dL/g) of PDM on algae-removal rates were studied through coagulation and algae-removal experiments. The feasibility of using composite coagulants to substitute prechlorination process was analysed. The results show that when residual turbidity of 2 NTU to water after coagulation and sediment is required by water plant, the dosage (based on Al2O3) of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 4.24 mg/L, 3.96-1.87 mg/L, and the algae-removal rates are 83.00%, 87.52%-90.93% respectively. When dosage to raw water are 4.24 mg/L, the algae-removal rates of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1-3.99/5:1) composite coagulants are 83.00%, 88.29%-97.66%, and the residual turbidities are 2.00 NTU, 1.76-0.43 NTU respectively. When dosage to chlorine-added water are 4.50 mg/L, the treatment effect of AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS to chlorine-added water, and the treatment effect of AS/PDM (3.99/5:1) composite coagulant to raw water is better than that of AS, AS/PDM (0.55/20:1) and AS/PDM (1.53/10:1) composite coagulants to chlorine-added water. So using AS/PDM composite coagulants can enhance evidently the treatment effect of AS to winter Taihu Lake raw water. Compared with using AS solely, the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are saved when the residual turbidities are required in same level, and the treatment effect of AS is enhanced when the dosage of AS in composite coagulants are same as that of using AS solely. Moreover, using composite coagulants can replace the part chlorine-added function on increasing coagulation and algae-removal in prechlorination process and profitably increases

  1. Deployable Wastewater Treatment Technology Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    AFRL/MLQD is expanding the Deployable Waste Disposal System to include bare base wastewater treatment. The goal of AFRL/MLQD is for the deployable... wastewater treatment system to be integrated into a waste treatment system that will treat both solid and aqueous waste. The US Army (TARDEC) and the... Air Force (AAC/WMO) have been involved in preliminary studies that provide extensive useful background information for this project. These studies show

  2. Alum recovery and wastewater sludge stabilization with sulfuric acid.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, B; Martínez, M; Vaca, M

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation-flocculation is used to remove helminth ova from wastewater intended for agricultural reuse. Nevertheless, it has the drawback of producing a large amount of sludge which together with the chemicals used to treat the wastewater increases the operating cost. This can be overcome by recovering and recycling the aluminium contained in the sludge. This paper presents how an acid recovery process was applied to an Advanced Primary Treatment (APT) sludge to partially treat it and to reduce its quantity. This is a method applied several decades ago in water sludge that has not been used in secondary wastewater sludge to recover aluminium and to inactivate microorganisms. By adding sulphuric acid to a 6%TS sludge, more than 70% of the aluminium added during the coagulation flocculation process was recovered when a pH of 2 was maintained during 30 minutes and at 300 rpm of mixing conditions. This way the sludge was reduced by 45% in volume and by 63% by mass, inactivating 5 logs of faecal coliforms and 68% of helminth ova. Due to the lower alum consumption, the operating cost of the APT is reduced by 3.78 US$/1,000 m(3).

  3. Comparison between UV and VUV photolysis for the pre- and post-treatment of coking wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xing, Rui; Zheng, Zhongyuan; Wen, Donghui

    2015-03-01

    In this study, ultraviolet (UV) and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photolysis were investigated for the pre-treatment and post-treatment of coking wastewater. First, 6-fold diluted raw coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. It was found that 15.9%-35.4% total organic carbon (TOC) was removed after 24 hr irradiation. The irradiated effluent could be degraded by the acclimated activated sludge. Even though the VUV photolysis removed more chemical oxygen demand (COD) than UV, the UV-irradiated effluent demonstrated better biodegradability. After 4 hr UV irradiation, the biological oxygen demand BOD5/COD ratio of irradiated coking wastewater increased from 0.163 to 0.224, and its toxicity decreased to the greatest extent. Second, the biologically treated coking wastewater was irradiated by UV and VUV. Both of them were able to remove 37%-47% TOC within 8 hr irradiation. Compared to UV, VUV photolysis could significantly improve the transparency of the bio-treated effluent. VUV also reduced 7% more ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N), 17% more nitrite nitrogen (NO2--N), and 18% more total nitrogen (TN) than UV, producing 35% less nitrite nitrogen (NO3--N) as a result. In conclusion, UV irradiation was better in improving the biodegradability of coking wastewater, while VUV was more effective at photolyzing the residual organic compounds and inorganic N-species in the bio-treated effluent.

  4. Growth and efficiency of nutrient removal by Salix jiangsuensis J172 for phytoremediation of urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang; Sun, Haijing; Pan, Hongwei; Chen, Yitai; Jiang, Zeping; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Shufeng

    2016-02-01

    Willows are a group of versatile tree species that may have multiple environmental applications. In the present study, Salix jiangsuensis J172 plants were grown in the fixed mats as an economic plant-based treatment system to evaluate its potential for removing nutrients in wastewater. Plants grew normally in wastewater compared with those in Hoagland solution. However, wastewater containing a high concentration of chlorine ions was toxic to S. jiangsuensis J172 plants. The plants accumulated large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus in aboveground tissues under conditions of abundant supply. The removal efficiency for raw wastewater was 82.18-87.78 % for nitrogen, 57.35-65.58 % for phosphorus, and 58.24-59.90 % for chemical oxygen demand. Nutrient removal efficiency was positively correlated with the initial nutrient supply. The results show that S. jiangsuensis J172 grown in the fixed mat economic plant-based treatment system with nutrient-rich, eutrophic water may be an effective, low-cost phytoremediation technology to treat water containing undesirable levels of wastewater.

  5. Vancomycin resistant enterococci: from the hospital effluent to the urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana Rita; Ferro, Giovanna; Vredenburg, Jana; Yanık, Melike; Vieira, Lucas; Rizzo, Luigi; Lameiras, Catarina; Manaia, Célia M

    2013-04-15

    Vancomycin is an important antibiotic to treat serious nosocomial enterococci infections. Human activities, in particular those related with clinical practices performed in hospitals, can potentiate the transfer and selection of clinically-relevant resistant bacteria such as vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE). Indeed, previous studies demonstrated the occurrence of VRE in urban wastewater treatment plants and related environments (e.g. sewage, rivers). In this study, the occurrence of VRE in a hospital effluent and in the receiving urban wastewater treatment plant was investigated. Vancomycin and ciprofloxacin resistant bacteria occurred in the hospital effluent and in raw municipal inflow at densities of 10(3) to 10(2) CFU mL(-1), being significantly more prevalent in the hospital effluent than in the urban wastewater. Most of the VRE isolated from the hospital effluent belonged to the species Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium and presented multidrug-resistance phenotypes to ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, erythromycin, and high-level gentamicin. The same pattern was observed in clinical isolates and in enterococci isolated from the final effluent of the urban wastewater treatment plant. These results show that hospital effluents discharged into urban wastewater treatment plants may be a relevant source of resistance spread to the environment.

  6. Pharmaceuticals and consumer products in four wastewater treatment plants in urban and suburb areas of Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Sui, Qian; Wang, Dan; Zhao, Wentao; Huang, Jun; Yu, Gang; Cao, Xuqi; Qiu, Zhaofu; Lu, Shuguang

    2015-04-01

    Ten pharmaceuticals and two consumer products were investigated in four wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Shanghai, China. The concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influents ranged from below the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 9340 ng/L, with the frequency of detection of 31-100%, and the removal efficiencies were observed to be -82 to 100% in the four WWTPs. Concentrations of most target compounds (i.e. diclofenac, caffeine, metoprolol, sulpiride) in the wastewater influents were around three to eight times higher in urban WWTPs than in suburb ones, probably due to the different population served and lifestyles. Mean concentrations of target compounds in the wastewater influent generally decreased by 5-76% after rainfall due to the dilution of raw sewage by rainwater, which infiltrated into the sewer system. In the WWTPs located in the suburb area, the increased flow of wastewater influent led to a shortened hydraulic retention time (HRT) and decreased removal efficiencies of some compounds. On the contrary, the influence of rainfall was not significant on the removal efficiencies of investigated compounds in urban WWTPs, probably due to the almost unchanged influent flow, good removal performance, or bypass system employed.

  7. Animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria in aerosols and wastewater at a spray irrigation site.

    PubMed Central

    Brenner, K P; Scarpino, P V; Clark, C S

    1988-01-01

    Aerosol samples collected at the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System Number 1 spray irrigation site in Michigan by using the Army prototype XM2 Biological Sampler/Collector were examined for the presence of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria. Air samples, collected in Earle lactalbumen hydrolysate, and wastewater samples were filtered through a 0.45- and 1.2-micron membrane filter sandwich, pretreated with 10% beef extract (pH 7.0), and assayed for animal viruses by the plaque method on Buffalo green monkey kidney cells. Untreated air and wastewater samples were assayed for coliphages by the soft agar overlay method with three Escherichia coli hosts (ATCC 13706, 15597, and 11303) and for bacteria by the heterotrophic plate count method. Filtered air samples were assayed for coliphages by the most-probable-number method with the same three hosts. Although no animal viruses were detected in the aerosol samples, coliphages and bacteria were recovered. E. coli ATCC 13706 coliphage were recovered more often and in greater numbers than either of the other two types of coliphages. Concentrations of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria detected in the raw influent decreased as the wastewater was aerated and stored in the lagoons. No animal viruses were detected in the wastewater at the pump station just before distribution to the spray irrigation rigs. The most-probable-number method was more sensitive and consistent than the overlay procedure in detecting low levels of coliphages in air samples. PMID:3128164

  8. Animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria in aerosols and wastewater at a spray irrigation site.

    PubMed

    Brenner, K P; Scarpino, P V; Clark, C S

    1988-02-01

    Aerosol samples collected at the Muskegon County Wastewater Management System Number 1 spray irrigation site in Michigan by using the Army prototype XM2 Biological Sampler/Collector were examined for the presence of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria. Air samples, collected in Earle lactalbumen hydrolysate, and wastewater samples were filtered through a 0.45- and 1.2-micron membrane filter sandwich, pretreated with 10% beef extract (pH 7.0), and assayed for animal viruses by the plaque method on Buffalo green monkey kidney cells. Untreated air and wastewater samples were assayed for coliphages by the soft agar overlay method with three Escherichia coli hosts (ATCC 13706, 15597, and 11303) and for bacteria by the heterotrophic plate count method. Filtered air samples were assayed for coliphages by the most-probable-number method with the same three hosts. Although no animal viruses were detected in the aerosol samples, coliphages and bacteria were recovered. E. coli ATCC 13706 coliphage were recovered more often and in greater numbers than either of the other two types of coliphages. Concentrations of animal viruses, coliphages, and bacteria detected in the raw influent decreased as the wastewater was aerated and stored in the lagoons. No animal viruses were detected in the wastewater at the pump station just before distribution to the spray irrigation rigs. The most-probable-number method was more sensitive and consistent than the overlay procedure in detecting low levels of coliphages in air samples.

  9. Toxigenic Clostridium difficile PCR ribotypes from wastewater treatment plants in southern Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Romano, Vincenza; Pasquale, Vincenzo; Krovacek, Karel; Mauri, Federica; Demarta, Antonella; Dumontet, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    The occurrence of Clostridium difficile in nine wastewater treatment plants in the Ticino Canton (southern Switzerland) was investigated. The samples were collected from raw sewage influents and from treated effluents. Forty-seven out of 55 characterized C. difficile strains belonged to 13 different reference PCR ribotypes (009, 010, 014, 015, 039, 052, 053, 066, 070, 078, 101, 106, and 117), whereas 8 strains did not match any of those available in our libraries. The most frequently isolated ribotype (40%) was 078, isolated from six wastewater treatment plants, whereas ribotype 066, a toxigenic emerging ribotype isolated from patients admitted to hospitals in Europe and Switzerland, was isolated from the outgoing effluent of one plant. The majority of the isolates (85%) were toxigenic. Forty-nine percent of them produced toxin A, toxin B, and the binary toxin (toxigenic profile A(+) B(+) CDT(+)), whereas 51% showed the profile A(+) B(+) CDT(-). Interestingly, eight ribotypes (010, 014, 015, 039, 066, 078, 101, and 106) were among the riboprofiles isolated from symptomatic patients admitted to the hospitals of the Ticino Canton in 2010. Despite the limitation of sampling, this study highlights that toxigenic ribotypes of C. difficile involved in human infections may occur in both incoming and outgoing biological wastewater treatment plants. Such a finding raises concern about the possible contamination of water bodies that receive wastewater treatment plant effluents and about the safe reuse of treated wastewater.

  10. Evaluation of acute ecotoxicity removal from industrial wastewater using a battery of rapid bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dries, Jan; Daens, Dominique; Geuens, Luc; Blust, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    The present study compares conventional wastewater treatment technologies (coagulation-flocculation and activated sludge) and powdered activated carbon (PAC) treatment for the removal of acute ecotoxicity from wastewater generated by tank truck cleaning (TTC) processes. Ecotoxicity was assessed with a battery of four commercially available rapid biological toxicity testing systems, verified by the US Environmental Protection Agency. Chemical coagulation-flocculation of raw TTC wastewater had no impact on the inhibition of the bioluminescence by Vibrio fischeri (BioTox assay). Subsequent biological treatment with activated sludge without PAC resulted in BioTox inhibition-free effluent (<10% inhibition). In contrast, activated sludge treatment without PAC produced an effluent that significantly inhibited (>50%) (i) the bioluminescence by Photobacterium leiognathi (ToxScreen³ test kit), (ii) the photosynthesis by the green algae Chlorella vulgaris (LuminoTox SAPS test kit), and (iii) the particle ingestion by the crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus (Rapidtoxkit test kit). The lowest inhibition was measured after activated sludge treatment with the highest PAC dose (400 mg/L), demonstrating the effectiveness of PAC treatment for ecotoxicity removal from TTC wastewater. In conclusion, the combination of bioassays applied in the present study represents a promising test battery for rapid ecotoxicty assessment in wastewater treatment.

  11. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  12. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  13. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  14. Comparative reduction of Giardia cysts, F+ coliphages, sulphite reducing clostridia and fecal coliforms by wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Abidelfatah M; Benisti, Neta-Lee; Ofer, Naomi; Hovers, Sivan; Nitzan, Yeshayahu

    2017-01-28

    Advanced wastewater treatment processes are applied to prevent the environmental dissemination of pathogenic microorganisms. Giardia lamblia causes a severe disease called giardiasis, and is highly prevalent in untreated wastewater worldwide. Monitoring the microbial quality of wastewater effluents is usually based on testing for the levels of indicator microorganisms in the effluents. This study was conducted to compare the suitability of fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and sulfide reducing clostridia (SRC) as indicators for the reduction of Giardia cysts in two full-scale wastewater treatment plants. The treatment process consists of activated sludge, coagulation, high rate filtration and either chlorine or UV disinfection. The results of the study demonstrated that Giardia cysts are highly prevalent in raw wastewater at an average concentration of 3600 cysts/L. Fecal coliforms, F+ coliphages and SRC were also detected at high concentrations in raw wastewater. Giardia cysts were efficiently removed (3.6 log10) by the treatment train. The greatest reduction was observed for fecal coliforms (9.6 log10) whereas the least reduction was observed for F+ coliphages (2.1 log10) following chlorine disinfection. Similar reduction was observed for SRC by filtration and disinfection by either UV (3.6 log10) or chlorine (3.3 log10). Since F+ coliphage and SRC were found to be more resistant than fecal coliforms for the tertiary treatment processes, they may prove to be more suitable as indicators for Giardia. The results of this study demonstrated that advanced wastewater treatment may prove efficient for the removal of Giardia cysts and may prevent its transmission when treated effluents are applied for crop irrigation or streams restoration.

