Science.gov

Sample records for adding small quantities

  1. Comparison of conserved quantities in an FRC with RMFs added

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landsman, A. S.; Cohen, S. A.

    2001-10-01

    The fields in the FRC with an applied rotating magnetic field (RMF) can be derived from the time-independent FRC potential, and the applied time-dependent RMF vector potential, which is a function of φ - ω t, where ω is the frequency of rotation of the applied field, and φ is the angle in the toroidal geometry of the FRC. Based on general principles, Glasser and Cohen have derived a conserved quantity K = H - ω p_φ by transforming from the lab set of coordinates, r, φ and z to a rotating frame of coordinates r, \\varphi, and z, where \\varphi = φ - ω t. K is shown to be conserved whenever such a change of coordinates produces potentials that do not have an explicit time dependence. Hugrass and Turley, starting with a specified FRC and RMF vector potentials, performing a change of variables and working with a resulting second order differential equation, have also derived a conserved quantity, named "Energy in the Rotating Frame", ξ. It can be shown that ξ is in fact K, calculated for the vector potentials specified by Hugrass and Turley. ξ is thus a specific instance of the more general result.

  2. Effect of zinc added to a daily small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on diarrhoea, malaria, fever and respiratory infections in young children in rural Burkina Faso: a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Somé, Jérôme W; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Hess, Sonja Y; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P; Guissou, Rosemonde M; Vosti, Stephen A; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-01-01

    Objective Preventive zinc supplementation in the form of tablets or syrup reduces the incidence of diarrhoea and acute lower respiratory tract infections (RTI), but its effect on malaria is inconsistent. When zinc is administered with other micronutrients or foods, its effect is also uncertain. We assessed the effects of different amounts and sources of zinc on the frequency of diarrhoea, malaria, fever and RTI in young children. Design, setting and populations This community-based, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cluster-randomised trial of 2435 children 9 months of age was carried out between April 2010 and July 2012 in rural southwestern Burkina Faso. Interventions Participants were randomly assigned at the concession level to receive daily 1 of 4 interventions for 9 months: (1) 20 g small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement (SQ-LNS) without zinc and placebo tablet, (2) 20 g SQ-LNS with 5 mg zinc and placebo tablet, (3) 20 g SQ-LNS with 10 mg zinc and placebo tablet or (4) 20 g SQ-LNS without zinc and 5 mg zinc tablet. Participants were visited weekly in their homes for morbidity surveillance for 9 months, and those with uncomplicated diarrhoea and malaria received treatment from the study field workers in the community. Main outcomes Incidence and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhoea, malaria, fever, and lower and upper RTI by intervention group. Results The incidence of diarrhoea, malaria and fever was 1.10 (±1.03 SD), 0.61 (±0.66 SD) and 1.49 (±1.12 SD) episodes per 100 child-days at risk, respectively, and did not differ by intervention group (p=0.589, p=0.856 and p=0.830, respectively). The longitudinal prevalence of acute lower RTI (0.1%; 95% IC 0.1–0.2%) and of upper RTI (7.8%; 95% IC 7.1–8.4%) did not differ among groups (p=0.234 and p=0.501, respectively). Conclusions Inclusion of 5 or 10 mg zinc in SQ-LNS and provision of 5 mg zinc dispersible tablet along with SQ-LNS had no impact on the incidence of diarrhoea

  3. Regulatory compliance by small-quantity generators of hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect

    Deyle, R.E.

    1987-01-01

    While small quantity and very small quantity generators of hazardous waste (SQCs and VSQGs) are responsible for less than one percent of the total hazardous waste produced, mismanagement of even small quantities of many types of hazardous waste can cause significant local impacts. Most SQGs and VSQGs are also small businesses. They are presumed to face significant time, expertise, and other resource constraints in complying with legally and technically complex regulations such as those that govern hazardous waste management. A sample of 400 SQGs and VSQGs in New Jersey was surveyed to assess policy options for two policy issues identified by the New Jersey Hazardous Waste Facilities Siting Commission: (1) enhancing regulatory compliance by SQGs, and (2) promoting voluntary adherence with hazardous waste regulations by VSQGs in the state. The analysis empirically tests hypotheses based on the rational utility maximization and bounded rationality models of individual and organizational decision making and compliance behavior.

  4. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  5. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  6. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  7. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... radiation therefrom, either externally or internally, to human beings except as may be authorized by NRC in... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small quantities of source material. 40.22 Section 40.22 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION DOMESTIC LICENSING OF SOURCE MATERIAL General Licenses § 40.22...

  8. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  9. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  10. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity generators. 261.5 Section 261.5 Protection of... small quantity generators. (a) A generator is a conditionally exempt small quantity generator in a... small quantity generator's hazardous wastes are not subject to regulation under parts 262 through...

  11. On wormholes with arbitrarily small quantities of exotic matter

    SciTech Connect

    Fewster, Christopher J.; Roman, Thomas A.

    2005-08-15

    Recently several models of traversable wormholes have been proposed which require only arbitrarily small amounts of negative energy to hold them open against self-collapse. If the exotic matter is assumed to be provided by quantum fields, then quantum inequalities can be used to place constraints on the negative energy densities required. In this paper, we introduce an alternative method for obtaining constraints on wormhole geometries, using a recently derived quantum inequality bound on the null-contracted stress-energy averaged over a timelike worldline. The bound allows us to perform a simplified analysis of general wormhole models, not just those with small quantities of exotic matter. We then use it to study, in particular, the models of Visser, Kar, and Dadhich (VKD) and the models of Kuhfittig. The VKD models are constrained to be either submicroscopic or to have a large discrepancy between throat size and curvature radius. A recent model of Kuhfittig is shown to be nontraversable. This is due to the fact that the throat of his wormhole flares outward so slowly that light rays and particles, starting from outside the throat, require an infinite lapse of affine parameter to reach the throat.

  12. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  13. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  14. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  15. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  16. 40 CFR 273.8 - Applicability-household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. 273.8 Section 273.8 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....8 Applicability—household and conditionally exempt small quantity generator waste. (a) Persons... universal wastes defined at § 273.9; and/or (2) Conditionally exempt small quantity generator wastes...

  17. 10 CFR 40.22 - Small quantities of source material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... agencies to receive, possess, use, and transfer uranium and thorium, in their natural isotopic concentrations and in the form of depleted uranium, for research, development, educational, commercial, or operational purposes in the following forms and quantities: (1) No more than 1.5 kg (3.3 lb) of uranium...

  18. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.139 Adding a small... or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any...

  19. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.139 Adding a small... or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any...

  20. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.139 Adding a small... or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any...

  1. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.139 Adding a small... or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any...

  2. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.139 Adding a small... or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any...

  3. Measuring Very Small Quantities: Fascinating Suggestions for Math or Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John Taylor

    1989-01-01

    Described are several activities for teaching children to determine mass and volume. Included are the masses of a water drop and a grain of rice; the volume of a water drop and small solids; and measuring the width of a hair. Procedures and materials for the activities are discussed. (CW)

  4. Preparation of isotopic molybdenum foils utilizing small quantities of material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipski, A. R.; Lee, L. L.; Liang, J. F.; Mahon, J. C.

    1993-09-01

    A simple method utilizing a small amount of isotopic material for production of molybdenum foils is discussed. An e-gun is used in the procedure. The Mo powder undergoes reduction-sintering and melting-solidifying steps leading to the creation of a metallic droplet suitable for further cold rolling or vacuum deposition.

  5. Small quantities of erythrocyte bound immunoglobulins and autoimmune haemolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sokol, R J; Hewitt, S; Booker, D J; Stamps, R

    1987-01-01

    Enzyme linked and radioimmune direct antiglobulin tests (DAGTs) were used to assess red cell bound IgG, IgA, and IgM in 585 patients referred to an immunohaematology reference centre. One hundred and fifty eight patients with less than or equal to 200 mol IgG and small amounts of IgA and IgM coating their red cells were studied in detail. The presence of autoimmune haemolysis was determined from the clinical, haematological, and biochemical findings; it occurred in at least 25% of the 158 patients, the degree varying widely. There was a highly significant association between small increases in cell bound immunoglobulins and the presence of autoimmune haemolysis. Immunoglobulins of IgG, IgA, and IgM classes could produce autoimmune haemolysis when the classical agglutination DAGTs were negative; the IgA and IgM were usually found in association with IgG. The haemolytic effect was enhanced by the presence of complement and combinations of immunoglobulin classes on the red cells. PMID:3558858

  6. Superradiance instability of small rotating AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delice, Ã.-zgür; Durǧut, Türküler

    2015-07-01

    We investigate the stability of D dimensional singly rotating Myers-Perry-AdS black holes under superradiance against scalar field perturbations. It is well known that small four dimensional rotating or charged Anti-de Sitter (AdS) black holes are unstable against superradiance instability of a scalar field. Recent works extended the existence of this instability to five dimensional rotating charged AdS black holes or static charged AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions. In this paper we analytically prove that rotating small AdS black holes in arbitrary dimensions also shows superradiance instability irrespective of the value of the (positive) angular momentum quantum number. To do this we solve the Klein-Gordon equation in the slow rotation, low frequency limit. By using the asymptotic matching technique, we are able to calculate the real and imaginary parts of the correction terms to the frequency of the scalar field due to the presence of the black hole, confirming the presence of superradiance instability. We see that, unlike in the case of static AdS black holes, the analytical method is valid for rotating AdS black holes for any value of angular momentum number and spacetime dimensions. For comparison we derive the corresponding correction terms for Myers-Perry black holes in the black hole bomb formalism in the Appendix and see that the results are in agreement.

  7. MANAGEMENT OF HOUSEHOLD AND SMALL-QUANTITY-GENERATOR HAZARDOUS WASTE IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The International Solid Waste and Public Cleansing Association (ISWA), an international nongovernmental organization comprising twenty-seven national organizations of waste management professionals, conducted a survey to obtain information regarding household and small-quantity-g...

  8. A GREEN'S FUNCTION APPROACH FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, S.

    2012-06-14

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package in compliance with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. The neutron and photon sources were calculated using both ORIGEN-S and RASTA. The response from a unit source in each neutron and photon group was calculated using MCNP5 with each unshielded and shielded container configuration. Effects of self-shielding on both neutron and photon response were evaluated by including either plutonium oxide or iron in the source region for the case with no shielded container. For the cases of actinides mixed with light elements, beryllium is the bounding light element. The added beryllium (10 to 90 percent of the actinide mass) in the cases studied represents between 9 and 47 percent concentration of the total mixture mass. For beryllium concentrations larger than 50 percent, the increase in the neutron source term and dose rate tend to increase at a much lower rate than at concentrations lower than 50%. The intimately mixed actinide-beryllium form used in these models is very conservative and thus the limits presented in this report are practical bounds on the mass that can be safely shipped. The calculated dose rate from one gram of each isotope was then used to determin the maximum amount of a single isotope that could be shipped in the Model 9977 Package (or packagings having the same or larger external dimensions as well as similar structural materials) and have the external radiation level within the regulatory dose limits at the surface of the package. The estimates of the mass limits presented would also serve as conservative limits for both the Models 9975 and 9978 packages. If a

  9. Regularities in the response of spectral lines to small perturbations in physical quantities in the photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mozharovskii, S. G.

    2017-01-01

    Numerical simulations are used to establish a number of dependencies between small perturbations in physical quantities in the photosphere and small variations in the Stokes profiles of spectral lines. A perturbation of any physical quantity in the model photosphere shifts every point in a line profile in the direction perpendicular to the tangent to the profile at that point. The actions on the wing of a spectral line of perturbations in the magnetic field and radial velocity are equivalent for a particular ratio of these perturbations (if the line is fully split in the magnetic field). If the response of part of a line wing is considered as a shift in wavelength, the area under the curve representing the response to perturbations in the magnetic field and radial velocity has a simple physical meaning.

  10. SAFETY ANALYSIS REPORT FOR PACKAGING, MODEL 9977, ADDENDUM 3, JUSTIFICATION FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITY CONTENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramczyk, G.

    2011-10-31

    This Addendum establishes a new family of content envelopes consisting of small quantities of radioactive materials. These content envelopes and specific packing configurations are shown to be subcritical. However, the dose rates of some payloads must be measured and shown to comply with applicable radiation limits. Authorization for shipment of the content envelop requires acceptance of this Addendum by the DOE-HQ certifying official as a supplement to the 9977 SARP Revision 2 and DOE-HQ's subsequent revision of the CoC Revision 10 (which is based on SARP Addendum 2 and SARP Addendum 4) to authorize the additional content envelope. The Small Gram Quantity Content Envelopes and packing configurations will be incorporated in the next revision of the 9977 SARP.

  11. Development of psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Da-Li; Lin, Xiao-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Psychotic symptoms can occur in some clinical conditions related to alcohol, such as intoxication, withdrawal, and other alcohol-induced neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we present a case report of a 24-year-old man, without a known psychiatric history, who developed brief psychotic symptoms following ingestion of small quantities of alcohol repeatedly. To our knowledge, no related previous literature regarding this has been reported. PMID:27703363

  12. Spontaneous discrimination of small quantities: shoaling preferences in angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M; Gerlai, Robert

    2011-07-01

    The ability to quantify, i.e. to estimate quantity, may provide evolutionary advantages in some contexts and has been demonstrated in a variety of animal species. In a prior study, we showed that angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare) were able to discriminate between groups (shoals) in which a large number of conspecifics swam preferring to join the larger of the two. Our results implied that angelfish can compare relative shoal sizes likely on the basis of some quantitative attributes of the shoal. Here, also using a binary preference test, we examined whether angelfish are able to discriminate between shoals of small numbers of conspecifics, and if so whether their performance reveals a comparable underlying mechanism to that proposed for discrimination of small quantities in human and non-human animals, namely the possible precursor of the ability to count. Our results demonstrate that fish reliably chose 4 versus 1, 3 versus 1, 2 versus 1 and 3 versus 2 individuals, but were at chance performance level when having to choose between 4 versus 3, 5 versus 4 and 6 versus 5. Findings also reveal that the density of the fish in the stimulus shoals did not significantly affect the performance of experimental angelfish. These results are compatible with the hypothesis of the existence of an object-file mechanism to discriminate small quantities in vertebrates and provide evidence for spontaneous discrimination of up to three elements in angelfish, a similar limit to that found in human and non-human animals. The findings add to the growing body of data, suggesting that the mechanisms underlying discrimination between different quantities of items may be shared across different taxa and have an evolutionary ancient origin.

  13. Nuclear and Cytoplasmic Soluble Proteins Extraction from a Small Quantity of Drosophila's Whole Larvae and Tissues.

    PubMed

    Lo Piccolo, Luca; Bonaccorso, Rosa; Onorati, Maria Cristina

    2015-06-01

    The identification and study of protein's function in several model organisms is carried out using both nuclear and cytoplasmic extracts. For a long time, Drosophila's embryos have represented the main source for protein extractions, although in the last year, the importance of collecting proteins extracts also from larval tissues has also been understood. Here we report a very simple protocol, improved by a previously developed method, to produce in a single extraction both highly stable nuclear and cytoplasmic protein extracts from a small quantity of whole Drosophila's larvae or tissues, suitable for biochemical analyses like co-immunoprecipitation.

  14. Micro-spectrometer for NMR: analysis of small quantities in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorli, B.; Chateaux, J. F.; Pitaval, M.; Chahboune, H.; Favre, B.; Briguet, A.; Morin, P.

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports the design, fabrication and preliminary tests of planar microcoils associated with a micromachined channel in silicon. These microcoils are used as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) radio frequency detection coils. They allow in vitro NMR analysis of small quantities introduced into the microchannel. It is a real challenging task to develop microsystems for NMR spectrum extraction for smaller and smaller sample volumes. Moreover, it is advantageous that these microsystems could be integrated in a micro total analysing system (µ-TAS) as an analysing stage. In this paper the description, fabrication process and electrical characterization of planar microcoil receivers are described. Results obtained on NMR microspectroscopy experiments have been performed in water and ethanol, using a 500 µm × 500 µm planar microcoil tuned and matched at 85.13 MHz (proton frequency at 2 T).

  15. PACKAGING CERTIFICATION PROGRAM METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, S.; Loftin, B.; Abramczyk, G.; Bellamy, S.

    2012-05-09

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials (RAM), are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This paper describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials, under both normal and accident conditions, to perform the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within the specified limits. By placing the contents in a helium leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large dose rate outside the package. Quantifying the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings provides bounding shielding calculations that define mass limits compliant with 10 CFR 71.47 for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. The approach is based on energy superposition with dose response calculated for a set of spectral groups for a baseline physical packaging configuration. The methodology includes using the MCNP radiation transport code to evaluate a family of neutron and photon spectral groups using the 9977 shipping package and its associated shielded containers as the base case. This results in a set of multipliers for 'dose per particle' for

  16. PCP METHODOLOGY FOR DETERMINING DOSE RATES FOR SMALL GRAM QUANTITIES IN SHIPPING PACKAGINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Nathan, S.

    2011-08-23

    The Small Gram Quantity (SGQ) concept is based on the understanding that small amounts of hazardous materials, in this case radioactive materials, are significantly less hazardous than large amounts of the same materials. This study describes a methodology designed to estimate an SGQ for several neutron and gamma emitting isotopes that can be shipped in a package compliant with 10 CFR Part 71 external radiation level limits regulations. These regulations require packaging for the shipment of radioactive materials perform, under both normal and accident conditions, the essential functions of material containment, subcriticality, and maintain external radiation levels within regulatory limits. 10 CFR 71.33(b)(1)(2)&(3) state radioactive and fissile materials must be identified and their maximum quantity, chemical and physical forms be included in an application. Furthermore, the U.S. Federal Regulations require application contain an evaluation demonstrating the package (i.e., the packaging and its contents) satisfies the external radiation standards for all packages (10 CFR 71.31(2), 71.35(a), & 71.47). By placing the contents in a He leak-tight containment vessel, and limiting the mass to ensure subcriticality, the first two essential functions are readily met. Some isotopes emit sufficiently strong photon radiation that small amounts of material can yield a large external dose rate. Quantifying of the dose rate for a proposed content is a challenging issue for the SGQ approach. It is essential to quantify external radiation levels from several common gamma and neutron sources that can be safely placed in a specific packaging, to ensure compliance with federal regulations. The Packaging Certification Program (PCP) Methodology for Determining Dose Rate for Small Gram Quantities in Shipping Packagings described in this report provides bounding mass limits for a set of proposed SGQ isotopes. Methodology calculations were performed to estimate external radiation levels

  17. Mobile loading transuranic waste at small quantity sites in the Department of Energy complex-10523

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, Mitch; Howard, Bryan; Weyerman, Wade; Mctaggart, Jerri

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory, Carlsbad Office (LANL-CO), operates mobile loading operations for all of the large and small quantity transuranic (TRU) waste sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The mobile loading team performs loading and unloading evolutions for both contact handled (CH) and remote handled (RH) waste. For small quantity sites, many of which have yet to remove their TRU waste, the mobile loading team will load shipments that will ship to Idaho National Laboratory, a centralization site, or ship directly to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). For example, Argonne National Laboratory and General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center have certified programs for RH waste so they will ship their RH waste directly to WIPP. Many of the other sites will ship their waste to Idaho for characterization and certification. The Mobile Loading Units (MLU) contain all of the necessary equipment needed to load CH and RH waste into the appropriate shipping vessels. Sites are required to provide additional equipment, such as cranes, fork trucks, and office space. The sites are also required to provide personnel to assist in the shipping operations. Each site requires a site visit from the mobile loading team to ensure that all of the necessary site equipment, site requirements and space for shipping can be provided. The mobile loading team works diligently with site representatives to ensure that all safety and regulatory requirements are met. Once the waste is ready and shipping needs are met, the mobile loading team can be scheduled to ship the waste. The CH MLU is designed to support TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading activities wherever needed within the DOE complex. The team that performs the mobile loading operation has obtained national certification under DOE for TRUPACT-II and HalfPACT loading and shipment certification. The RH MLU is designed to support removable lid canister (RLC) and RH-72B cask loading activities wherever needed within the DOE

  18. Potentiation of Photosynthetic Oxygen Evolution in Red Light by Small Quantities of Monochromatic Blue Light 1

    PubMed Central

    Terborgh, John

    1966-01-01

    Growth of the giant unicellular green alga, Acetabularia crenulata, stops in red light of broad spectral composition, but can be restored by the addition of small quantities of blue light. Long-term records of O2 evolution indicate that the photosynthesis of Acetabularia responds in a parallel manner to blue light. Cells photosynthesizing at a light-limited rate in white light were given red light at an intensity that served to match or somewhat increase the instantaneous rate of O2 production. A rapid decline in the rate commenced within 15 minutes and continued for 2 hours or more until it had fallen to 20 to 40% of the initial level. Very small doses of violet or blue radiation (<10−8 Einstein/cm2) then affected a complete, though temporary, restoration of the original rate of photosynthesis. Responses began after a lag of 4 to 5 minutes, regardless of their magnitude, and in the most favorable instances persisted 4 to 6 hours after the stimulus. Blue light treatments were effective as flashes as brief as 2.5 seconds, given simultaneously or in sequence with the red measuring light, or as low-intensity continuous irradiations. Blue-light induction of the response was stable over at least 5 minutes of darkness. After a suitable red-light pretreatment, 2 other algae, Chlamydomonas reinhardi and Fucus vesiculosus, were shown to respond similarly to low-intensity irradiations with blue or blue-green light. Crude action spectra were determined for the response of Acetabularia to short wavelength irradiations given simultaneously or sequentially with the red measuring light. Two peaks of effectiveness were found, one near 450 mμ, and another, as yet ill defined, in the near UV. The data suggest a shoulder around 490 mμ. All wavelengths above 540 mμ were entirely ineffective. PMID:16656414

  19. Analysis of gas membrane ultra-high purification of small quantities of mono-isotopic silane

    DOE PAGES

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Hart, Kevin J.

    2017-01-03

    A small quantity of high-value, crude, mono-isotopic silane is a prospective gas for a small-scale, high-recovery, ultra-high membrane purification process. This is an unusual application of gas membrane separation for which we provide a comprehensive analysis of a simple purification model. The goal is to develop direct analytic expressions for estimating the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and guide process design; this is only possible for binary mixtures of silane in the dilute limit which is a somewhat realistic case. In addition, analytic solutions are invaluable to verify numerical solutions obtained from computer-aided methods. Hence, in this paper wemore » provide new analytic solutions for the purification loops proposed. Among the common impurities in crude silane, methane poses a special membrane separation challenge since it is chemically similar to silane. Other potential problematic compounds are: ethylene, diborane and ethane (in this order). Nevertheless, we demonstrate, theoretically, that a carefully designed membrane system may be able to purify mono-isotopic, crude silane to electronics-grade level in a reasonable amount of time and expenses. We advocate a combination of membrane materials that preferentially reject heavy impurities based on mobility selectivity, and light impurities based on solubility selectivity. We provide estimates for the purification of significant contaminants of interest. In this study, we suggest cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane as examples of membrane materials on the basis of limited permeability data found in the open literature. We provide estimates on the membrane area needed and priming volume of the cell enclosure for fabrication purposes when using the suggested membrane materials. These estimates are largely theoretical in view of the absence of reliable experimental data for the permeability of silane. And finally, future extension of this work to the non-dilute limit may apply to the

  20. Analysis of Gas Membrane Ultra-High Purification of Small Quantities of Mono-Isotopic Silane

    SciTech Connect

    de Almeida, Valmor F.; Hart, Kevin J.

    2016-09-01

    A small quantity of high-value, crude, mono-isotopic silane is a prospective gas for a small-scale, high-recovery, ultra-high membrane purification process. This is an unusual application of gas membrane separation for which we provide a comprehensive analysis of a simple purification model. The goal is to develop direct analytic expressions for estimating the feasibility and efficiency of the method, and guide process design; this is only possible for binary mixtures of silane in the dilute limit which is a somewhat realistic case. Among the common impurities in crude silane, methane poses a special membrane separation challenge since it is chemically similar to silane. Other potential problematic surprises are: ethylene, diborane and ethane (in this order). Nevertheless, we demonstrate, theoretically, that a carefully designed membrane system may be able to purify mono-isotopic, crude silane to electronics-grade level in a reasonable amount of time and expenses. We advocate a combination of membrane materials that preferentially reject heavy impurities based on mobility selectivity, and light impurities based on solubility selectivity. We provide estimates for the purification of significant contaminants of interest. To improve the separation selectivity, it is advantageous to use a permeate chamber under vacuum, however this also requires greater control of in-leakage of impurities in the system. In this study, we suggest cellulose acetate and polydimethylsiloxane as examples of membrane materials on the basis of limited permeability data found in the open literature. We provide estimates on the membrane area needed and priming volume of the cell enclosure for fabrication purposes when using the suggested membrane materials. These estimates are largely theoretical in view of the absence of reliable experimental data for the permeability of silane. Last but not least, future extension of this work to the non-dilute limit may apply to the recovery of silane from

  1. AdS black disk model for small-x DIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2011-05-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple AdS black disk model to describe saturation in DIS. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value 1+ω/3+ω, independently of the target.

  2. Short-Term Memory Effects on Crossing the Boundary: Discrimination between Large and Small Quantities in Angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare)

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Laplaza, Luis M.; Gerlai, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Rudimentary quantification abilities are found in numerous animal species and in human infants all demonstrating the ability to discriminate between quantities differing in numerical size. An open question is whether individuals rely on different underlying systems to discriminate between large (analogue magnitude system (AMS) for number of items exceeding 3) and small quantities (object-file system (OFS) for number of items below 4), or they use only one system (AMS) for the entire number range. The two-system hypothesis has been supported by finding reduced ability to discriminate between quantities that cross the large-small boundary in several species. Recently, the role of cognitive representation, i.e., memory, in quantity discrimination has also been recognized. Here, we investigated whether angelfish can discriminate quantities across the boundary under two memory conditions. In a binary choice test, single angelfish were allowed to see groups (shoals) of conspecifics of different numerical size on the two sides of their test tank. In Experiment 1, their choice was recorded after a 2-sec retention interval during which shoal size information was unavailable. Angelfish were able to discriminate the larger shoal across the boundary when the shoals differed by a 2:1 or higher ratio, but not when the ratio was lower. In Experiment 2, however, with a 15-sec retention interval, angelfish could only detect a four-fold difference in ratio but failed to detect a three- or a two-fold difference across the boundary. These results suggest that angelfish can remember smaller differences for a short (2 sec) but not for a longer (15 sec) period. Together with previous findings, the current results support the idea that angelfish use two distinct systems for representing quantity, but they may recruit the AMS even for the small number range under some circumstances, e.g., when higher memory demand is imposed by a greater retention interval. PMID:27683275

  3. Quantity and quantity value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Giordani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic ‘equality’ relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of such concepts is obtained, which is then generalized to ‘property’ and ‘property value’. This analysis also throws some light on the elusive concept of magnitude. A preliminary version of this paper was presented and discussed at the Joint International IMEKO TC1, TC7 & TC13 Symposium, 31 August to 2 September 2011, Jena, Germany.

  4. Dual Purpose Landscaping Tools: Small Extra Dimensions in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Polchinski, Joseph; Silverstein, Eva; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-08-26

    We propose a class of AdS/CFT dual pairs which have small internal dimensions on the gravity side. Starting from known Freund-Rubin AdS/CFT dual pairs, we use 7-branes to nearly cancel the curvature energy of the internal dimensions while maintaining their stabilization. This leads to a new corner of the landscape - a class of AdS solutions with a hierarchically large AdS radius - with a dual field theory given (implicitly) by the infrared limit of a concrete brane construction involving D3-branes, 7-branes, and curvature. We first construct a class of hierarchical AdS5/CFT4 dual pairs with a simple formula for the number of degrees of freedom which we interpret in the dual QFT. We then generalize these to AdS4/CFT3 duals, and suggest extensions of the method to obtain de Sitter solutions.

  5. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this section, quantities of Division 2.2... to 49 CFR 173.4 for domestic highway or rail transport only.” (b) A package containing a Class 7... paragraphs (a)(1) through (10) of this section may be offered for transportation or transported if...

  6. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.108... burn hazardous waste in an on-site boiler or industrial furnace are exempt from the requirements of... boiler or industrial furnace exempt under this section, the quantity limits provided by paragraph...

  7. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.108... burn hazardous waste in an on-site boiler or industrial furnace are exempt from the requirements of... boiler or industrial furnace exempt under this section, the quantity limits provided by paragraph...

  8. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.108... burn hazardous waste in an on-site boiler or industrial furnace are exempt from the requirements of... boiler or industrial furnace exempt under this section, the quantity limits provided by paragraph...

  9. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.108... burn hazardous waste in an on-site boiler or industrial furnace are exempt from the requirements of... boiler or industrial furnace exempt under this section, the quantity limits provided by paragraph...

  10. 40 CFR 266.108 - Small quantity on-site burner exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Hazardous Waste Burned in Boilers and Industrial Furnaces § 266.108... burn hazardous waste in an on-site boiler or industrial furnace are exempt from the requirements of... boiler or industrial furnace exempt under this section, the quantity limits provided by paragraph...

  11. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this section, quantities of Division 2.2 (except aerosols with no subsidiary hazard), Class 3, Division 4.1, Division 4.2 (PG II and III), Division 4.3 (PG II and III), Division 5.1, Division 5.2, Division 6.1, Class 7, Class 8, and Class...

  12. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this section, quantities of Division 2.2 (except aerosols with no subsidiary hazard), Class 3, Division 4.1, Division 4.2 (PG II and III), Division 4.3 (PG II and III), Division 5.1, Division 5.2, Division 6.1, Class 7, Class 8, and Class...

  13. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... transported domestically by highway or rail in conformance with this section, quantities of Division 2.2 (except aerosols with no subsidiary hazard), Class 3, Division 4.1, Division 4.2 (PG II and III), Division 4.3 (PG II and III), Division 5.1, Division 5.2, Division 6.1, Class 7, Class 8, and Class...

  14. Disruption mitigation by injection of small quantities of noble gas in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pautasso, G.; Bernert, M.; Dibon, M.; Duval, B.; Dux, R.; Fable, E.; Fuchs, J. C.; Conway, G. D.; Giannone, L.; Gude, A.; Herrmann, A.; Hoelzl, M.; McCarthy, P. J.; Mlynek, A.; Maraschek, M.; Nardon, E.; Papp, G.; Potzel, S.; Rapson, C.; Sieglin, B.; Suttrop, W.; Treutterer, W.; The ASDEX Upgrade Team; The EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2017-01-01

    The most recent experiments of disruption mitigation by massive gas injection in ASDEX Upgrade have concentrated on small—relatively to the past—quantities of noble gas injected, and on the search for the minimum amount of gas necessary for the mitigation of the thermal loads on the divertor and for a significant reduction of the vertical force during the current quench. A scenario for the generation of a long-lived runaway electron beam has been established; this allows the study of runaway current dissipation by moderate quantities of argon injected. This paper presents these recent results and discusses them in the more general context of physical models and extrapolation, and of the open questions, relevant for the realization of the ITER disruption mitigation system.

  15. Preparation of 152Gd targets from a small quantity of gadolinium oxide in a pyrochemical reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipski, A. R.

    1995-02-01

    A simple method utilizing small amounts (< 5 mg) of isotopically enriched material for the production of gadolinium targets is discussed. An electrostatically focused e-gun is used in the procedure in which 152Gd 2O 3 powder undergoes reduction-distillation and deposition onto an Fe foil.

  16. Potential Use of Thermoelectric Modules for a Small Quantity Thermoelectric Beverage Cooler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-11-01

    allow optimum performance. The applied voltage, Vmax, and current, Imax, specify the optimum power input . These variables are not the maximum allowable...refrigerants for this application, but the high temperature differential of the heat input required suggests ammonia may not be good for this small...volts) (°C) (W) (mm) (mm) (mm) Melcor CP 1.4-17-045L 8.5 9.2 2.06 67 17.51 15 15 3.3 Melcor CP1.4-31-045L 8.5 16.8 3.75 67 31.875 20 20 3.3 Melcor

  17. A pilot outreach program for small quantity generators of hazardous waste.

    PubMed

    Brown, M S; Kelley, B G; Gutensohn, J

    1988-10-01

    The Massachusetts Department of Environmental Management initiated a pilot project to improve compliance with hazardous waste regulations and management of hazardous wastes with auto body shops around the state. The program consisted of mass mailings, a series of workshops throughout the state, a coordinated inspection program by the state regulatory agency, and technology transfer. At the start of the program in January 1986, approximately 650 of the estimated 2,350 auto body shops in the state had notified EPA of their waste generating activities; by January 1987, approximately 1,200 shops had done so. Suggestions for improving program efforts include tailoring the outreach effort to the industry, government-sponsored research and development directed at the needs of small firms, mandatory participation in hazardous waste transportation programs, and better coordination by EPA of its information collection and distribution program.

  18. Determination of small quantities of fluoride in water: A modified zirconium-alizarin method

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lamar, W.L.; Seegmiller, C.G.

    1941-01-01

    The zirconium-alizarin method has been modified to facilitate the convenient and accurate determination of small amounts of fluoride in a large number of water samples. Sulfuric acid is used to acidify the samples to reduce the interference of sulfate. The pH is accurately controlled to give the most sensitive comparisons. Most natural waters can be analyzed by the modified procedure without resorting to correction curves. The fluoride content of waters containing less than 500 parts per million of sulfate, 500 parts per million of bicarbonate, and 1000 parts per million of chloride may be determined within a limit of about 0.1 part per million when a 100-ml. sample is used.

  19. Comparison of methods for separating small quantities of hydrogen isotopes from an inert gas

    SciTech Connect

    Willms, R.S.; Tuggle, D.; Birdsell, S.; Parkinson, J.; Price, B.; Lohmeir, D.

    1998-03-01

    It is frequent within tritium processing systems that a small amount of hydrogen isotopes (Q{sub 2}) must be separated from an inert gas such as He, Ar and N{sub 2}. Thus, a study of presently available technologies for effecting such a separation was performed. A base case and seven technology alternatives were identified and a simple design of each was prepared. These technologies included oxidation-adsorption-metal bed reduction, oxidation-adsorption-palladium membrane reactor, cryogenic adsorption, cryogenic trapping, cryogenic distillation, hollow fiber membranes, gettering and permeators. It was found that all but the last two methods were unattractive for recovering Q{sub 2} from N{sub 2}. Reasons for technology rejection included (1) the method unnecessarily turns the hydrogen isotopes into water, resulting in a cumbersome and more hazardous operation, (2) the method would not work without further processing, and (3) while the method would work, it would only do so in an impractical way. On the other hand, getters and permeators were found to be attractive methods for this application. Both of these methods would perform the separation in a straightforward, essentially zero-waste, single step operation. The only drawback for permeators was that limited low-partial Q{sub 2} pressure data is available. The drawbacks for getters are their susceptibility to irreversible and exothermic reaction with common species such as oxygen and water, and the lack of long-term operation of such beds. More research is envisioned for both of these methods to mature these attractive technologies.

