Science.gov

Sample records for adding sodium chloride

  1. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    PubMed Central

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products. PMID:27110818

  2. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique.

    PubMed

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S

    2016-04-21

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  3. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  4. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    SciTech Connect

    Ravnsbaek, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-15

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH{sub 4}, forming Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.9}Cl{sub 0.1}, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH{sub 4} is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 0.43}Cl{sub 0.57}. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH{sub 4} into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements. - Graphical Abstract: Dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH{sub 4}){sub 1-x}Cl{sub x} is studied. Dissolution is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or annealing at 300 deg. C for three days of NaBH{sub 4}-NaCl samples. Sample compositions and dissolution mechanism are studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction data. Highlights: > Studies of dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other. > Solid state diffusion facilitated by mechanical and thermal treatments. > Dissolution is more efficiently induced by heating than by mechanical treatment. > Mechanism for dissolution studied by Rietveld refinement of in situ SR-PXD data.

  5. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-01-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  6. Comparative effects of added sodium chloride, ammonium chloride, or potassium bicarbonate in the drinking water of broilers, and feed restriction, on the development of the ascites syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shlosberg, A; Bellaiche, M; Berman, E; Ben David, A; Deeb, N; Cahaner, A

    1998-09-01

    A hypothesis that the ionic composition of drinking water might affect development of the ascites syndrome in broilers was investigated in two trials. The first trial comprised four groups of 650 male chicks. A control treatment was normal tap water and the other three treatments comprised the addition to the tap water of 1,000 mg/L sodium as NaCl, 5,000 mg/L NH4Cl, or 5,000 mg/L KHCO3, supplied from age 2 to 47 d. At Day 28, equally sized subsets of these groups were moved to individual cages, where they received a severe exposure to ambient cold. The development of the ascites syndrome was monitored by measurements of hematocrit and arterial blood oxygen saturation (PaO2) by oximetry, body weight, and examination of dead birds for cause of death. Mortality from ascites in cold-exposed birds from Days 28 to 47 was 28, 48, 40, and 16% in the tap water, NaCl, NH4Cl, and KHCO3 groups, respectively; only the NaCl mortality was significantly different from the tap water mortality. The KHCO3 treatment increased PaO2 (compared with tap water treatment) at Day 28 by 5.5% and at Day 35 by 10.5%, but not at Day 42. The KHCO3 caused a reduction in body weight, which was 13% less than the tap water group at Day 42, probably due to a chronic toxicity. The second trial specifically examined the same parameters with lower water levels of KHCO3 (3,000 and 1,000 mg/L), in comparison to a 10% feed restriction protocol, in order to clarify whether the increased PaO2 was due to a specific effect of the KHCO3 or was a metabolic manifestation of a reduced growth rate. The 3,000 mg/L KHCO3 treatment had no effect on PaO2, but the 1,000 mg/L treatment augmented PaO2 by 5.3% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), without reducing the final body weight. The feed restriction group showed an elevated PaO2 of 5.4% at Day 35 (but not at Days 28 or 42), with no reduction in the final body weight. The inclusion of 1,000 mg/L of KHCO3 into the drinking water of broilers or a temporary 10% feed

  7. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Nemec, Thomas; Marsik, Frantisek; Palmer, Donald

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  8. Measuring Sodium Chloride Contents of Aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1986-01-01

    Amount of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles measured in real time by analyzer that includes mass spectrometer. Analyzer used to determine mass distributions of active agents in therapeutic or diagnostic aerosols derived from saline solutions and in analyzing ocean spray. Aerosol particles composed of sodium chloride introduced into oven, where individually vaporized on hot wall. Vapor molecules thermally dissociated, and some of resulting sodium atoms ionized on wall. Ions leave oven in burst and analyzed by spectrometer, which is set to monitor sodium-ion intensity.

  9. [Sodium chloride 0.9%: nephrotoxic crystalloid?].

    PubMed

    Dombre, Vincent; De Seigneux, Sophie; Schiffer, Eduardo

    2016-02-03

    Sodium chloride 0.9%, often incorrectly called physiological saline, contains higher concentration of chloride compared to plasma. It is known that the administration of sodium chloride 0.9% can cause hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in a reproducible manner. The elevated chloride concentration in 0.9% NaCl solution can also adversely affect renal perfusion. This effect is thought to be induced by hyperchloremia that causes renal artery vasoconstriction. For these reasons, the use of 0.9% NaCl solution is raising attention and some would advocate the use of a more "physiological" solution, such as balanced solutions that contain a level of chloride closer to that of plasma. Few prospective, randomized, controlled trials are available today and most were done in a perioperative setting. Some studies suggest that the chloride excess in 0.9% NaCl solution could have clinical consequences; however, this remains to be established by quality randomized controlled trials.

  10. Mechanism for forming hydrogen chloride and sodium sulfate from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. B.

    1984-01-01

    A molecular orbital study of sodium sulfate and hydrogen chloride formation from sulfur trioxide, water, and sodium chloride shows no activation barrier, in agreement with recent experimental work of Kohl, Fielder, and Stearns. Two overall steps are found for the process. First, gas-phase water reacts with sulfur trioxide along a pathway involving a linear O-H-O transition state yielding closely associated hydroxyl and bisulfite which rearrange to become a hydrogen sulfate molecule. Then the hydrogen sulfate molecule transfers a hydrogen atom to a surface chloride in solid sodium chloride while an electron and a sodium cation simultaneously transfer to yield sodium bisulfate and gas-phase hydrogen chloride. This process repeats. Both of these steps represent well-known reactions for which mechanisms have not been previously determined.

  11. Is sodium chloride worth its salt?

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Euan; Andrews, Peter J

    2013-06-11

    The choice of fluid for resuscitation of the brain-injured patient remains controversial, and the 'ideal' resuscitation fluid has yet to be identified. Large volumes of hypotonic solutions must be avoided because of the risk of cerebral swelling and intracranial hypertension. Traditionally, 0.9% sodium chloride has been used in patients at risk of intracranial hypertension, but there is increasing recognition that 0.9% saline is not without its problems. Roquilly and colleagues show a reduction in the development of hyperchloremic acidosis in brain-injured patients given 'balanced' solutions for maintenance and resuscitation compared with 0.9% sodium chloride. In this commentary, we explore the idea that we should move away from 0.9% sodium chloride in favor of a more 'physiological' solution.

  12. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Ping; Liu, Xiao-Min; Zhang, Yi-Wei; Yang, Hui; Shen, Xiao-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries, also called as ZEBRA batteries, possess many merits such as low cost, high energy density and high safety, but their high operation temperature (270-350 °C) may cause several issues and limit their applications. Therefore, decreasing the operation temperature is of great importance in order to broaden their usage. Using a room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) catholyte composed of sodium chloride buffered 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride-aluminum chloride and a dense β″-aluminates solid electrolyte film with 500 micron thickness, we report an intermediate temperature sodium copper chloride battery which can be operated at only 150 °C, therefore alleviating the corrosion issues, improving the material compatibilities and reducing the operating complexities associated with the conventional ZEBRA batteries. The RTIL presents a high ionic conductivity (0.247 S cm-1) at 150 °C and a wide electrochemical window (-2.6 to 2.18 vs. Al3+/Al). With the discharge plateau at 2.64 V toward sodium and the specific capacity of 285 mAh g-1, this intermediate temperature battery exhibits an energy density (750 mWh g-1) comparable to the conventional ZEBRA batteries (728-785 mWh g-1) and superior to commercialized Li-ion batteries (550-680 mWh g-1), making it very attractive for renewable energy integration and other grid related applications.

  13. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    PubMed Central

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    PubMed

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  15. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content.

  16. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    PubMed

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time.

  17. Sodium chloride deficiency in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Ozçelik, U; Göçmen, A; Kiper, N; Coşkun, T; Yilmaz, E; Ozgüç, M

    1994-11-01

    Sodium chloride deficiency (SCD) was observed within the 1st year of life in 12 of 46 cystic fibrosis (CF) patients between July 1989 and September 1992. All patients showed sweating, loss of appetite, fever, vomiting, irritation, dehydration, weakness, and cyanosis during an attack. Mean plasma sodium, potassium and chloride levels were 122.9 (range 106-135), 2.5 (range 1.6-3.5), and 73.3 (range 60-90) mEq/l respectively. Alkalosis and elevated plasma renin activity were detected in all patients. Of the patients, 50% showed microscopic haematuria, and hypercalciuria was detected in two out of four patients. Low urinary sodium and high urinary potassium were observed in the four examined patients. Increased creatinine, BUN and uric acid values returned to normal with treatment. All the patients were treated initially with intravenous fluids and electrolyte solutions. All patients were less than 7 months of age during the first attack, five received only breast milk and the others breast milk with formula milk. Their oral salt supplement was 2-4 mEq/kg per day, which is recommended for CF patients, but could be deficient in excessively sweating infants. The genotype of these patients might be cause of high salt losses. F508 is the most common mutation with the frequency of 38% in our CF patients with SCD, but the frequency of unknown mutations is high (54%).

  18. The sodium/metal chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, R. M.; Bones, R. J.

    This paper describes a new class of rechargeable sodium/beta-alumina battery in which the traditional liquid sulfur cathode is replaced by a chlorinated iron or nickel cathode, in the form of a porous metal matrix impregnated with molten sodium aluminum chloride. Individual cells have an open circuit voltage of 2.35 V (Fe) and 2.59 V (Ni) at a mean operating temperature of 250 C (Fe) and 300 C (Ni). An essential feature of these cells is that the cathodes are insoluble in the molten NaAlCl4. Cells are normally assembled in the discharged state. Excellent charge/discharge curves have been obtained for central cathode cells, coupled with cycle lives of 1000-2000 cycles. Advantages claimed for these cells, as compared to sodium/sulfur, include reduced corrosion problems, enhanced safety, an overcharge mechanism and failure in the short circuit mode. In addition, the nickel chloride cells particularly have an ability to operate over a wide temperature range (175-400 C).

  19. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  20. Stability of aztreonam and ampicillin sodium-sulbactam sodium in 0.9% sodium chloride injection.

    PubMed

    Belliveau, P P; Nightingale, C H; Quintiliani, R

    1994-04-01

    The stability of aztreonam, ampicillin sodium, and sulbactam sodium admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and stored at room temperature and under refrigeration was studied. Each of the following admixtures was prepared in 0.9% sodium chloride injection: (1) aztreonam 10 mg/mL; (2) ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt); and (3) aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL, and sulbactam 10 mg/mL. Three minibags of each admixture were stored at room temperature and three were refrigerated. Every 12 hours, up to 96 hours, the admixtures were visually inspected and 5-mL samples were withdrawn for high-performance liquid chromatography and pH testing. No color change or precipitation was observed in any sample. In admixtures containing ampicillin, ampicillin was the first or only drug to lose more than 10% of initial concentration. In the ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 32 hours at room temperature and 68 hours refrigerated. In the aztreonam-ampicillin-sulbactam admixture, ampicillin was stable for 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours refrigerated. Aztreonam 10 mg/mL, ampicillin 20 mg/mL (as the sodium salt), and sulbactam 10 mg/mL (as the sodium salt) in 0.9% sodium chloride injection were stable in combination for up to 30 hours at room temperature and 94 hours under refrigeration.

  1. Making Positive Electrodes For Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    High coulombic yields provided by sodium/metal chloride battery in which cathode formed by impregnating sintered nickel plaque with saturated solution of nickel chloride. Charge/discharge cycling of nickel chloride electrode results in very little loss of capacity. Used in spacecraft, electric land vehicles, and other applications in which high-energy-density power systems required.

  2. Copper Chloride Cathode For Liquid-Sodium Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-01-01

    Rechargeable liquid-sodium cell with copper chloride cathode offers substantial increase in energy density over cells made with other cathode materials. Unit has theoretical maximum energy density of 1135 W.h/kg. Generates electricity by electrochemical reaction of molten sodium and solid copper chloride immersed in molten electrolyte, sodium tetrachloroaluminate at temperature of equal to or greater than 200 degrees C. Wall of alumina tube separates molten electrolyte from molten sodium anode. Copper chloride cathode embedded in pores of sintered nickel cylinder or directly sintered.

  3. The coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of frog skin epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, P L; Ferreira, H G; Ferreira, K T

    1989-01-01

    1. When frog skin epithelium was exposed to a chloride-free solution bathing the basolateral side of the frog skin preparation the short-circuit current fell and there was a simultaneous loss of chloride and water from its cells. This effect was partially blocked by furosemide when this drug was added to the basolateral bathing solution. 2. Under control conditions and when added to the solution bathing the basolateral side of the preparation furosemide had no effect on the ion and water contents of the frog skin epithelium. 3. Furosemide but not SITS (4-acetamide-4'-isothiocyanate-stilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid) or amiloride blocked the recovery of short-circuit current and the reuptake of chloride and water by preparations pre-incubated with chloride-free solution on the basolateral side. The recovery of the short-circuit current was also blocked by the replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium. 4. The effect on the short-circuit current of graded replacements by impermeant ions of sodium or chloride did not show saturation for concentrations of these ions up to their control values. 5. Replacement of basolateral potassium by sodium inhibited the short-circuit current and the recovery observed when potassium was reintroduced in the basolateral bathing solution was blocked by furosemide. 6. The replacement of basolateral sodium or chloride by impermeant ions induced an immediate fall in the intracellular concentrations of both sodium and chloride suggesting that the transport system coupling the movements of the two ions across the basolateral membrane is operative under control conditions. 7. It is proposed that the coupled movements of sodium and chloride across the basolateral membrane of the frog skin epithelium are mediated by a sodium-potassium-2 chloride co-transport system which under control conditions is very near equilibrium. PMID:2607456

  4. [Gustatory sensitivity to sodium chloride and potassium chloride and certain parameters of sodium metabolism in patients with bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mineev, V N; Suparnovich, I Iu

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine threshold gustatory sensitivity (TGS) to sodium chloride and potassium chloride in patients with bronchial asthma (BA) taking into account a number of factors responsible for the enhanced risk of development and progress of this disease. Forty five practically healthy subjects were compared with 139 asthmatic patients; a separate group comprised patients treated permanently with oral glucocorticoids and those having non-pulmonary allergy. Chemically pure solutions of sodium and potassium chlorides were used in the dripping test to assess TGS. Asthmatic patients had enhanced TGS to sodium chloride compared with healthy subjects. TGS values were especially high in non-allergic bronchial asthma and minimal in allergic asthma when they were unrelated to the phase of the disease. TGS to potassium chloride in asthmatic patients also differed from that in healthy subjects; more patients were bitter-insensitive or sensitive only to high concentrations of potassium chloride. Patients treated with systemic glucocorticoids had the highest TGS to sodium chloride. Patients with non-pulmonary allergy and allergic BA had very similar TGS to potassium chloride. TGS to sodium chloride in the former was lower than in healthy subjects and patients with allergic BA. Asthmatic patients had a higher sodium ion concentration in erythrocytes than normal subjects; it reached maximum values in persons used to add salt to fully cooked food.

  5. Electrolysis of dilute sodium chloride solution in a diaphragm cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kubasov, V.L.; Ivanter, I.A.; Druzhinin, E.A.; Vorob'eva, V.B.

    1986-02-10

    In some cases, as in the production of iodine and bromine, dilute solutions of sodium chloride remain unutilized. In view of the existence of large amounts of unutilized spent sodium chloride solutions and their harmful effect when discharged into the environment, it is desirable to develop a process for production of chlorine and alkali with high current efficiencies, satisfying industrial requirements, from dilute sodium chloride solutions. The authors have therefore studied electrolysis of solutions containing 160 and 180 kg/m/sup 3/ of sodium chloride, having pH of 11.0-11.5, close in composition to solutions from the Cheleken chemical factory. The chlorine and alkali current efficiencies and the compositions of the anolyte, catholyte, and anode gas were determined.

  6. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  7. A sodium/beta-alumina/nickel chloride secondary cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    Nickel chloride has been studied in a cell system, sodium/beta alumina/sodium tetrachloroaluminate/nickel chloride, which is analogous to two existing rechargeable high energy density cells based on iron chloride and sodium sulfur. The cell reaction can be written as: 2Na + NiCl2 yields on discharge Ni + 2NaCl. The positive electrode, conveniently assembled in the discharged state, was a nickel/sodium choride sinter. Molten sodium tetrachloroaluminate electrolyte (NaAlCl4) acted as intermediate between electrode and beta alumina tube. Encouraging results were obtained in terms of low resistances and rates of discharge for cells up to 20-Ah capacity. Cells were operated over the temperature range from 230 to 400 C where the OCV of the cell reaction varied from 2.60 V to 2.56 V.

  8. Molybdenum In Cathodes Of Sodium/Metal Chloride Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of molybdenum wire in NaAlCl4 melt indicate molybdenum chloride useful as cathode material in rechargeable sodium/metal chloride electrochemical cells. Batteries used in electric vehicles, for electric-power load leveling, and other applications involving high energy and power densities.

  9. Commercial scale cucumber fermentations brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride instead of NaCl...

  10. Fermentation of cucumbers brined with calcium chloride instead of sodium chloride

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Generation of waste water containing sodium chloride from cucumber fermentation tank yards could be eliminated if cucumbers were fermented in brines that did not contain this salt. To determine if this is feasible, cucumbers were fermented in brines that contained only calcium chloride to maintain f...

  11. Effect of Sodium Chloride on the Surface and Wetting Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Cocamidopropyl Betaine.

    PubMed

    Staszak, Katarzyna; Wieczorek, Daria; Michocka, Katarzyna

    Surfactants are important ingredients of personal care products and household products. The main characteristic of these compounds is to decrease the surface tension of solvent and resulting many properties such as contact angle, foam properties etc. The coexistence of other ingredients in the product may affect the properties of surfactants. One of the main components contained in almost every personal care and household product is sodium chloride. The main aim of this work was to determine the effect of this salt on some surface and usage properties of cocamidopropyl betaine (CAPB). From our experiments it was shown that the effect of added sodium chloride in the aqueous solutions of CAPB on the properties is the opposite to the one described in the literature for cationic and anionic surfactants, i.e., CMC increases with increasing ionic strength, foam height decreases with increasing salt concentration. Our investigation showed that sodium chloride makes worse the properties of the CAPB solutions examined in this work.

  12. [Sodium chloride in food rations and dinners in mass catering institutions].

    PubMed

    Szponar, L; Respondek, W; Zareba, M

    2001-01-01

    The sodium chloride content in meals given by mass catering institution in all over country in 1988-1998 years was estimated. This study included daily food rations from 183 mass catering institution as hospitals, sanatoriums for both children and adults, boarding schools, infant schools and social welfare homes. We assessed also school dinners from 422 randomized selected schools and dinners from 55 internal and 56 surgical departments of provincial and regional hospitals in Poland. The mass of each meal was evaluated and sodium chloride content by Mohr's method was assessed. In most cases the salt content by 100 g of meal of 1000 kcal was calculated. The dinners and daily food rations analyze showed that sodium chloride content in meals was much higher than value recommended by World Health Organization (WHO). Salt amount in daily food rations of both children and adults was above 16 g. This value didn't include salt added to meals by boarders. School dinners provided about 7-10 g of salt. The average sodium chloride content in hospital dinners was about 16-20 g. In each studied group the NaCl content per 100 g of meal was similarly high and was 0.7-0.9 g. The results of this study show that meals given by mass catering institutions can increase risk of hypertension, strokes and gastric cancers because of high sodium chloride content.

  13. Myotonic discharges discriminate chloride from sodium muscle channelopathies.

    PubMed

    Drost, Gea; Stunnenberg, Bas C; Trip, Jeroen; Borm, George; McGill, Kevin C; Ginjaar, Ieke H B; van der Kooi, Arendina W; Zwarts, Machiel J; van Engelen, Baziel G M; Faber, Catharina G; Stegeman, Dick F; Lateva, Zoia

    2015-01-01

    Non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes represent a heterogeneous group of clinically quite similar diseases sharing the feature of myotonia. These syndromes can be separated into chloride and sodium channelopathies, with gene-defects in chloride or sodium channel proteins of the sarcolemmal membrane. Myotonia has its basis in an electrical instability of the sarcolemmal membrane. In the present study we examine the discriminative power of the resulting myotonic discharges for these disorders. Needle electromyography was performed by an electromyographer blinded for genetic diagnosis in 66 non-dystrophic myotonia patients (32 chloride and 34 sodium channelopathy). Five muscles in each patient were examined. Individual trains of myotonic discharges were extracted and analyzed with respect to firing characteristics. Myotonic discharge characteristics in the rectus femoris muscle almost perfectly discriminated chloride from sodium channelopathy patients. The first interdischarge interval as a single variable was longer than 30 ms in all but one of the chloride channelopathy patients and shorter than 30 ms in all of the sodium channelopathy patients. This resulted in a detection rate of over 95%. Myotonic discharges of a single muscle can be used to better guide toward a molecular diagnosis in non-dystrophic myotonic syndromes.

  14. [Effects of sodium chloride on bone health].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marija; Piasek, Martina

    2005-03-01

    This paper discusses the physiology of sodium effects on calcium metabolism and possible implications of increased salt intake on bone remodelling and bone mass. Osteoporosis is an increasing public health problem affecting more than 200 million of women around the world. The major complications of osteoporosis are fractures, which are frequently associated with high morbidity and mortality. A number of clinical, epidemiological and experimental studies aim at identifying lifestyle factors that may improve bone mass and prevent bone loss. Different nutrients are proposed to play a role in bone development during growth and in the maintenance of bone mass thereafter. However, the importance of sodium intake for bone health has not been elucidated. It is well known that high dietary sodium intake decreases renal calcium reabsorption, which in turn leads to a greater urinary calcium excretion. This effect has been demonstrated in studies in humans of all ages as well as in experimental animals. It is not clear to what extent sodium-induced calcium loss is compensated for by increased intestinal calcium absorption. It is suspected that, if not fully compensated, sustained hypercalciuria due to increased sodium intake may diminish bone mass. Postmenopausal women showed that increased dietary salt may indeed augment bone resorption. Sodium effects on bone mass in various studies are inconsistent and there is still no evidence that increased salt intake is a risk factor in the aetiology of osteoporosis A randomized longitudinal study of different sodium intake in two groups of subject could clarify the role of sodium in bone mass.

  15. UV-induced Lactobacillus gasseri mutants resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite for meat fermentation.

    PubMed

    Arihara, K; Itoh, M

    2000-06-01

    Lactobacillus gasseri, one of the predominant lactobacilli in human intestinal tracts, is utilized for probiotics and dairy starter cultures. However, since L. gasseri is relatively sensitive to sodium chloride and sodium nitrite (essential compounds for meat products), it is difficult to utilize this species for conventional fermented meat products. In this study, efforts were directed to generate mutants of L. gasseri resisting sodium chloride and sodium nitrite. UV irradiation of the strain of L. gasseri JCM1131(T) generated several mutants resisting these compounds. A mutant strain 1131-M8 demonstrated satisfactory growth in meat containing 3.3% sodium chloride and 200 ppm sodium nitrite. Although proteins extracted from the cell surface of 1131-M8 were slightly different from those of the original strain, other biochemical characteristics of both strains were indistinguishable. These results suggest that the L. gasseri mutant obtained in this study could be utilized as a starter culture to develop probiotic meat products.

  16. Mechanism of chloride interaction with neurotransmitter:sodium symporters.

    PubMed

    Zomot, Elia; Bendahan, Annie; Quick, Matthias; Zhao, Yongfang; Javitch, Jonathan A; Kanner, Baruch I

    2007-10-11

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSS) have a critical role in regulating neurotransmission and are targets for psychostimulants, anti-depressants and other drugs. Whereas the non-homologous glutamate transporters mediate chloride conductance, in the eukaryotic NSS chloride is transported together with the neurotransmitter. In contrast, transport by the bacterial NSS family members LeuT, Tyt1 and TnaT is chloride independent. The crystal structure of LeuT reveals an occluded binding pocket containing leucine and two sodium ions, and is highly relevant for the neurotransmitter transporters. However, the precise role of chloride in neurotransmitter transport and the location of its binding site remain elusive. Here we show that introduction of a negatively charged amino acid at or near one of the two putative sodium-binding sites of the GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) transporter GAT-1 from rat brain (also called SLC6A1) renders both net flux and exchange of GABA largely chloride independent. In contrast to wild-type GAT-1, a marked stimulation of the rate of net flux, but not of exchange, was observed when the internal pH was lowered. Equivalent mutations introduced in the mouse GABA transporter GAT4 (SLC6A11) and the human dopamine transporter DAT (SLC6A3) also result in chloride-independent transport, whereas the reciprocal mutations in LeuT and Tyt1 render substrate binding and/or uptake by these bacterial NSS chloride dependent. Our data indicate that the negative charge, provided either by chloride or by the transporter itself, is required during binding and translocation of the neurotransmitter, probably to counterbalance the charge of the co-transported sodium ions.

  17. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  18. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  19. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  20. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  1. 40 CFR 415.160 - Applicability; description of the sodium chloride production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium chloride production subcategory. 415.160 Section 415.160 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Chloride Production Subcategory § 415.160 Applicability; description of the sodium... the production of sodium chloride by the solution brine-mining process and by the solar...

  2. Epithelial Sodium and Chloride Channels and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen; Ji, Hong-Long

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To focus on the asthmatic pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to epithelial sodium channel (ENaC)/chlorine ion channel. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review were the English articles from 1980 to 2015 from journal databases, primarily PubMed and Google Scholar. The terms used in the literature search were: (1) ENaCs; cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR); asthma/asthmatic, (2) ENaC/sodium salt; CF; asthma/asthmatic, (3) CFTR/chlorine ion channels; asthma/asthmatic, (4) ENaC/sodium channel/scnn1a/scnn1b/scnn1g/scnn1d/amiloride-sensitive/amiloride-inhibtable sodium channels/sodium salt; asthma/asthmatic, lung/pulmonary/respiratory/tracheal/alveolar, and (5) CFTR; CF; asthma/asthmatic (ti). Study Selection: These studies included randomized controlled trials or studies covering asthma pathogenesis and clinical manifestations related to ENaC/chlorine ion channels within the last 25 years (from 1990 to 2015). The data involving chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and CF obtained from individual studies were also reviewed by the authors. Results: Airway surface liquid dehydration can cause airway inflammation and obstruction. ENaC and CFTR are closely related to the airway mucociliary clearance. Ion transporters may play a critical role in pathogenesis of asthmatic exacerbations. Conclusions: Ion channels have been the center of many studies aiming to understand asthmatic pathophysiological mechanisms or to identify therapeutic targets for better control of the disease. PMID:26265620

  3. Taste properties of potassium chloride alone and in mixtures with sodium chloride using a check-all-that-apply method.

    PubMed

    Sinopoli, Dominique A; Lawless, Harry T

    2012-09-01

    As consumers try to reduce their sodium consumption for health purposes, the food industry seeks ways to reduce the sodium content in products while maintaining palatability. One potential solution for lowering sodium content is using potassium chloride (KCl) as a substitute. However, many people find KCl to have unpleasant off-tastes, which limits its effectiveness to replace sodium chloride (NaCl). This study examined the taste properties of KCl using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) ballot. The objectives were to see which terms people use to describe KCl and in what ways this changes in various combinations with NaCl. Panelists were served mixtures of varying NaCl and KCl concentrations, and evaluated them using a set of predetermined terms on a CATA ballot. Frequency counts were taken, and binomial and McNemar tests were performed to see which stimuli changed the most between samples. Results showed that adding KCl increased salt perception slightly, and salty was chosen more frequently when in combination with NaCl. Adding NaCl in a mixture with KCl decreases unpleasant side tastes associated with KCl, such as bitter, chemical, and metallic.

  4. Assessment of the efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and Tetrahymena spp.

    PubMed

    Vaerewijck, M J M; Sabbe, K; Baré, J; Spengler, H-P; Favoreel, H W; Houf, K

    2012-03-01

    The efficacy of benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite against Acanthamoeba polyphaga and two Tetrahymena spp. was determined based on the European Standard EN 1276:2009 suspension test. Trophozoite viability was assessed by determination of the membrane integrity using flow cytometry as a fast screening technique. Bovine serum albumin was added to simulate clean (0.3 g/liter) and dirty (3 g/liter) conditions. Benzalkonium chloride caused cell lysis at concentrations above 50 mg/liter under clean and dirty conditions. A concentration of 50 mg of free chlorine per liter had a strong biocidal effect on acanthamoebae and tetrahymenae after 15 min under clean and dirty conditions. Our results suggest that benzalkonium chloride and sodium hypochlorite were effective against the three microorganisms at concentrations commonly applied in the food industry.

  5. A Monte Carlo simulation of a supersaturated sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwendinger, Michael G.; Rode, Bernd M.

    1989-03-01

    A simulation of a supersaturated sodium chloride solution with the Monte Carlo statistical thermodynamic method is reported. The water-water interactions are described by the Matsuoka-Clementi-Yoshimine (MCY) potential, while the ion-water potentials have been derived from ab initio calculations. Structural features of the solution have been evaluated, special interest being focused on possible precursors of nucleation.

  6. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  7. Stability of Alprostadil in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Stored in Polyvinyl Chloride Containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Kirkham, Kylian; Munson, Jessica M

    2017-01-01

    The stability of alprostadil diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride stored in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers at refrigerated temperature, protected from light, is reported. Five solutions of alprostadil 11 mcg/mL were prepared in 250 mL 0.9% sodium chloride polyvinyl chloride (PL146) containers. The final concentration of alcohol was 2%. Samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) with protection from light. Two containers were submitted for potency testing and analyzed in duplicate with the stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography assay at specific time points over 14 days. Three containers were submitted for pH and visual testing at specific time points over 14 days. Stability was defined as retention of 90% to 110% of initial alprostadil concentration, with maintenance of the original clear, colorless, and visually particulate-free solution. Study results reported retention of 90% to 110% initial alprostadil concentration at all time points through day 10. One sample exceeded 110% potency at day 14. pH values did not change appreciably over the 14 days. There were no color changes or particle formation detected in the solutions over the study period. This study concluded that during refrigerated, light-protected storage in polyvinyl chloride (VIAFLEX) containers, a commercial alcohol-containing alprostadil formulation diluted to 11 mcg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride 250 mL was stable for 10 days.