  15. Recovery of polyphenols from rose oil distillation wastewater using adsorption resins--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Rusanov, Krasimir; Garo, Eliane; Rusanova, Mila; Fertig, Orlando; Hamburger, Matthias; Atanassov, Ivan; Butterweck, Veronika

    2014-11-01

    The production of rose oil from rose flowers by water steam distillation leaves a water fraction of the distillate as main part of the waste. Therefore, the rose oil distillation wastewater represents a serious environmental problem due to the high content of polyphenols which are difficult to decompose and have to be considered as biopollutants when discarded into the drainage system and rivers. On the other hand, natural polyphenols are valuable compounds with useful properties as bioactive substances. Until now there is no established practice for processing of rose oil distillation wastewater and utilization of contained substances. Thus, it was the aim of this study to develop a strategy to separate this wastewater into a polyphenol depleted water fraction and a polyphenol enriched fraction which could be developed into innovative value-added products. In a first step, the phytochemical profile of rose oil distillation wastewater was determined. Its HPLC-PDA-MS analysis revealed the presence of flavan-3-ols, flavanones, flavonols and flavones. In a second step, the development of a stepwise concentration of rose oil distillation wastewater was performed. The concentration process includes a filtration process to eliminate suspended solids in the wastewater, followed by adsorption of the contained phenolic compounds onto adsorption resins (XAD and SP). Finally, desorption of the polyphenol fraction from the resin matrix was achieved using ethanol and/or aqueous ethanol. The result of the process was a wastewater low in soluble organic compounds and an enriched polyphenol fraction (RF20 SP-207). The profile of this fraction was similar to that of rose oil distillation wastewater and showed the presence of flavonols such as quercetin and kaempferol glycosides as major metabolites. These compounds were isolated from the enriched polyphenol fraction and their structures confirmed by NMR. In summary, a pilot medium scale system was developed using adsorption resins

  16. Variations in toxicity of semi-coking wastewater treatment processes and their toxicity prediction.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoyan; Wang, Xiaochang; Liu, Yongjun; Gao, Jian; Wang, Yongkun

    2017-04-01

    Chemical analyses and bioassays using Vibrio fischeri and Daphnia magna were conducted to evaluate comprehensively the variation of biotoxicity caused by contaminants in wastewater from a semi-coking wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Pretreatment units (including an oil-water separator, a phenols extraction tower, an ammonia stripping tower, and a regulation tank) followed by treatment units (including anaerobic-oxic treatment units, coagulation-sedimentation treatment units, and an active carbon adsorption column) were employed in the semi-coking WWTP. Five benzenes, 11 phenols, and five polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated as the dominant contaminants in semi-coking wastewater. Because of residual extractant, the phenols extraction process increased acute toxicity to V. fischeri and immobilization and lethal toxicity to D. magna. The acute toxicity of pretreated wastewater to V. fischeri was still higher than that of raw semi-coking wastewater, even though 90.0% of benzenes, 94.8% of phenols, and 81.0% of PAHs were removed. After wastewater pretreatment, phenols and PAHs were mainly removed by anaerobic-oxic and coagulation-sedimentation treatment processes respectively, and a subsequent active carbon adsorption process further reduced the concentrations of all target chemicals to below detection limits. An effective biotoxicity reduction was found during the coagulation-sedimentation and active carbon adsorption treatment processes. The concentration addition model can be applied for toxicity prediction of wastewater from the semi-coking WWTP. The deviation between the measured and predicted toxicity results may result from the effects of compounds not detectable by instrumental analyses, the synergistic effect of detected contaminants, or possible transformation products.

  17. Heavy metals removal from contaminated sewage sludge by naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes.

    PubMed

    Dacera, Dominica Del Mundo; Babel, Sandhya

    2007-01-01

    The large amount of unutilised pineapple wastes produced every year in tropical countries, particularly in Thailand, adds to the existing environmental pollution problems of the country. This study investigated the utilisation of pineapple wastes to treat another form of waste (sludge) from wastewater treatment facilities in Thailand. Laboratory scale studies were carried out to determine the potential of using naturally fermented raw liquid from pineapple wastes as a source of citric acid in the extraction of Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn from anaerobically digested sewage sludge. Results of the leaching study revealed its effectiveness in extracting Zn (at 92%) at pH 3.67 and a short leaching time of only 2 h, and Ni at almost 60% removal at the same leaching time. Chromium removal was also high at almost 75% at a longer leaching time of 11 days. Variation in metal removal efficiencies may also be attributed to the forms of metals in sludge, with metals predominantly in the exchangeable and oxidisable phases showing ease of leachability (such as Zn). Compared to citric acid, at pH approaching 4.0, naturally fermented raw liquid seemed to be more effective in the removal of Zn and Cu at the same leaching time of 2 h, and Cr at a longer leaching time of 11 days. The pineapple pulp, which is a by-product of the process, can still be used as animal feed because of its high protein content.

  18. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  19. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  20. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  1. MERCURY(II) ADSORPTION FROM WASTEWATERS USING A THIOL FUNCTIONAL ADSORBENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The removal of mercury(II) from wastewaters (coal-fired utility plant scrubber solutions) using a thiol functional organoceramic composite (SOL-AD-IV) is investigated. A simulant is employed as a surrogate to demonstrate the removal of mercury from real waste solutions. Equilibri...

  2. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  3. The complex microbiota of raw milk.

    PubMed

    Quigley, Lisa; O'Sullivan, Orla; Stanton, Catherine; Beresford, Tom P; Ross, R Paul; Fitzgerald, Gerald F; Cotter, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Here, we review what is known about the microorganisms present in raw milk, including milk from cows, sheep, goats and humans. Milk, due to its high nutritional content, can support a rich microbiota. These microorganisms enter milk from a variety of sources and, once in milk, can play a number of roles, such as facilitating dairy fermentations (e.g. Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, Streptococcus, Propionibacterium and fungal populations), causing spoilage (e.g. Pseudomonas, Clostridium, Bacillus and other spore-forming or thermoduric microorganisms), promoting health (e.g. lactobacilli and bifidobacteria) or causing disease (e.g. Listeria, Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Campylobacter and mycotoxin-producing fungi). There is also concern that the presence of antibiotic residues in milk leads to the development of resistance, particularly among pathogenic bacteria. Here, we comprehensively review these topics, while comparing the approaches, both culture-dependent and culture-independent, which can be taken to investigate the microbial composition of milk.

  4. Denitrification in anaerobic lagoons used to treat swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Hunt, P G; Matheny, T A; Ro, K S; Vanotti, M B; Ducey, T F

    2010-01-01

    Anaerobic lagoons are commonly used for the treatment of swine wastewater. Although these lagoons were once thought to be relatively simple, their physical, chemical, and biological processes are very complex. This study of anaerobic lagoons had two objectives: (i) to quantify denitrification enzyme activity (DEA) and (ii) to evaluate the influence of lagoon characteristics on the DEA. The DEA was measured by the acetylene inhibition method. Wastewater samples and physical and chemical measurements were taken from the wastewater column of nine anaerobic swine lagoons from May 2006 to May 2009. These lagoons were typical for anaerobic swine lagoons in the Carolinas relative to their size, operation, and chemical and physical characteristics. Their mean value for DEA was 87 mg N2O-N m(-3) d(-1). In a lagoon with 2-m depth, this rate of DEA would be compatible with 1.74 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) When nonlimiting nitrate was added, the highest DEA was compatible with 4.38 kg N ha(-1) d(-1) loss. Using stepwise regression for this treatment, the lagoon characteristics (i.e., soluble organic carbon, total nitrogen, temperature, and NO3-N) provided a final step model R2 of 0.69. Nitrous oxide from incomplete denitrification was not a significant part of the system nitrogen balance. Although alternate pathways of denitrification may exist within or beneath the wastewater column, this paper documents the lack of sufficient denitrification enzyme activity within the wastewater column of these anaerobic lagoons to support large N2 gas losses via classical nitrification and denitrification.

  5. Review on the occurrence, fate and removal of perfluorinated compounds during wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Arvaniti, Olga S; Stasinakis, Athanasios S

    2015-08-15

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) consist of a fully fluorinated hydrophobic alkyl chain attached to a hydrophilic end group. Due to their wide use in several industrial and household applications, they have been detected in numerous Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs) during the last ten years. The present review reports the occurrence of 22 PFCs (C4-C14, C16, C18 carboxylates; C4-C8 and C10 sulfonates; 3 sulfonamides) in municipal or/and industrial wastewater, originating from 24 monitoring studies. PFCs levels in sewage sludge have also been reported using data from 12 studies. Most of the above monitoring data originate from the USA, North Europe and Asia and concern perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), while limited information is available from Mediterranean area, Canada and Australia. PFCs concentrations range up to some hundreds ng/L and some thousands ng/g dry weight in raw wastewater and sludge, respectively. They are not significantly removed during secondary biological treatment, while their concentrations in treated wastewater are often higher compared to raw sewage. Their biodegradation during wastewater treatment does not seem possible; whereas some recent studies have noted the potential transformation of precursor compounds to PFCs during biological wastewater treatment. PFCs sorption onto sludge has been studied in depth and seems to be an important mechanism governing their removal in STPs. Concerning tertiary treatment technologies, significant PFCs removal has been observed using activated carbon, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis or applying advanced oxidation and reduction processes. Most of these studies have been conducted using pure water, while in many cases the experiments have been performed under extreme laboratory conditions (high concentrations, high radiation source, temperature or pressure). Future efforts should be focused on better understanding of biotransformation processes occurred in aerobic and anaerobic

  6. Monitoring and Comparison of Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria and Their Resistance Genes in Municipal and Hospital Wastewaters

    PubMed Central

    Aali, Rahim; Nikaeen, Mahnaz; Khanahmad, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Human exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) is a public health concern which could occur in a number of ways. Wastewaters seem to play an important role in the dissemination of bacteria and antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) in our environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of three groups of ARB and their resistance genes in hospital and municipal wastewaters (MWs) as possible sources. Methods: A total of 66 samples were collected from raw MWs and hospital wastewaters (HWs) and final effluents of related wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Samples were analyzed for the detection of three groups of ARB including gentamicin (GM), chloramphenicol (CHL) and ceftazidime resistant bacteria and their ARGs (aac (3)-1, cmlA1 and ctx-m-32, respectively). Results: The mean concentration of GM, CHL and ceftazidime resistant bacteria in raw wastewater samples was 1.24 × 107, 3.29 × 107 and 5.54 × 107 colony forming unit/100 ml, respectively. There is a variation in prevalence of different groups of ARB in MWs and HWs. All WWTPs decreased the concentration of ARB. However, high concentration of ARB was found in the final effluent of WWTPs. Similar to ARB, different groups of ARGs were found frequently in both MWs and HWs. All genes also detected with a relative high frequency in effluent samples of MWs WWTPs. Conclusions: Discharge of final effluent from conventional WWTPs is a potential route for dissemination of ARB and ARGs into the natural environment and poses a hazard to environmental and public health. PMID:25105001

  7. Wastewater treatment contributes to selective increase of antibiotic resistance among Acinetobacter spp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yongli; Marrs, Carl F; Simon, Carl; Xi, Chuanwu

    2009-06-01

    The occurrence and spread of multi-drug resistant bacteria is a pressing public health problem. The emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics is common in areas where antibiotics are heavily used, and antibiotic-resistant bacteria also increasingly occur in aquatic environments. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the impact of the wastewater treatment process on the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter spp. in the wastewater and its receiving water. During two different events (high-temperature, high-flow, 31 degrees C; and low-temperature, low-flow, 8 degrees C), 366 strains of Acinetobacter spp. were isolated from five different sites, three in a wastewater treatment plant (raw influent, second effluent, and final effluent) and two in the receiving body (upstream and downstream of the treated wastewater discharge point). The antibiotic susceptibility phenotypes were determined by the disc-diffusion method for 8 antibiotics, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), chloramphenicol (CHL), ciprofloxacin (CIP), colistin (CL), gentamicin (GM), rifampin (RA), sulfisoxazole (SU), and trimethoprim (TMP). The prevalence of antibiotic resistance in Acinetobacter isolates to AMC, CHL, RA, and multi-drug (three antibiotics or more) significantly increased (p<0.01) from the raw influent samples (AMC, 8.7%; CHL, 25.2%; RA, 63.1%; multi-drug, 33.0%) to the final effluent samples (AMC, 37.9%; CHL, 69.0%; RA, 84.5%; multi-drug, 72.4%), and was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the downstream samples (AMC, 25.8%; CHL, 48.4%; RA, 85.5%; multi-drug, 56.5%) than in the upstream samples (AMC, 9.5%; CHL, 27.0%; RA, 65.1%; multi-drug, 28.6%). These results suggest that wastewater treatment process contributes to the selective increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria and the occurrence of multi-drug resistant bacteria in aquatic environments.

  8. Aerospace Fuels from Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, B. A.; Hepp, A. F.; Kulis, M. J.; Jaworske, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer- Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA GRC is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term "green" relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Other issues of great concern include minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could de-grade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered thruster to

  9. The estimation of per capita loadings of domestic wastewater in Tehran.

    PubMed

    Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Nasseri, Simin; Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Tashauoei, Hamid Reza; Hadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    The amount of wastewater characteristics loading is one of the main parameters in the design of wastewater collection and treatment systems. The generation per capita per day (GPCD) of wastewater characteristics was estimated by analyzing the monthly data of nine wastewater treatment plants in Tehran, capital city of Iran. GPCD values were calculated from measured collected wastewater flow, the population and concentration data. The results indicated the values of 32.96 ± 1.91, 49.25 ± 2.49, 37.31 ± 2.44, 6.77 ± 0.53, 1.96 ± 0.11, 92.23 ± 5.68, 2.07 ± 0.39 and 128.96 ± 6.69 g/d.cap of GPCD for BOD5, COD, TSS, TKN, P, TDS, ON and TS, respectively, for Tehran's wastewater. The per capita estimated for the wastewater production and treatment were determined to be 186.06 ± 7.85 and 136.72 ± 5.43 L/d.cap, respectively. It is estimated that about 504 m(3)/d and 346 m(3)/d of sludge, will be produced and waste as excrement raw sludge, respectively, in Tehran. Simple regression models were presented the relationships such as the change of collected and treated wastewater with population and changes of GPCD parameters with each other. It was revealed that the Tehran's wastewater may be classified as highly degradable, but during recent decades its Biodegradability Index (BI) has been reduced up to 15%. The new suggested revised per capita parameters can be used for design purposes in Tehran, and possibly, in areas with similar characteristics, substituting the classical values obtained from foreign textbooks. These values could help in designing more accurate treatment systems and may lower the required capacity for the treatment of wastewater up to 40% in Tehran.

  10. The development of empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David Morgan

    period of evaluation. The data was analyzed using statistical analysis and was and was cross-validated using an analysis of variance (ANOVA). It is anticipated that the relationship developed for Es will be of the most value to other utilities since it represents the most generalizable parameter. Historically, the approach to energy management at the wastewater collection level has been simply to input the energy necessary to accomplish the goal of safely and effectively moving the raw wastewater to the treatment plant. This study aims to change this approach through the development of generalizable relationships.

  11. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Municipal sanitary sewer collection systems play a critical role in protecting public health in our municipalities. They are designed to convey wastewater from their sources to a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). Collection systems consist of house service laterals, sewers, pu...

  12. Condition Assessment of Wastewater Collection Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project will assist wastewater utilities with the condition assessment of their deteriorating wastewater collections systems, and will support the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Program Offices with addressing proposed capacity, management, operation and mainte...

  13. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  14. Treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater in sequencing batch reactor (SBR)—Effect of gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bural, Cavit B.; Demirer, Goksel N.; Kantoglu, Omer; Dilek, Filiz B.

    2010-04-01

    Aerobic biological treatment of opium alkaloid containing wastewater as well as the effect of gamma irradiation as pre-treatment was investigated. Biodegradability of raw wastewater was assessed in aerobic batch reactors and was found highly biodegradable (83-90% degradation). The effect of irradiation (40 and 140 kGy) on biodegradability was also evaluated in terms of BOD 5/COD values and results revealed that irradiation imparted no further enhancement in the biodegradability. Despite the highly biodegradable nature of wastewater, further experiments in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) revealed that the treatment operation was not possible due to sludge settleability problem observed beyond an influent COD value of 2000 mg dm -3. Possible reasons for this problem were investigated, and the high molecular weight, large size and aromatic structure of the organic pollutants present in wastewater was thought to contribute to poor settleability. Initial efforts to solve this problem by modifying the operational conditions, such as SRT reduction, failed. However, further operational modifications including addition of phosphate buffer cured the settleability problem and influent COD was increased up to 5000 mg dm -3. Significant COD removal efficiencies (>70%) were obtained in both SBRs fed with original and irradiated wastewaters (by 40 kGy). However, pre-irradiated wastewater provided complete thebain removal and a better settling sludge, which was thought due to degradation of complex structure by radiation application. Degradation of the structure was observed by GC/MS analyses and enhancement in filterability tests.