  20. Scalable Mobile Ad Hoc Network (MANET) to Enhance Situational Awareness in Distributed Small Unit Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    saying that he has called for “a network that would allow soldiers to tap their laptop or smart phone keyboards and obtain the information they need, as...AD HOC NETWORK (MANET) TO ENHANCE SITUATIONAL AWARENESS IN DISTRIBUTED SMALL UNIT OPERATIONS by Jonathan Clarke Driesslein June 2015...REPORT DATE June 2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SCALABLE MOBILE AD HOC NETWORK (MANET) TO

  1. Definition of Small Gram Quantity Contents for Type B Radioactive Material Transportation Packages: Activity-Based Content Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Sitaraman, S; Kim, S; Biswas, D; Hafner, R; Anderson, B

    2010-10-27

    Since the 1960's, the Department of Transportation Specification (DOT Spec) 6M packages have been used extensively for transportation of Type B quantities of radioactive materials between Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, laboratories, and productions sites. However, due to the advancement of packaging technology, the aging of the 6M packages, and variability in the quality of the packages, the DOT implemented a phased elimination of the 6M specification packages (and other DOT Spec packages) in favor of packages certified to meet federal performance requirements. DOT issued the final rule in the Federal Register on October 1, 2004 requiring that use of the DOT Specification 6M be discontinued as of October 1, 2008. A main driver for the change was the fact that the 6M specification packagings were not supported by a Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) that was compliant with Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations part 71 (10 CFR 71). Therefore, materials that would have historically been shipped in 6M packages are being identified as contents in Type B (and sometimes Type A fissile) package applications and addenda that are to be certified under the requirements of 10 CFR 71. The requirements in 10 CFR 71 include that the Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) must identify the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents (10 CFR 71.33(b)(1) and 10 CFR 71.33(b)(2)), and that the application (i.e., SARP submittal or SARP addendum) demonstrates that the external dose rate (due to the maximum radioactivity of radioactive constituents and maximum quantities of fissile constituents) on the surface of the packaging (i.e., package and contents) not exceed 200 mrem/hr (10 CFR 71.35(a), 10 CFR 71.47(a)). It has been proposed that a 'Small Gram Quantity' of radioactive material be defined, such that, when loaded in a transportation package, the dose rates at external points of an unshielded packaging

  2. Innovations in Mass Spectrometry for Precise and Accurate Isotope Ratio Determination from Very Small Analyte Quantities (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, N. S.; Bouman, C.; Horstwood, M. S.; Parrish, R. R.; Schwieters, J. B.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation describes progress in mass spectrometry for analysing very small analyte quantities, illustrated by example applications from nuclear forensics. In this challenging application, precise and accurate (‰) uranium isotope ratios are required from 1 - 2 µm diameter uranium oxide particles, which comprise less than 40 pg of uranium. Traditionally these are analysed using thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS), and more recently using secondary ionisation mass spectrometry (SIMS). Multicollector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) can offer higher productivity compared to these techniques, but is traditionally limited by low efficiency of analyte utilisation (sample through to ion detection). Samples can either be introduced as a solution, or sampled directly from solid using laser ablation. Large multi-isotope ratio datasets can help identify provenance and intended use of anthropogenic uranium and other nuclear materials [1]. The Thermo Scientific NEPTUNE Plus (Bremen, Germany) with ‘Jet Interface’ option offers unparalleled MC-ICP-MS sensitivity. An analyte utilisation of c. 4% has previously been reported for uranium [2]. This high-sensitivity configuration utilises a dry high-capacity (100 m3/h) interface pump, special skimmer and sampler cones and a desolvating nebuliser system. Coupled with new acquisition methodologies, this sensitivity enhancement makes possible the analysis of micro-particles and small sample volumes at higher precision levels than previously achieved. New, high-performance, full-size and compact discrete dynode secondary electron multipliers (SEM) exhibit excellent stability and linearity over a large dynamic range and can be configured to simultaneously measure all of the uranium isotopes. Options for high abundance-sensitivity filters on two ion beams are also available, e.g. for 236U and 234U. Additionally, amplifiers with high ohm (1012 - 1013) feedback resistors have been developed to

  3. Local versus offshore production of ready-to-use therapeutic foods and small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements.

    PubMed

    Segrè, Joel; Liu, Grace; Komrska, Jan

    2016-11-08

    Manufacturers on four continents currently produce ready-to-use therapeutic foods (RUTF). Some produce locally, near their intended users, while others produce offshore and ship their product long distances. Small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) such as Nutriset's Enov'Nutributter are not yet in widespread production. There has been speculation whether RUTF and SQ-LNS should be produced primarily offshore, locally, or both. We analyzed The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Supply Division data, reviewed published literature, and interviewed local manufacturers to identify key benefits and challenges to local versus offshore manufacture of RUTF. Both prices and estimated costs for locally produced product have consistently been higher than offshore prices. Local manufacture faces challenges in taxation on imported ingredients, low factory utilization, high interest rates, long cash conversion cycle, and less convenient access to quality testing labs. Benefits to local economies are not likely to be significant. Although offshore manufacturers offer RUTF at lower cost, local production is getting closer to cost parity for RUTF. UNICEF, which buys the majority of RUTF globally, continues to support local production, and efforts are underway to narrow the cost gap further. Expansion of RUTF producers into the production of other ready-to-use foods, including SQ-LNS in order to reach a larger market and achieve a more sustainable scale, may further close the cost and price gap. Local production of both RUTF and SQ-LNS could be encouraged by a favorable tax environment, assistance in lending, consistent forecasts from buyers, investment in reliable input supply chains, and local laboratory testing.

  4. Free vibrations of circular cylindrical shells with a small added concentrated mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leizerovich, G. S.; Seregin, S. V.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of a small added mass on the frequency and shape of free vibrations of a thin shell is studied using shallow shell theory. The proposed mathematical model assumes that mass asymmetry even in a linear formulation leads to coupled radial flexural vibrations. The interaction of shape-generating waves is studied using modal equations obtained by the Bubnov-Galerkin method. Splitting of the flexural frequency spectrum is found, which is caused not only by the added mass but also by the wave-formation parameters of the shell. The ranges of the relative lengths and shell thicknesses are determined in which the interaction of flexural and radial vibrations can be neglected.

  5. Evaluation of detailed water quality and quantity monitoring system in a small agricultural catchment - discrete vs. continuous approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fučík, Petr; Kaplická, Markéta; Kvítek, Tomáå.¡

    2010-05-01

    To achieve the obligatory limits set up by the WFD (Water Frame Directive) in water bodies, there is an urgent need of attainments conc. water quality and quantity dynamics which can be gained only by a detailed monitoring. Continuous monitoring system of surface, subsurface and ground waters is one of the essential tools, enabling to thoroughly understand the processes of water quality dynamics in a catchment as well as to trace the sources and pathways of pollutants during various rainfall - runoff events. In this paper, there are described results of concentrations and loads of N-NO3, N-NH4 and Ptot, realized by assessment and comparison of two different approaches - regular and intensive monitoring concepts. The analysis was carried out in five measuring points - in the catchment closing profile and in four subcatchments (three of them tile drained) of a small agricultural catchment during the year 2009. Monitored catchment is located on the Kopaninský stream, which is situated in the south - eastern part of the Švihov drinking water reservoir basin on the Želivka river, in the Bohemo-Moravian Highland in the Czech Republic. The experimental catchment occupies 7.1 km2, dominating land use type is ploughland (50%), followed by forests (37%) and grasslands (12%). The catchment contains several measuring sites - profiles, equipped with V - notch type weirs and ultrasound probes connected to dataloggers for water level recording. The regular (discrete) monitoring lied in a fortnightly accomplished manual withdrawal of a 0.5 l sample from the upper third share of actual water column in the case of surface water courses, or directly from the tile drainage outlet, and measuring the actual water level (discharge). Average monthly load L (kg*month-1) was then calculated according to the following relationship: L = [ci*Qi+ci+1*Qi+1* 0.0864] n, where ci is concentration of a substance at the time of sampling (mg*l-1), Qiis discharge (l*s-1) at the sampling time, n is

  6. A proposal of the gauge theory description of the small Schwarzschild black hole in AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanada, Masanori; Maltz, Jonathan

    2017-02-01

    Based on 4d N = 4 SYM on {R}^1× {S}^3 , a gauge theory description of a small black hole in AdS5×S5 is proposed. The change of the number of dynamical degrees of freedom associated with the emission of the scalar fields' eigenvalues plays a crucial role in this description. By analyzing the microcanonical ensemble, the Hagedorn behavior of long strings at low energy is obtained. Modulo an assumption based on the AdS/CFT duality for a large black hole, the energy of the small ten-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole E ˜ 1 /( G 10,N T 7) is derived. A heuristic gauge theory argument supporting this assumption is also given. The same argument applied to the ABJM theory correctly reproduces the relation for the eleven-dimensional Schwarzschild black hole. One of the consequences of our proposal is that the small and large black holes are very similar when seen from the gauge theory point of view.

  7. [Influence of antiplatelet drugs (AD) on the efectiveness of combined therapy in patients with small cell lung cancer. Part I. Influence of AD on the haemostatic system].

    PubMed

    Ochmański, Władysław

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, a sharp rise in the morbidity due to lung cancer is observed, especially in the male population. Despite the intensive, multidirectional development of oncology, early detection and effective treatment of lung cancer is still limited. Its detection is delayed because of the lack of characteristic early signs. Especially poor in prognosis are patients with small cell lung cancer (SCLC), who usually die in consequence of distant metastases. This may result due to coating of the surface of circulating neoplastic cells with thrombocytes and clots. Platelets aggregates on the surface of neoplastic cells may have a protective action in relation to cytostatic drugs. This is why neoplastic cells that persist through this phase, implant themselves into various organs giving rise to metastases. The aim of the 1st part of the paper was to evaluate the influence of antiplatelet drugs (AD) on the haemostatic system of patients with SCLC. There is data in literature indicating a ameliorating influence of AD on time of survival of patients with certain neoplasms. The study was performed in 87 male patients aged 35-73 years with SCLC, limited to half of the chest (limited disease). After 2 i.v. chemotherapy series in 3 week intervals (VAC scheme according Greco): --Adriamycin (ADR) 40 mg on 1sq.m of body surface; --Vincristin (VCR) 1 mg; on 1sq.m of body surface; --Cyclophosfamid (CTX) 1000 mg on 1sq.m of body surface; radiation was also applied--40 Gy during 20 days on the tumor and mediastinum. The described treatment was performed in 22 patients from controls (Group I). Patients from Group II (n = 22) received additionally Defibrotide, Group III (n = 22) Ticlide and Group IV (n = 21) Aspirin. To evaluate of the influence of AD on the haemostatic system--every 3 months during the consecutive 27 weeks, the following tests were performed: bleeding time, clotting time, platelet aggregation, platelets aggregation ratio, euglobulin clot lysis time (ECLT

  8. Small transcriptome analysis indicates that the enzyme RppH influences both the quality and quantity of sRNAs in Neisseria gonorrhoeae

    PubMed Central

    Wachter, Jenny; Hill, Stuart A.

    2015-01-01

    Prokaryotic mRNA turnover can be initiated by the removal of pyrophosphate from the 5′ end of a transcript using the RNA pyrophosphohydrolase enzyme RppH. Following the initial dephosphorylation step, RNaseE then degrades the message into small oligonucleotide segments. This study assessed the small RNA transcriptome of Neisseria gonorrhoeae strain MS11 in two genetic backgrounds; using wild type cells as well as cells carrying a rppH insertional mutation. It was found that the presence of the RppH enzyme affected both the quantity and length of small RNAs (sRNAs) in various chromosomal locations and involved sense transcripts (seRNAs), transcripts originating from the opposite strand (asRNAs) as well as inter-genic-derived RNAs (IGRs). In comparing the two transcriptomes, we found that not all small RNAs were expressed in both genetic backgrounds, suggesting that RppH apparently targets only a subset of transcripts. Overall, this study shows that small RNAs can be detected from the majority of genes within the chromosome, as well as from inter-genic regions, and that more sRNA transcripts are detected in the absence of the RppH enzyme. PMID:25688066

  9. Achieving Success in Small Business: A Self-Instruction Program for Small Business Owner-Managers. Developing Ads That Produce Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg. Div. of Vocational-Technical Education.

    This self-instructional module on developing ads that produce results is the sixth in a set of twelve modules designed for small business owner-managers. Competencies for this module are (1) identify three guidelines to be considered when you invest money in advertising, (2) identify the five basic elements of a printed advertisement, and (3)…

  10. Small Delay and High Performance AD/DA Converters of Lease Circuit System for AM&FM Broadcast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takato, Kenji; Suzuki, Dai; Ishii, Takashi; Kobayashi, Masato; Yamada, Hirokazu; Amano, Shigeru

    Many AM&FM broadcasting stations in Japan are connected by the leased circuit system of NTT. Small delay and high performance AD/DA converter was developed for the system. The system was designed based on ITU-T J.41 Recommendation (384kbps), the transmission signal is 11bit-32 kHz where the Gain-frequency characteristics between 40Hz to 15kHz have to be quite flat. The ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs for audio application in the market today realize very high performance. However the performance is not enough for the leased circuit system. We found that it is not possible to meet the delay and Gain-frequency requirements only by using ΔΣAD/DA converter LSI in normal operation, because 15kHz the highest frequency and 16kHz Nyquist frequency are too close, therefore there are aliasing around Nyquist frequency. In this paper, we designed AD/DA architecture having small delay (1msec) and sharp cut off LPF (100dB attenuation at 16kHz, and 1500dB/Oct from 15kHz to 16kHz) by operating ΔΣAD/DA converter LSIs over-sampling rate such as 128kHz and by adding custom LPF designed Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) filter. The IIR filter is a 16th order elliptic type and it is consist of eight biquad filters in series. We described how to evaluate the stability of IIR filter theoretically by calculating frequency response, Pole and Zero Layout and impulse response of each biquad filter, and experimentally by adding overflow detection circuit on each filters and input overlord signal.

  11. Multiple Discharges of Treated Municipal Wastewater Have a Small Effect on the Quantities of Numerous Antibiotic Resistance Determinants in the Upper Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    LaPara, Timothy M; Madson, Matthew; Borchardt, Spencer; Lang, Kevin S; Johnson, Timothy J

    2015-10-06

    This study evaluated multiple discharges of treated wastewater on the quantities of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the Upper Mississippi River. Surface water and treated wastewater samples were collected along the Mississippi River during three different periods of 4 days during the summer of 2012, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) was used to enumerate several ARGs and related targets. Even though the wastewater effluents contained 75- to 831-fold higher levels of ARGs than the river water, the quantities of ARGs in the Mississippi River did not increase with downstream distance. Plasmids from the incompatibility group A/C were detected at low levels in the wastewater effluents but not in the river water; synthetic DNA containing an ampicillin resistance gene (bla) from cloning vectors was not detected in either the wastewater effluent or river samples. A simple 1D model suggested that the primary reason for the small impact of the wastewater discharges on ARG levels was the large flow rate of the Mississippi River compared to that of the wastewater discharges. Furthermore, this model generally overpredicted the ARG levels in the Mississippi River, suggesting that substantial loss mechanisms (e.g., decay or deposition) were occurring in the river.

  12. On-enzyme refolding permits small RNA and tRNA surveillance by the CCA-adding enzyme.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Claus-D; Wilusz, Jeremy E; Zheng, Yuxuan; Beal, Peter A; Joshua-Tor, Leemor

    2015-02-12

    Transcription in eukaryotes produces a number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Two of these, MALAT1 and Menβ, generate a tRNA-like small RNA in addition to the mature lncRNA. The stability of these tRNA-like small RNAs and bona fide tRNAs is monitored by the CCA-adding enzyme. Whereas CCA is added to stable tRNAs and tRNA-like transcripts, a second CCA repeat is added to certain unstable transcripts to initiate their degradation. Here, we characterize how these two scenarios are distinguished. Following the first CCA addition cycle, nucleotide binding to the active site triggers a clockwise screw motion, producing torque on the RNA. This ejects stable RNAs, whereas unstable RNAs are refolded while bound to the enzyme and subjected to a second CCA catalytic cycle. Intriguingly, with the CCA-adding enzyme acting as a molecular vise, the RNAs proofread themselves through differential responses to its interrogation between stable and unstable substrates.

  13. Iodine status of young Burkinabe children receiving small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements and iodised salt: a cluster-randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Hess, Sonja Y; Abbeddou, Souheila; Yakes Jimenez, Elizabeth; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H

    2015-12-14

    The objective of the present study was to assess the impact of providing small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) on the I status of young Burkinabe children. In total, thirty-four communities were assigned to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). IC children were randomly assigned to receive 20 g lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS)/d containing 90 µg I with 0 or 10 mg Zn from 9 to 18 months of age, and NIC children received no SQ-LNS. All the children were exposed to iodised salt through the national salt iodization programme. Spot urinary iodine (UI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and total thyroxine (T4) in dried blood spots as well as plasma thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations were assessed at 9 and 18 months of age among 123 IC and fifty-six NIC children. At baseline and at 18 months, UI, TSH and T4 did not differ between cohorts. Tg concentration was higher in the NIC v. IC at baseline, but this difference did not persist at 18 months of age. In both cohorts combined, the geometric mean of UI was 339·2 (95% CI 298·6, 385·2) µg/l, TSH 0·8 (95% CI 0·7, 0·8) mU/l, T4 118 (95 % CI 114, 122) nmol/l and Tg 26·0 (95% CI 24·3, 27·7) µg/l at 18 months of age. None of the children had elevated TSH at 18 months of age. Marginally more children in NIC (8·9%) had low T4 (15 ppm). A reduction of SQ-LNS I content could be considered in settings with similarly successful salt iodisation programmes.

  14. Small quantities of carotenoid-rich tropical green leafy vegetables indigenous to Africa maintain vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils ( Meriones unguiculatus).

    PubMed

    Ejoh, Richard A; Dever, Joseph T; Mills, Jordan P; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2010-06-01

    Leafy vegetables are important sources of provitamin A carotenoids. Information on their ability to provide vitamin A is often misleading because of the methodology used to assess bioefficacy. Mongolian gerbils were used to evaluate the bioefficacy of provitamin A carotenoids in tropical leafy vegetables (i.e. Solanum nigrum, Moringa oleifera, Vernonia calvoana and Hibiscus cannabinus) that are indigenous to Africa. Gerbils (n 67) were vitamin A-depleted for 5 weeks. After a baseline kill (n 7), the gerbils were weight-matched and assigned to six treatment groups (n 10; four vegetable groups; negative and positive controls). For 4 weeks, the treatments included 35 nmol vitamin A (theoretical concentrations based on 100 % bioefficacy) in the form of vegetables or retinyl acetate. In addition to their diets, the control and vegetable groups received daily doses of oil, while the vitamin A group received retinyl acetate in oil matched to prior day intake. Serum and livers were analysed for vitamin A using HPLC. Serum retinol concentrations did not differ among groups, but total liver vitamin A of the vitamin A and vegetable groups were higher than that of the negative control group (P < 0.0001). Liver beta-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase-1 expression levels were determined for two vegetable groups and were similar to the positive and negative controls. Conversion factors for the different leafy vegetables were between 1.9 and 2.3 microg beta-carotene equivalents to 1 microg retinol. Small quantities of these vegetables maintained vitamin A status in gerbils through efficient bioconversion of beta-carotene to retinol.

  15. The added mass, Basset, and viscous drag coefficients in nondilute bubbly liquids undergoing small-amplitude oscillatory motion

    SciTech Connect

    Sangani, A.S. ); Zhang, D.Z.; Prosperetti, A. )

    1991-12-01

    The motion of bubbles dispersed in a liquid when a small-amplitude oscillatory motion is imposed on the mixture is examined in the limit of small frequency and viscosity. Under these conditions, for bubbles with a stress-free surface, the motion can be described in terms of added mass and viscous force coefficients. For bubbles contaminated with surface-active impurities, the introduction of a further coefficient to parametrize the Basset force is necessary. These coefficients are calculated numerically for random configurations of bubbles by solving the appropriate multibubble interaction problem exactly using a method of multipole expansion. Results obtained by averaging over several configurations are presented. Comparison of the results with those for periodic arrays of bubbles shows that these coefficients are, in general, relatively insensitive to the detailed spatial arrangement of the bubbles. On the basis of this observation, it is possible to estimate them via simple formulas derived analytically for dilute periodic arrays. The effect of surface tension and density of bubbles (or rigid particles in the case where the no-slip boundary condition is applicable) is also examined and found to be rather small.

  16. Impact of small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on hemoglobin, iron status and biomarkers of inflammation in pregnant Ghanaian women.

    PubMed

    Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Okronipa, Harriet; Ashorn, Per; Zeilani, Mamane; Baldiviez, Lacey M; Oaks, Brietta M; Vosti, Stephen; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-04-01

    We examined hemoglobin (Hb, g/L), iron status (zinc protoporphyrin, ZPP, µmol/mol heme, and transferrin receptor, TfR, mg/L) and inflammation (C-reactive protein, CRP and alpha-1 glycoprotein, AGP) in pregnant Ghanaian women who participated in a randomized controlled trial. Women (n = 1320) received either 60 mg Fe + 400-µg folic acid (IFA); 18 micronutrients including 20-mg Fe (MMN) or small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS, 118 kcal/d) with the same micronutrient levels as in MMN, plus four additional minerals (LNS) daily during pregnancy. Intention-to-treat analysis included 349, 354 and 354 women in the IFA, MMN and LNS groups, respectively, with overall baseline mean Hb and anemia (Hb <100) prevalence of 112 and 13.3%, respectively. At 36 gestational weeks, overall Hb was 117, and anemia prevalence was 5.3%. Compared with the IFA group, the LNS and MMN groups had lower mean Hb (120 ± 11 vs. 115 ± 12 and 117 ± 12, respectively; P < 0.001), higher mean ZPP (42 ± 30 vs. 50 ± 29 and 49 ± 30; P = 0.010) and TfR (4.0 ± 1.3 vs. 4.9 ± 1.8 and 4.6 ± 1.7; P < 0.001), and greater prevalence of anemia (2.2% vs. 7.9% and 5.8%; P = 0.019), elevated ZPP (>60) [9.4% vs. 18.6% and 19.2%; P = 0.003] and elevated TfR (>6.0) [9.0% vs. 19.2% and 15.1%; P = 0.004]. CRP and AGP concentrations did not differ among groups. We conclude that among pregnant women in a semi-urban setting in Ghana, supplementation with SQ-LNS or MMN containing 20 mg iron resulted in lower Hb and iron status but had no impact on inflammation, when compared with iron (60 mg) plus folic acid (400 µg). The amount of iron in such supplements that is most effective for improving both maternal Hb/iron status and birth outcomes requires further evaluation. This trial was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov as: NCT00970866.

  17. Small molecule LX2343 ameliorates cognitive deficits in AD model mice by targeting both amyloid β production and clearance

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiao-dan; Sun, Guang-long; Zhou, Ting-ting; Xu, Xin; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Rukachaisirikul, Vatcharin; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Streptozotocin (STZ) is widely used to induce oxidative damage and to impair glucose metabolism, apoptosis, and tau/Aβ pathology, eventually leading to cognitive deficits in both in vitro and in vivo models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we constructed a cell-based platform using STZ to induce stress conditions mimicking the complicated pathologies of AD in vitro, and evaluated the anti-amyloid effects of a small molecule, N-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-2-[5-chloro-2-methoxy(phenylsulfonyl)anilino]acetamide (LX2343) in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in AD model mice. Methods: Cell-based assays for screening anti-amyloid compounds were established by assessing Aβ accumulation in HEK293-APPsw and CHO-APP cells, and Aβ clearance in primary astrocytes and SH-SY5Y cells after the cells were treated with STZ in the presence of the test compounds. Autophagic flux was observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy. APP/PS1 transgenic mice were administered LX2343 (10 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 100 d. After LX2343 administration, cognitive ability of the mice was evaluated using Morris water maze test, and senile plaques in the brains were detected using Thioflavine S staining. ELISA assay was used to evaluate Aβ and sAPPβ levels, while Western blot analysis was used to measure the signaling proteins in both cell and animal brains. Results: LX2343 (5–20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased Aβ accumulation in HEK293-APPsw and CHO-APP cells, and promoted Aβ clearance in SH-SY5Y cells and primary astrocytes. The anti-amyloid effects of LX2343 were attributed to suppressing JNK-mediated APPThr668 phosphorylation, thus inhibiting APP cleavage on one hand, and inhibiting BACE1 enzymatic activity with an IC50 value of 11.43±0.36 μmol/L, on the other hand. Furthermore, LX2343 acted as a non-ATP competitive PI3K inhibitor to negatively regulate AKT/mTOR signaling, thus promoting autophagy, and increasing Aβ clearance. Administration of LX2343 in APP

  18. Modeling of recovery mechanism of ozone zero phenomenaby adding small amount of nitrogen in atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akashi, Haruaki; Yoshinaga, Tomokazu

    2013-09-01

    Ozone zero phenomena in an atmospheric pressure oxygen dielectric barrier discharges have been one of the major problems during a long time operation of ozone generators. But it is also known that the adding a small amount of nitrogen makes the recover from the ozone zero phenomena. To make clear the mechanism of recovery, authors have been simulated the discharges with using the results of Ref. 3. As a result, the recovery process can be seen and ozone density increased. It is found that the most important species would be nitrogen atoms. The reaction of nitrogen atoms and oxygen molecules makes oxygen atoms which is main precursor species of ozone. This generation of oxygen atoms is effective to increase ozone. The dependence of oxygen atom density (nO) and nitrogen atom density (nN) ratio was examined in this paper. In the condition of low nN/nO ratio case, generation of nitrogen oxide is low, and the quenching of ozone by the nitrogen oxide would be low. But in the high ratio condition, the quenching of ozone by nitrogen oxide would significant. This work was supported by KAKENHI(23560352).

  19. Systems biology network-based discovery of a small molecule activator BL-AD008 targeting AMPK/ZIPK and inducing apoptosis in cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xupeng; Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Yonghui; Ouyang, Liang; Liu, Bo; Huang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to discover a small molecule activator BL-AD008 targeting AMPK/ZIPK and inducing apoptosis in cervical cancer. In this study, we systematically constructed the global protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and predicted apoptosis-related protein connections by the Naïve Bayesian model. Then, we identified some classical apoptotic PPIs and other previously unrecognized PPIs between apoptotic kinases, such as AMPK and ZIPK. Subsequently, we screened a series of candidate compounds targeting AMPK/ZIPK, synthesized some compounds and eventually discovered a novel dual-target activator (BL-AD008). Moreover, we found BL-AD008 bear remarkable anti-proliferative activities toward cervical cancer cells and could induce apoptosis by death-receptor and mitochondrial pathways. Additionally, we found that BL-AD008-induced apoptosis was affected by the combination of AMPK and ZIPK. Then, we found that BL-AD008 bear its anti-tumor activities and induced apoptosis by targeting AMPK/ZIPK in vivo. In conclusion, these results demonstrate the ability of systems biology network to identify some key apoptotic kinase targets AMPK and ZIPK; thus providing a dual-target small molecule activator (BL-AD008) as a potential new apoptosis-modulating drug in future cervical cancer therapy. PMID:25797270

  20. Added resolution among ordinal level relationships of tapeworms (Platyhelminthes: Cestoda) with complete small and large subunit nuclear ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Waeschenbach, Andrea; Webster, Bonnie L; Bray, Rodney A; Littlewood, D T J

    2007-10-01

    The addition of large subunit ribosomal DNA (lsrDNA) to small subunit ribosomal DNA (ssrDNA) has been shown to add resolution to phylogenies at various taxonomic levels for a diversity of phyla. We added nearly complete lsrDNA (4057-4593bp) sequences to ssrDNA (1940-2228bp) for 26 ingroup and 3 outgroup taxa in an attempt to provide an improved ordinal phylogeny for the Cestoda. Ten lsrDNA and seven ssrDNA sequences were generated from new taxa and 13 existing partial lsrDNA sequences were sequenced to completion. The majority of phylogenetic signal in the combined analysis came from lsrDNA (69.6% of parsimonious informative sites, as opposed to 30.4% obtained from ssrDNA), resulting in almost identical topologies for lsrDNA and lsr+ssrDNA (pairwise symmetric distance=6) in model-based analyses. Topology testing found trees based on partial lsrDNA (domains D1-D3)+ssrDNA and complete lsr+ssrDNA to differ significantly; the addition of lsrDNA domains D4-D12 had a significant effect on topology. Overall nodal support was greatest in the combined analysis and weakest for ssrDNA only. Our molecular phylogenies differed significantly from those based on morphology alone. Acetabulate lineages form a monophyletic group, with the Tetraphyllidea being paraphyletic. Support for the combined data was high for the following topology: (Litobothriidea (Lecanicephalidea (Rhinebothrium/Rhodobothrium (Clistobothrium (Pachybothrium(Acanthobothrium Proteocephalidea) (Mesocestoididae, Nippotaeniidea, Cyclophyllidea, Tetrabothriidea)))))); all genus names refer to tetraphyllidean lineages. Although the interrelationships among the four most derived taxa remain uncertain, overall ambiguity of the acetabulate interrelationships was reduced. The Pseudophyllidea were recovered as polyphyletic, with support for a sister-group relationship between Diphyllobothriidae and Haplobothriidea. The monophyly of the Trypanorhyncha was recovered for the first time based on molecular data. The positions

  1. Quantity discrimination in salamanders.

    PubMed

    Krusche, Paul; Uller, Claudia; Dicke, Ursula

    2010-06-01

    We investigated discrimination of large quantities in salamanders of the genus Plethodon. Animals were challenged with two different quantities (8 vs 12 or 8 vs 16) in a two-alternative choice task. Stimuli were live crickets, videos of live crickets or images animated by a computer program. Salamanders reliably chose the larger of two quantities when the ratio between the sets was 1:2 and stimuli were live crickets or videos thereof. Magnitude discrimination was not successful when the ratio was 2:3, or when the ratio was 1:2 when stimuli were computer animated. Analysis of the salamanders' success and failure as well as analysis of stimulus features points towards movement as a dominant feature for quantity discrimination. The results are generally consistent with large quantity discrimination investigated in many other animals (e.g. primates, fish), current models of quantity representation (analogue magnitudes) and data on sensory aspects of amphibian prey-catching behaviour (neuronal motion processing).

  2. A semi-nested real-time PCR method to detect low chimerism percentage in small quantity of hematopoietic stem cell transplant DNA samples.

    PubMed

    Aloisio, Michelangelo; Bortot, Barbara; Gandin, Ilaria; Severini, Giovanni Maria; Athanasakis, Emmanouil

    2017-02-01

    Chimerism status evaluation of post-allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation samples is essential to predict post-transplant relapse. The most commonly used technique capable of detecting small increments of chimerism is quantitative real-time PCR. Although this method is already used in several laboratories, previously described protocols often lack sensitivity and the amount of the DNA required for each chimerism analysis is too high. In the present study, we compared a novel semi-nested allele-specific real-time PCR (sNAS-qPCR) protocol with our in-house standard allele-specific real-time PCR (gAS-qPCR) protocol. We selected two genetic markers and analyzed technical parameters (slope, y-intercept, R2, and standard deviation) useful to determine the performances of the two protocols. The sNAS-qPCR protocol showed better sensitivity and precision. Moreover, the sNAS-qPCR protocol requires, as input, only 10 ng of DNA, which is at least 10-fold less than the gAS-qPCR protocols described in the literature. Finally, the proposed sNAS-qPCR protocol could prove very useful for performing chimerism analysis with a small amount of DNA, as in the case of blood cell subsets.

  3. Peregrine: A rapid and unbiased method to produce strand-specific RNA-Seq libraries from small quantities of starting material.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Stanley A; Bent, Zachary W; Solberg, Owen D; Curtis, Deanna J; Lane, Pamela D; Williams, Kelly P; Schoeniger, Joseph S; Sinha, Anupama; Lane, Todd W; Branda, Steven S

    2013-04-01

    Use of second generation sequencing (SGS) technologies for transcriptional profiling (RNA-Seq) has revolutionized transcriptomics, enabling measurement of RNA abundances with unprecedented specificity and sensitivity and the discovery of novel RNA species. Preparation of RNA-Seq libraries requires conversion of the RNA starting material into cDNA flanked by platform-specific adaptor sequences. Each of the published methods and commercial kits currently available for RNA-Seq library preparation suffers from at least one major drawback, including long processing times, large starting material requirements, uneven coverage, loss of strand information and high cost. We report the development of a new RNA-Seq library preparation technique that produces representative, strand-specific RNA-Seq libraries from small amounts of starting material in a fast, simple and cost-effective manner. Additionally, we have developed a new quantitative PCR-based assay for precisely determining the number of PCR cycles to perform for optimal enrichment of the final library, a key step in all SGS library preparation workflows.

  4. A novel D2-A-D1-A-D2-type donor-acceptor conjugated small molecule based on a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene core for solution processed organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Junting; Zhu, Weiguo; Tan, Hua; Peng, Qing

    2017-01-01

    A novel D2-A-D1-A-D2-type donor-acceptor conjugated small molecule (DTPA-Q-BDT-Q-DTPA) with a benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b‧]dithiophene (BDT) core and two D2-A arms has been synthesized and employed as electron donor for organic solar cells. Solution-processed organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices were fabricated with a configuration of ITO/PEDOT:PSS/DTPA-Q-BDT-Q-DTPA:[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM)/LiF/Al. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.22% with an open-circuit voltage (VOC) of 0.64 V, a short-circuit current (JSC) of 6.10 mA cm-2, and a fill factor (FF) of 31.0% was achieved. The PCE is 2.9 times higher than that in the other devices using D2-A-type small molecule TPA-Q-TPA as donor.

  5. Analysis of gene sequences indicates that quantity not quality of chloroplast small HSPs improves thermotolerance in C4 and CAM plants.

    PubMed

    Shakeel, Samina N; Ul Haq, Noor; Heckathorn, Scott; Luthe, D S

    2012-10-01

    Chloroplast-localized small heat-shock proteins (Cp-sHSP) protect Photosystem II and thylakoid membranes during heat and other stresses, and Cp-sHSP production levels are related to plant thermotolerance. However, to date, a paucity of Cp-sHSP sequences from C4 or CAM species, or from other extremely heat-tolerant species, has precluded an examination to determine if Cp-sHSP genes or proteins might differ among plants with photosynthetic pathways or between heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant species. To investigate this, we isolated and characterized novel Cp-sHSP genes in four plant species: two moderately heat-tolerant C4 species, Spartina alterniflora (monocot) and Amaranthus retroflexus (eudicot), and two very heat-tolerant CAM species, Agave americana (monocot) and Ferocactus wislizenii (eudicot) (respective genes: SasHSP27.12, ArsHSP26.43, AasHSP26.85 and FwsHSP27.52) by PCR-based genome walking and cDNA RACE. Analysis of these Cp-sHSPs has confirmed the presence of conserved domains common to previously examined species. As expected, the transit peptide was found to be the most variable part of these proteins. Promoter analysis of these genes revealed differences in CAM versus C3 and C4 species that were independent of a general difference between monocots and eudicots observed for the entire protein. Heat-induced gene and protein expression indicated that Cp-sHSP protein levels were correlated with thermotolerance of photosynthetic electron transport, and that in most cases protein and transcript levels were correlated. Thus, available evidence indicates little variation in the amino acid sequence of Cp-sHSP mature proteins between heat-sensitive and -tolerant species, but that variation in Cp-sHSP protein production is related to heat tolerance or photosynthetic pathway (CAM vs. C3 and C4) and is driven by promoter differences. Key message We isolated and characterized four novel Cp-sHSP genes with promoters from wild plants, analysis has shown qualitative

  6. Effects of adding liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid to drinking water on growth performance and small intestinal morphology of nursery pigs.

    PubMed

    Kaewtapee, C; Krutthai, N; Poosuwan, K; Poeikhampha, T; Koonawootrittriron, S; Bunchasak, C

    2010-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue free acid (LMA) to drinking water on growth performance, small intestinal morphology and volatile fatty acids in the caecum of nursery pigs. Twenty-four crossbred pigs (Large White x Landrace, BW approximately 18 kg) were divided into three groups with four replications of two piglets each. The piglets received drinking water without (control), with 0.05 or 0.10% LMA. The results indicated that adding LMA at 0.10% to drinking water significantly increased their weight gain, average daily feed intake (p < 0.05) and tended to improve the feed conversion ratio. Adding LMA to drinking water significantly increased their water intake and significantly reduced the pH of drinking water (p < 0.01), thus total plate count (p < 0.01) and Escherichia coli in drinking water was reduced (p < 0.05), while the total number of bacteria in the caecum was not significantly affected. Liquid DL-methionine hydroxy analogue free acid supplementation in drinking water tended to decrease pH in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum, colon and rectum. Furthermore, adding LMA at 0.10% significantly increased villous height in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum (p < 0.05), and the villous height:crypt depth ratio in the jejunum and ileum (p < 0.01) was higher, whereas acetic acid concentration in the caecum was significantly lower than in the control group. It could be concluded that adding LMA to drinking water improved growth performance of the nursery pigs because of high water quality and high nutrient utilization caused by an improvement of small intestinal morphology (not from nutritional effect of methionine source).