  8. Tetragonal Chicken Egg White Lysozyme Solubility in Sodium Chloride Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    The solubility of chicken egg white lysozyme, crystallized in the tetragonal form was measured in sodium chloride solutions from 1.6 to 30.7 C, using a miniature column solubility apparatus. Sodium chloride solution concentrations ranged from 1 to 7% (w/v). The solutions were buffered with 0.1 M sodium acetate buffer with the solubility being measured at pH values in 0.2 pH unit increments in the range pH 4.0 to 5.4, with data also included at pH 4.5. Lysozyme solubility was found to increase with increases in temperature and decreasing salt concentration. Solution pH has a varied and unpredictable effect on solubility.

  9. Miscibility of sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate in the adsorbed film and aggregate.

    PubMed

    Iyota, Hidemi; Krastev, Rumen

    2009-04-01

    The adsorption, micelle formation, and salting out of sodium dodecyl sulfate in the presence of sodium chloride were studied from the viewpoint of their mixed adsorption and aggregate formation. The surface tension of aqueous solutions of a sodium chloride-sodium dodecyl sulfate mixture was measured as a function of the total molality and composition of the mixture. Phase diagrams of adsorption and aggregate formation were obtained by applying thermodynamic equations to the surface tension. Judging from the phase diagrams, sodium chloride and sodium dodecyl sulfate are miscible in the adsorbed film at very large composition of sodium chloride and in the salted-out crystalline particle, while they are immiscible in the micelle. The miscibilities in the adsorbed film, micelle, and crystalline particle increase in the following order: particle > adsorbed film > micelle. The difference in miscibility among the oriented states was ascribed to the difference in geometry between the adsorbed film and micelle and to the interaction between bilayer surfaces in the particle.

  10. The influence of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on benzalkonium chloride-induced bronchoconstriction in asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Miszkiel, K A; Beasley, R; Holgate, S T

    1988-01-01

    1. Benzalkonium chloride, an antibacterial preservative that is added to nebuliser solutions, has been shown to cause bronchoconstriction when inhaled by asthmatic subjects. 2. To investigate the potential role of reflex and mast cell-dependent mechanisms in the pathogenesis of bronchoconstriction produced by benzalkonium chloride we examined the effects of ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate on this response in both concentration-response and time-course studies in nine asthmatic subjects. 3. Pretreatment with inhaled ipratropium bromide (1 mg) and sodium cromoglycate (40 mg) displaced the benzalkonium chloride concentration-response curves to the right by a mean 2.2 fold and 3.1 fold respectively. 4. Ipratropium bromide and sodium cromoglycate markedly attenuated the airway response to benzalkonium chloride throughout the 45 min time course period, inhibiting the overall response by 56% and 78% respectively. 5. We conclude that benzalkonium chloride provokes bronchoconstriction in asthmatic subjects through a combination of mast cell activation and stimulation of peripheral and central neural pathways. PMID:2972308

  11. [Effect of sodium chloride on elasticity of silicone matrices].

    PubMed

    Snejdrová, E; Zelenka, J; Rehula, M

    2002-09-01

    An increase in the availability of the active ingredient from silicone matrices can be achieved by using sodium chloride as the filler. An addition of sodium chloride also influences the mechanical properties of silicone systems. The temperature dependence of real Young's model E' of addition silicone systems with sodium chloride was measured. With increasing NaCl concentration in the silicone system, the values of Young's module E are increased. The increase is also influenced by the particle size of NaCl. The values of the module are moderately increased also with increasing temperature, which corresponds to the kinetic theory of caoutchouc elasticity. A significant increase in E takes place at NaCl concentrations higher than 20%. With a 50% NaCl content in the system, E is increased approximately 3.5 times in comparison with an unfilled sample. Various theories of elastic behaviour of composites can be employed for the description of the effect of the filler on the mechanical properties of silicone systems under small deformations. The effect of chloride is best described by the relation proposed by Nielsen. The value of the constant A in Nielsen's relation, dependent on the shape of the filler particles and Poisson's constant of the unfilled matrix, decreases with increasing particle size. With a change in particle size, a certain change in particle shape takes place. Hydrodynamic theory provides good results for sodium chloride particle size of 102.5 microns, but for particle sizes of 20 microns and 60 microns it is less successful than Nielsen's relation.

  12. Attenuation by d-limonene of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Yano, H; Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Baba, M; Sakai, N; Uedo, N

    1999-08-27

    The effects of prolonged administration of d-limonene, a monocyclic monoterpene, on sodium chloride-enhanced induction of gastric carcinogenesis by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, the labeling and apoptotic indices, and ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity of gastric cancers were investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and 1% limonene ad libitum. In week 52, the incidence of gastric cancers, the labeling index and ODC activity were significantly higher and the apoptotic index was significantly lower in rats given sodium chlolide than in untreated control rats. However, in rats given both sodium chloride and d-limonene, the incidence of gastric cancers, the labeling index and ODC activity were significantly lower and the apoptotic index was significantly higher than in rats given sodium chloride alone. Our findings suggest that limonene attenuates the gastric carcinogenesis enhanced by sodium chloride via increased apoptosis and decreased ODC activity in gastric cancers.

  13. A comparison of sodium, chloride, thiocyanate, and sucrose spaces as estimates of extracellular fluid volume.

    PubMed

    Caster, W O; Simon, A B

    1980-01-01

    Sodium, chloride, thiocyanate, and sucrose spaces were measured in whole body and different tissues of rat. For each analytical method, when all tissue spaces were added the sum was in good agreement with corresponding total body fluid space obtained by dilution methods. There was surprisingly good agreement among the three ionic space measures in the total body, when one considers that there were discrepancies as large as 2- to 8-fold within certain of the different tissues. Some differences could be explained by the facts that sodium is a constituent of bond mineral and that there are marked differences between these four measures when observed in the water of the gastrointestinal contents.

  14. Growth and physiological responses of five cotton genotypes to sodium chloride and sodium sulfate saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to investigate the salt tolerance of five cotton genotypes [three Gossypium hirsutum L. (DN 1, DP 491, and FM 989) and two G. barbadense L. (Cobalt and Pima S-7)] under sodium chloride or sodium sulfate salinity conditions at similar osmotic potentials (100 mM sodium chlorid...

  15. Sodium/nickel-chloride battery development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redey, L.; Prakash, J.; Vissers, D. R.; Dowgiallo, E. J.

    1994-02-01

    The performance of the Ni/NiCl2 positive electrode for the Na/NiCl2 battery has been significantly improved compared to that of our earlier electrodes, representative for 1990. This improvement has been achieved by lowering the impedance and increasing the usable capacity through the use of chemical additives and a tailored electrode morphology. The improved electrode has excellent performance even at 250 C and can be recharged within one hour. The performance of this new electrode was measured by the conventional interrupted galvanostatic method and under simulated driving profiles. These measurements were used to project the performance of 40 to 60 kWh batteries built with this new electrode combined with the already highly developed sodium/beta(double prime)-alumina negative electrode. These calculated results yielded a specific power of 150-400 W/kg and a specific energy of 110-200 Wh/kg for batteries with single-tube and bipolar cell designs. This high performance, along with the high cell voltage, midtemperature operation, fast recharge capability, and short-circuited failure mode of the electrode couple, makes the Na/NiCl2 battery attractive for electric vehicle applications.

  16. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  17. Testing Metal Chlorides For Use In Sodium-Cell Cathodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Attia, Alan I.; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Cyclic voltammetric curves of transition-metal wires in molten NaAlCl4 electrolyte used to eliminate suitability of transition metals as cathodes in sodium cells. Cyclic voltammetry used in conjunction with measurement of galvanostatic polarization curves determines whether given metal chloride suitable as cathode material in such cell. Cells useful in such high-energy-density and high-power-density applications as leveling loads on electric-power plants, supplying power to electric ground vehicles, and aerospace applications.

  18. Alternate cathodes for sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Various metal chlorides were tested as possible cathode materials for sodium-metal batteries (in addition to Fe and Ni chlorides, which have been already developed to a stage of commercialization), using an electrochemical cell consisting of a pyrex tube, heated to 250 C, with the metal wire as working electrode, concentric Ni foil as counterelectrode, and high-purity Al as reference electrode. In particular, the aim of this study was to identify metal chlorides insoluble even in neutral melts, possible at the interface during overcharge, in order to eliminate the failure mode of the cell through a cationic exchange of the dissolved metal ions with sodium beta-double-prime alumina solid electrolyte. Results indicate that Mo and Co are likely alternatives to FeCl2 and NiCl2 cathodes in sodium batteries. The open circuit voltages of Na/CoCl(x) and Na/MoCl(x) cells at 250 C would be 2.55 V and 2.64 V, respectively.

  19. Chloride transport and the actions of nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium in asthma.

    PubMed

    Alton, E W; Norris, A A

    1996-11-01

    Nedocromil sodium has been shown to be capable of inhibiting chloride ion flux in mast cells, epithelial cells, and neurons. This feature may explain how it can prevent responses such as mast-cell degranulation, the effects of osmolarity changes in the airways, and neuronal activation. This mechanism may also provide a unifying hypothesis to explain the effects of nedocromil sodium on a range of cell types involved in asthma, such as sensory and efferent neurons and cells involved in inflammation.

  20. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Ambrosewicz-Walacik, Marta; Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-06-01

    This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  1. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  2. Preparation of ammonium paratungstate from a sodium tungstate-sodium chloride phase

    SciTech Connect

    Raddatz, A.E.; Gomes, J.M.; Carnahan, T.G.

    1988-01-01

    The objective of this work was to demonstrate that the tungstate-bearing sodium chloride phase can be a suitable feed material for preparing ammonium paratungstate (APT) by a modification to the present industrial solvent extraction process. A combined crossflow-countercurrent flow solvent extraction technique to extract tungsten is presented.

  3. Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium Borohydride-Water Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT 2082 July 2015 Laboratory Studies of Hydrogen Gas Generation Using the Cobalt Chloride Catalyzed Sodium ...describes experiments to generate hydrogen gas using the cobalt chloride catalyzed sodium borohydride-water reaction. Space and Naval Warfare Systems...to inflate LTAs. Of the metal hydrides, we chose to explore the sodium borohydride chemistry. We chose this chemistry because of its energy density

  4. Evaporation with sodium chloride crystallization in a capillary tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naillon, A.; Duru, P.; Marcoux, M.; Prat, M.

    2015-07-01

    Sodium chloride crystallization induced by evaporation of aqueous solution is studied from visualization experiments in a circular capillary tube. In agreement with recent studies, the onset of crystallization is observed with a significant supersaturation. Detailed information on the precipitation kinetics and transport of ions is obtained from numerical computations of the ion mass fraction field during the evaporation process. It is shown that the precipitation kinetics is fast compared to transport so that the crystal growth is mostly controlled by the transport. This offers possible simplifications for analyzing more involved situations such as crystallization in porous media. The fact that the significant supersaturation does not lead to tube damage is explained.

  5. Renal tubular NHE3 is required in the maintenance of water and sodium chloride homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Fenton, Robert A; Poulsen, Søren B; de la Mora Chavez, Samantha; Soleimani, Manoocher; Dominguez Rieg, Jessica A; Rieg, Timo

    2017-04-03

    The sodium/proton exchanger isoform 3 (NHE3) is expressed in the intestine and the kidney, where it facilitates sodium (re)absorption and proton secretion. The importance of NHE3 in the kidney for sodium chloride homeostasis, relative to the intestine, is unknown. Constitutive tubule-specific NHE3 knockout mice (NHE3(loxloxCre)) did not show significant differences compared to control mice in body weight, blood pH or bicarbonate and plasma sodium, potassium, or aldosterone levels. Fluid intake, urinary flow rate, urinary sodium/creatinine, and pH were significantly elevated in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice, while urine osmolality and GFR were significantly lower. Water deprivation revealed a small urinary concentrating defect in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice on a control diet, exaggerated on low sodium chloride. Ten days of low or high sodium chloride diet did not affect plasma sodium in control mice; however, NHE3(loxloxCre) mice were susceptible to low sodium chloride (about -4 mM) or high sodium chloride intake (about +2 mM) versus baseline, effects without differences in plasma aldosterone between groups. Blood pressure was significantly lower in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice and was sodium chloride sensitive. In control mice, the expression of the sodium/phosphate co-transporter Npt2c was sodium chloride sensitive. However, lack of tubular NHE3 blunted Npt2c expression. Alterations in the abundances of sodium/chloride cotransporter and its phosphorylation at threonine 58 as well as the abundances of the α-subunit of the epithelial sodium channel, and its cleaved form, were also apparent in NHE3(loxloxCre) mice. Thus, renal NHE3 is required to maintain blood pressure and steady-state plasma sodium levels when dietary sodium chloride intake is modified.

  6. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the treatment of diabetic patients with micro- and macroangiopathies].

    PubMed

    Davydova, O B; Turova, E A; Grishina, E V

    1998-01-01

    Patients suffering from insulin-dependent or non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with micro- and macroangiopathy took sodium chloride baths of diverse concentration (30 and 50 g/l). A control group consisted of patients who had taken "neutral" baths. The response to sodium chloride baths was registered in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, microcirculation, hemorheology, lower limbs circulation, exercise tolerance. Baths with sodium chloride concentrations 50 g/l have advantages, especially in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

  7. On the Effect of Sodium Chloride and Sodium Sulfate on Cold Denaturation.

    PubMed

    Pica, Andrea; Graziano, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Both sodium chloride and sodium sulfate are able to stabilize yeast frataxin, causing an overall increase of its thermodynamic stability curve, with a decrease in the cold denaturation temperature and an increase in the hot denaturation one. The influence of low concentrations of these two salts on yeast frataxin stability can be assessed by the application of a theoretical model based on scaled particle theory. First developed to figure out the mechanism underlying cold denaturation in water, this model is able to predict the stabilization of globular proteins provided by these two salts. The densities of the salt solutions and their temperature dependence play a fundamental role.

  8. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    SciTech Connect

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  9. Use of potassium chloride and flavor enhancers in low sodium Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Grummer, J; Bobowski, N; Karalus, M; Vickers, Z; Schoenfuss, T

    2013-03-01

    We investigated use of potassium chloride (KCl) to maintain both the salty flavor and to replace the preservative effects of salt when reducing the sodium content in natural cheese. Because salt replacers can affect flavor because of inherent off-flavors, such as bitter and metallic, we examined the use of flavor enhancers for their ability to modulate some of these undesirable sensory effects. Stirred-curd Cheddar-style cheese was manufactured using 2 cheese-making procedures (different curd knife sizes and target salting titratable acidities), in duplicate. Curd was salted with sodium chloride (NaCl) or 60% reduced sodium blends of NaCl and KCl (2 different sources). Curd was also salted at a 60% reduced sodium rate with NaCl and KCl with added flavor enhancers. A hydrolyzed vegetable protein/yeast extract blend, a natural "potassium-blocking type" flavor, disodium inosinate, or disodium guanylate were each blended with the reduced sodium salt blend and added to curd at the salting step. The resulting blocks of cheese were aged for 5 mo and evaluated monthly for chemical, microbial, and sensory differences. At 5 mo of aging, we measured liking for the cheeses using a consumer panel. Overall, cheeses were well liked by the consumer panel, and the scores of reduced sodium cheese with 2 different KCl sources were not different from those of the full-sodium control. The addition of flavor enhancers to Cheddar curd had mixed results, with one improving the consumer flavor liking only slightly over KCl, and one (disodium inosinate) significantly reducing consumer flavor liking scores, presumably due to the amount of umami flavor it contributed. Potassium chloride replacement salts sourced from different manufacturers affected the chemical and flavor properties of cheese, and changes to pH and temperature targets may be necessary to yield cheese with the moisture and pH targets desired. The cheese-making procedure used also influenced flavors observed, which resulted in

  10. Sodium selenite and vitamin E in preventing mercuric chloride induced renal toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Aslanturk, Ayse; Uzunhisarcikli, Meltem; Kalender, Suna; Demir, Filiz

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to investigate improving effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E on mercuric chloride-induced kidney impairments in rats. Wistar male rats were exposed either to sodium selenite (0.25mg/kgday), vitamin E (100mg/kgday), sodium selenite+vitamin E, mercuric chloride (1mg/kgday), sodium selenite+mercuric chloride, vitamin E+mercuric chloride and sodium selenite+vitamin E+mercuric chloride for 4weeks. Mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and a decrease in the superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities. Histopathological changes were detected in kidney tissues in mercuric chloride-treated groups. A significant decrease in the uric acid, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen and MDA levels and a significant increase in the SOD, CAT and GPx activities were observed in the supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercuric chloride-treated groups. Conclusively, sodium selenite, vitamin E and vitamin E+sodium selenite significantly reduce mercuric chloride induced nephrotoxicity in rats, but not protect completely.

  11. The antilisterial effect of Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and leucocins 4010 in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite examined in a structured gelatin system.

    PubMed

    Hornbaek, Tina; Brocklehurst, Tim F; Budde, Birgitte Bjørn

    2004-04-15

    To further enhance biopreservation of meat products, the antilisterial effect of the newly described protective culture Leuconostoc carnosum 4010 and its bacteriocins, leucocins 4010, was examined in the presence of sodium chloride and sodium nitrite in a solid matrix using a structured gelatin system. Interaction between Listeria monocytogenes 4140 and Leuc. carnosum 4010 or the leucocins 4010-resistant mutant L. monocytogenes 4140P showed that the inhibitory effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the gelatin system was caused by the production and activity of leucocins 4010. The presence of sodium chloride (2.5% w/v) and sodium nitrite (60 mg/l) reduced the antilisterial effect of Leuc. carnosum 4010 in the structured gel system compared to the use of Leuc. carnosum 4010 alone. Investigations carried out at 10 degrees C showed that the lag phase of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 was reduced from 71 to 58 h by the addition of sodium chloride and to 40 h by the addition of sodium nitrite. Addition of sodium chloride increased the maximum specific growth rate of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of Leuc. carnosum 4010 from 0.02 to 0.06 h(-1), whereas no change was observed by the addition of sodium nitrite. Compared to the antilisterial effect of leucocins 4010 alone, the addition of sodium chloride (2.5%, w/v) decreased the antilisterial effect at high concentrations of leucocins 4010 (5.3 and 10.6 AU/ml) as measured after 11 days of incubation at 10 degrees C. In gels with added leucocins 4010, the most pronounced reduction in growth of L. monocytogenes 4140 was observed at the highest concentration of leucocins 4010 (10.6 AU/ml) together with sodium nitrite (60 mg/l). More detailed information on the lag phase and the maximum specific growth rate of single colonies of L. monocytogenes 4140 in the presence of leucocins 4010 was obtained using microscopy and image analysis. No pronounced difference in the growth of single colonies was

  12. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  13. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-01

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  14. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water.

  15. Nanoscale Periodic Modulations on Sodium Chloride Induced by Surface Charges

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Kendal W; Qin, Shengyong; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    The sodium chloride surface is one of the most common platforms for the study of catalysts, thin film growth, and atmospheric aerosols. Here we report a nanoscale periodic modulation pattern on the surface of a cleaved NaCl single crystal, revealed by non-contact atomic force microscopy with a tuning fork sensor. The surface pattern shows two orthogonal domains, extending over the entire cleavage surface. The spatial modulations exhibit a characteristic period of 5.4 nm, along 110 crystallographic directions of the NaCl. The modulations are robust in vacuum, not affected by the tip-induced electric field or gentle annealing (<300 C); however, they are eliminated after exposure to water and an atomically flat surface can be recovered by subsequent thermal annealing after water exposure. A strong electrostatic charging is revealed on the cleavage surface which may facilitate the formation of the observed metastable surface reconstruction.

  16. Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

  17. Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

    1991-05-01

    The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

  18. Evaluation of sodium-nickel chloride cells for space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendel, B.; Dudley, G. J.

    1991-01-01

    The status of the European Space Agency (ESA) program on sodium nickel chloride batteries is outlined. Additionally, the results of initial tests of two prototype space cells are reported. After 2800 cycles typical of a low-earth orbit (LEO) application without failure, the recharge ratio remained at unity, the round trip energy efficiency remained high (87 percent), and the increase in internal cell resistance was modest. Initial tear-down analysis data show no degradation whatsoever of the beta-alumina electrolyte tubes. The low-rate capacity did, however drop by some 40 percent, which needs further investigation, but overall results are encouraging for future use of this couple in geosynchronous (GEO) and LEO spacecraft.

  19. Progress and recent developments in sodium-metal chloride batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Significant strides have been made in the development of high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries utilizing transition metal chloride cathodes in the last decade, mainly due to the expertise available on Na/S batteries. These systems have already performed attractively in the various feasibility studies and have an excellent safety record. Despite the encouraging figures obtained for specific energies, certain design changes such as modifying the geometry of the beta alumina electrolyte and optimization of the porous cathodes for enhanced electrolyte flow need to be made to achieve high power densities required in applications such as electric vehicles and space. The chemistry of MCl2 cathodes, electrode fabrication, and design options are discussed, and performance data are examined.

  20. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  1. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  2. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-04

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  3. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  4. Supernova Neutrino Type Identification with Adding Sodium Chloride in LVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashikhmin, V. V.; Manukovskiy, K. V.; Ryazhskaya, O. G.; Shakiryanova, I. R.; Yudin, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    The main goal of LVD detector is the search for neutrino bursts from gravitational stellar collapses in our Galaxy. It is shown that the addition of kitchen salt in the structure of LVD can both significantly improve the neutrino type identification and increase the active mass of the detector.

  5. Self-aggregation of sodium dodecyl sulfate within (choline chloride + urea) deep eutectic solvent.

    PubMed

    Pal, Mahi; Rai, Rewa; Yadav, Anita; Khanna, Rajesh; Baker, Gary A; Pandey, Siddharth

    2014-11-11

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) have shown tremendous promise as green solvents with low toxicity and cost. Understanding molecular aggregation processes within DESs will not only enhance the application potential of these solvents but also help alleviate some of the limitations associated with them. Among DESs, those comprising choline chloride and appropriate hydrogen-bond donors are inexpensive and easy to prepare. On the basis of fluorescence probe, electrical conductivity, and surface tension experiments, we present the first clear lines of evidence for self-aggregation of an anionic surfactant within a DES containing a small fraction of water. Namely, well-defined assemblies of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) apparently form in the archetype DES Reline comprising a 1:2 molar mixture of choline chloride and urea. Significant enhancement in the solubility of organic solvents that are otherwise not miscible in choline chloride-based DESs is achieved within Reline in the presence of SDS. The remarkably improved solubility of cyclohexane within SDS-added Reline is attributed to the presence of spontaneously formed cyclohexane-in-Reline microemulsions by SDS under ambient conditions. Surface tension, dynamic light scattering (DLS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), density, and dynamic viscosity measurements along with responses from the fluorescence dipolarity and microfluidity probes of pyrene and 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane are employed to characterize these aggregates. Such water-free oil-in-DES microemulsions are appropriately sized to be considered as a new type of nanoreactor.

  6. The salt (sodium chloride) requirements of growing bobwhite quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestler, R.B.

    1949-01-01

    In the two experiments involving 452 bobwhite quail chicks, seven diets containing the following salt supplements, were compared: No additional salt; 0.25 per cent KaCl; 0.50 per cent NaC1; 0.75per cent NaCl; 1.00 per cent NaCl; 0.25 per cent Na2SO4; and 0.50 per cent KCl. All four diets containing sodium chloride gave about equal results in bird-growth, and produced better weights than the diet containing no additional salt. Survival was high on the 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00 per cent levels, especially the 0.75 per cent level. Feed consumption increased directly as the salt level of the diet was raised.....The results on the Na2SO4 and KCl while better than those on no saline supplementation, and somewhat inferior to those on NaCl, nevertheless are inconclusive because of inconsistency.

  7. Development of high performance sodium/metal chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vissers, D. R.; Bloom, I. D.; Hash, M. C.; Redey, L.; Hammer, C. L.; Dees, D. W.; Nelson, P. A.

    Sodium/metal chloride (MCl2) cells and batteries are being studied at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) for stationary energy storage and transportation applications. The work is being directed toward (1) development of thin, high capacity density electrodes and inexpensive beta double prime alumina-glass composite electrolyte materials to replace beta double prime alumina, and (2) the development of models to project MCl2 system performances. In our NiCl2 electrode work, the effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on electrode performance were determined using annular electrodes fabricated in the uncharged state. Of all electrode design parameters mentioned, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and on the area-specific impedance. The beta double prime alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive (3.3 x 10(exp -2)S/cm at 250 C) composite material. Preliminary modeling studies indicate that the performance of the MCl2 electrodes can be fitted by a mathematic model very successfully and that cell electrolyte configurations of either multiple tubes joined at a header or compartmented flat structures of either beta double prime alumina or of the composite material would result in high performance batteries with power-to-energy ratios of about 5.

  8. Tolerance Test of Eisenia Fetida for Sodium Chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, M.; Stewart, A.J.

    2003-01-01

    Saltwater spills that make soil excessively saline often occur at petroleum exploration and production (E&P) sites and are ecologically damaging. Brine scars appear when produced water from an E&P site is spilled onto surrounding soil, causing loss of vegetation and subsequent soil erosion. Revegetating lands damaged by brine water can be difficult. The research reported here considers earthworms as a bioremedial treatment for increasing the salt mobility in this soil and encouraging plant growth and a healthy balance of soil nutrients. To determine the practical application of earthworms to remediate brine-contaminated soil, a 17-d test was conducted to establish salt tolerance levels for the common compost earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and relate those levels to soil salinity at brine-spill sites. Soil samples were amended with sodium chloride in concentrations ranging from 1 to 15 g/kg, which represent contamination levels at some spill sites. The survival rate of the earthworms was near 90% in all tested concentrations. Also, reproduction was noted in a number of the lower-concentration test replicates but absent above the 3-g/kg concentrations. Information gathered in this investigation can be used as reference in further studies of the tolerance of earthworms to salty soils, as results suggest that E. fetida is a good candidate to enhance remediation at brine-damaged sites.

  9. The impact of sodium chloride and volume depletion in the chronic kidney disease of congenital chloride diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Wedenoja, Satu; Ormälä, Timo; Berg, Ulla B; Halling, Stella F Edström; Jalanko, Hannu; Karikoski, Riitta; Kere, Juha; Holmberg, Christer; Höglund, Pia

    2008-10-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea is due to mutations in the intestinal Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange (SLC26A3) which results in sodium chloride and fluid depletion leading to hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis. Although treatment with sodium and potassium chloride offers protection from renal involvement in childhood, the long-term renal outcome remains unclear. Here we describe two cases of congenital chloride diarrhea-associated end-stage renal disease with transplantation. Further, we show that there is a high incidence of mild chronic kidney disease in 35 other patients with congenital chloride diarrhea. The main feature of the renal injury was nephrocalcinosis, without hypercalciuria or nephrolithiasis with small sized kidneys and commensurately reduced glomerular filtration rates. This suggests that diarrhea-related sodium chloride and volume depletion, the first signs of non-optimal salt substitution, promote urine supersaturation and crystal precipitation. The poor compliance with salt substitution along with long-lasting hypochloremic and hypokalemic metabolic alkalosis is likely to induce progressive calcification and renal failure. Both our patients developed nephrocalcinosis in the transplanted kidneys suggesting that this complication is a consequence of intestinal SLC26A3 deficiency. Interestingly, the transporter is expressed in the distal nephron but the recurrence of nephrocalcinosis in the transplanted kidney suggests that it does not play a significant renal role in this syndrome.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Laboratory spectroscopy of sodium chloride (NaCl) (Cabezas+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabezas, C.; Cernicharo, J.; Quintana-Lacaci, G.; Pena, I.; Agundez, M.; Velilla Prieto, L.; Castro-Carrizo, A.; Zuniga, J.; Bastida, A.; Alonso, J. L.; Requena, A.

    2016-09-01

    The rotational spectrum of sodium chloride (NaCl) has been obtained using two different Fourier transform microwave (FTMW) spectrometers constructed at the University of Valladolid. See section 2.1 for further explanations. (8 data files).

  11. [The use of sodium chloride baths in patients with chronic bronchitis].

    PubMed

    Anisimkina, A N; Aĭrapetova, N S; Davydova, O B; Doronina, Iu V; Derevnina, N A; Gontar', E V

    1996-01-01

    80 patients with chronic bronchitis took baths with sodium chloride concentration 20, 40, 60 g/l and temperature 37-38 degrees C. The baths produced a positive effect on central and regional hemodynamics, reduced inflammation and sensitization.

  12. [Sulfide ooze mud and sodium chloride baths in treating osteoarthrosis patients].

    PubMed

    Novikova, N V

    1989-01-01

    Humoral immunity initially affected in patients with osteoarthrosis returns to normal under the influence of a multiple-modality treatment involving application of sulphide moor in combination with sodium chloride baths.

  13. A diffusive anomaly of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun Soo; Yethiraj, Arun

    2008-02-14

    Molecular dynamics simulations are presented for the self-diffusion coefficient of water in aqueous sodium chloride solutions. At temperatures above the freezing point of pure water, the self-diffusion coefficient is a monotonically decreasing function of salt concentration. Below the freezing point of pure water, however, the self-diffusion coefficient is a non-monotonic function of salt concentration, showing a maximum at approximately one molal salt. This suggests that sodium chloride, which is considered a structure-making salt at room temperature, becomes a structure-breaking salt at low temperatures. A qualitative understanding of this effect can be obtained by considering the effect of ions on the residence time of water molecules near other water molecules. A consideration of the freezing point depression of aqueous sodium chloride solutions suggests that the self-diffusion coefficient of water in supercooled sodium chloride solutions is always higher than that in pure (supercooled) water at the same temperature.