  15. Microscopic and Molecular Detection of Cryptosporidium andersoni and Cryptosporidium xiaoi in Wastewater Samples of Tehran Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    HATAM-NAHAVANDI, Kareem; MOHEBALI, Mehdi; MAHVI, Amir-Hossein; KESHAVARZ, Hossein; NAJAFIAN, Hamid-Reza; MIRJALALI, Hamed; REZAEI, Sasan; REZAEIAN, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Background: As a waterborne pathogen, Cryptosporidium is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in human and hoofed livestock animals. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. in human and livestock wastewaters in Iran, by the 18S rRNA sequence analysis. Methods: A total of 54 raw wastewater samples collected from three urban treatment plants and two slaughterhouses during 2014–2015 in Tehran, Iran. The presence of the Cryptosporidium oocysts was assessed by immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies. To characterize the oocysts at the molecular level, the 18S rRNA gene of Cryptosporidium was PCR amplified and sequenced. Results: Of the 54 wastewater samples examined, 34 (62.9%) were positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts using the IFA. Of these, 70.5% (24/34) were positive by PCR, that 91.6% (22/24) were successfully sequenced. The species of C. andersoni (95.4%) and C. xiaoi (4.6%) were detected in livestock wastewater samples. Conclusion: C. andersoni was the major Cryptosporidium sp. found in the aquatic environmental wastewater samples. The high rate of detection of C. andersoni in domestic wastewater was probably the result of the predominancy of this species in cattle herds in Iran. The current study is the first report of C. xiaoi in Iran. PMID:28127361

  16. Trends in the predictive performance of raw ensemble weather forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemri, Stephan; Scheuerer, Michael; Pappenberger, Florian; Bogner, Konrad; Haiden, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Over the last two decades the paradigm in weather forecasting has shifted from being deterministic to probabilistic. Accordingly, numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have been run increasingly as ensemble forecasting systems. The goal of such ensemble forecasts is to approximate the forecast probability distribution by a finite sample of scenarios. Global ensemble forecast systems, like the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ensemble, are prone to probabilistic biases, and are therefore not reliable. They particularly tend to be underdispersive for surface weather parameters. Hence, statistical post-processing is required in order to obtain reliable and sharp forecasts. In this study we apply statistical post-processing to ensemble forecasts of near-surface temperature, 24-hour precipitation totals, and near-surface wind speed from the global ECMWF model. Our main objective is to evaluate the evolution of the difference in skill between the raw ensemble and the post-processed forecasts. The ECMWF ensemble is under continuous development, and hence its forecast skill improves over time. Parts of these improvements may be due to a reduction of probabilistic bias. Thus, we first hypothesize that the gain by post-processing decreases over time. Based on ECMWF forecasts from January 2002 to March 2014 and corresponding observations from globally distributed stations we generate post-processed forecasts by ensemble model output statistics (EMOS) for each station and variable. Parameter estimates are obtained by minimizing the Continuous Ranked Probability Score (CRPS) over rolling training periods that consist of the n days preceding the initialization dates. Given the higher average skill in terms of CRPS of the post-processed forecasts for all three variables, we analyze the evolution of the difference in skill between raw ensemble and EMOS forecasts. The fact that the gap in skill remains almost constant over time, especially for near

  17. Olive mill wastewater biodegradation potential of white-rot fungi--Mode of action of fungal culture extracts and effects of ligninolytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Baldrian, Petr; Ehaliotis, Constantinos; Nerud, Frantisek; Merhautová, Věra; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2015-01-01

    Forty-nine white-rot strains belonging to 38 species of Basidiomycota were evaluated for olive-mill wastewater (OMW) degradation. Almost all fungi caused high total phenolics (>60%) and color (⩽ 70%) reduction, while COD and phytotoxicity decreased to a lesser extent. Culture extracts from selected Agrocybe cylindracea, Inonotus andersonii, Pleurotus ostreatus and Trametes versicolor strains showed non-altered physicochemical and enzymatic activity profiles when applied to raw OMW in the presence or absence of commercial catalase, indicating no interaction of the latter with fungal enzymes and no competition for H2O2. Hydrogen peroxide's addition resulted in drastic OMW's decolorization, with no effect on phenolic content, suggesting that oxidation affects colored components, but not necessarily phenolics. When fungal extracts were heat-treated, no phenolics decrease was observed demonstrating thus their enzymatic rather than physicochemical oxidation. Laccases added to OMW were reversibly inhibited by the effluent's high phenolic load, while peroxidases were stable and active during the entire process.

  18. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  19. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  20. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  1. Detection and Molecular Characterization of Hepatitis A Virus from Tunisian Wastewater Treatment Plants with Different Secondary Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Ouardani, Imen; Turki, Syrine; Aouni, Mahjoub

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is the main causative agent of hepatitis infection associated with waterborne outbreaks worldwide. In Tunisia, there is no specific surveillance system for HAV and current secondary wastewater treatment processes are unable to remove viral particles, which present a potential public health problem. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of HAV in 271 raw and treated wastewater samples from five sewage treatment plants (STPs) during 13 months was performed. Moreover, the efficiency of three secondary wastewater treatment processes (conventional activated sludge, extended aeration, and oxidation ditch activated sludge) was evaluated. Data obtained demonstrated that HAV is endemic in Tunisia and circulates with high prevalence in both raw (66.9%) and treated (40.7%) wastewater. HAV circulates throughout the year in the coastal areas, with the highest rates found during summer and autumn, whereas in central Tunisia, high levels were shown in autumn and winter. Total virus removal was not achieved, since no difference in mean HAV loads was observed in effluents (6.0 × 103 genome copies [GC]/ml) and influents (2.7 × 103 GC/ml). The comparison of the HAV removal values of the three different wastewater treatment methods indicates that extended aeration and oxidation ditch activated sludge had better efficiency in removing viruses than conventional activated sludge did. Molecular characterization revealed that the vast majority of HAV strains belonged to subgenotype IA, with the cocirculation of subgenotype IB in wastewater treatment plants that collect tourism wastewater. IMPORTANCE This report provides important data on the incidence, behavior, seasonality, and genotype distribution of HAV in the environment in Tunisia, as well as the risk of infection derived from its occurrence in effluents due to inadequate wastewater treatment. In addition, these findings seem to confirm that the prevalence of HAV depends on socioeconomic level

  2. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  3. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  5. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Standards: Wastewater. 63.1256 Section... for Pharmaceuticals Production § 63.1256 Standards: Wastewater. (a) General. Each owner or operator of any affected source (existing or new) shall comply with the general wastewater requirements...

  6. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  7. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  8. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  9. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  10. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  11. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  12. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  13. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  14. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  15. 40 CFR 63.501 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.501 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.501 Wastewater provisions. (a... comply with the requirements of §§ 63.132 through 63.147 for each process wastewater stream...

  16. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  17. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  18. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  19. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  20. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  1. 18 CFR 1304.402 - Wastewater outfalls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wastewater outfalls. 1304.402 Section 1304.402 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... Miscellaneous § 1304.402 Wastewater outfalls. Applicants for a wastewater outfall shall provide copies of...

  2. 40 CFR 63.647 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater provisions. 63.647 Section... Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Petroleum Refineries § 63.647 Wastewater provisions... wastewater stream shall comply with the requirements of §§ 61.340 through 61.355 of 40 CFR part 61,...

  3. 40 CFR 63.1330 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1330 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1330 Wastewater provisions... subpart. (10) Whenever §§ 63.132 through 63.149 refer to a Group 1 wastewater stream or a Group...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1433 - Wastewater provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 11 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Wastewater provisions. 63.1433 Section... for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions for Polyether Polyols Production § 63.1433 Wastewater provisions. (a) Process wastewater. Except as specified in paragraph (c) of this section, the owner or...

  5. Orientation to Municipal Wastewater Treatment. Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Water Program Operations (EPA), Cincinnati, OH. National Training and Operational Technology Center.

    Introductory-level material on municipal wastewater treatment facilities and processes is presented. Course topics include sources and characteristics of municipal wastewaters; objectives of wastewater treatment; design, operation, and maintenance factors; performance testing; plant staffing; and laboratory considerations. Chapter topics include…

  6. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  7. 40 CFR 63.1256 - Standards: Wastewater.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... residual removed from such affected wastewater to an onsite treatment operation not owned or operated by the owner or operator of the source generating the wastewater or residual, or to an offsite treatment... may not transfer the wastewater stream or residual to the treatment operation. (iv) By providing...

  8. Antibiotic resistance, antimicrobial residues and bacterial community composition in urban wastewater.

    PubMed

    Novo, Ana; André, Sandra; Viana, Paula; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2013-04-01

    This study was based on the hypothesis that the occurrence of antimicrobial residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria in the sewage could be correlated with the structure and composition of the bacterial community and the antibiotic resistance loads of the final effluent. Raw and treated wastewater composite samples were collected from an urban treatment plant over 14 sampling dates. Samples were characterized for the i) occurrence of tetracyclines, penicillins, sulfonamides, quinolones, triclosan, arsenic, cadmium, lead, chromium and mercury; ii) antibiotic resistance percentages for tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin and amoxicillin and iii) 16S rRNA gene-DGGE patterns. The data of corresponding samples, taking into account the hydraulic residence time, was analyzed using multivariate analysis. Variations on the bacterial community structure of the final effluent were significantly correlated with the occurrence of tetracyclines, penicillins, sulfonamides, quinolones and triclosan in the raw inflow. Members of the class Epsilonproteobacteria presented positive correlations with those antimicrobials, whereas negative correlations were observed with Beta and Gammaproteobacteria and Firmicutes. Antibiotic resistance percentages presented different trends of variation in heterotrophs/enterobacteria and in enterococci, varied over time and after wastewater treatment. Antibiotic resistance was positively correlated with the occurrence of tetracyclines residues and high temperature. A relationship between antibiotic residues, bacterial community structure and composition and antibiotic resistance is demonstrated. Further studies, involving more wastewater treatment plants may help to elucidate this complex relationship.

  9. Application of Biotechnology to Construct a Sustainable Biodiesel Production System on Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Liu, Yuhuan; Xu, Erni; Liu, Jianqiang; Ruan, Roger; Fu, Guiming

    2010-11-01

    The potential of microalgae biodiesel is unlimited. The ingenious combination of microalgae biomass exploitation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and CO2 fixation may gestate the ultimate hope for solving the problem of liquid alternative fuel. However, the municipal wastewater has some characteristics, such as high content of nitrogen and phosphorus, low C/N ratio, fluctuation of loading rate, toxicity of heavy metal, etc. To overcome these problems, studies are currently underway in our laboratory. In this paper, an idea of constructing a sustainable biodiesel production system from microalgae on wastewater is assumed. The system could realize CO2 fixation, decontamination of municipal wastewater, and production of high value-added biodiesel by microalgae. Firstly, municipal wastewater is used as the cultivation media and CO2 as gaseous fertilizer for mass culture of Shuihua microalgae. So with the harvest of large quantities of low-price Shuihua microalgae, the nitrogen, phosphorus and heavy metals can be removed from the wastewater, and the emission of greenhouse gas can be reduced. Secondly, try to breed a high-oil content engineering microalgae by heterotrophic cultivation which could realize high-density growth through the conjunction of the advanced methods of fermentation engineering with the microalgae breeding technology. Finally, make the high-oil content engineering microalgae cultivated on the decomposed Shuihua microalgae cells, and try to make the high-oil content engineering microalgae grow rapidly in the initial stage and start oil accumulation when nitrogen is exhausted by controlling the conditions of fermentation.

  10. Bioaugmentation: An Emerging Strategy of Industrial Wastewater Treatment for Reuse and Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Nzila, Alexis; Razzak, Shaikh Abdur; Zhu, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    A promising long-term and sustainable solution to the growing scarcity of water worldwide is to recycle and reuse wastewater. In wastewater treatment plants, the biodegradation of contaminants or pollutants by harnessing microorganisms present in activated sludge is one of the most important strategies to remove organic contaminants from wastewater. However, this approach has limitations because many pollutants are not efficiently eliminated. To counterbalance the limitations, bioaugmentation has been developed and consists of adding specific and efficient pollutant-biodegrading microorganisms into a microbial community in an effort to enhance the ability of this microbial community to biodegrade contaminants. This approach has been tested for wastewater cleaning with encouraging results, but failure has also been reported, especially during scale-up. In this review, work on the bioaugmentation in the context of removal of important pollutants from industrial wastewater is summarized, with an emphasis on recalcitrant compounds, and strategies that can be used to improve the efficiency of bioaugmentation are also discussed. This review also initiates a discussion regarding new research areas, such as nanotechnology and quorum sensing, that should be investigated to improve the efficiency of wastewater bioaugmentation. PMID:27571089

  11. Stereoisomer quantification of the beta-blocker drugs atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol in wastewaters by chiral high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nikolai, Lisa N; McClure, Evelyn L; Macleod, Sherri L; Wong, Charles S

    2006-10-27

    A chiral liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method was developed and validated for measuring individual enantiomers of three beta-blocker drugs (atenolol, metoprolol, and propranolol) in wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) influents and effluents. Mean recoveries of the pharmaceuticals ranged from 67 to 106%, and the limits of detection of the analytes were 2-17 ng/L in wastewater effluents. The method was demonstrated by measuring, for the first time, the stereoisomer composition of target analytes in raw and treated wastewaters of two Canadian WWTPs. In these trials, racemic amounts of the three drugs were observed in influent of one wastewater treatment plant, but nonracemic amounts were observed in another. Effluents of the two plants contained nonracemic amounts of the drugs. These results indicate that biologically-mediated stereoselective processes that differ among WWTPs had occurred to eliminate individual enantiomers of the target analytes.

  12. Aerospace Fuels From Nonpetroleum Raw Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.; Hepp, Aloysius F.; Kulis, Michael J.; Jaworske, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    Recycling human metabolic and plastic wastes minimizes cost and increases efficiency by reducing the need to transport consumables and return trash, respectively, from orbit to support a space station crew. If the much larger costs of transporting consumables to the Moon and beyond are taken into account, developing waste recycling technologies becomes imperative and possibly mission enabling. Reduction of terrestrial waste streams while producing energy and/or valuable raw materials is an opportunity being realized by a new generation of visionary entrepreneurs; several relevant technologies are briefly compared, contrasted and assessed for space applications. A two-step approach to nonpetroleum raw materials utilization is presented; the first step involves production of supply or producer gas. This is akin to synthesis gas containing carbon oxides, hydrogen, and simple hydrocarbons. The second step involves production of fuel via the Sabatier process, a methanation reaction, or another gas-to-liquid technology, typically Fischer-Tropsch processing. Optimization to enhance the fraction of product stream relevant to transportation fuels via catalytic (process) development at NASA Glenn Research Center is described. Energy utilization is a concern for production of fuels whether for operation on the lunar or Martian surface, or beyond. The term green relates to not only mitigating excess carbon release but also to the efficiency of energy usage. For space, energy usage can be an essential concern. Another issue of great concern is minimizing impurities in the product stream(s), especially those that are potential health risks and/or could degrade operations through catalyst poisoning or equipment damage; technologies being developed to remove heteroatom impurities are discussed. Alternative technologies to utilize waste fluids, such as a propulsion option called the resistojet, are discussed. The resistojet is an electric propulsion technology with a powered

  13. Wastewater privatization: A beneficial alternative

    SciTech Connect

    Wakeman, R.F.; Drewry, W.A.

    1999-07-01

    Municipalities with wastewater operations face increasing requirements to maximize efficiency, implement capital improvements, and ensure environmental compliance. Privatization is a relatively unused alternative offering benefits in the areas of cost-effective operations, flexible financing, technology access, and compliance assurance. Recent executive direction and tax code changes have opened new doors for mutually beneficial public-private partnerships. Wastewater privatization has historically consisted of short-term contract agreements for treatment operations, but looming infrastructure recapitalization and development requirements have catalyzed an exploration of non-traditional alternatives that include private sector financing, development, and operation of entire wastewater systems, The purpose of this paper is to show why privatization must be considered, evaluate the different levels available, and generate an analytical aid for communities taking their first look at privatization opportunities.