  7. Influence of adding small instream wood on fishes and hydrology within channelized agricultural headwater streams in central Ohio

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large instream wood is well known for its importance in headwater streams because it promotes the development of pool habitat for fishes and provides them with cover from predators during the summer. However, little is known about the influence of small instream wood (diameter < 10 cm, length < 1 m...

  8. Saddle quantities and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyal, Pierre; Rousseau, Christiane

    In this paper we make the connection between the theoretical study of the generalized homoclinic loop bifurcation (GHB ∗) and the practical computational aspects. For this purpose we first compare the Dulac normal form with the Joyal normal form. These forms were both used to prove the GHB ∗ theorem. But the second one is far more practical from the algorithmic point of view. We then show that the information carried by these normal forms can be computed in a much simpler way, using what we shall call dual Lyapunov constants. The coefficients of a normal form or the dual Lyapunov quantities are particular cases of what we shall call saddle quantities. We calculate the saddle quantities for quadratic systems, and we show that no more than three limit cycles can appear in a homoclinic loop bifurcation. We also study the homoclinic loop bifurcation of order 5, appearing in a 6-parameter family close to a Hamiltonian system. To our knowledge, this is the first time that one can find a complete description of a GHB ∗ of such high order. Finally we calculate the saddle quantities for a symmetric cubic vector field, and we deduce a bound for the number of limit cycles that appear in a GHB ∗.

  9. Fluorine-18 labeling of small molecules: the use of 18F-labeled aryl fluorides derived from no-carrier-added [18F]fluoride as labeling precursors.

    PubMed

    Wuest, F

    2007-01-01

    The favourable long-half life, the ease of production and the low energy of the emitted positron make 18F an ideal radionuclide for PET imaging. Radiochemistry of 18F basically relies on two distinctive types of reactions: nucleophilic and electrophilic reactions. All syntheses of 18F-labeled radiotracers are based on either [18F]fluoride ion or [18F]fluorine gas as simple primary labeling precursors which are obtained directly from the cyclotron. They can be applied either directly to the radiosynthesis or they can be transformed into more complex labeling precursors enabling the multi-step build-up of organic tracer molecules. The topic of this review is a survey on the application of several 18F-labeled aryl fluorides as building blocks derived from no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) [18F] fluoride to build up small monomeric PET radiotracers at high specific radioactivity by multi-step synthesis procedures.

  10. RF Modal Quantity Gaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanleuven, K.

    1989-01-01

    The primary objective is to provide a concept of a radio frequency (RF) modal resonance technique which is being investigated as a method for gaging the quantities of subcritical cryogenic propellants in metallic tanks. Of special interest are the potential applications of the technique to microgravity propellant gaging situations. The results of concept testing using cryogenic oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, as well as paraffin simulations of microgravity fluid orientations, are reported. These test results were positive and showed that the gaging concept was viable.

  11. Intermediate dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Hahn, K; Rossi, H H

    1992-04-01

    The transfer of energy from ionizing radiation to matter involves a series of steps. In wide ranges of their energy spectra photons and neutrons transfer energy to an irradiated medium almost exclusively by the production of charged particles which ionize and thereby produce electrons that can ionize in turn. The examination of these processes leads to a series of intermediate quantities. One of these is kerma, which has long been employed as a measure of the energy imparted in the first of the interactions. It depends only on the fluence of uncharged particles and is therefore--unlike absorbed dose and electron fluence--insensitive to local differences of receptor geometry and composition. An analogous quantity for charged-particle fields, cema (converted energy per unit mass), is defined, which quantifies the energy imparted in terms of the interactions of charged particles, disregarding energy dissipation by secondary electrons. Cema can be expressed as an integral over the fluence of ions times their stopping power. However, complications arise when the charged particles are electrons, and when their fluence cannot be separated from that of the secondaries. The resulting difficulty can be circumvented by the definition of reduced cema. This quantity corresponds largely to the concept employed in the cavity theory of Spencer and Attix. In reduced cema not all secondary electrons but all electrons below a chosen cutoff energy, delta, are considered to be absorbed locally. When the cutoff energy is reduced, cema approaches absorbed dose and thereby becomes sensitive to highly local differences in geometry or composition. With larger values of delta, reduced cema is a useful parameter to specify the dose-generating potential of a charged-particle field 'free in air' or in vacuo. It is nearly equal to the mean absorbed dose in a sphere with radius equal to the range of electrons of energy delta. Reduced cema is a function of the fluence at the specified location at

  12. Assessment of Bowel Wall Enhancement for the Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia in Patients with Small Bowel Obstruction: Value of Adding Unenhanced CT to Contrast-enhanced CT.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Anh Minh; Corno, Lucie; Beaussier, Hélène; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Millet, Ingrid; Hodel, Jérôme; Taourel, Patrice; Chatellier, Gilles; Zins, Marc

    2016-07-01

    Purpose To determine whether adding unenhanced computed tomography (CT) to contrast material-enhanced CT improves the diagnostic performance of decreased bowel wall enhancement as a sign of ischemia complicating mechanical small bowel obstruction (SBO). Materials and Methods This retrospective study was approved by the institutional review board, which waived the requirement for informed consent. Two gastrointestinal radiologists independently performed retrospective assessments of 164 unenhanced and contrast-enhanced CT studies from 158 consecutive patients (mean age, 71.2 years) with mechanical SBO. The reference standard was the intraoperative and/or histologic diagnosis (in 80 cases) or results from clinical follow-up in patients who did not undergo surgery (84 cases). Decreased bowel wall enhancement was evaluated with contrast-enhanced images then and both unenhanced and contrast-enhanced images 1 month later. Diagnostic performance of decreased bowel wall enhancement and confidence in the diagnosis were compared between the two readings by using McNemar and Wilcoxon signed rank tests. Interobserver agreement was assessed by using κ statistics and compared with bootstrapping. Results Ischemia was diagnosed in 41 of 164 (25%) episodes of SBO. For both observers, adding unenhanced images improved decreased bowel wall enhancement sensitivity (observer 1: 46.3% [19 of 41] vs 65.8% [27 of 41], P = .02; observer 2: 56.1% [23 of 41] vs 63.4% [26 of 41], P = .45), Youden index (from 0.41 to 0.58 for observer 1 and from 0.42 to 0.61 for observer 2), and confidence score (P < .001 for both). Specificity significantly increased for observer 2 (84.5% [104 of 123] vs 94.3% [116 of 123], P = .002), and interobserver agreement significantly increased, from moderate (κ = 0.48) to excellent (κ = 0.89; P < .0001). Conclusion Adding unenhanced CT to contrast-enhanced CT improved the sensitivity, diagnostic confidence, and interobserver agreement of the diagnosis of ischemia

  13. Effect of grid size in RCMs on the representation of floods in small and medium sized catchments in Austria: added value of convection-permitting simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reszler, Christian; Truhetz, Heimo; Switanek, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a small multi-model ensemble study of coupling two different ERA-Interim driven RCMs (WRF and COSMO-CLM) using different grid sizes (0.44°, 0.11°, 0.03°) with a hydrological model for representing floods in small to medium sized catchments in South-eastern Austria. The aim is to evaluate the benefit of grid size reduction and in particular, the added value of convection-permitting simulations with 0.03° (~ 3 km) resolution. The hydrological model is a spatially distributed model (1 km² grid), which was previously developed for operational flood forecasting and calibrated against data of more than 20 stream gauges with corresponding catchment sizes between 30 and 1000 km². The hindcast simulations (1989-2010) are evaluated in terms of accurately representing flood frequency, seasonality, as well as other flood event characteristics, such as weather type, antecedent soil moisture, etc. The results show, that for small catchments (< 200 km²) a resolution of 3 km is essential to accurately simulate the magnitude of flood events. Flood frequency and seasonality is represented well in all catchments. In the larger catchments a resolution of 0.11° (~ 12.5 km) already yields statistically satisfying results. Also, due to the short response times in the small sub-catchments a time step of 1 hour is required. However, in all setups a bias still exists in precipitation and temperature, which sometimes leads to unrealistic hydrological conditions. Ongoing work comprises the test a of novel statistical error correction method, which is expected to improve results particularly for higher quantiles. Also, a future run ("time-slice" experiment) is planned with the coupled model setup using the RCP8.5 emission scenario, the GCM of the Max-Planck-Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM-LR), dynamically downscaled to 3 km by COSMO-CLM, and the novel error correction method. The study is funded by the Austrian Klima- und Energiefonds through the Austrian Climate

  14. Hairy AdS solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David

    2016-11-01

    We construct exact hairy AdS soliton solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity theory. We examine their thermodynamic properties and discuss the role of these solutions for the existence of first order phase transitions for hairy black holes. The negative energy density associated to hairy AdS solitons can be interpreted as the Casimir energy that is generated in the dual filed theory when the fermions are antiperiodic on the compact coordinate.

  15. Infants Make Quantity Discriminations for Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hespos, Susan J.; Dora, Begum; Rips, Lance J.; Christie, Stella

    2012-01-01

    Infants can track small groups of solid objects, and infants can respond when these quantities change. But earlier work is equivocal about whether infants can track continuous substances, such as piles of sand. Experiment 1 ("N" = 88) used a habituation paradigm to show infants can register changes in the size of piles of sand that they…

  16. Measurements, Physical Quantities, and Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Laurence E.

    1988-01-01

    Explains the significance of the mole as a unit of measure by showing the relationship between physical quantities and their mathematical representations. Offers a summary of the principles of metrology that make creation of physical quantities and units seem reasonable. A table of base physical quantities and units is included. (RT)

  17. Estimating and operating on discrete quantities in orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus).

    PubMed

    Call, J

    2000-06-01

    This study investigated the ability of 3 male orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus; 1 subadult, 2 adults) to estimate, compare, and operate on 2 sets of small quantities (1-6 cereal bits). Experiment 1 investigated the orangutans' ability to choose the larger of 2 quantities when they were presented successively as opposed to simultaneously, thus being perceptually unavailable at the time of choice. Experiment 2 investigated the orangutans' ability to select the larger quantity after the original quantities were augmented or reduced. Orangutans were capable of selecting the larger of 2 quantities in Experiment 1. There was also some evidence from Experiment 2, albeit weaker, that orangutans may mentally combine quantities (but not dissociate) to obtain the larger of 2 quantities. This study suggests that orangutans use a representational mechanism (especially when comparing quantities) to select the larger of 2 sets of items.

  18. Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements, Regardless of Their Zinc Content, Increase Growth and Reduce the Prevalence of Stunting and Wasting in Young Burkinabe Children: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Sonja Y.; Abbeddou, Souheila; Jimenez, Elizabeth Yakes; Somé, Jérôme W.; Vosti, Stephen A.; Ouédraogo, Zinéwendé P.; Guissou, Rosemonde M.; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Brown, Kenneth H.

    2015-01-01

    Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are promising home fortification products, but the optimal zinc level needed to improve growth and reduce morbidity is uncertain. We aimed to assess the impact of providing SQ-LNS with varied amounts of zinc, along with illness treatment, on zinc-related outcomes compared with standard care. In a placebo-controlled, cluster-randomized trial, 34 communities were stratified to intervention (IC) or non-intervention cohorts (NIC). 2435 eligible IC children were randomly assigned to one of four groups:1) SQ-LNS without zinc, placebo tablet; 2) SQ-LNS containing 5mg zinc, placebo tablet; 3) SQ-LNS containing 10mg zinc, placebo tablet; or 4) SQ-LNS without zinc and 5mg zinc tablet from 9–18 months of age. During weekly morbidity surveillance, oral rehydration salts were provided for reported diarrhea and antimalarial therapy for confirmed malaria. Children in NIC (n = 785) did not receive SQ-LNS, tablets, illness surveillance or treatment. At 9 and 18 months, length, weight and hemoglobin were measured in all children. Reported adherence was 97±6% for SQ-LNS and tablets. Mean baseline hemoglobin was 89±15g/L. At 18 months, change in hemoglobin was greater in IC than NIC (+8 vs -1g/L, p<0.0001), but 79.1% of IC were still anemic (vs. 91.1% in NIC). Final plasma zinc concentration did not differ by group. During the 9-month observation period, the incidence of diarrhea was 1.10±1.03 and of malaria 0.54±0.50 episodes per 100 child-days, and did not differ by group. Length at 18 months was significantly greater in IC compared to NIC (77.7±3.0 vs. 76.9±3.4cm; p<0.001) and stunting prevalence was significantly lower in IC (29.3%) than NIC (39.3%; p<0.0001), but did not differ by intervention group within IC. Wasting prevalence was also significantly lower in IC (8.7%) than in NIC (13.5%; p = 0.0003). Providing SQ-LNS daily with or without zinc, along with malaria and diarrhea treatment, significantly increased

  19. Maternal Supplementation with Small-Quantity Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Compared with Multiple Micronutrients, but Not with Iron and Folic Acid, Reduces the Prevalence of Low Gestational Weight Gain in Semi-Urban Ghana: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Adu-Afarwuah, Seth; Lartey, Anna; Okronipa, Harriet; Ashorn, Per; Ashorn, Ulla; Zeilani, Mamane; Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen A; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2017-04-01

    Background: It is unclear whether maternal supplementation with small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs; 118 kcal/d) affects maternal weight.Objective: We compared several secondary anthropometric measures between 3 groups of women in the iLiNS (International Lipid-based Nutrient Supplements)-DYAD trial in Ghana.Methods: Women (n = 1320; <20 wk of gestation) were randomly assigned to receive 60 mg Fe + 400 μg folic acid/d (IFA), 18 vitamins and minerals/d [multiple micronutrients (MMNs)], or 20 g SQ-LNSs with 22 micronutrients/d (LNS) during pregnancy and a placebo (200 mg Ca/d), MMNs, or SQ-LNSs, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum. Weight, midupper arm circumference (MUAC), and triceps skinfold (TSF) thickness at 36 wk of gestation and 6 mo postpartum were analyzed, as were changes from estimated prepregnancy values. We assessed the adequacy of estimated gestational weight gain (GWG) by using Institute of Medicine (IOM) and International Fetal and Newborn Growth Standards for the 21st Century (INTERGROWTH-21st) guidelines.Results: The estimated prepregnancy prevalence of overweight or obesity was 38.5%. By 36 wk of gestation, women (n = 1015) had a mean ± SD weight gain of 7.4 ± 3.7 kg and changes of -1.0 ± 1.7 cm in MUAC and -2.8 ± 4.1 mm in TSF thickness. The LNS group had a lower prevalence of inadequate GWG on the basis of IOM guidelines (57.4%) than the MMN (67.2%) but not the IFA (63.1%) groups (P = 0.030), whereas the prevalence of adequate (26.9% overall) and excessive (10.4% overall) GWG did not differ by group. The percentages of normal-weight women (in kg/m(2): 18.5 < body mass index < 25.0; n = 754) whose GWG was less than the third centile of the INTERGROWTH-21st standards were 23.0%, 28.7%, and 28.5% for the LNS, MMN, and IFA groups, respectively (P = 0.36). At 6 mo postpartum, the prevalence of overweight or obesity was 45.3%, and the risk of becoming overweight or obese did not differ by group.Conclusion: SQ-LNS supplementation

  20. Added Sugars

    MedlinePlus

    ... need sugar to function properly. Added sugars contribute zero nutrients but many added calories that can lead to extra pounds or even obesity, thereby reducing heart health. If you think of your daily calorie needs as a budget, you want to “spend” ...

  1. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  2. Diffusion and chaos from near AdS2 horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Mike; Donos, Aristomenis

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the thermal diffusivity D = κ/c ρ and butterfly velocity v B in holographic models that flow to AdS2 × R d fixed points in the infra-red. We show that both these quantities are governed by the same irrelevant deformation of AdS2 and hence establish a simple relationship between them. When this deformation corresponds to a universal dilaton mode of dimension Δ = 2 then this relationship is always given by D = v B 2 /(2 πT).

  3. Adding Erlotinib to Chemoradiation Improves Overall Survival but Not Progression-Free Survival in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Komaki, Ritsuko; Allen, Pamela K.; Wei, Xiong; Blumenschein, George R.; Tang, Ximing; Lee, J. Jack; Welsh, James W.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Liu, Diane D.; Hong, Waun Ki

    2015-06-01

    Purpose: To test, in a single-arm, prospective, phase 2 trial, whether adding the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib to concurrent chemoradiotherapy for previously untreated, locally advanced, inoperable non-small cell lung cancer would improve survival and disease control without increasing toxicity. Methods and Materials: Forty-eight patients with previously untreated non-small cell lung cancer received intensity modulated radiation therapy (63 Gy/35 fractions) on Monday through Friday, with chemotherapy (paclitaxel 45 mg/m², carboplatin area under the curve [AUC] = 2) on Mondays, for 7 weeks. All patients also received the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib (150 mg orally 1/d) on Tuesday-Sunday for 7 weeks, followed by consolidation paclitaxel–carboplatin. The primary endpoint was time to progression; secondary endpoints were overall survival (OS), toxicity, response, and disease control and whether any endpoint differed by EGFR mutation status. Results: Of 46 patients evaluable for response, 40 were former or never-smokers, and 41 were evaluable for EGFR mutations (37 wild-type [WT] and 4 mutated [all adenocarcinoma]). Median time to progression was 14.0 months and did not differ by EGFR status. Toxicity was acceptable (no grade 5, 1 grade 4, 11 grade 3). Twelve patients (26%) had complete responses (10 WT, 2 mutated), 27 (59%) partial (21 WT, 2 mutated, 4 unknown), and 7 (15%) none (6 WT, 2 mutated, 1 unknown) (P=.610). At 37.0 months' follow-up (range, 3.6-76.5 months) for all patients, median OS time was 36.5 months, and 1-, 2-, and 5-year OS rates were 82.6%, 67.4%, and 35.9%, respectively; none differed by mutation status. Twelve patients had no progression, and 34 had local and/or distant failure. Eleven of 27 distant failures were in the brain (7 WT, 3 mutated, 1 unknown). Conclusions: Toxicity and OS were promising, but time to progression did not meet expectations. The prevalence of distant

  4. Thermodynamics of quantum systems with multiple conserved quantities

    PubMed Central

    Guryanova, Yelena; Popescu, Sandu; Short, Anthony J.; Silva, Ralph; Skrzypczyk, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Recently, there has been much progress in understanding the thermodynamics of quantum systems, even for small individual systems. Most of this work has focused on the standard case where energy is the only conserved quantity. Here we consider a generalization of this work to deal with multiple conserved quantities. Each conserved quantity, which, importantly, need not commute with the rest, can be extracted and stored in its own battery. Unlike the standard case, in which the amount of extractable energy is constrained, here there is no limit on how much of any individual conserved quantity can be extracted. However, other conserved quantities must be supplied, and the second law constrains the combination of extractable quantities and the trade-offs between them. We present explicit protocols that allow us to perform arbitrarily good trade-offs and extract arbitrarily good combinations of conserved quantities from individual quantum systems. PMID:27384384

  5. Patterns, Quantities, and Linear Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    Pattern generalization and a focus on quantities are important aspects of algebraic reasoning. This article describes two different approaches to teaching and learning linear functions for middle school students. One group focused on patterns in number tables, and the other group worked primarily with real-world quantities. This article highlights…

  6. Quantity Stickiness versus Stackelberg Leadership

    SciTech Connect

    Ferreira, F. A.

    2008-10-30

    We study the endogenous Stackelberg relations in a dynamic market. We analyze a twice-repeated duopoly where, in the beginning, each firm chooses either a quantity-sticky production mode or a quantity-flexible production mode. The size of the market becomes observable after the first period. In the second period, a firm can adjust its quantity if, and only if, it has adopted the flexible mode. Hence, if one firm chooses the sticky mode whilst the other chooses the flexible mode, then they respectively play the roles of a Stackelberg leader and a Stackelberg follower in the second marketing period. We compute the supply quantities at equilibrium and the corresponding expected profits of the firms. We also analyze the effect of the slope parameter of the demand curve on the expected supply quantities and on the profits.

  7. Holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility as holographic information dual to different volumes in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazhari, N. S.; Momeni, Davood; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Faizal, Mir; Myrzakulov, Ratbay

    2017-03-01

    The holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility have been defined as new quantities dual to different volumes in AdS. In this paper, we will use these new proposals to calculate both of these quantities for a variety of interesting deformations of AdS. We obtain the holographic complexity and fidelity susceptibility for an AdS black hole, Janus solution, a solution with cylindrical symmetry, an inhomogeneous background and a hyperscaling violating background. It is observed that the holographic complexity depends on the size of the subsystem for all these solutions and the fidelity susceptibility does not have any such dependence.

  8. Action growth for AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Rong-Gen; Ruan, Shan-Ming; Wang, Shao-Jiang; Yang, Run-Qiu; Peng, Rong-Hui

    2016-09-01

    Recently a Complexity-Action (CA) duality conjecture has been proposed, which relates the quantum complexity of a holographic boundary state to the action of a Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch in the anti-de Sitter (AdS) bulk. In this paper we further investigate the duality conjecture for stationary AdS black holes and derive some exact results for the growth rate of action within the Wheeler-DeWitt (WDW) patch at late time approximation, which is supposed to be dual to the growth rate of quantum complexity of holographic state. Based on the results from the general D-dimensional Reissner-Nordström (RN)-AdS black hole, rotating/charged Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole, Kerr-AdS black hole and charged Gauss-Bonnet-AdS black hole, we present a universal formula for the action growth expressed in terms of some thermodynamical quantities associated with the outer and inner horizons of the AdS black holes. And we leave the conjecture unchanged that the stationary AdS black hole in Einstein gravity is the fastest computer in nature.

  9. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  10. Reportable Quantities Federal Register Notices

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act regulation designates specific substances as hazardous; identifies the quantity of substances which, when released, requires notification; and sets forth the notification requirements.

  11. Pre-irradiation with low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly enhances the efficacy of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy in human non-small lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bing; Zhang, Hong; Li, Wenjian; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Guangming; Xie, Yi; Hao, Jifang; Min, Fengling; Zhou, Qingming; Duan, Xin

    2007-04-01

    The combination of ionizing radiation and gene therapy has been investigated. However, there are very few reports about the combination of heavy-ion irradiation and gene therapy. To determine if the pre-exposure to low-dose heavy ion beam enhances the suppression of AdCMV-p53 on non-small lung cancer (NSLC), the cells pre-irradiated or non-irradiated were infected with 20, 40 MOI of AdCMV-p53. Survival fraction and the relative biology effect (RBE) were determined by clonogenic assay. The results showed that the proportions of p53 positive cells in 12C6+ beam induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells were more than 90%, which were significantly more than those in γ-ray induced AdCMV-p53 infected cells. The pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly prevented the G0/G1 arrest and activated G2/M checkpoints. The pre-exposure to 12C6+ beam significantly improved cell to apoptosis. RBEs for the 12C6+ + AdCMV-p53 infection groups were 30% 60%, 20% 130% and 30% 70% more than those for the 12C6+-irradiated only, AdCMV-p53 infected only, and γ-irradiation induced AdCMVp53 infected groups, respectively. The data suggested that the pre-exposure to low-dose 12C6+ beam significantly promotes exogenous p53 expression in NSLC, and the suppression of AdCMV-p53 gene therapy on NSLC.

  12. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to…

  13. A Comparison of Runoff Quantity and Quality from Two Small Basins Undergoing Implementation of Conventional and Low-Impact-Development (LID) Strategies: Cross Plains, Wisconsin, Water Years 1999-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selbig, William R.; Bannerman, Roger T.

    2008-01-01

    Environmental managers are often faced with the task of designing strategies to accommodate development while minimizing adverse environmental impacts. Low-impact development (LID) is one such strategy that attempts to mitigate environmental degradation commonly associated with impervious surfaces. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources, studied two residential basins in Cross Plains, Wis., during water years 1999?2005. A paired-basin study design was used to compare runoff quantity and quality from the two basins, one of which was developed in a conventional way and the other was developed with LID. The conventional-developed basin (herein called ?conventional basin?) consisted of curb and gutter, 40-foot street widths, and a fully connected stormwater-conveyance system. The LID basin consisted of grassed swales, reduced impervious area (32-foot street widths), street inlets draining to grass swales, a detention pond, and an infiltration basin. Data collected in the LID basin represented predevelopment through near-complete build-out conditions. Smaller, more frequent precipitation events that produced stormwater discharge from the conventional basin were retained in the LID basin. Only six events with precipitation depths less than or equal to 0.4 inch produced measurable discharge from the LID basin. Of these six events, five occurred during winter months when underlying soils are commonly frozen, and one was likely a result of saturated soil from a preceding storm. In the conventional basin, the number of discharge events, using the same threshold of precipitation depth, was 180, with nearly one-half of those resulting from precipitation depths less than 0.2 inch. Precipitation events capable of producing appreciable discharge in the LID basin were typically those of high intensity or precipitation depth or those that occurred after soils were already saturated. Total annual discharge volume measured from

  14. A retrospective analysis of efficacy and safety of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy as first- and second-line therapy in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

    PubMed

    Quan, Rencui; Huang, Jiaxing; Chen, Nan; Fang, Wenfeng; Hu, Zhihuang; Zhan, Jianhua; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Hongyu

    2016-08-01

    Several phase III clinical trials had authenticated that the addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel plus carboplatin or gemcitabine plus cisplatin showed encouraging efficacy as first-line therapy for advanced NSCLC patients. However, the benefits of adding bevacizumab to other chemotherapy regimens in first- or second-line therapy have not been reported. To compare the clinical efficacy and safety of bevacizumab concomitant with chemotherapy regimens in patients with advanced NSCLC as first- or second-line therapy, we retrospectively reviewed the effects of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy regimens in naive-chemotherapy and pre-chemotherapy patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC. A total of 79 patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC received at least two cycles of bevacizumab with chemotherapy between October 2010 and December 2013 were selected. Our primary end points were overall response rate (ORR) and disease control rate (DCR). The secondary objective was overall survival (OS) and safety. Seventy-nine patients were included in this study. Overall response rates at first evaluation (after 2 cycles) were 23.1 % (9/39) and 5.0 % (2/40) in first- and second-line therapy (P = 0.020), respectively. And disease control rates were 84.6 % (33/39) and 50 % (20/40), respectively (P = 0.001). The median OS were 27.2 months (95 % CI 13.3-41.1 months) and 29.6 months (95 % CI 6.7-52.5 months), respectively (P = 0.740). Grade 3-4 adverse events included leukopenia (2/39), and neutropenia (3/39) in first-line therapy versus neutropenia (1/40) and thrombocytopenia (2/40) in second-line treatment. In our experience, combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy had encouraging anti-tumor efficacy as both first- and second-line therapy.

  15. Recognizing Prefixes in Scientific Quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolowski, Andrzej

    2015-09-01

    Although recognizing prefixes in physical quantities is inherent for practitioners, it might not be inherent for students, who do not use prefixes in their everyday life experiences. This deficiency surfaces in AP Physics exams. For example, readers of an AP Physics exam reported "a common mistake of incorrectly converting nanometers to meters." Similar students' mistakes were reported also by AP Chemistry readers "as in previous years, students still had difficulty converting kJ to J." While traditional teaching focuses on memorizing the symbols of prefixes, little attention is given to helping learners recognize a prefix in a given quantity. I noticed in my teaching practice that by making the processes of identifying prefixes more explicit, students make fewer mistakes on unit conversion. Thus, this paper presents an outline of a lesson that focuses on prefix recognition. It is designed for a first-year college physics class; however, its key points can be addressed to any group of physics students.

  16. Effects of spray-irrigated treated effluent on water quantity and quality, and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a small watershed, New Garden Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreffler, Curtis L.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Veneziale, John M.; Olson, Leif E.; O'Brien, David L.

    2005-01-01

    An increasing number of communities in Pennsylvania are implementing land-treatment systems to dispose of treated sewage effluent. Disposal of treated effluent by spraying onto the land surface, instead of discharging to streams, may recharge the ground-water system and reduce degradation of stream-water quality. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA) and with assistance from the New Garden Township Sewer Authority, conducted a study from October 1997 through December 2001 to assess the effects of spray irrigation of secondary treated sewage effluent on the water quantity and quality and the fate and transport of nitrogen in a 38-acre watershed in New Garden Township, Chester County, Pa. On an annual basis, the spray irrigation increased the recharge to the watershed. Compared to the annual recharge determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed above the USGS streamflow-gaging station (01479820) near Kennett Square, Pa., the spray irrigation increased annual recharge in the study watershed by approximately 8.8 in. (inches) in 2000 and 4.3 in. in 2001. For 2000 and 2001, the spray irrigation increased recharge 65-70 percent more than the recharge estimates determined for the Red Clay Creek watershed. The increased recharge was equal to 30-39 percent of the applied effluent. The spray-irrigated effluent increased base flow in the watershed. The magnitude of the increase appeared to be related to the time of year when the application rates increased. During the late fall through winter and into the early spring period, when application rates were low, base flow increased by approximately 50 percent over the period prior to effluent application. During the early spring through summer to the late fall period, when application rates were high, base flow increased by approximately 200 percent over the period prior to effluent application

  17. Small Scale Organic Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horak, V.; Crist, DeLanson R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of using small scale experimentation in the undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory. Describes small scale filtration techniques as an example of a semi-micro method applied to small quantities of material. (MLH)

  18. A geochemical module for "AMDTreat" to compute caustic quantity, effluent quantity, and sludge volume

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Parkhurst, David L.; Means, Brent P; McKenzie, Bob; Morris, Harry; Arthur, Bill

    2010-01-01

    Treatment with caustic chemicals typically is used to increase pH and decrease concentrations of dissolved aluminum, iron, and/or manganese in largevolume, metal-laden discharges from active coal mines. Generally, aluminum and iron can be removed effectively at near-neutral pH (6 to 8), whereas active manganese removal requires treatment to alkaline pH (~10). The treatment cost depends on the specific chemical used (NaOH, CaO, Ca(OH)2, Na2CO3, or NH3) and increases with the quantities of chemical added and sludge produced. The pH and metals concentrations do not change linearly with the amount of chemical added. Consequently, the amount of caustic chemical needed to achieve a target pH and the corresponding effluent composition and sludge volume can not be accurately determined without empirical titration data or the application of geochemical models to simulate the titration of the discharge water with caustic chemical(s). The AMDTreat computer program (http://amd.osmre.gov/ ) is widely used to compute costs for treatment of coal-mine drainage. Although AMDTreat can use results of empirical titration with industrial grade caustic chemicals to compute chemical costs for treatment of net-acidic or net-alkaline mine drainage, such data are rarely available. To improve the capability of AMDTreat to estimate (1) the quantity and cost of caustic chemicals to attain a target pH, (2) the concentrations of dissolved metals in treated effluent, and (3) the volume of sludge produced by the treatment, a titration simulation is being developed using the geochemical program PHREEQC (wwwbrr.cr.usgs.gov/projects/GWC_coupled/phreeqc/) that will be coupled as a module to AMDTreat. The simulated titration results can be compared with or used in place of empirical titration data to estimate chemical quantities and costs. This paper describes the development, evaluation, and potential utilization of the PHREEQC titration module for AMDTreat.

  19. Invariant Quantities in Shear Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baule, A.; Evans, R. M. L.

    2008-12-01

    The dynamics of systems out of thermal equilibrium is usually treated on a case-by-case basis without knowledge of fundamental and universal principles. We address this problem for a class of driven steady states, namely, those mechanically driven at the boundaries such as complex fluids under shear. From a nonequilibrium counterpart to detailed balance (NCDB) we derive a remarkably simple set of invariant quantities which remain unchanged when the system is driven. These new nonequilibrium relations are both exact and valid arbitrarily far from equilibrium. Furthermore, they enable the systematic calculation of transition rates in driven systems with state spaces of arbitrary connectivity.

  20. Combined therapeutic use of AdGFPFasL and small molecule inhibitors of ceramide metabolism in prostate and head and neck cancers: a status report.

    PubMed

    Norris, J S; Bielawska, A; Day, T; El-Zawahri, A; ElOjeimy, S; Hannun, Y; Holman, D; Hyer, M; Landon, C; Lowe, S; Dong, J Y; McKillop, J; Norris, K; Obeid, L; Rubinchik, S; Tavassoli, M; Tomlinson, S; Voelkel-Johnson, C; Liu, X

    2006-12-01

    As of January 2005, there were 1020 gene therapy clinical trials ongoing worldwide with 675 or 66.2% devoted to cancer gene therapy. The majority are occurring in the US and Europe (http://www.wiley.co.uk/genetherapy/clinical/). At the present time, to our knowledge there are no trials that employ gene delivery of Fas Ligand (FasL). As an important note, and in contrast to somatic cell therapy trials, there are no reported deaths due to therapeutic vector administration in any cancer gene therapy trial. That said, from our studies and from the published literature, the issue of gene delivery remains the major obstacle to successfully employing gene therapy for cancer treatment. Numerous laboratories are studying this with many different approaches. My co-workers and I have focused on the delivery issue by using various approaches that address tumor targeting and transgene expression. In addition, we are focusing on enhancing tumor cell killing via the bystander effect and through use of small molecules to enhance bystander activity.

  1. Charged rotating AdS black holes with Chern-Simons coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir, Mozhgan; Mann, Robert B.

    2017-01-01

    We obtain a perturbative solution for rotating charged black holes in five-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Chern-Simons theory with a negative cosmological constant. We start from a small undeformed Kerr-AdS solution and use the electric charge as a perturbative parameter to build up black holes with equal-magnitude angular momenta up to fourth order. These black hole solutions are described by three parameters, the charge, horizon radius and horizon angular velocity. We determine the physical quantities of these black holes and study their dependence on the parameters of black holes and arbitrary Chern-Simons coefficient. In particular, for values of the CS coupling constant beyond its supergravity value, due to a rotational instability, counterrotating black holes arise. Also the rotating solutions appear to have vanishing angular momenta and are not manifest uniquely by their global charges.

  2. Food Choice in People with Prader-Willi Syndrome: Quantity and Relative Preference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Beth; Egli, Mark; Koppekin, Amy; Thompson, Travis

    2002-01-01

    Seven individuals with Prader-Willi Syndrome and seven obese individuals without the syndrome were compared on their choice of either a larger quantity of food delivered after a delay or a small quantity of food delivered immediately. Individuals with Prader-Willi selected the larger food quantity whereas choices by the obese comparison group was…

  3. Orientifolded locally AdS3 geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loran, F.; Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Continuing the analysis of [Loran F and Sheikh-Jabbari M M 2010 Phys. Lett. B 693 184-7], we classify all locally AdS3 stationary axi-symmetric unorientable solutions to AdS3 Einstein gravity and show that they are obtained by applying certain orientifold projection on AdS3, BTZ or AdS3 self-dual orbifold, respectively, O-AdS3, O-BTZ and O-SDO geometries. Depending on the orientifold fixed surface, the O-surface, which is either a space-like 2D plane or a cylinder, or a light-like 2D plane or a cylinder, one can distinguish four distinct cases. For the space-like orientifold plane or cylinder cases, these geometries solve AdS3 Einstein equations and are hence locally AdS3 everywhere except at the O-surface, where there is a delta-function source. For the light-like cases, the geometry is a solution to Einstein equations even at the O-surface. We discuss the causal structure for static, extremal and general rotating O-BTZ and O-SDO cases as well as the geodesic motion on these geometries. We also discuss orientifolding Poincaré patch AdS3 and AdS2 geometries as a way to geodesic completion of these spaces and comment on the 2D CFT dual to the O-geometries.