  14. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  15. Influence of sodium chloride concentration on the controlled lactic acid fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, C; Palop, L; Sánchez, I

    1999-12-01

    The effect of a commercial Lactobacillus starter and sodium chloride concentration on the fermentation of "Almagro" eggplants (Solanum melongena L. var. esculentum depressum) was studied. The results of fermentation using added starter and varying salt concentrations (4, 6, and 10% w/v) in brine were compared with the results of spontaneous fermentation taking place in brine with a salt concentration of 4%. Fresh fruits, medium in size (34-44 g), were used in all cases; all fruits were blanched under identical conditions. Temperature in the fermenters was 32+/-2 degrees C. The results obtained indicate that addition of a suitable starter shortened the fermentation process, provided the salt concentration in the brine did not exceed 6%. In the conditions tested, the eggplants obtained after fermentation were found to be of good quality though somewhat bitter which may explained by the starter employed.

  16. Electrical impedance and HV plasma images of high dilutions of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, R

    2008-07-01

    This paper reports impedance data and high voltage plasma photographic plates of high dilutions of sodium chloride in water submitted to the homeopathic dilution and succession up to 30cH. Extremely low concentrations of the original salt, even beyond Avogadro number, clearly differ from 'pure' water and; the action of sodium chloride on the electrical properties of water is inverted at high dilution.

  17. Equilibrium diagrams at 27 [degree]C of the water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride system

    SciTech Connect

    Dantas Neto, A.A.; Castro Dantas, T.N. de; Duarte, M.M.L.; Avelino, S. . Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia Quimica)

    1993-01-01

    Amines are usually used in extracting tungsten from scheelite. Dodecylamine chloride in kerosene and octanol was used as an extracting agent in order to establish the phase diagram at 27C for water + sodium tungstate + dodecylamine chloride. Acetone was used to prevent emulsion formation. This procedure made it possible to achieve better partition coefficients; however, there appears to be a saturation region.

  18. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    PubMed

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  19. Investigations of Selective Interactions of the Iron/Aqueous Sodium Chloride System. Part 1. The Adsorption of Chloride Ion by Alpha-Iron(III) Oxide in Sodium Chloride Solutions Saturated by Oxygen at 30C

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A radioisotope procedure was used to investigate the chloride ion adsorption characteristics of crystalline alpha - iron (III) oxide in dilute sodium...competed for the active sites on hydrated alpha - iron (III) oxide surfaces. The chloride ion was preferentially adsorbed in the solution pH range of

  20. Comparison of Sodium Chloride Tablets-Induced, Sodium Chloride Solution-Induced, and Glycerol-Induced Hyperhydration on Fluid Balance Responses in Healthy Men.

    PubMed

    Savoie, Félix A; Asselin, Audrey; Goulet, Eric D B

    2016-10-01

    Savoie, FA, Asselin, A, and Goulet, EDB. Comparison of sodium chloride tablets-induced, sodium chloride solution-induced, and glycerol-induced hyperhydration on fluid balance responses in healthy men. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2880-2891, 2016-Sodium chloride solution-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-SolIH) is a powerful strategy to increase body water before exercise. However, NaCl-SolIH is associated with an unpleasant salty taste, potentially dissuading some athletes from using it and coaches from recommending it. Therefore, we evaluated the hyperhydrating potential of sodium chloride tablets-induced hyperhydration (NaCl-TabIH), which bypasses the palatability issue of NaCl-SolIH without sacrificing sodium chloride content, and compared it to NaCl-SolIH and glycerol-induced hyperhydration (GIH). Sixteen healthy males (age: 21 ± 2 years; fat-free mass (FFM): 65 ± 6 kg) underwent three, 3-hour long passive hyperhydration protocols during which they drank, over the first 60 minutes, 30-ml·kg FFM of an artificially sweetened solution. During NaCl-TabIH, participants swallowed 7.5, 1 g each, sodium chloride tablets with every liter of solution. During NaCl-SolIH, an equal quantity of sodium chloride tablets was dissolved in each liter of solution. With GIH, the glycerol concentration was 46.7 g·L. Urine production, fluid retention, hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma volume, and perceptual variables were monitored throughout the trials. Total fluid intake was 1948 ± 182 ml. After 3 hour, there were no significant differences among treatments for hemoglobin, hematocrit, and plasma volume changes. Fluid retention was significantly greater with NaCl-SolIH (1150 ± 287 ml) than NaCl-TabIH (905 ± 340 ml) or GIH (800 ± 211 ml), with no difference between NaCl-TabIH and GIH. No differences were found among treatments for perceptual variables. NaCl-TabIH and GIH are equally effective, but inferior than NaCl-SolIH. NaCl-TabIH represents an alternative to hyperhydration induced

  1. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  2. Sodium Chloride Increases Aβ Levels by Suppressing Aβ Clearance in Cultured Cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiao-Juan; Gao, Yuan; Zhao, Yu-Wu; Cheng, Xiao-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that high-salt diet is associated with cognitive decline in human and mouse. The fact that genetic factors account for less than 50% cases of sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) highlights the important contribution of environmental factors, such as high-salt diet, in AD pathogenesis. However, whether and how high-salt diet fits the "amyloid cascade" hypothesis remains unexplored. Here, we show sodium chloride (NaCl) could increase Aβ levels in the medium of HEK293 cells overexpressing amyloid precursor protein (APP) or C99 fragment. NaCl treatment dose not affect APP level, gamma secretase level or activity. Instead, NaCl treatment suppresses the capacity of cells to clear Aβ and reduces Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) level. Finally, NaCl treated THP-1 or BV2 cells are inefficient in clearing Aβ when co-cultured with rat primary neurons. Our study suggests that high-salt diet may increase AD risk by directly modulating Aβ levels.

  3. Apical membrane sodium and chloride entry during osmotic swelling of renal (A6) epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Crowe, W E; Ehrenfeld, J; Brochiero, E; Wills, N K

    1995-03-01

    To assess the role of chloride in cell volume and sodium transport regulation, we measured cell height changes (CH), transepithelial chloride and sodium fluxes, and intracellular chloride content during challenge with hyposmotic solutions under open circuit (OC) conditions. CH maximally increased following hyposmotic challenge within approximately 5 minutes. The change in CH was smaller under short circuit (SC) conditions or following replacement of chloride in the mucosal solution by gluconate or cyclamate (Cl(-)-freem). When corrected for the osmotically inactive cell volume (30 +/- 2%), delta CH for controls (OC) were greater than predicted for an ideal osmometer. In contrast, delta CH for Cl(-)-freem or SC conditions were similar to that predicted for an ideal osmometer. Na+ and Cl- mucosa-to-serosa fluxes increased following hyposmotic challenge. Chloride fluxes increased maximally within 5 min, then decreased. In contrast, the Na+ flux increased slowly and reached a steady state after approximately 25 min. Under isosmotic conditions, exposure to Cl(-)-freem solutions led to decreases in the transepithelial conductance, Na+ flux, and CH. Chloride permeabilities in the apical and basolateral membranes were detected using the fluorescent intracellular chloride indicator MQAE. The results indicate that during osmotic swelling, the entry of both sodium and chloride is increased. The time courses of these increases differ, suggesting distinct mechanisms for the osmotic regulation of these apical membrane transport processes.

  4. Effects of dietary sodium chloride on health parameters in mature cats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hui; Laflamme, Dorothy P L; Long, Grace L

    2009-06-01

    High sodium diets have been shown to enhance water intake and urine output, a potential benefit in the management of lower urinary tract diseases. However, one study suggested that high salt (sodium chloride) diets might have adverse effects on the kidneys [Kirk CA, Jewell DE, Lowry SR. Effects of sodium chloride on selected parameters in cats. Vet Ther 2006; 7: 333-46]. Therefore, the objective of this controlled, prospective study was to evaluate the effects of diets with different salt content (1.11% sodium and 1.78% chloride versus 0.55% sodium and 1.02% chloride, dry matter (dm)) when fed to mature cats (mean age 7.0 years; 12 cats per group) over a 6-month period. Food intake, body weight, bone mineral content, total body hydration status, blood pressure, and markers of renal function were unaffected by salt intake, and no adverse effects were observed. When a subset of cats (n=9) with an initial serum creatinine > or =1.6mg/dl was evaluated separately, there remained no evidence of adverse effects associated with increased salt intake. These results are consistent with the majority of other studies evaluating sodium intake in cats, as well as with the National Research Council's assessment, all of which indicate that sodium at 1.5% of the diet dm is not harmful to healthy cats.

  5. Sodium chloride reduces production of curvacin A, a bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus strain LTH 1174, originating from fermented sausage.

    PubMed

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-04-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain originating in fermented sausage, produces the antilisterial bacteriocin curvacin A. Its biokinetics of cell growth and bacteriocin production as a function of various concentrations of salt (sodium chloride) were investigated in vitro during laboratory fermentations using modified MRS medium. A model was set up to describe the effects of different NaCl concentrations on microbial behavior. Both cell growth and bacteriocin activity were affected by changes in the salt concentration. Sodium chloride clearly slowed down the growth of L. curvatus LTH 1174, but more importantly, it had a detrimental effect on specific curvacin A production (k(B)) and hence on overall bacteriocin activity. Even a low salt concentration (2%, wt/vol) decreased bacteriocin production, while growth was unaffected at this concentration. The inhibitory effect of NaCl was mainly due to its role as an a(w)-lowering agent. Further, it was clear that salt interfered with bacteriocin induction. Additionally, when 6% (wt/vol) sodium chloride was added, the minimum biomass concentration necessary to start the production of curvacin A (X(B)) was 0.90 g (cell dry mass) per liter. Addition of the cell-free culture supernatant or a protein solution as a source of induction factor resulted in a decrease in X(B), an increase in k(B), and hence an increase in the maximum attainable bacteriocin activity.

  6. Antioxidative responses of Ocimum basilicum to sodium chloride or sodium sulphate salinization.

    PubMed

    Tarchoune, I; Sgherri, C; Izzo, R; Lachaal, M; Ouerghi, Z; Navari-Izzo, F

    2010-09-01

    Soils and ground water in nature are dominated by chloride and sulphate salts. There have been several studies concerning NaCl salinity, however, little is known about the Na(2)SO(4) one. The effects on antioxidative activities of chloride or sodium sulphate in terms of the same Na(+) equivalents (25 mM Na(2)SO(4) and 50 mM NaCl) were studied on 30 day-old plants of Ocimum basilicum L., variety Genovese subjected to 15 and 30 days of treatment. Growth, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), relative ion leakage ratio (RLR), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), ascorbate and glutathione contents as well as the activities of ascorbate peroxidase (APX, EC 1.11.1.11); glutathione reductase (GR, EC 1.6.4.2) and peroxidases (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) were determined. In leaves, growth was more depressed by 25 mM Na(2)SO(4) than 50 mM NaCl. The higher sensitivity of basil to Na(2)SO(4) was associated with an enhanced accumulation of H(2)O(2), an inhibition of APX, GR and POD activities (with the exception of POD under the 30-day-treatment) and a lower regeneration of reduced ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH). However, the changes in the antioxidant metabolism were enough to limit oxidative damage, explaining the fact that RLR and TBARS levels were unchanged under both Na(2)SO(4) and NaCl treatment. Moreover, for both salts the 30-day-treatment reduced H(2)O(2) accumulation, unchanged RLR and TBARS levels, and enhanced the levels of antioxidants and antioxidative enzymes, thus achieving an adaptation mechanism against reactive oxygen species.

  7. Insecticide sensitivity of native chloride and sodium channels in a mosquito cell line.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Lacey J; Anderson, Troy D; Bloomquist, Jeffrey R

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of cultured Anopheles gambiae Sua1B cells for insecticide screening applications without genetic engineering or other treatments. Sua1B cells were exposed to the known insecticidal compounds lindane and DIDS, which inhibited cell growth at micromolar concentrations. In patch clamp studies, DIDS produced partial inhibition (69%) of chloride current amplitudes, and an IC50 of 5.1μM was determined for Sua1B cells. A sub-set of chloride currents showed no response to DIDS; however, inhibition (64%) of these currents was achieved using a low chloride saline solution, confirming their identity as chloride channels. In contrast, lindane increased chloride current amplitude (EC50=116nM), which was reversed when cells were bathed in calcium-free extracellular solution. Voltage-sensitive chloride channels were also inhibited by the presence of fenvalerate, a type 2 pyrethroid, but not significantly blocked by type 1 allethrin, an effect not previously shown in insects. Although no evidence of fast inward currents typical of sodium channels was observed, studies with fenvalerate in combination with veratridine, a sodium channel activator, revealed complete inhibition of cell growth that was best fit by a two-site binding model. The high potency effect was completely inhibited in the presence of tetrodotoxin, a specific sodium channel blocker, suggesting the presence of some type of sodium channel. Thus, Sua1B cells express native insect ion channels with potential utility for insecticide screening.

  8. Temporal and spatial trends of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire, 1960–2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Data on concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire were assembled from various State and Federal agencies and organized into a database. This report provides documentation of many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives and investigates temporal and spatial trends of the data. Data summaries presented in this report and analyses performed for this study needed to take into account the 27 percent of chloride and 5 percent of sodium data that were censored (less than a reporting limit) at multiple reporting limits that systematically decreased over time. Throughout New Hampshire, median concentrations of chloride were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than in every decade since the 1970s, and median concentrations of sodium were significantly greater during 2000-2011 than during the 1990s. Results of summary statistics showed that the 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles of the median concentrations of chloride and sodium by source (well) from Rockingham and Strafford counties were the highest in the State; and the 75th and 90th percentiles from Carroll, Coos, and Grafton counties were the lowest. Large increases in median concentrations of chloride and sodium for individual wells after 1995 compared with concentrations for years before were found in parts of Belknap and Rockingham counties and in small clusters within Carroll, Hillsborough, and Merrimack counties.

  9. Effects of sodium chloride and fat supplementation on finishing steers exposed to hot and cold conditions.

    PubMed

    Gaughan, J B; Mader, T L

    2009-02-01

    Three studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and salt (sodium chloride) on DMI, daily water intake (DWI), body temperature, and respiration rate (RR) in Bos taurus beef cattle. In Exp. 1 and 2, whole soybeans (SB) were used as the supplemental fat source. In Exp. 3, palm kernel meal and tallow were used. Experiment 1 (winter) and Exp. 2 (summer) were undertaken in an outside feedlot. Experiment 3 was conducted in a climate-controlled facility (mean ambient temperature = 29.9 degrees C). In Exp. 1, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 1% sodium chloride); and 3) salt-SB (control + 5% SB + 1% sodium chloride), were fed to 144 cattle (BW = 327.7 kg), using a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design. In Exp. 2, 168 steers (BW = 334.1 kg) were used. In Exp. 2, the same dietary treatments were used as in Exp. 1, and a 5% SB dietary treatment was included in an incomplete 3 x 4 Latin square design. In Exp. 3, three diets, 1) control; 2) salt (control + 0.92% NaCl); and 3) salt-fat (control + 3.2% added fat + 0.92% NaCl) were fed to 12 steers (BW = 602 kg) in a replicated Latin square design. In Exp. 1, cattle fed the salt-SB diet had elevated (P < 0.05) tympanic temperature (TT; 38.83 degrees C) compared with cattle fed the control (38.56 degrees C) or salt (38.50 degrees C) diet. In Exp. 2, cattle fed the salt and salt-SB diets had less (P < 0.05) DMI and greater (P < 0.05) DWI than cattle in the control and SB treatments. Cattle fed the salt-SB diet had the greatest (P < 0.05) TT (38.89 degrees C). Those fed only the salt diet or only the SB diet had the least (P < 0.05) TT, at 38.72 and 38.78 degrees C, respectively. Under hot conditions (Exp. 3), DMI of steers fed the salt and salt-fat diets declined by approximately 40% compared with only 24% for the control cattle. During hot conditions, DWI was greatest (P < 0.05) for steers on the salt-fat diet. These steers also had the greatest (P < 0.05) mean rectal temperature (40.03 +/- 0

  10. Use of ammonium chloride and sodium bicarbonate in acute heat exposure of broilers.

    PubMed

    Branton, S L; Reece, F N; Deaton, J W

    1986-09-01

    Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) were added separately to the drinking water of 42- to 52-day-old broilers. Birds were given access to the water ad libitum for a total of 42.5 hr consisting of 18.5 hr prior to an 8-hr interval of severe heat exposure and a further 16 hr-post exposure. Water and feed intake during the treatment period were unaffected by either NH4Cl at 6.25 g/liter (.63%) of distilled water (DW) or NaHCO3 at 3.15 g/liter (.32%) DW. Water intake was increased by approximately 20% in birds given water containing 6.25 g of NaHCO3/liter (.63%) DW, while both feed and water intake were severely limited by NH4Cl at 31 g/liter (3.1%) DW. Blood pH of birds was substantially lowered by consumption of NH4Cl, while consumption of NaHCO3 did not significantly affect blood pH. Blood pH of all treatments increased during the heat exposure period and declined afterward; however, blood pH change appeared to be more pronounced for birds receiving the NH4CL. A correlation coefficient (r = -.31) existed between blood pH and mortality, while a correlation (r = -.72) was demonstrated between water consumption and mortality.

  11. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  12. Mechanism of chemical activation of sodium chloride in the presence of amino acids.

    PubMed

    Rahn, Anja K K; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2015-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been shown to promote chlorination of glycerol during thermal processing. However, the detailed mechanism of this reaction is not well understood. Preliminary experiments have indicated that the reaction mixture should contain an amino acid and it should be dissolved thoroughly in water in order to induce chlorination. These observations are consistent with the process of dissociation of sodium chloride and its re-association with amino acid and eventual formation of the chlorinating agent in the form of the hydrochloride salt. Release of HCl from this salt can be manifested in chlorination and hydrolytic reactions occurring during thermal processing. The generation of HCl at room temperature from a mixture of sodium chloride and glycine was confirmed through spectrophotometric monitoring of the pH. Hydrolytic and chlorination reactions were demonstrated through monitoring of formation of HMF and chlorinated products under pyrolytic conditions using glucose or sucrose and amino acid mixtures.

  13. Effect of sodium chloride on growth and bacteriocin production by Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471.

    PubMed

    Neysens, Patricia; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-11-15

    A kinetic investigation of the effect of sodium chloride on cell growth of Lactobacillus amylovorus DCE 471 and amylovorin L471 production was carried out through in vitro experiments using a temperature and pH prevailing during sourdough fermentations. Sodium chloride interfered both with cell growth and bacteriocin production. Biomass formation and amylovorin L471 production decreased in the presence of increasing salt concentrations. Maximum bacteriocin activities were observed after the addition of 10 g l(-1) of NaCl, while the maximum specific growth rate reached an optimum at 5 g l(-1) of NaCl. High salt concentrations (20-40 g l(-1)) resulted in biphasic fermentation profiles. Based on these results, incorporation of 5-10 g l(-1) of sodium chloride in the water phase of type II sourdough preparations might be beneficial to enhance bacterial growth and amylovorin L471 production, and so contribute to the competitiveness of the strain in a sourdough environment.

  14. Investigation into the role of sodium chloride deposited on oxide and metal substrates in the initiation of hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birks, N.

    1983-01-01

    Sodium chloride is deposited on the surface of alumina substrates and exposed to air containing 1% SO2 at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C. In all cases the sodium chloride was converted to sodium sulfate. The volatilization of sodium chloride from the original salt particles was responsible for the development of a uniform coating of sodium sulfate on the alumina substrate. At temperatures above 625 C, a liquid NaCl-Na2SO4 autectic was formed on the substrate. The mechanisms for these reactions are given. One of the main roles of NaCl in low temperature hot corrosion lies in enabling a corrosive liquid to form.

  15. Long-term sodium and chloride surface water exports from the Dallas/Fort Worth region.

    PubMed

    Steele, M K; Aitkenhead-Peterson, J A

    2011-07-15

    Sodium and chloride in surface water are typically related to urbanization and population density and can have a significant impact on drinking water sources and the subsequent salinity of aquatic ecosystems. While the majority of research has focused on the impact of deicing salts on urban surface waters in colder climates, the effect of urbanization on sodium and chloride concentrations has been found to occur in warmer climates. This study investigated long-term exports of sodium and chloride from watersheds with increasing urbanization in the humid subtropical Dallas-Fort Worth region. We compared exports to characteristics of urbanization: urban land cover, impervious surface area, and calculated contributions from wastewater discharges. Long-term data (1980-2008) were obtained from five USGS gages located in and around the cities. Exports were calculated by regression analysis between concentrations and discharge and normalized for time and the watershed area. Grab samples were collected from June 2009 to May 2010 and sodium and chloride concentrations quantified. Our results show a strong positive relationship between the mean annual sodium and chloride exports from each watershed and the percent urban land cover and impervious surface area. Long-term increases in sodium and chloride fluxes were found for the three watersheds with the highest percentage of urban land cover. The single largest contributor was wastewater effluent that was estimated to contribute approximately half of the total loads in the three urbanized watersheds. Atmospheric deposition and deicing salts accounted for small amounts of the total export for urbanized watersheds. The source of the remaining salt load is still unknown and may be a combination of non-point sources. Estimates of urban salt exports were similar to estimates from northern watersheds affected by deicing salts.

  16. Effects of sodium chloride salting and substitution with potassium chloride on whey expulsion of Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Lu, Y; McMahon, D J

    2015-01-01

    A challenge in manufacturing reduced-sodium cheese is that whey expulsion after salting decreases when less salt is applied. Our objectives were (1) to determine whether changing the salting method would increase whey syneresis when making a lower sodium cheese and (2) to better understand factors contributing to salt-induced curd syneresis. Unsalted milled Cheddar curds were salted using different salting intervals (5 or 10 min), different salting levels (20, 25, or 30g/kg), different numbers of applications when using only 20g/kg salt (1, 2, or 3 applications), and salting with the equivalent of 30g/kg NaCl using a 2:1 molar ratio of NaCl and KCl. Whey from these curds was collected every 5 or 10 min until 30 or 40 min after the start of salting, and curds were subsequently pressed for 3h. Additional trials were conducted in which salted milled Cheddar cheese curd was immersed at 22°C for 6h in various solutions to determine how milled curd pieces respond to different levels of salt and Ca. The use of 10-min intervals delayed whey syneresis without influencing total whey expulsion or cheese composition after pressing. Lowering the salt level reduced whey expulsion, resulting in cheeses with higher moisture and slightly lower pH. Adding salt faster did not increase whey expulsion in reduced-salt cheese. Partial substitution with KCl restored the extent of whey expulsion. When salted milled curd was immersed in a 30g/L salt solution, there was a net influx of salt solution into the curd and curd weight increased. When curd was immersed in 60g/L salt solution, a contraction of curd occurred. Curd shrinkage was more pronounced as the salt solution concentration was increased to 90 and 120g/L. Increasing the Ca concentration in test solutions (such that both serum and total Ca in the curd increased) also promoted curd contraction, resulting in lower curd moisture and pH and less weight gain by the curd. The proportion of Ca in the curd that was bound to the para

  17. Current Status of Health and Safety Issues of Sodium/Metal Chloride (Zebra) Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Trickett, D.

    1998-12-15

    This report addresses environmental, health, and safety (EH&S) issues associated with sodium/ metal chloride batteries, in general, although most references to specific cell or battery types refer to units developed or being developed under the Zebra trademark. The report focuses on issues pertinent to sodium/metal chloride batteries and their constituent components; however, the fact that some ''issues'' arise from interaction between electric vehicle (EV) and battery design compels occasional discussion amid the context of EV vehicle design and operation. This approach has been chosen to provide a reasonably comprehensive account of the topic from a cell technology perspective and an applications perspective.

  18. Sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient from crystallization experiment in a microfluidic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naillon, A.; Joseph, P.; Prat, M.

    2017-04-01

    The crystal growth of sodium chloride from an aqueous solution is studied from evaporation experiments in microfluidic channels in conjunction with analytical and numerical computations. The crystal growth kinetics is recorded using a high speed camera in order to determine the intrinsic precipitation reaction coefficient. The study reveals that the crystal growth rates determined in previous studies are all affected by the ions transport phenomena in the solution and thus not representative of the precipitation reaction. It is suggested that accurate estimate of sodium chloride precipitation reaction coefficient presented here offers new opportunities for a better understanding of important issues involved in the damages of porous materials induced by the salt crystallization.

  19. The effect of sodium chloride on the two-step kinetics of the nitrifying process.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Omar; Aspé, Estrella; Martí, María C; Roeckel, Marlene

    2004-01-01

    Sodium chloride affects the transformation rate of several compounds in bioreactors. Most authors report a decrease in microorganism activity at increasing salt concentrations. In this work, a kinetic model that relates sodium chloride concentration with the rates of each step of the nitrification process is proposed; thus, the effect of sodium chloride concentration (0 to 60 g/L) on the nitritation and nitratation rates was separately studied. To carry out the independent study of each step, a combination of the respirometric method with sodium azide, an inhibitor of the nitratation step, was performed. The dot-blot hybridization technique with 16S rRNA-targeted probes was used to determine the ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial fraction, then it was possible to relate the culture's function with its biological composition. Rates of both steps were linearly reduced at increasing salt concentrations: the nitratation rate was more affected than the nitritation rate. Simulations carried out in a nitrifying sequencing batch reactor indicate that nitrite might accumulate at high salt concentrations. Sodium chloride exerts a reversible inhibition on ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation.

  20. Advanced intermediate temperature sodium-nickel chloride batteries with ultra-high energy density.

    PubMed

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Kim, Jin Y; Meinhardt, Kerry D; Chang, Hee Jung; Canfield, Nathan L; Sprenkle, Vincent L

    2016-02-11

    Sodium-metal halide batteries have been considered as one of the more attractive technologies for stationary electrical energy storage, however, they are not used for broader applications despite their relatively well-known redox system. One of the roadblocks hindering market penetration is the high-operating temperature. Here we demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries can be operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C with ultra-high energy density. A specific energy density of 350 Wh kg(-1), higher than that of conventional tubular sodium-nickel chloride batteries (280 °C), is obtained for planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at 190 °C over a long-term cell test (1,000 cycles), and it attributed to the slower particle growth of the cathode materials at the lower operating temperature. Results reported here demonstrate that planar sodium-nickel chloride batteries operated at an intermediate temperature could greatly benefit this traditional energy storage technology by improving battery energy density, cycle life and reducing material costs.

  1. A Comparison of Taste and Odor Perception in Pediatric Patients Receiving a 0.9% Sodium Chloride Flush From 2 Different Brands of Prefilled 0.9% Sodium Chloride Syringes.

    PubMed

    Hamze, Benjamin; Vaillancourt, Régis; Sharp, Diane; Villarreal, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this randomized single-blind study is to compare taste and odor disturbances in patients receiving 0.9% sodium chloride flushes from 2 brands. Seventy-five patients from 6 to 18 years of age received intravenous 0.9% sodium chloride infusions, and 50 healthy volunteers who tasted the 2 brands of 0.9% sodium chloride from prefilled syringes were assessed for taste and/or odor disturbances. Taste or odor disturbances were equally present in patients flushed with MedXL and Becton-Dickinson 0.9% sodium chloride. Disturbances are more frequent when 0.9% sodium chloride is flushed through central venous access devices than through peripheral catheters. No difference between the brands was found when healthy volunteers tasted it orally.

  2. Sodium and chloride transport in the large intestine of potassium-loaded rats

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, M.E.; Foster, E.S.; Hayslett, J.P.; Binder, H.J.

    1986-08-01

    Increased dietary potassium (potassium loading) induces several adaptive changes in colonic function, including increased potential dependent potassium secretion, active potassium secretion, and Na-K-ATPase activity, but does not alter net sodium absorption in vivo. To establish whether potassium loading stimulates active sodium transport, unidirectional, net sodium, and chloride fluxes were determined under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated rat distal colonic mucosa. In normal animals net sodium flux (J/sub net/sup Na/), net chloride flux (J/sub net/sub Cl/) and short-circuit current (I/sub sc/) were 6.1 +/- 1.1, 8.4 +/-1.0, and 0.7 +/- 0.1 eq h cm S, respectively; potassium loading significantly increased J/sub net/sup Na/ and I/sup sc/ by 4.9 +/- 1.4 and 3.5 +/- 0.7 eq h cm S, respectively, without changing J/sub net/sup Na/ and I/sub sc/ produced by potassium loading. In Cl-free Ringer solution in normal animals J/sub net/sup Na was reduced to 0.6 +/- 0.3 eq h cm S. Potassium loading produced identical increases in J/sub net/sup Na/ and I/sub sc/, which were also completely inhibited by 0.1 mM amiloride. These studies establish that potassium loading induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption without affecting electroneutral sodium-chloride absorption.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of electrolytic products of sodium chloride--comparative evaluation with sodium hypochlorite solution and efficacy in handwashing.

    PubMed

    Hitomi, S; Baba, S; Yano, H; Morisawa, Y; Kimura, S

    1998-11-01

    We examined the in vitro bactericidal effects and efficacy on handwashing of water containing electrolytic products of sodium chloride (electrolytic water). The electrolytic water, whose pH and concentration of free residual chlorine were 6.7-6.9 and 20-22 ppm, respectively, showed equal reduction of both Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli to dilution of commercially available sodium hypochlorite containing 60 ppm of free residual chlorine. This bactericidal effect was calculated to be due to hypochlorous acid, based on the pH and the amount of chlorine in solution. Handwashing with the electrolytic water reduced the numbers of S. aureus on hands by 1/10(2), while running water and 0.2% benzalkonium chloride with 80% ethanol gave a 1/10 and 1/10(5) reduction, respectively. We conclude that electrolytic water might be applicable for handwashing in place of running water.