  14. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  15. Bioremediation of wastewater using microalgae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalivendra, Saikumar

    Population expansion and industrial development has deteriorated the quality of freshwater reservoirs around the world and has caused freshwater shortages in certain areas. Discharge of industrial effluents containing toxic heavy metals such as Cd and Cr into the environment have serious impact on human, animal and aquatic life. In order to solve these problems, the present study was focused on evaluating and demonstrating potential of microalgae for bioremediation of wastewater laden with nitrogen (N) in the form of nitrates, phosphorous (P) in the form of phosphates, chromium (Cr (VI)) and cadmium (Cd (II)). After screening several microalgae, Chlorella vulgaris and algae taken from Pleasant Hill Lake were chosen as candidate species for this study. The viability of the process was demonstrated in laboratory bioreactors and various experimental parameters such as contact time, initial metal concentration, algae concentration, pH and temperature that would affect remediation rates were studied. Based on the experimental results, correlations were developed to enable customizing and designing a commercial Algae based Wastewater Treatment System (AWTS). A commercial AWTS system that can be easily customized and is suitable for integration into existing wastewater treatment facilities was developed, and capital cost estimates for system including installation and annual operating costs were determined. The work concludes that algal bioremediation is a viable alternate technology for treating wastewater in an economical and sustainable way when compared to conventional treatment processes. The annual wastewater treatment cost to remove N,P is ~26x lower and to remove Cr, Cd is 7x lower than conventional treatment processes. The cost benefit analysis performed shows that if this technology is implemented at industrial complexes, Air Force freight and other Department of Defense installations with wastewater treatment plants, it could lead to millions of dollars in

  16. Enhanced industrial wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Nachabe, A.H.; Durlak, E.

    1997-12-31

    The sodium sulfide/ferrous sulfate (SS/FS) process is a treatment technology for the reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of heavy metals in industrial wastewater treatment plants (IWTP). When the ferrous ion, as ferrous sulfate, is mixed with sulfide, the hexavalent chromium is rapidly reduced to its trivalent state at a neutral pH and then precipitated. SS/FS technology can be used to replace the current hydroxide treatment chemistry in Navy IWTPs. This paper will present the results and lessons learned from full-scale implementation of SS/FS at Naval Undersea Warfare Center (NUWC) Keyport, Washington. The SS/FS treatment process reduced the chemical cost by fifty nine percent and sludge disposal cost by thirty one percent. On an annual basis total cost savings amounted to $31,950 or thirty four percent. The SS/FS treatment process lowered the amount of treatment chemicals used in the IWTP. Furthermore, metal sulfides tend to be two to three orders of magnitude less soluble than their corresponding metal hydroxides. This allows for cleaner effluent, which will help the facility meet environmental discharge requirements. Further benefits include the removal from the shop area of the high pressure sulfur dioxide cylinder (used in the hydroxide process), a faster and more reliable chrome reduction method, neutral pH operation that extends tank and equipment life, and less acid and caustic chemicals stored on the shop floor. As Navy activities respond to the ever increasing pressures to do more with less, the SS/FS process can help them meet the increasingly stringent standards.

  17. Comparison of wastewater-associated contaminants in the bed sediment of Hempstead Bay, New York, before and after Hurricane Sandy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Shawn C.; Phillips, Patrick; Brownawell, Bruce J.; Browne, James

    2016-01-01

    Changes in bed sediment chemistry of Hempstead Bay (HB) have been evaluated in the wake of Hurricane Sandy, which resulted in the release of billions of liters of poorly-treated sewage into tributaries and channels throughout the bay. Surficial grab samples (top 5 cm) collected before and (or) after Hurricane Sandy from sixteen sites in HB were analyzed for 74 wastewater tracers and steroid hormones, and total organic carbon. Data from pre- and post-storm comparisons of the most frequently detected wastewater tracers and ratios of steroid hormone and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations indicate an increased sewage signal near outfalls and downstream of where raw sewage was discharged. Median concentration of wastewater tracers decreased after the storm at sites further from outfalls. Overall, changes in sediment quality probably resulted from a combination of additional sewage inputs, sediment redistribution, and stormwater runoff in the days to weeks following Hurricane Sandy.

  18. Optimization of a microbial fuel cell for wastewater treatment using recycled scrap metals as a cost-effective cathode material.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Olivier; Tan, Zi; Shen, Yujia; Ng, How Y

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) for wastewater treatment is still hindered by the prohibitive cost of cathode material, especially when platinum is used to catalyze oxygen reduction. In this study, recycled scrap metals could be used efficiently as cathode material in a specially-designed MFC. In terms of raw power, the scrap metals ranked as follows: W/Co > Cu/Ni > Inconel 718 > carpenter alloy; however, in terms of cost and long term stability, Inconel 718 was the preferred choice. Treatment performance--assessed on real and synthetic wastewater--was considerably improved either by filling the anode compartment with carbon granules or by operating the MFC in full-loop mode. The latter option allowed reaching 99.7% acetate removal while generating a maximum power of 36 W m(-3) at an acetate concentration of 2535 mg L(-1). Under these conditions, the energy produced by the system averaged 0.1 kWh m(-3) of wastewater treated.

  19. Empirical Model for Predicting Concentrations of Refractory Hydrophobic Organic Compounds in Digested Sludge from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants

    PubMed Central

    Deo, Randhir P.; Halden, Rolf U.

    2009-01-01

    An empirical model is presented allowing for the prediction of concentrations of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs) prone to accumulate and persist in digested sludge (biosolids) generated during conventional municipal wastewater treatment. The sole input requirements of the model are the concentrations of the individual HOCs entering the wastewater treatment plant in raw sewage, the compound’s respective pH-dependent octanol-water partitioning coefficient (DOW), and an empirically determined fitting parameter (pfit) that reflects persistence of compounds in biosolids after accounting for all potential removal mechanisms during wastewater treatment. The accuracy of the model was successfully confirmed at the 99% confidence level in a paired t test that compared predicted concentrations in biosolids to empirical measurements reported in the literature. After successful validation, the resultant model was applied to predict levels of various HOCs for which occurrence data in biosolids thus far are lacking. PMID:20161626

  20. Comparison of wastewater-associated contaminants in the bed sediment of Hempstead Bay, New York, before and after Hurricane Sandy.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Shawn C; Phillips, Patrick J; Brownawell, Bruce J; Browne, James P

    2016-06-30

    Changes in bed sediment chemistry of Hempstead Bay (HB) have been evaluated in the wake of Hurricane Sandy, which resulted in the release of billions of liters of poorly-treated sewage into tributaries and channels throughout the bay. Surficial grab samples (top 5cm) collected before and (or) after Hurricane Sandy from sixteen sites in HB were analyzed for 74 wastewater tracers and steroid hormones, and total organic carbon. Data from pre- and post-storm comparisons of the most frequently detected wastewater tracers and ratios of steroid hormone and of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations indicate an increased sewage signal near outfalls and downstream of where raw sewage was discharged. Median concentration of wastewater tracers decreased after the storm at sites further from outfalls. Overall, changes in sediment quality probably resulted from a combination of additional sewage inputs, sediment redistribution, and stormwater runoff in the days to weeks following Hurricane Sandy.

  1. Pretreatment of piggery wastewater by a stable constructed microbial consortium for improving the methane production.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian; Mo, Xiwei; Cheng, Guojun; Du, Dongyun

    2015-01-01

    A stable aerobic microbial consortium, established by successive subcultivation, was employed to solubilize the solid organic fraction in swine wastewater. In the 30 days' successive biological pretreatments, 30-38% of volatile solids and 19-28% total solids in raw slurry were solubilized after 10 hours at 37 °C. Meanwhile, soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acid increased by 48%-56% and 600%-750%, respectively. Furthermore, the molecular microbial profile of the consortium in successive pretreatment was conducted by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). The results indicated that bacterial species of the consortium rapidly overgrew the indigenous microbial community of raw water, and showed a stable predominance at the long-term treatment. As a consequence of biological pretreatment, pretreatment shortened digestion time by 50% and increased biogas production by 45% compared to raw water in the anaerobic process. The microbial consortium constructed herein is a potential candidate consortium for biological pretreatment of swine wastewater to enhance biogas production.

  2. Antibacterial efficacy of raw and processed honey.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, D P; Thakur, V; Brar, S K

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94 mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94 mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625 μg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625 μg/mL 2500 μg/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria.

  3. Antibacterial Efficacy of Raw and Processed Honey

    PubMed Central

    Mohapatra, D. P.; Thakur, V.; Brar, S. K.

    2011-01-01

    In vitro antibacterial activity of methanol, ethanol, and ethyl acetate extracts of raw and processed honey was tested against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Micrococcus luteus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Salmonella typhi). Both types of honey showed antibacterial activity against tested organisms with the zone of inhibition (ZOI) ranging from 6.94 to 37.94 mm, while E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa showed that sensibility towards all the extracts with ZOI ranges between 13.09 to 37.94 mm. The methanol extract showed more potent activity than other organic extracts. Gram-negative bacteria were found to be more susceptible as compared to Gram-positive bacteria except E. faecalis. The broth microdilution assay gave minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) value of 625 μg/mL, while the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) ranges between 625 μg/mL 2500 μg/mL. The study showed that honey has antibacterial activity (bacteriostatic and bactericidal effect), similar to antibiotics, against test organisms and provides alternative therapy against certain bacteria. PMID:21350671

  4. Muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed diets containing raw legumes as the main source of protein

    SciTech Connect

    Goena, M.; Santidrian, S.; Cuevillas, F.; Larralde, J.

    1986-03-01

    Although legumes are widely used as protein sources, their effects on protein metabolism remain quite unexplored. The authors have measured the rates of gastrocnemius muscle and liver protein synthesis in growing rats fed ad libitum over periods of 12 days on diets containing raw field bean (Vicia faba L.), raw kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), and raw bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia L.) as the major sources of protein. Diets were isocaloric and contained about 12% protein. Protein synthesis was evaluated by the constant-intravenous-infusion method, using L-//sup 14/C/-tyrosine, as well as by the determination of the RNA-activity (g of newly synthesized protein/day/g RNA). Results showed that, as compared to well-fed control animals, those fed the raw legume diets exhibited a marked reduction in the rate of growth with no changes in the amount of food intake (per 100 g b.wt.). These changes were accompanied by a significant reduction in the rate of muscle protein synthesis in all legume-treated rats, being this reduction greater in the animals fed the Ph. vulgaris and V. ervilia diets. Liver protein synthesis was slightly higher in the rats fed the V. faba and V. ervilia diets, and smaller in the Ph. vulgaris-fed rats. It is suggested that both sulfur amino acid deficiency and the presence of different anti-nutritive factors in raw legumes may account for these effects.

  5. Enhanced chemical oxygen demand removal and flux reduction in pulp and paper wastewater treatment using laccase-polymerized membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Ko, Chun-Han; Fan, Chihhao

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this present study is to investigate the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from pulp and paper wastewater using laccase-polymerized membrane filtration process. The membranes with molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) of 5000 and 10,000, 30,000 and 54,000 were used in a cross-flow module to treat the pulp and paper wastewater containing high phenolic constituents and COD. With 2.98 IU/L of activated laccase applied at room temperature for 180 min, the contaminants in raw wastewater and second effluent were polymerized to form larger molecules with average molecular weight of 1300 and 900 Da (Dalton), respectively. With laccase polymerization prior to filtration, over 60% removals of COD by the four investigated membranes were observed, compared with low COD removal without laccase polymerization. Moreover, the addition of laccase resulted in 4-14% reduction of membrane permeability during the first 180 min filtration operation due to gel layer formation by the polymerization. No further flux decline was observed afterwards indicating the steady state was reached and the membranes could be used to remove the polymerized pollutants without significant fouling. The maximum apparent resistance occurrence for raw wastewater treated with laccase also supported the effectiveness for COD removal with laccase polymerization before membrane filtration. Additionally, pretreatment by inactivated laccase only caused further flux reduction without additional removal of COD.

  6. Method and apparatus for treatment of wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, A.

    1982-01-19

    A method is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia. The process comprises the steps of: distilling the wastewater to remove the free ammonia; treating the distilled wastewater with soda ash to decompose the fixed ammonia; and distilling the treated wastewater to remove the decomposed ammonia. An apparatus is disclosed for removing ammonia from a wastewater containing free and fixed ammonia comprising: an ammonia still for removing free and fixed ammonia; a source of soda ash solution; and means for feeding the soda ash solution from said soda ash source to the ammonia still to decompose the fixed ammonia.

  7. The influence of the autochthonous wastewater microbiota and gene host on the fate of invasive antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Manaia, Célia M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the fate of invasive antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) discharged in wastewater. With this objective, antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) known to harbor specific ARG were inoculated in wastewater (hospital effluent, or municipal raw and treated wastewater) and in ultra-pure sterile water microcosms. Two sets of wastewater ARB isolates were used - set 1, Enterococcus faecalis, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and set 2, Enterococcus faecium, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Escherichia coli. Non-inoculated controls were run in parallel. Samples were collected at the beginning and at the end (15days) of the incubation period and the abundance of the genes 16S rRNA, intI1, blaTEM and vanA and the bacterial community composition were analyzed. In general, the genes blaTEM and vanA had lower persistence in wastewater and in ultra-pure water than the genes 16S rRNA or the class 1 integron integrase intI1. This effect was more pronounced in wastewater than in ultra-pure water, evidencing the importance of the autochthonous microbiota on the elimination of invasive ARG. Wastewater autochthonous bacterial groups most correlated with variations of the genes intI1, blaTEM and vanA were members of the classes Gammaproteobacteria, Bacilli or Bacteroidia. For blaTEM, but not for vanA, the species of the ARB host was important to determine its fate. These are novel findings on the ecology of ARB in wastewater environments.

  8. Occurrence of phytoestrogens in municipal wastewater and surface waters.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jinguo; Price, William E

    2009-08-01

    Phytoestrogens (isoflavones, enterolignans and coumestrol) in wastewater samples and surface water samples have been analysed by LC-ESI-MS(n). In wastewater samples, high levels of enterolactone (581-2111 ng/L), daidzein (341-1688 ng/L) and enterodiol (60-834 ng/L) were detected in raw sewage, but the vast majority of the analysed phytoestrogens were removed effectively in the treatment process. The removal rates of the analysed phytoestrogens in the two advanced tertiary treatment plants were >99%; a case study in one of the treatment plants showed that most of the residual phytoestrogens were removed by biological treatment using activated sludge. In surface water samples, daidzein was found at concentrations ranging from 2 ng/L to 33 ng/L in samples from two creeks, and up to 120 ng/L in surface water (pond) on a dairy farm. The analytical results suggest that direct excretions of livestock discharged from farmyards can be another potential source of phytoestrogen contamination in the aquatic environment.

  9. A novel method for remediation of nickel containing wastewater at neutral conditions.

    PubMed

    Hase, Haruko; Nishiuchi, Toru; Sato, Tsutomu; Otake, Tsubasa; Yaita, Tsuyoshi; Kobayashi, Tohru; Yoneda, Tetsuro

    2017-05-05

    Heavy metals contained in wastewater are generally removed by adding antalkaline to increase the pH, and Ni is commonly precipitated as Ni-hydroxides at pH 10. However, a more sustainable remediation method of treatment at neutral conditions would be attractive due to the high cost of chemical reagents and inefficient treatment at present. Based on natural attenuation, the method of adding Al ions has been used in wastewater treatment to precipitate layered double hydroxides (LDH). Here, we investigated the use of Al ion addition in the Ni containing wastewater treatment, experimentally and thermodynamically. By co-precipitation experiments adding Al ions to Ni-containing water, Ni was selectively incorporated into the structure of LDH, and the removal efficiency of Ni was close to 100% even in pH 7 and 8 samples (lower pH than conventional methods) with initial Ni concentrations of 200-10,000mg/L. Geochemical modeling results replicate the experimental results well when the Al/Ni ratio of LDH is assumed to be 0.33. This model makes it possible to estimate the amount of Al ions and additive agents necessary for use in treatment of wastewater containing different Ni concentrations.