  4. Multicenter, Phase III, Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial of Pravastatin Added to First-Line Standard Chemotherapy in Small-Cell Lung Cancer (LUNGSTAR).

    PubMed

    Seckl, Michael J; Ottensmeier, Christian H; Cullen, Michael; Schmid, Peter; Ngai, Yenting; Muthukumar, Dakshinamoorthy; Thompson, Joyce; Harden, Susan; Middleton, Gary; Fife, Kate M; Crosse, Barbara; Taylor, Paul; Nash, Stephen; Hackshaw, Allan

    2017-02-27

    Purpose Treating small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) remains a therapeutic challenge. Experimental studies show that statins exert additive effects with agents, such as cisplatin, to impair tumor growth, and observational studies suggest that statins combined with anticancer therapies delay relapse and prolong life in several cancer types. To our knowledge, we report the first large, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of a statin with standard-of-care for patients with cancer, specifically SCLC. Patients and Methods Patients with confirmed SCLC (limited or extensive disease) and performance status 0 to 3 were randomly assigned to receive daily pravastatin 40 mg or placebo, combined with up to six cycles of etoposide plus cisplatin or carboplatin every 3 weeks, until disease progression or intolerable toxicity. Primary end point was overall survival (OS), and secondary end points were progression-free survival (PFS), response rate, and toxicity. Results Eight hundred forty-six patients from 91 United Kingdom hospitals were recruited. The median age of recruited patients was 64 years of age, 43% had limited disease, and 57% had extensive disease. There were 758 deaths and 787 PFS events. No benefit was found for pravastatin, either in all patients or in several subgroups. For pravastatin versus placebo, the 2-year OS rate was 13.2% (95% CI, 10.0 to 16.7) versus 14.1% (95% CI, 10.9 to 17.7), respectively, with a hazard ratio of 1.01 (95% CI, 0.88 to 1.16; P = .90. The median OS was 10.6 months v 10.7 months, respectively. The median PFS was 7.7 months v 7.3 months, respectively. The median OS (pravastatin v placebo) was 14.6 months in both groups for limited disease and 9.1 months versus 8.8 months, respectively, for extensive disease. Adverse events were similar between groups. Conclusion Pravastatin 40 mg combined with standard SCLC therapy, although safe, does not benefit patients. Our conclusions are the same as those found in all four much smaller

  5. Conserved nonlinear quantities in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Langlois, David; Vernizzi, Filippo

    2005-11-15

    We give a detailed and improved presentation of our recently proposed formalism for nonlinear perturbations in cosmology, based on a covariant and fully nonperturbative approach. We work, in particular, with a covector combining the gradients of the energy density and of the local number of e-folds to obtain a nonlinear generalization of the familiar linear uniform-density perturbation. We show that this covector obeys a remarkably simple conservation equation which is exact, fully nonlinear and valid at all scales. We relate explicitly our approach to the coordinate-based formalisms for linear perturbations and for second-order perturbations. We also consider other quantities, which are conserved on sufficiently large scales for adiabatic perturbations, and discuss the issue of gauge invariance.

  6. Balancing Teacher Quality and Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bond, Helen

    The world is facing a shortage of trained teachers. According to the 2010 Global Monitoring Report approximately 10.3 million teachers will be needed globally to staff classrooms from Bangkok to Canada. The situation is worse in Sub-Saharan Africa. Estimates suggest that approximately 1.2 million new teachers will be needed in Sub-Saharan Africa alone to achieve universal primary education goals by 2015. Increases in primary school enrollments, drought, and HIV-AIDS have exacerbated the need for well trained teachers. Despite the need, the focus is on balancing quality with quantity. An effective teacher is deemed a critical element, although not the only one, in a student's success in the classroom. This paper focuses on the dilemma of meeting universal primary education goals in Sub-Saharan Africa, while maintaining teacher quality in fragile contexts.

  7. Quantity Discrimination in Domestic Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Laura; Montrose, V. Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Quantity discrimination involves distinguishing which of two quantities is greater. This discrimination between larger and smaller quantities has only been demonstrated in rats post extensive training. We tested whether domestic rats could perform quantity discrimination without explicit training. We found that rats could distinguish the greater amount in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. Rats could not distinguish between 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. We also found that as the ratio between quantities became finer the choice of the larger quantity decreased. We conclude that rats can perform quantity discrimination without extensive training and that their quantity discrimination ability is influenced by the ratio between quantities. Abstract Quantity discrimination is a basic form of numerical competence where an animal distinguishes which of two amounts is greater in size. Whilst quantity discrimination in rats has been investigated via training paradigms, rats’ natural quantity discrimination abilities without explicit training for a desired response have not been explored. This study investigated domestic rats’ ability to perform quantity discrimination. Domestic rats (n = 12) were examined for their ability to distinguish the larger amount under nine quantity comparisons. One-sample t-tests identified a significant preference for the larger quantity in comparisons of 1 vs. 2, 2 vs. 3, 3 vs. 5, 3 vs. 8, 4 vs. 6, and 4 vs. 8. No preference between quantities was found for comparisons of 3 vs. 4, 4 vs. 5 and 5 vs. 6. Overall, this study drew two key conclusions. Firstly, that domestic rats are capable of performing quantity discrimination without extensive training. Secondly, as subjects adhered to Weber’s law, it was concluded that the approximate number system underpins domestic rats’ ability to perform spontaneous quantity discrimination. PMID:27527223

  8. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Song, Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -l-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μl = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μl ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μl = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μl > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μl > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  9. Warped AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Anninos, Dionysios; Li, Wei; Padi, Megha; Strominger, Andrew

    2009-03-01

    Three dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) with a negative cosmological constant -ell-2 and positive Newton constant G admits an AdS3 vacuum solution for any value of the graviton mass μ. These are all known to be perturbatively unstable except at the recently explored chiral point μell = 1. However we show herein that for every value of μell ≠ 3 there are two other (potentially stable) vacuum solutions given by SL(2,Bbb R) × U(1)-invariant warped AdS3 geometries, with a timelike or spacelike U(1) isometry. Critical behavior occurs at μell = 3, where the warping transitions from a stretching to a squashing, and there are a pair of warped solutions with a null U(1) isometry. For μell > 3, there are known warped black hole solutions which are asymptotic to warped AdS3. We show that these black holes are discrete quotients of warped AdS3 just as BTZ black holes are discrete quotients of ordinary AdS3. Moreover new solutions of this type, relevant to any theory with warped AdS3 solutions, are exhibited. Finally we note that the black hole thermodynamics is consistent with the hypothesis that, for μell > 3, the warped AdS3 ground state of TMG is holographically dual to a 2D boundary CFT with central charges c_R-formula and c_L-formula.

  10. Quantity Cognition: Numbers, Numerosity, Zero and Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ben M

    2016-05-23

    Physical quantities differ from abstract numbers and mathematics, but recent results are revealing the neural representation of both: a new study demonstrates how an absence of quantity is transformed into a representation of zero as a number.

  11. Birthday Cake Activity Structured Arrangement for Helping Children Determining Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariana, Neni

    2010-01-01

    Few researches have been concerned about relation between children's spatial thinking and number sense. Narrowing for this small research, we focused on one component of spatial thinking, that is structuring objects, and one component of number senses, that is cardinality by determining quantities. This study focused on a design research that was…

  12. Asymptotic conditions and conserved quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Koul, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Two problems have been investigated in this dissertation. The first one deals with the relationship between stationary space-times which are flat at null infinity and stationary space-times which are asymptotic flat at space-like infinity. It is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat, in the Penrose sense, at null infinity, are asymptotically flat at space-like infinity in the Geroch sense and metric at space like infinity is at least C{sup 1}. In the converse it is shown that the stationary space-times which are asymptotically flat at space like infinity, in the Beig sense, are asymptotically flat at null infinity in the Penrose sense. The second problem addressed deals with the theories of arbitrary dimensions. The theories treated are the ones which have fiber bundle structure, outside some compact region. For these theories the criterion for the choice of the background metric is specified, and the boundary condition for the initial data set (q{sub ab}, P{sup ab}) is given in terms of the background metric. Having these boundary conditions it is shown that the symplectic structure and the constraint functionals are well defined. The conserved quantities associated with internal Killing vector fields are specified. Lastly the energy relative to a fixed background and the total energy of the theory have been given. It is also shown that the total energy of the theory is independent of the choice of the background.

  13. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  14. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  15. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  16. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  17. 48 CFR 36.516 - Quantity surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity surveys. 36.516... CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 36.516 Quantity surveys. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 52.236-16, Quantity Surveys, in solicitations and contracts...

  18. Segmented strings in AdS 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callebaut, Nele; Gubser, Steven S.; Samberg, Andreas; Toldo, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    We study segmented strings in flat space and in AdS 3. In flat space, these well known classical motions describe strings which at any instant of time are piecewise linear. In AdS 3, the worldsheet is composed of faces each of which is a region bounded by null geodesics in an AdS 2 subspace of AdS 3. The time evolution can be described by specifying the null geodesic motion of kinks in the string at which two segments are joined. The outcome of collisions of kinks on the worldsheet can be worked out essentially using considerations of causality. We study several examples of closed segmented strings in AdS 3 and find an unexpected quasi-periodic behavior. We also work out a WKB analysis of quantum states of yo-yo strings in AdS 5 and find a logarithmic term reminiscent of the logarithmic twist of string states on the leading Regge trajectory.

  19. Linear actuation using milligram quantities of CL-20 and TAGDNAT.

    SciTech Connect

    Snedigar, Shane; Salton, Jonathan Robert; Tappan, Alexander Smith; Ball, James Patrick; Basiliere, Marc; Fischer, Gary John

    2009-07-01

    There are numerous applications for small-scale actuation utilizing pyrotechnics and explosives. In certain applications, especially when multiple actuation strokes are needed, or actuator reuse is required, it is desirable to have all gaseous combustion products with no condensed residue in the actuator cylinder. Toward this goal, we have performed experiments on utilizing milligram quantities of high explosives to drive a millimeter-diameter actuator with a stroke of 30 mm. Calculations were performed to select proper material quantities to provide 0.5 J of actuation energy. This was performed utilizing the thermochemical code Cheetah to calculate the impetus for numerous propellants and to select quantities based on estimated efficiencies of these propellants at small scales. Milligram quantities of propellants were loaded into a small-scale actuator and ignited with an ignition increment and hot wire ignition. Actuator combustion chamber pressure was monitored with a pressure transducer and actuator stroke was monitored using a laser displacement meter. Total actuation energy was determined by calculating the kinetic energy of reaction mass motion against gravity. Of the materials utilized, the best performance was obtained with a mixture of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) and bis-triaminoguanidinium(3,3{prime}dinitroazotriazolate) (TAGDNAT).

  20. Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Barnard, Allison M; Hughes, Kelly D; Gerhardt, Regina R; Divincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M; Cantlon, Jessica F

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates.

  1. Inherently Analog Quantity Representations in Olive Baboons (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Allison M.; Hughes, Kelly D.; Gerhardt, Regina R.; DiVincenti, Louis; Bovee, Jenna M.; Cantlon, Jessica F.

    2013-01-01

    Strong evidence indicates that non-human primates possess a numerical representation system, but the inherent nature of that system is still debated. Two cognitive mechanisms have been proposed to account for non-human primate numerical performance: (1) a discrete object-file system limited to quantities <4, and (2) an analog system which represents quantities comparatively but is limited by the ratio between two quantities. To test the underlying nature of non-human primate quantification, we asked eight experiment-naive olive baboons (Papio anubis) to discriminate between number pairs containing small (<4), large (>4), or span (small vs. large) numbers of food items presented simultaneously or sequentially. The prediction from the object-file hypothesis is that baboons will only accurately choose the larger quantity in small pairs, but not large or span pairs. Conversely, the analog system predicts that baboons will be successful with all numbers, and that success will be dependent on numerical ratio. We found that baboons successfully discriminated all pair types at above chance levels. In addition, performance significantly correlated with the ratio between the numerical values. Although performance was better for simultaneous trials than sequential trials, evidence favoring analog numerical representation emerged from both conditions, and was present even in the first exposure to number pairs. Together, these data favor the interpretation that a single, coherent analog representation system underlies spontaneous quantitative abilities in primates. PMID:23653619

  2. Observable quantities in satellite gradiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeer, Martin

    1990-12-01

    It is shown that, even in the presence of small attitude uncertainties, the gravitational gradient tensor actually has three independent invariants, instead of the two found by Sacerdote and Sanso (1989) and Holota (1988). It is also shown that the influence of angular rotation on gradiometric measurements can be eliminated by using the first differences of the measurement time series obtained. This also reauires the extraction of the angular acceleration rate from the sensor measurements. The adaptation of this technique to the planar sensor array proposed for Aristoteles is examined.

  3. Prosimian Primates Show Ratio Dependence in Spontaneous Quantity Discriminations

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Sarah M.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    We directly tested the predictions of the approximate number system (ANS) and the object file system in the spontaneous numerical judgments of prosimian primates. Prior work indicates that when human infants and a few species of non-human animals are given a single-trial choice between two sequentially baited buckets they choose the bucket with the greater amount of food but only when the quantities are small. This pattern of results has been interpreted as evidence that a limited capacity object file system is used to track small numbers of objects and that the ANS is not invoked under these circumstances. Here we tested prosimian primates in food choice comparisons that were chosen to contrast predictions of the ANS and object file systems. We found that prosimian primates consistently chose the larger of two sets when they differed by a 1:3 ratio regardless of whether both values were small (≤3), both values were large (>3), or there was one small and one large value. Prosimians were not able to robustly discriminate quantities that differed by a 1:2 ratio for the same three conditions, nor did they show a preference for small quantities that differed by a 2:3 ratio. These results implicate the ANS in the spontaneous numerical discriminations of non-human primates. PMID:23420691

  4. A deformation of AdS5 × S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Gutowski, Jan B.; Suryanarayana, Nemani V.

    2004-11-01

    We analyse a one-parameter family of supersymmetric solutions of type IIB supergravity that includes AdS5 × S5. For small values of the parameter the solutions are causally well behaved, but beyond a critical value closed timelike curves (CTCs) appear. The solutions are holographically dual to {\\cal N}=4 supersymmetric Yang Mills theory on a non-conformally flat background with non-vanishing R-currents. We compute the holographic energy momentum tensor for the spacetime and show that it remains finite even when the CTCs appear. The solutions, as well as the uplift of some recently discovered AdS5 black-hole solutions, are shown to preserve precisely two supersymmetries.

  5. P- v criticality in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström black hole in AdS space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Jun; Guan, Zhi-Hua; Liu, Yan-Chun; Liu, Bo

    2017-02-01

    The P- v criticality and phase transition in the extended phase space of a noncommutative geometry inspired Reissner-Nordström (RN) black hole in Anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-time are studied, where the cosmological constant appears as a dynamical pressure and its conjugate quantity is thermodynamic volume of the black hole. It is found that the P- v criticality and the small black hole/large black hole phase transition appear for the noncommutative RN-AdS black hole. Numerical calculations indicate that the noncommutative parameter affects the phase transition as well as the critical temperature, horizon radius, pressure and ratio. The critical ratio is no longer universal, which is different from the result in the van de Waals liquid-gas system. The nature of phase transition at the critical point is also discussed. Especially, for the noncommutative geometry inspired RN-AdS black hole, a new thermodynamic quantity Ψ conjugate to the noncommutative parameter θ has to be defined further, which is required for consistency of both the first law of thermodynamics and the corresponding Smarr relation.

  6. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  7. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  8. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  9. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA Order..., may establish, for any or all portions of the production area, minimum quantities below which...

  10. AdS duals of matrix strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Jose F.; Samtleben, Henning

    2003-06-01

    We review recent work on the holographic duals of type II and heterotic matrix string theories described by warped AdS3 supergravities. In particular, we compute the spectra of Kaluza-Klein primaries for type I, II supergravities on warped AdS3 × S7 and match them with the primary operators in the dual two-dimensional gauge theories. The presence of non-trivial warp factors and dilaton profiles requires a modification of the familiar dictionary between masses and 'scaling' dimensions of fields and operators. We present these modifications for the general case of domain wall/QFT correspondences between supergravities on warped AdSd+1 × Sq geometries and super Yang-Mills theories with 16 supercharges.

  11. Rethinking Intensive Quantities via Guided Mediated Abduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Dor

    2012-01-01

    Some intensive quantities, such as slope, velocity, or likelihood, are perceptually privileged in the sense that they are experienced as holistic, irreducible sensations. However, the formal expression of these quantities uses "a/b" analytic metrics; for example, the slope of a line is the quotient of its rise and run. Thus, whereas students'…

  12. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER Special Forest Products § 223.220 Quantity...

  13. Counting on your friends: The role of social environment on quantity discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kelly, E McKenna

    2016-07-01

    Quantity discrimination has been established in a range of species. However, most demonstrations of quantity discrimination control for social factors by testing animals individually. I tested whether sociality affects quantity discrimination in the wild by comparing the performances of the highly social Mexican jay (MJ; Aphelocoma wollweberi) and the territorial Western scrub jay (WJ; Aphelocoma californica). The birds were given a choice between two lines of peanuts that differed in initial quantity ranging from 2 vs 8 to 14 vs 16. Their choices were recorded until all peanuts were eaten or cached. Whereas non-social WJ selected the larger quantity across all the trials significantly more than chance, social MJ selected the larger line only when the difference in the number of peanuts between lines was small. In MJ, individual choice when selecting the large or small quantity was influenced by what line the previous bird had chosen when the difference in lines was large, with followers significantly more likely to select the smaller quantity. WJ were not significantly affected by the choices of other individuals. The only factors that influenced WJ choice were ratio and total differences between the two quantities. These results suggests that in certain scenarios, both species can discriminate between different quantities. However, MJ were greatly influenced by social factors, a previously untested factor, while WJ were only influenced by ratio and total difference between the quantities, consistent with findings in other species. Overall, this study demonstrates the important role of sociality in numerical cognitive performance, a previously overlooked factor.

  14. Quantity Representation in Children and Rhesus Monkeys: Linear Versus Logarithmic Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beran, Michael J.; Johnson-Pynn, Julie S.; Ready, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    The performances of 4- and 5-year-olds and rhesus monkeys were compared using a computerized task for quantity assessment. Participants first learned two quantity anchor values and then responded to intermediate values by classifying them as similar to either the large anchor or the small anchor. Of primary interest was an assessment of where the…

  15. A Shared System of Representation Governing Quantity Discrimination in Canids

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Joseph M.; Morath, Justice; Rodzon, Katrina S.; Jordan, Kerry E.

    2012-01-01

    One way to investigate the evolution of cognition is to compare the abilities of phylogenetically related species. The domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris), for example, still shares cognitive abilities with the coyote (Canis latrans). Both of these canids possess the ability to make psychophysical “less/more” discriminations of food based on quantity. Like many other species including humans, this ability is mediated by Weber’s Law: discrimination of continuous quantities is dependent on the ratio between the two quantities. As two simultaneously presented quantities of food become more similar, choice of the large or small option becomes random in both dogs and coyotes. It remains unknown, however, whether these closely related species within the same family – one domesticated, and one wild – make such quantitative comparisons with comparable accuracy. Has domestication honed or diminished this quantitative ability? Might different selective and ecological pressures facing coyotes drive them to be more or less able to accurately represent and discriminate food quantity than domesticated dogs? This study is an effort to elucidate this question concerning the evolution of non-verbal quantitative cognition. Here, we tested the quantitative discrimination ability of 16 domesticated dogs. Each animal was given nine trials in which two different quantities of food were simultaneously displayed to them. The domesticated dogs’ performance on this task was then compared directly to the data from 16 coyotes’ performance on this same task reported by Baker et al. (2011). The quantitative discrimination abilities between the two species were strikingly similar. Domesticated dogs demonstrated similar quantitative sensitivity as coyotes, suggesting that domestication may not have significantly altered the psychophysical discrimination abilities of canids. Instead, this study provides further evidence for similar non-verbal quantitative abilities across multiple

  16. 16 CFR 500.25 - Net quantity, average quantity, permitted variations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... variations. 500.25 Section 500.25 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT..., permitted variations. (a) The statement of net quantity of contents shall accurately reveal the quantity of... instructions for use are followed. The propellant is included in the net quantity statement. (b)...

  17. Frequency, Quantity, and Quantity X Frequency as Indicators of College Student Drinking Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Patrick B.

    1991-01-01

    Compared relative efficacy of three drinking indices (quantity, frequency, quantity x frequency) in predicting presence of drinking problems in college students (n=55 males; 64 females). Although drinking frequency was as good a predictor as quantity x frequency for predicting such problems in males, it was best predictor of female drinking…

  18. A note on vectorial AdS5/CFT4 duality for spin- j boundary theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Joung, Euihun; Lal, Shailesh

    2016-12-01

    The vectorial holographic correspondences between higher-spin theories in AdS5 and free vector models on the boundary are extended to the cases where the latter is described by free massless spin- j field. The dual higher-spin theory in the bulk does not include gravity and can only be defined on rigid AdS5 background with S 4 boundary. We discuss various properties of these rather special higher-spin theories and calculate their one-loop free energies. We show that the result is proportional to the same quantity for spin- j doubleton treated as if it is a AdS5 field. Finally, we consider even more special case where the boundary theory itself is given by an infinite tower of massless higher-spin fields.

  19. Are Quantity-Distances Narrowing in?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    REPORT TYPE N/A 3 . DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Are Quantity-Distances Narrowing in? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...adopt AASTP-1 and AASTP-5 for ammunition storage /1/, /2 /. Quantity-Distance History The history of QD goes far back, see e.g. / 3 /, /4/, /5...6 3 /. Reference / / quotes /7 /: “Act for preventing the Mischiefs which may happen by keeping too great Quantities of gunpowder in or near

  20. P-V criticality in the extended phase-space of charged accelerating AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hang; Meng, Xin-He

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we investigate the P-V criticality and phase transition of charged accelerating AdS black holes in the extended thermodynamic phase-space in analogy between black hole system and van der Waals liquid-gas system, where the cosmological constant Λ is treated as a thermodynamical variable interpreted as dynamic pressure and its conjugate quantity is the thermodynamic volume of the black holes. When the electric charge vanishes, we find that no P-V criticality will appear but the Hawking-Page-like phase transition will be present, just as what Schwarzschild-AdS black holes behave like. For the charged case, the P-V criticality appears and the accelerating black holes will undergo a small black hole/large phase transition under the condition that the acceleration parameter A and the horizon radius rh meet a certain simple relation Arh = a, where a is a constant in our discussion. To make P-V criticality appear, there exists an upper bounds for constant a. When P-V criticality appears, we calculate the critical pressure Pc, critical temperature Tc and critical specific volume rc, and we find that Pcrc Tc is an universal number.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Measuring Radiation Quantities

    DOEpatents

    Roberts, N O

    1955-01-25

    This patent application describes a compact dosimeter for measuring X-ray and gamma radiation by the use of solutions which undergo a visible color change upon exposure to a predetermined quantity of radiation.

  2. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  3. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  4. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  5. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  6. 7 CFR 929.14 - Marketable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CRANBERRIES GROWN IN STATES OF.... Marketable quantity means for a crop year the number of pounds of cranberries necessary to meet the...

  7. Zero-gravity quantity gaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Zero-Gravity Quantity Gaging System program is a technology development effort funded by NASA-LeRC and contracted by NASA-JSC to develop and evaluate zero-gravity quantity gaging system concepts suitable for application to large, on-orbit cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen tankage. The contract effective date was 28 May 1985. During performance of the program, 18 potential quantity gaging approaches were investigated for their merit and suitability for gaging two-phase cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen in zero-gravity conditions. These approaches were subjected to a comprehensive trade study and selection process, which found that the RF modal quantity gaging approach was the most suitable for both liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen applications. This selection was made with NASA-JSC concurrence.

  8. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary to... district manager and specified in the ventilation plan: (1) Self-propelled equipment meeting...

  9. 30 CFR 75.325 - Air quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... where coal is being cut, mined, drilled for blasting, or loaded. When a greater quantity is necessary to... district manager and specified in the ventilation plan: (1) Self-propelled equipment meeting...

  10. Arsenic Treatment Residuals: Quantities, Characteristics and Disposal

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation provides information on the quantities, the characteristics and the disposal options for the common arsenic removal technologies. The technologies consist of adsorption media, iron removal, coagulation/filtration and ion exchange. The information for the prese...

  11. An AdS Crunch in Supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertog, Thomas

    2004-12-01

    We review some properties of N=8 gauged supergravity in four dimensions with modified, but AdS invariant boundary conditions on the m2 = -2 scalars. There is a one-parameter class of asymptotic conditions on these fields and the metric components, for which the full AdS symmetry group is preserved. The generators of the asymptotic symmetries are finite, but acquire a contribution from the scalar fields. For a large class of such boundary conditions, we find there exist black holes with scalar hair that are specified by a single conserved charge. Since Schwarschild-AdS is a solution too for all boundary conditions, this provides an example of black hole non-uniqueness. We also show there exist solutions where smooth initial data evolve to a big crunch singularity. This opens up the possibility of using the dual conformal field theory to obtain a fully quantum description of the cosmological singularity, and we report on a preliminary study of this.

  12. Synchrotron radiation shielding design and ICRP radiological protection quantities.

    PubMed

    Bassey, Bassey; Moreno, Beatriz; Chapman, Dean

    2015-06-01

    Protection and operational quantities as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) and the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) are the two sets of quantities recommended for use in radiological protection for external radiation. Since the '80s, the protection quantities have evolved from the concept of dose equivalent to effective dose equivalent to effective dose, and the associated conversion coefficients have undergone changes. In this work, the influence of three different versions of ICRP photon dose conversion coefficients in the synchrotron radiation shielding calculations of an experimental enclosure has been examined. The versions are effective dose equivalent (ICRP Publication 51), effective dose (ICRP Publication 74), and effective dose (ICRP Publication 116) conversion coefficients. The sources of the synchrotron radiation white beam into the enclosure were a bending magnet, an undulator and a wiggler. The ranges of photons energy from these sources were 10-200 keV for the bending magnet and undulator, and 10-500 keV for the wiggler. The design criterion aimed a radiation leakage less than 0.5 µSv h(-1) from the enclosure. As expected, larger conversion coefficients in ICRP Publication 51 lead to higher calculated dose rates. However, the percentage differences among the calculated dose rates get smaller once shielding is added, and the choice of conversion coefficients set did not affect the final shielding decision.

  13. Cognitive Impact of Banner Ad Characteristics: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hairong; Bukovac, Janice L.

    1999-01-01

    Finds that (1) animated banner ads (display advertisements hyperlinked to an advertiser's Web site) result in quicker response and better recall (from college students) than non-animated banner ads; (2) larger banner ads lead to better comprehension and more clicks than small banner ads; and (3) user mode (information seeking or Web surfing) did…

  14. A generalized definition of dosimetric quantities.

    PubMed

    Kellerer, A M; Rossi, H H

    1990-04-01

    The current definitions of microdosimetric and dosimetric quantities use the notion of 'ionizing radiation'. However, this notion is not rigorously defined, and its definition would require the somewhat arbitrary choice of specified energy cut-off values for different types of particles. Instead of choosing fixed cut-off values one can extend the system of definitions by admitting the free selection of a category of types and energies of particles that are taken to be part of the field. In this way one extends the system of dosimetric quantities. Kerma and absorbed dose appear then as special cases of a more general dosimetric quantity, and an analogue to kerma can be obtained for charged particle fields; it is termed cema. A modification that is suitable for electron fields is termed reduced cema.

  15. AdS3: the NHEK generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bena, Iosif; Heurtier, Lucien; Puhm, Andrea

    2016-05-01

    It was argued in [1] that the five-dimensional near-horizon extremal Kerr (NHEK) geometry can be embedded in String Theory as the infrared region of an infinite family of non-supersymmetric geometries that have D1, D5, momentum and KK monopole charges. We show that there exists a method to embed these geometries into asymptotically- {AdS}_3× {S}^3/{{Z}}_N solutions, and hence to obtain infinite families of flows whose infrared is NHEK. This indicates that the CFT dual to the NHEK geometry is the IR fixed point of a Renormalization Group flow from a known local UV CFT and opens the door to its explicit construction.

  16. Small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements provided to women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 mo of age increase the mean attained length of 18-mo-old children in semi-urban Ghana: a randomized controlled trial12

    PubMed Central

    Arimond, Mary; Vosti, Stephen; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood stunting usually begins in utero and continues after birth; therefore, its reduction must involve actions across different stages of early life. Objective: We evaluated the efficacy of small-quantity, lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNSs) provided during pregnancy, lactation, and infancy on attained size by 18 mo of age. Design: In this partially double-blind, individually randomized trial, 1320 women at ≤20 wk of gestation received standard iron and folic acid (IFA group), multiple micronutrients (MMN group), or SQ-LNS (LNS group) daily until delivery, and then placebo, MMNs, or SQ-LNS, respectively, for 6 mo postpartum; infants in the LNS group received SQ-LNS formulated for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age (endline). The primary outcome was child length by 18 mo of age. Results: At endline, data were available for 85% of 1228 infants enrolled; overall mean length and length-for-age z score (LAZ) were 79.3 cm and −0.83, respectively, and 12% of the children were stunted (LAZ <−2). In analysis based on the intended treatment, mean ± SD length and LAZ for the LNS group (79.7 ± 2.9 cm and −0.69 ± 1.01, respectively) were significantly greater than for the IFA (79.1 ± 2.9 cm and −0.87 ± 0.99) and MMN (79.1 ± 2.9 cm and −0.91 ± 1.01) groups (P = 0.006 and P = 0.009, respectively). Differences were also significant for weight and weight-for-age z score but not head or midupper arm circumference, and the prevalence of stunting in the LNS group was 8.9%, compared with 13.7% in the IFA group and 12.9% in the MMN group (P = 0.12). In analysis based on actual supplement provided at enrollment, stunting prevalences were 8.9% compared with 15.1% and 11.5%, respectively (P = 0.045). Conclusion: Provision of SQ-LNSs to women from pregnancy to 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from 6 to 18 mo of age may increase the child’s attained length by age 18 mo in similar settings. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT

  17. AdS2 holographic dictionary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, Mirjam; Papadimitriou, Ioannis

    2016-12-01

    We construct the holographic dictionary for both running and constant dilaton solutions of the two dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-Dilaton theory that is obtained by a circle reduction from Einstein-Hilbert gravity with negative cosmological constant in three dimensions. This specific model ensures that the dual theory has a well defined ultraviolet completion in terms of a two dimensional conformal field theory, but our results apply qualitatively to a wider class of two dimensional dilaton gravity theories. For each type of solutions we perform holographic renormalization, compute the exact renormalized one-point functions in the presence of arbitrary sources, and derive the asymptotic symmetries and the corresponding conserved charges. In both cases we find that the scalar operator dual to the dilaton plays a crucial role in the description of the dynamics. Its source gives rise to a matter conformal anomaly for the running dilaton solutions, while its expectation value is the only non trivial observable for constant dilaton solutions. The role of this operator has been largely overlooked in the literature. We further show that the only non trivial conserved charges for running dilaton solutions are the mass and the electric charge, while for constant dilaton solutions only the electric charge is non zero. However, by uplifting the solutions to three dimensions we show that constant dilaton solutions can support non trivial extended symmetry algebras, including the one found by Compère, Song and Strominger [1], in agreement with the results of Castro and Song [2]. Finally, we demonstrate that any solution of this specific dilaton gravity model can be uplifted to a family of asymptotically AdS2 × S 2 or conformally AdS2 × S 2 solutions of the STU model in four dimensions, including non extremal black holes. The four dimensional solutions obtained by uplifting the running dilaton solutions coincide with the so called `subtracted geometries', while those obtained

  18. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI metric quantities. 500.19 Section 500.19 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENT OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION AND EXEMPTIONS UNDER THE FAIR PACKAGING...

  19. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  20. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  1. 49 CFR 172.315 - Limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  2. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  3. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  4. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  5. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  6. 36 CFR 223.220 - Quantity determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Quantity determination. 223.220 Section 223.220 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SALE AND DISPOSAL OF NATIONAL FOREST SYSTEM TIMBER, SPECIAL FOREST PRODUCTS, AND FOREST BOTANICAL...

  7. 7 CFR 966.53 - Minimum quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantities. 966.53 Section 966.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TOMATOES GROWN IN FLORIDA...

  8. Hypergraph topological quantities for tagged social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zlatić, Vinko; Ghoshal, Gourab; Caldarelli, Guido

    2009-09-01

    Recent years have witnessed the emergence of a new class of social networks, which require us to move beyond previously employed representations of complex graph structures. A notable example is that of the folksonomy, an online process where users collaboratively employ tags to resources to impart structure to an otherwise undifferentiated database. In a recent paper, we proposed a mathematical model that represents these structures as tripartite hypergraphs and defined basic topological quantities of interest. In this paper, we extend our model by defining additional quantities such as edge distributions, vertex similarity and correlations as well as clustering. We then empirically measure these quantities on two real life folksonomies, the popular online photo sharing site Flickr and the bookmarking site CiteULike. We find that these systems share similar qualitative features with the majority of complex networks that have been previously studied. We propose that the quantities and methodology described here can be used as a standard tool in measuring the structure of tagged networks.

  9. Units for quantities of dimension one

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2004-02-01

    All quantities of dimension one are said to have the SI coherent derived unit "one" with the symbol '1'. (Single quotation marks are used here sometimes to indicate a quote, name, term or symbol; double quotation marks flag a concept when necessary.) Conventionally, the term and symbol may not be combined with the SI prefixes (except for the special terms and symbols for one and 1: radian, rad, and steradian, sr). This restriction is understandable, but leads to correct yet impractical alternatives and ISO deprecated symbols such as ppm or in some cases redundant combinations of units, such as mg/kg. "Number of entities" is dimensionally independent of the current base quantities and should take its rightful place among them. The corresponding base unit is "one". A working definition is given. Other quantities of dimension one are derived as fraction, ratio, efficiency, relative quantity, relative increment or characteristic number and may also use the unit "one", whether considered to be base or derived. The special term 'uno' and symbol 'u' in either case are proposed, allowing combination with SI prefixes.

  10. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  11. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  12. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  13. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  14. 48 CFR 52.236-16 - Quantity Surveys.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity Surveys. 52.236... Quantity Surveys. As prescribed in 36.516, the contracting officer may insert the following clause in... payment based on quantity surveys is contemplated: Quantity Surveys (APR 1984) (a) Quantity surveys...

  15. Small bowel resection - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... chap 26. Read More Colon cancer Crohn disease Intestinal obstruction Small bowel resection Patient Instructions Bland diet Crohn ... Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Intestinal Cancer Intestinal Obstruction Small Intestine Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D. ...

  16. Strings on AdS wormholes and nonsingular black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2015-01-01

    Certain AdS black holes in the STU model can be conformally scaled to wormhole and black hole backgrounds which have two asymptotically AdS regions and are completely free of curvature singularities. While there is a delta-function source for the dilaton, classical string probes are not sensitive to this singularity. According to the AdS/CFT correspondence, the dual field theory lives on the union of the disjoint boundaries. For the wormhole background, causal contact exists between the two boundaries and the structure of certain correlation functions is indicative of an interacting phase for which there is a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The nonsingular black hole describes an entangled state in two non-interacting identical conformal field theories. By studying the behavior of open strings on these backgrounds, we extract a number of features of the ‘quarks’ and ‘anti-quarks’ that live in the field theories. In the interacting phase, we find that there is a maximum speed with which the quarks can move without losing energy, beyond which energy is transferred from a quark in one field theory to a quark in the other. We also compute the rate at which moving quarks within entangled states lose energy to the two surrounding plasmas. While a quark-antiquark pair within a single field theory exhibits Coulomb interaction for small separation, a quark in one field theory exhibits spring-like confinement with an anti-quark in the other field theory. For the entangled states, we study how the quark-antiquark screening length depends on temperature and chemical potential.