  4. The sodium chloride cotransporter SLC12A3: new roles in sodium, potassium, and blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Moes, Arthur D; van der Lubbe, Nils; Zietse, Robert; Loffing, Johannes; Hoorn, Ewout J

    2014-01-01

    SLC12A3 encodes the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC), which is primarily expressed in the kidney, but also in intestine and bone. In the kidney, NCC is located in the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the distal convoluted tubule. Although NCC reabsorbs only 5 to 10% of filtered sodium, it is important for the fine-tuning of renal sodium excretion in response to various hormonal and non-hormonal stimuli. Several new roles for NCC in the regulation of sodium, potassium, and blood pressure have been unraveled recently. For example, the recent discoveries that NCC is activated by angiotensin II but inhibited by dietary potassium shed light on how the kidney handles sodium during hypovolemia (high angiotensin II) and hyperkalemia. The additive effect of angiotensin II and aldosterone maximizes sodium reabsorption during hypovolemia, whereas the inhibitory effect of potassium on NCC increases delivery of sodium to the potassium-secreting portion of the nephron. In addition, great steps have been made in unraveling the molecular machinery that controls NCC. This complex network consists of kinases and ubiquitinases, including WNKs, SGK1, SPAK, Nedd4-2, Cullin-3, and Kelch-like 3. The pathophysiological significance of this network is illustrated by the fact that modification of each individual protein in the network changes NCC activity and results in salt-dependent hypotension or hypertension. This review aims to summarize these new insights in an integrated manner while identifying unanswered questions.

  5. The specific requirement for sodium chloride for the active uptake of l-glutamate by Halobacterium salinarium

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, J.

    1966-01-01

    1. Uptake of l-glutamate by Halobacterium salinarium is dependent on high concentrations of sodium chloride in the environment. When the sodium chloride is replaced by isomolar concentrations of potassium chloride, sodium acetate or potassium acetate, only negligible uptake occurs. 2. Most of the glutamate taken up can be shown to be in the cells in the free state and at a concentration of at least 50 times that in the medium. Sodium chloride is therefore required for an active transport of the glutamate into the cells. 3. The question whether sodium chloride is essential for the actual migration of glutamate across the cell envelope or for the mechanism supplying energy for this migration is discussed on the basis of experiments on endogenous respiration and with inhibitors. PMID:5947144

  6. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-01-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level…

  7. Investigation of a sodium-chloride-damage region by femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavasheli, Yu. O.; Komarov, P. S.; Ashitkov, S. I.; Savintsev, A. P.; Agranat, M. B.

    2016-12-01

    The damaged regions (craters) arising under optical destruction of a sodium-chloride surface by 40-fs pulses emitted from a terawatt titanium-sapphire laser system are investigated. The dependence of the sizes of the damaged spot and the crater depth on the laser-pulse energy are determined at a wavelength of 800 nm.

  8. Sodium perbarate and benzalkonium chloride induce DNA damage in Chang conjunctival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huina; Wu, Han; Yang, Jun; Ye, Juan

    2017-02-06

    Content and objective: To investigate and compare the toxic effects of benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and new type oxidative preservative sodium perborate (NaBO3) on DNA damage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cell survival in immortalized human Chang conjunctival cells.

  9. [Status of microcirculation in elderly hypertensive patients during treatment with sodium chloride baths].

    PubMed

    Abramovich, S G

    2002-01-01

    Microcirculation was studied with biomicroscopy of the eye bulbar conjunctiva's vessels in 50 patients with essential hypertension stage II aged 60-80 years. They took half baths with sodium chloride mineral water at Irkutsk health resort "Angara". The treatment resulted in improvement of perivascular and intravascular end blood flow.

  10. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  11. Effects of high dietary sodium chloride content on performance and sodium and potassium balance in growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Jansson, Anna; Lindberg, Jan Erik

    2013-10-01

    Thirty castrated male Moo Lath pigs (6-8 weeks of age) were used in a 15-week growth trial to study the effect of high dietary sodium chloride (NaCl) content on feed and water intake, performance, sodium (Na) and potassium (K) balance, and plasma aldosterone concentration. The pigs were randomly allocated (ten per treatment) to diets containing 0.24 % Na (Na0.24), 0.28 % Na (Na0.28), and 0.32 % Na (Na0.32) per kg diet. Feed and water was provided ad libitum, and water consumption, feed offered, and feed residues were recorded daily. Every third week, the pigs were weighed, blood samples were collected, and a 3-day total collection of urine and feces was performed. Water intake was higher (P = 0.001) in pigs fed with diets Na0.28 (3.7 L/day) and Na0.32 (3.9 L/day) than in pigs fed with diet Na0.24 (3.4 L/day), and dry matter (DM) intake was higher on diet Na0.32 (P = 0.041) than on the other diets. The average daily body weight (BW) gain was higher on diet Na0.32 than on the other diets (P = 0.031). The feed conversion ratio (in kilogram feed DM to kilogram BW gain) was 4.6, 4.6, and 4.1 on treatments Na0.24, Na0.28, and Na0.32, respectively (P = 0.14). The highest Na balance was observed on diet Na0.32 followed by diets Na0.28 and Na0.24 (P < 0.001), while there was no treatment-related pattern for the K balance. The Na/K ratio in feces and urine increased (P < 0.001), and the K/Na ratio in feces (P < 0.001) decreased with increasing Na content in the diet. Plasma aldosterone concentration decreased (P < 0.001) with increasing dietary content of Na. These results indicate that high NaCl intake and free access to water will increase Na balance but do not negatively influence feed intake and performance of growing local pigs.

  12. The effect of sodium reduction with and without potassium chloride on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Cheddar cheese.

    PubMed

    Hystead, E; Diez-Gonzalez, F; Schoenfuss, T C

    2013-10-01

    Sodium chloride (NaCl) in cheese contributes to flavor and texture directly and by its effect on microbial and enzymatic activity. The salt-to-moisture ratio (S/M) is used to gauge if conditions for producing good-quality cheese have been met. Reductions in salt that deviate from the ideal S/M range could result in changing culture acidification profiles during cheese making. Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris are both used as cultures in Cheddar cheese manufacture, but Lc. lactis ssp. lactis has a higher salt and pH tolerance than Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. Both salt and pH are used to control growth and survival of Listeria monocytogenes and salts such as KCl are commonly used to replace the effects of NaCl in food when NaCl is reduced. The objectives of this project were to determine the effects of sodium reduction, KCl use, and the subspecies of Lc. lactis used on L. monocytogenes survival in stirred-curd Cheddar cheese. Cheese was manufactured with either Lc. lactis ssp. lactis or Lc. lactis ssp. cremoris. At the salting step, curd was divided and salted with a concentration targeted to produce a final cheese with 600 mg of sodium/100 g (control), 25% reduced sodium (450 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl), and low sodium (53% sodium reduction or 280 mg of sodium/100 g; both with and without KCl). Potassium chloride was added on a molar equivalent to the NaCl it replaced to maintain an equivalent S/M. Cheese was inoculated with a 5-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes at different times during aging to simulate postprocessing contamination, and counts were monitored over 27 or 50 d, depending on incubation temperature (12 or 5 °C, respectively). In cheese inoculated with 4 log₁₀ cfu of L. monocytogenes/g 2 wk after manufacture, viable counts declined by more than 3 log₁₀ cfu/g in all treatments over 60 d. When inoculated with 5 log₁₀ cfu/g at 3mo of cheese age, L. monocytogenes counts in Cheddar cheese were also

  13. Effect of sodium chloride on the glass transition of condensed starch systems.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Lillian; Panyoyai, Naksit; Shanks, Robert; Kasapis, Stefan

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation deals with the structural properties of condensed potato starch-sodium chloride systems undergoing a thermally induced glass transition. Sample preparation included hot pressing at 120°C for 7 min to produce extensive starch gelatinisation. Materials covered a range of moisture contents from 3.6% to 18.8%, which corresponded to relative humidity values of 11% and 75%. Salt addition was up to 6.0% in formulations. Instrumental work was carried out with dynamic mechanical analysis in tension, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and wide angle X-ray diffraction. Experimental conditions ensured the development of amorphous matrices that exhibited thermally reversible glassy consistency. Both moisture content and addition of sodium chloride affected the mechanical strength and glass transition temperature of polymeric systems. Sodium ions interact with chemical moieties of the polysaccharide chain to alter considerably structural properties, as compared to the starch-water matrix.

  14. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium chloride is one of the primary contaminants that enter gas turbine engines and contribute, either directly or indirectly, to the hot corrosion degradation of hot-gas-path components. The paper surveys the results of laboratory experiments along with thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, intended for elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments. It is shown that besides being a source of sodium for the formation of corrosive liquid Na2SO4, the NaCl itself contributes in other indirect ways to the material degradation associated with the high-temperature environmental attack. In addition, the experimental results lend credence to the conceptual scheme presented schematically (behavior of NaCl in a turbine engine combustion gas environment) and resolve conflicting aspects of relevant NaCl misconceptions.

  15. Effects of polar aprotic solvents on the rate of the topochemical reaction of benzoyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene

    SciTech Connect

    Zlobin, V.A.

    1985-10-01

    The kinetics of the topochemical reaction of benozyl chloride with sodium azide in o-xylene have been examined in the presence of varying amounts of acetonitrile and dimethylformamide. The specific rates and activation energies for the reaction have been found. These parameters have been found to increase with the amounts of polar aprotic solvent added. The observed dependence is explained by a change in the mechanism of the reaction.

  16. Dietary sodium, added salt, and serum sodium associations with growth and depression in the U.S. general population.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Pavel; Leshem, Micah

    2014-08-01

    It is not known why salt is so attractive to humans. Here, guided by hypotheses suggesting that the attraction of salt is conditioned by postingestive benefits, we sought to establish whether there are such benefits in a population by analyzing the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2008 database (n = ~ 10,000). We focus on two potential benefits supported by the literature, growth and moderation of depression, and examine their relationship to sodium, dietary, added at table, and serum. We find that during growth (<18 years), there is a specific increase in adjusted dietary sodium intake, independent of caloric or other electrolyte intakes. We find that adding salt and depression are related. In contrast, and in women only, dietary sodium and depression are inversely related. The relationships are correlational, but we speculate that this constellation may reflect self-medication for depression by adding salt, and that men may be protected by their higher dietary sodium intake. Additional findings are that women add more salt than men below age ~30, after which men add more, and below 40 years of age, serum sodium is lower in women than in men. It remains possible that small but beneficial effects of sodium could condition salt preference and thus contribute to population-wide sodium intake.

  17. [The sodium-potassium-chloride cotransport of the cell membrane].

    PubMed

    Urazaev, A Kh

    1998-01-01

    Discovery and active exploration of the furosemid-sensitive derived-active co-transport of sodium-potassium-chlorine ions took place in the end of 1970-es-1980-es. This transportation mechanism was discovered in various types of cells, both of plant and of animal origin. This review describes properties of the transportation process, which was most comprehensive explored in experiments with erythrocytes, epithelium cells and muscles. The review covers the following properties: anion and cation selectivity of the chlorine transportation, its sensitivity to the specific blocking agents (furocemid, bumetanid, etc.), stoichiometry of the transportation process, etc. For energy source, the chlorine transportation is based on transmembrane electrochemical gradient for sodium ions. The article provides the most recent results of investigation of the chemical nature of the molecule of the chlorine membrane transport. Based on various studies, the molecule of this protein weighs from 120 to 200 kD, includes about 1200 amino acid residua, and forms long cytoplasmatic NH2 and COOH-termini. The gene encoding the amino acid sequence has been cloned. The article discusses the issues of regulation of the chlorine transportation. Humoral control of intensity of the chlorine transportation has been mostly studied in experiments with plain muscles, the issues related to nervous regulation--with only skeleton muscle fibers. The article provides specific data on the mechanisms of the above types of the physiological regulation of active chlorine transportation. In general, the humoral factors, which increase the intracellular concentration of cAMF stimulate chlorine transportation. On the contrary, the hormones, which increase concentration of cGMF in cytoplasm reduce its activity in plain muscles. The discussion of the mechanisms of the nervous controls of the chlorine transportation in the skeleton muscles includes the original results of the author. These results indicate that the

  18. Radioiodination of 3-quinuclidinyl benzilate using a no-carrier-added concentration of iodine-125/sodium-iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.S.

    1986-01-01

    3-Quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) is a potent muscarinic antagonist that binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Iodination of QNB is difficult because it contains rings that are deactivated, while phenol rings are activated. The purpose of this research is to develop an appropriate method for the iodination of QNB at no-carrier-added concentrations of /sup 125/I/NaI. Phenol was chose as the test compound for direct iodination by adding chloramine T and nonradioactive sodium iodide to the phenol in a phosphate buffer and methanol system. A simple method to radioiodinate QNB at several concentrations was developed in situ in the presence of QNB, thallic trifluoroacetate /sup 125/I/NaI, /sup 127/I/NaI, and aluminium chloride. Using milligram amounts of QNB (7.12 x 10/sup -6/ moles), three reaction steps were involved: QNB was reacted with thallic trifluoroacetate at 60/sup 0/C for 24 hours, then radioactive /sup 125/I/NaI and aluminium chloride were added to the reaction mixture and the reaction continued at 70/sup 0/C for 3 hours, and then nonradioactive /sup 127/I/NaI was added to this mixture and continued at 70/sup 0/C for another hour. Using microgram amounts of QNB (1.06 x 10/sup 7/ moles) in the no-carrier-added radioiodination, the optimal yield of (/sup 125/I)m-IQNB was obtained when the same mole ratio of QNB:aluminum chloride:thallic trifluoroacetate was used and the radioactive /sup 125/I/NaI reaction was allowed to continue at 70/sup 0/C for 24 hours while all other variables were held constant. The m-IQNB from the crude reaction mixture was purified by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Thin-layer chromatography showed one peak from the HPLC fraction numbers 28-31.

  19. Effects of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride concentration on PEG/protein liquid-liquid phase separation.

    PubMed

    Dumetz, André C; Lewus, Rachael A; Lenhoff, Abraham M; Kaler, Eric W

    2008-09-16

    When added to protein solutions, poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) creates an effective attraction between protein molecules due to depletion forces. This effect has been widely used to crystallize proteins, and PEG is among the most successful crystallization agents in current use. However, PEG is almost always used in combination with a salt at either low or relatively high concentrations. Here the effects of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate concentration on PEG 8000/ovalbumin liquid-liquid (L-L) phase separation are investigated. At low salt the L-L phase separation occurs at decreasing protein concentration with increasing salt concentration, presumably due to repulsive electrostatic interactions between proteins. At high salt concentration, the behavior depends on the nature of the salt. Sodium chloride has little effect on the L-L phase separation, but ammonium sulfate decreases the protein concentration at which the L-L phase separation occurs. This trend is attributed to the effects of critical fluctuations on depletion forces. The implications of these results for designing solution conditions optimal for protein crystallization are discussed.

  20. Influence of mixing and ultrasound frequency on antisolvent crystallisation of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, Judy; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kentish, Sandra E

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound is known to promote nucleation of crystals and produce a narrower size distribution in a controlled and reproducible manner for the crystallisation process. Although there are various theories that suggest cavitation bubbles are responsible for sonocrystallisation, most studies use power ultrasonic horns that generate both intense shear and cavitation and this can mask the role that cavitation bubbles play. High frequency ultrasound from a plate transducer can be used to examine the effect of cavitation bubbles without the intense shear effect. This study reports the crystal size and morphology with various mixing speeds and ultrasound frequencies. The results show high frequency ultrasound produced sodium chloride crystals of similar size distribution as an ultrasonic horn. In addition, ultrasound generated sodium chloride crystals having a more symmetrical cubic structure compared to crystals produced by a high shear mixer.

  1. Concentrations of chloride and sodium in groundwater in New Hampshire from 1960 through 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Medalie, Laura

    2013-01-01

    A new cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the NHDES (Medalie, 2012) assessed chloride and sodium levels in groundwater in New Hampshire from the 1960s through 2011. The purpose of the study was to integrate all data on concentrations of chloride and sodium from groundwater in New Hampshire available from various Federal and State sources, including from the NHDES, the New Hamsphire Department of Health and Human Services, the USGS, and the U.S. Environmental Protection SurveyAgency (USEPA), for public and private (domestic) wells and to organize the data into a database. Medalie (2012) explained the many assumptions and limitations of disparate data that were collected to meet wide-ranging objectives. This fact sheet summarizes the most important findings of the data.

  2. Stress anisotropy and concentration effects in high pressure measurements. [sodium chloride

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, D. A., Jr.; Ruoff, A. L.

    1974-01-01

    Sodium chloride is used as an internal pressure standard in high pressure research. Possible corrections are discussed which are needed in the calibration of this standard due to the independent effects of stress anisotropy and stress concentration in pressure vessels. The first is due to the lack of a truly hydrostatic state of stress in solid state pressure vessels. The second is due to the difference in the compressibilities between the pressure transmitting substances (sodium chloride) and a stiffer test specimen. These two corrections are then combined and a total correction, as a function of measured pressure, is discussed for two systems presently in use. The predicted value of the combined effect is about 5-10% of the pressure at 30 GPa.

  3. Removal of sodium and chloride ions from aqueous solutions using fique fibers (Furcraea spp.).

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Nikolay; Hinestroza, Juan P; Husserl, Johana

    2016-01-01

    Fique fibers obtained from the leaves of Furcraea spp., a highly abundant plant in the mountains of South America, may offer an alternative as biosorbents in desalination processes as they exhibit high removal capacities (13.26 meq/g for chloride ions and 15.52 meq/g for sodium ions) up to four times higher than exchange capacities commonly observed in synthetic resins. The ion removal capacity of the fibers was also found to be a function of the pH of the solution with the maximum removal of ions obtained at pH 8. Unlike most commercial ion exchange resins, our results suggest that fique fibers allow simultaneous removal of chloride and sodium ions.

  4. Electroreduction of the tantalum oxofluoride complexes in an equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolmatov, V. S.; Kuznetsov, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical behavior of the tantalum mono-, di-, and trioxofluoride complexes in the equimolar NaCl-KCl melt is studied. The trioxofluoride TaO3F2- complexes are shown to discharge at the potentials that are more negative than those of alkali metal cations; that is, they are electrochemically inactive against the background of the equimolar mixture of sodium and potassium chlorides.

  5. [Interference currents and chloride sodium baths in combined treatment of scoliosis in children].

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Popov, V V; Podgornaia, O V

    2006-01-01

    The article presents the results of administration of interference currents, chloride sodium baths and their combined effect in therapy of scoliosis of the first and second degree in children. These physical factors have a positive effect on the orthopedic status, functional condition of spinal and abdominal muscles, parameters of peakflowmetry, electrocardio- and cardiointervalography. The highest therapeutic activity was noted in combined use of these factors.

  6. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  7. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    PubMed

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on bakers' yeast growing in gelatin.

    PubMed

    Wei, C J; Tanner, R D; Malaney, G W

    1982-04-01

    In recent years, industrial fermentation researchers have shifted their attention from liquid to solid and semisolid culture conditions. We converted liquid cultures to the semisolid mode by adding high levels of gelatin. Previous studies on liquid cultures have revealed the inhibitory activity of mineral salts, such as NaCl, on the fermentation of sugars by yeasts. We made a kinetic study of the effects of 1 to 5% (wt/vol) NaCl on the alcoholic fermentations of glucose by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a growth medium containing 16% gelatin. Our results showed that the effect of high salt content on semisolid culture is essentially the same as the effect on liquid culture; i.e., as the salt content increased, the following occurred: (i) the growth of yeasts decreased, (ii) the lag period of the yeast biomass curve lengthened, (iii) the sugar intake was lowered, (iv) the yield of ethanol was reduced, and (v) the production of glycerol was increased. We observed a new relationship correlating the area of kinetic hysteresis with ethanol production rate, acetaldehyde concentration, and the initial NaCl concentration.

  9. Human skin preserved in anhydric sodium chloride for months can be successfully transplanted.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Waldemar L; Moscicka, Maria; Zolich, Dorota

    2004-01-01

    Human skin can be preserved in pulverized sodium chloride dehydrated at 240C for 2 hours at room temperature for periods of weeks or months and successfully transplanted to scid mouse, retaining its normal morphological structure. Fragment of skin of a size of 10 x 10 x 6 mm were harvested during elective vascular and orthopaedic surgery of lower limbs, dried of blood and placed in anhydric sodium chloride powder in tight sealed containers. Prior to transplantation to scid mice, the specimens were desalinated and rehydrated. Specimes preserved for 1 to 6 months and harvested 3-4 weeks after transplantation revealed intensive incorporation of bromdeoxyuridine (BrdU) into basal keratinocytes. They expressed p63 and CD29 (stem cells, and transient cells antigens), PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen) and cytokeratin 16 specific for proliferating keratinocytes. Dermal fibroblasts and few large HLA II cells showed a normal structure. Bacterial flora of skin did not change after grafting. We conclude that human skin can survive in a dehydrated state in sodium chloride for months and after transplantation the epidermal basal layer cells give rise to keratinocyte progenies. Skin fibroblasts and some resident immune cells can also survive.

  10. A Review of Sodium-Metal Chloride Battery Activity At JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Following the disclosures by Coetzer et al. on the use of transition metal chlorides in chloroaluminates as alternate cathodes to sulfur in rechargeable sodium batteries, several laboratories, including the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, focused their attention on these systems. These systems have certain distinct advantages over sodium-sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability, and lower operating temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and NaNiCl2, were developed extensively and evaluated in various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and warrants a detailed fundamental study on these cathodes. At the Jet Propulsion Laboratory a program was initiated two years back to understand the electrochemical behavior of FeCl2 and NiCl2, and to identify and evaluate other transition metal chlorides of promise. The initial efforts focused on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics, and identifying the rate-limiting processes in te reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged form these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation- a rate limiting process-under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have a higher energy density, has been assessed. On the basis of the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt appear promising.

  11. Effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the termal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Response to the Letter to the Editor: We have received with great satisfaction that our article “Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef” (Food Research International, 69:289-304; 2015) has awaken inte...

  12. [Effectiveness of differential application of sodium chloride baths for the treatment of early forms of cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kholmogorov, N A; Shprakh, V V; Miriutova, N F

    2008-01-01

    Treatment of patients at the early stages of cerebrovascular diseases with the use of sodium chloride baths resulted in the improvement of morphological and functional characteristics of brain vessels. Combination of sodium chloride baths with impulse currents and magnetic fields caused regression of neurologic and neuropsychotic disturbances in 80% of the patients. Beneficial therapeutic effects persisted especially long when the patients received the above treatment during 21-24 days.

  13. Stability of Melphalan in 0.9% Sodium Chloride Solutions Prepared in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags for Intravenous Injection.

    PubMed

    Desmaris, Romain-Pacôme; Mercier, Lionel; Paci, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan is an alkylating agent frequently used in an intravenous formulation to treat hematologic malignancies and solid tumors in both adults and children. According to the manufacturer, melphalan is stable in sterile 0.9% sodium chloride for 90 min at room temperature (RT). Several authors have studied the stability of different concentrations of melphalan; however, most were not adapted to the current manufacturing process applied in pharmaceutical centralized units. This study was conducted to determine the stability of melphalan in 0.9% sodium chloride solutions at concentrations used for intravenous injection in practice. Melphalan is commonly prepared in diluted solutions ranging from 2 to 4 mg/ml for the treatment of adult patients and at lower concentrations (down to 0.5 mg/ml) for pediatric use. Accordingly, these were the three concentrations chosen for this study. Melphalan concentrations were measured with high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). At RT, admixtures prepared at 4 mg/ml were stable for up to 8 h without protection from light; however, at lower concentrations, such as 0.5 and 2 mg/ml, stability did not exceed 2 h. When refrigerated, melphalan was stable for 24 h at 2 mg/ml; however, at 0.5 and 4 mg/ml, the drug was not stable. Melphalan solutions present with limited stability at 0.5, 2, and 4 mg/ml and are not adapted for delayed administration in pharmaceutical centralized units. However, at 4 mg/ml and at RT, a stability of 8 h is very interesting in practice and allows sufficient time for preparation, pharmaceutical control, transport, and administration.

  14. Temporal changes in sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations in four eastern Pennsylvania streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Trend analyses of 20 years or more of chemical quality and streamflow data for four streams in eastern Pennsylvania indicate that sulfate has decreased significantly in three of the four basins studied, while sodium and chloride have generally increased. The majority of chemical quality changes occurred in the late 1950 's and early 1960 's coincident with significant cultural changes. It is believed that these chemical quality changes are presently of little or no environmental consequence, as the concentrations are well within the range of those found in natural waters. Decreases in sulfate follow a regional trend concurrent with the conversion of home and industrial heating units from high to low sulfur coal, gas, and oil. The most significant decreases were observed in those basins severely affected by mine-drainage where pumpage has decreased significantly in the past 25 years, thereby further reducing the sulfur content of the streams. The observed increases in chloride and sodium are attributed to population increases and shifts from rural to suburban communities with concurrent increase in the percentage of the population using municipal waste treatment facilities and the increased use of salt on roadways. The concentrations of dissolved chloride, which are from two to three times higher in recent years, reach a peak in January, coincident with the application of salt to melt ice on the roadways. (USGS)

  15. Inhibition of sodium current by taurine magnesium coordination compound prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Yin, Yongqiang; Wen, Ke; Wu, Yanna; Kang, Yi; Lou, Jianshi

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism(s) by which taurine magnesium coordination compound (TMCC) inhibits experimental arrhythmias remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of TMCC against cesium chloride-induced arrhythmia in the rabbit heart and find whether the antiarrhythmic activity is related to inhibition of sodium current. Early afterdepolarization was induced by 1.5 mM cesium chloride (1 ml kg(-1)) through intravenous injection. The monophasic action potentials (MAP) and electrocardiograms were simultaneously recorded. The effect of TMCC on functional refractory periods (FRPs) in the left atrium was also observed in vitro. Arrhythmias onset was significantly retarded by TMCC. The number of ventricular premature contractions and incidence of monophasic ventricular tachycardia and polyphasic ventricular tachycardia in 10 min were decreased by TMCC. These effects can be abolished by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). MAP duration at 90% repolarization was significantly prolonged by TMCC, which can be prolonged even longer by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). In vitro experiments showed that FRPs was prolonged by TMCC which can be cancelled by veratridine (10 μg kg(-1)). TMCC prevents cesium chloride-induced arrhythmias, and inhibition of sodium current, in part, contributes to the antiarrhythmic effect of TMCC.

  16. Crystal structure of ball-milled mixture of sodium chloride and magnesium chloride-ethanol adduct

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Xue; Tian Xiuzhi; Fan Zhiqiang

    2008-02-05

    NaCl doped MgCl{sub 2}.nEtOH adducts were prepared by ball-milling MgCl{sub 2}.2.5EtOH with NaCl. Both the ball-milled MgCl{sub 2}.nEtOH/NaCl mixture and pure MgCl{sub 2}.2.5EtOH adducts were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), thermogravimetry (TG) and differencial scanning calorimetry (DSC). A simple MgCl{sub 2}.nEtOH/NaCl mixture without ball-milling treatment was also studied for comparison. Two kinds of mixed crystals, Na{sub 2}MgCl{sub 4} and NaMgCl{sub 3}, were found to be formed in a ball-milled mixture that contained 16 mol.% NaCl. TG and DSC analysis of the samples also provided indirect evidences supporting the presence of the mixed crystals in the ball-milled mixture. Adding certain amounts of NaCl in MgCl{sub 2}.2.5EtOH adduct, either by co-milling or by simple mixing, greatly increased the thermal stability of the adduct, but thermal decomposition behaviour of the ball-milled mixture was still different from that of a simple mixture.

  17. Mercuric chloride-induced testicular toxicity in rats and the protective role of sodium selenite and vitamin E.

    PubMed

    Kalender, Suna; Uzun, Fatma Gokce; Demir, Filiz; Uzunhisarcıklı, Meltem; Aslanturk, Ayse

    2013-05-01

    Mercury has been recognized as an environmental pollutant that adversely affects male reproductive systems of animals. This study examined the effects of mercuric chloride on the antioxidant system and histopathological changes and also evaluated the ameliorating effects of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E in the rat testis tissues. Sexually mature male Wistar rats (weighing 300-320g and each group six animals) were given mercuric chloride (1mg/kg bw) and/or sodium selenite (0.25mg/kg bw)+vitamin E (100mg/kg) daily via gavage for 4weeks. In the present study, mercuric chloride exposure resulted in an increase in the TBARS level and a decrease in the SOD, CAT, GPx activities, with respect to the control. Further, light microscopic investigation revealed that mercury exposure induced histopathological alterations in the testis tissues. Supplementation of sodium selenite and/or vitamin E to mercury-induced groups declined lipid peroxidation, increased SOD, CAT, GPx activities. While some histopathological changes were detected in mercuric chloride treated group, milder histopathological changes were observed in animal co-treated with sodium selenite and/or vitamin E supplementation to mercuric chloride-treated rats. As a result, mercuric chloride induced testicular toxicity is reduced by sodium selenite and/or vitamin E, but not ameliorate completely.