  10. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  11. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  12. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  13. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  14. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  15. A systematic study of the gaseous emissions from biosolids composting: raw sludge versus anaerobically digested sludge.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2013-11-01

    Volatile organic compound (VOC) and ammonia, that contribute to odor pollution, and methane and nitrous oxide, with an important greenhouse effect, are compounds present in gaseous emission from waste treatment installations, including composting plants. In this work, gaseous emissions from the composting of raw (RS) and anaerobically digested sludge (ADS) have been investigated and compared at pilot scale aiming to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present. CH4 and N2O emissions were higher in ADS composting (0.73 and 0.55 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in RS composting (0.01 kg Mg(-1) sludge for both CH4 and N2O). NH3 and VOCs emitted were higher during the RS composting process (19.37 and 0.21 kg Mg(-1) sludge, respectively) than in ADS composting (0.16 and 0.04 kg Mg(-1) sludge). Significant differences were found in the VOC compositions emitted in ADS and RS composting, being more diverse in RS than ADS composting.

  16. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw sampling procedures. 89.413... Test Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous... of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b)...

  17. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw sampling procedures. 89.413... Test Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous... of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b)...

  18. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw sampling procedures. 89.413... Test Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous... of the exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b)...

  19. 40 CFR 89.413 - Raw sampling procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Raw sampling procedures. 89.413 Section... Procedures § 89.413 Raw sampling procedures. Follow these procedures when sampling for gaseous emissions. (a... exhaust pipe—whichever is the larger—upstream of the exit of the exhaust gas system. (b) In the case of...

  20. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  1. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  2. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  3. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  4. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  5. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Segregation of raw material. 58.332 Section 58.332 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall...

  6. 7 CFR 58.735 - Quality specifications for raw materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quality specifications for raw materials. 58.735... specifications for raw materials. (a) Cheddar colby, washed or soaked curd, granular or stirred curd cheese... removal of all packaging material and surface defects. The cheese shall at least meet the requirements...

  7. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  10. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  11. 40 CFR 1065.230 - Raw exhaust flow meter.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Raw exhaust flow meter. 1065.230 Section 1065.230 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.230 Raw...

  12. SAW Employment Data and the Need for RAWs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Howard R.

    1989-01-01

    Describes provisions of Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (IRCA) allowing for Special Agricultural Workers (SAWs) and Replenishment Agricultural Workers (RAWs), to replace SAWs who leave the workforce. Describes government policy for implementing RAW program, determining need and supply, immigrant reporting requirements, eligibility…

  13. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  14. Potential dual use of biochar for wastewater treatment and soil amelioration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marschner, Bernd; Werner, Steffen; Alfes, Karsten; Lübken, Manfred

    2013-04-01

    Irrigating crops with wastewater from open drainage channels is a common practice in urban agricultural production in many dry regions of Africa, Asia and Latin America. While the wastewater-borne nutrients reduce the need for inputs of mineral fertilizers or manures and thus reduce production costs, wastewater-borne pathogens and contaminants pose a health risk for the producers and consumers of the crops. Furthermore, the input of nutrients with the irrigation water may greatly exceed crop requirements and thus lead to unproductive leaching losses of nutrients. It is generally acknowledged that biochar additions can increase the soil's sorption and retention capacity for nutrients and water. However, positive effects on crop production are generally only observed, if this is combined with mineral fertilizers or manures due to the low nutrient content of biochars. Biochar possibly also has a high potential for use in water purification, replacing the coal-based activated carbon as a sorbent for contaminants and pathogens. It was therefore hypothesized that biochar can be used for pathogen removal from wastewater while at the same time being loaded with nutrients and contaminants. If contaminants are of minor concern the "loaded" biochar can be used as a soil amendment, providing not only long-term sorption capacity but also nutrients. Experiments were conducted with pyrochar from Miscanthus, rice husks and wood chips, which strongly differed in elemental composition, MIR-DRIFT spectra, surface charge properties and sorption potential for DOC and phosphate. When used as top filter layer in a sand column system, the biochars effectively reduced E. coli concentrations from raw wastewater by up to 2 log units. While biochars from rice husks and Miscanthus accumulated N substantially, wood chip biochar showed no N retention. On the other hand, P accumulation was most pronounced for wood chip biochar. Ongoing incubation experiments with the "loaded" and fresh biochar in

  15. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C

    2016-04-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source.

  16. Electrochemical disinfection of toilet wastewater using wastewater electrolysis cell

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiao; Qu, Yan; Cid, Clément A.; Finke, Cody; Hoffmann, Michael R.; Lim, Keahying; Jiang, Sunny C.

    2016-01-01

    The paucity of proper sanitation facilities has contributed to the spread of waterborne diseases in many developing countries. The primary goal of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of using a wastewater electrolysis cell (WEC) for toilet wastewater disinfection. The treated wastewater was designed to reuse for toilet flushing and agricultural irrigation. Laboratory-scale electrochemical (EC) disinfection experiments were performed to investigate the disinfection efficiency of the WEC with four seeded microorganisms (Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, recombinant adenovirus serotype 5, and bacteriophage MS2). In addition, the formation of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAA5) at the end of the EC treatment was also investigated. The results showed that at an applied cell voltage of +4 V, the WEC achieved 5-log10 reductions of all four seeded microorganisms in real toilet wastewater within 60 min. In contrast, chemical chlorination (CC) disinfection using hypochlorite [NaClO] was only effective for the inactivation of bacteria. Due to the rapid formation of chloramines, less than 0.5-log10 reduction of MS2 was observed in toilet wastewater even at the highest [NaClO] dosage (36 mg/L, as Cl2) over a 1 h reaction. Experiments using laboratory model waters showed that free reactive chlorine generated in situ during EC disinfection process was the main disinfectant responsible for the inactivation of microorganisms. However, the production of hydroxyl radicals [•OH], and other reactive oxygen species by the active bismuth-doped TiO2 anode were negligible under the same electrolytic conditions. The formation of THMs and HAA5 were found to increase with higher applied cell voltage. Based on the energy consumption estimates, the WEC system can be operated using solar energy stored in a DC battery as the sole power source. PMID:26854604

  17. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  18. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  19. Acute toxicity reduction and toxicity identification in pigment-contaminated wastewater during anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) treatment process.

    PubMed

    Deng, Minjie; Zhang, Ying; Quan, Xie; Na, Chunhong; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei; Han, Shuping; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    In China, a considerable part of industrial wastewater effluents are discharged into the municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) after pretreatment in their own wastewater treatment plants. Even though the industrial effluents meet the professional emission standards, many micro-pollutants still remained, and they could be resistant in the municipal WWTPs with conventional activated sludge process. Pigment wastewater was chosen in this study, and the acute toxicity reduction and identification of the pigment-contaminated wastewater treated by the conventional anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A/A/O) process were evaluated. Results indicated that the raw pigment-contaminated wastewater was acutely toxic to Photobacterium phosphoreum (P. phosphoreum), Daphnia magna (D. magna) and Danio rerio (D. rerio). The acute toxicity was decreased in some degree after A/A/O treatment, but the final effluent still exhibited acute toxicity to D. magna and D. rerio with the toxic units (TU) of 1.1 and 2.0, respectively. Chemical analyses showed the presence of various refractory and toxic nitrogen-containing polycyclic and heterocyclic compounds in the pigment-contaminated wastewater. Toxicity identification by combining chemical analyses and correlation analysis showed that N-containing refractory organic toxicants were the main toxicity source for the pigment-contaminated wastewater, and several toxicants showed significant correlation with P. phosphoreum and D. magna. This study indicated that the A/A/O process was not efficient for pigment-contaminated wastewater treatment, and it was irradiative for technology improvement in the WWTPs receiving pretreated industrial wastewater effluents.

  20. Insights into the relationship between antimicrobial residues and bacterial populations in a hospital-urban wastewater treatment plant system.

    PubMed

    Varela, Ana Rita; André, Sandra; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between antimicrobial residues, antibiotic resistance prevalence and bacterial community composition in hospital effluent and in the receiving wastewater treatment plant was studied. Samples from hospital effluent, raw inflow and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant were characterized for amoxicillin and ciprofloxacin resistance prevalence, content of heavy metals and antimicrobial residues and bacterial community structure, based on 16S rRNA gene PCR-DGGE analysis. The concentration of fluoroquinolones, arsenic and mercury was in general higher in hospital effluent than in raw inflow, while the opposite was observed for tetracyclines, sulfonamides and penicillin G. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance was significantly higher in hospital effluent than in raw inflow. The concentration of antimicrobial residues was observed to be significantly correlated with the prevalence of antibiotic resistant bacteria and with variations in the bacterial community. Hospital effluent was confirmed as a relevant, although not unique, source of antimicrobial residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria to the wastewater treatment plant. Moreover, given the high loads of antibiotic residues and antibiotic resistant bacteria that may occur in hospital effluents, these wastewater habitats may represent useful models to study and predict the impact of antibiotic residues on bacterial communities.

  1. Characterization of refractory matters in dyeing wastewater during a full-scale Fenton process following pure-oxygen activated sludge treatment.

    PubMed

    Bae, Wookeun; Won, Hosik; Hwang, Byungho; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Chung, Jinwook; Kwon, Kiwook; Shim, Hojae

    2015-04-28

    Refractory pollutants in raw and treated dyeing wastewaters were characterized using fractional molecular weight cut-off, Ultraviolet-vis spectrophotometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI/MS). Significant organics and color compounds remained after biological (pure-oxygen activated sludge) and chemical (Fenton) treatments at a dyeing wastewater treatment plant (flow rate ∼100,000m(3)/d). HPLC-ESI/MS analysis revealed that some organic compounds disappeared after the biological treatment but reappeared after the chemical oxidation process, and some of that were originally absent in the raw dyeing wastewater was formed after the biological or chemical treatment. It appeared that the Fenton process merely impaired the color-imparting bonds in the dye materials instead of completely degrading them. Nevertheless, this process did significantly reduce the soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD, 66%) and color (73%) remaining after initial biological treatment which reduced SCOD by 53% and color by 13% in raw wastewater. Biological treatment decreased the degradable compounds substantially, in such a way that the following Fenton process could effectively remove recalcitrant compounds, making the overall hybrid system more economical. In addition, ferric ion inherent to the Fenton reaction effectively coagulated particulate matters not removed via biological and chemical oxidation.

  2. Influence of wastewater composition on denitrification and biological P-removal in the S-DN-P-process: effects of different substrates (a).

    PubMed

    Choi, Hee-Jeong; Choi, Chul-Ho; Lee, Seung-Mok

    2007-01-01

    The influence of the wastewater composition on the denitrification and biological P-elimination in the Sorption Denitrification P-eliminations Process (S-DN-P-process) was examined. Batch type experiments were performed to examine the influence of various substrates. Among the three different substrates prepared, only 11% COD(filt) was taken up from starch containing wastewater (starch preparation). Acetate is an easily degradable substrate for the biological P-elimination, and showed ca. 30% more acetate was taken up compared to the raw wastewater (wastewater preparation). Starch is a barely degradable substance, because it must be hydrolysed before digestion. Starch initially sorbs slowly (approximately 30 min), and may be hydrolysed during this time. During the investigations, the biological P-elimination and the denitrification were found to be dependent on the wastewater composition. The P-elimination rate was determined to be 38% with the acetate preparation, while a P-elimination of 6% was obtained with the starch preparation. The wastewater preparation showed a P-elimination of 56%, the value of which was almost 18% more than the acetate preparation. The biological P-elimination and denitrification depend not only on the dissolved parts in the wastewater, but also on the undissolved content.

  3. Bioaugmentation treatment of PV wafer manufacturing wastewater by microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Chen, Maoxia; He, Xin; Xiao, Zili; Zhou, Houzhen; Tan, Zhouliang

    2015-01-01

    The wastewater of silicon photovoltaic (PV) battery manufacturing contained polyethylene glycol (PEG) and detergents, which possessed the characteristics of high content of organics and low bioavailability, and then resulted in high treatment costs. To address the difficulties of existing treatment facilities in stably meeting discharge standards, eight tons of microbial culture (consisting of Bacillus sp. and Rhodococcus sp.) were added into the aerobic treatment unit. Subsequently, the effectiveness of the microbial culture in small-scale biological wastewater treatment was evaluated, and the operating conditions for engineering applications were optimized. The application study showed that the average chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency reached 95.0% when the pH value was 7, the gas-water ratio was 28:1, the reflux ratio was 50%, which indicated an increase of 51.2% contrasting with the situation without bioaugmentation. The volume load of the treatment facilities after augmentation increased by 127.9% and could tolerate the COD shock load reached 2,340 mg·L(-1). At last, the effluence met the class I standard of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB8978-1996).

  4. Cultivation of green algae Chlorella sp. in different wastewaters from municipal wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Min, Min; Li, Yecong; Chen, Paul; Chen, Yifeng; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yingkuan; Ruan, Roger

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.

  5. Use of natural raw material for the production of photochromic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyan, V.I.; Artamonova, M.V.; Solinov, V.F.

    1986-07-01

    The authors investigated the possibility of using natural raw materials as replacements for soda and alumina for obtaining photochromic glasses and to determine their properties. Glasses of the sodium aluminoborosilicate system were studied. The characteristics of the batches and some of the properties of the glasses are given in a table. Sodium oxide was added to batches Nos. 1 and 2 as soda or borax. Composition Nos. 3, 4, and 5 were prepared using acid, basic, and neutral rocks by means of which the oxides of sodium and aluminum were added. The glasses were synthesized in SiC-heater furnaces. The differential thermal analysis of compositions Nos. 1 and 5 showed that the presence of natural materials leads to the formation of a liquid phase at lower temperatures which helps to intensify the processes of silicate- and glass-formation.

  6. Characterization of Staphylococci Isolated from Raw Milk

    PubMed Central

    Zemelman, Raúl; Longeri, Luis

    1965-01-01

    To evaluate the pathogenicity of staphylococci from bovine raw milk, the general characteristics of 775 strains isolated from 798 samples of milk were studied. The coagulase test was performed by use of rabbit plasma. Chromogenesis, mannitol fermentation, and gelatin liquefaction were investigated on Chapman's Medium 110, after 48 hr of incubation. Production of β-hemolysin, which has been considered indicative of pathogenic staphylococci of animal origin, was determined by streaking different strains on sheep blood-agar plates in the presence of a strain of Lancefield group B streptococci. Plates were incubated at 37 C for 24 hr, and strong hemolysis was produced in the zone of interaction of β-hemolysin and some substance liberated by streptococcus (CAMP test). Of 404 strains found to be coagulase-positive, 95.8% exhibited a deep-orange pigment, 76.5% produced β-hemolysin, 91.8% fermented mannitol, and 75% liquefield gelatin. Of 371 strains which gave a negative coagulase test, about 16% fermented mannitol and liquefied gelatin; none of these strains produced β-hemolysin. When results are grouped according to pigmentation and coagulase production, β-hemolysin seems to be developed by pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus only. If suitability of these tests for investigation of pathogenicity is compared, production of β-hemolysin appears to be the most useful one, since no “false positive” results were found. The use of the CAMP test as a simple and rapid technique to determine production of β-hemolysin by pathogenic strains of animal staphylococci during routine bacteriological work is suggested. Images Fig. 1 PMID:14325873

  7. Green Systems for Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Plants found in marshlands and wetlands in many parts of the world may play an increasing part in a very new, yet very old approach to treatment of water and wastewater--the application of biological methods. Biological water pollution control methods being utilized around the world are examined. (BT)

  8. Measuring Thicknesses of Wastewater Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Davenport, R. J.

    1987-01-01

    Sensor determines when thickness of film of electrically conductive wastewater on rotating evaporator drum exceeds preset value. Sensor simple electrical probe that makes contact with liquid surface. Made of materials resistant to chemicals in liquid. Mounted on shaft in rotating cylinder, liquid-thickness sensor extends toward cylinder wall so tip almost touches. Sensor body accommodates probe measuring temperature of evaporated water in cylinder.

  9. Wastewater Treatment I. Student's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Water Pollution Control Association, Sacramento. Joint Education Committee.