  17. Thermodynamics of dual conformal field theories for Kerr-AdS black holes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Ronggen; Cao Liming; Pang Dawei

    2005-08-15

    Recently Gibbons et al. in [G. W. Gibbons et al. Class. Quant. Grav. 22, 1503 (2005)] defined a set of conserved quantities for Kerr-AdS black holes with the maximal number of rotation parameters in arbitrary dimension. This set of conserved quantities is defined with respect to a frame which is nonrotating at infinity. On the other hand, there is another set of conserved quantities for Kerr-AdS black holes, defined by Hawking et al. in [Hawking et al. Phys. Rev. D 59, 064005 (1999)], which is measured relative to a frame rotating at infinity. Gibbons et al. explicitly showed that the quantities defined by them satisfy the first law of black hole thermodynamics, while those quantities defined by Hawking et al. do not obey the first law. In this paper we discuss thermodynamics of dual CFTs to the Kerr-AdS black holes by mapping the bulk thermodynamic quantities to the boundary of the AdS space. We find that thermodynamic quantities of dual CFTs satisfy the first law of thermodynamics and Cardy-Verlinde formula only when these thermodynamic quantities result from the set of bulk quantities given by Hawking et al.. We discuss the implication of our results.

  18. Memory formation under stress: quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Schwabe, Lars; Wolf, Oliver T; Oitzl, Melly S

    2010-03-01

    Stress shapes memory. Depending on the timing of the stress exposure facilitating and impairing effects of stress are reported on how much is learned and remembered. Beyond such stress-induced changes in the quantity of memory, recent research suggests that stress also affects the contribution of multiple memory systems to performance. Under stress, rigid 'habit' memory gets favored over more flexible 'cognitive' memory. Thus, stress has an impact on the way we learn and remember, that is the quality of memory. This shift between different behavioral strategies on "environmental demands" may facilitate adaptive responses. Here, we review stress effects on both quantity and quality of memory and address possible implications of these effects for the understanding of stress-related psychiatric disorders.

  19. QUANTITY: An Isobaric Tag for Quantitative Glycomics

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shuang; Wang, Meiyao; Chen, Lijun; Yin, Bojiao; Song, Guoqiang; Turko, Illarion V.; Phinney, Karen W.; Betenbaugh, Michael J.; Zhang, Hui; Li, Shuwei

    2015-01-01

    Glycan is an important class of macromolecules that play numerous biological functions. Quantitative glycomics - analysis of glycans at global level - however, is far behind genomics and proteomics owing to technical challenges associated with their chemical properties and structural complexity. As a result, technologies that can facilitate global glycan analysis are highly sought after. Here, we present QUANTITY (Quaternary Amine Containing Isobaric Tag for Glycan), a quantitative approach that can not only enhance detection of glycans by mass spectrometry, but also allow high-throughput glycomic analysis from multiple biological samples. This robust tool enabled us to accomplish glycomic survey of bioengineered Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells with knock-in/out enzymes involved in protein glycosylation. Our results demonstrated QUANTITY is an invaluable technique for glycan analysis and bioengineering. PMID:26616285

  20. Observable quantities for electrodiffusion processes in membranes.

    PubMed

    Garrido, Javier

    2008-03-13

    Electrically driven ion transport processes in a membrane system are analyzed in terms of observable quantities, such as the apparent volume flow, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration in one cell compartment, and the electrical potential difference between the electrodes. The relations between the fluxes and these observable quantities are rigorously deduced from balances for constituent mass and solution volume. These relations improve the results for the transport coefficients up to 25% with respect to those obtained using simplified expressions common in the literature. Given the practical importance of ionic transport numbers and the solvent transference number in the phenomenological description of electrically driven processes, the transport equations are presented using the electrolyte concentration difference and the electric current as the drivers of the different constituents. Because various electric potential differences can be used in this traditional irreversible thermodynamics approach, the advantages of the formulation of the transport equations in terms of concentration difference and electric current are emphasized.

  1. Mass quantity gauging by RF mode analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, R. S.; Ellerbruch, D.; Cruz, J. E.; Stokes, R. W.; Luft, P. E.; Peterson, R. G.; Hiester, A. E.

    1973-01-01

    Work done to date is reported concerning Radio Frequency Mass Quantity Gauging. Experimental apparatus has been designed and tested which measures the resonant frequencies of a tank in the time domain. These frequencies correspond to the total mass of fluid within the tank. Experimental results are discussed for nitrogen and hydrogen in normal gravity both in the supercritical state and also in the two phase (liquid-gas) region. Theoretical discussions for more general cases are given.

  2. AD(H)D.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2008-06-01

    The BEACH program (Bettering the Evaluation and Care of Health) shows that management of attention deficit (hyperactivity) disorder (AD(H)D) was rare in general practice, occurring only six times per 1,000 encounters with children aged 5-17 years, between April 2000 and December 2007. This suggests that general practitioners manage AD(H)D about 46,000 times for this age group nationally each year.

  3. ADS pilot program Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauson, J.; Heuser, J.

    1981-01-01

    The Applications Data Service (ADS) is a system based on an electronic data communications network which will permit scientists to share the data stored in data bases at universities and at government and private installations. It is designed to allow users to readily locate and access high quality, timely data from multiple sources. The ADS Pilot program objectives and the current plans for accomplishing those objectives are described.

  4. Effect of cholera enterotoxin on carbohydrate metabolism in the liver and small intestinal mucosa of rabbits

    SciTech Connect

    Vengrov, P.R.; Cherkasova, T.D.; Yurkiv, V.A.; Pokrovskii, V.I.

    1987-09-01

    The effect of cholera enterotoxin injected in vivo on glucose formation from alanine, and also on glucose-6-phosphatase activity in the liver and mucosa of the small intestine was studied. L-(2,3-/sup 3/H)-alanine was added to the incubation medium. Chromatograms were developed with 5% AgNO/sub 3/ with the addition of an aqueous solution of ammonia. The quantity of radioactive glucose was determined in a scintillation counter.

  5. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater Light Field and Elevated Temperatures on Small Scale (0.01 to 0.1 m) Optical Properties of Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    1 Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater...Properties (CoBOP) project is directed at understanding the optical properties of coastal benthic communities in general, and in particular, coral reefs . Coral ...benthos. The scientific objectives of my project are: 1. to attain optical closure for coral reef communities 2. to understand the causes of benthic

  6. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater Light Field and Elevated Temperatures on Small Scale (0.01 to 0.1 m) Optical Properties of Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-30

    1 Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater...Properties (CoBOP) project is directed at understanding the optical properties of coastal benthic communities in general, and in particular, coral reefs . Coral ...benthos. The scientific objectives of my project are: 1. to attain optical closure for coral reef communities 2. to understand the causes of benthic

  7. Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater Light Field and Elevated Temperatures on Small Scale (0.01 to 0.1 m) Optical Properties of Corals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-09-30

    1 Coastal Benthic Optical Properties (CoBOP) of Coral Reef Environments: Effects of Changes in the Spectral Quality and Quantity of the Underwater...relate bottom reflectance measurements of coral reefs to hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance measurements made from buoys or airborne platforms...general, and in particular, coral reefs . Coral reef communities are coastal areas of high water transparency which make them ideal systems to study

  8. Strings on AdS wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Mir; Ruiz, Frenny; Saint-Victor, Carlos; Vazquez-Poritz, Justin F.

    2009-08-15

    We consider the behavior of open strings on anti-de Sitter wormholes in Gauss-Bonnet theory, which are the Gauss-Bonnet gravity duals of a pair of field theories. A string with both endpoints on the same side of the wormhole describes two charges within the same field theory, which exhibit Coulomb interaction for small separation. On the other hand, a string extending through the wormhole describes two charges which live in different field theories, and they exhibit a springlike confining potential. A transition occurs when there is a pair of charges present within each field theory: for small separation each pair of charges exhibits Coulomb interaction, while for large separation the charges in the different field theories pair up and exhibit confinement. Two steadily-moving charges in different field theories can occupy the same location provided that their speed is less than a critical speed, which also plays the role of a subluminal speed limit. However, for some wormhole backgrounds, charges moving at the critical speed cannot occupy the same location and energy is transferred from the leading charge to the lagging one. We also show that strings on anti-de Sitter wormholes in supergravity theories without higher-derivative curvature terms can exhibit these properties as well.

  9. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  10. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102... quantity index. The quantity index of cottonseed shall be determined as follows: (a) For upland cottonseed the quantity index shall equal four times percentage of oil plus six times percentage of ammonia,...

  11. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52....211-16 Variation in Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(a), insert the following clause: Variation in Quantity (APR 1984) (a) A variation in the quantity of any item called for by this contract will not...

  12. The Acquisition of Quantity Contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aoyama, Katsura; Reid, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the acquisition of quantity contrasts in Guina-ang Bontok, an indigenous language spoken in the Philippines. Four-year-old and 5-year-old children's perception and production of quantity contrasts were examined using a pair of names that contrast in the quantity of the medial nasal. Frequencies of the quantity contrast were…

  13. Conserved Quantities in the Generalized Heisenberg Magnet (ghm) Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mushahid, N.; Hassan, M.; Saleem, U.

    2013-03-01

    We study the conserved quantities of the generalized Heisenberg magnet (GHM) model. We derive the nonlocal conserved quantities of the model using the iterative procedure of Brezin et al. [Phys. Lett. B82, 442 (1979).] We show that the nonlocal conserved quantities Poisson commute with local conserved quantities of the model.

  14. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  15. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  16. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  17. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  18. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  19. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  20. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  1. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  2. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  3. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked in sufficient increments to indicate readily and accurately the quantity of oil....

  4. 14 CFR 25.1551 - Oil quantity indication.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Oil quantity indication. 25.1551 Section 25... Placards § 25.1551 Oil quantity indication. Each oil quantity indicating means must be marked to indicate the quantity of oil readily and accurately....

  5. Direct-to-consumer drug advertisements on network television: an exploration of quantity, frequency, and placement.

    PubMed

    Brownfield, Erica D; Bernhardt, Jay M; Phan, Jennifer L; Williams, Mark V; Parker, Ruth M

    2004-01-01

    Prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug advertisements that appear on television are among the most common forms of health communication reaching the U.S. public, but no studies to date have explored the quantity, frequency, or placement of these ads on television. We explored these questions by recording all programs and advertisements that appeared on network television in a southeastern city during a selected week in the summer of 2001 and coding each prescription and OTC drug ad for its frequency, length, and placement by time of day and television program genre. A total of 18,906 ads appeared in the 504-hour sample, including 907 OTC drug ads (4.8%) and 428 prescription (Rx) drug ads (2.3%), which together occupied about 8% of all commercial airtime. Although OTC drug ads were more common, Rx drug ads on average were significantly longer. Direct-to-consumer drug ads appeared most frequently during news programs and soap operas and during the middle-afternoon and early-evening hours. Overall, we found that direct-to-consumer drug advertisements occupy a large percentage of network television commercial advertising and, based on time and program placement, many ads may be targeted specifically at women and older viewers. Our findings suggest that Americans who watch average amounts of television may be exposed to more than 30 hours of direct-to-consumer drug advertisements each year, far surpassing their exposure to other forms of health communication.

  6. On the Representation of Physical Quantities in Natural Language Text

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-01-01

    adjectives, and adverbs can determine a quantity that is not explicitly mentioned in a sentence. Verbs A quantity type can be implicitly referenced...provided as background knowledge in NL systems. Verb/ Adverb combination Quantity types can also be determined by combining verbs and adverbs . The...quantity type referenced in (11) is the rate of movement, or ‘velocity’. The adverb alone is not sufficient to determine the quantity type. Although

  7. Maximizing Complementary Quantities by Projective Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    M. Souza, Leonardo A.; Bernardes, Nadja K.; Rossi, Romeu

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we study the so-called quantitative complementarity quantities. We focus in the following physical situation: two qubits ( q A and q B ) are initially in a maximally entangled state. One of them ( q B ) interacts with a N-qubit system ( R). After the interaction, projective measurements are performed on each of the qubits of R, in a basis that is chosen after independent optimization procedures: maximization of the visibility, the concurrence, and the predictability. For a specific maximization procedure, we study in detail how each of the complementary quantities behave, conditioned on the intensity of the coupling between q B and the N qubits. We show that, if the coupling is sufficiently "strong," independent of the maximization procedure, the concurrence tends to decay quickly. Interestingly enough, the behavior of the concurrence in this model is similar to the entanglement dynamics of a two qubit system subjected to a thermal reservoir, despite that we consider finite N. However, the visibility shows a different behavior: its maximization is more efficient for stronger coupling constants. Moreover, we investigate how the distinguishability, or the information stored in different parts of the system, is distributed for different couplings.

  8. Non-Gaussianity effects in petrophysical quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koohi Lai, Z.; Jafari, G. R.

    2013-10-01

    It has been proved that there are many indicators (petrophysical quantities) for the estimation of petroleum reservoirs. The value of information contained in each indicator is yet to be addressed. In this work, the most famous and applicable petrophysical quantities for a reservoir, which are the gamma emission (GR), sonic transient time (DT), neutron porosity (NPHI), bulk density (RHOB), and deep induced resistivity (ILD), have been analyzed in order to characterize a reservoir. The implemented technique is the well-logging method. Based on the log-normal model defined in random multiplicative processes, the probability distribution function (PDF) for the data sets is described. The shape of the PDF depends on the parameter λ2 which determines the efficiency of non-Gaussianity. When non-Gaussianity appears, it is a sign of uncertainty and phase transition in the critical regime. The large value and scale-invariant behavior of the non-Gaussian parameter λ2 is an indication of a new phase which proves adequate for the existence of petroleum reservoirs. Our results show that one of the indicators (GR) is more non-Gaussian than the other indicators, scale wise. This means that GR is a continuously critical indicator. But by moving windows with various scales, the estimated λ2 shows that the most appropriate indicator for distinguishing the critical regime is ILD, which shows an increase at the end of the measured region of the well.

  9. Adding and Deleting Images

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Images are added via the Drupal WebCMS Editor. Once an image is uploaded onto a page, it is available via the Library and your files. You can edit the metadata, delete the image permanently, and/or replace images on the Files tab.

  10. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  11. Transmission electron microscopy study of thin sections of ultrasmall quantity of cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Uryi P.; Konnov, Nikolai P.; Novikova, Olga V.

    2001-10-01

    Transmission electron microscopy investigation of thin sections remains the major method of cells inner structure study with high resolution. However, the present-day technique of cells preparation make it impossible to study a number of biological samples, such as very small quantity of lymph cells of little insects (spiders, fleas, etc.). A new technique of cells preparation has been developed in our lab, which allow to obtain a thin sections of ultra small quantity of cells (less then 100). Structure of lymph cells of flea was investigated by the technique.

  12. ADS in a Nutshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demleitner, M.; Eichhorn, G.; Grant, C. S.; Accomazzi, A.; Murray, S. S.; Kurtz, M. J.

    1999-05-01

    The bibliographic databases maintained by the NASA Astrophysics Data System are updated approximately biweekly with records gathered from over 125 sources all over the world. Data are either sent to us electronically, retrieved by our staff via semi-automated procedures, or entered in our databases through supervised OCR procedures. PERL scripts are run on the data to convert them from their incoming format to our standard format so that they can be added to the master database at SAO. Once new data has been added, separate index files are created for authors, objects, title words, and text word, allowing these fields to be searched for individually or in combination with each other. During the indexing procedure, discipline-specific knowledge is taken into account through the use of rule-based procedures performing string normalization, context-sensitive word translation, and synonym and stop word replacement. Once the master text and index files have been updated at SAO, an automated procedure mirrors the changes in the database to the ADS mirror site via a secure network connection. The use of a public domain software tool called rsync allows incremental updating of the database files, with significant savings in the amount of data being transferred. In the past year, the ADS Abstract Service databases have grown by approximately 30%, including 50% growth in Physics, 25% growth in Astronomy and 10% growth in the Instrumentation datasets. The ADS Abstract Service now contains over 1.4 million abstracts (475K in Astronomy, 430K in Physics, 510K in Instrumentation, and 3K in Preprints), 175,000 journal abstracts, and 115,000 full text articles. In addition, we provide links to over 40,000 electronic HTML articles at other sites, 20,000 PDF articles, and 10,000 postscript articles, as well as many links to other external data sources.

  13. QCD Condensates and Holographic Wilson Loops for Asymptotically AdS Spaces

    SciTech Connect

    Quevedo, R. Carcasses; Goity, Jose L.; Trinchero, Roberto C.

    2014-02-01

    The minimization of the Nambu-Goto (NG) action for a surface whose contour defines a circular Wilson loop of radius a placed at a finite value of the coordinate orthogonal to the border is considered. This is done for asymptotically AdS spaces. The condensates of dimension n = 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 are calculated in terms of the coefficients in the expansion in powers of the radius a of the on-shell subtracted NG action for small a->0. The subtraction employed is such that it presents no conflict with conformal invariance in the AdS case and need not introduce an additional infrared scale for the case of confining geometries. It is shown that the UV value of the gluon condensates is universal in the sense that it only depends on the first coefficients of the difference with the AdS case.

  14. Stability of charged global AdS4 spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arias, Raúl; Mas, Javier; Serantes, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    We study linear and nonlinear stability of asymptotically AdS4 solutions in Einstein-Maxwell-scalar theory. After summarizing the set of static solutions we first examine thermodynamical stability in the grand canonical ensemble and the phase transitions that occur among them. In the second part of the paper we focus on nonlinear stability in the microcanonical ensemble by evolving radial perturbations numerically. We find hints of an instability corner for vanishingly small perturbations of the same kind as the ones present in the uncharged case. Collapses are avoided, instead, if the charge and mass of the perturbations come to close the line of solitons. Finally we examine the soliton solutions. The linear spectrum of normal modes is not resonant and instability turns on at extrema of the mass curve. Linear stability extends to nonlinear stability up to some threshold for the amplitude of the perturbation. Beyond that, the soliton is destroyed and collapses to a hairy black hole. The relative width of this stability band scales down with the charge Q, and does not survive the blow up limit to a planar geometry.

  15. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  16. TYPES AND QUANTITIES OF LEFTOVER DRUGS ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals designed for humans and animals often remain unused. Leftover and accumulated drugs represent suboptimal delivery of health care and environmentally unsound disposal, which can pose exposure risks for humans and wildlife.OBJECTIVES: A major unknown with respect to drugs as pollutants is what fractions of drug residues occurring in the ambient environment result from discarding leftover drugs. To gauge the significance of leftover drugs as potential pollutants, data are needed on the types, quantities, and frequencies with which drugs accumulate. Absence of this data has prevented assessments of the significance of drug accumulation and disposal as a contributing source of drug residues in the environment.METHODS: One particular source of drug accumulation is those drugs that become

  17. Near horizon soft hairs as microstates of generic AdS3 black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheikh-Jabbari, M. M.; Yavartanoo, H.

    2017-02-01

    In [1] the horizon fluffs proposal is put forward to identify microstates of generic nonextremal three-dimensional Bañados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. The proposal is that black hole microstates, the horizon fluffs, are certain near horizon soft hairs which are not in the coadjoint orbits of the asymptotic Virasoro algebra associated with the BTZ black holes. It is also known that AdS3 Einstein gravity has more general black hole solutions than the BTZ family which are generically described by two periodic, but otherwise arbitrary, holomorphic and antiholomorphic functions. We show that these general AdS3 black holes which are typically conformal descendants of the BTZ black holes and are characterized by the associated Virasoro coadjoint orbits, appear as coherent states in the asymptotic symmetry algebra corresponding to the black hole family. We apply the horizon fluffs proposal to these generic AdS3 black holes and identify the corresponding microstates. We then perform microstate counting and compute the entropy. The entropy appears to be an orbit invariant quantity, providing an important check for the horizon fluffs proposal.

  18. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania : characterization of surface-runoff and ground-water quantity and quality in a small carbonate basin near Churchtown, Pennsylvania, prior to terracing and implementation of nutrient management : water-quality study of the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leitman, Patricia L.; Hall, D.W.; Langland, M.J.; Chichester, D.C.; Ward, J.R.

    1996-01-01

    Surface-runoff and ground-water quantity and quality of a 22.1-acre field site were characterized from January 1983 through September 1984, before implementation of terracing and nutrient-management practices. The site, underlain by carbonate rock, was cropland used primarily for the production of corn and alfalfa. Average annual application of nutrients to the 14.4 acres of cornfields was 410 pounds of nitrogen and 110 pounds of phosphorus. About three times more nutrients were applied during the 1984 water year than during the 1983 water year. During the investigation, 714,000 cubic feet of runoff transported 244 tons of suspended sediment, 300 pounds of nitrogen, and 170 pounds of phosphorus during the 1984 water year. Runoff from storms on frozen ground produced the highest loads of nitrogen. Regression analyses indicate that runoff rates and quantities were controlled by precipitation intensities of quantities and the amount of crop cover, and that mean concentrations of nitrogen for runoff events increased with increased surface-nitrogen applications made prior to runoff. Ground-water levels responded quickly to recharge, with peaks occurring several hours to a day after precipitation. Median concentrations of dissolved nitrate in ground water ranged from 9.2 to 13 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. A lag time of 1 to 3 months was observed between the time that nitrogen was applied to the land surface and local maximums in nitrate concentrations were detected in ground water unaffected by recharge events. About 3 million cubic feet of ground water and an associated 2,200 pounds of nitrate-nitrogen discharged from the site during the study period. For the study period, 42 percent of the precipitation recharged to ground water, 10 percent became runoff, and 48 percent evapotranspired. Inputs of nitrogen to the study area were estimated to be 93 percent from manure, 5 percent from commercial fertilizer, and 2 percent from precipitation. Nitrogen outputs from the

  19. ISO terminological analysis of the VIM3 concepts 'quantity' and 'kind-of-quantity'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybkaer, René

    2010-06-01

    The recent third edition of the International Vocabulary of Metrology—Basic and General Concepts and Associated Terms (VIM3) (JCGM 200:2008 (Sèvres: BIPM); also ISO/IEC Guide 99:2007 3rd edn (Geneva: ISO)) has undergone important changes, not least by adhering to ISO International Standards on terminology work (ISO 704:2000 Terminology Work—Principles and Methods; ISO 1087-1:2000 Terminology Work—Vocabulary—Part 1: Theory and Application; ISO 10241:1992 International Terminology Standards—Preparation and Layout). A recent critique (Mari 2009 Metrologia 46 L11-L15)—based on Object-Oriented Analysis—centres on the meaning and relation of the two first and fundamental concepts 'quantity'Single quotation marks ('...') or bold type indicate a concept when necessary, double quotation marks ("...") a term or quotation. and the new entry 'kind-of-quantity'. This makes it timely to analyse the two concepts, their relation and their respective role in forming the generic hierarchical concept system of VIM3 from 'property' to individual quantities. It is suggested that 'kind-of-quantity' acts as a division criterionSynonyms are "criterion of subdivision", "type of characteristic(s)", see the annexe..

  20. Uncertainty quantification of measured quantities for a HCCI engine: mass-average quantities and perofrmances

    SciTech Connect

    Petitpas, Guillaume; Whitesides, Russel

    2016-12-12

    UQHCCI_2 propagates the uncertainties of mass-average quantities (temperature, heat capacity ratio) and the output performances (IMEP, heat release, CA50 and RI) of a HCCI engine test bench using the pressure trace, and intake and exhaust molar fraction and IVC temperature distributions, as inputs (those inputs may be computed using another code UQHCCI_2, or entered independently).

  1. Evaluation of agricultural best-management practices in the Conestoga River headwaters, Pennsylvania; effects of pipe-outlet terracing on quantity and quality of surface runoff and ground water in a small carbonate-rock basin near Churchtown, Pennsylvania, 1983-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietman, P.L.; Gustafson-Minnich, L. C.; Hall, D.W.

    1997-01-01

    Terracing effects on surface-runoff and ground- water quantity and quality were investigated by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Resources, during 1983-89 at a 23.1-acre agricultural site in Lancaster County, Pa., as part of the 1982 Rural Clean Water Program. The site, underlain by carbonate rock, was primarily corn and alfalfa fields; the median slope was 6 percent.Normal precipitation is about 42 inches per year. Average annual runoff was 11 percent and ground- water recharge was 37 percent of precipitation.Runoff quantity, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data, ground-water level and nutrient data, and precipitation-quantity data were collected for 21 months prior to, and 58 months after, pipe-outlet terrace construction. Data were analyzed by use of graphical, regression, covariate, cluster, Mann- Whitney Rank Sum test, and double-mass curvetechniques. Terracing changed runoff characteristics. Storm characteristics were similar throughout the study period. However, after terracing, storms producing less than 0.4 inch of precipitation rarely produced runoff. Total-storm discharge as a function of precipitation did not change significantly throughout the range of runoff-producing storms after terracing. Multiple-discharge peaks on hydrographs before terracing did not occur after terracing when hydrographs reflected the stepwisedraining of each terrace through the pipe outlet. After an initial 2-year period of terrace stabilization, suspended-sediment yield in runoff decreased significantly as a function of runoff. This result was expected because terracing decreased runoff energy, and because terrace ponding allowed time for sediment redeposition. Nitrate plus nitrite yields increased proportionally throughout the range of runoff during the post-terracing period relative to the pre- terracing period. After terracing, a combination of increased soil contact time and increased nitrification caused by wetter

  2. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  3. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  4. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  5. 7 CFR 1207.511 - Determination of assessable quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Rules and Regulations Assessments § 1207.511 Determination of assessable quantity. The assessable quantity of potatoes in any lot shall be determined on the basis...

  6. Category 3 threshold quantities for hazard categorization of nonreactor facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Mandigo, R.L.

    1996-02-13

    This document provides the information necessary to determine Hazard Category 3 threshold quantities for those isotopes of interest not listed in WHC-CM-4-46, Section 4, Table 1.''Threshold Quantities.''

  7. Static strings in global AdS space and quark-antiquark potential

    SciTech Connect

    Bayona, C. A. Ballon; Ferreira, Cristine N.

    2008-07-15

    We investigate the finite temperature quark antiquark problem in a compact space S{sup n-1}xS{sup 1} by considering static strings in global AdS{sub n+1} space with n{>=}3. For high temperatures we work in the black hole metric where two possible solutions show up : the big black hole and the small black hole. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we calculate the quark antiquark potential (free energy) as a function of the distance. We show that this potential can be intrepeted as confining for the anti-de Sitter (AdS) space and deconfining for the big black hole. We find for the small black hole a confining limit for the potential but this solution is instable following the Hawking-Page criteria. Our results for the free energy reinforce the Witten interpretation of the confinement/deconfinement transition as the dual of the well-known Hawking-Page transition.

  8. On the Hojman conservation quantities in Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paliathanasis, A.; Leach, P. G. L.; Capozziello, S.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the application of the Hojman's Symmetry Approach for the determination of conservation laws in Cosmology, which has been recently applied by various authors in different cosmological models. We show that Hojman's method for regular Hamiltonian systems, where the Hamiltonian function is one of the involved equations of the system, is equivalent to the application of Noether's Theorem for generalized transformations. That means that for minimally-coupled scalar field cosmology or other modified theories which are conformally related with scalar-field cosmology, like f (R) gravity, the application of Hojman's method provide us with the same results with that of Noether's Theorem. Moreover we study the special Ansatz. ϕ (t) = ϕ (a (t)) , which has been introduced for a minimally-coupled scalar field, and we study the Lie and Noether point symmetries for the reduced equation. We show that under this Ansatz, the unknown function of the model cannot be constrained by the requirement of the existence of a conservation law and that the Hojman conservation quantity which arises for the reduced equation is nothing more than the functional form of Noetherian conservation laws for the free particle. On the other hand, for f (T) teleparallel gravity, it is not the existence of Hojman's conservation laws which provide us with the special function form of f (T) functions, but the requirement that the reduced second-order differential equation admits a Jacobi Last multiplier, while the new conservation law is nothing else that the Hamiltonian function of the reduced equation.

  9. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  10. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of § 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  11. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433... Quantity of CO2: General. Each CO2 system must have enough gas to meet the quantity requirements of § 108.439 for the space requiring the greatest amount of CO2....

  12. 14 CFR 23.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 23.1551 Section 23.1551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 29.1551 Section 29.1551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 29.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with...

  14. 14 CFR 27.1551 - Oil quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Oil quantity indicator. 27.1551 Section 27.1551 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... § 27.1551 Oil quantity indicator. Each oil quantity indicator must be marked with enough increments...

  15. Intensive Quantities: Why They Matter to Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Christine; Nunes, Terezinha; Bryant, Peter

    2010-01-01

    A distinction can be drawn between extensive and intensive quantities. Extensive quantities (e.g., volume, distance), which have been the focus of developmental research, depend upon additive combination. Intensive quantities (e.g., density, speed), which have been relatively neglected, derive from proportional relations between variables. Thus,…

  16. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance Payment Program § 760.1307 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) A dairy operation's payment quantity...

  17. 7 CFR 1430.207 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 1430.207 Section... CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS DAIRY PRODUCTS Milk Income Loss Contract Program § 1430.207 Dairy operation payment quantity. (a) The applicant's payment quantity of...

  18. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  19. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  20. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Economic order quantity... MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 101-27.102 Economic order quantity principle. The economic order quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  1. Black hole formation in AdS Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deppe, Nils; Kolly, Allison; Frey, Andrew R.; Kunstatter, Gabor

    2016-10-01

    AdS spacetime has been shown numerically to be unstable against a large class of arbitrarily small perturbations. In [1], the authors presented a preliminary study of the effects on stability of changing the local dynamics by adding a Gauss-Bonnet term to the Einstein action. Here we provide further details as well as new results with improved numerical methods. In particular, we elucidate new structure in Choptuik scaling plots. We also provide evidence of chaotic behavior at the transition between immediate horizon formation and horizon formation after the matter pulse reflects from the AdS conformal boundary. Finally, we present data suggesting the formation of naked singularities in spacetimes with ADM mass below the algebraic bound for black hole formation.

  2. Memory for Multiple Cache Locations and Prey Quantities in a Food-Hoarding Songbird

    PubMed Central

    Armstrong, Nicola; Garland, Alexis; Burns, K. C.

    2012-01-01

    Most animals can discriminate between pairs of numbers that are each less than four without training. However, North Island robins (Petroica longipes), a food-hoarding songbird endemic to New Zealand, can discriminate between quantities of items as high as eight without training. Here we investigate whether robins are capable of other complex quantity discrimination tasks. We test whether their ability to discriminate between small quantities declines with (1) the number of cache sites containing prey rewards and (2) the length of time separating cache creation and retrieval (retention interval). Results showed that subjects generally performed above-chance expectations. They were equally able to discriminate between different combinations of prey quantities that were hidden from view in 2, 3, and 4 cache sites from between 1, 10, and 60 s. Overall results indicate that North Island robins can process complex quantity information involving more than two discrete quantities of items for up to 1 min long retention intervals without training. PMID:23293622

  3. The ADS All Sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodman, Alyssa

    images can be extracted from articles, we will attempt to "astroreference" those images in order allow for their overlay on the sky. "Astroreferencing" is the analog of "georeferencing," where coordinate information is used to overlay information on maps. Our first pass at astroreferencing will be made using the astrometry.net program, in collaboration with one of its creators. If enough optically-visible stars are present in an image, astrometry.net can place it where it goes on the sky. Only a small fraction of ADS holdings contain images solvable by astrometry.net, but for the articles which do, reviving the data in this way holds tremendous value-especially in the case of historically important observations. Lastly, we will also astroreference images by text-mining to extract "metadata" buried in the figure captions and text. As it is built, the ADSASS will effectively create dynamic data layers of astrotags and astroreferenced images. Users will be able to explore these layers using a wide variety of free all-sky data viewers. Our group and our collaborators have been involved in the development of the WorldWide Telescope and Aladin programs, so we will use those to develop examples of how we intend for the ADSASS to be used. But, we plan to ensure that the data feed represented by the ADSASS will be ingestible by any program capable of understanding sky coordinates and all-sky views. Our proposal can only give a glimpse into the wealth of science it will enable, which includes everything from observation-planning to data discovery to studying the sky distributions of classes of objects. Just as it would have been hard to predict the full and amazing impact of GIS and GPS on society, it is similarly hard to gauge the full impact of the NASA ADSASS. The ADS on its own is already the envy of other sciences as a unified research tool, with the advent of the ADSASS, NASA will have led the way to the future once again.

  4. Thermodynamic stability of modified Schwarzschild-AdS black hole in rainbow gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong-Wan; Kim, Seung Kook; Park, Young-Jai

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we have extended the previous study of the thermodynamics and phase transition of the Schwarzschild black hole in the rainbow gravity to the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole where metric depends on the energy of a probe. Making use of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and the modified dispersion relation, we have obtained the modified local Hawking temperature and thermodynamic quantities in an isothermal cavity. Moreover, we carry out the analysis of constant temperature slices of a black hole. As a result, we have shown that there also exists another Hawking-Page-like phase transition in which case a locally stable small black hole tunnels into a globally stable large black hole as well as the standard Hawking-Page phase transition from a hot flat space to a black hole.

  5. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  6. Law of genome evolution direction: Coding information quantity grows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Liao-Fu

    2009-06-01

    The problem of the directionality of genome evolution is studied. Based on the analysis of C-value paradox and the evolution of genome size, we propose that the function-coding information quantity of a genome always grows in the course of evolution through sequence duplication, expansion of code, and gene transfer from outside. The function-coding information quantity of a genome consists of two parts, p-coding information quantity that encodes functional protein and n-coding information quantity that encodes other functional elements. The evidences on the law of the evolutionary directionality are indicated. The needs of function are the motive force for the expansion of coding information quantity, and the information quantity expansion is the way to make functional innovation and extension for a species. Therefore, the increase of coding information quantity of a genome is a measure of the acquired new function, and it determines the directionality of genome evolution.

  7. Combined Use of Gene Expression Modeling and siRNA Screening Identifies Genes and Pathways Which Enhance the Activity of Cisplatin When Added at No Effect Levels to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Ada W. Y.; Hung, Stacy S.; Backstrom, Ian; Ricaurte, Daniel; Kwok, Brian; Poon, Steven; McKinney, Steven; Segovia, Romulo; Rawji, Jenna; Qadir, Mohammed A.; Aparicio, Samuel; Stirling, Peter C.; Steidl, Christian; Bally, Marcel B.