  18. Intravenous bicarbonate and sodium chloride both prolong endurance during intense cycle ergometer exercise.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, T H; Abraham, G; Wing, S; Magder, S A; Cosio, M G; Deschamps, A; Marliss, E B

    1990-08-01

    To determine the effects of neutralizing exercise systemic acidosis via the intravenous route upon endurance and metabolic responses, eight lean, normal, postabsorptive men exercised to exhaustion at about 80% of their VO2 max (69 +/- 3%, mean +/- SEM, of maximum power output) on a cycle ergometer. Exercise studies were performed either with no infusion (control) or with a total infusion volume of about 1.5 L, mainly as 1.3% sodium bicarbonate or as 0.9% sodium chloride (NaCl), infused (double-blind) throughout exercise. The sodium bicarbonate was to prevent acid-base change, the sodium chloride was as a control for the volume infused. Arterialized venous blood and breath-by-breath analysis of expired gases were obtained. [H+] (nmol.L-1) and [HCO3-] (mmol.L-1) at exhaustion were similar in control and NaCl (46.5 +/- 1.8, 19.9 +/- 0.9), but remained unchanged from rest values with bicarbonate (38.4 +/- 0.9, 24.8 +/- 1.5, p less than 0.005 vs control and NaCl). At exhaustion, VO2, VCO2, RER, heart rate, and systolic BP as well as FFA, glycerol, alanine, insulin, norepinephrine, and epinephrine did not differ among protocols. Endurance was markedly prolonged (p less than 0.01) with bicarbonate (31.9 +/- 5.8 min) and NaCl (31.8 +/- 4.1 min) compared with the control (19.0 +/- 2.9 min) condition. Plasma glucose at exhaustion was higher (p less than 0.025) in the control compared to bicarbonate and NaCl experiments, while lactate was higher (p less than 0.025) in the bicarbonate than in the control and NaCl experiments. Thus, the prolonged endurance with sodium bicarbonate infusion could not be explained either by its effect of maintaining blood acid-base equilibrium or concomitant metabolic changes.

  19. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Sodium chloride-esculin hydrolysis test for rapid identification of enterococci.

    PubMed

    Qadri, S M; Flournoy, D J; Qadri, S G

    1987-06-01

    The ability of enterococci to cause severe disease in humans and their relative resistance to chemotherapeutic agents make it desirable to rapidly differentiate these organisms from other streptococci. We developed and evaluated a test that within 2 h distinguishes enterococci from other alpha-, beta-, or nonhemolytic streptococci in a buffered solution containing 0.2% esculin and 5% sodium chloride. All 239 strains of enterococci tested gave a positive reaction within 2 h, whereas 95 of 96 isolates of other streptococci remained negative at 4 h.

  1. [Dimensional changes in die stones with an additive and sodium chloride].

    PubMed

    di Girolamo Netto, J A; Oda, M; Matson, E

    1989-01-01

    The obtention of a working model and the preparation of the die must be developed with great care and attention to detail. Based on these principles, a study was conducted referring to the different kinds of special plasters or die plasters available on the market, with respect to dimensional alterations, as well as an investigation of the dimensional behavior of special plasters in the presence of two additives. The results shows that Vel-mix had the greatest difference. All the special plasters brands showed alterations when the Gypsum Hardener were used. These alterations did not occur with sodium chloride.

  2. Zero-gravity growth of a sodium chloride-lithium fluoride eutectic mixture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, A. S.; Yeh, C. W.; Yue, B. K.

    1982-01-01

    Continuous and discontinuous lithium fluoride fibers embedded in a sodium chloride matrix were produced in space and on Earth, respectively. The production of continuous fibers in a eutectic mixture was attributed to the absence of convective current in the liquid during solidification in space. Image transmission and optical transmittance measurements of transverse sections of the space-grown and Earth-grown ingots were made with a light microscope and a spectrometer. It was found that better optical properties were obtained from samples grown in space. This was attributed to a better alignment of lithium fluoride fibers along the growth direction.

  3. The evaporation of the water-sodium chlorides solution droplets on the heated substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Kuznetsov, Geniy; Feoktistov, Dmitriy

    2014-08-01

    This work presents an experimental study of the evaporation of a sessile water- sodium chlorides solution drop to open atmosphere on the solid substrate (anodized aluminum) under the varying heat flux. The main parameters defining drop profile were obtained: contact diameter, contact angle, height of the drop. The specific evaporation rate was calculated. The influence of the initial concentration of the evaporated solution to a value of the specific evaporation rate has been found out. The specific evaporation rate decreases with increasing of the concentration.

  4. Compressed sodium chloride as a fast-acting antimicrobial surface: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, B D; Smith, S W

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial surfaces are currently being studied as an aid to reduce transmission of pathogens leading to healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). Among the most harmful and costly pathogens that cause HAIs is meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Currently available and previously investigated antimicrobial surface technologies that are effective against MRSA (e.g. copper alloy surfaces) take 30min to several hours to achieve significant reduction. This article presents a new antimicrobial surface technology made of compressed sodium chloride that reduces MRSA 20-30 times faster than copper alloy surfaces.

  5. Sodium nickel chloride battery technology for large-scale stationary storage in the high voltage network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benato, Roberto; Cosciani, Nicola; Crugnola, Giorgio; Dambone Sessa, Sebastian; Lodi, Giuseppe; Parmeggiani, Carlo; Todeschini, Marco

    2015-10-01

    The extensive application of Sodium-Nickel Chloride (Na-NiCl2) secondary batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles, in which the safety requirements are more restrictive than these of stationary storage applications, depicts the Na-NiCl2 technology as perfectly suitable for the stationary storage applications. The risk of fire is negligible because of the intrinsic safety of the cell chemical reactions, related to the sodium-tetrachloroaluminate (NaAlCl4) content into the cell, which acts as a secondary electrolyte (the primary one being the ceramic β″-alumina as common for Na-Beta batteries). The 3 h rate discharge time makes this technology very attractive for load levelling, voltage regulation, time shifting and the power fluctuation mitigation of the renewable energy sources in both HV and EHV networks.

  6. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  7. Infrared optical constants of crystalline sodium chloride dihydrate: application to study the crystallization of aqueous sodium chloride solution droplets at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Robert; Möhler, Ottmar; Schnaiter, Martin

    2012-08-23

    Complex refractive indices of sodium chloride dihydrate, NaCl·2H(2)O, have been retrieved in the 6000-800 cm(-1) wavenumber regime from the infrared extinction spectra of crystallized aqueous NaCl solution droplets. The data set is valid in the temperature range from 235 to 216 K and was inferred from crystallization experiments with airborne particles performed in the large coolable aerosol and cloud chamber AIDA at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. The retrieval concept was based on the Kramers-Kronig relationship for a complex function of the optical constants n and k whose imaginary part is proportional to the optical depth of a small particle absorption spectrum in the Rayleigh approximation. The appropriate proportionality factor was inferred from a fitting algorithm applied to the extinction spectra of about 1 μm sized particles, which, apart from absorption, also featured a pronounced scattering contribution. NaCl·2H(2)O is the thermodynamically stable crystalline solid in the sodium chloride-water system below the peritectic at 273.3 K; above 273.3 K, the anhydrous NaCl is more stable. In contrast to anhydrous NaCl crystals, the dihydrate particles reveal prominent absorption signatures at mid-infrared wavelengths due to the hydration water molecules. Formation of NaCl·2H(2)O was only detected at temperatures clearly below the peritectic and was first evidenced in a crystallization experiment conducted at 235 K. We have employed the retrieved refractive indices of NaCl·2H(2)O to quantify the temperature dependent partitioning between anhydrous and dihydrate NaCl particles upon crystallization of aqueous NaCl solution droplets. It was found that the temperature range from 235 to 216 K represents the transition regime where the composition of the crystallized particle ensemble changes from almost only NaCl to almost only NaCl·2H(2)O particles. Compared to the findings on the NaCl/NaCl·2H(2)O partitioning from a recent study conducted with micron

  8. Cortisol regulates sodium homeostasis by stimulating the transcription of sodium-chloride transporter (NCC) in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Hu, Huei-Jyun; Hwang, Pung-Pung

    2016-02-15

    In mammals, sodium/hydrogen exchanger (NHE) and sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) are expressed in renal tubules, and exhibit functional redundancy and mutual compensation in Na(+) uptake. In teleosts, the gills of the adult and skin of the embryonic stage function as external kidneys, and ionocytes are responsible for ionoregulation in these tissues. NHE- and NCC-expressing ionocytes mutually cooperate to adjust Na(+) uptake, which is analogous to the activity of the mammalian kidney. Cortisol is a hormone that controls Na(+) uptake through regulating NCC expression and activity in mammals; however, cortisol-mediated control of NCC expression is little understood in non-mammalian vertebrates, such as teleosts. It is essential for our understanding of the evolution of such regulation to determine whether cortisol has a conserved effect on NCC in vertebrates. In the present study, we treated zebrafish embryos with low Na(+) medium (LNa, 0.04 mM Na(+)) for 3 d to stimulate the mRNA expression of nhe3b, ncc, and cyp11b1 (a cortisol-synthesis enzyme) and whole body cortisol level. Exogenous cortisol treatment (20 mg/l, 3 d) resulted in an elevation of whole-body Na(+) content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells in zebrafish larvae. In loss-of-function experiments, microinjection of glucocorticoid receptor (gr) morpholino (MO) suppressed sodium content, ncc expression, and the density of ncc-expressing cells, but injection of mr MO had no such effects. In addition, exogenous cortisol treatment and gr MO injection also altered ncc expression and the density of ncc-expressing cells in gcm2 morphant larvae. Taken together, cortisol and GR appear to regulate Na(+) absorption through stimulating ncc expression and the differentiation of ncc-expressing ionocytes, providing new insights into the actions of cortisol on Na(+) uptake.

  9. Superiority of experts over novices in trueness and precision of concentration estimation of sodium chloride solutions.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Tomohiro; Wada, Yuji; Okamoto, Masako; Kyutoku, Yasushi; Yamaguchi, Yui; Kimura, Atsushi; Kobayakawa, Tatsu; Kawai, Takayuki; Dan, Ippeita; Hayakawa, Fumiyo

    2013-03-01

    Several studies have reported that experts outperform novices in specific domains. However, the superiority of experts in accuracy, taking both trueness and precision into consideration, has not yet been explored. Here, we examined differences between expert and novice performances by evaluating the accuracy of their estimations of physical concentrations of sodium chloride in solutions while employing a visual analog scale. In Experiment 1, 14 experts and 13 novices tasted 6 concentrations of the solutions until they had learned their intensities. Subsequently, they repeatedly rated the concentration of 3 other solutions in random order. Although we did not find a difference between the performances of the 2 groups in trueness (difference between rating and correct concentration), the precision (consistency of ratings for each participant) of experts was higher than that of novices. In Experiment 2, 13 experts who had participated in Experiment 1 and 10 experts and 12 novices who had not participated in Experiment 1 rated the salt concentration in sodium chloride/sucrose mixtures in the same way as in Experiment 1. Both trueness and precision of performance were higher in both expert groups than in the novice group. By introducing precision and trueness parameters, we succeeded in quantifying the estimations of experts and novices in rating the concentration of solutions, revealing experts' superiority even for a task they had not been trained for.

  10. How Sodium Chloride Salt Inhibits the Formation of CO2 Gas Hydrates.

    PubMed

    Holzammer, Christine; Finckenstein, Agnes; Will, Stefan; Braeuer, Andreas S

    2016-03-10

    We present an experimental Raman study on how the addition of sodium chloride to CO2-hydrate-forming systems inhibits the hydrate formation thermodynamically. For this purpose, the molar enthalpy of reaction and the molar entropy of reaction for the reaction of weakly hydrogen-bonded water molecules to strongly hydrogen bonded water molecules are determined for different salinities from the Raman spectrum of the water-stretching vibration. Simultaneously, the influence of the salinity on the solubility of CO2 in the liquid water-rich phase right before the start of hydrate formation is analyzed. The results demonstrate that various mechanisms contribute to the inhibition of gas hydrate formation. For the highest salt concentration of 20 wt % investigated, the temperature of gas hydrate formation is lowered by 12 K. For this concentration the molar enthalpy and entropy of reaction become smaller by 50 and 20%, respectively. Concurrently, the solubility of carbon dioxide is reduced by 70%. These results are compared with data in literature for systems of sodium chloride in water (without carbon dioxide).

  11. Changes in metabolites, antioxidant system, and gene expression in Microcystis aeruginosa under sodium chloride stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Mao, Feijian; Kirumba, George Chira; Jiang, Cheng; Manefield, Mike; He, Yiliang

    2015-12-01

    Microcystis (M.) aeruginosa, one of the most common bloom-forming cyanobacteria, occurs worldwide. The Qingcaosha (QCS) Reservoir is undergoing eutrophication and faces the problem of saltwater intrusion. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sudden salinity changes on physiological parameters and related gene transcription in M. aeruginosa under controlled laboratory conditions. The results showed that sodium chloride (50, 200 and 500 mg L(-1) NaCl) inhibited the algal growth and decreased pigment concentrations (chlorophyll a, carotenoid and phycocyanin). Sodium chloride increased both the intracellular and extracellular microcystin contents and elevated the mcyD transcript level in M. aeruginosa. It also increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and caused cytomembrane damage. This damage caused the release of intracellular toxins into the culture medium. In addition, NaCl decreased the maximum electron transport rate, increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and changed the cellular redox status. Consequently, NaCl inhibited the expression of cpcB, psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, NaCl increased the activities of superoxide dismutases (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), and total glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The transcript levels of sod and reduced glutathione (gsh) were also increased after exposure to NaCl. Our results indicate that a sudden increase in salinity increases the production and excretion of microcystin, changes the cellular redox status, enhances the activities of antioxidant enzymes, inhibits photosynthesis, and affects transcript levels of related genes in M. aeruginosa.

  12. Melting point equations for the ternary system water/sodium chloride/ethylene glycol revisited.

    PubMed

    Benson, James D; Bagchi, Aniruddha; Han, Xu; Critser, John K; Woods, Erik J

    2010-12-01

    Partial phase diagrams are of considerable utility in the development of optimized cryobiological procedures. Recent theoretical predictions of the melting points of ternary solutions of interest to cryobiology have caused us to re-examine measurements that our group made for the ethylene-glycol-sodium chloride-water phase diagram. Here we revisit our previous experiments by measuring melting points at five ethylene-glycol to sodium chloride ratios (R values; R=5, 10, 15, 30, and 45) and five levels of concentration for each ratio. Melting points were averaged from three measurements and plotted as a function of total solute concentration for each R value studied. The new measurements differed from our original experimental values and agreed with predicted values from both theoretical models. Additionally, the data were fit to the polynomial described in our previous report and the resulting equation was obtained: T(m) = (38.3-2.145 x 10⁻¹ R)w + (81.19 - 2.909×10⁻¹ R)w², where w is the total solute mass fraction. This new equation provided good fits to the experimental data as well as published values and relates the determined polynomial constants to the R value of the corresponding isopleths of the three dimensional phase diagram, allowing the liquids curve for any R value to be obtained.

  13. Properties of diclofenac sodium sorption onto natural zeolite modified with cetylpyridinium chloride.

    PubMed

    Krajišnik, Danina; Daković, Aleksandra; Milojević, Maja; Malenović, Anđelija; Kragović, Milan; Bogdanović, Danica Bajuk; Dondur, Vera; Milić, Jela

    2011-03-01

    In this study an investigation of a model drug sorption onto cationic surfactant-modified natural zeolites as a drug formulation excipient was performed. Natural zeolite was modified with cetylpyridinium chloride in amounts equivalent to 100, 200 and 300% of its external cation-exchange capacity. The starting material and obtained organozeolites were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis. In vitro sorption of diclofenac sodium as a model drug was studied for all surfactant/zeolite composites by means of sorption isotherm measurements in aqueous solutions (pH 7.4). The modified zeolites with three levels of surfactant coverage within the short activation time were prepared. Zeta potential measurements and thermal analysis showed that when the surfactant loading level was equal to external cation-exchange value, almost monolayer of organic phase were present at the zeolitic surface while higher amounts of surfactant produced less extended bilayers, ordered bilayers or admicelles at the zeolitic surface. Modified zeolites, obtained in this manner, were effective in diclofenac sodium sorption and the organic phase derived from adsorbed cetylpyridinium chloride was the primary sorption phase for the model drug. The Langmuir isotherm was found to describe the equilibrium sorption data well over the entire concentration range. The separate contributions of the adsorption and partition to the total sorption of DS were analyzed mathematically. Results revealed that that adsorption and partitioning of the model drug take place simultaneously.

  14. Deliquescence and crystallization of ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Atul; Fok, Abel; Parsons, Matthew T.; Mak, Jackson; Bertram, Allan K.

    2004-06-01

    In the following, we report the deliquescence relative humidities (DRH) and crystallization relative humidities (CRH) of mixed inorganic-organic particles, specifically ammonium sulfate-glutaric acid and sodium chloride-glutaric acid particles. Knowledge of the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic particles is crucial for predicting the role of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. Our DRH results are in good agreement with previous measurements, but our CRH results are significantly lower than some of the previous measurements reported in the literature. Our studies show that the DRH and CRH of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride only decreased slightly when the mole fraction of the acid was less than 0.4. If other organics in the atmosphere behave in a similar manner, then the DRH and CRH of mixed inorganic-organic atmospheric particles will only be slightly less than the DRH and CRH of pure inorganic particles when the organic mole fraction is less than 0.4. Our results also show that if the particles contain a significant amount of organics (mole fraction > 0.5) the crystallization relative humidity decreases significantly and the particles are more likely to remain in the liquid state. Further work is needed to determine if other organics species of atmospheric importance have a similar effect.

  15. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J. . E-mail: joanne.hill@nirex.co.uk; Harris, A.W.; Manning, M.; Chambers, A.; Swanton, S.W.

    2006-07-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 deg. C compared to those prepared at 25 deg. C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  16. The effect of sodium chloride on the dissolution of calcium silicate hydrate gels.

    PubMed

    Hill, J; Harris, A W; Manning, M; Chambers, A; Swanton, S W

    2006-01-01

    The use of cement based materials will be widespread in the long-term management of radioactive materials in the United Kingdom. One of the applications could be the Nirex reference vault backfill (NRVB) as an engineered barrier within a deep geological repository. NRVB confers alkaline conditions, which would provide a robust chemical barrier through the control of the solubility of some key radionuclides, enhanced sorption and minimised corrosion of steel containers. An understanding of the dissolution of C-S-H gels in cement under the appropriate conditions (e.g., saline groundwaters) is necessary to demonstrate the expected evolution of the chemistry over time and to provide sufficient cement to buffer the porewater conditions for the required time. A programme of experimental work has been undertaken to investigate C-S-H gel dissolution behaviour in sodium chloride solutions and the effect of calcium/silicon ratio (C/S), temperature and cation type on this behaviour. Reductions in calcium concentration and pH values were observed with samples equilibrated at 45 degrees C compared to those prepared at 25 degrees C. The effect of salt cation type on salt-concentration dependence of the dissolution of C-S-H gels was investigated by the addition of lithium or potassium chloride in place of sodium chloride for gels with a C/S of 1.0 and 1.8. With a C/S of 1.0, similar increases in dissolved calcium concentration with increasing ionic strength were recorded for the different salts. However, at a C/S of 1.8, anomalously high calcium concentrations were observed in the presence of lithium.

  17. Clonidine and lidamidine (WHR-1142) stimulate sodium and chloride absorption in the rabbit intestine.

    PubMed

    Durbin, T; Rosenthal, L; McArthur, K; Anderson, D; Dharmsathaphorn, K

    1982-06-01

    The effects of clonidine and lidamidine on ion transport in the intestine of the rabbit were determined. In the ileum both clonidine (10(-6) M) and lidamidine (10(-3) M) (a) decreased the short circuit current (-1.9 +/- 0.3 and -2.0 +/- 0.4 muEq/h . cm2, respectively) and potential difference; (b) increased net sodium absorption (2.0 +/- 0.6 and 1.8 +/- 0.4 muEq/h . cm2) and chloride absorption (3.4 +/- 0.5 and 3.4 +/- 0.6 muEq/h . cm2); and (c) increased tissue conductance (8.7 +/- 1.7 and 10.0 +/- 1.6 mmho/cm2). The increase in net sodium and chloride absorption was primarily due to an increase in mucosal-to-serosal movement of the ions and a decrease in serosal-to-mucosal movement of chloride. The action of clonidine on the short circuit current was quantitatively similar to the action of epinephrine. Both were readily reversed by yohimbine, a specific alpha 2-adrenergic antagonist. Further, methoxamine, an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist has no effect on the short circuit current up to the concentration of 10(-5) M; and prazosin, an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist, did not affect the change of the short circuit current induced by epinephrine. The results indicate the presence of alpha 2-adrenergic receptors on the intestine and suggest that alpha 2-adrenergic stimulation may account for the effect of epinephrine on ion transport. Lidamidine was studied because it is structurally related to clonidine and has many similar actions. Yohimbine transiently reversed the effect of lidamidine. alpha 1-Adrenergic or dopaminergic antagonists did not reverse the effect of lidamidine, suggesting that it may affect alpha 2-adrenergic receptors. The results indicate that both clonidine and lidamidine stimulate electrolyte absorption and may be clinically useful.

  18. Potential of salt-accumulating and salt-secreting halophytic plants for recycling sodium chloride in human urine in bioregenerative life support systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikhomirova, N. A.; Ushakova, S. A.; Kudenko, Yu. A.; Gribovskaya, I. V.; Shklavtsova, E. S.; Balnokin, Yu. V.; Popova, L. G.; Myasoedov, N. A.; Gros, J.-B.; Lasseur, Ch.

    2011-07-01

    This study addresses the possibility of growing different halophytic plants on mineralized human urine as a way to recycle NaCl from human wastes in a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS). Two halophytic plant species were studied: the salt-accumulating Salicornia europaea and the salt-secreting Limonium gmelinii. During the first two weeks, plants were grown on Knop's solution, then an average daily amount of urine produced by one human, which had been preliminarily mineralized, was gradually added to the experimental solutions. Nutrient solutions simulating urine mineral composition were gradually added to control solutions. NaCl concentrations in the stock solutions added to the experimental and control solutions were 9 g/L in the first treatment and 20 g/L in the second treatment. The mineralized human urine showed some inhibitory effects on S. europaea and L. gmelinii. The biomass yield of experimental plants was lower than that of control ones. If calculated for the same time period (120 d) and area (1 m 2), the amount of sodium chloride taken up by S. europaea plants would be 11.7 times larger than the amount taken up by L. gmelinii plants (486 g/m 2 vs. 41 g/m 2). Thus, S. europaea is the better choice of halophyte for recycling sodium chloride from human wastes in BLSS.

  19. Differential Effects of Sodium Butyrate and Lithium Chloride on Rhesus Monkey Trophoblast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Priyadarsini; Thirkill, Twanda L.; Ji, Jennifer; Monte, Louise H.; Douglas, Gordon C.

    2015-01-01

    Trophoblast differentiation during early placental development is critical for successful pregnancy and aberrant differentiation causes preeclampsia and early pregnancy loss. During the first trimester, cytotrophoblasts are exposed to low oxygen tension (equivalent to~2%-3% O2) and differentiation proceeds along an extravillous pathway (giving rise to invasive extravillous cytotrophoblasts) and a villous pathway (giving rise to multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast). Interstitial extravillous cytotrophoblasts invade the decidua, while endovascular extravillous cytotrophoblasts are involved in re-modelling uterine spiral arteries. We tested the idea that sodium butyrate (an epigenetic modulator) induces trophoblast differentiation in early gestation rhesus monkey trophoblasts through activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. The results show that syncytiotrophoblast formation was increased by butyrate, accompanied by nuclear accumulation of β-catenin, and increased expression of EnvV2 and galectin-1 (two factors thought to be involved in trophoblast fusion). Surprisingly, the expression of GCM1 and syncytin-2 was not affected by sodium butyrate. When trophoblasts were incubated with lithium chloride, a GSK3 inhibitor that mimics Wnt activation, nuclear accumulation of β-catenin also occurred but differentiation into syncytiotrophoblast was not observed. Instead the cells differentiated to mononucleated spindle-shaped cells and showed molecular and behavioral characteristics of endovascular trophoblasts. Another highly specific inhibitor of GSK3, CHIR99021, failed to induce endovascular trophoblast characteristics. These observations suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway correlates with both trophoblast differentiation pathways, but that additional factors determine specific cell fate decisions. Other experiments suggested that the differential effects of sodium butyrate and lithium chloride might be explained by their effects on TNFα production. The

  20. Real-time measurement of sodium chloride in individual aerosol particles by mass spectrometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, M. P.; Friedlander, S. K.

    1985-01-01

    The method of particle analysis by mass spectrometry has been applied to the quantitative measurement of sodium chloride in individual particles on a real-time basis. Particles of known masses are individually introduced, in the form of a beam, into a miniature Knudsen cell oven (1600 K). The oven is fabricated from rhenium metal sheet (0.018 mm thick) and is situated in the ion source of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. A particle once inside the oven is trapped and completely volatilized; this overcomes the problem of partial volatilization due to particles bouncing from the filament surface. Individual particles are thermally volatilized and ionized inside the rhenium oven, and produce discrete sodium ion pulses whose intensities are measured with the quadrupole mass spectrometer. An ion pulse width of several milliseconds (4-12 ms) is found for particles in the mass range 1.3 x 10 to the -13th to 5.4 x 10 to the -11th g. The sodium ion intensity is found to be proportional to the particle mass to the 0.86-power. The intensity distribution for monodisperse aerosol particles possesses a geometric standard deviation of 1.09, showing that the method can be used for the determination of the mass distribution function with good resolution in a polydisperse aerosol.

  1. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    PubMed

    Quay, I; Tan, E

    2001-01-01

    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  2. Differential elution of sodium or potassium dihydrogen- and hydrogenphosphate ions from a sephadex G-15 column with sodium or potassium chloride solution.

    PubMed

    Okada, T K; Miyakoshi, M; Inoue, M; Nakabayashi, Y; Jisaki, F

    2001-04-20

    When a mixed solution of sodium or potassium dihydrogenphosphate and disodium or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate was eluted from a Sephadex G-15 column with either a sodium or potassium chloride solution, the elution profiles of ions showed that the hydrogenphosphate ion was eluted more rapidly than the dihydrogenphosphate ion. When the sample solutions containing potassium dihydrogenphosphate and/or dipotassium hydrogenphosphate, all of which were supplemented with phosphorus-32-labelled potassium dihydrogenphosphate, were eluted with sodium chloride solution, the elution profiles of radioactivity showed that the dihydrogenphosphate ion changed to hydrogenphosphate ion and vice versa, depending on the pH values of the sample solution and the availability of the cation of the eluent during elution for the phosphate ion to pair with.

  3. Suppression by iron chelator phenanthroline of sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, Masaharu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Baba, Miyako; Mikuni, Tomiko; Narahara, Hiroyuki; Uedo, Noriya; Yano, Hiroyuki

    2003-02-28

    The effect of prolonged administration of iron chelator phenanthroline on sodium chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labeling and apoptotic indices in the gastric cancers was investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of carcinogen treatment, the rats were given chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and intraperitoneal injections of phenanthroline at doses of 15 or 30 mg/kg body weight every other day. At week 52, feeding of sodium chloride significantly increased the incidence of gastric cancers, as compared with the control group. Prolonged injections of phenanthroline at both doses significantly reduced the incidence of gastric cancers, which was enhanced by oral supplementation with sodium chloride. Phenanthroline at both doses significantly decreased the labeling index of gastric cancers, which was enhanced by sodium chloride, and significantly increased the apoptotic index of gastric cancers, which was lowered by sodium chloride. In vitro examination using electron spin resonance revealed that sodium chloride promotes the production of hydroxyl radical during Fe(2+) oxidation by Fenton's reaction. These findings suggest that enhancement by sodium chloride of gastric carcinogenesis may be mediated by hydroxyl radicals.

  4. Mid-infrared spectroscopic analysis of saccharides in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kanou, Mikihito; Kameoka, Takaharu; Suehara, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Atsushi

    2017-04-01

    The infrared spectral characteristics of three different types of disaccharides (trehalose, maltose, and sucrose) and four different types of monosaccharides (glucose, mannose, galactose, and fructose) in aqueous solutions with sodium chloride (NaCl) were determined. The infrared spectra were obtained using the FT-IR/ATR method and the absorption intensities respected the interaction between the saccharide and water with NaCl were determined. This study also focused on not only the glycosidic linkage position and the constituent monosaccharides, but also the concentration of the saccharides and NaCl and found that they have a significant influence on the infrared spectroscopic characterization of the disaccharides in an aqueous solution with NaCl. The absorption intensities representing the interaction between a saccharide and water with NaCl were spectroscopically determined. Additionally, the applications of MIR spectroscopy to obtain information about saccharide-NaCl interactions in foods and biosystems were suggested.

  5. Solution processed sodium chloride interlayers for efficient electron extraction from polymer solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickel, Felix; Reinhard, Manuel; Zhang, Zhenhao; Pütz, Andreas; Kettlitz, Siegfried; Lemmer, Uli; Colsmann, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    We investigate a solution-processable, non-toxic sodium chloride (NaCl) interlayer for aluminum cathodes in organic solar cells. The electron extraction at the cathode interface is strongly improved upon the insertion of NaCl leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 2.9% as compared to 1.8% efficient devices without interlayer. Scanning electron and kelvin probe force microscopy studies reveal that the formation of NaCl crystals causes a decrease of the aluminum work function by more than 300 mV. By impedance spectroscopy, we found evidence that the NaCl crystals improve the energetic alignment at the polymer/metal interface.

  6. Chemotaxis behavior toward an odor is regulated by constant sodium chloride stimulus in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Shingai, Ryuzo; Ichijo, Hiroshi; Wakabayashi, Tokumitsu; Tanaka, Hidetoshi; Ogurusu, Tarou

    2014-01-01

    We studied the chemotaxis behavior of Caenorhabditis elegans toward a chemoattractant in the presence of background sensory stimulus. Chemotaxis toward an odor butanone was greater in the presence of sodium chloride (NaCl) than that without NaCl. By contrast, chemotaxis toward NaCl was not affected by a butanone background. The salt-sensing ASE neuron-deficient che-1(p674) mutants and worms with ASE genetically ablated showed high chemotaxis toward butanone, regardless of the presence of a NaCl background. Therefore, in wild-type worms, information from ASE in the absence of NaCl suppresses butanone chemotaxis, while the suppression is removed in the presence of NaCl.