    This student's guide is designed to provide students with the job skills necessary for the safe and effective operation and maintenance of wastewater treatment plants. It consists of three sections. Section 1 consists of an introductory note outlining course objectives and the format of the guide. A course outline constitutes the second section.…

  10. Imprinted Polymers in Wastewater Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Eastman, Christopher; Goodrich, Scott; Gartner, Isabelle; Mueller, Anja

    2004-03-31

    In wastewater treatment, a method that specifically recognizes a variety of impurities in a flexible manner would be useful for treatment facilities with varying needs. Current purification techniques (i.e. bacteria, oxidation, reduction, precipitation and filtration) are nonspecific and difficult to control in complex mixtures. Heavy metal removal is particularly important in improving the efficiency of wastewater treatment, as they inhibit or even destroy the bacteria used for filtration. Imprinting polymerization is a technique that allows for the efficient removal of specific compounds and has been used in purification of enantiomers. It has potential to be applied in wastewater systems with the impurities acting as the template for the imprinting polymerization. The polymer with the bound impurities intact can then be removed via precipitation. After removal of the impurity the polymer can be reused. Data for the imprinting polymerization of polyacrylates and polyacrylamides for several metal complexes will be presented. Imprinting polymerization in combination with emulsion polymerization to improve the removal of hydrophobic contaminants will be described. Removal efficiencies will be presented and compared with conventional wastewater treatment methods.

  11. Diversity of fecal coliforms and their antimicrobial resistance patterns in wastewater treatment model plant.

    PubMed

    Luczkiewicz, A; Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Jankowska, K; Quant, B; Olańczuk-Neyman, K

    2010-01-01

    The occurrence of resistance patterns among wastewater fecal coliforms was determined in the study. Susceptibility of the isolates was tested against 19 antimicrobial agents: aminoglycosides, aztreonam, carbapenems, cephalosporines, beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitors, penicillines, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and fluoroquinolones. Additionally the removal of resistant isolates was evaluated in the laboratory-scale wastewater treatment model plant (M-WWTP), continuously supplied with the wastewater obtained from the full-scale WWTP. Number of fecal coliforms in raw (after mechanical treatment) and treated wastewater, as well as in aerobic chamber effluent was determined using selective medium. The selected strains were identified and examined for antibiotic resistance using Phoenix Automated Microbiology System (BD Biosciences, USA). The strains were identified as Escherichia coli (n=222), Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae (n=9), and Pantoea agglomerans (n=1). The isolate of P. agglomerans as well as 48% of E. coli isolates were sensitive to all antimicrobials tested. The most frequent resistance patterns were found for ampicillin: 100% of K. pneumoniae ssp. ozaenae and 41% of E. coli isolates. Among E. coli isolates 12% was regarded as multiple antimicrobial resistant (MAR). In the studied M-WWTP, the applied activated sludge processes reduced considerably the number of fecal coliforms, but increased the ratio of antimicrobial-resistant E. coli isolates to sensitive ones, especially among strains with MAR patterns.

  12. Toxicity evaluation of pharmaceutical wastewaters using the alga Scenedesmus obliquus and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Zuo, Jiane; Tang, Xinyao; Li, Ruixia; Li, Zaixing; Zhang, Fei

    2014-02-15

    The toxicity of pharmaceutical wastewaters has recently been the focus of the public in China. This study aimed to evaluate the conventional pollution parameters and toxicities of different raw and treated pharmaceutical wastewaters to algae Scenedesmus obliquus and bacteria Vibrio fischeri. Wastewater samples were collected from 16 pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants in China. The results of the conventional parameters analysis indicated that the total suspended solids, chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (NH3-N), and total phosphorus (TP) were largely removed after treatment. Pharmaceutical effluents were mainly polluted with organics and phosphorus as indicated by the average COD (388 mg/L) and TP (3.16 mg/L) concentrations. The toxicity test results indicated that the influent samples were toxic to both test species. Although the toxicities could be remarkably reduced after treatment, 10 out of the 16 effluent samples exceeded the acute toxicity discharge limit of the Chinese national standards. Spearman rank correlation coefficients indicated a significantly positive correlation between the toxicity values of S. obliquus and V. fischeri. Compared with S. obliquus, V. fischeri detected more pharmaceutical effluent samples with toxicities. Meanwhile, the toxicity indicators were significantly and positively correlated with the COD and NH3-N concentrations based on a Spearman rank correlation analysis.

  13. High-throughput quantification of antibiotic resistance genes from an urban wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Karkman, Antti; Johnson, Timothy A; Lyra, Christina; Stedtfeld, Robert D; Tamminen, Manu; Tiedje, James M; Virta, Marko

    2016-03-01

    Antibiotic resistance among bacteria is a growing problem worldwide, and wastewater treatment plants have been considered as one of the major contributors to the dissemination of antibiotic resistance to the environment. There is a lack of comprehensive quantitative molecular data on extensive numbers of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in different seasons with a sampling strategy that would cover both incoming and outgoing water together with the excess sludge that is removed from the process. In order to fill that gap we present a highly parallel quantitative analysis of ARGs and horizontal gene transfer potential over four seasons at an urban wastewater treatment plant using a high-throughput qPCR array. All analysed transposases and two-thirds of primer sets targeting ARGs were detected in the wastewater. The relative abundance of most of the genes was highest in influent and lower in effluent water and sludge. The resistance profiles of the samples cluster by sample location with a shift from raw influent through the final effluents and dried sludge to the sediments. Wastewater discharge enriched only a few genes, namely Tn25 type transposase gene and clinical class 1 integrons, in the sediment near the discharge pipe, but those enriched genes may indicate a potential for horizontal gene transfer.

  14. Source analysis of organic matter in swine wastewater after anaerobic digestion with EEM-PARAFAC.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhuo; Zheng, Ping; Ding, Aqiang; Zhang, Meng; Abbas, Ghulam; Li, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Swine wastewater is one of the most serious pollution sources, and it has attracted a great public concern in China. Anaerobic digestion technology is extensively used in swine wastewater treatment. However, the anaerobic digestion effluents are difficult to meet the discharge standard. The results from batch experiments showed that plenty of refractory organic matter remained in the effluents after mesophilic anaerobic digestion for 30 days. The effluent total COD (tCOD) and soluble COD (sCOD) were 483 and 324 mg/L, respectively, with the sCOD/tCOD ratio of 0.671. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) revealed that the dissolved organic matter in the effluents was tryptophan-like substance, humic acid substance, and fulvic acid substance. Based on the appearance time during anaerobic digestion, tryptophan-like substance and humic acid substance were inferred to originate from the raw swine wastewater, and the fulvic acid substance was inferred to be formed in the anaerobic digestion. This work has revealed the source of residual organic matter in anaerobic digestion of swine wastewater and has provided some valuable information for the post-treatment.

  15. Entomotoxicity, protease and chitinase activity of Bacillus thuringiensis fermented wastewater sludge with a high solids content.

    PubMed

    Brar, Satinder K; Verma, M; Tyagi, R D; Valéro, J R; Surampalli, R Y

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the production of biopesticides, protease and chitinase activity by Bacillus thuringiensis grown in raw wastewater sludge at high solids concentration (30 g/L). The rheology of wastewater sludge was modified with addition of Tween-80 (0.2% v/v). This addition resulted in 1.6 and 1.3-fold increase in cell and spore count, respectively. The maximum specific growth rate (micro(max)) augmented from 0.17 to 0.22 h(-1) and entomotoxicity (Tx) increased by 29.7%. Meanwhile, volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) showed marked variations during fermentation, and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) increased 2-fold. The proteolytic activity increased while chitinase decreased for Tween amended wastewater sludge, but the entomotoxicity increased. The specific entomotoxicity followed power law when plotted against spore concentration and the relation between Tx and protease activity was linear. The viscosity varied and volume percent of particles increased in Tween-80 amended wastewater sludge and particle size (D(50)) decreased at the end of fermentation. Thus, there was an increase in entomotoxicity at higher suspended solids (30 g/L) as Tween addition improved rheology (viscosity, particle size, surface tension); enhanced maximum growth rate and OUR.

  16. Biotechnological conversion of agro-industrial wastewaters into biodegradable plastic, poly beta-hydroxybutyrate.

    PubMed

    Khardenavis, Anshuman A; Suresh Kumar, M; Mudliar, Sandeep N; Chakrabarti, Tapan

    2007-12-01

    Waste activated sludge generated from a combined dairy and food processing industry wastewater treatment plant was evaluated for its potential to produce biodegradable plastic, poly beta-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). Deproteinized jowar grain-based distillery spentwash yielded 42.3% PHB production (w/w), followed by filtered rice grain-based distillery spentwash (40% PHB) when used as substrates. Addition of di-ammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP) resulted in an increase in PHB production to 67% when raw rice grain-based spentwash was used. Same wastewater, after removal of suspended solids by filtration and with DAHP supplementation resulted in lower PHB production (57.9%). However, supplementing other wastes with DAHP led to a substantial decrease in PHB content in comparison to what was observed in the absence of DAHP.

  17. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  18. Ultrasound pretreatment for enhanced biogas production from olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p<0.05) in terms of SCOD parameter, but not for raw OMW (p>0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (p<0.05). Anaerobic

  19. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  20. Relationship between industrial discharges and contamination of raw water resources by perfluorinated compounds: part II: Case study of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant.

    PubMed

    Dauchy, Xavier; Boiteux, Virginie; Rosin, Christophe; Munoz, Jean-François

    2012-09-01

    In this study, the concentrations of 10 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were measured in effluents of a fluorotelomer polymer manufacturing plant and its wastewater treatment plant. A 50-fold increase between the two effluents mass flows was observed. The water quality of two drinking water treatment plants located downstream at 15 and 25 km from the manufacturing plant was examined. An increase of the sum of PFCs was observed between the river (30 ng/L) and an alluvial well (70 ng/L), and between the raw water (9 ng/L) and the outlet of a biological treatment (97 ng/L). These results indicate a possible degradation of fluorotelomers, occurring during wastewater treatment, sediment infiltration in the alluvial aquifer, and drinking water treatment.

  1. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Aldo; Mattis, Ina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of aerosol lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of ELPP, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  2. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, G.; Amodeo, A.; Mattis, I.; Freudenthaler, V.; Pappalardo, G.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. The ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, the ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. The ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of the ELPP module, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of the ELPP module is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of the ELPP module. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. The ELPP module has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  3. Experimental analysis of a nitrogen removal process simulation of wastewater land treatment under three different wheat planting densities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Qi; Chen, Jia-Jun; Tian, Kai-Ming; Lu, Yan

    2002-07-01

    Nitrogen contaminant transport, transformation and uptake simulation experiments were conducted in green house under three different planting density of winter wheat. They were Group A, planting density of 0.0208 plants/cm2, Group B, 0.1042 plants/cm2, and Group C, 0.1415 plants/cm2. The capacity and ratio of nitrogen removal were different on three kinds of conditions of wastewater land treatment. From analysis of wastewater treatment capacity, wastewater concentration and irrigation intensity for Group C were suitable and nitrogen quantity added was 2 times of that for Group B, 2.6 times for Group A while nitrogen residue was only 7.06%. Hence, wastewater irrigation and treatment design with purpose of waste water treatment should select the design with maximum capacity, optimal removal ratio and least residue in soil, which was closely related to crop planting density, crop growth status and also background nitrogen quantity in soil.

  4. Effects of the organic matter from swine wastewater on the adsorption and desorption of alachlor in soil.

    PubMed

    Dal Bosco, Tatiane C; Sampaio, Silvio C; Coelho, Silvia R M; Cosmann, Natássia J; Smanhotto, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    The application of swine wastewater to the soil for agricultural purposes results in the addition of total and dissolved organic matter to the soil, which may interfere with the dynamics of pesticides in the soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of the application of total and dissolved organic matter from a biodigester and a treatment lagoon of swine wastewater in the adsorption and desorption of alachlor [2-chloro-2,6-diethyl-N(methoxymethyl acetamide)]. The assay was performed by the batch equilibrium method, and the results were fitted to the Freundlich model. The curve comparison test revealed a greater adsorption of alachlor in the soil treated with swine wastewater from the biodigester. The adsorption and desorption of alachlor increased in the soils where swine wastewater was added, and hysteresis was observed in all of the treatments.

  5. The effect of raw material contamination with mycotoxins on the composition of alcoholic fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits.

    PubMed

    Kłosowski, Grzegorz; Mikulski, Dawid

    2010-12-01

    The effects of the mycotoxins, aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2) (AF), ochratoxin A, (OTA), zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) added to corn grain mashes on the composition of fermentation volatile by-products in raw spirits were determined. Except for FB(1), the mycotoxins increased acetaldehyde concentration in the obtained spirits from about 30% to 100% in relation to the control set (30.9+/-1.0mg of acetaldehyde/L EtOH). The largest effect was observed for OTA and AF contaminations (65.9+/-5.9 and 62.4+/-5.0mg/L EtOH, respectively). At the concentrations used (ppb): FB(1), 1875; FB(2), 609; FB(3), 195; DON, 2274; ZEA, 352; AFB(1), 11.65; AFB(2), 12.6; AFG(1), 12.34; AFG(2), 12.04; OTA, 177.5, the mycotoxins did not have a significant effect on the total level of higher alcohols in distillates. As compared to the control, contamination with OTA and FB(1) decreased the 3-methyl-1-butanol concentration by 11.2% and 12.6% respectively, whereas AF decreased the 2-methyl-1-butanol concentration by 14.9%. The mycotoxins AF, ZEA, FB(1), had no significant effect on the concentration of total esters. Whereas OTA caused twofold higher esters concentration in the distillates, DON lowered esters concentration by 32% as compared to control. Presented results show that quantitative changes in composition of volatile fermentation by-products in raw spirits can be related to the presence of increased level of mycotoxins in raw material, especially in the absence of other identifiable factors disturbing the normal course of process.

  6. Biodegradability and denitrification potential of settleable chemical oxygen demand in domestic wastewater.

    PubMed

    Tas, Didem Okutman; Karahan, Ozlem; Insel, Güçlü; Ovez, Süleyman; Orhon, Derin; Spanjers, Henri

    2009-07-01

    The effect of settling on mass balance and biodegradation characteristics of domestic wastewater and on denitrification potential was studied primarily using model calibration and evaluation of oxygen uptake rate profiles. Raw domestic wastewater was settled for a period of 30 minutes and a period of 2 hours to assess the effect of primary settling on wastewater characterization and composition. Mass balances in the system were made to evaluate the effect of primary settling on major parameters. Primary settling of the selected raw wastewater for 2 hours resulted in the removal of 32% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 9% total Kjeldahl nitrogen, 9% total phosphorus, and 47% total suspended solids. Respirometric analysis identified COD removed by settling as a new COD fraction, namely settleable slowly biodegradable COD (X(ss)), characterized by a hydrolysis rate of 1.0 day(-1) and a hydrolysis half-saturation coefficient of 0.08. A model simulation to test the fate and availability of suspended (X(s)) and settleable (X(ss)) COD fractions as carbon sources for denitrification showed that both particulate COD components were effectively removed aerobically at sludge ages higher than 1.5 to 2.0 days. Under anoxic conditions, the biodegradation of both COD fractions was reduced, especially below an anoxic sludge retention time of 3.0 days. Consequently, modeling results revealed that the settleable COD removed by primary settling could represent up to approximately 40% of the total denitrification potential of the system, depending on the specific configuration selected for the nitrogen removal process. This way, the results showed the significant effect of primary settling on denitrification, indicating that the settleable COD fraction could contribute an additional carbon source in systems where the denitrification potential associated with the influent becomes rate-limiting for the denitrification efficiency.