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cisplatin is effective, its use is not curative and resistance often emerges. As a consequence of microenvironmental heterogeneity, many tumour cells are exposed to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. Further, genomic heterogeneity and unique tumor cell sub-populations with reduced sensitivities to cisplatin play a role in its effectiveness within a site of tumor growth. Being exposed to sub-lethal doses will induce changes in gene expression that contribute to the tumour cell’s ability to survive and eventually contribute to the selective pressures leading to cisplatin resistance. Such changes in gene expression, therefore, may contribute to cytoprotective mechanisms. Here, we report on studies designed to uncover how tumour cells respond to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. A microarray study revealed changes in gene expressions that occurred when A549 cells were exposed to a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of cisplatin (e.g. the IC10). These data were integrated with results from a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for novel therapeutic targets that when inhibited transformed a NOEL of cisplatin into one that induced significant increases in lethality. Pathway analyses were performed to identify pathways that could be targeted to enhance cisplatin activity. We found that over 100 genes were differentially expressed when A549 cells were exposed to a NOEL of cisplatin. Pathways associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were activated. The siRNA screen revealed the importance of the hedgehog, cell cycle regulation, and insulin action pathways in A549 cell survival and response to cisplatin treatment. Results from both datasets suggest that RRM2B, CABYR, ALDH3A1, and FHL2 could be further explored as cisplatin-enhancing gene targets. Finally, pathways involved in repairing double-strand DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were enriched in both

  8. Combined Use of Gene Expression Modeling and siRNA Screening Identifies Genes and Pathways Which Enhance the Activity of Cisplatin When Added at No Effect Levels to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Leung, Ada W Y; Hung, Stacy S; Backstrom, Ian; Ricaurte, Daniel; Kwok, Brian; Poon, Steven; McKinney, Steven; Segovia, Romulo; Rawji, Jenna; Qadir, Mohammed A; Aparicio, Samuel; Stirling, Peter C; Steidl, Christian; Bally, Marcel B

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-based combination chemotherapy is the standard treatment for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cisplatin is effective, its use is not curative and resistance often emerges. As a consequence of microenvironmental heterogeneity, many tumour cells are exposed to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. Further, genomic heterogeneity and unique tumor cell sub-populations with reduced sensitivities to cisplatin play a role in its effectiveness within a site of tumor growth. Being exposed to sub-lethal doses will induce changes in gene expression that contribute to the tumour cell's ability to survive and eventually contribute to the selective pressures leading to cisplatin resistance. Such changes in gene expression, therefore, may contribute to cytoprotective mechanisms. Here, we report on studies designed to uncover how tumour cells respond to sub-lethal doses of cisplatin. A microarray study revealed changes in gene expressions that occurred when A549 cells were exposed to a no-observed-effect level (NOEL) of cisplatin (e.g. the IC10). These data were integrated with results from a genome-wide siRNA screen looking for novel therapeutic targets that when inhibited transformed a NOEL of cisplatin into one that induced significant increases in lethality. Pathway analyses were performed to identify pathways that could be targeted to enhance cisplatin activity. We found that over 100 genes were differentially expressed when A549 cells were exposed to a NOEL of cisplatin. Pathways associated with apoptosis and DNA repair were activated. The siRNA screen revealed the importance of the hedgehog, cell cycle regulation, and insulin action pathways in A549 cell survival and response to cisplatin treatment. Results from both datasets suggest that RRM2B, CABYR, ALDH3A1, and FHL2 could be further explored as cisplatin-enhancing gene targets. Finally, pathways involved in repairing double-strand DNA breaks and INO80 chromatin remodeling were enriched in both

  9. Supersymmetry of AdS and flat IIB backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2015-02-01

    We present a systematic description of all warped AdS n × w M 10- n and IIB backgrounds and identify the a priori number of supersymmetries N preserved by these solutions. In particular, we find that the AdS n backgrounds preserve for n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 6 supersymmetries and for suitably restricted. In addition under some assumptions required for the applicability of the maximum principle, we demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n backgrounds can be identified with the zero modes of Dirac-like operators on M 10- n establishing a new class of Lichnerowicz type theorems. Furthermore, we adapt some of these results to backgrounds with fluxes by taking the AdS radius to infinity. We find that these backgrounds preserve for 2 < n ≤ 4 and for 4 < n ≤ 7 supersymmetries. We also demonstrate that the Killing spinors of AdS n × w M 10- n do not factorize into Killing spinors on AdS n and Killing spinors on M 10- n .

  10. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  11. Hairy black holes and the endpoint of AdS4 charged superradiance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Masachs, Ramon

    2017-02-01

    We construct hairy black hole solutions that merge with the anti-de Sitter (AdS4) Reissner-Nordström black hole at the onset of superradiance. These hairy black holes have, for a given mass and charge, higher entropy than the corresponding AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black hole. Therefore, they are natural candidates for the endpoint of the charged superradiant instability. On the other hand, hairy black holes never dominate the canonical and grand-canonical ensembles. The zero-horizon radius of the hairy black holes is a soliton (i.e. a boson star under a gauge transformation). We construct our solutions perturbatively, for small mass and charge, so that the properties of hairy black holes can be used to testify and compare with the endpoint of initial value simulations. We further discuss the near-horizon scalar condensation instability which is also present in global AdS4-Reissner-Nordström black holes. We highlight the different nature of the near-horizon and superradiant instabilities and that hairy black holes ultimately exist because of the non-linear instability of AdS.

  12. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added... and handled as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added... and handled as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Substances added directly to human food affirmed as... SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added directly to... as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does not exceed...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1 - Substances added directly to human food affirmed as generally recognized as safe (GRAS).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Substances added directly to human food affirmed... FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Provisions § 184.1 Substances added... and handled as a food ingredient; and that the quantity of the ingredient added to food does...

  16. Relative quantity judgments in South American sea lions (Otaria flavescens).

    PubMed

    Abramson, José Z; Hernández-Lloreda, Victoria; Call, Josep; Colmenares, Fernando

    2011-09-01

    There is accumulating evidence that a variety of species possess quantitative abilities although their cognitive substrate is still unclear. This study is the first to investigate whether sea lions (Otaria flavescens), in the absence of training, are able to assess and select the larger of two sets of quantities. In Experiment 1, the two sets of quantities were presented simultaneously as whole sets, that is, the subjects could compare them directly. In Experiment 2, the two sets of quantities were presented item-by-item, and the totality of items was never visually available at the time of choice. For each type of presentation, we analysed the effect of the ratio between quantities, the difference between quantities and the total number of items presented. The results showed that (1) sea lions can make relative quantity judgments successfully and (2) there is a predominant influence of the ratio between quantities on the subjects' performance. The latter supports the idea that an analogue representational mechanism is responsible for sea lions' relative quantities judgments. These findings are consistent with previous reports of relative quantities judgments in other species such as monkeys and apes and suggest that sea lions might share a similar mechanism to compare and represent quantities.

  17. AdS3 Solutions of IIB Supergravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Nakwoo

    2005-12-02

    We consider pure D3-brane configurations of IIB string theory which lead to supergravity solutions containing an AdS3 factor. They can provide new examples of AdS3/CFT2 examples on D3-branes whose worldvolume is partially compactified. When the internal 7 dimensional space is non-compact, they are related to fluctuations of higher dimensional AdS/CFT duality examples, thus dual to the BPS operators of D = 4 superconformal field theories. We find that supersymmetry requires the 7 dimensional space is warped Hopf-fibration of (real) 6 dimensional Kahler manifolds.

  18. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  19. Constructing the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid: AdS black holes with Dirac hair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čubrović, Mihailo; Zaanen, Jan; Schalm, Koenraad

    2011-10-01

    We provide evidence that the holographic dual to a strongly coupled charged Fermi liquid has a non-zero fermion density in the bulk. We show that the pole-strength of the stable quasiparticle characterizing the Fermi surface is encoded in the AdS probability density of a single normalizable fermion wavefunction in AdS. Recalling Migdal's theorem which relates the pole strength to the Fermi-Dirac characteristic discontinuity in the number density at ω F , we conclude that the AdS dual of a Fermi liquid is described by occupied on-shell fermionic modes in AdS. Encoding the occupied levels in the total spatially averaged probability density of the fermion field directly, we show that an AdS Reissner-Nordström black holein a theory with charged fermions has a critical temperature, at which the system undergoes a first-order transition to a black hole with a non-vanishing profile for the bulk fermion field. Thermodynamics and spectral analysis support that the solution with non-zero AdS fermion-profile is the preferred ground state at low temperatures.

  20. AdS black holes, the bulk-boundary dictionary, and smearing functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leichenauer, Stefan; Rosenhaus, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    In Lorentzian AdS/CFT there exists a mapping between local bulk operators and nonlocal conformal field theory (CFT) operators. In global anti-de Sitter (AdS) this mapping can be found through use of bulk equations of motion and allows the nonlocal CFT operator to be expressed as a local operator smeared over a range of positions and times. We argue that such a construction is not possible if there are bulk normal modes with exponentially small near boundary imprint. We show that the AdS-Schwarzschild background is such a case, with the horizon introducing modes with angular momentum much larger than frequency, causing them to be trapped by the centrifugal barrier. More generally, we argue that any barrier in the radial effective potential which prevents null geodesics from reaching the boundary will lead to modes with vanishingly small near boundary imprint, thereby obstructing the existence of a smearing function. While one may have thought the bulk-boundary dictionary for low curvature regions, such as the exterior of a black hole, should be as in empty AdS, our results demonstrate otherwise.

  1. Adding crumb rubber into exterior wall materials.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Han; Thong-On, Norasit; Zhang, Xiong

    2002-10-01

    In Arizona US, most houses are built with walls covered by stuccos/coatings/mortars. This paper presents an explorative investigation of adding crumb rubber into stuccos/coatings/mortars. A series of experiments are conducted to examine the thermal and mechanical performance of the crumb rubber mixes. The results show that, the mixes with crumb rubber do exhibit more desirable performances like being high in crack-resistance and thermal insulation, and low in thermal expansion/contraction. The drawback for the crumb rubber mixes is the reduction in compressive strength, but which can be compensated by other means. As a site experiment, an area of 100 square-feet of crumb rubber coatings for two mix designs is sprayed on a tire-adobe wall. After being sprayed more than 14 months, the coatings apparently are in good condition. Significance of this study is that this practice, if accepted, will yield improved products that consume large quantities of crumb rubber.

  2. AdS-Carroll branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, T. E.; ter Veldhuis, T.

    2016-11-01

    Coset methods are used to determine the action of a co-dimension one brane (domain wall) embedded in (d + 1)-dimensional AdS space in the Carroll limit in which the speed of light goes to zero. The action is invariant under the non-linearly realized symmetries of the AdS-Carroll spacetime. The Nambu-Goldstone field exhibits a static spatial distribution for the brane with a time varying momentum density related to the brane's spatial shape as well as the AdS-C geometry. The AdS-C vector field dual theory is obtained.

  3. ADS Based on Linear Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Weimin; Dai, Jianping

    An accelerator-driven system (ADS), which combines a particle accelerator with a subcritical core, is commonly regarded as a promising device for the transmutation of nuclear waste, as well as a potential scheme for thorium-based energy production. So far the predominant choice of the accelerator for ADS is a superconducting linear accelerator (linac). This article gives a brief overview of ADS based on linacs, including the motivation, principle, challenges and research activities around the world. The status and future plan of the Chinease ADS (C-ADS) project will be highlighted and discussed in depth as an example.

  4. AdS spacetimes from wrapped D3-branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauntlett, Jerome P.; MacConamhna, Oisín A. P.

    2007-12-01

    We derive a geometrical characterization of a large class of AdS3 and AdS2 supersymmetric spacetimes in type IIB supergravity with non-vanishing five-form flux using G-structures. These are obtained as special cases of a class of supersymmetric spacetimes with an {{\\bb R}}^{1,1} or {{\\bb R}} (time) factor that are associated with D3 branes wrapping calibrated two or three cycles, respectively, in manifolds with SU(2), SU(3), SU(4) and G2 holonomy. We show how two explicit AdS solutions, previously constructed in gauged supergravity, satisfy our more general G-structure conditions. For each explicit solution, we also derive a special holonomy metric which, although singular, has an appropriate calibrated cycle. After analytic continuation, some of the classes of AdS spacetimes give rise to known classes of BPS bubble solutions with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times {\\it SO}(4), {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4)\\times U(1) and {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SO}(4) symmetry. These have 1/2, 1/4 and 1/8 supersymmetry, respectively. We present a new class of 1/8 BPS geometries with {{\\bb R}}\\times {\\it SU}(2) symmetry, obtained by analytic continuation of the class of AdS spacetimes associated with D3-brane wrapped on associative three cycles.

  5. Adding insult to injury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebele, Elaine

    New predictions and observations suggest that global warming will exact the highest costs on developing countries. A recent economic analysis of global climate change indicates that developed countries, the primary emitters of carbon dioxide, would benefit by $82 billion per year from a 2°C increase in global mean temperature, while underdeveloped countries would lose $40 billion per year.For the economic analysis, global climate predictions were combined with economic data (for agriculture, forestry, coastal resources, energy, and tourism), but natural climate variability, including frosts, droughts, or severe thunderstorms, was not included. Countries predicted to suffer the greatest economic losses from global warming are island nations, said Michael Schlesinger, a University of Illinois atmospheric scientist who performed the economic analysis with colleagues from Yale University and Middlebury College. “These countries have long coast lines, sensitive tourism industries, and small, undeveloped economies.”

  6. The exceptional generalised geometry of supersymmetric AdS flux backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmore, Anthony; Petrini, Michela; Waldram, Daniel

    2016-12-01

    We analyse generic AdS flux backgrounds preserving eight supercharges in D = 4 and D = 5 dimensions using exceptional generalised geometry. We show that they are described by a pair of globally defined, generalised structures, identical to those that appear for flat flux backgrounds but with different integrability conditions. We give a number of explicit examples of such "exceptional Sasaki-Einstein" backgrounds in type IIB supergravity and M-theory. In particular, we give the complete analysis of the generic AdS5 M-theory backgrounds. We also briefly discuss the structure of the moduli space of solutions. In all cases, one structure defines a "generalised Reeb vector" that generates a Killing symmetry of the background corresponding to the R-symmetry of the dual field theory, and in addition encodes the generic contact structures that appear in the D = 4 M-theory and D = 5 type IIB cases. Finally, we investigate the relation between generalised structures and quantities in the dual field theory, showing that the central charge and R-charge of BPS wrapped-brane states are both encoded by the generalised Reeb vector, as well as discussing how volume minimisation (the dual of a- and F-maximisation) is encoded.

  7. 41 CFR 101-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY... quantity (EOQ) principle is a means for achieving economical inventory management. Application of the...

  8. More or less: spontaneous quantity discrimination in the domestic cat.

    PubMed

    Bánszegi, Oxána; Urrutia, Andrea; Szenczi, Péter; Hudson, Robyn

    2016-09-01

    We examined spontaneous quantity discrimination in untrained domestic cats in three food choice experiments. In Experiment 1, we presented the cats with two different quantities of food in eight numerical combinations. Overall, the subjects chose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, and significantly so when the ratio between the quantities was less than 0.5. In Experiment 2, we presented the cats with two pieces of food in four different size combinations. Again, subjects chose the larger piece above chance, although not in the combination where the largest item was presented. In Experiment 3, a subset of the cats was presented multiple times with two different quantities of food, which were hidden from view. In this case, the cats did not choose the larger quantity more often than the smaller one, suggesting that in the present experiments they mainly used visual cues when comparing quantities. We conclude that domestic cats are capable of spontaneously discriminating quantities when faced with different numbers or sizes of food items, and we suggest why they may not always be motivated to choose the larger quantity. In doing so, we highlight the advantages of testing spontaneous choice behavior, which is more likely to reflect animals' everyday manner of responding than is the case when training them in order to test their absolute limits of performance which may not always coincide with their daily needs.

  9. Quantity discounts on a virtual good: The results of a massive pricing experiment at King Digital Entertainment.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Steven D; List, John A; Neckermann, Susanne; Nelson, David

    2016-07-05

    We report on a natural field experiment on quantity discounts involving more than 14 million consumers. Implementing price reductions ranging from 9-70% for large purchases, we found remarkably little impact on revenue, either positively or negatively. There was virtually no increase in the quantity of customers making a purchase; all the observed changes occurred for customers who already were buyers. We found evidence that infrequent purchasers are more responsive to discounts than frequent purchasers. There was some evidence of habit formation when prices returned to pre-experiment levels. There also was some evidence that consumers contemplating small purchases are discouraged by the presence of extreme quantity discounts for large purchases.

  10. Revisiting the thermodynamic relations in AdS /CMT models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2017-03-01

    Motivated by the recent unified approach to the Smarr-like relation of anti-de Sitter (AdS) planar black holes in conjunction with the quasilocal formalism on conserved charges, we revisit the quantum statistical and thermodynamic relations of hairy AdS planar black holes. By extending the previous results, we identify the hairy contribution in the bulk and show that the holographic computation can be improved so that it is consistent with the bulk computation. We argue that the first law can be retained in its universal form and that the relation between the on-shell renormalized Euclidean action and its free energy interpretation in gravity may also be undeformed even with the hairy contribution in hairy AdS black holes.

  11. Entanglement entropy for free scalar fields in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugishita, Sotaro

    2016-09-01

    We compute entanglement entropy for free massive scalar fields in anti-de Sitter (AdS) space. The entangling surface is a minimal surface whose boundary is a sphere at the boundary of AdS. The entropy can be evaluated from the thermal free energy of the fields on a topological black hole by using the replica method. In odd-dimensional AdS, exact expressions of the Rényi entropy S n are obtained for arbitrary n. We also evaluate 1-loop corrections coming from the scalar fields to holographic entanglement entropy. Applying the results, we compute the leading difference of entanglement entropy between two holographic CFTs related by a renormalization group flow triggered by a double trace deformation. The difference is proportional to the shift of a central charge under the flow.

  12. Solutions of free higher spins in AdS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, H.; Shao, Kai-Nan

    2011-11-01

    We consider free massive and massless higher integer spins in AdS backgrounds in general D dimensions. We obtain the solutions corresponding to the highest-weight state of the spin-ℓ representations of the SO (2 , D - 1) isometry groups. The solution for the spin-ℓ field is expressed recursively in terms of that for the spin- (ℓ - 1). Thus starting from the explicit spin-0, all the higher-spin solutions can be obtained. These solutions allow us to derive the generalized Breitenlohner-Freedman bound, and analyze the asymptotic falloffs. In particular, solutions with negative mass square in general have falloffs slower than those of the Schwarzschild AdS black holes in the AdS boundaries.

  13. [Cast structures and mechanical properties of Ir added to Ag-based alloys. (Part 1) (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Honma, H; Iijima, K

    1981-04-01

    The effect of very small quantity of Ir added to pure Agb or Ab-based casting alloys on the mechanical properties were investigated by microstructure observation, tensile test, XMA (electron probe micro analysis) and electrical resistivity measurement. 1) An addition of 0.005% Ir to pure Ag caused grain refinement, increased elongation, yield point, tensile strength. However, the refinement effect did not proportionally increase to the amount of additional Ir. 2) An addition of Ir to Ag alloy containing 7% Cu caused to finely dispersed beta phase in the as cast alloy and degraded the dendrite structure. As a result, homogenization and aging were accelerated. Mechanical properties i. e. elongation, yield point and tensile strength increased in castings and homogeneous state and yield point increased in aging state. The addition of about 0.05% Ir appeared optimum. 3) An addition of Ir to an Ag alloy containing 15% Cu caused grain refinement of the alloy as cast but its effect on the mechanical properties of the alloy was not clarified owing to casting defects. 4) 0.05% Ir added to an Ag alloy containing 20% Pd and 7% Cu did not show an apparent refinement effect. The optimum quantity of Ir is assumed to differ depending on the amount of Pd content.

  14. AdS Black Disk Model for Small-x Deep Inelastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornalba, Lorenzo; Costa, Miguel S.; Penedones, João

    2010-08-01

    Using the approximate conformal invariance of QCD at high energies we consider a simple anti-de Sitter black disk model to describe saturation in deep inelastic scattering. Deep inside saturation the structure functions have the same power law scaling, FT˜FL˜x-ω, where ω is related to the expansion rate of the black disk with energy. Furthermore, the ratio FL/FT is given by the universal value (1+ω)/(3+ω), independently of the target. For γ*-γ* scattering at high energies we obtain explicit expressions and ratios for the total cross sections of transverse and longitudinal photons in terms of the single parameter ω.

  15. The Study of Tone in Languages with a Quantity Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Remijsen, Bert

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of tone in languages that additionally have a phonological contrastive of quantity, such as vowel length or stress. In such complex word-prosodic systems, tone and the quantity contrast(s) can be fully independent of one another, or they may interact. Both of these configurations are illustrated in this paper, and…

  16. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Quantity of contents. (a) The label shall bear a statement of the quantity of contents in terms of weight... weight that would otherwise be required under this subparagraph: Provided, That the shipping container bears a statement “Net weight to be marked on consumer packages prior to display and sale”: And...

  17. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Quantity of contents. (a) The label shall bear a statement of the quantity of contents in terms of weight... weight that would otherwise be required under this subparagraph: Provided, That the shipping container bears a statement “Net weight to be marked on consumer packages prior to display and sale”: And...

  18. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... based. The reportable quantity applies to the waste itself, not merely to the toxic contaminant. If an...(b) have the reportable quantity of 100 pounds, except for those unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have...

  19. 40 CFR 302.5 - Determination of reportable quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... based. The reportable quantity applies to the waste itself, not merely to the toxic contaminant. If an...(b) have the reportable quantity of 100 pounds, except for those unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity identified in 40 CFR 261.24. Unlisted hazardous wastes which exhibit toxicity have...

  20. 27 CFR 25.183 - Determination of quantity transferred.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of quantity transferred. 25.183 Section 25.183 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... determine the quantity of beer shipped at the time of removal from the consignor brewery, and the...

  1. Household Water Quantity and Health: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Stelmach, Rachel D.; Clasen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While the quantity of water used in the home is thought to be an important determinant of health, much of the evidence relies on using water access as a proxy for quantity. This review examines the health effects of household water quantity using studies that directly measured water quantity. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and article reference lists. Eligible studies included experimental and observational studies that measured a difference in water quantity and quantified an association between water quantity and health outcomes. 21 studies, divided into six of the many possible water-quantity associated outcomes, met the eligibility criteria. Due to heterogeneity in designs, settings, methods, and outcomes, a meta-analysis was inappropriate. Overall results showed a positive association between water quantity and health outcomes, but the effect depended on how the water was used. Increased water usage for personal hygiene was generally associated with improved trachoma outcomes, while increased water consumption was generally associated with reduced gastrointestinal infection and diarrheal disease and improved growth outcomes. In high-income countries, increased water consumption was associated with higher rates of renal cell carcinoma and bladder cancer but not associated with type II diabetes, cardiac-related mortality, or all-cause mortality. PMID:26030467

  2. 33 CFR 183.105 - Quantity of flotation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quantity of flotation required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.105 Quantity of flotation required. (a) Each boat must have...

  3. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  4. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  6. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery of Excess....211-17 Delivery of Excess Quantities. As prescribed in 11.703(b), insert the following clause: Delivery of Excess Quantities (SEP 1989) The Contractor is responsible for the delivery of each...

  8. 19 CFR 144.33 - Minimum quantities to be withdrawn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) WAREHOUSE AND REWAREHOUSE ENTRIES AND WITHDRAWALS Withdrawals from Warehouse § 144.33 Minimum quantities to be withdrawn. Unless by special authority of the Commissioner of Customs, merchandise shall not be withdrawn from bonded warehouse in quantities less than an entire...

  9. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon,...

  10. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on...

  11. Finite difference approximation of hedging quantities in the Heston model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    in't Hout, Karel

    2012-09-01

    This note concerns the hedging quantities Delta and Gamma in the Heston model for European-style financial options. A modification of the discretization technique from In 't Hout & Foulon (2010) is proposed, which enables a fast and accurate approximation of these important quantities. Numerical experiments are given that illustrate the performance.

  12. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... Leases § 3430.1-2 Commercial quantities defined. For the purpose of § 3430.1-1 of this title,...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 27.1553 Section 27... § 27.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator...

  14. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29... Placards § 29.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  16. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on each indicator at the calibrated zero reading, as specified in § 23.1337(b)(1)....

  17. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers... quantities of reclaimed fibers. (a) Where a wool product is composed in part of various man-made fibers recovered from textile products containing underdetermined qualities of such fibers, the percentage...

  18. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  19. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  20. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  1. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  2. 10 CFR 26.109 - Urine specimen quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Urine specimen quantity. 26.109 Section 26.109 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting Specimens for Testing § 26.109 Urine specimen quantity. (a) Licensees and other entities who are subject to this subpart shall establish...

  3. Numerical Order and Quantity Processing in Number Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turconi, Eva; Campbell, Jamie I. D.; Seron, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    We investigated processing of numerical order information and its relation to mechanisms of numerical quantity processing. In two experiments, performance on a quantity-comparison task (e.g. 2 5; which is larger?) was compared with performance on a relative-order judgment task (e.g. 2 5; ascending or descending order?). The comparison task…

  4. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS NONRECOURSE MARKETING ASSISTANCE LOAN AND LDP REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  5. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  6. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  7. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  8. 41 CFR 109-27.102 - Economic order quantity principle.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Economic order quantity principle. 109-27.102 Section 109-27.102 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property... PROCUREMENT 27-INVENTORY MANAGEMENT 27.1-Stock Replenishment § 109-27.102 Economic order quantity principle....

  9. 46 CFR 76.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 76.17-5 Section 76.17-5... EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 76.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area protected. (1... of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping shall...

  10. 46 CFR 95.17-5 - Quantity of foam required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of foam required. 95.17-5 Section 95.17-5... PROTECTION EQUIPMENT Foam Extinguishing Systems, Details § 95.17-5 Quantity of foam required. (a) Area... blanket of foam over the entire tank top or bilge of the space protected. The arrangement of piping...

  11. 33 CFR 183.105 - Quantity of flotation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Quantity of flotation required... (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Inboard Boats, Inboard/Outdrive Boats, and Airboats § 183.105 Quantity of flotation required. (a) Each boat must have...

  12. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  13. 7 CFR 1434.9 - Determination of quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS FOR HONEY § 1434.9 Determination of quantity. The amount of a marketing assistance loan and loan... the producer and verified by the county office representative for honey on Form CCC-633 (Honey) that is eligible to be pledged as security for the loan or LDP Estimates of the quantity of honey shall...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29... Placards § 29.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  15. 14 CFR 23.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 23.1553 Section 23... Information Markings and Placards § 23.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. A red radial line must be marked on each indicator at the calibrated zero reading, as specified in § 23.1337(b)(1)....

  16. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25... Placards § 25.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 27.1553 Section 27... § 27.1553 Fuel quantity indicator. If the unusable fuel supply for any tank exceeds one gallon, or five percent of the tank capacity, whichever is greater, a red arc must be marked on its indicator...

  18. The equation of state for stellar envelopes. III - Thermodynamic quantities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daeppen, Werner; Mihalas, Dimitri; Hummer, D. G.; Mihalas, Barbara Weibel

    1988-01-01

    A method is described for deriving general expressions for all thermodynamic quantities of interest of a partially ionized multicomponent gas in terms of derivatives of the free energy. Explicit analytical formulas for all derivatives required in the evaluation of these quantities are given. Representative results for a hydrogen-helium mixture are shown.

  19. Judgments of Discrete and Continuous Quantity: An Illusory Stroop Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary C.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence from human cognitive neuroscience, animal neurophysiology, and behavioral research demonstrates that human adults, infants, and children share a common nonverbal quantity processing system with nonhuman animals. This system appears to represent both discrete and continuous quantity, but the proper characterization of the relationship…

  20. Supply chain coordination with defective items and quantity discount

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hsien-Jen; Lin, Yu-Jen

    2014-12-01

    This study develops an integrated inventory system involving defective items and quantity discount for optimal pricing and ordering strategies. The model analysed in this study is one in which the buyer orders a quantity, the vendor produces more than buyer's order quantity in order to reduce set-up cost, and then he/she offers an all-units quantity discount to the buyer. Our objective is to determine the optimal order quantity, retail price, mark-up rate, and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer, so that the entire supply chain joint total profit incurred has a maximum value. Furthermore, an algorithm of finding the optimal solution is developed. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  1. Mystery cloud of AD 536

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R. B.

    1984-01-01

    The possible cause of the densest and most persistent dry fog on record, which was observed in Europe and the Middle East during AD 536 and 537, is discussed. The fog's long duration toward the south and the high sulfuric acid signal detected in Greenland in ice cores dated around AD 540 support the theory that the fog was due to the explosion of the Rabaul volcano, the occurrence of which has been dated at about AD 540 by the radiocarbon method.

  2. An Algebraic Approach to Unital Quantities and their Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domotor, Zoltan; Batitsky, Vadim

    2016-06-01

    The goals of this paper fall into two closely related areas. First, we develop a formal framework for deterministic unital quantities in which measurement unitization is understood to be a built-in feature of quantities rather than a mere annotation of their numerical values with convenient units. We introduce this idea within the setting of certain ordered semigroups of physical-geometric states of classical physical systems. States are assumed to serve as truth makers of metrological statements about quantity values. A unital quantity is presented as an isomorphism from the target system's ordered semigroup of states to that of positive reals. This framework allows us to include various derived and variable quantities, encountered in engineering and the natural sciences. For illustration and ease of presentation, we use the classical notions of length, time, electric current and mean velocity as primordial examples. The most important application of the resulting unital quantity calculus is in dimensional analysis. Second, in evaluating measurement uncertainty due to the analog-to-digital conversion of the measured quantity's value into its measuring instrument's pointer quantity value, we employ an ordered semigroup framework of pointer states. Pointer states encode the measuring instrument's indiscernibility relation, manifested by not being able to distinguish the measured system's topologically proximal states. Once again, we focus mainly on the measurement of length and electric current quantities as our motivating examples. Our approach to quantities and their measurement is strictly state-based and algebraic in flavor, rather than that of a representationalist-style structure-preserving numerical assignment.

  3. Coset construction of AdS particle dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, Martin; Jorjadze, George; Megrelidze, Luka

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the dynamics of the AdSN+1 particle realized on the coset SO(2, N)/SO (1,N). Hamiltonian reduction provides the physical phase space in terms of the coadjoint orbit obtained by boosting a timelike element of 𝔰𝔬(2, N). We show equivalence of this approach to geometric quantization and to the SO(N) covariant oscillator description, for which the boost generators entail a complicated operator ordering. As an alternative scheme, we introduce dual oscillator variables and derive their algebra at the classical and the quantum levels. This simplifies the calculations of the commutators for the boost generators and leads to unitary irreducible representations of 𝔰𝔬(2, N) for all admissible values of the mass parameter. We furthermore discuss an SO(N) covariant supersymmetric extension of the oscillator quantization, with its realization for superparticles in AdS2 and AdS3 given by recent works.

  4. Entanglement temperature and perturbed AdS3 geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, G. C.; Caravan, B.

    2016-06-01

    Generalizing the first law of thermodynamics, the increase in entropy density δ S (x ) of a conformal field theory (CFT) is proportional to the increase in energy density, δ E (x ) , of a subsystem divided by a spatially dependent entanglement temperature, TE(x ) , a fixed parameter determined by the geometry of the subsystem, crossing over to thermodynamic temperature at high temperatures. In this paper we derive a generalization of the thermodynamic Clausius relation, showing that deformations of the CFT by marginal operators are associated with spatial temperature variations, δ TE(x ) , and spatial energy correlations play the role of specific heat. Using AdS/CFT duality we develop a relationship between a perturbation in the local entanglement temperature of the CFT and the perturbation of the bulk AdS metric. In two dimensions, we demonstrate a method through which direct diagonalizations of the boundary quantum theory may be used to construct geometric perturbations of AdS3 .

  5. AdS5 backgrounds with 24 supersymmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, S.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.

    2016-06-01

    We prove a non-existence theorem for smooth AdS 5 solutions with connected, compact without boundary internal space that preserve strictly 24 supersymmetries. In particular, we show that D = 11 supergravity does not admit such solutions, and that all such solutions of IIB supergravity are locally isometric to the AdS 5 × S 5 maximally supersymmetric background. Furthermore, we prove that (massive) IIA supergravity also does not admit such solutions, provided that the homogeneity conjecture for massive IIA supergravity is valid. In the context of AdS/CFT these results imply that if gravitational duals for strictly mathcal{N}=3 superconformal theories in 4-dimensions exist, they are either singular or their internal spaces are not compact.

  6. - criticality of AdS black hole in the Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming; Yang, Zhan-Ying; Zou, De-Cheng; Xu, Wei; Yue, Rui-Hong

    2015-02-01

    We study the - critical behaivor of N-dimensional AdS black holes in Einstein-Maxwell-power-Yang-Mills gravity. Our results show the existence of the Van der Waals like small-large black hole phase transitions when taking some special values of charges of the Maxwell and Yang-Mills fields. Further to calculate the critical exponents of the black holes at the critical point, we find that they are the same as those in the Van der Waals liquid-gas system.

  7. Stringy correlations on deformed AdS3 × S 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, following the basic prescriptions of Gauge/String duality, we perform a strong coupling computation on classical two point correlation between local (single trace) operators in a gauge theory dual to κ-deformed AdS3 × S 3 background. Our construction is based on the prescription that relates every local operator in a gauge theory to that with the (semi)classical string states propagating within the physical region surrounded by the holographic screen in deformed AdS3. In our analysis, we treat strings as being that of a point like object located near the physical boundary of the κ-deformed Euclidean Poincare AdS3 and as an extended object with non trivial dynamics associated to S 3. It turns out that in the presence of small background deformations, the usual power law behavior associated with two point functions is suppressed exponentially by a non trivial factor which indicates a faster decay of two point correlations with larger separations. On the other hand, in the limit of large background deformations ( κ ≫ 1), the corresponding two point function reaches a point of saturation. In our analysis, we also compute finite size corrections associated with these two point functions at strong coupling. As a consistency check of our analysis, we find perfect agreement between our results to that with the earlier observations made in the context of vanishing deformation.

  8. Lorentzian AdS geometries, wormholes, and holography

    SciTech Connect

    Arias, Raul E.; Silva, Guillermo A.; Botta Cantcheff, Marcelo

    2011-03-15

    We investigate the structure of two-point functions for the quantum field theory dual to an asymptotically Lorentzian Anti de Sitter (AdS) wormhole. The bulk geometry is a solution of five-dimensional second-order Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and causally connects two asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We revisit the Gubser-Klebanov-Polyakov-Witten prescription for computing two-point correlation functions for dual quantum field theories operators O in Lorentzian signature and we propose to express the bulk fields in terms of the independent boundary values {phi}{sub 0}{sup {+-}} at each of the two asymptotic AdS regions; along the way we exhibit how the ambiguity of normalizable modes in the bulk, related to initial and final states, show up in the computations. The independent boundary values are interpreted as sources for dual operators O{sup {+-}} and we argue that, apart from the possibility of entanglement, there exists a coupling between the degrees of freedom living at each boundary. The AdS{sub 1+1} geometry is also discussed in view of its similar boundary structure. Based on the analysis, we propose a very simple geometric criterion to distinguish coupling from entanglement effects among two sets of degrees of freedom associated with each of the disconnected parts of the boundary.

  9. Conceptual Model of Quantities, Units, Dimensions, and Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouquette, Nicolas F.; DeKoenig, Hans-Peter; Burkhart, Roger; Espinoza, Huascar

    2011-01-01

    JPL collaborated with experts from industry and other organizations to develop a conceptual model of quantities, units, dimensions, and values based on the current work of the ISO 80000 committee revising the International System of Units & Quantities based on the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM). By providing support for ISO 80000 in SysML via the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM), this conceptual model provides, for the first time, a standard-based approach for addressing issues of unit coherence and dimensional analysis into the practice of systems engineering with SysML-based tools. This conceptual model provides support for two kinds of analyses specified in the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM): coherence of units as well as of systems of units, and dimension analysis of systems of quantities. To provide a solid and stable foundation, the model for defining quantities, units, dimensions, and values in SysML is explicitly based on the concepts defined in VIM. At the same time, the model library is designed in such a way that extensions to the ISQ (International System of Quantities) and SI Units (Systeme International d Unites) can be represented, as well as any alternative systems of quantities and units. The model library can be used to support SysML user models in various ways. A simple approach is to define and document libraries of reusable systems of units and quantities for reuse across multiple projects, and to link units and quantity kinds from these libraries to Unit and QuantityKind stereotypes defined in SysML user models.