  7. The Sodium-Driven Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger in Presynaptic Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Burette, Alain C.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Sassani, Patrick; Abuladze, Natalia; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, was recently found to modulate excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampus. By using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate here that NDCBE is expressed throughout the adult rat brain, and selectively concentrates in presynaptic terminals, where it is closely associated with synaptic vesicles. NDCBE is in most glutamatergic axon terminals, and is also present in the terminals of parvalbumin-positive γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells. These findings suggest that NDCBE can regulate glutamatergic transmission throughout the brain, and point to a role for NDCBE as a possible regulator of GABAergic neurotransmission. PMID:22102085

  8. Water-solid interactions between amorphous maltodextrins and crystalline sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Ghorab, Mohamed K; Marrs, Krystin; Taylor, Lynne S; Mauer, Lisa J

    2014-02-01

    The effects of co-formulating amorphous maltodextrins (MDs) and sodium chloride (NaCl), a deliquescent crystalline solid, on moisture sorption, deliquescence point (RH0), and glass transition temperature (Tg) behaviours were investigated. Moisture sorption profiles of binary NaCl:MD mixtures and individual ingredients were generated using controlled relative humidity (RH) desiccators at temperatures from 22 to 50°C and by dynamic vapour sorption (DVS) and dynamic dewpoint sorption (DDS) techniques. Close proximity of MD and NaCl induced synergistic moisture uptake in binary mixtures above a threshold RH, resulting in significantly lower Tgs in binary mixtures compared to individual MDs. The RH0 of NaCl was also lower in the blends. Mixing amorphous MD with crystalline NaCl resulted in synergistic moisture sorption and reduced both Tg and RH0, thus blends were more sensitive to environmental moisture than the individual solids. This has implications for quality control of many formulated powder products.

  9. Removal of sodium chloride from human urine via batch recirculation electrodialysis at constant applied voltage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordils-Striker, Nilda E.; Colon, Guillermo

    2003-01-01

    The removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) from human urine using a six-compartment electrodialysis cell with batch recirculation mode of operation for use in advanced life support systems (ALSS) was studied. From the results obtained, batch recirculation at constant applied voltage yields high values (approximately 94% of NaCl removal. Based on the results, the initial rate of NaCl removal was correlated to a power function of the applied voltage: -r=2.0 x 10(-4)E(3.8). With impedance spectroscopy methods, it was also found that the anion membranes were more affected by fouling with an increase of the ohmic resistance of almost 11% compared with 7.4% for the cationic ones.

  10. Mutational scanning of potassium, sodium and chloride ion channels in malignant migrating partial seizures in infancy.

    PubMed

    Coppola, Giangennaro; Veggiotti, Pierangelo; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Bellini, Giulia; Longaretti, Francesca; Taglialatela, Maurizio; Pascotto, Antonio

    2006-03-01

    The mutational analysis of potassium (KCNQ2, KCNQ3), sodium (SCN1A, SCN2A), and chloride (CLCN2) ion channels was performed in three children with typical features of the recently described syndrome of migrating partial seizures in infancy. Mutational analysis was performed by PCR and automatic sequencing. The coding regions, including the exon-intron boundaries, were amplified in the patients using appropriate primers sets. No mutations associated to migrating partial seizures have been found. Mutational screening of CLCN2 gene, revealed a homozygous mutation G2003C (exon 17), leading to a Ser/Thr substitution at the codon 668, in two of the three patients. The same variation has been found in 38 out of 100 control alleles. The identification of the genetic basis of this new epileptic encephalopathy requires further studies that might be enforced by familial cases.

  11. Co-doped sodium chloride crystals exposed to different irradiation temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz-Morales, A.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Furetta, C.; Kitis, G.; Flores J, C.; Hernandez A, J.; Murrieta S, H.

    2013-07-03

    Monocrystals of NaCl:XCl{sub 2}:MnCl{sub 2}(X = Ca,Cd) at four different concentrations have been analyzed. The crystals were exposed to different irradiation temperature, such as at room temperature (RT), solid water (SW), dry ice (DI) and liquid nitrogen (LN). The samples were irradiated with photon from {sup 60}Co irradiators. The co-doped sodium chloride crystals show a complex structure of glow curves that can be related to different distribution of traps. The linearity response was analyzed with the F(D) index. The F(D) value was less than unity indicating a sub-linear response was obtained from the TL response on the function of the dose. The glow curves were deconvoluted by using the CGCD program based on the first, second and general order kinetics.

  12. Aqueous sodium chloride induced intergranular corrosion of Al-Li-Cu alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, P. P.; Daeschner, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    Two methods have been explored to assess the susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys to intergranular corrosion in aqueous sodium chloride solution. They are: (1) constant extension rate testing with and without alternate-immersion preexposure and (2) metallographic examination after exposure to a NaCl-H2O2 corrosive solution per Mil-H-6088F. Intergranular corrosion was found to occur in both powder and ingot metallurgy alloys of similar composition, using both methods. Underaging rendered the alloys most susceptible. The results correlate to stress-corrosion data generated in conventional time-to-failure and crack growth-rate tests. Alternate-immersion preexposure may be a reliable means to assess stress corrosion susceptibility of Al-Li-Cu alloys.

  13. A potentiodynamic study of aluminum-lithium alloys in an aqueous sodium chloride environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, C.-H. T.; Pizzo, P. P.

    1985-01-01

    The characteristics of the potentiodynamic curves for Al-Li alloys in 3.5 percent NaCl aqueous solution are explained and the electrochemical parameters of the potentiodynamic technique are correlated to observed pitting and intergranular cracking behavior. It is shown that the oxygen content of the sodium chloride electrolyte plays an important role in the electrochemical behavior of Al-Li alloys. The potentiodynamic behavior of the alloys is found to be insensitive to variation in compositional content and heat treatment, both of which affect the stress-corrosion behavior. Stringer oxide particle attack and random pitting are observed. It is shown that alternate-immersion exposure prior to potentiodynamic polarization may offer a means of assessing susceptibility to stress-corrosion cracking.

  14. Infrared spectroscopy of water clusters co-adsorbed with hydrogen molecules on a sodium chloride film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamakawa, Koichiro; Fukutani, Katsuyuki

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen gas containing a trace of water vapor was dosed on a vacuum-evaporated sodium chloride film at 13 K, and water clusters formed on the substrate were investigated by infrared absorption spectroscopy. Absorption bands due to (H2O)n clusters with n = 3-6 and an induced absorption band due to hydrogen were clearly observed. With increasing gas dosage, the intensities of the cluster bands increased linearly while the intensity of the hydrogen band was constant. This suggests that the water clusters were formed in two-dimensional matrices of hydrogen. We found that the water clusters did exist on the surface upon heating even after the hydrogen molecules had desorbed. A further rise of the substrate temperature up to 27 K yielded the formation of larger clusters, (H2O)n with n > 6 . We also discuss the origins of the two bands of the trimer in terms of pseudorotation and a metastable isomer.

  15. Combined effect of alkali pretreatment and sodium chloride addition on the olive fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Chammem, N; Kachouri, M; Mejri, M; Peres, C; Boudabous, A; Hamdi, M

    2005-07-01

    Green olives of the Tunisian variety "Meski" were treated according to a Spanish-style green olive preservation process by using an alkaline treatment (1.5, 2 and 2.5% (w/v) NaOH) to eliminate bitterness, combined with different brine concentrations (6, 9 and 12% (w/v) NaCl). A spontaneous fermentation by the environmental microflora took place. Results showed that 2% NaOH solution and 9% sodium chloride brine was an optimal combination inducing the best growth of Lactobacillus species (10(8) CFU/ml) and acidity of 0.726 g lactic acid/100 ml brine. In all trials and independently of the treatment, Lb. plantarum was the most dominant strain of Lactobacillus. Moreover, pretreatment with lye and lactic fermentation of olives contributed to coliform elimination.

  16. Surfactant Behavior of Sodium Dodecylsulfate in Deep Eutectic Solvent Choline Chloride/Urea.

    PubMed

    Arnold, T; Jackson, A J; Sanchez-Fernandez, A; Magnone, D; Terry, A E; Edler, K J

    2015-12-01

    Deep eutectic solvents (DES) resemble ionic liquids but are formed from an ionic mixture instead of being a single ionic compound. Here we present some results that demonstrate that surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) remains surface-active and shows self-assembly phenomena in the most commonly studied DES, choline chloride/urea. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) suggest that the behavior is significantly different from that in water. Our SANS data supports our determination of the critical micelle concentration using surface-tension measurements and suggests that the micelles formed in DES do not have the same shape and size as those seen in water. Reflectivity measurements have also demonstrated that the surfactants remain surface-active below this concentration.

  17. Monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in solar ponds by electrical conductivity and temperature measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Fynn, R.P.; Short, T.H.; Badger, P.C.; Sciarini, M.J.

    1980-01-01

    A simple accurate and semi-automatic system was developed for monitoring sodium chloride concentrations and density profiles in a solar pond. The profile meter, which measures pond solution conductivity and temperature, and the equations which convert this data into salt concentration and/or brine density, are covered in detail so that any potential users may construct their own equipment. The use of the profile meter, its advantages and disadvantages, are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the day-to-day profile monitoring that the conductivity-temperature method enables, and the use of the meter during modification of the pond profiles. A program is also available to calculate the pond profile using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 programmable calculator.

  18. Sodium-chloride Difference and Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-based Large-scale Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Toshihiro; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Muhei; Asano, Mai; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Oda, Yohei; Toda, Hitoshi; Marunaka, Yoshinori; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    Objective Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity. Hypernatremia and hypochloremia are also associated with an increased mortality. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the sodium-chloride difference (Na(+)-Cl(-)) and MetS. Methods In this cross-sectional and retrospective cohort study, we enrolled 3,875 subjects and evaluated the relationship between Na(+)-Cl(-) and MetS using logistic regression analyses. MetS was diagnosed according to the joint interim statement when a subject had three or more of the following criteria: hypertension; hyperglycemia; hypertriglyceridemia; low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; and abdominal obesity. Results There were 3,354 subjects without MetS and 521 subjects with MetS at baseline. The highest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartile (≥43 mmol/L) was associated with an increased risk of the presence of MetS compared to the lowest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartile (≤38 mmol/L) after adjusting for covariates, including age, sex, the body mass index, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, HDL cholesterol, creatinine, uric acid and lifestyle factors [multivariate odds ratio (OR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.17-2.84, p=0.0078]. After an 8-year follow-up, 658 out of 3,352 subjects were newly diagnosed with MetS. The highest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartile (≥43 mmol/L) was associated with an increased risk of the development of MetS compared to the lowest Na(+)-Cl(-) quartiles (≤38 mmol/L) after adjusting for covariates (multivariate OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.27-2.45, p=0.0007). Conclusion The sodium and chloride difference is associated with MetS.

  19. Particulate contamination and stability of three additives in 0.9% sodium chloride injection in plastic and glass large-volume containers.

    PubMed

    Stokes, T F; Sumner, E D; Needham, T E

    1975-08-01

    The effect of particulate matter and stability of three parenteral drugs upon addition to glass and flexible polyvinyl chloride containers of 0.9% sodium chloride injection was studied. Aminophylline, lidocaine hydrochloric and metaraminol bitartrate were added to the solution in therapeutic quantities using techniques normally practiced by the hospital pharmacist. Statistical comparisons of the amount of particulate matter present were made for each solution consisting of drug added to plastic and glass bottles, drug filtered through a 0.22-mum filter and then added to the solution in plastic bags, controls for bags and bottles, and solutions with adjusted pH values to simulate the pH attained after addition of the drug to the solution. A correlation appeared to exist between the quantity of particulate matter and the amount of unfiltered drug solution added to the large-volume parenteral containers. Differences in storage and handling had an influence on the initial quantity of particles found in the plastic bags, no significant change in concentration of the drugs occurred during the 24-hour test period.

  20. Recent trends in chloride and sodium concentrations in the deep subalpine lakes (Northern Italy).

    PubMed

    Rogora, Michela; Mosello, Rosario; Kamburska, Lyudmila; Salmaso, Nico; Cerasino, Leonardo; Leoni, Barbara; Garibaldi, Letizia; Soler, Valentina; Lepori, Fabio; Colombo, Luca; Buzzi, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    A growing concern exists about the effects of chloride (Cl) on freshwater systems. Increasing Cl concentrations have been observed in the last few decades in several rivers and lakes, mainly in northern countries. In Italy, present levels and temporal changes of sodium (Na) and Cl in water bodies have rarely been assessed. Based on long-term data for the lakes of the subalpine district in Italy (Maggiore, Lugano, Como, Iseo, Garda), we analyzed trends affecting Cl and Na concentrations during the last 25 years, with the aim of identifying temporal changes and assessing possible causes. An in-depth analysis is presented for Lake Maggiore. Positive temporal Na and Cl trends were evident in all studied lakes, with the trends increasing since early 2000s. Data for Lake Maggiore tributaries showed a clear seasonality (higher values in winter and early spring). The NaCl used as road de-icing agent, together with Cl discharge from wastewater treatment plants, were identified as the main causes for the observed trends. Chloride concentrations in the lakes are below the threshold limit for reduced water quality and below concentrations known to harm aquatic biota. However, considering the relevance of deep subalpine lakes, representing almost 80% of the total freshwater volume in Italy, these trends indicate an important chemical change, which warrants further analysis.

  1. Corrosion Behavior of Alloy 22 in Oxalic Acid and Sodium Chloride Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Day, S D; Whalen, M T; King, K J; Hust, G A; Wong, L L; Estill, J C; Rebak, R B

    2003-06-24

    Nickel based Alloy 22 (NO6022) is extensively used in aggressive industrial applications, especially due to its resistance to localized corrosion and stress corrosion cracking in high chloride environments. The purpose of this work was to characterize the anodic behavior of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solution and to compare its behavior to sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions. Standard electrochemical tests such as polarization resistance and cyclic polarization were used. Results show that the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 in oxalic acid solutions increased rapidly as the temperature and the acid concentration increased. Extrapolation studies show that even at a concentration of 10{sup -4}M oxalic acid, the corrosion rate of Alloy 22 would be higher in oxalic acid than in 1 M NaCl solution. Alloy 22 was not susceptible to localized corrosion in oxalic acid solutions. Cyclic polarization tests in 1 M NaCl showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion at 90 C but was not susceptible at 60 C.

  2. Effects of potassium chloride on plasma renin activity during sodium restriction in normal man.

    PubMed

    Bauer, J H; Gauntner, W C; Nolph, K D; Van Stone, J C

    1977-08-01

    Previous studies have suggested that large intakes of potassium (K) will suppress plasma renin activity (PRA) in normal man. The effect of more modest intakes of K on PRA is unclear. The present study was designed to compare the PRA in 11 normal volunteers maintained on an electrolyte-free diet (7000 J), with and without the addition of 50 mEq/day of potassium chloride (7000 J + KCl), well within the limits of usual dietary consumption. Control recumbent and 2 hr of upright PRA determinations were made by radioimmunoassay prior to the initiation of either the 7000 J diet or the 7000 J + KCl diet and on the fourth day of the diet, at a time when urinary sodium, K, and chloride excretions were near intakes. Mean (+/- S.E.M.) PRA's are indicated in Table II. There are significant (p less than 0.01) differences between (1) all respective recumbent and upright posture positions and (2) before and after the administration of 7000 J and 7000 J + KCl. However, there are no significant differences between (1) control periods or (2) before and after the addition of KCl to the electrolyte-free diet. We conclude from these studies that K, given in modest amounts, has no inhibiting effect on PRA.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of Sodium Silicate-Based Nanosilica against Chloride Effects in Offshore Concrete

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hak-Young; Heo, Young-Sun; Jung, Sang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a new pore filling material, named sodium silicate-based nanosilica (SS), on resisting the diffusion of the chloride ions. The proposed SS is chosen, mainly due to its smaller particle size, compared to the conventional ethyl silicate-based nanosilica. Each particle of SS is chemically treated to have the negative (−) charge on its surface. Four types of mixes with different amounts of partial replacement with fly ash and slag are prepared. Effect of water to binder ratios (0.35, 0.40, and 0.45) is also examined. Test results showed that the inclusion of SS was significantly beneficial for protecting the concrete from chloride attack. At a given strength, the SS inclusion in concrete was up to three times more effective than the control concrete without SS. It is believed that these excellent results are attributed to the small particle size and the chemical surface treatment of SS. In this study, experiments of compressive strength, hydration heat, accelerated neutralization, and sulfate erosion tests were also conducted to find the general effect of SS inclusion on the fundamental properties and durability of concrete. PMID:25574486

  4. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of reduced-fat mortadella prepared with blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride as partial substitutes for sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Horita, C N; Morgano, M A; Celeghini, R M S; Pollonio, M A R

    2011-12-01

    Blends of calcium, magnesium and potassium chloride were used to partially replace sodium chloride (50-75%) in reduced-fat mortadella formulations. The presence of calcium chloride reduced the emulsion stability, cooking yield, elasticity and cohesiveness and increased hardness; however, it yielded the best sensory acceptance when 50% NaCl was replaced by 25% CaCl(2) and 25% KCl. There was no effect of the salt substitutes on mortadella color, appearance and aroma. All salt combinations studied showed stable lipid oxidation during its shelf life. The use of a blend with 1% NaCl, 0.5% KCl and 0.5% MgCl(2) resulted in the best emulsion stability, but the worst scores for flavor. This study suggests that it is possible to reduce the sodium chloride concentration by 50% in reduced-fat mortadella using the studied salt combinations with necessary adjustments to optimize the sensory properties (MgCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%) or emulsion stability (CaCl(2) 25%; KCl 25%).

  5. Phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride/water aerosol particles before and after ozonolysis.

    PubMed

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J; Hanford, Kate L; Kwamena, Nana-Owusua A; Miles, Rachael E H; Reid, Jonathan P

    2012-06-21

    Aerosol optical tweezers are used to probe the phase, morphology, and hygroscopicity of single aerosol particles consisting of an inorganic component, sodium chloride, and a water insoluble organic component, oleic acid. Coagulation of oleic acid aerosol with an optically trapped aqueous sodium chloride droplet leads to formation of a phase-separated particle with two partially engulfed liquid phases. The dependence of the phase and morphology of the trapped particle with variation in relative humidity (RH) is investigated by cavity enhanced Raman spectroscopy over the RH range <5% to >95%. The efflorescence and deliquescence behavior of the inorganic component is shown to be unaffected by the presence of the organic phase. Whereas efflorescence occurs promptly (<1 s), the deliquescence process requires both dissolution of the inorganic component and the adoption of an equilibrium morphology for the resulting two phase particle, occurring on a time-scale of <20 s. Comparative measurements of the hygroscopicity of mixed aqueous sodium chloride/oleic acid droplets with undoped aqueous sodium chloride droplets show that the oleic acid does not impact on the equilibration partitioning of water between the inorganic component and the gas phase or the time response of evaporation/condensation. The oxidative aging of the particles through reaction with ozone is shown to increase the hygroscopicity of the organic component.

  6. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  7. [The use of sodium chloride baths in the combined treatment of trophic ulcers of the lower extremities].

    PubMed

    Zhirov, V P; Lipnitskiĭ, E M; Nagovitsyn, E S; Aksenova, E N; Kasimtseva, E V

    1989-01-01

    The use of sodium chloride baths for preoperative treatment of lower-limb trophic ulcers in 60 patients relieved the pain of the ulcer, enhanced repair processes. Epithelialization occurred in 9 patients. The duration of the hospital stay and the number of postoperative complications reduced.

  8. Influence of sodium chloride, pH, and lactic acid bacteria on anaerobic lactic acid utilization during fermented cucumber spoilage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumbers are preserved commercially by natural fermentations in 5% to 8% sodium chloride (NaCl) brines. Occasionally, fermented cucumbers spoil after the primary fermentation is complete. This spoilage has been characterized by decreases in lactic acid and a rise in brine pH caused by microbial ins...

  9. Prolactin stimulates sodium and chloride ion channels in A6 renal epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Greenlee, Megan M.; Mitzelfelt, Jeremiah D.; Duke, Billie Jeanne; Al-Khalili, Otor; Bao, Hui-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Many hormonal pathways contribute to the regulation of renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) function, a key process for maintaining blood volume and controlling blood pressure. In the present study, we examined whether the peptide hormone prolactin (PRL) regulates ENaC function in renal epithelial cells (A6). Basolateral application of several different concentrations of PRL dramatically stimulated the transepithelial current in A6 cells, increasing both amiloride-sensitive (ENaC) and amiloride-insensitive currents. Using cell-attached patch clamp, we determined that PRL increased both the number (N) and open probability (Po) of ENaC present in the apical membrane. Inhibition of PKA with H-89 abolished the effect of PRL on amiloride-sensitive and insensitive transepithelial currents and eliminated the increase in ENaC NPo with PRL exposure. PRL also increased cAMP in A6 cells, consistent with signaling through the cAMP-dependent PKA pathway. We also identified that PRL induced activity of a 2-pS anion channel with outward rectification, electrophysiological properties consistent with ClC4 or ClC5. RT-PCR only detected ClC4, but not ClC5 transcripts. Here, we show for the first time that PRL activates sodium and chloride transport in renal epithelial cells via ENaC and ClC4. PMID:25587116

  10. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-01-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  11. Chemistry and Mechanism of Interaction Between Molybdenite Concentrate and Sodium Chloride When Heated in the Presence of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrov, P. V.; Medvedev, A. S.; Imideev, V. A.; Moskovskikh, D. O.

    2017-04-01

    Roasting of molybdenum concentrates with sodium chloride has high potential and can be an alternative to oxidizing roasting and autoclave leaching; however, the chemistry and mechanism are poorly known. The chemical mechanism of the roasting process between molybdenite concentrate and sodium chloride in the presence of atmospheric oxygen is proposed. It is demonstrated that the process occurs through molybdenite oxidation, up to molybdenum trioxide, with subsequent formation of sodium polymolybdates and molybdenum dioxydichloride from molybdenum trioxide. It is found that the formation of water-soluble sodium polymolybdates from molybdenum trioxide stops over time due to passivation of sodium chloride surface by polymolybdates. It is proved experimentally that preliminary grinding of the mixture in a furnace charge leads to an increase in the polymolybdate fraction of the roasting products, which constitutes approximately 65 pct of molybdenum initially in the roasted mixture against 20 to 22 pct in a nonground mixture (or 75 to 77 pct against 30 to 33 pct of molybdenum in calcine). For the first time, the presence of the Na2S2O7 phase in the calcine was confirmed experimentally. The suggested mechanism gives possible explanations for the sharp increase of MoO2Cl2 formation within the temperature range of 673 K to 723 K (400 °C to 450 °C) that is based on the catalytic reaction of molybdenum dioxydichloride from the Na2S2O7 liquid phase as it runs in a melt.

  12. Electrophoretic separation of alginic sodium diester and sodium hexametaphosphate in chondroitin sulfate that interfere with the cetylpyridinium chloride titration assay.

    PubMed

    Weiguo, Zhang; Giancaspro, Gabriel; Adams, Kristie M; Neal-Kababick, James; Hildreth, Jana; Li, Aishan; Roman, Mark C; Betz, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    The most commonly used chondroitin sulfate (CS) assay method is cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) titration. Cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis (CAME) is the technique used for detection of impurities in the U.S. Pharmacopeia's CS monograph. Because CPC titration is a relatively nonspecific quantitative technique, the apparent amount of CS as determined by CPC titration alone may not reflect the true amount of CS due to possible interference with the CPC assay by impurities that contain CPC titratable functional groups. When CAME is used in conjunction with CPC titration, certain non-CS and adulterants can be visualized and estimated, and a true value for CS can be assigned once the presence of these non-CS impurities has been ruled out. This study examines conjunct application of CPC and CAME in ascertaining CS assay and purity in the presence of certain adulterants. These include propylene glycol alginate sulfate sodium, known in commerce as alginic sodium diester (ASD), and Zero One (Z1), a water-soluble agent newly reported in the CS marketplace and subsequently identified as sodium hexametaphosphate. ASD, Z1, and CS are similar in physical appearance and solubility in water and ethanol. They are also titratable anions and form ionic pairs with CPC, therefore interfering with the CPC titration assay for CS CAME separates these adulterants from each other and from CS by differences in their electrophoretic mobility. CAME is able to detect these impurities in CS at levels as low as 0.66% by weight. Although it is recommended that a method for detecting impurities (e.g., CAME) be used in cormbination with relatively nonspecific assay methods such as CPC titration, this is seldom done in practice. Assay results for CS derived fromn CPC titration may, therefore, be misleading, leaving the CS supply chain vulnerable to adulteration. In this study, the authors investigated ASD and Z1 adulteration of CS and developed an electrophoretic separation of these

  13. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    PubMed

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-09

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.

  14. The Use of Sodium Chloride & Aluminum as Phase Change Materials for High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Characterized by Calorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Encapsulated phase change materials (EPCM) have a great deal of potential for the storage of thermal energy in a wide range of applications. The present work is aimed at developing encapsulated phase change materials capable of storing thermal energy at temperatures above 700°C for use in concentrated solar power (CSP) systems. EPCM with a phase change material (PCM) with both a salt (sodium chloride) and a metal (aluminum) are considered here. Sodium chloride and aluminum are effective storage mediums because of their high melting points and large latent heats of fusion, 800°C and 660°C and 430kJ/kg and 397kJ/kg, respectively. Based on the heat capacities and the latent heat of fusion, for a 100 degree temperature range centered on the melting point of the PCM, 80% of the energy stored by the sodium chloride PCM can be attributed to the latent heat and 79% for the aluminum PCM. These large fractions attributed to latent heat have the potential for making EPCM based thermal energy storage devices smaller and less expensive. To study the performance of the candidate PCMs considered here, a specialized immersion calorimeter was designed, calibrated, and used to evaluate the storage capabilities of sodium chloride and aluminum based EPCMs. Additionally, the EPCMs were studied to ensure no loss of capacity would occur over the lifetime of the EPCM. While no reduction in the storage capacity of the sodium chloride EPCMs was found after repeated thermal cycles, there was a decrease in the storage capacity of the aluminum EPCMs after prolonged exposure to high temperatures.

  15. Spectrofluorimetric determination of warfarin sodium by using N1-methylnicotinamide chloride as a fluorigenic agent.

    PubMed

    El Dawy, Mohamed A; Mabrouk, Mokhtar M; El Barbary, Riad A

    2005-01-01

    A spectrofluorimetric method is described for the determination of drugs containing active methylene groups adjacent to carbonyl groups. The method was applied successfully to the determination of warfarin sodium in laboratory-prepared mixtures, in commercial tablets, and in spiked human plasma samples. Finally, the method was applied to the determination of the steady-state concentration of warfarin sodium in the blood of a hospitalized patient. The method involves the reaction of warfarin sodium with 0.2 ml (0.4 x 10(-3)M) N1-methylnicotinamide chloride reagent in the presence of 3 mL 1.0N NaOH and cooling in ice for 8 min, followed by adjustment of the pH to 2.0, using formic acid and heating for 4 min, whereby a highly fluorescent reaction product is produced. The optimal wavelengths of excitation and emission were determined by using a synchronous wavelength search and found to be 284 and 354 nm, respectively. The standard curves were linear over a concentration range of 50-1500 ng/mL in both aqueous solutions and spiked human plasma samples. The mean recoveries (+/- standard deviation) were 101.157 (+/-1.33) and 95.73 (+/-1.88%) for aqueous solutions and spiked human plasma samples, respectively. The method showed good specificity and precision. The proposed method is simple and economical because of its minimal instrumentation and chemicals requirements. Nevertheless, it is highly sensitive, specific, and reproducible. Accordingly, it is suitable for quality-control applications, drug monitoring, and bioavailability and bioequivalency studies.