  7. Organic and detergent degradation in combined O3/UF for domestic laundry wastewater reclamation.

    PubMed

    Seo, G T; Lee, T S; Kim, J T; Yoon, C H; Park, H G; Hong, S C

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the evaluation of organic and detergent degradation in a combined Ozone/UF system for domestic laundry wastewater reclamation. Formation of by-product was investigated by GC/MS for the reclaimed water. Ozone was injected into the raw wastewater in a 10 L contact tank and the wastewater was circulated through the membrane module for inner pressurized cross-flow filtration. The concentrate was returned back to the contact tank. The membrane used in this experiment was hollow fiber polysulfone UF membrane with MWCO 10,000. It has an effective filtration area of 0.06 m2. The experiment was carried out with intermittent ozone injection, 5 min injection and 10 min idling. Ozone was dosed at the concentration of 1.5 mg/L. The flux of the UF could be maintained at 0.24 m/d under filtration pressure 40-45 kPa and water temperature, 20-22 degrees C. The organic removal efficiency by the system was 90% in terms of COD. Ozone was considerably effective to degrade organics in the wastewater. Molecular weight of organics in the raw waste was mostly greater than 10,000 (72% of 950 mgCOD/L). However 86% of effluent COD (94-100 mg/L) was composed of organics smaller than MWCO 500 by ozone injection. No harmful by-products by ozone contact were detected from the analysis of treated water using GC/MS. It was identified that residual organics in the treated water were 1,1'-Oxybisbenzene, Octadecanoic acid, Squalene and Benzenmethanol, etc., which were additives contained originally in the detergent. Consequently the reclaimed water quality could be estimated safe enough to recycle for the rinsing cycle in a washing machine.

  8. Design of petroleum products terminal wastewater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Klock, B.

    1995-12-31

    Petroleum products terminals, used in conjunction with transportation operations to accomplish the flow of products from their source in refineries down to the consumers, are relatively simple facilities comprising product storage, the means for connecting storage to transportation operations, and other operations to support those functions. Although wastewater generation at terminals is relatively minor, increasingly strict regulation of wastewater from even minor sources is making it more critical that terminal wastewater handling, treatment, and disposal be understood and optimized to ensure that effective wastewater treatment is accomplished at reasonable cost. Anticipating the increased demands on terminal wastewater handling, the API Marketing Terminal Effluent Task Force has sponsored a number of studies to characterize wastewater at terminals and to develop practical means for treating the water. In addition, the Task Force sponsored Texaco`s writing of the report on which this paper is based, API 4602, Minimization, Handling, Treatment, and Disposal of Petroleum Products Terminal Wastewaters. This paper highlights some of the key recommendations in the report, which are: (1) begin characterizing the terminal`s tank bottoms water flow and quality as soon as possible; (2) determine the optimum wastewater disposal option; (3) for most situations, segregate stormwater from contaminated water; (4) if wastewater is treated, use a collection tank to equalize the flow and concentration of tank bottoms water; (5) if wastewater is hauled off to a disposal company, consider removing benzene first; and (6) minimize the use of detergents in the terminal.

  9. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  10. Characterization and flocculation mechanism of a bioflocculant from potato starch wastewater.

    PubMed

    Guo, Junyuan; Lau, Anthony K; Zhang, Yuzhe; Zhao, Jing

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the characterization and flocculation mechanism of a bioflocculant prepared using potato starch wastewater. The optimal culture conditions of this strain were determined as 4 g K2HPO4, 2 g KH2PO4, 0.2 g MgSO4, 0.1 g NaCl, and 2.0 g urea dissolved in 1.0 L potato starch wastewater with no need of adding carbon sources or adjusting pH value. Production of this bioflocculant was positively associated with cell growth, and a highest value of 0.81 g/L was obtained. During the kaolin suspension flocculation, charge neutralization and interparticle bridging were proposed as the main reasons for enhanced performance. Further, with potato starch wastewater, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal rates reached 52.4 and 81.7 %, respectively, at pH 7.5 when the bioflocculant dose was adjusted to 30 mg/L.

  11. Biofilm processes in treating mariculture wastewater may be a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Zhang, Shenghua; Ye, Chengsong; Lin, Wenfang; Zhang, Menglu; Chen, Lihua; Li, Jinmei; Yu, Xin

    2017-03-09

    Antibiotics are heavily used in Chinese mariculture, but only a small portion of the added antibiotics are absorbed by living creatures. Biofilm processes are universally used in mariculture wastewater treatment. In this study, removal of antibiotics (norfloxacin, rifampicin, and oxytetracycline) from wastewater by moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) and the influence of antibiotics on reactor biofilm were investigated. The results demonstrated that there was no significant effect of sub-μg/L-sub-mg/L concentrations of antibiotics on TOC removal. Moreover, the relative abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) in MBBR biofilm increased because of selective pressure of antibiotics. In addition, antibiotics decreased the diversity of the biofilm bacterial community and altered bacterial community structure. These findings provide an empirical basis for the development of appropriate practices for mariculture, and suggest that disinfection and advanced oxidation should be applied to eliminate antibiotics, ARGs, and ARB from mariculture wastewater.

  12. Application of bioplastic moving bed biofilm carriers for the removal of synthetic pollutants from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Accinelli, Cesare; Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Mencarelli, Mariangela; Vicari, Alberto

    2012-09-01

    In this series of laboratory experiments, the feasibility of using moving bed biofilm carriers (MBBC) manufactured from existing bioplastic-based products for the removal of bisphenol A, oseltamivir, and atrazine from wastewater was evaluated. After 10-d incubation, cumulative evolution of (14)CO(2) from control (no MBBC) wastewater spiked with (14)C-labeled bisphenol A, oseltamivir or atrazine, accounted for approximately 18%, 7% and 3.5% of the total added radioactivity, respectively. When wastewater samples were incubated with freely moving carriers, greater removal of the three chemicals was observed. More specifically, cumulative (14)CO(2) evolution of the three xenobiotics increased of 34%, 49%, and 66%, with respect to the control, respectively. Removal efficiency of MBBC was significantly increased by inoculating these bioplastic carriers with bioremediation bacterial strains. Results from this study suggest that the concept behind the moving bed biofilm reactor technology can also be extended to biodegradable carriers inoculated with bioremediation microorganisms.

  13. Electricity production from beer brewery wastewater using single chamber microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Feng, Y J; Lee, H

    2008-01-01

    The performance of electricity production from beer brewery wastewater in a single chamber membrane-free microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated. Experimental results showed that the MFCs could generate electricity from full-strength wastewater (2,239 mg-COD/L, 50 mM PBS added) with the maximum power density of 483 mW/m2 (12 W/m3) at 30 degrees C and 435 mW/m2 (11 W/m3) at 20 degrees C, respectively. Temperature was found to have bigger impact on cathode potential than anode potential. Results suggested that it is feasible to generate electricity with the treatment of beer brewery wastewater.

  14. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  15. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  16. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  17. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  18. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  19. Regulatory considerations for raw materials used in biological products.

    PubMed

    Khan, A S

    2010-01-01

    Raw materials are critical components of product manufacture; these include source materials such as cell substrates, tissues, and biological fluids required for product manufacture, as well as biological materials required for cell growth, propagation, differentiation, and selection. Adventitious viruses are a major safety concern in biological raw materials. This paper discusses the specific concerns related to different types of biological materials and presents the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research's perspective on the qualification and management of raw materials for purposes of developing a safety program for the manufacture of biological products.

  20. Solvent-free synthesis of zeolites from solid raw materials.

    PubMed

    Ren, Limin; Wu, Qinming; Yang, Chengguang; Zhu, Longfeng; Li, Caijin; Zhang, Pengling; Zhang, Haiyan; Meng, Xiangju; Xiao, Feng-Shou

    2012-09-19

    As important industrial materials, microporous zeolites are necessarily synthesized in the presence of solvents such as in hydrothermal, solvothermal, and ionothermal routes. We demonstrate here a simple and generalized solvent-free route for synthesizing various types of zeolites by mixing, grinding, and heating solid raw materials. Compared with conventional hydrothermal route, the avoidance of solvents in the synthesis not only significantly reduces the waste production, but also greatly increases the yield of zeolite products. In addition, the use of starting solid raw materials remarkably enhances the synthesis efficiency and reduces the use of raw materials, energy, and costs.

  1. Serum proteins and some biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed with raw and treated bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) seeds.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Gh; Pourreza, J

    2007-03-15

    This study carried out to evaluate the effect of bitter vetch seeds on serum proteins and biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. A total of 1320 one-day-old broiler chicks of a commercial breed were placed in 64 pens. Treatments were included raw and four different processed bitter vetch seeds in three levels (150, 300 and 450 g kg(-1)) and a corn-soybean based diet as control. Each treatment group consisted of four replicates. Processing methods were included soaked in water for 12 h, autoclaved, then dried at room temperature (SAD); ground, soaked in water for 24 h, autoclaved and dried (GSAD); ground, soaked in water for 47 h with exchange water every 12 h, cooked and dried (GSCD) and ground, soaked at 1% acetic acid solution for 24 h at 60 degrees C (AA). Feeding raw, AA and GSAD seeds decreased serum albumin significantly (p<0.05) in 21-days-old chicks. Chickens that fed with raw and treated bitter vetch seed had lower alpha 1 and gamma globulins than control (p<0.05). Increasing raw and treated bitter vetch seeds from 15 to 30 and 45% decreased albumin, alpha 1 and gamma globulins and increased alpha 2 and beta globulins significantly (p<0.05). In 14-days-old chicks feeding raw and treated biter vetch had no effect on serum urea, but uric acid concentration decreased significantly (p<0.05). Feeding SAD seeds increased serum urea significantly (p<0.05), but uric acid concentration did not change with feeding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds in 42-day-old chicks. Adding raw and treated bitter vetch seeds to diet increased T4 and decreased T3 concentrations in all ages. At 28-days-old chicks, feeding raw and treated biter vetch seeds decreased alkaline phosphatase concentration significantly than control. Results showed that raw bitter vetch seeds have some toxic effects on metabolism in broiler chickens and GSCD and SAD treatments were more effective to detoxification of this seed.

  2. Development and performance evaluation of an algal biofilm reactor for treatment of multiple wastewaters and characterization of biomass for diverse applications.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Poonam; Prajapati, Sanjeev Kumar; Kumar, Pushpendar; Malik, Anushree; Pant, Kamal K

    2017-01-01

    A modified algal biofilm reactor (ABR) was developed and assessed for high biomass productivity and treatment potential using variable strength wastewaters with accumulation of specialized bio-products. The nonwoven spun bond fabric (70GSM) was selected as suitable biofilm support on the basis of attachment efficiency, durability and ease of harvesting. The biomass productivity achieved by ABR biofilms were 4gm(-2)d(-1), 3.64gm(-2)d(-1) and 3.10gm(-2)d(-1) when grown in livestock wastewater (LSW), domestic grey water (DGW) and anaerobically digested slurry (ADS), respectively. Detailed characterization of wastewater grown biomass showed specific distribution of biomolecules into high lipid (38%) containing biomass (DGW grown) and high protein (44%) biomass (LSW and ADS grown). The feasibility assessment of ABR in terms of net energy return (>1) favored its application in an integrated system for treatment and recycling of rural wastewaters with simultaneous production of biomethane, livestock feed supplement and bio fertilizers.

  3. ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL SYSTEMS (1980 EDITION) AND ONSITE WASTEWATER TREATMENT SYSTEMS MANUAL (2002 EDITION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) first issued detailed guidance on the design, construction, and operation of onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTSs) in 1980. Design Manual: Onsite Wastewater Treatment and Disposal Systems (USEPA.1980) was the most comprehens...

  4. Occurrence of pharmaceutically active and non-steroidal estrogenic compounds in three different wastewater recycling schemes in Australia.

    PubMed

    Al-Rifai, Jawad H; Gabelish, Candace L; Schäfer, Andrea I

    2007-10-01

    The discovery that natural and synthetic chemicals, in the form of excreted hormones and pharmaceuticals, as well as a vast array of compounds with domestic and industrial applications, can enter the environment via wastewater treatment plants and cause a wide variety of environmental and health problems even at very low concentrations, suggests the need for improvement of water recycling. Three Australian wastewater recycling schemes, two of which employ reverse osmosis (RO) technology, the other applying ozonation and biological activated carbon filtration, have been studied for their ability to remove trace organic contaminants including 11 pharmaceutically active compounds and two non-steroidal estrogenic compounds. Contaminant concentrations were determined using a sensitive analytical method comprising solid phase extraction, derivatization and GC with MS using selected ion monitoring. In raw wastewater, concentrations of analgesics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications were comparable to those found in wastewaters around the world. Remarkably, removal efficiencies for the three schemes were superior to literature values and RO was responsible for the greatest proportion of contaminant removal. The ability of RO membranes to concentrate many of the compounds was demonstrated and highlights the need for continued research into monitoring wastewater treatment, concentrate disposal, improved water recycling schemes and ultimately, safer water and a cleaner environment.

  5. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  6. Recovery of nitrogen from saponification wastewater by struvite precipitation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haiming; Xiao, Xianming; Yang, Liping; Yan, Bo

    2010-01-01

    In general, saponification wastewater produced from the separation process of rare-earth elements contains high ammonium concentration. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the parameters to enhance the struvite precipitation potential for ammonium removal from the wastewater having an ammonium concentration of 4,100 mg/L. Experimental results showed that increasing the dose and grain size of pre-formed struvite, which was added as the seeding material in struvite reaction, could increase ammonium removal. The removal efficiency increased 7.6% when the dose of pre-formed struvite with crystal grain size range of 0.098-0.150 mm increased from 0 g/L to 60 g/L. Additionally, struvite precipitation was tested with the intermittent addition of magnesium and phosphate to utilize the struvite crystals formed during the reaction process as the seeding material for the subsequent reaction. The results revealed that intermittently adding magnesium 7 times effectively enhanced ammonium removal by around 8%, which was equivalent to that of using pre-formed struvite as the seeding material. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the struvite recovered with intermittent addition of magnesium was characterized, showing the struvite could be used as fertilizer. An economic evaluation indicated that intermittent addition of magnesium 7 times can save 13.4% cost for recovering per kg NH(4)(+) compared to that of bulk addition.

  7. Vermicomposting of olive oil mill wastewaters.

    PubMed

    Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello

    2010-08-01

    The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth.

  8. Heavy metal removal from synthetic wastewaters in an anaerobic bioreactor using stillage from ethanol distilleries as a carbon source.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, M M M; da Costa, A C A; Leite, S G F; Sant'Anna, G L

    2007-11-01

    This work was conducted to investigate the possibility of using stillage from ethanol distilleries as substrate for sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) growth and to evaluate the removal efficiency of heavy metals present in wastewaters containing sulfates. The experiments were carried out in a continuous bench-scale Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (13 l) operated with a hydraulic retention time of 18 h. The bioreactor was inoculated with 7 l of anaerobic sludge. Afterwards, an enrichment procedure to increase SRB numbers was started. After this, cadmium and zinc were added to the synthetic wastewater, and their removal as metal sulfide was evaluated. The synthetic wastewater used represented the drainage from a dam of a metallurgical industry to which a carbon source (stillage) was added. The results showed that high percentages of removal (>99%) of Cd and Zn were attained in the bioreactor, and that the removal as sulfide precipitates was not the only form of metal removal occurring in the bioreactor environment.

  9. Wastewater Characterization Survey Victor Valley, Wastewater Reclamation Authority and Hazardous Waste Survey at George AFB, Californi

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    and the type of pretreatment required are speculative. By the compounds found in the wastewater characterization and hazardous waste survey, SBRs ...shall oean a station positioned In a. sewer system at which wastewater is pumped to a higher level . (67) Sewer shall mean a pipe or conduit that...USAFOEHL REPORT 87-004EQO073AEF WASTEWATER CHARACTERIZATION SURVEY VICTOR VALLEY, WASTEWATER RECLAMATION AUTHORITY AND HAZARDOUS WASTE SURVEY AT

  10. Removal of low-concentration phosphorus using a fluidized raw dolomite bed.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, George M; Kalinian, Houri

    2006-04-01

    Raw dolomite powder, obtained from dolomitic rocks, was evaluated for its efficiency in removing low concentrations of phosphate present in various water and wastewater matrices. A variety of experimental setups and process variables were tested, in an attempt to determine the optimal scheme (fluidized bed) that will be used to accomplish the objectives of the study. Test influents, including distilled water (DW), synthetic groundwater (SGW), tap water (TW), and sodium-hydroxide (NaOH)-alkalized wastewater treated with liquid bittern (STSE-B) and wastewater treated with lime (STSE-L) were used to assess the effect of influent parameters on the quality of the effluent generated. The adsorptive behavior of dolomite was described by fitting data generated from the study into the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherm models. Regeneration of the dolomite was attempted by the use of an acid (hydrochloric acid), DW, and an alkaline (NaOH). Test results indicate remarkable phosphate removal levels for DW and SGW. Removal levels of 100% were attained, for an average of 307 and 314 bed volumes at inflow concentration levels of 0.28 and 0.34 mg phosphate (PO4)/ L, respectively. Relative adsorption capacities were calculated to be 0.06 and 0.072 mg PO4/g of dolomite, respectively. For TW, STSE-L, and STSE-B, 100% removal before the start of the breakthrough was sustained for averages of 205, 94, and 28 bed volumes at phosphate dosages of 0.34, 0.56, and 0.6 mg PO4/L, respectively. The calculated adsorptive capacities were 0.05, 0.051, and 0.025, respectively. Zeta potential measurement resulted in values of -16.0 mV before treatment and +3.0 mV after complete exhaustion of the bed with PO4-jacked SGW influent, indicating an ionic adsorption of ions of opposite charge to that of the particle surface. Although both the Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms were found to fit the sorption curves, the Langmuir seems to better describe the sorption process in dolomite. Among the three

  11. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Wastewater Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to wastewater inputs associated with urbanization, overview of combined sewer overflows, overview of how wastewater inputs can contribute to enrichment or eutrophication, overview of how wastewater inputs can affect reproduction by stream fauna.