  10. The priming effect: Investigating the role of labile C quantity on subsoil C losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diochon, Amanda; Kellman, Lisa; Beltrami, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    In a study examining changes in soil organic carbon storage after clearcut harvesting, we previously reported a 50% decline in soil C stocks approximately 30 years after harvesting, with the greatest losses reported below 20 cm in the mineral soil. Physical and biological separation of organic matter indicated that the decline was greatest in the fractions of organic matter that are conceptually thought to be stable. Stable isotope analyses were consistent with increased mineralization post-harvest and we speculated that the deeper stores of C might have been primed by a flush of labile C post harvest. A recent review (Blagodatskyaya and Kuzyakov, 2008) reported that the direction (positive, negative, neutral) of the priming effect may be dependent not only upon the energy content of the added substrate, but the quantity of C added relative to microbial biomass carbon (MBC). In this study we test this hypothesis using a lab-based incubation of soils collected from the surface (0-10 cm) and subsoil (35-50 cm) of an 80 year old red spruce forest. We added 10, 100 and 1000 % C (glucose) relative to MBC and measured the rate of decomposition (microbial respiration) every 5 h for the first week, every 24 h for the second week, weekly for a month and biweekly for two months. After flushing the headspace with CO2 free air, we measured the rate of microbial respiration and the δ13C of the respired C using a Multiflow prep system with a Gilson autosampler coupled to an Isoprime mass spectrometer. We used an isotope-mixing model to partition the sources of respired C and determine the direction of priming. Our findings suggest that the quantity of added C can affect the direction of priming and that the relative priming effect differs between depths, suggesting that soil organic carbon stores in the subsoil are more sensitive to labile C additions.

  11. Supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions of type IIB supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyojoong; Kim, Nakwoo; Suh, Minwoo

    2015-10-01

    We study the general requirement for supersymmetric AdS_6 solutions in type IIB supergravity. We employ the Killing spinor technique and study the differential and algebraic relations among various Killing spinor bilinears to find the canonical form of the solutions. Our result agrees precisely with the work of Apruzzi et al. (JHEP 1411:099, 2014), which used the pure spinor technique. Hoping to identify the geometry of the problem, we also computed four-dimensional theory through the dimensional reduction of type IIB supergravity on AdS_6. This effective action is essentially a non-linear sigma model with five scalar fields parametrizing {SL}(3,{R})/{SO}(2,1), modified by a scalar potential and coupled to Einstein gravity in Euclidean signature. We argue that the scalar potential can be explained by a subgroup CSO(1,1,1) subset {SL}(3,{R}) in a way analogous to gauged supergravity.

  12. Universal isolation in the AdS landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, U. H.; Dibitetto, G.; Vargas, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    We study the universal conditions for quantum nonperturbative stability against bubble nucleation for pertubatively stable AdS vacua based on positive energy theorems. We also compare our analysis with the preexisting ones in the literature carried out within the thin-wall approximation. The aforementioned criterion is then tested in two explicit examples describing massive type IIA string theory compactified on S3 and S3×S3, respectively. The AdS landscape of both classes of compactifications is known to consist of a set of isolated points. The main result is that all critical points respecting the Breitenlohner-Freedman (BF) bound also turn out be stable at a nonperturbative level. Finally, we speculate on the possible universal features that may be extracted from the above specific examples.

  13. Tachyon inflation in an AdS braneworld with backreaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilić, Neven; Dimitrijevic, Dragoljub D.; Djordjevic, Goran S.; Milosevic, Milan

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the inflationary scenario based on the tachyon field coupled with the radion of the second Randall-Sundrum model (RSII). The tachyon Lagrangian is derived from the dynamics of a 3-brane moving in the five-dimensional bulk. The AdS5 geometry of the bulk is extended to include the radion. Using the Hamiltonian formalism we find four nonlinear field equations supplemented by the modified Friedmann equations of the RSII braneworld cosmology. After a suitable rescaling we reduce the parameters of our model to only one free parameter related to the brane tension and the AdS5 curvature. We solve the equations numerically assuming a reasonably wide range of initial conditions determined by physical considerations. Varying the free parameter and initial conditions we confront our results with the Planck 2015 data.

  14. Ambitwistors, oscillators and massless fields on AdS5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uvarov, D. V.

    2016-11-01

    Positive energy unitary irreducible representations of SU (2 , 2) can be constructed with the aid of bosonic oscillators in (anti)fundamental representation of SU(2)L × SU(2)R that are closely related to Penrose twistors. Starting with the correspondence between the doubleton representations, homogeneous functions on projective twistor space and on-shell generalized Weyl curvature SL (2 , C) spinors and their low-spin counterparts, we study in the similar way the correspondence between the massless representations, homogeneous functions on ambitwistor space and, via the Penrose transform, with the gauge fields on Minkowski boundary of AdS5. The possibilities of reconstructing massless fields on AdS5 and some applications are also discussed.

  15. Generalised structures for N=1 AdS backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, André; Strickland-Constable, Charles

    2016-11-01

    We expand upon a claim made in a recent paper [arXiv:1411.5721] that generic minimally supersymmetric AdS backgrounds of warped flux compactifications of Type II and M theory can be understood as satisfying a straightforward weak integrability condition in the language of {E}_{d(d)}× {R}+ generalised geometry. Namely, they are spaces admitting a generalised G-structure set by the Killing spinor and with constant singlet generalised intrinsic torsion.

  16. 30 CFR 36.45 - Quantity of ventilating air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Test Requirements § 36.45 Quantity of ventilating air. (a) Results of the engine...

  17. Symmetries as by-products of conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Maltrana, Diego

    2015-11-01

    There is general consensus among physicists in considering symmetries as a source of conserved quantities, a conclusion allegedly supported by Emmy Noether's theorems. Recently it has been pointed out that no arrow of explanation can be extracted from Noether's work, and there are also criticisms against the priority of particular symmetries over specific conserved quantities under Noether's ideas, but there are no general arguments against the aforementioned consensus, nor proposals promoting an explanation that leads from conserved quantities to symmetries. In this paper a general argument is built which favours conserved quantities over symmetries inasmuch as the presence of the former seems to allow (i.e. it seems to be a sufficient condition leading to) symmetrical descriptions.

  18. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  19. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  20. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  1. 49 CFR 173.4a - Excepted quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ice), and lithium batteries and cells. (c) Inner packaging limits. The maximum quantity of hazardous..., threaded type cap. The closure must not react chemically with the material. (3) Each inner packaging...

  2. On information loss in AdS3/CFT2

    DOE PAGES

    Fitzpatrick, A. Liam; Kaplan, Jared; Li, Daliang; ...

    2016-05-18

    We discuss information loss from black hole physics in AdS3, focusing on two sharp signatures infecting CFT2 correlators at large central charge c: ‘forbidden singularities’ arising from Euclidean-time periodicity due to the effective Hawking temperature, and late-time exponential decay in the Lorentzian region. We study an infinite class of examples where forbidden singularities can be resolved by non-perturbative effects at finite c, and we show that the resolution has certain universal features that also apply in the general case. Analytically continuing to the Lorentzian regime, we find that the non-perturbative effects that resolve forbidden singularities qualitatively change the behavior ofmore » correlators at times t ~SBH, the black hole entropy. This may resolve the exponential decay of correlators at late times in black hole backgrounds. By Borel resumming the 1/c expansion of exact examples, we explicitly identify ‘information-restoring’ effects from heavy states that should correspond to classical solutions in AdS3. Lastly, our results suggest a line of inquiry towards a more precise formulation of the gravitational path integral in AdS3.« less

  3. Shock Wave Collisions and Thermalization in AdS_5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovchegov, Y. V.

    We study heavy ion collisions at strong 't Hooft coupling usingAdS/CFT correspondence. According to the AdS/CFT dictionary heavy ion collisions correspond to gravitational shock wave collisions in AdS_5. We construct the metric in the forward light cone after the collision perturbatively through expansion of Einstein equations in graviton exchanges. We obtain an analytic expression for the metric including all-order graviton exchanges with one shock wave, while keeping the exchanges with another shock wave at the lowest order. We read off the corresponding energy-momentum tensor of the produced medium. Unfortunately this energy-momentum tensor does not correspond to ideal hydrodynamics, indicating that higher order graviton exchanges are needed to construct the full solution of the problem. We also show that shock waves must completely stop almost immediately after the collision in AdS_5, which, on the field theory side, corresponds to complete nuclear stopping due to strong coupling effects, likely leading to Landau hydrodynamics. Finally, we perform trapped surface analysis of the shock wave collisions demonstrating that a bulk black hole, corresponding to ideal hydrodynamics on the boundary, has to be created in such collisions, thus constructing a proof of thermalization in heavy ion collisions at strong coupling.

  4. Principle of limitation of physical quantities and cyclic universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guozhu

    2008-05-01

    A close study of Heisenberg uncertainty principles reveals many significant facts, and all four major physical quantities, energy, time, momentum and length, have both lower and upper limits. Now, many questions come up. What are these limits? Some answers may lead to the understanding of the development of our universe. What is the shortest limit of time? At the beginning of big bang, there exists a tremendously short time, the Planck time. This may be just the shortest time limit in our universe. The longest time limit might be the lifetime of our universe. The longest length might be the final diameter of our expanding universe. All these lead to a finite universe. Two more coupling formulae are formed for the other two pairs of physical quantities, mass and speed, thermal energy and temperature. These four physical quantities must also have limits. We already knew that speed has upper limit and temperature has lower limit. By these two formulae, Planck and Einstein equations are derived directly. Since most other physical quantities are somewhat related to these major physical quantities, it seems that there exists a principle of limitation of physical quantities. A quantitative sketch of big bang is described. It also shows that our universe will contract back to another big bang. The principle of limitation opens up some fields of investigation. It may bring nature back to the harmony and determined world described by classical physics.

  5. The generalized added mass revised

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Wilde, Juray

    2007-05-01

    The reformulation of the generalized or apparent added mass presented by De Wilde [Phys. Fluids 17, 113304 (2005)] neglects the presence of a drag-type force in the gas and solid phase momentum equations. Reformulating the generalized added mass accounting for the presence of a drag-type force, an apparent drag force appears next to the apparent distribution of the filtered gas phase pressure gradient over the phases already found by De Wilde in the above-cited reference. The reformulation of the generalized added mass and the evaluation of a linear wave propagation speed test then suggest a generalized added mass type closure approach to completely describe filtered gas-solid momentum transfer, that is, including both the filtered drag force and the correlation between the solid volume fraction and the gas phase pressure gradient.

  6. AD-1 aircraft in flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The Ames-Dryden (AD)-1 was a research aircraft designed to investigate the concept of an oblique (or pivoting) wing. The movie clip runs about 17 seconds and has two air-to-air views of the AD-1. The first shot is from slightly above as the wing pivots to 60 degrees. The other angle is almost directly below the aircraft when the wing is fully pivoted.

  7. Information on Disposal Practices of Generators of Small Quantities of Hazardous Wastes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-28

    reviewed the States’ solid and hazardous waste regulations , policies, and procedures. We contacted solid or hazardous waste officials in 46 other States...exempts from hazardous waste regulations mixtures of domestic sewage and other wastes that pass through a sewer system to a publicly owned sewage...such wastes under hazardous waste regulations is necessary. An assistant to the EPA Assistant Administrator for Water said that EPA recognizes that a

  8. Automatic energy dispersive x-ray analyzer for defining the small quantities of chemical elements

    SciTech Connect

    Landman, K.; Antipov, A.; Veits, B.

    1993-12-31

    The results of analyzer development, which represents an analysing complex for high sensitive x-ray fluorescence analysis is presented. Results of research of detection limits of a wide range of elements is described.

  9. A DNA extraction method of small quantities of bone for high-quality genotyping.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Mariela; Irisarri, Maximiliano; Alechine, Evguenia; Corach, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    DNA genotyping techniques have been used successfully in forensic science for almost three decades and represent the gold standard for individual identification. However, efficient protocols for obtaining DNA from exhumed bones suitable for genotyping are still scarce and most of them require a considerable amount of starting material, are time consuming and are inefficient for reducing inhibitor's effects. We sought to develop an optimised protocol for extracting DNA from bone samples obtained from exhumations. We tested two approaches for preparing bone samples: (a) fine powder and (b) thin slices of bone. The best ratio of bone amount to DNA yields was assessed by a titration experiment using bone powder ranging from 50 to 1000mg. We obtained optimal DNA yields (27pg mg(-1) on average) when 150-200mg of starting material were processed using a one-step demineralisation method. Better-quality profiles (determined by the number of genotyped loci) were obtained when DNA was extracted from bone slices compared to extraction from bone powder. From bone slices 83.9% and from bone powder 46.7% of the samples provided genotypes for 11 or more loci. Since bone preparation procedures were carried out at room temperature, the method developed in the present study might be an attractive alternative to the standard freeze-mill approach, being faster and more cost-efficient.

  10. Improved adhesive strength and toughness of polyvinyl acetate glue on addition of small quantities of graphene.

    PubMed

    Khan, Umar; May, Peter; Porwal, Harshit; Nawaz, Khalid; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2013-02-01

    We have prepared composites of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) reinforced with solution exfoliated graphene. We observe a 50% increase in stiffness and a 100% increase in tensile strength on addition of 0.1 vol % graphene compared to the pristine polymer. As PVAc is commonly used commercially as a glue, we have tested such composites as adhesives. The adhesive strength and toughness of the composites were up to 4 and 7 times higher, respectively, than the pristine polymer.

  11. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Pai, R.Y.

    1985-08-13

    A technique is disclosed for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support. 6 figs.

  12. Method and apparatus for dispensing small quantities of mercury from evacuated and sealed glass capsules

    DOEpatents

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Pai, Robert Y.

    1985-01-01

    A technique for opening an evacuated and sealed glass capsule containing a material that is to be dispensed which has a relatively high vapor pressure such as mercury. The capsule is typically disposed in a discharge tube envelope. The technique involves the use of a first light source imaged along the capsule and a second light source imaged across the capsule substantially transversely to the imaging of the first light source. Means are provided for constraining a segment of the capsule along its length with the constraining means being positioned to correspond with the imaging of the second light source. These light sources are preferably incandescent projection lamps. The constraining means is preferably a multiple looped wire support.

  13. Report on the treatability study for inerting small quantities of radioactive explosives and explosive components

    SciTech Connect

    Loyola, V.M.; Reber, S.D.

    1996-02-01

    As a result of Sandia`s radiation hardening testing on a variety of its explosive components, radioactive waste streams were generated and have to be disposed of as radioactive waste. Due to the combined hazards of explosives and radioactivity, Sandia`s Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management organization did not have a mechanism for disposal of these waste streams. This report documents the study done to provide a method for the removal of the explosive hazard from those waste streams. The report includes the design of the equipment used, procedures followed, results from waste stream analog tests and the results from the actual explosive inerting tests on radioactive samples. As a result of the inerting treatment, the waste streams were rendered non-explosive and, thus, manageable through normal radioactive waste disposal channels.

  14. 49 CFR 173.4 - Small quantities for highway and rail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., Division 4.1, Division 4.2 (PG II and III), Division 4.3 (PG II and III), Division 5.1, Division 5.2, Division 6.1, Class 7, Class 8, and Class 9 materials that also meet the definition of one or more of these... authorized liquids, other than Division 6.1, Packing Group I, Hazard Zone A or B materials; (ii) Thirty...

  15. Small-quantity generator's handbook for managing RCRA (Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Pesticide application

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-06-01

    This RCRA Handbook was developed for pesticide applicators to provide assistance in complying with pertinent sections of the RCRA requirements. Section 2 summarizes operations of pesticide users and describes potential waste types that could be generated from these operations. Section 3 provides a guide for determining if a particular pesticide waste is subject to these regulations. Section 4 discusses the RCRA generator requirements, while Section 5 describes waste-management strategies for minimizing the amount of hazardous waste generated by the pesticide applicators. Appendix A lists hazardous wastes. Appendix B summarizes RCRA characteristic wastes. Appendix C contains a list of references and contacts for obtaining more information about hazardous wastes and their regulation.

  16. Photometric titration of small quantities of metals with ethylenediaminetetra-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Belcher, R; Crossland, B; Fennell, T R

    1969-09-01

    A commercially available photometric titration apparatus has been used for the determination ofAl, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Mg, Mn, Ni and Zn in the 4-20 mug range and of Hg in the 16-32 mug range. Pooled standard deviations (32 determinations) of between 0.09 and 0.15 mug were found for all the metals except Ba (0.20 mug) and Hg (0.44 mug, 24 determinations).

  17. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... batteries managed under the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart G; or (6) Is universal waste managed...: (A) Beneficially uses or reuses, or legitimately recycles or reclaims its waste; or (B) Treats its waste prior to beneficial use or reuse, or legitimate recycling or reclamation; or (vii) For...

  18. 40 CFR 261.5 - Special requirements for hazardous waste generated by conditionally exempt small quantity...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... batteries managed under the requirements of 40 CFR part 266, subpart G; or (6) Is universal waste managed...: (A) Beneficially uses or reuses, or legitimately recycles or reclaims its waste; or (B) Treats its waste prior to beneficial use or reuse, or legitimate recycling or reclamation; or (vii) For...

  19. Discrete quantity judgments in the great apes (Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes, Gorilla gorilla, Pongo pygmaeus): the effect of presenting whole sets versus item-by-item.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Daniel; Call, Josep

    2007-08-01

    The authors examined quantity-based judgments for up to 10 items for simultaneous and sequential whole sets as well as for sequentially dropped items in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), gorillas (Gorilla gorilla), bonobos (Pan paniscus), and orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus). In Experiment 1, subjects had to choose the larger of 2 quantities presented in 2 separate dishes either simultaneously or 1 dish after the other. Representatives of all species were capable of selecting the larger of 2 quantities in both conditions, even when the quantities were large and the numerical distance between them was small. In Experiment 2, subjects had to select between the same food quantities sequentially dropped into 2 opaque cups so that none of the quantities were ever viewed as a whole. The authors found some evidence (albeit weaker) that subjects were able to select the larger quantity of items. Furthermore, the authors found no performance breakdown with the inclusion of certain quantities. Instead, the ratio between quantities was the best performance predictor. The authors conclude that quantity-based judgments rely on an analogical system, not a discrete object file model or perceptual estimation mechanism, such as subitizing.

  20. Base-flow studies Nueces River, Texas quantity and quality, November 23-25, 1964

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, W.E.; Rohne, P.B.; Blakey, J.F.; Gilbert, Carter R.

    1965-01-01

    An investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey, under a cooperative agreement with the Texas Water Development Board, to determine the changes in quantity and chemical quality of the base flow of the Nueces River in a 52.2-mile reach beginning at U.S. Highway 90 and extending to the crossing of Farm Road 1025 north of Crystal City. Knowledge of the changes in quantity and chemical quality of base flow is necessary for any evaluation of the effectiveness of the river channel in conveying water released from potential upstream reservoirs. The investigation was made November 23-25, 1964, during a period when evaporation and transpiration were small and the discharge past the stream-gaging station, Nueces River below Uvalde, was constant. Floods of September 1964 contributed considerably to the recharge of the alluvium in the reach investigated, resulting in a higher than average base flow.

  1. Euclidean and Noetherian entropies in AdS space

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, Suvankar; Gopakumar, Rajesh

    2006-08-15

    We examine the Euclidean action approach, as well as that of Wald, to the entropy of black holes in asymptotically AdS spaces. From the point of view of holography these two approaches are somewhat complementary in spirit and it is not obvious why they should give the same answer in the presence of arbitrary higher derivative gravity corrections. For the case of the AdS{sub 5} Schwarzschild black hole, we explicitly study the leading correction to the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy in the presence of a variety of higher derivative corrections studied in the literature, including the Type IIB R{sup 4} term. We find a nontrivial agreement between the two approaches in every case. Finally, we give a general way of understanding the equivalence of these two approaches.

  2. New Features in ADS Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Di Milia, G.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) has been working hard on updating its services and interfaces to better support our community's research needs. ADS Labs is a new interface built on the old tried-and-true ADS Abstract Databases, so all of ADS's content is available through it. In this presentation we highlight the new features that have been developed in ADS Labs over the last year: new recommendations, metrics, a citation tool and enhanced fulltext search. ADS Labs has long been providing article-level recommendations based on keyword similarity, co-readership and co-citation analysis of its corpus. We have now introduced personal recommendations, which provide a list of articles to be considered based on a individual user's readership history. A new metrics interface provides a summary of the basic impact indicators for a list of records. These include the total and normalized number of papers, citations, reads, and downloads. Also included are some of the popular indices such as the h, g and i10 index. The citation helper tool allows one to submit a set of records and obtain a list of top 10 papers which cite and/or are cited by papers in the original list (but which are not in it). The process closely resembles the network approach of establishing "friends of friends" via an analysis of the citation network. The full-text search service now covers more than 2.5 million documents, including all the major astronomy journals, as well as physics journals published by Springer, Elsevier, the American Physical Society, the American Geophysical Union, and all of the arXiv eprints. The full-text search interface interface allows users and librarians to dig deep and find words or phrases in the body of the indexed articles. ADS Labs is available at http://adslabs.org

  3. Heavy quark potential from deformed AdS5 models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zi-qiang; Hou, De-fu; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we investigate the heavy quark potential in some holographic QCD models. The calculation relies on a modified renormalization scheme mentioned in a previous work of Albacete et al. After studying the heavy quark potential in Pirner-Galow model and Andreev-Zakharov model, we extend the discussion to a general deformed AdS5 case. It is shown that the obtained potential is negative definite for all quark-antiquark separations, differs from that using the usual renormalization scheme.

  4. The AdS central charge in string theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troost, Jan

    2011-11-01

    We evaluate the vacuum expectation value of the central charge operator in string theory in an AdS3 vacuum. Our calculation provides a rare non-zero one-point function on a spherical worldsheet. The evaluation involves the regularization both of a worldsheet ultraviolet divergence (associated to the infinite volume of the conformal Killing group), and a space-time infrared divergence (corresponding to the infinite volume of space-time). The two divergences conspire to give a finite result, which is the classical general relativity value for the central charge, corrected in bosonic string theory by an infinite series of tree level higher derivative terms.

  5. Internal structure of charged AdS black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharjee, Srijit; Sarkar, Sudipta; Virmani, Amitabh

    2016-06-01

    When an electrically charged black hole is perturbed, its inner horizon becomes a singularity, often referred to as the Poisson-Israel mass inflation singularity. Ori constructed a model of this phenomenon for asymptotically flat black holes, in which the metric can be determined explicitly in the mass inflation region. In this paper we implement the Ori model for charged AdS black holes. We find that the mass function inflates faster than the flat space case as the inner horizon is approached. Nevertheless, the mass inflation singularity is still a weak singularity: Although spacetime curvature becomes infinite, tidal distortions remain finite on physical objects attempting to cross it.

  6. 16 CFR 500.19 - Conversion of SI metric quantities to inch/pound quantities and inch/pound quantities to SI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... milliliter=0.033 814 0 fluid oz. 1 liquid pint=473.177 mL 1 liter=1.05669 liquid quart. =0.473 177 L 1 liter... g 1 milligram=0.000 035 274 0 oz. 1 pound=453.592 g =0.015 432 4 grain. =0.453 592 kg 1 gram=0.035... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion of SI metric quantities to...

  7. Trained Quantity Abilities in Horses (Equus caballus): A Preliminary Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Miletto Petrazzini, Maria Elena

    2014-01-01

    Once believed to be a human prerogative, the capacity to discriminate between quantities now has also been reported in several vertebrates. To date, only two studies investigated numerical abilities in horses (Equus caballus) but reported contrasting data. To assess whether horses can be trained to discriminate between quantities, I have set up a new experimental protocol using operant conditioning. One adult female was trained to discriminate between 1 and 4 (Test 1) in three different conditions: non-controlled continuous variables (numerical and continuous quantities that co-vary with number are simultaneously available), 50% controlled continuous variables (intermediate condition), and 100% controlled continuous variables (only numerical information available). The subject learned the discrimination in all conditions, showing the capacity to process numerical information. When presented with a higher numerical ratio (2 vs. 4, Test 2), the subject still discriminated between the quantities but its performance was statistically significant only in the non-controlled condition, suggesting that the subject used multiple cues in presence of a more difficult discrimination. On the whole, the results here reported encourage the use of this experimental protocol as a valid tool to investigate the capacity to process numerical and continuous quantities in horses in future research. PMID:25379278

  8. Processing ordinality and quantity: the case of developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rubinsten, Orly; Sury, Dana

    2011-01-01

    In contrast to quantity processing, up to date, the nature of ordinality has received little attention from researchers despite the fact that both quantity and ordinality are embodied in numerical information. Here we ask if there are two separate core systems that lie at the foundations of numerical cognition: (1) the traditionally and well accepted numerical magnitude system but also (2) core system for representing ordinal information. We report two novel experiments of ordinal processing that explored the relation between ordinal and numerical information processing in typically developing adults and adults with developmental dyscalculia (DD). Participants made "ordered" or "non-ordered" judgments about 3 groups of dots (non-symbolic numerical stimuli; in Experiment 1) and 3 numbers (symbolic task: Experiment 2). In contrast to previous findings and arguments about quantity deficit in DD participants, when quantity and ordinality are dissociated (as in the current tasks), DD participants exhibited a normal ratio effect in the non-symbolic ordinal task. They did not show, however, the ordinality effect. Ordinality effect in DD appeared only when area and density were randomized, but only in the descending direction. In the symbolic task, the ordinality effect was modulated by ratio and direction in both groups. These findings suggest that there might be two separate cognitive representations of ordinal and quantity information and that linguistic knowledge may facilitate estimation of ordinal information.

  9. Quantity analysis of micro-organisms in bottled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juan; Li, Xiangyong

    2008-12-01

    Water is necessary to human being and all kinds of animals and plants. In recently years, Bottled Water become the main drinking water whatever for families or for institutions. But most of them have no conception of the water's safety or quality. To have conceptions of the count and distributing of the microorganisms in bucket pure water, we use fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I to research the microorganisms (including virus) quantity in Bottled Water for six samples produced in different place. Analyzing shows that the quantity of the microorganisms in these water are different. Some up to 11.912×106 virus/ m L. The quality of Bottled Water needs to be improved. And the quantity of microorganisms in the water is different with different ways to keep the water. At the same time, it shows that fluorescent microscope counting stained with SYBR Green I method is simple and high sensitive to such low microorganisms quantity water sample. It can be used in the microorganisms dynamic quantity research in drinking water.

  10. Large quantity discrimination by North Island robins (Petroica longipes).

    PubMed

    Garland, Alexis; Low, Jason; Burns, Kevin C

    2012-11-01

    While numerosity-representation and enumeration of different numbers of objects-and quantity discrimination in particular have been studied in a wide range of species, very little is known about the numerical abilities of animals in the wild. This study examined spontaneous relative quantity judgments (RQJs) by wild North Island robins (Petroica longipes) of New Zealand. In Experiment 1, robins were tested on a range of numerical values of up to 14 versus 16 items, which were sequentially presented and hidden. In Experiment 2, the same numerical contrasts were tested on a different group of subjects but quantities were presented as whole visible sets. Experiment 3 involved whole visible sets that comprised of exceedingly large quantities of up to 56 versus 64 items. While robins shared with other species a ratio-based representation system for representing very large values, they also appeared to have developed an object indexing system with an extended upper limit (well beyond 4) that may be an evolutionary response to ecological challenges faced by scatter-hoarding birds. These results suggest that cognitive mechanism influencing an understanding of physical quantity may be deployed more flexibly in some contexts than previously thought, and are discussed in light of findings across other mammalian and avian species.

  11. Cost-effective advertising through TV and newspaper "banner" ads.

    PubMed

    Gombeski, William R; Taylor, Jan; Krauss, Katie; Medeiros, Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Banner ads, small strip ads in newspapers used to specifically promote an information piece, were introduced into one newspaper in the Connecticut market in 1999 by Yale-New Haven Hospital (YNHH). Based on their success, the concept was expanded to six additional newspapers in late 2000 and to TV in the summer of 2001. Between 2000-2002, even as the overall marketing/advertising budget declined 30%, switching advertising dollars from image/display ads to banner ads resulted in consumer awareness of YNHH increasing from 29% to 42%. Perception of YNHH as "the advanced medicine" hospital grew from 22% to 40% during the same period. The specific strategic and operational actions generated since the implementation of the program are detailed and the advantages and disadvantages of this banner advertising approach are discussed. Banner ads may offer an alternative approach for organizations to advertise their products and programs.

  12. Introducing ADS 2.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accomazzi, Alberto; Kurtz, M. J.; Henneken, E. A.; Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D.; Luker, J.; Chyla, R.; Murray, S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the Smithsonian/NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) first launched its bibliographic search system. It was known then as the ADS Abstract Service, a component of the larger Astrophysics Data System effort which had developed an interoperable data system now seen as a precursor of the Virtual Observatory. As a result of the massive technological and sociological changes in the field of scholarly communication, the ADS is now completing the most ambitious technological upgrade in its twenty-year history. Code-named ADS 2.0, the new system features: an IT platform built on web and digital library standards; a new, extensible, industrial strength search engine; a public API with various access control capabilities; a set of applications supporting search, export, visualization, analysis; a collaborative, open source development model; and enhanced indexing of content which includes the full-text of astronomy and physics publications. The changes in the ADS platform affect all aspects of the system and its operations, including: the process through which data and metadata are harvested, curated and indexed; the interface and paradigm used for searching the database; and the follow-up analysis capabilities available to the users. This poster describes the choices behind the technical overhaul of the system, the technology stack used, and the opportunities which the upgrade is providing us with, namely gains in productivity and enhancements in our system capabilities.

  13. Primordial fluctuations from complex AdS saddle points

    SciTech Connect

    Hertog, Thomas; Woerd, Ellen van der E-mail: ellen@itf.fys.kuleuven.be

    2016-02-01

    One proposal for dS/CFT is that the Hartle-Hawking (HH) wave function in the large volume limit is equal to the partition function of a Euclidean CFT deformed by various operators. All saddle points defining the semiclassical HH wave function in cosmology have a representation in which their interior geometry is part of a Euclidean AdS domain wall with complex matter fields. We compute the wave functions of scalar and tensor perturbations around homogeneous isotropic complex saddle points, turning on single scalar field matter only. We compare their predictions for the spectra of CMB perturbations with those of a different dS/CFT proposal based on the analytic continuation of inflationary universes to real asymptotically AdS domain walls. We find the predictions of both bulk calculations agree to first order in the slow roll parameters, but there is a difference at higher order which, we argue, is a signature of the HH state of the fluctuations.

  14. Conserved charges in timelike warped AdS3 spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donnay, L.; Fernández-Melgarejo, J. J.; Giribet, G.; Goya, A.; Lavia, E.

    2015-06-01

    We consider the timelike version of warped anti-de Sitter space (WAdS), which corresponds to the three-dimensional section of the Gödel solution of four-dimensional cosmological Einstein equations. This geometry presents closed timelike curves (CTCs), which are inherited from its four-dimensional embedding. In three dimensions, this type of solution can be supported without matter provided the graviton acquires mass. Here, among the different ways to consistently give mass to the graviton in three dimensions, we consider the parity-even model known as new massive gravity (NMG). In the bulk of timelike WAdS3 space, we introduce defects that, from the three-dimensional point of view, represent spinning massive particlelike objects. For this type of source, we investigate the definition of quasilocal gravitational energy as seen from infinity, far beyond the region where the CTCs appear. We also consider the covariant formalism applied to NMG to compute the mass and the angular momentum of spinning particlelike defects and compare the result with the one obtained by means of the quasilocal stress tensor. We apply these methods to special limits in which the WAdS3 solutions coincide with locally AdS3 and locally AdS2×R spaces. Finally, we make some comments about the asymptotic symmetry algebra of asymptotically WAdS3 spaces in NMG.

  15. AdS nonlinear instability: moving beyond spherical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, Óscar J. C.; Santos, Jorge E.

    2016-12-01

    Anti-de Sitter (AdS) is conjectured to be nonlinear unstable to a weakly turbulent mechanism that develops a cascade towards high frequencies, leading to black hole formation (Dafermos and Holzegel 2006 Seminar at DAMTP (University of Cambridge) available at https://dpmms.cam.ac.uk/~md384/ADSinstability.pdf, Bizon and Rostworowski 2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 031102). We give evidence that the gravitational sector of perturbations behaves differently from the scalar one studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. In contrast with Bizon and Rostworowski, we find that not all gravitational normal modes of AdS can be nonlinearly extended into periodic horizonless smooth solutions of the Einstein equation. In particular, we show that even seeds with a single normal mode can develop secular resonances, unlike the spherically symmetric scalar field collapse studied by Bizon and Rostworowski. Moreover, if the seed has two normal modes, more than one resonance can be generated at third order, unlike the spherical collapse of Bizon and Rostworowski. We also show that weak turbulent perturbative theory predicts the existence of direct and inverse cascades, with the former dominating the latter for equal energy two-mode seeds.

  16. Difference in quantity discrimination in dogs and wolves

    PubMed Central

    Range, Friederike; Jenikejew, Julia; Schröder, Isabelle; Virányi, Zsófia

    2014-01-01

    Certain aspects of social life, such as engaging in intergroup conflicts, as well as challenges posed by the physical environment, may facilitate the evolution of quantity discrimination. In lack of excessive comparative data, one can only hypothesize about its evolutionary origins, but human-raised wolves performed well when they had to choose the larger of two sets of 1–4 food items that had been sequentially placed into two opaque cans. Since in such paradigms, the animals never see the entire content of either can, their decisions are thought to rely on mental representation of the two quantities rather than on some perceptual factors such as the overall volume or surface area of the two amounts. By equaling the time that it takes to enter each quantity into the cans or the number of items entered, one can further rule out the possibility that animals simply choose based on the amount of time needed to present the two quantities. While the wolves performed well even in such a control condition, dogs failed to choose the larger one of two invisible quantities in another study using a similar paradigm. Because this disparity could be explained by procedural differences, in the current study, we set out to test dogs that were raised and kept identically as the previously tested wolves using the same set-up and procedure. Our results confirm the former finding that dogs, in comparison to wolves, have inferior skills to represent quantities mentally. This seems to be in line with Frank’s (1980) hypothesis suggesting that domestication altered the information processing of dogs. However, as discussed, also alternative explanations may exist. PMID:25477834

  17. Partial molar quantity of an intensive mother function.

    PubMed

    Koga, Yoshikata

    2012-09-28

    A new formal definition is given to the partial molar quantity of a component i for an intensive mother function. We perturb the entire system by increasing the amount of the target component by δn(i) keeping others constant and measure the response of the system in terms of an intensive mother function, Φ, δΦ. We then define its partial molar quantity of the ith component, φ(i), as φ(i) = [δΦ∕{δn(i)∕(N + δn(i))

  18. Conserved Charges in Asymptotically (Locally) AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marolf, Donald; Kelly, William; Fischetti, Sebastian

    When a physical system is complicated and nonlinear, global symmetries and the associated conserved quantities provide some of the most powerful analytic tools to understand its behavior. This is as true in theories with a dynamical spacetime metric as for systems defined on a fixed spacetime background. Chapter 17, 10.1007/978-3-642-41992-8_17 has already discussed the so-called Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) conserved quantities for asymptotically flat dynamical spacetimes, exploring in detail certain subtleties related to diffeomorphism invariance. In particular, it showed that the correct notion of global symmetry is given by the so-called asymptotic symmetries; equivalence classes of diffeomorphisms with the same asymptotic behavior at infinity. It was also noted that the notion of asymptotic symmetry depends critically on the choice of boundary conditions. Indeed, it is the imposition of boundary conditions that causes the true gauge symmetries to be only a subset of the full diffeomorphism group and thus allows the existence of nontrivial asymptotic symmetries at all.

  19. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  20. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  1. Courtship American Style: Newspaper Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine; And Others

    1977-01-01

    This study investigated an increasing social phenomenon--newspaper advertising for dating or marital partners--in terms of the bargaining process involved. Content analysis of personal ads in a popular "respectable" singles newspaper revealed a pattern of offers and requests reminiscent of a heterosexual stock market. (Author)

  2. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es

    2014-01-01

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  3. Quantum compositeness of gravity: black holes, AdS and inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Dvali, Gia; Gomez, Cesar

    2014-01-14

    Gravitational backgrounds, such as black holes, AdS, de Sitter and inflationary universes, should be viewed as composite of N soft constituent gravitons. It then follows that such systems are close to quantum criticality of graviton Bose-gas to Bose-liquid transition. Generic properties of the ordinary metric description, including geodesic motion or particle-creation in the background metric, emerge as the large-N limit of quantum scattering of constituent longitudinal gravitons. We show that this picture correctly accounts for physics of large and small black holes in AdS, as well as reproduces well-known inflationary predictions for cosmological parameters. However, it anticipates new effects not captured by the standard semi-classical treatment. In particular, we predict observable corrections that are sensitive to the inflationary history way beyond last 60 e-foldings. We derive an absolute upper bound on the number of e-foldings, beyond which neither de Sitter nor inflationary Universe can be approximated by a semi-classical metric. However, they could in principle persist in a new type of quantum eternity state. We discuss implications of this phenomenon for the cosmological constant problem.