  16. Oxygen, water, and sodium chloride transport in soft contact lenses materials.

    PubMed

    Gavara, Rafael; Compañ, Vicente

    2016-07-21

    Oxygen permeability, diffusion coefficient of the sodium ions and water flux and permeability in different conventional hydrogel (Hy) and silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lenses have been measured experimentally. The results showed that oxygen permeability and transmissibility requirements of the lens have been addressed through the use of siloxane containing hydrogels. In general, oxygen and sodium chloride permeability values increased with the water content of the lens but there was a percolation phenomenon from a given value of water uptake mainly in the Si-Hy lenses which appeared to be related with the differences between free water and bound water contents. The increase of ion permeability with water content did not follow a unique trend indicating a possible dependence of the chemical structure of the polymer and character ionic and non-ionic of the lens. Indeed, the salt permeability values for silicone hydrogel contact lenses were one order of magnitude below those of conventional hydrogel contact lenses, which can be explained by a diffusion of sodium ions occurring only through the hydrophilic channels. The increase of the ionic permeability in Si-Hy materials may be due to the confinement of ions in nanoscale water channels involving possible decreased degrees of freedom for diffusion of both water and ions. In general, ionic lenses presented values of ionic permeability and diffusivity higher than most non-ionic lenses. The tortuosity of the ionic lenses is lower than the non-ionic Si-Hy lenses. Frequency 55 and PureVision exhibited the highest water permeability and flux values and, these parameters were greater for ionic Si-Hy lenses than for ionic conventional hydrogel lenses. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  17. Thermophysical properties of sodium nitrate and sodium chloride solutions and their effects on fluid flow in unsaturated media

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-10-01

    Understanding movement of saline sodium nitrate (NaNO{sub 3}) waste solutions is important for assessing the contaminant migration near leaking waste storage tanks in the unsaturated zone at the Hanford site (Washington, USA). The purpose of this study is to contribute a basic understanding of effects of the thermophysical behavior of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on fluid flow in unsaturated media. We first present mathematical expressions for the dependence of density, viscosity, solubility and vapor pressure of NaNO{sub 3} solutions on both salt concentration and temperature, which were determined by fitting from published measured data. Because the previous studies of thermophysical behavior of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions can provide a basis for those of NaNO{sub 3} solutions, we also present a comparison of thermophysical properties of both salt solutions. We have implemented the functional thermophysical properties of NaNO{sub 3} solutions into a new TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG-NaNO{sub 3}, which is modified from a previous TOUGH2 equation-of-state module EWASG for NaCl. Using the simulation tool, we have investigated effects of the thermophysical properties on fluid flow in unsaturated media. The effect of density and viscosity of saline solutions has been long recognized. Here we focus our attention on the effect of vapor pressure lowering due to salinity. We present simulations of a one-dimensional problem to study this salinity-driven fluid flow. A number of simulations were performed using different values of thermal conductivity, permeability, and temperature, to illustrate conditions and parameters controlling these processes. Results indicate that heat conduction plays a very important role in this salinity-driven vapor diffusion by maintaining a nearly constant temperature. The smaller the permeability, the more water is transferred into the saline environment. Effects of permeability on water flow are also complicated by effects of capillary

  18. Effect of malva nut gum (purified and crude), sodium chloride and phosphate on cooking, texture, colour, rheology and microstructure of different chicken meat batters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Somboonpanyakul, P; Quinton, M; Smith, A

    2009-01-01

    1. In the first experiment, the effect of adding purified malva nut gum (PMG) to comminuted poultry breast meat batters formulated with different contents of sodium chloride (NaCl; 10 to 30 g/kg) and tripolyphosphate (TPP; 0 and 5 g/kg) was studied. 2. Increasing salt (sodium chloride) content, along with the addition of 1 g/kg PMG, was beneficial in reducing cooking loss. At all salt contents, batters with PMG showed lower springiness than batters without PMG. Adding PMG to the batter with 20 g/kg salt and TPP decreased fracture force, springiness and chewiness. 3. In a second experiment, the effects of PMG (0.0, 3.0 and 6.0 g/kg), crude malva nut gum (CMG; 3.0 g/kg) and TPP (0.0 and 4.0 g/kg) on cooking loss, fat loss, colour, texture, rheology and microstructure of emulsified chicken meat batters were studied. 4. Increasing PMG reduced cooking and fat losses. Adding TPP increased hardness, springiness, cohesiveness and chewiness. The 1.0 g/kg PMG and TPP provided the greatest hardness. The batter with 3.0 g/kg PMG resulted in the lowest lightness (L*) and highest redness (a*). Adding PMG and TPP resulted in stable batters, as was evident by light microscopy results. The rheological evaluation showed the highest G' in the batter with 4.0 g/kg TPP followed in decreasing order by the batters containing TPP plus 3.0 g/kg PMG, TPP plus 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg PMG, 1.0 g/kg PMG, 3.0 g/kg CMG and the control. 5. Overall, the results are important for developing new applications where malva nut gum can be used to improve yield and stability of meat products.

  19. Modelling the effect of pH, sodium chloride and sodium pyrophosphate on the thermal resistance of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in ground beef

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A fractional factorial design was used to assess the combined effects of four internal temperatures (55.0, 57.5, 60.0 and 62.5C) and five concentrations of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0.0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6.0 wt/wt%) and sodium pyrophosphate (SPP) (0.0, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2 and 0.3 wt/wt%) on the heat resis...

  20. Generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution using C/PbO2 and Pb/PbO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalwa, Nasser Abu; Tamos, Hassan; ElAskalni, Mohamed; El Agha, Abed Rhman

    2012-06-01

    Two modified electrodes (Pb/PbO2 and C/PbO2) were prepared by electrodepositing a lead oxide layer on lead and carbon substrates. These modified electrodes were used as anodes for the generation of sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) from sodium chloride solution. Different operating conditions and factors affecting the treatment process of NaOCl generation, including current density, pH values, conductive electrolytes, and electrolysis time, were studied and optimized. By comparison the C/PbO2 electrode shows a higher efficiency than the Pb/PbO2 electrode for the generation of NaOCl.

  1. Expanding Spectrum of Sodium Potassium Chloride Co-transporters in the Pathophysiology of Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Kaur, Aalamjeet; Bali, Anjana; Singh, Nirmal

    2015-01-01

    Sodium potassium chloride co-transporter (NKCC) belongs to cation-dependent chloride co-transporter family, whose activation allows the entry of Na+, K+ and 2Cl- inside the cell. It acts in concert with K+ Cl- co-transporter (KCC), which extrudes K+ and Cl- ions from cell. NKCC1 is widely distributed throughout the body, while NKCC2 is exclusively present in kidney. Protein kinase A, protein kinase C, Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase, oxidative stress responsive kinases, With No K=lysine kinase and protein phosphatase type 1 control the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of key threonine residues of in regulatory domain of NKCC1. The selective inhibitors of NKCC1 including bumetanide and furosemide are conventionally employed as diuretics. However, recent studies have indicated that NKCC1 may be involved in the pathophysiology of anxiety, cerebral ischemia, epilepsy, neuropathic pain, fragile X syndrome, autism and schizophrenia. The inhibitors of NKCC1 are shown to produce anxiolytic effects; attenuate cerebral ischemia-induced neuronal injury; produce antiepileptic effects and attenuate neuropathic pain. In the early developing brain, GABAA activation primarily produces excitatory actions due to high NKCC1/KCC2 ratio. However, as the development progresses, the ratio of NKCC1/KCC2 ratio reverses and there is switch in the polarity of GABAA actions and latter acquires the inhibitory actions. The recapitulation of developmental-like state during pathological state may be associated with increase in the expression and functioning of NKCC1, which decreases the strength of inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission. The present review describes the expanding role and mechanism of NKCC1 in the pathophysiology of different diseases. PMID:26411965

  2. Attenuation by genistein of sodium-chloride-enhanced gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, M; Iishi, H; Baba, M; Yano, H; Uehara, H; Nakaizumi, A

    1999-01-29

    The effects of prolonged administration of genistein, a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, on sodium-chloride-enhanced induction of gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, and the labeling and apoptotic indices and vessel counts in the gastric mucosa and gastric cancers, were investigated in Wistar rats. After 25 weeks of the carcinogen treatment, rats were fed chow pellets containing 10% sodium chloride and were given s.c. injections of genistein at dosages of 15 mg/kg or 30 mg/kg body weight every other day. In week 52, the incidence of gastric cancers was significantly greater in rats fed sodium chloride than in untreated control rats. Prolonged administration of genistein at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, but not 15 mg/kg, body weight significantly reduced the incidence of gastric cancers, which was increased by oral treatment with sodium chloride. Genistein at the higher dose significantly decreased the labeling index and vessel counts of the antral mucosa and the gastric cancers (which were increased by treatment with sodium chloride) and significantly increased the apoptotic index of the antral mucosa and the cancers (which was lowered by the treatment with sodium chloride). These findings suggest that genistein attenuates gastric carcinogenesis promoted by sodium chloride, by inducing increased apoptosis and lower cell proliferation and angiogenesis of antral mucosa and gastric cancers.

  3. Clinical and physiologic effects of sodium chloride baths in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Mitchell, Mark A; Watson, Megan

    2011-12-01

    Sodium chloride (salt; NaCl) has been used for freshwater fish to decrease stress and manage a variety of disease conditions. Recommendations for dose and duration vary greatly. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential adverse clinical and physiologic side effects of different concentrations of saltwater baths on goldfish. Eleven goldfish (Carassius auratus) were used in a cross-over study to assess the effects of three different salt concentrations (5, 10, and 20 g/L) on plasma biochemistries and clinical response. Baseline plasma chemistries were obtained and analyzed immediately prior to placing the goldfish into the saltwater bath and after the fish was removed. A 2-wk washout period was used in-between each treatment. Significant differences were found in fish in the sodium (10 g/L, P = 0.007; 20 g/L, P = 0.01), chloride (10 g/L, P = 0.006; 20 g/L, P = 0.001), and alanine aminotransferase (10 g/L, P = 0.002; 20 g/L, P = 0.004) after their exposure to 10 and 20 g/L saltwater. Glucose levels were found to differ significantly after exposure to all three NaCl concentrations (5 g/L, P = 0.0009; 10 g/L, P = 0.0001; 20 g/L, P = 0.0005). Clinically, 5 g/L and 10 g/L saltwater baths were well tolerated by the fish for the duration of the intended 12-hr treatments, with only one goldfish being removed during the 10 g/L bath at 7 hr for listlessness. The average time goldfish spent in the 20 g/L salt bath was 43 min, with six (54%) of the fish remaining in the 20 g/L salt bath for the intended 60-min treatment period. The remaining 5 (46%) goldfish were removed because they became listless or dyspneic. All of the fish recovered from the treatments without complication. The results of this study suggest that goldfish tolerate saltwater baths but that physiologic disturbances can occur at the higher doses.

  4. A role for sodium and chloride in kainic acid-induced beading of inhibitory interneuron dendrites.

    PubMed

    Al-Noori, S; Swann, J W

    2000-01-01

    Excitotoxic injury of the dendrites of inhibitory interneurons could lead to decreases in their synaptic activation and explain subsequent local circuit hyperexcitability and epilepsy. A hallmark of dendrotoxicity, at least in principal neurons of the hippocampus and cortex, is focal or varicose swellings of dendritic arbors. In experiments reported here, transient (1h) exposure of hippocampal explant cultures to kainic acid produced marked focal swellings of the dendrites of parvalbumin-immunoreactive pyramidal basket cells in a highly reproducible and dose-dependent manner. At 5mM kainic acid, more than half of the immunopositive apical dendrites in area CA(1) had a beaded appearance. However, the somal volumes of these cells were unaltered by the same treatment. The presence of focal swellings was reversible with kainate washout and was not accompanied by interneuronal cell death. In contrast, exposure to much higher concentrations (300mM) of kainic acid resulted in the total loss of parvalbumin-positive interneurons from explants. Surprisingly, kainic acid-induced dendritic beading does not appear to be mediated by extracellular calcium. Beading was unaltered in the presence of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, the L-type calcium channel antagonist, nimodipine, cadmium, or by removing extracellular calcium. However, blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels by either tetrodotoxin or lidocaine abolished dendritic beading, while the activation of existing voltage-gated sodium channels by veratridine mimicked the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading. Finally, the removal of extracellular chloride prevented the kainic acid-induced dendritic beading.Thus, we suggest that the movement of Na(+) and Cl(-), rather than Ca(2+), into cells underlies the focal swellings of interneuron dendrites in hippocampus.

  5. Effect of sodium chloride on efficiency of cisplatinum dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Doun, Seyed Kazem Bagherpour; Khor, Sohrab Halal; Qujeq, Dardi; Shahmabadi, Hasan Ebrahimi; Alavi, Seyed Ebrahim; Movahedi, Fatemeh; Akbarzadeh, Azim

    2014-04-01

    Cisplatinum (Cispt) is an anti-cancer drug with a low level of solubility. One of Cispt's solvents is dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) which can be substituted with chlorine of drug as Cispt's solvent. Applying such a solvent in biological studies is impossible due to intense reduction in activity. On the other hand, it is specified that Cispt's stability is increased in aqueous media by increasing sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration up to 0.9 %. Consequently, we intended to study the effect of DMSO on cytotoxicity of Cispt in presence of sodium. MTT assay was employed to study cytotoxicity effect of Cispt + NaCl + DMSO and Cispt + DMSO on G-292 cell line. Cytotoxicity in dilutions of 300 and 9 (p < 0.01) of Cispt in Cispt + NaCl + DMSO formulation was equal to 78 and 7 %. These values were estimated 79 and 18 % for Cispt + DMSO formulation and 79 and 24 % for free drug. IC50 values demonstrated reduction of 45 % in cytotoxicity of Cispt in Cispt + DMSO formulation. Studying chemical structure of Cispt and Cispt dissolved in DMSO showed that NaCl cannot inhibit inactivating effect of DMSO on Cispt and effect of this solvent on Cispt is independent from presence of NaCl. Results represented that using NaCl does not result in stability and keeping cytotoxicity properties of Cispt in DMSO. Findings suggest more studies for using DMSO as a solvent of Cispt.

  6. Different effects of sodium chloride preincubation on cadmium tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Dong, Xiaoyan; Wang, Dongfeng; Xu, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is restricted by high cadmium toxicity. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation improved the biomass of P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae. The improved activities of peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) after NaCl preincubation might be an important reason for the decrease of the reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, cell death, and oxidative damage of proteins and lipids induced by cadmium, contributing to the improvement of the yeast growth. The cadmium bioaccumulation capacity of P. kudriavzevii decreased significantly after NaCl preincubation, which played an important role in mitigating the cadmium toxicity to the yeast. The cadmium removal rate of P. kudriavzevii was obviously higher than S. cerevisiae and was significantly enhanced after NaCl preincubation. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation improved the cadmium tolerance and removal ability of P. kudriavzevii.

  7. Exploring How Different Features of Animations of Sodium Chloride Dissolution Affect Students' Explanations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Resa M.; Jones, Loretta L.

    2007-10-01

    Animations of molecular structure and dynamics are often used to help students understand the abstract ideas of chemistry. This qualitative study investigated how the features of two different styles of molecular-level animation affected students' explanations of how sodium chloride dissolves in water. In small group sessions 18 college-level general chemistry students dissolved table salt in water, after which they individually viewed two animations of salt dissolution. Before and after viewing each animation the participants provided pictorial, written, and oral explanations of the process at the macroscopic and molecular levels. The students then discussed the animations as a group. An analysis of the data showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations. However, oral explanations revealed that in many cases, participants who drew or wrote correct explanations did not comprehend their meanings. Students' drawings may have reflected only what they had seen, rather than a cohesive understanding. Students' explanations given after viewing the animations improved, but some prior misconceptions were retained and in some cases, new misconceptions appeared. Students reported that they found the animations useful in learning; however, they sometimes missed essential features when they watched the animation alone.

  8. Studies of excess electrons in sodium chloride clusters and of excess protons in water clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Barnett, R.N.; Cheng, H.P.; Hakkinen, H.; Landman, U.

    1995-05-11

    Electronic structure calculations using the local density functional method with nonlocal norm-conserving pseudopotentials, ab-initio molecular dynamics simulations, and a novel method of all-quantum simulations, combining a quantum path-integral description of the nuclear degrees of freedom with concurrent electronic structure calculations of the Born-Oppenheimer potential energy surface, were employed in investigations of the structure and dynamics of sodium chloride and protonated water clusters. The Na{sub 14}Cl{sub 9} (or Na{sub 14}Cl{sub 9}{sup +}) cluster exhibits a face (surface) segregated metallic Na{sub 5} (Na{sub 5}{sup +}) over-layer, the stability of which is demonstrated by a molecular dynamics simulation at 660 K. In analogy with color centers in bulk ionic crystals, the excess electrons in the halogen-deficient clusters in the various metallization sequences occupy energy levels which are split from the bottom of the unoccupied `conduction band` of the corresponding stoichiometric parent. Analysis of the electronic spatial distributions and participation ratios indicates that the excess electrons are of a more delocalized nature in comparison with the electrons occupying the p-like `valence band`. 133 refs., 28 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Determination of sodium chloride in pork meat by computed tomography at different voltages.

    PubMed

    Håseth, T T; Høy, M; Kongsro, J; Kohler, A; Sørheim, O; Egelandsdal, B

    2008-09-01

    Ground pork samples simulating the widely different chemical composition of hams during dry-cured ham production were produced and scanned by x-ray computed tomography (CT). Chemical composition accounted for most of the variation in CT values (97%). Tube voltage (80, 110, and 130 kV) affected CT value and the effect varied between different types of tissue. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was predicted in the ground samples with average prediction errors (RMSEP) as low as 0.2% to 1.0% NaCl. NaCl was also predicted in small samples of raw to dry-cured ham. When dry and fat ham samples were left out of the models, NaCl was predicted with a high precision (RMSEP 0.2% to 0.4% NaCl, R(2) > 0.99). CT can be used as a valuable, nondestructive tool to analyze distribution of and quantify NaCl in ham during dry-curing.

  10. OVER-EXPRESSION OF THE SODIUM CHLORIDE COTRANSPORTER IS NOT SUFFICIENT TO CAUSE FAMILIAL HYPERKALEMIC HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, James A.; Nelson, Joshua H.; Yang, Chao-Ling; Curry, Joshua N.; Ellison, David H.

    2011-01-01

    The sodium chloride co-transporter (NCC) is the primary target of thiazides diuretics, drugs used commonly for long-term hypertension therapy. Thiazides also completely reverse the signs of Familial Hyperkalemic Hypertension (FHHt), suggesting that the primary defect in FHHt is increased NCC activity. To test whether increased NCC abundance alone is sufficient to generate the FHHt phenotype, we generated NCC transgenic mice; surprisingly, these mice did not display an FHHt-like phenotype. Systolic blood pressures of NCC transgenic mice did not differ from those of wild type mice, even after dietary salt-loading. NCC transgenic mice also did not display hyperkalemia or hypercalciuria, even when challenged with dietary electrolyte manipulation. Administration of fludrocortisone to NCC transgenic mice, to stimulate NCC, resulted in an increase in systolic blood pressure equivalent to that of wild type mice (approximately 20 mmHg). Although total NCC abundance was increased in the transgenic animals, phosphorylated (activated) NCC was not, suggesting that the defect in FHHt involves either activation of ion transport pathways other than NCC, or else direct activation of NCC, in addition to an increase in NCC abundance. PMID:21896937

  11. Influence of sodium chloride content in electrolyte solution on electrochemical impedance measurements of human dentin

    PubMed Central

    Eldarrat, Aziza; High, Alec; Kale, Girish

    2017-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of sodium chloride (NaCl) content in electrolyte solution on electrochemical impedance measurements of human dentin by employing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Materials and Methods: Dentin samples were prepared from extracted molars. Electrochemical impedance measurements were carried out over a wide frequency range (0.01Hz-10MHz). After measurements, samples were characterized using scanning electron microscopy. Results: Electrochemical impedance measurements showed that the mean values of dentin electrical resistance were 4284, 2062, 1336, 53 and 48kΩ at different NaCl contents in electrolyte solution. One-way ANOVA test of mean values of dentin electrical resistance revealed a significant difference (P < 0.0001) as a function of NaCl content in electrolyte solution. Comparing electrical resistance values of dentin samples at 0.05% w/v and 0.9% w/v concentrations were found to be significantly different (P < 0.05 at 95% confidence level). Scanning electron microscopy revealed structure of dentin sample with intertubular dentin matrix and distribution of patent dentinal tubules. Conclusion: This in vitro study indicated, through electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements, that electrical resistance of dentin was affected by the concentration of NaCl in electrolyte solution. It is clear from the current study that NaCl concentration in electrolyte solution has a marked influence on dentin electrical resistance. Therefore, this baseline data need to be considered in any future study on dental samples. PMID:28348614

  12. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-01

    The sodium-nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250-350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β″-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. The cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  13. Evaluation of the discmini personal aerosol monitor for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Jessica Breyan

    This work evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103-104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (+/-35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of an archaeal lipid bilayer with sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Keiko; Shinoda, Wataru; Mikami, Masuhiro

    2007-02-07

    We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of a bilayer formed by the synthetic archaeal lipid, diphytanyl phosphatidylcholine, in NaCl electrolyte solution at four different concentrations (0-4 M) to investigate how structural and dynamic properties of the model archaeal membrane are changed due to the ionic strength of the solution. The archaeal lipid bilayer shows minor changes in their physical properties, indicating the unusual high stability of the membrane against salt, though small reductions of molecular area and lateral diffusion of the lipid are detected at the highest electrolyte concentration of 4 M. Sodium ions penetrate to the ether-rich region, where the ions are likely bound to the ether oxygen in the sn-1 chain rather than to that in the sn-2 chain. The observed salt bridges among two or three neighboring lipids account for the small reduction in the molecular area. The bound ions together with the counter (chloride) ions give rise to a diffusive electric double layer; as a result, the membrane dipole potential is slightly increased with increasing NaCl concentration.

  15. Correlation Between Analytical and Thermodynamicaly Calculated Values of Density For Chloride-sodium Brines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudukalov, A.

    Leakage from pipe-lines, nonhermetic wells and other industrial equipment of highly mineralized chloride-sodium brines, incidentally produced during oil field exploitation is one of the main source of fresh groundwater contamination on the Arlan oil field. Thermodynamic calculation, aimed to define more exactly brines chemical composi- tion and density was carried out by FREZCHEM2 program (Mironenko M.V. et al. 1997). Five brines types with mineralization of 137.9, 181.2, 217.4, 243.7, 267.8 g/l and density of 1.176, 1.09, 1.135, 1.153, 1.167 g/cm3 correspondingly were used. It is necessary to note that preliminarily chemical compositions of two last brines were corrected according to their mineralization. During calculations it was determined the following density values of brines: 1.082, 1.114, 1.131, 1.146, 1.158 g/cm3 conse- quently. Obtained results demonstrate the significant discrepancy in experimental and model estimates. Significant excess of anions over cations in experimental data indicates a major prob- lem with the analytical measurements. During calculations it was analyzed the possi- bility of changes in brines density depending on editing to cations or deducting from anions requisite amount of agent for keeping charge balance equal to zero. Received results demonstrate that in this case brines density can change on 0.004-0.011 g/cm3.

  16. Uncoupling of sodium and chloride to assist breeding for salinity tolerance in crops.

    PubMed

    Genc, Yusuf; Oldach, Klaus; Taylor, Julian; Lyons, Graham H

    2016-04-01

    The separation of toxic effects of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) by the current methods of mixed salts and subsequent determination of their relevance to breeding has been problematic. We report a novel method (Na(+) humate) to study the ionic effects of Na(+) toxicity without interference from Cl(-), and ionic and osmotic effects when combined with salinity (NaCl). Three cereal species (Hordeum vulgare, Triticum aestivum and Triticum turgidum ssp. durum with and without the Na(+) exclusion gene Nax2) differing in Na(+) exclusion were grown in a potting mix under sodicity (Na(+) humate) and salinity (NaCl), and water use, leaf nutrient profiles and yield were determined. Under sodicity, Na(+)-excluding bread wheat and durum wheat with the Nax2 gene had higher yield than Na(+)-accumulating barley and durum wheat without the Nax2 gene. However, under salinity, despite a 100-fold difference in leaf Na(+), all species yielded similarly, indicating that osmotic stress negated the benefits of Na(+) exclusion. In conclusion, Na(+) exclusion can be an effective mechanism for sodicity tolerance, while osmoregulation and tissue tolerance to Na(+) and/or Cl(-) should be the main foci for further improvement of salinity tolerance in cereals. This represents a paradigm shift for breeding cereals with salinity tolerance.

  17. Modulation of cadmium bioaccumulation and enhancing cadmium tolerance in Pichia kudriavzevii by sodium chloride preincubation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Li, Chunsheng; Zhang, Dandan; Yu, Jinzhi; Xu, Ying

    2016-07-01

    Application of growing microorganisms for cadmium removal is limited by the sensitivity of living cells to cadmium. The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) preincubation on the cadmium bioaccumulation and tolerance of Pichia kudriavzevii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were investigated in this study. NaCl preincubation significantly reduced the intracellular and cell-surface cadmium bioaccumulation of P. kudriavzevii at both 6 and 20 mg L(-1) cadmium, while no obvious effect was observed in S. cerevisiae except that the intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation at 20 mg L(-1) cadmium was reduced obviously by 20-60 g L(-1)  NaCl. For both yeasts, the improved contents of protein and proline after NaCl preincubation contributed to the cadmium tolerance. The thiol contents in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress were alleviated by NaCl preincubation, which might be due to the decrease of intracellular cadmium bioaccumulation. NaCl preincubation enhanced the contents of glycerol and trehalose in P. kudriavzevii under cadmium stress, while no acceleration was observed in S. cerevisiae. The results suggested that NaCl preincubation could be applied in cadmium removal by growing P. kudriavzevii to increase the cadmium tolerance of the yeast.

  18. Thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of an aqueous sodium chloride solution upon supercooling.

    PubMed

    Corradini, D; Gallo, P; Rovere, M

    2008-06-28

    We present the results of a molecular dynamics simulation study of thermodynamic and structural properties upon supercooling of a low concentration sodium chloride solution in TIP4P water and the comparison with the corresponding bulk quantities. We study the isotherms and the isochores for both the aqueous solution and bulk water. The comparison of the phase diagrams shows that thermodynamic properties of the solution are not merely shifted with respect to the bulk. Moreover, from the analysis of the thermodynamic curves, both the spinodal line and the temperatures of maximum density curve can be calculated. The spinodal line appears not to be influenced by the presence of ions at the chosen concentration, while the temperatures of maximum density curve displays both a mild shift in temperature and a shape modification with respect to bulk. Signatures of the presence of a liquid-liquid critical point are found in the aqueous solution. By analyzing the water-ion radial distribution functions of the aqueous solution, we observe that upon changing density, structural modifications appear close to the spinodal. For low temperatures, additional modifications appear also for densities close to that corresponding to a low density configurational energy minimum.

  19. Analysis of antibacterial efficacy of plasma-treated sodium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Mareike A. C.; Mann, Miriam; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the change of chemical composition of sodium chloride solutions (NaCl, 0.85%) induced by non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment and subsequent effects on bacteria (Escherichia coli) are investigated. Besides acidification caused by APP, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), nitrite (\\text{NO}2- ), and nitrate (\\text{NO}3- ) are generated as stable end-products of various chemical reactions in APP-treated liquids. Inactivation kinetics and reduction factors were recorded for E. coli (K12). Almost identical antimicrobial effects were observed with both direct APP exposure to bacteria suspension and exposure of APP-treated liquids to bacteria (indirect treatment). Consequently, main bactericidal effects are caused by chemical reactions which are mediated via the liquid phase. Moreover, APP-treated liquids have shown long-term activity (30 min) that possibly correlates with the ratio of \\text{NO}2- /H2O2. Therefore, \\text{NO}2- and H2O2 are identified as key agents for antimicrobial short- and long-term effects, respectively. The antimicrobial stability observed is strongly dependent on the used treatment regime and correlates additionally with the altered chemical composition of APP-treated liquids. Besides these effects, it was also shown that bacteria do not acquire resistance to such APP-treated solutions.

  20. Oxidative aging of mixed oleic acid/sodium chloride aerosol particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dennis-Smither, Benjamin J.; Miles, Rachael E. H.; Reid, Jonathan P.

    2012-10-01

    Studies of the oxidative aging of single mixed component aerosol particles formed from oleic acid (OL) and sodium chloride over a range of relative humidities (RH) and ozone concentrations by aerosol optical tweezers are reported. The rate of loss of OL and changes in the organic phase volume are directly measured, comparing particles with effloresced and deliquesced inorganic seeds. The kinetics of the OL loss are analyzed and the value of the reactive uptake coefficient of ozone by OL is compared to previous studies. The reaction of OL is accompanied by a decrease in the particle volume, consistent with the evaporation of semivolatile products over a time scale of tens of thousands of seconds. Measurements of the change in the organic phase volume allow the branching ratio to involatile components to be estimated; between 50 and 85% of the initial organic volume remains involatile, depending on ozone concentration. The refractive index (RI) of the organic phase increases during and after evaporation of volatile products, consistent with aging followed by a slow restructuring in particle morphology. The hygroscopicity of the particle and kinetics of the response of the organic phase to changes in RH are investigated. Both size and RI of unoxidized and oxidized particles respond promptly to RH changes with values of the RI consistent with linear mixing rules. Such studies of the simultaneous changes in composition and size of mixed component aerosol provide valuable data for benchmarking kinetic models of heterogeneous atmospheric aging.

  1. Synaptic uptake and beyond: the sodium- and chloride-dependent neurotransmitter transporter family SLC6.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nian-Hang; Reith, Maarten E A; Quick, Michael W

    2004-02-01

    The SLC6 family is a diverse set of transporters that mediate solute translocation across cell plasma membranes by coupling solute transport to the cotransport of sodium and chloride down their electrochemical gradients. These transporters probably have 12 transmembrane domains, with cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal tails, and at least some may function as homo-oligomers. Family members include the transporters for the inhibitory neurotransmitters GABA and glycine, the aminergic transmitters norepinephrine, serotonin, and dopamine, the osmolytes betaine and taurine, the amino acid proline, and the metabolic compound creatine. In addition, this family includes a system B(0+) cationic and neutral amino acid transporter, and two transporters for which the solutes are unknown. In general, SLC6 transporters act to regulate the level of extracellular solute concentrations. In the central and the peripheral nervous system, these transporters can regulate signaling among neurons, are the sites of action of various drugs of abuse, and naturally occurring mutations in several of these proteins are associated with a variety of neurological disorders. For example, transgenic animals lacking specific aminergic transporters show profoundly disturbed behavioral phenotypes and probably represent excellent systems for investigating psychiatric disease. SLC6 transporters are also found in many non-neural tissues, including kidney, intestine, and testis, consistent with their diverse physiological roles. Transporters in this family represent attractive therapeutic targets because they are subject to multiple forms of regulation by many different signaling cascades, and because a number of pharmacological agents have been identified that act specifically on these proteins.

  2. Standard state thermodynamic properties of aqueous sodium chloride using high dilution calorimetry at extreme temperatures and pressures.

    PubMed

    Djamali, Essmaiil; Cobble, James W

    2009-04-16

    In this communication, we report the first calorimetric data for the standard state enthalpies of a solution of sodium chloride obtained from high dilution, down to (10(-3) m), integral heats of solution measurements to 596.30 K. Although there are no comparable thermodynamic data available at such high dilutions in the literature, the present results for NaCl(aq) can be used for many thermodynamic studies by others to achieve a complete thermodynamic description of this key electrolyte over very wide ranges of concentration. From the recently developed unified theory of electrolytes, the experimental data from this study were used to predict Gibbs free energies of hydration of sodium chloride up to 1100 K. These Gibbs free energies of hydration at different pressures and densities compare well with reported values obtained from ab initio calculations by others.

  3. Studies of single aerosol particles containing malonic acid, glutaric acid, and their mixtures with sodium chloride. I. Hygroscopic growth.