  12. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  13. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  14. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  15. Microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment for reuse in water bodies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing-Han; Zhang, Tian-Yuan; Dao, Guo-Hua; Xu, Xue-Qiao; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong -Ying

    2017-04-01

    Reuse of secondary municipal effluent from wastewater treatment plants in water bodies could effectively alleviate freshwater resource shortage. However, excessive nutrients must be efficiently removed to prevent eutrophication. Compared with other means of advanced wastewater treatment, microalgae-based processes display overwhelming advantages including efficient and simultaneous N and P removal, no requirement of additional chemicals, O2 generation, CO2 mitigation, and potential value-added products from harvested biomass. One particular challenge of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment compared to treatment of other types of wastewater is that concentrations of nutrients and N:P ratios in secondary municipal effluent are much lower and imbalanced. Therefore, there should be comprehensive considerations on nutrient removal from this specific type of effluent. Removal of nutrients and organic substances, and other environmental benefits of microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment systems were summarized. Among the existing studies on microalgal advanced nutrient removal, much information on major parameters is absent, rendering performances between studies not really comparable. Mechanisms of microalgae-based nitrogen and phosphorus removal were respectively analyzed to better understand advanced nutrient removal from municipal secondary effluent. Factors influencing microalgae-based nutrient removal were divided into intrinsic, environmental, and operational categories; several factors were identified in each category, and their influences on microalgal nutrient removal were discussed. A multiplicative kinetic model was integrated to estimate microalgal growth-related nutrient removal based majorly on environmental and intrinsic factors. Limitations and prospects of future full-scale microalgae-based advanced municipal wastewater treatment were also suggested. The manuscript could offer much valuable information for future

  16. RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    RAW WATER STORAGE TANK ON NORTH SIDE OF WATER PUMP HOUSE, TRA-619. INTERIOR. INL NEGATIVE NO. 2489. Unknown Photographer, 6/1951 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Know the Risks of Feeding Raw Food to Your Pets

    MedlinePlus

    ... 30, 2014 back to top Related Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Avoid the Dangers of Raw Pet Food Tips for Safe Handling of Pet Food and Treats More in Consumer Updates Animal & Veterinary Children's Health Cosmetics Dietary Supplements Drugs Food ...

  18. New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    New rain shed (Building No. 241), overhead pipeline and raw water tank T4. Distribution pump house can be seen at the center of building. - Hawaii Volcanoes National Park Water Collection System, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, Volcano, Hawaii County, HI

  19. 7 CFR 58.332 - Segregation of raw material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures § 58.332 Segregation of raw material. The milk and cream received at the dairy plant shall meet the quality specifications as indicated under § 58.322. The milk and cream should be segregated...

  20. 60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. INTERIOR VIEW OF THE RAW MATERIALS BUILDING, LOOKING AT THE POIDOMETER AND WEIGHING MACHINE. MAY 5, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  1. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  2. FAILURE ANALYSIS: WASTEWATER DRUM BULGING

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-15

    A 55 gallon wastewater drum lid was found to be bulged during storage in a remote area. Drum samples were obtained for analysis. The interior surface of these samples revealed blistering and holes in the epoxy phenolic drum liner and corrosion of the carbon steel drum. It is suspected that osmotic pressure drove permeation of the water through the epoxy phenolic coating which was weakened from exposure to low pH water. The coating failed at locations throughout the drum interior. Subsequent corrosion of the carbon steel released hydrogen which pressurized the drum causing deformation of the drum lid. Additional samples from other wastewater drums on the same pallet were also evaluated and limited corrosion was visible on the interior surfaces. It is suspected that, with time, the corrosion would have advanced to cause pressurization of these sealed drums.

  3. Outsource water/wastewater management

    SciTech Connect

    Tedesco, J.A.; Cichon, E.J.

    1997-08-01

    For some operating facilities, outsourcing water/wastewater management offers an economical way to receive and use high-quality water and maintain effluent treatment services. As high-volume water users, hydrocarbon processing industry (HPI) companies daily use, consume and discard large quantities of water and wastewater. To remain competitive and to reduce daily operating costs, HPI companies have farmed out services. Water management is a possible plant function that can be administrated by a third party. Outsourcing the utilities area allows operators to focus and allocate resources on their core profit-generating products. It is an opportunity to try new technologies without risking capital. Before signing the contract, facilities should carefully scrutinize the benefits--financial, environmental, etc.--and actual costs from outsourcing their water management.

  4. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  5. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  6. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  7. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  8. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  9. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart Ggg of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION.... GGG, Table 6 Table 6 to Subpart GGG of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options for Wastewater...

  10. 40 CFR Table 10 to Subpart G of... - Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Wastewater-Compliance Options for Wastewater Tanks 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Wastewater Pt. 63, Subpt. G, Table 10 Table 10 to Subpart G of Part 63—Wastewater—Compliance Options...

  11. [Amelioration effects of wastewater sludge biochars on red soil acidity and their environmental risk].

    PubMed

    Lu, Zai-Liang; Li, Jiu-Yu; Jiang, Jun; Xu, Ren-Kou

    2012-10-01

    Biochars were prepared from wastewater sludge from two wastewater treatment plants in Nanjing using a pyrolysis method at 300, 500 and 700 degrees C. The properties of the biochars were measured, and their amelioration effects on the acidity of a red soil and environmental risk of application of sludge biochars were examined to evaluate the possibility of agricultural application of wastewater sludge biochars in red soils. Results indicated that incorporation of both sludge and sludge biochar increased soil pH due to the alkalinity of sludge and sludge biochar, and the mineralization of organic N and nitrification of ammonium N from wastewater sludge induced soil pH fluctuated during incubation. The amelioration effects of biochars generated at 500 and 700 degrees C on the soil were significantly greater than that of sludge significantly. Sludge and sludge biochar contain ample base cations of Ca2+, Mg2+, K+ and Na+ and thus incorporation of sludge and sludge biochar increased the contents of soil exchangeable base cations and decreased soil exchangeable aluminum and H+. Contents of heavy metals in sludge biochars were greater than these in their feedstock sludge, while the contents of Cu, Pb, Ni and As in sludge biochars were lower than the standard values of heavy metals were wastewater sludge for agricultural use in acid soils in China except for Zn and Cd. The contents of available forms of heavy metals in the biochars generated from sludge from Chengdong wastewater treatment plant was lower than these in the corresponding sludge, suggesting that pyrolysis proceed decreased the activity of heavy metals in wastewater sludge. After 90-day incubation of the soil with sludge and sludge biochar, the differences in the contents of soil available heavy metals were not significant between the biochars and their feedstock sludge from Jiangxizhou wastewater treatment plant, and the contents in the treatments with biochars added was lower than these in the treatments with

  12. Production of thermostable protease enzyme in wastewater sludge using thermophilic bacterial strains isolated from sludge.

    PubMed

    Chenel, J P; Tyagi, R D; Surampalli, R Y

    2008-01-01

    The volume of sludge produced annually is very high and poses serious disposal problems. The traditional methods of sludge disposal produce secondary pollutants. Therefore, the alternate or suitable solution is reuse of sludge in an ecofriendly approach. Biotechnology is an interesting tool to add value to the processes involved in wastewater and wastewater sludge disposal/reuse. In this context, a study was carried out on thermophilic bacterial strains that produce thermostable proteases. The bacterial strains were first isolated from municipal wastewater sludge. In contrast to the conventional strains used in industries, like Bacillus sp., the new strains were Gram-Negative type. In semi-synthetic medium, a maximal protease activity of 5.25 IU/ml (International Unit per ml) was obtained at a pH of 8.2 and at a temperature of 60 degrees C, which is higher than the stability temperature of 37 degrees C for a similar protease obtained from the conventional producer Bacillus licheniformis. Moreover, growth and protease activity of the strains were tested in wastewater sludge. It is expected that the complexity of sludge could stimulate/enhance the protease production and their characteristics. In conclusion, reuse of wastewater sludge will help to reduce their quantity as well as the value-added products produced will replace chemical products used in industries.

  13. An isotope dilution-precipitation process for removing radioactive cesium from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Harold; Bowers, John; Gates-Anderson, Dianne

    2012-12-01

    A novel isotope dilution-precipitation method has been developed to remove cesium-137 from radioactive wastewater. The process involves adding stable cesium chloride to wastewater in order to raise the total cesium concentration, which then allows both the stable and radioactive cesium ions to be precipitated together using sodium tetraphenylborate. This process was investigated utilizing laboratory solutions to determine stable cesium dose rates, mixing times, effects of pH, and filtration requirements. Once optimized, the process was then tested on synthetic wastewater and aqueous low-level waste. Experiments showed the reaction to be very quick and stable in the pH range tested, 2.5-11.5. The wastewater may need to be filtered using a 0.45-μm filter, though ferric sulfate has been shown to promote coagulation and settling, thereby eliminating the necessity for filtration. This investigation showed that this isotope dilution-precipitation process can remove Cs-37 levels below the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Derived Concentration Standard (DCS) of 3.0 × 10(-6) μCi/mL using a single dosage, potentially allowing the wastewater to be discharged directly to sanitary sewers.

  14. Determination of 15 organophosphorus pesticides in Italian raw milk.

    PubMed

    Gazzotti, Teresa; Sticca, Patrizia; Zironi, Elisa; Lugoboni, Barbara; Serraino, Andrea; Pagliuca, Giampiero

    2009-02-01

    A study was conducted on raw cow's milk to measure the residues of 15 organophosphorus pesticides used as dairy cattle ectoparasiticides or as insecticides in crops used for animal feed. For this purpose a previously devised method was improved and validated. The samples were collected directly from tank trucks during delivery of 3,974 tonnes of raw milk at nine Italian dairy plants. Approximately 4.4% of the 298 samples analyzed contained residues only in traces. The main pollutant was chlorpyriphos.

  15. Sodar - PNNL Scintec MFAS, Oregon Raceway Park - Raw Data

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail

    2016-10-25

    Provide measurements of wind speed and direction up to 400 m AGL (max). The data are stored in 2 forms: ASCII and raw (binary). ASCII files contain averaged data (currently -- 15 min time step and 10 m range gate); raw files could be reprocessed with the sodar software (APRun by Scintec) to produce ASCII files with different time and/or height averaging settings (highest resolution is approx. 90 sec and 10 m).

  16. Fracking, wastewater disposal, and earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, Arthur

    2016-03-01

    In the modern oil and gas industry, fracking of low-permeability reservoirs has resulted in a considerable increase in the production of oil and natural gas, but these fluid-injection activities also can induce earthquakes. Earthquakes induced by fracking are an inevitable consequence of the injection of fluid at high pressure, where the intent is to enhance permeability by creating a system of cracks and fissures that allow hydrocarbons to flow to the borehole. The micro-earthquakes induced during these highly-controlled procedures are generally much too small to be felt at the surface; indeed, the creation or reactivation of a large fault would be contrary to the goal of enhancing permeability evenly throughout the formation. Accordingly, the few case histories for which fracking has resulted in felt earthquakes have been due to unintended fault reactivation. Of greater consequence for inducing earthquakes, modern techniques for producing hydrocarbons, including fracking, have resulted in considerable quantities of coproduced wastewater, primarily formation brines. This wastewater is commonly disposed by injection into deep aquifers having high permeability and porosity. As reported in many case histories, pore pressure increases due to wastewater injection were channeled from the target aquifers into fault zones that were, in effect, lubricated, resulting in earthquake slip. These fault zones are often located in the brittle crystalline rocks in the basement. Magnitudes of earthquakes induced by wastewater disposal often exceed 4, the threshold for structural damage. Even though only a small fraction of disposal wells induce earthquakes large enough to be of concern to the public, there are so many of these wells that this source of seismicity contributes significantly to the seismic hazard in the United States, especially east of the Rocky Mountains where standards of building construction are generally not designed to resist shaking from large earthquakes.

  17. ON-SITE APPLICABILITY OF HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PRODUCING MICROBIAL ELECTROCHEMICAL CELLS COUPLED WITH UV IN WASTEWATER DISINFECTION STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an increased interest in the application of microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) for the recovery of value-added products such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. H2O2 has strong oxidation capability and produces hydroxyl radicals when coupled w...

  18. On-site applicability of hydrogen peroxide producing microbial electrochemical cells (MECs) coupled with UV in wastewater disinfection study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: There is an increased interest in the application of microbial electrochemical cell (MEC) for the recovery of value-added products such as hydrogen gas and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from wastewater. H2O2 has strong oxidation capability and produces hydroxyl radicals wh...

  19. Evaluation of engineered nanoparticle toxic effect on wastewater microorganisms: current status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Eduok, S; Martin, B; Villa, R; Nocker, A; Jefferson, B; Coulon, F

    2013-09-01

    The use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in a wide range of products is associated with an increased concern for environmental safety due to their potential toxicological and adverse effects. ENPs exert antimicrobial properties through different mechanisms such as the formation of reactive oxygen species, disruption of physiological and metabolic processes. Although there are little empirical evidences on environmental fate and transport of ENPs, biosolids in wastewater most likely would be a sink for ENPs. However, there are still many uncertainties in relation to ENPs impact on the biological processes during wastewater treatment. This review provides an overview of the available data on the plausible effects of ENPs on AS and AD processes, two key biologically relevant environments for understanding ENPs-microbial interactions. It indicates that the impact of ENPs is not fully understood and few evidences suggest that ENPs could augment microbial-mediated processes such as AS and AD. Further to this, wastewater components can enhance or attenuate ENPs effects. Meanwhile it is still difficult to determine effective doses and establish toxicological guidelines, which is in part due to variable wastewater composition and inadequacy of current analytical procedures. Challenges associated with toxicity evaluation and data interpretation highlight areas in need for further research studies.

  20. Effects of organic matter on crystallization of struvite in biologically treated swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Capdevielle, Aurélie; Sýkorová, Eva; Béline, Fabrice; Daumer, Marie-Line

    2016-01-01

    A sustainable way to recover phosphorus (P) in swine wastewater involves a preliminary step of P dissolution followed by the separation of particulate organic matter (OM). The next two steps are firstly the precipitation of struvite crystals done by adding a crystallization reagent (magnesia) and secondly the filtration of the crystals. To develop the process successfully at an industrial scale, the control of the mechanisms of precipitation is the key point in order to obtain high value-added products, that is, big struvite crystals easy to harvest and handle. Experiments with process parameters optimized previously in a synthetic swine wastewater were performed on real swine wastewater to assess the role of the OM on struvite crystallization. After 24 h, with a pH increase to 6.8 only, 90% of the initial P was precipitated and 60% was precipitated as struvite. 80% of the solid recovered was in the fraction > 100 µm. The other forms recovered were brushite, amorphous calcium phosphate, NaCl, KCl and OM. The influence of OM on struvite precipitation in acidified swine wastewater was negative on the reaction kinetics but positive on the size of the struvite crystals. The presence of colloidal particles increased the size of the struvite crystals but slowed down the kinetics due to the viscosity induced by the repulsive force of the colloids. The maximum size of single struvite crystals (200 µm) was observed with the presence of particulate OM.