  4. Simple statistical explanation for the localization of energy in nonlinear lattices with two conserved quantities.

    PubMed

    Rumpf, Benno

    2004-01-01

    The localization of energy in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation is explained with statistical methods. The partition function and the entropy of the system are computed for low-amplitude initial conditions. Detailed predictions for the long-time solution are derived. Localized high-amplitude excitations absorb a surplus of energy when they emerge as a by-product of the production of entropy in the small fluctuations. The thermodynamic interpretation of this process applies to many dynamical systems with two conserved quantities.

  5. 16 CFR 300.28 - Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undetermined quantities of reclaimed fibers. 300.28 Section 300.28 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.28...

  6. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  7. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  8. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.53 Testing of minimal quantities. (a) Aflatoxin. Handlers who... following methods for testing for aflatoxin: (1) The handler may have an inspector sample and test his or her entire inventory of hulled and dried pistachios for the aflatoxin certification before...

  9. 49 CFR 172.315 - Packages containing limited quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Packages containing limited quantities. 172.315 Section 172.315 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  10. Plotting Rates of Photosynthesis as a Function of Light Quantity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Rob L.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses methods for plotting rates of photosynthesis as a function of light quantity. Presents evidence that suggests that empirically derived conversion factors, which are used to convert foot candles to photon fluence rates, should be used with extreme caution. Suggests how rate data are best plotted when any kind of light meter is not…

  11. Quantity, Quality, and Satisfaction with Mentoring: What Matters Most?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Xiaohong; Payne, Stephanie C.

    2014-01-01

    According to Kram's mentor role theory, satisfaction with mentoring and mentorship quality are key indicators of effective and successful mentoring. We contribute to mentoring research by demonstrating the relative importance of mentorship quantity, mentorship quality, and satisfaction with mentoring to the prediction of job satisfaction,…

  12. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  13. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  14. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  15. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  16. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  17. 26 CFR 50.6 - Ascertainment of quantity mined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EXCISE TAXES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS RELATING TO THE TAX IMPOSED WITH RESPECT TO CERTAIN HYDRAULIC MINING § 50.6 Ascertainment of quantity mined. Each person engaged in hydraulic mining operations within the... hydraulic mining operations are conducted for the purpose of determining the cubic yardage mined from...

  18. The Influence of Reasoning with Emergent Quantities on Students' Generalizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Amy B.

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the mathematical generalizations of two groups of algebra students, one which focused primarily on quantitative relationships, and one which focused primarily on number patterns disconnected from quantities. Results indicate that instruction encouraging a focus on number patterns supported generalizations about patterns,…

  19. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause in solicitations and contracts when a fixed-price construction contract is contemplated that authorizes a...

  20. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  1. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  2. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  3. 7 CFR 945.54 - Minimum quantity exemption.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Minimum quantity exemption. 945.54 Section 945.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE IRISH POTATOES GROWN IN...

  4. 43 CFR 3430.1-2 - Commercial quantities defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commercial quantities defined. 3430.1-2 Section 3430.1-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND... sale of the coal shall exceed the cost of developing the mine and extracting, removing,...

  5. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing of minimal quantities. 983.53 Section 983.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  6. 7 CFR 983.53 - Testing of minimal quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Testing of minimal quantities. 983.53 Section 983.53 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PISTACHIOS GROWN IN...

  7. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... based upon any increase or decrease in costs due solely to the variation above 115 percent or below 85... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Variation in Estimated....211-18 Variation in Estimated Quantity. As prescribed in 11.703(c), insert the following clause...

  8. The Effects of Meal Schedule and Quantity on Problematic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wacker, David P.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Two case examples (a toddler with severe developmental delays and a 7-year old with severe mental retardation) illustrating effects of meal schedule and food quantity on displays of problematic behavior are offered. Brief functional analyses of aberrant behavior provided useful information for interpreting distinct patterns of behavior. (DB)

  9. 48 CFR 852.216-70 - Estimated quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Estimated quantities. 852.216-70 Section 852.216-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses...

  10. 48 CFR 52.211-17 - Delivery of Excess Quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Delivery of Excess Quantities. 52.211-17 Section 52.211-17 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  11. 48 CFR 52.211-18 - Variation in Estimated Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Variation in Estimated Quantity. 52.211-18 Section 52.211-18 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  12. 48 CFR 52.211-16 - Variation in Quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Variation in Quantity. 52.211-16 Section 52.211-16 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses...

  13. CSM programs SM RCS propellant quantity gaging systems program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, G. R.; Reynolds, R. G.

    1971-01-01

    Computer program calculates actual and useable remaining propellant quantities as required in positive expulsion rocket engine propellant feed system. Program establishes relationship between helium system pressures and temperatures and propellant weight remaining in tanks. Program is written in FORTRAN 4 for IBM-360 computer.

  14. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  15. Approximate quantities and exact number words: dissociable systems.

    PubMed

    Lemer, Cathy; Dehaene, Stanislas; Spelke, Elizabeth; Cohen, Laurent

    2003-01-01

    Numerical abilities are thought to rest on the integration of two distinct systems, a verbal system of number words and a non-symbolic representation of approximate quantities. This view has lead to the classification of acalculias into two broad categories depending on whether the deficit affects the verbal or the quantity system. Here, we test the association of deficits predicted by this theory, and particularly the presence or absence of impairments in non-symbolic quantity processing. We describe two acalculic patients, one with a focal lesion of the left parietal lobe and Gerstmann's syndrome and another with semantic dementia with predominantly left temporal hypometabolism. As predicted by a quantity deficit, the first patient was more impaired in subtraction than in multiplication, showed a severe slowness in approximation, and exhibited associated impairments in subitizing and numerical comparison tasks, both with Arabic digits and with arrays of dots. As predicted by a verbal deficit, the second patient was more impaired in multiplication than in subtraction, had intact approximation abilities, and showed preserved processing of non-symbolic numerosities.

  16. Children's Multiplicative Transformations of Discrete and Continuous Quantities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barth, Hilary; Baron, Andrew; Spelke, Elizabeth; Carey, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies have documented an evolutionarily primitive, early emerging cognitive system for the mental representation of numerical quantity (the analog magnitude system). Studies with nonhuman primates, human infants, and preschoolers have shown this system to support computations of numerical ordering, addition, and subtraction involving…

  17. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  18. 46 CFR 108.433 - Quantity of CO2: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quantity of CO2: General. 108.433 Section 108.433 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide Fire Extinguishing Systems §...

  19. Unraveling water quality and quantity effects of biofuels production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Developing a sustainable biofuels industry is crucial for several reasons, but what impact will it have on soil water quantity and quality? This popular press article for ISU alumni, teachers, middle/high school students and others is written to help them understand the complexity of this seemingly ...

  20. Mapping among Number Words, Numerals, and Nonsymbolic Quantities in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Michelle; Anderson, Ursula; Cordes, Sara

    2017-01-01

    In mathematically literate societies, numerical information is represented in 3 distinct codes: a verbal code (i.e., number words); a digital, symbolic code (e.g., Arabic numerals); and an analogical code (i.e., quantities; Dehaene, 1992). To communicate effectively using these numerical codes, our understanding of number must involve an…

  1. How Do Our Actions Affect Water Quantity and Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Water is an essential resource for all living things. How we live on our watershed can impact water quantity and quality. It is important to recognize how humans alter watershed dynamics, but students often find it challenging to visualize watershed processes and understand how decisions that they make as individuals and together as a community…

  2. 9 CFR 381.121 - Quantity of contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Quantity of contents. 381.121 Section 381.121 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... separated, from other label information appearing to the left or right of the statement, by a space at...

  3. Quantity Judgments and Individuation: Evidence that Mass Nouns Count

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments explored the semantics of the mass-count distinction in young children and adults. In Experiments 1 and 2, the quantity judgments of participants provided evidence that some mass nouns refer to individuals, as such. Participants judged one large portion of stuff to be ''more'' than three tiny portions for substance-mass nouns…

  4. Narrative Speech in Aging: Quantity, Information Content, and Cohesion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juncos-Rabadan, Onesimo; Pereiro, Arturo X.; Rodriguez, Maria Soledad

    2005-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in narrative speech of 79 adults aged 40-91 who told stories from their pictorial representations. Quantity, information content and cohesion of narratives were analysed using a detailed transcription and codification system. We carried out a LISREL analysis to study relationships between narrative…

  5. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.409... comparing export price or constructed export price with normal value, the Secretary will make a reasonable... section 773(a)(6)(C)(i) of the Act.) (b) Sales with quantity discounts in calculating normal value....

  6. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  7. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  8. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  9. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  10. 48 CFR 916.504 - Indefinite-quantity contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Indefinite-quantity contracts. 916.504 Section 916.504 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Indefinite-Delivery Contracts 916.504...

  11. Quantity Recognition among Speakers of an Anumeric Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Caleb; Madora, Keren

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has suggested that the Piraha, an Amazonian tribe with a number-less language, are able to match quantities greater than 3 if the matching task does not require recall or spatial transposition. This finding contravenes previous work among the Piraha. In this study, we re-tested the Pirahas' performance in the crucial one-to-one…

  12. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  13. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  14. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  15. 48 CFR 14.212 - Economic purchase quantities (supplies).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Economic purchase... REGULATION CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SEALED BIDDING Solicitation of Bids 14.212 Economic purchase quantities (supplies). Contracting officers shall comply with the economic purchase...

  16. Can the Lorenz-Gauge Potentials Be Considered Physical Quantities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heras, Jose A.; Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo

    2010-01-01

    Two results support the idea that the scalar and vector potentials in the Lorenz gauge can be considered to be physical quantities: (i) they separately satisfy the properties of causality and propagation at the speed of light and do not imply spurious terms and (ii) they can naturally be written in a manifestly covariant form. In this paper we…

  17. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  18. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  19. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  20. 14 CFR 25.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 25.1553 Section 25.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1553 - Fuel quantity indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel quantity indicator. 29.1553 Section 29.1553 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Operating Limitations and Information Markings...

  2. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  3. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  4. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  5. 19 CFR 351.409 - Differences in quantities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Differences in quantities. 351.409 Section 351.409 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING... relevant country; or (2) The exporter or producer demonstrates to the Secretary's satisfaction that...

  6. 21 CFR 1314.20 - Restrictions on sales quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions on sales quantity. 1314.20 Section 1314.20 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RETAIL SALE OF SCHEDULED... single calendar day sell any purchaser more than 3.6 grams of ephedrine base, 3.6 grams...

  7. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  8. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  9. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  10. 7 CFR 760.1307 - Dairy operation payment quantity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Dairy operation payment quantity. 760.1307 Section 760.1307 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDEMNITY PAYMENT PROGRAMS Dairy Economic Loss Assistance...

  11. 7 CFR 61.102 - Determination of quantity index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of quantity index. 61.102 Section 61.102 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER...

  12. Predictors of Sleep Quantity and Quality in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas sleep is often thought of as a common health issue among college students, few, if any, researchers have comprehensively evaluated correlates and predictors of sleep quality and quantity within this population. Most often, studies of this type are used by researchers to assess particular categories of correlates and predictors (e.g.,…

  13. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  14. Determination of the Composition and Quantity of Phthalate Ester Additives in PVC Children's Toys. Greenpeace Research Laboratories Technical Note 06/97.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Ruth; Labounskaia, Irina; Santillo, David; Johnston, Paul; Siddorn, John; Stephenson, Angela

    Polyvinyl chloride (vinyl or PVC) is widely used in toys and other children's products. This study, conducted by Greenpeace, examined the composition and quantity of phthalate ester additives in children's PVC toys, used to give the toys added flexibility. Drawn from 17 countries, a total of 71 toys designed to be chewed by babies and young…

  15. An investigation of AdS2 backreaction and holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelsöy, Julius; Mertens, Thomas G.; Verlinde, Herman

    2016-07-01

    We investigate a dilaton gravity model in AdS2 proposed by Almheiri and Polchinski [1] and develop a 1d effective description in terms of a dynamical boundary time with a Schwarzian derivative action. We show that the effective model is equivalent to a 1d version of Liouville theory, and investigate its dynamics and symmetries via a standard canonical framework. We include the coupling to arbitrary conformal matter and analyze the effective action in the presence of possible sources. We compute commutators of local operators at large time separation, and match the result with the time shift due to a gravitational shockwave interaction. We study a black hole evaporation process and comment on the role of entropy in this model.

  16. Supersymmetry Properties of AdS Supergravity Backgrounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Samuel; Gutowski, Jan; Papadopoulos, George

    2017-01-01

    Anti-de Sitter supergravity backgrounds are of particular interest in light of the AdS/CFT correspondence, which relates them to dual conformal field theories on the boundary of the anti-de Sitter space. We have investigated the forms of the supersymmetries these backgrounds preserve by solving the Killing spinor equations on the anti-de Sitter components of these spaces. We have found that a supersymmetric AdSn background necessarily preserves 2⌊n/2⌋ k supersymmetries for n <= 4 and 2 ⌊n/2 ⌋ + 1 k supersymmetries for 4 < n <= 7 , k ∈N> 0 . Additionally, we have found that the Killing spinors of each background are exactly the zeroes of a Dirac-like operator constructed from the Killing spinor equations.

  17. The Massive Wave Equation in Asymptotically AdS Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warnick, C. M.

    2013-07-01

    We consider the massive wave equation on asymptotically AdS spaces. We show that the timelike F behaves like a finite timelike boundary, on which one may impose the equivalent of Dirichlet, Neumann or Robin conditions for a range of (negative) mass parameter which includes the conformally coupled case. We demonstrate well posedness for the associated initial-boundary value problems at the H 1 level of regularity. We also prove that higher regularity may be obtained, together with an asymptotic expansion for the field near F. The proofs rely on energy methods, tailored to the modified energy introduced by Breitenlohner and Freedman. We do not assume the spacetime is stationary, nor that the wave equation separates.

  18. On jordanian deformations of AdS5 and supergravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoare, Ben; van Tongeren, Stijn J.

    2016-10-01

    We consider various homogeneous Yang-Baxter deformations of the {{AdS}}5× {{{S}}}5 superstring that can be obtained from the η-deformed superstring and related models by singular boosts. The jordanian deformations we obtain in this way behave similarly to the η-deformed model with regard to supergravity: T dualizing the classical sigma model it is possible to find corresponding solutions of supergravity, which, however, have dilatons that prevent T dualizing back. Hence the backgrounds of these jordanian deformations are not solutions of supergravity. Still, they do satisfy a set of recently found modified supergravity equations which implies that the corresponding sigma models are scale invariant. The abelian models that we obtain by singular boosts do directly correspond to solutions of supergravity. In addition to our main results we consider contraction limits of our main example, which do correspond to supergravity solutions.

  19. Aspects of warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Bin; Zhang, Jia-Ju; Zhang, Jian-Dong; Zhong, De-Liang

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we apply the thermodynamics method to investigate the holographic pictures for the BTZ black hole, the spacelike and the null warped black holes in three-dimensional topologically massive gravity (TMG) and new massive gravity (NMG). Even though there are higher derivative terms in these theories, the thermodynamics method is still effective. It gives consistent results with the ones obtained by using asymptotical symmetry group (ASG) analysis. In doing the ASG analysis we develop a brute-force realization of the Barnich-Brandt-Compere formalism with Mathematica code, which also allows us to calculate the masses and the angular momenta of the black holes. In particular, we propose the warped AdS3/CFT2 correspondence in the new massive gravity, which states that quantum gravity in the warped spacetime could holographically dual to a two-dimensional CFT with {c_R}={c_L}=24 /{Gm{β^2√{{2( {21-4{β^2}} )}}}}.

  20. Systematics of Coupling Flows in AdS Backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Goldberger, Walter D.; Rothstein, Ira Z.

    2003-03-18

    We give an effective field theory derivation, based on the running of Planck brane gauge correlators, of the large logarithms that arise in the predictions for low energy gauge couplings in compactified AdS}_5 backgrounds, including the one-loop effects of bulk scalars, fermions, and gauge bosons. In contrast to the case of charged scalars coupled to Abelian gauge fields that has been considered previously in the literature, the one-loop corrections are not dominated by a single 4D Kaluza-Klein mode. Nevertheless, in the case of gauge field loops, the amplitudes can be reorganized into a leading logarithmic contribution that is identical to the running in 4D non-Abelian gauge theory, and a term which is not logarithmically enhanced and is analogous to a two-loop effect in 4D. In a warped GUT model broken by the Higgs mechanism in the bulk,we show that the matching scale that appears in the large logarithms induced by the non-Abelian gauge fields is m_{XY}^2/k where m_{XY} is the bulk mass of the XY bosons and k is the AdS curvature. This is in contrast to the UV scale in the logarithmic contributions of scalars, which is simply the bulk mass m. Our results are summarized in a set of simple rules that can be applied to compute the leading logarithmic predictions for coupling constant relations within a given warped GUT model. We present results for both bulk Higgs and boundary breaking of the GUT gauge

  1. Variation of organic matter quantity and quality in streams at Critical Zone Observatory watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Matthew P.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; McKnight, Diane M.; Brown, Michael G.; Gabor, Rachel S.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Iavorivska , Lidiia; Inamdar, Shreeram; Kaplan, Louis A.; Johnson, Dale W.; Lin, Henry; McDowell, William H.; Perdrial, Julia N.

    2016-01-01

    The quantity and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters influence ecosystem processes and anthropogenic use of freshwater. However, despite the importance of understanding spatial and temporal patterns in DOM, measures of DOM quality are not routinely included as part of large-scale ecosystem monitoring programs and variations in analytical procedures can introduce artifacts. In this study, we used consistent sampling and analytical methods to meet the objective of defining variability in DOM quantity and quality and other measures of water quality in streamflow issuing from small forested watersheds located within five Critical Zone Observatory sites representing contrasting environmental conditions. Results show distinct separations among sites as a function of water quality constituents. Relationships among rates of atmospheric deposition, water quality conditions, and stream DOM quantity and quality are consistent with the notion that areas with relatively high rates of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition and high concentrations of divalent cations result in selective transport of DOM derived from microbial sources, including in-stream microbial phototrophs. We suggest that the critical zone as a whole strongly influences the origin, composition, and fate of DOM in streams. This study highlights the value of consistent DOM characterization methods included as part of long-term monitoring programs for improving our understanding of interactions among ecosystem processes as controls on DOM biogeochemistry.

  2. Variation of organic matter quantity and quality in streams at Critical Zone Observatory watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Matthew P.; Boyer, Elizabeth W.; McKnight, Diane M.; Brown, Michael G.; Gabor, Rachel S.; Hunsaker, Carolyn T.; Iavorivska, Lidiia; Inamdar, Shreeram; Johnson, Dale W.; Kaplan, Louis A.; Lin, Henry; McDowell, William H.; Perdrial, Julia N.

    2016-10-01

    The quantity and chemical composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in surface waters influence ecosystem processes and anthropogenic use of freshwater. However, despite the importance of understanding spatial and temporal patterns in DOM, measures of DOM quality are not routinely included as part of large-scale ecosystem monitoring programs and variations in analytical procedures can introduce artifacts. In this study, we used consistent sampling and analytical methods to meet the objective of defining variability in DOM quantity and quality and other measures of water quality in streamflow issuing from small forested watersheds located within five Critical Zone Observatory sites representing contrasting environmental conditions. Results show distinct separations among sites as a function of water quality constituents. Relationships among rates of atmospheric deposition, water quality conditions, and stream DOM quantity and quality are consistent with the notion that areas with relatively high rates of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition and high concentrations of divalent cations result in selective transport of DOM derived from microbial sources, including in-stream microbial phototrophs. We suggest that the critical zone as a whole strongly influences the origin, composition, and fate of DOM in streams. This study highlights the value of consistent DOM characterization methods included as part of long-term monitoring programs for improving our understanding of interactions among ecosystem processes as controls on DOM biogeochemistry.

  3. Holography beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry?

    SciTech Connect

    Barvinsky, A. O.

    2015-03-15

    We suggest that the principle of holographic duality be extended beyond conformal invariance and AdS isometry. Such an extension is based on a special relation between functional determinants of the operators acting in the bulk and on its boundary, provided that the boundary operator represents the inverse propagators of the theory induced on the boundary by the Dirichlet boundary value problem in the bulk spacetime. This relation holds for operators of a general spin-tensor structure on generic manifolds with boundaries irrespective of their background geometry and conformal invariance, and it apparently underlies numerous O(N{sup 0}) tests of the AdS/CFT correspondence, based on direct calculation of the bulk and boundary partition functions, Casimir energies, and conformal anomalies. The generalized holographic duality is discussed within the concept of the “double-trace” deformation of the boundary theory, which is responsible in the case of large-N CFT coupled to the tower of higher-spin gauge fields for the renormalization group flow between infrared and ultraviolet fixed points. Potential extension of this method beyond the one-loop order is also briefly discussed.

  4. Daily Quantity of Infant Leg Movement: Wearable Sensor Algorithm and Relationship to Walking Onset

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Beth A.; Trujillo-Priego, Ivan A.; Lane, Christianne J.; Finley, James M.; Horak, Fay B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Normative values are lacking for daily quantity of infant leg movements. This is critical for understanding the relationship between the quantity of leg movements and onset of independent walking, and will begin to inform early therapy intervention for infants at risk for developmental delay. Methods: We used wearable inertial movement sensors to record full-day leg movement activity from 12 infants with typical development, ages 1–12 months. Each infant was tested three times across 5 months, and followed until the onset of independent walking. We developed and validated an algorithm to identify infant-produced leg movements. Results: Infants moved their legs tens of thousands of times per day. There was a significant effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset. Infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less, even when adjusting for age, developmental level or percentile length. We will need a much larger sample to adequately capture and describe the effect of movement experience on developmental rate. Our algorithm defines a leg movement in a specific way (each pause or change in direction is counted as a new movement), and further assessment of movement characteristics are necessary before we can fully understand and interpret our finding that infants who moved their legs more walked later than infants who moved their legs less. Conclusions: We have shown that typically-developing infants produce thousands of leg movements in a typical day, and that this can be accurately captured in the home environment using wearable sensors. In our small sample we can identify there is an effect of leg movement quantity on walking onset, however we cannot fully explain it. PMID:26247951

  5. Quantum Physics and Mathematical Debates Concerning the Problem of the Ontological Priority between Continuous Quantity and Discrete Quantity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pin, Victor Gómez

    In his book about the Categories (that is about the ultimate elements of classification and order), in the chapter concerning the quantity (IV, 20) Aristotle says that this concept recovers two kinds of modalities: the discrete quantity and the continuous quantity and he gives as examples the number for the first one; line, surface, solid, times and space for the second one. The main philosophical problem raised by this text is to determine which of the two modalities of the quantity has the ontological priority over the other (given two concepts A and B, we assume that A has ontological priority over B if every entity that possesses the quality B possesses necessarily the quality A). The problem is magnified by the fact that space, which in some part of Aristotle's Physics is mentioned not only as a category properly speaking but even as the main category whose power can be amazing, is in the evoked text of the Categories's Book reduced to expression of the continuum, and sharing this condition with time. In this matter the controversy is constant through the common history of Science and Philosophy.

  6. Research and development of improved efficiency small steam turbines (IESST). Technical progress report, Phase I, 16 April-31 December 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Choate, D.M.; Tuttle, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    Product Statistical Bulletins of the National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) and Turbodyne's shipment records over a 10-y period were researched to determine quantities installed and to define general parameters of design. Engineering studies were conducted to determine the optimum turbine design to meet the defined design parameters. Two conceptual designs plus an added variation of one design were completed together with designs of gearing required to provide speeds compatible with driven equipment speeds. The calculated performance of the recommended design and currently available small steam turbines were compared and a life cycle cost analysis was conducted to determine the economic competitiveness of the new design.

  7. Amending greenroof soil with biochar to affect runoff water quantity and quality.

    PubMed

    Beck, Deborah A; Johnson, Gwynn R; Spolek, Graig A

    2011-01-01

    Numbers of greenroofs in urban areas continue to grow internationally; so designing greenroof soil to reduce the amount of nutrients in the stormwater runoff from these roofs is becoming essential. This study evaluated changes in extensive greenroof water discharge quality and quantity after adding biochar, a soil amendment promoted for its ability to retain nutrients in soils and increase soil fertility. Prototype greenroof trays with and without biochar were planted with sedum or ryegrass, with barren soil trays used as controls. The greenroof trays were subjected to two sequential 7.4cm/h rainfall events using a rain simulator. Runoff from the rain events was collected and evaluated. Trays containing 7% biochar showed increased water retention and significant decreases in discharge of total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrate, phosphate, and organic carbon. The addition of biochar to greenroof soil improves both runoff water quality and retention.

  8. Rotating thin shells in (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetimes: Mechanical properties, machian effects, and energy conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemos, José P. S.; Lopes, Francisco J.; Minamitsuji, Masato

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a rotating thin shell in a (2 + 1)-dimensional asymptotically AdS spacetime is studied. The spacetime exterior to the shell is the rotating BTZ spacetime and the interior is the empty spacetime with a cosmological constant. Through the Einstein equation in (2 + 1) dimensions and the corresponding junction conditions we calculate the dynamical relevant quantities, namely, the rest energy-density, the pressure, and the angular momentum flux density. We also analyze the matter in a frame where its energy-momentum tensor has a perfect fluid form. In addition, we show that Machian effects, such as the dragging of inertial frames, also occur in rotating (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetimes. The weak and the dominant energy condition for these shells are discussed.

  9. Quantity discounts on a virtual good: The results of a massive pricing experiment at King Digital Entertainment

    PubMed Central

    Levitt, Steven D.; List, John A.; Neckermann, Susanne; Nelson, David

    2016-01-01

    We report on a natural field experiment on quantity discounts involving more than 14 million consumers. Implementing price reductions ranging from 9–70% for large purchases, we found remarkably little impact on revenue, either positively or negatively. There was virtually no increase in the quantity of customers making a purchase; all the observed changes occurred for customers who already were buyers. We found evidence that infrequent purchasers are more responsive to discounts than frequent purchasers. There was some evidence of habit formation when prices returned to pre-experiment levels. There also was some evidence that consumers contemplating small purchases are discouraged by the presence of extreme quantity discounts for large purchases. PMID:27382146

  10. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  11. Scattering States in AdS/CFT

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzpatrick, A.Liam; Kaplan, Jared; /SLAC

    2012-02-14

    We show that suitably regulated multi-trace primary states in large N CFTs behave like 'in' and 'out' scattering states in the flat-space limit of AdS. Their transition matrix elements approach the exact scattering amplitudes for the bulk theory, providing a natural CFT definition of the flat space S-Matrix. We study corrections resulting from the AdS curvature and particle propagation far from the center of AdS, and show that AdS simply provides an IR regulator that disappears in the flat space limit.

  12. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes: conserved quantities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashtekar, Abhay; Das, Saurya

    2000-01-01

    Asymptotically anti-de Sitter spacetimes are considered in a general dimension dicons/Journals/Common/ge" ALT="ge" ALIGN="TOP"/> 4. As one might expect, the boundary conditions at infinity ensure that the asymptotic symmetry group is the anti-de Sitter group (although there is an interesting subtlety if d = 4). Asymptotic field equations imply that, associated with each generator icons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="TOP"/> of this group, there is a quantity Qicons/Journals/Common/xi" ALT="xi" ALIGN="MIDDLE"/> which satisfies the expected `balance equation' if there is a flux of physical matter fields across the boundary icons/Journals/Common/calI" ALT="calI" ALIGN="TOP"/> at infinity and is absolutely conserved in the absence of this flux. Irrespective of the dimension d , all of these quantities vanish if the spacetime under considerations is (globally) anti-de Sitter. Furthermore, this result is required by a general covariance argument. However, it contradicts some of the recent findings based on the conjectured ADS/CFT duality. This and other features of our analysis suggest that, if a consistent dictionary between gravity and conformal field theories does exist in fully non-perturbative regimes, it would have to be more subtle than the one used currently.

  13. Quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making in striped field mice: first "count," then hunt.

    PubMed

    Panteleeva, Sofia; Reznikova, Zhanna; Vygonyailova, Olga

    2013-01-01

    We simulated the situation of risky hunting in the striped field mouse Apodemus agrarius in order to examine whether these animals are able to make a choice between small and large quantities of live prey (ants). In the first (preliminary) experiment we investigated to what extent mice were interested in ants as a live prey and how their hunting activity depended on the quantity of these edible but rather aggressive insects. We placed mice one by one into arenas together with ant groups of different quantities, from 10 to 60. Surprisingly, animals, both wild-caught and laboratory-reared, displayed rather skilled predatory attacks: mice killed and ate from 0.37 ± 003 to 4 ± 0.5 ants per minute. However, there was a threshold number of ants in the arenas when rodents expressed signs of discomfort and started to panic, likely because ants bit them. This threshold corresponds to the dynamic density (about 400 individuals per m(2) per min) in the vicinity of anthills and ants' routes in natural environment. In the second experiment mice had to choose between different quantities of ants placed in two transparent tunnels. Ants here served both as food items and as a source of danger. As far as we know, this is the first experimental paradigm based on evaluation of quantity judgments in the context of risk/reward decision making where the animals face a trade-off between the hedonistic value of the prey and the danger it presents. We found that when mice have to choose between 5 vs. 15, 5 vs. 30, and 10 vs. 30 ants, they always tend to prefer the smaller quantity, thus displaying the capacity for distinguishing more from less in order to ensure comfortable hunting. The results of this study are ecologically relevant as they reflect situations and challenges faced by free-living small rodents.

  14. The correlation between skeletal weathering and DNA quality and quantity.

    PubMed

    Misner, Lisa M; Halvorson, Andrea C; Dreier, Jennifer L; Ubelaker, Douglas H; Foran, David R

    2009-07-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analysis of skeletal material is invaluable in forensic identification, although results can vary widely among remains. Previous studies have included bones of different ages, burial conditions, and even species. In the research presented, a collection of human remains that lacked major confounders such as burial age, interment style, and gross environmental conditions, while displaying a very broad range of skeletal degradation, were examined for both mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) quality and quantity. Overall skeletal weathering, individual bone weathering, and bone variety were considered. Neither skeletal nor bone weathering influenced DNA quality or quantity, indicating that factors that degrade bone do not have the same effect on DNA. In contrast, bone variety, regardless of weathering level, was a significant element in DNA amplification success. Taken together, the results indicate that neither skeletal nor individual bone appearance are reliable indicators of subsequent mtDNA typing outcomes, while the type of bone assayed is.

  15. Radio frequency tank eigenmode sensor for propellant quantity gauging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerli, Gregory A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A method for measuring the quantity of fluid in a tank may include the steps of selecting a match between a measured set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies and a simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies using a matching algorithm, wherein the match is one simulated set of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies from the simulated plurality of sets of electromagnetic eigenfrequencies, and determining the fill level of the tank based upon the match.

  16. Navy Officials Justified the MQ-4C Triton Procurement Quantity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-16

    Visit us at www.dodig.mil September 16, 2015 Objective This is the first in a series of audits on the Navy MQ-4C Triton (Triton) Unmanned Aircraft...System (UAS) Program. Our overall objective for the series of audits was to determine whether the Navy effectively managed the Triton UAS...acquisition program. For this audit , we determined whether the Navy adequately justified the overall Triton Unmanned Aircraft procurement quantity

  17. Scenario aggregation for supply chain quantity-flexibility contract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Gitae; Wu, Chih-Hang

    2013-11-01

    In this research, we apply a scenario aggregation approach to solving the supply chain contract model formulated by two-stage stochastic programming problem. The supply chain contract can achieve the coordination between the buyer and the supplier. We formulate the stochastic programming model for a quantity-flexibility contract. The scenario aggregation method called the progressive hedging method is used to solve this problem. Experimental results show the convergence behaviour of the algorithm and the sensitivity of parameters.

  18. Consumer-Resource Dynamics: Quantity, Quality, and Allocation

    PubMed Central

    Getz, Wayne M.; Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-01-01

    Background The dominant paradigm for modeling the complexities of interacting populations and food webs is a system of coupled ordinary differential equations in which the state of each species, population, or functional trophic group is represented by an aggregated numbers-density or biomass-density variable. Here, using the metaphysiological approach to model consumer-resource interactions, we formulate a two-state paradigm that represents each population or group in a food web in terms of both its quantity and quality. Methodology and Principal Findings The formulation includes an allocation function controlling the relative proportion of extracted resources to increasing quantity versus elevating quality. Since lower quality individuals senesce more rapidly than higher quality individuals, an optimal allocation proportion exists and we derive an expression for how this proportion depends on population parameters that determine the senescence rate, the per-capita mortality rate, and the effects of these rates on the dynamics of the quality variable. We demonstrate that oscillations do not arise in our model from quantity-quality interactions alone, but require consumer-resource interactions across trophic levels that can be stabilized through judicious resource allocation strategies. Analysis and simulations provide compelling arguments for the necessity of populations to evolve quality-related dynamics in the form of maternal effects, storage or other appropriate structures. They also indicate that resource allocation switching between investments in abundance versus quality provide a powerful mechanism for promoting the stability of consumer-resource interactions in seasonally forcing environments. Conclusions/Significance Our simulations show that physiological inefficiencies associated with this switching can be favored by selection due to the diminished exposure of inefficient consumers to strong oscillations associated with the well-known paradox of

  19. Novel ansatzes and scalar quantities in gravito-electromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulos, A.; Kanti, P.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we focus on the theory of gravito-electromagnetism (GEM)—the theory that describes the dynamics of the gravitational field in terms of quantities met in electromagnetism—and we propose two novel forms of metric perturbations. The first one is a generalisation of the traditional GEM ansatz, and succeeds in reproducing the whole set of Maxwell's equations even for a dynamical vector potential A. The second form, the so-called alternative ansatz, goes beyond that leading to an expression for the Lorentz force that matches the one of electromagnetism and is free of additional terms even for a dynamical scalar potential Φ. In the context of the linearised theory, we then search for scalar invariant quantities in analogy to electromagnetism. We define three novel, 3rd-rank gravitational tensors, and demonstrate that the last two can be employed to construct scalar quantities that succeed in giving results very similar to those found in electromagnetism. Finally, the gauge invariance of the linearised gravitational theory is studied, and shown to lead to the gauge invariance of the GEM fields E and B for a general configuration of the arbitrary vector involved in the coordinate transformations.

  20. AdS4/CFT3 squashed, stretched and warped

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klebanov, Igor R.; Klose, Thomas; Murugan, Arvind

    2009-03-01

    We use group theoretic methods to calculate the spectrum of short multiplets around the extremum of Script N = 8 gauged supergravity potential which possesses Script N = 2 supersymmetry and SU(3) global symmetry. Upon uplifting to M-theory, it describes a warped product of AdS4 and a certain squashed and stretched 7-sphere. We find quantum numbers in agreement with those of the gauge invariant operators in the Script N = 2 superconformal Chern-Simons theory recently proposed to be the dual of this M-theory background. This theory is obtained from the U(N) × U(N) theory through deforming the superpotential by a term quadratic in one of the superfields. To construct this model explicitly, one needs to employ monopole operators whose complete understanding is still lacking. However, for the U(2) × U(2) gauge theory we make a proposal for the form of the monopole operators which has a number of desired properties. In particular, this proposal implies enhanced symmetry of the U(2) × U(2) ABJM theory for k = 1,2; it makes its similarity to and subtle difference from the BLG theory quite explicit.