    PubMed

    Pope, Francis D; Dennis-Smither, Ben J; Griffiths, Paul T; Clegg, Simon L; Cox, R Anthony

    2010-04-29

    We describe a newly constructed electrodynamic balance with which to measure the relative mass of single aerosol particles at varying relative humidity. Measurements of changing mass with respect to the relative humidity allow mass (m) growth factors (m(aqueous)/m(dry)) and diameter (d) growth factors (d(aqueous)/d(dry)) of the aerosol to be determined. Four aerosol types were investigated: malonic acid, glutaric acid, mixtures of malonic acid and sodium chloride, and mixtures of glutaric acid and sodium chloride. The mass growth factors of the malonic acid and glutaric acid aqueous phase aerosols, at 85% relative humidity, were 2.11 +/- 0.08 and 1.73 +/- 0.19, respectively. The mass growth factors of the mixed organic/inorganic aerosols are dependent upon the molar fraction of the individual components. Results are compared with previous laboratory determinations and theoretical predictions.

  4. Inhibition of vacuolation toxin activity of Helicobacter pylori by iodine, nitrite and potentiation by sodium chloride, sterigmatocystin and fluoride.

    PubMed

    Ma, Fengjuan; Zhao, Wenyuan; Kudo, Masanobu; Aoki, Kazuo; Misumi, Junichi

    2002-10-01

    The toxin VacA produced by Helicobacter pylori is an important determinant of virulence. VacA causes vacuolation of cultured cells such as HeLa cells. Iodine, nitrite, sodium chloride, thiocyanate and fungus toxin sterigmatocystin are universally present in nature and could possibly be related to carcinogenesis of the stomach. The present study was designed to examine the effects of the above-mentioned compound on VacA-induced vacuolation of HeLa cells, which was quantitated using the neutral red uptake assay. VacA-induced vacuolation was inhibited by BafA1 and NPPB. Formation of large vacuoles was inhibited in the presence of iodine, nitrite, but enhanced by sodium chloride, thiocyanate, fluoride and sterigmatocystin. Our results indicate that VacA toxin may interact with other gastric cancer risk factors present naturally in the environment, and suggest that those compounds may modulate the development of gastric cancer induced by H. pylori.

  5. Transcriptional analysis of different stress response genes in Escherichia coli strains subjected to sodium chloride and lactic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Peng, Silvio; Stephan, Roger; Hummerjohann, Jörg; Tasara, Taurai

    2014-12-01

    Survival of Escherichia coli in food depends on its ability to adapt against encountered stress typically involving induction of stress response genes. In this study, the transcriptional induction of selected acid (cadA, speF) and salt (kdpA, proP, proW, otsA, betA) stress response genes was investigated among five E. coli strains, including three Shiga toxin-producing strains, exposed to sodium chloride or lactic acid stress. Transcriptional induction upon lactic acid stress exposure was similar in all but one E. coli strain, which lacked the lysine decarboxylase gene cadA. In response to sodium chloride stress exposure, proW and otsA were similarly induced, while significant differences were observed between the E. coli strains in induction of kdpA, proP and betA. The kdpA and betA genes were significantly induced in four and three strains, respectively, whereas one strain did not induce these genes. The proP gene was only induced in two E. coli strains. Interestingly, transcriptional induction differences in response to sodium chloride stress exposure were associated with survival phenotypes observed for the E. coli strains in cheese as the E. coli strain lacking significant induction in three salt stress response genes investigated also survived poorly compared to the other E. coli strains in cheese.

  6. Effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the activities of proteases and amylases in soy sauce koji.

    PubMed

    Su, Nan-Wei; Wang, Mei-Ling; Kwok, Kam-Fu; Lee, Min-Hsiung

    2005-03-09

    This study investigated the effects of temperature and sodium chloride concentration on the proteolytic and amylolytic activities of soy sauce koji. The optimal temperatures for both protease and amylase were found in the range of 50-55 degrees C. The protease was not stable at 55 degrees C and retained only approximately 20% residual activity after incubation at 55 degrees C for 4 h. The protease was labile in sodium chloride solution, whereas the amylase was quite stable. The residual protease activity in an 18% NaCl solution was only approximately 3%. The harvested koji was mixed with 1.5 volumes of water (v/w) and incubated at 45 degrees C for 48 h; the total nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents were 1.3 and 0.56%, respectively. The results indicated that the hydrolysis of koji at the critical temperature of 45 degrees C could be employed as a rapid fermentation method to reduce the time for soy sauce manufacturing. According to this study, the combination of 5% sodium chloride and fermentation at 45 degrees C was considered as the best condition for the prohydrolysis of koji for making soy sauce. In addition, the critical temperature of 45 degrees C was very important when used in the preparation of protein hydrolysates for the flavoring industry and for the preparation of biologically active peptides.

  7. Formation of biofilm by Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19112 at different incubation temperatures and concentrations of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Lee, H Y; Chai, L C; Pui, C F; Mustafa, S; Cheah, Y K; Nishibuchi, M; Radu, S

    2013-01-01

    Biofilm formation can lead to various consequences in the food processing line such as contamination and equipment breakdowns. Since formation of biofilm can occur in various conditions; this study was carried out using L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 and its biofilm formation ability tested under various concentrations of sodium chloride and temperatures. Cultures of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19112 were placed in 96-well microtitre plate containing concentration of sodium chloride from 1-10% (w/v) and incubated at different temperature of 4 °C, 30 °C and 45 °C for up to 60 h. Absorbance reading of crystal violet staining showed the density of biofilm formed in the 96-well microtitre plates was significantly higher when incubated in 4 °C. The formation of biofilm also occurs at a faster rate at 4 °C and higher optical density (OD 570 nm) was observed at 45 °C. This shows that storage under formation of biofilm that may lead to a higher contamination along the processing line in the food industry. Formation of biofilm was found to be more dependent on temperature compared to sodium chloride stress.

  8. Chemical castration in cattle with intratesticular injection of sodium chloride: Effects on stress and inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Fernando C; Ferreira, Carlos E R; Haas, Cristina S; Oliveira, Leonardo G; Mondadori, Rafael G; Schneider, Augusto; Rovani, Monique T; Gonçalves, Paulo B D; Vieira, Arnaldo D; Gasperin, Bernardo G; Lucia, Thomaz

    2017-03-01

    Intratesticular injection (ITI) of sodium chloride (NaCl) is efficient for chemical castration of young calves, but its effects on calves welfare are unknown. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of ITI of 20% NaCl on stress and inflammatory markers in calves less than 20 days old and to assess the efficiency of ITI of 30% NaCl in 5 months old calves. In Experiment 1, control calves were only restrained and compared to calves submitted to castration through surgery (SC) and ITI with 20% NaCl (n = 9/group). No differences were observed for the eye corner temperature measured by thermography from 60 s before to 60 s after the procedures (P > 0.05). In the SC group, acute serum cortisol levels increased at 30 and 60 min after the procedure, but increased levels in the ITI group occurred only at 30 min (P < 0.05). Chronic discomfort markers were measured at 0, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after the procedures (D0, D1, D2, D3 and D4, respectively). The serum levels of the paraoxonase 1 (PON1) enzyme and cortisol did not differ among groups (P > 0.05). Scrotal temperature was higher at D1 in the SC group than for the other groups, but lowest at D4 compared to the control (both P < 0.05). In Experiment 2, histological sections of testes were compared after ITI with either 30% NaCl or 30% calcium chloride (CaCl2), to intact calves (control). After 60 days, intact seminiferous tubules and mediastinum were observed after ITI with 30% NaCl, whereas coagulative necrosis, inflammatory infiltration and calcification occurred after ITI with 30% CaCl2. Efficient chemical castration through ITI of 20% NaCl in young calves was followed by slight stress and inflammatory responses compared to surgical castration. However, ITI of 30% NaCl was ineffective for chemical castration of 5 months old calves.

  9. [The effect of sodium chloride baths on the physical work capacity and extrasystole of patients with ischemic heart disease and stable stenocardia].

    PubMed

    Klemenkov, S V; Davydova, O B; Levitskiĭ, E F; Chashchin, N F; Sharova, O Ia; Kubushko, I V

    1999-01-01

    73 patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD) and stable angina pectoris of NYHA class I and II underwent balneotherapy. 43 of them took a course of sodium chloride baths, 30 control patients took common water baths. As shown by spiroveloergometry and Holter monitoring, sodium chloride baths are a good training modality in IHD patients. They enhance muscular performance and coronary heart reserve, reduce the mean 24-h number of ventricular extrasystoles by 49.9%, supraventricular extrasystoles by 57.5%.

  10. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite.

  11. Inhibition of biosynthesis of metalloprotease of Aeromonas sobria by sodium chloride in the medium.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Eizo; Kobayashi, Hidetomo; Yamanaka, Hiroyasu; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi; Arimoto, Sakae; Negishi, Tomoe; Okamoto, Keinosuke

    2011-01-01

    The present authors have previously shown that the serine protease activity of Aeromonas sobria is markedly decreased when A. sobria is cultured in medium containing 3.0% sodium chloride (NaCl, concentration almost equivalent to sea water salinity), and that this occurs because, although the synthesis of ASP is not disturbed by the salt in the medium, the maturation pathway of serine protease of A. sobria (ASP) does not proceed successfully in such a medium. In this study, the effect of salt in the medium on the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria (AMP) was examined. A. sobria produced AMP in the milieu when the bacteria were cultured in medium containing (NaCl) at a concentration of 0.5%. However, AMP was not produced when the bacteria were cultured in salty medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. To examine how NaCl reduces the production of metalloprotease by A. sobria, the amount of amp mRNA in the cell was measured and it was found that this decreased in proportion to the concentration of NaCl in the medium. The mRNA of amp was not detected in cells cultured in medium containing 1.5% or more NaCl. This means that the transcription of amp is inhibited in salty condition. As described, NaCl in the medium disturbs the maturation pathway of ASP. The mode of action whereby NaCl suppresses AMP activity in A. sobria differs from the mechanism for suppressing ASP activity.

  12. Effect of Sodium and Chloride Binding on a Lecithin Bilayer. A Molecular Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Maria M.; Kallies, Christopher; Knecht, Volker

    2017-01-01

    The effect of ion binding on the structural, mechanical, dynamic and electrostatic properties of a 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) bilayer in a 0.5 M aqueous NaCl solution is investigated using classical atomistic molecular dynamics simulation with different force-field descriptions for ion-ion and ion-lipid interactions. Most importantly, the repulsive Lennard–Jones parameters for the latter were modified, such that approximately similar binding of cations and anions to the lipid membrane is achieved. This was done to qualitatively improve the apparent ion-lipid binding constants obtained from simulations with the original force field (Berger lipids and GROMOS87 ions in combination with the SPC water model) in comparison to experimental data. Furthermore, various parameters characterizing membrane structure, elasticity, order and dynamics are analyzed. It is found that ion binding as observed in simulations involving the modified in comparison to the original force-field description leads to: (i) a smaller salt-induced change in the area per lipid, which is in closer agreement with the experiment; (ii) a decrease in the area compressibility and bilayer thickness to values comparable to a bilayer in pure water; (iii) lipid deuterium order parameters and lipid diffusion coefficients on nanosecond timescales that are very similar to the values for a membrane in pure water. In general, salt effects on the structural properties of a POPC bilayer in an aqueous sodium-chloride solution appear to be reproduced reasonably well by the new force-field description. An analysis of membrane-membrane disjoining pressure suggests that the smaller salt-induced change in area per lipid induced by the new force-field description is not due to the alteration of membrane-associated net charge, but must rather be understood as a consequence of ion-specific effects on the arrangement of lipid molecules. PMID:28125062

  13. Benzodiazepine effects on licking responses for sodium chloride solutions in water-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Steven J; Higgs, Suzanne

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate, for the first time, the effects of a centrally active benzodiazepine receptor agonist, midazolam maleate, on the microstructure of licking responses for a range of sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions in mildly water-deprived male rats. Doses of midazolam were chosen (0.3-3.0 mg/kg. i.p.) which have been characterised in studies of licking responses for several different kinds of nutrients. NaCl concentrations (0.075 M-0.45 M) were chosen to cover a range of taste preferences and acceptability. A brief-contact testing session was employed to focus on the initial determinants of licking responses (i.e. taste palatability), and to minimise any contribution of post-ingestional effects. The results indicate the midazolam significantly increased the total number of licks recorded across all salt concentrations, but that it had no effect on the number of bouts of licking. Instead, midazolam specifically enhanced the mean duration of licking bouts, an effect that was most evident at the weaker but more acceptable NaCl concentrations (0.075 M and 0.15 M). In addition, midazolam diminished the intrabout rate of licking across all salt concentrations. These results confirm that benzodiazepines can exert a specific pattern of effects on the microstructure of licking for salt solutions. They are discussed in terms of the oropharyngeal stimulation controlling intake and the palatability or "liking" hypothesis for the effects of benzodiazepines on taste stimuli, and indicate that the hypothesis is applicable to salt solution ingestive behaviour.

  14. Effects of sodium chloride on constitutive relations in variably saturated porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, Erick R.; Selker, John S.; Parlange, Jean-Yves; Guenther, Ronald B.

    2006-05-01

    Though many arid and contaminated sites have high salinity, prediction of effects of salinity on water movement in soils has been based on dilute solution approximations. Here a sensitivity analysis compares predicted liquid and vapor pressure in variably saturated porous media found using both the dilute approximations and a more general formulation that is valid for salt concentrations from zero to saturation. Sodium chloride (NaCl) was selected as a representative salt of environmental importance. Salt-mineral interactions are not included in the analysis. The dilute approximations neglect the salt-related changes in specific volume, which translate into nonnegligible pressure effects (i.e., error >1%) under dry conditions, being more pronounced for finer media. The analysis shows that for silt textures, the dilute approximation to the vapor pressure constitutive relation is acceptable for water contents θ > 5%, for sand θ > 1%, and for loam θ > 2%. When computing gradients of vapor pressure resulting from gradients in salt concentration, volume correction is necessary for silt for θ < 10%. Gradients in vapor pressure with changes in water content require volume correction, except under dilute conditions (i.e., <0.5 molal). For concentrated solutions in silt, salt effect errors are not acceptable for prediction of liquid pressure, nor are the effects on gradients negligible. Errors for sand and loam are only marginally better, with acceptable errors generally occurring only for ionic strengths of less than 1 molal. An example of use of the constitutive relations to plot results from experiments is provided to illustrate how the theory may be used to determine which thermodynamic corrections must be incorporated into analyses of the experimental results. Here the volumetric effects of the salt on vapor depression were negligible, though volumetric effects may be nonnegligible for computation of gradients of both vapor and liquid pressures. The method of

  15. Chloride channels mediate sodium sulphide-induced relaxation in rat uteri

    PubMed Central

    Mijušković, Ana; Kokić, Aleksandra Nikolić; Dušić, Zorana Oreščanin; Slavić, Marija; Spasić, Mihajlo B; Blagojević, Duško

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hydrogen sulphide reduces uterine contractility and is of potential interest as a treatment for uterine disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the mechanism of sodium sulphide (Na2S)-induced relaxation of rat uterus, investigate the importance of redox effects and ion channel-mediated mechanisms, and any interactions between these two mechanisms. Experimental Approach Organ bath studies were employed to assess the pharmacological effects of Na2S in uterine strips by exposing them to Na2S with or without Cl− channel blockers (DIDS, NFA, IAA-94, T16Ainh-A01, TA), raised KCl (15 and 75 mM), K+ channel inhibitors (glibenclamide, TEA, 4-AP), L-type Ca2+ channel activator (S-Bay K 8644), propranolol and methylene blue. The activities of antioxidant enzymes were measured in homogenates of treated uteri. The expression of bestrophin channel 1 (BEST-1) was determined by Western blotting and RT-PCR. Key Results Na2S caused concentration-dependent reversible relaxation of spontaneously active and calcium-treated uteri, affecting both amplitude and frequency of contractions. Uteri exposed to 75 mM KCl were less sensitive to Na2S compared with uteri in 15 mM KCl. Na2S-induced relaxations were abolished by DIDS, but unaffected by other modulators or by the absence of extracellular HCO3−, suggesting the involvement of chloride ion channels. Na2S in combination with different modulators provoked specific changes in the anti-oxidant profiles of uteri. The expression of BEST-1, both mRNA and protein, was demonstrated in rat uteri. Conclusions and Implications The relaxant effects of Na2S in rat uteri are mediated mainly via a DIDS-sensitive Cl−-pathway. Components of the relaxation are redox- and Ca2+-dependent. PMID:25857480

  16. Factors Affecting the Plasticity of Sodium Chloride, Lithium Fluoride, and Magnesium Oxide Single Crystals. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, Carl A.; Pack, Ann E.; Lad, Robert A.

    1959-01-01

    A study was made of the relative magnitude of the effects of various factors on the ductility of single crystals of sodium chloride (NaCl), lithium fluoride (LiF), and magnesium oxide (MgO). Specimen treatments included water-polishing, varying cleavage rate, annealing, quenching, X-irradiation, surface coating, aging, and combinations of some of these treatments. The mechanical behavior of the crystals was studied in flexure and in compression, the latter study being performed at both constant strain rate and constant load. Etch-pit studies were carried out to provide some pertinent information on the results of pretreatment on the dislocation concentration and distribution in the vicinity of the surface. The load deformation curves for these ionic single crystals show an initial region of very low slope which proved to be due to anelastic deformation. The extent of initial anelastic deformation is modified by specimen pretreatment in a way that suggests that this deformation is the result of expansion of cleaved-in dislocation loops, which can contract on the removal of the stress. The effects of the various pretreatments on the load and deflection at fracture are in accord with the prediction one might make with regard to their effect on the nucleation of fatal surface cracks. For NaCl, increases in ductility are always accompanied by increases in strength. The creep constants for NaCl are a function of treatments which affect the bulk structure but are not a function of treatments which only affect the surface.

  17. Biofilm Formation by Clostridium ljungdahlii Is Induced by Sodium Chloride Stress: Experimental Evaluation and Transcriptome Analysis.

    PubMed

    Philips, Jo; Rabaey, Korneel; Lovley, Derek R; Vargas, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii is capable of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilm formation could benefit both these applications, but was not yet reported for C. ljungdahlii. Biofilm formation does not occur under standard growth conditions, but attachment or aggregation could be induced by different stresses. The strongest biofilm formation was observed with the addition of sodium chloride. After 3 days of incubation, the biomass volume attached to a plastic surface was 20 times higher with than without the addition of 200 mM NaCl to the medium. The addition of NaCl also resulted in biofilm formation on glass, graphite and glassy carbon, the latter two being often used electrode materials for microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilms were composed of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides, as well as DNA, while pilus-like appendages were observed with, but not without, the addition of NaCl. A transcriptome analysis comparing planktonic (no NaCl) and biofilm (NaCl addition) cells showed that C. ljungdahlii coped with the salt stress by the upregulation of the general stress response, Na+ export and osmoprotectant accumulation. A potential role for poly-N-acetylglucosamines and D-alanine in biofilm formation was found. Flagellar motility was downregulated, while putative type IV pili biosynthesis genes were not expressed. Moreover, the gene expression analysis suggested the involvement of the transcriptional regulators LexA, Spo0A and CcpA in stress response and biofilm formation. This study showed that NaCl addition might be a valuable strategy to induce biofilm formation by C. ljungdahlii, which can improve the efficacy of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis applications.

  18. Biofilm Formation by Clostridium ljungdahlii Is Induced by Sodium Chloride Stress: Experimental Evaluation and Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rabaey, Korneel; Lovley, Derek R.; Vargas, Madeline

    2017-01-01

    The acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii is capable of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilm formation could benefit both these applications, but was not yet reported for C. ljungdahlii. Biofilm formation does not occur under standard growth conditions, but attachment or aggregation could be induced by different stresses. The strongest biofilm formation was observed with the addition of sodium chloride. After 3 days of incubation, the biomass volume attached to a plastic surface was 20 times higher with than without the addition of 200 mM NaCl to the medium. The addition of NaCl also resulted in biofilm formation on glass, graphite and glassy carbon, the latter two being often used electrode materials for microbial electrosynthesis. Biofilms were composed of extracellular proteins, polysaccharides, as well as DNA, while pilus-like appendages were observed with, but not without, the addition of NaCl. A transcriptome analysis comparing planktonic (no NaCl) and biofilm (NaCl addition) cells showed that C. ljungdahlii coped with the salt stress by the upregulation of the general stress response, Na+ export and osmoprotectant accumulation. A potential role for poly-N-acetylglucosamines and D-alanine in biofilm formation was found. Flagellar motility was downregulated, while putative type IV pili biosynthesis genes were not expressed. Moreover, the gene expression analysis suggested the involvement of the transcriptional regulators LexA, Spo0A and CcpA in stress response and biofilm formation. This study showed that NaCl addition might be a valuable strategy to induce biofilm formation by C. ljungdahlii, which can improve the efficacy of syngas fermentation and microbial electrosynthesis applications. PMID:28118386

  19. Stabilization of the Serum Lithium Concentration by Regulation of Sodium Chloride Intake: Case Report.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Takashi; Goto, Hidekazu; Sumiya, Kenji; Yoshida, Tadashi; Tanaka, Katsuya; Kohda, Yukinao

    2016-01-01

    To avoid fluctuation of the serum lithium concentration (CLi), sodium chloride (NaCl) intake was regulated in oral alimentation. A 62-year-old woman was hospitalized and orally administered 400 mg of lithium carbonate a day to treat her mania. Her CLi was found to be 0.75-0.81 mEq/L. Vomiting made it difficult for the patient to ingest meals orally, and therefore parenteral nutrition with additional oral intake of protein-fortified food was initiated. On day 22, parenteral nutrition was switched to oral alimentation to enable oral intake of food. The total NaCl equivalent amount was decreased to 1.2 g/d, and the CLi increased to 1.15 mEq/L on day 26. Oral alimentation with semi-solid food blended in a mixer was immediately initiated. Although the total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 4.5-5.0 g/d, her CLi remained high at 1.14-1.17 mEq/L on days 33 and 49, respectively. We investigated oral administration of NaCl (1.8 g/d) on day 52. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 6.3-6.8 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 1.08-0.97 mEq/L on days 63 and 104, respectively. After the start of the orally administered NaCl, her diet was changed to a completely blended diet on day 125. The total NaCl equivalent amount was increased to 9.0-14.5 g/d, and the CLi decreased to 0.53 mEq/L on day 152; therefore, the oral administration of NaCl was discontinued on day 166. The CLi was found to be 0.70-0.85 mEq/L on days 176 and 220.

  20. Salting out of methane by sodium chloride: A scaled particle theory study.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Giuseppe

    2008-08-28

    The salting out of methane by adding NaCl to water at 25 degrees C and 1 atm is investigated by calculating the work of cavity creation by means of scaled particle theory and the methane-solvent energy of attraction. The latter quantity changes to little extent on passing from pure water to an aqueous 4M NaCl solution, whereas the magnitude of the work of cavity creation increases significantly, accounting for the salting out effect. There is quantitative agreement between the experimental values of the hydration Gibbs energy and the calculated ones. The behavior of the work of cavity creation is due to the increase in the volume packing density of NaCl solutions, since the average effective molecular diameter does not change, being always 2.80 A. The same approach allows the rationalization of the difference in methane salting out along the alkali chloride series. These results indicate that, fixed the aqueous solution density, the solubility of nonpolar species is mainly determined by the effective diameter of solvent molecules and the corresponding volume packing density. There is no need to take into account the H-bond rearrangement because it is characterized by an almost complete enthalpy-entropy compensation.

  1. Bromination of aromatic compounds by residual bromide in sodium chloride matrix modifier salt during heated headspace GC/MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Fine, Dennis D; Ko, Saebom; Huling, Scott

    2013-12-15

    Analytical artifacts attributed to the bromination of toluene, xylenes, and trimethylbenzenes were found during the heated headspace gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of aqueous samples. The aqueous samples were produced from Fenton-like chemical oxidation reactions and contained aromatic compounds, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and ferric sulfate. Prior to GC/MS headspace analysis, the samples were acidified (pH<2), and sodium chloride was amended to the headspace vial as a matrix modifier. The brominated artifacts were generated during heated headspace analysis. Further, when samples were spiked with a mixture of volatile chlorinated and aromatic compounds (50 µg/L), poor spike recoveries of toluene and xylenes occurred, and in some cases complete loss of trimethylbenzenes and naphthalene resulted. Where poor recovery of aromatic spike compounds occurred, brominated aromatic compounds were found. The only significant source of bromine in the reaction scheme is the bromide typically present (<0.01% w/w) in the sodium chloride amended to the samples. Conversely, brominated artifacts were absent when a buffered salt mixture composed of sodium chloride and potassium phosphate dibasic/monobasic was used as a matrix modifier and raised the sample pH (pH~6). This indicated that the brominated artifacts resulted from the reaction of the aromatic compounds with BrCl, which was formed by the reaction of H2O2, chloride, and bromide under acidic conditions. An alternative matrix modifier salt is recommended that prevents the bromination reaction and avoids these deleterious effects on sample integrity during headspace analysis.

  2. Factors influencing electrochemical removal of chloride from concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Arya, C.; Sa`id-Shawqi, Q.; Vassie, P.R.W.

    1996-06-01

    Electrochemical chloride removal was studied using prisms made from concrete containing various levels of chlorides derived from sodium chloride added during mixing. The amount of chloride removed during the treatment was assessed by analyzing the anolyte. Chloride removal increased with increasing applied potential, number of reinforcing bars at a particular depth and initial chloride content of the concrete. A greater percentage of chloride was removed from prisms where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer of concrete was less than the depth of cover to the reinforcement. Where the thickness of the chloride bearing layer exceeded the cover to the reinforcement, the use of an external cathode significantly increased the total amount of chloride removed. Chloride removal from a face remote from the source of the chloride contamination (soffit desalination) was shown to be feasible.

  3. Intake and urinary excretion of sodium chloride under varying conditions of effort and environment heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zohar, E.; Adar, R.; Tennenbaum, J.; Kesten, M.

    1982-01-01

    Intake and urinary excretion of sodium were investigated in a group of young, healthy and acclimated men. The sodium excretions of workers and of machinists in the engine rooms of a ship were also investigated.

  4. Partial replacement of sodium chloride with potassium chloride in dry fermented sausages: Influence on carbohydrate fermentation and the nitrosation process.

    PubMed

    Ibañez, C; Quintanilla, L; Irigoyen, A; Garcia-Jalón, I; Cid, C; Astiasarán, I; Bello, J

    1995-01-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausages were manufactured: type A with traditional formulation and type B with reduced sodium content. pH and a(w) values and the counts of aerobic mesophiles, Enterobacteriaceae and lactobacilli micro-organisms during the ripening of both fermented sausages were similar. Final lactic acid contents were also similar, but carbohydrate content was significantly lower in type B sausage. Content of acetic, propionic and butyric acids were significantly higher in type B, suggesting a higher heterofermentative activity. Also type B sausage showed lower nitrate level and higher chemical conversion percentage, suggesting a higher nitrosation intensity.

  5. Preparation of microfibrillated cellulose/chitosan-benzalkonium chloride biocomposite for enhancing antibacterium and strength of sodium alginate films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Lin, Xinxing; Chen, Lihui; Huang, Liulian; Cao, Shilin; Wang, Huangwei

    2013-07-03

    The nonantibacterial and low strength properties of sodium alginate films negatively impact their application for food packaging. In order to improve these properties, a novel chitosan-benzalkonium chloride (C-BC) complex was prepared by ionic gelation using tripolyphosphate (TPP) as a coagulant, and a biocomposite obtained through the adsorption of C-BC complex on microfibrillated cellulose, MFC/C-BC, was then incorporated into a sodium alginate film. The TEM image showed that the C-BC nanoparticles were spherical in shape with a diameter of about 30 nm, and the adsorption equilibrium time of these nanoparticles on the surface of MFC was estimated to be 6 min under the driving forces of hydrogen bonds and electrostatic interactions. According to the disc diffusion method, the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film exhibited remarkable antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and certain antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli . The strength tests indicated that the tensile strength of the composite sodium alginate film increased about 225% when the loading of MFC/C-BC biocomposite was 10 wt %. These results suggested that the MFC/C-BC biocomposite-incorporated sodium alginate film with excellent antibacterial and strength properties would be a promising material for food packaging, and the MFC/C-BC may also be a potential multifunctional biocomposite for other biodegradable materials.

  6. Sodium chloride alleviates cadmium toxicity by reducing nitric oxide accumulation in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Binglin; Shang, Shenghua; Jabben, Zahra; Zhang, Guoping

    2014-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in regulating the response of plants to Cd toxicity. In this study, we examined possible involvement of NO in the alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl in tobacco plants. Two independent experiments were conducted to investigate the changes of NO accumulation and Cd concentration in tobacco plants after the addition of a NO donor, sodium nitroprusside dehydrate (SNP), or a NO inhibitor, nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) in the solution containing NaCl and Cd. NO accumulation in tobacco roots was enhanced when plants were exposed to Cd, but reduced in the treatments of NaCl or l-NAME. NO production was not enhanced even when SNP (NO donor) was added to the solution containing Cd and NaCl. Root number was reduced in plants exposed to Cd, and increased by the addition of NaCl and reduced by the addition of SNP. Addition of NaCl or l-NAME to the Cd-containing solution reduced Cd concentration in plant tissues, with l-NAME having a more dramatic effect. It can be concluded that alleviation of Cd toxicity by NaCl contributed to reduction of NO accumulation in plants.

  7. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2007-08-01

    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  8. Effect of sodium chloride on solute-solvent interactions in aqueous polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate two-phase systems.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Nuno R; Ferreira, Luisa A; Madeira, Pedro P; Teixeira, José A; Uversky, Vladimir N; Zaslavsky, Boris Y

    2015-12-18

    Partition behavior of eight small organic compounds and six proteins was examined in poly(ethylene glycol)-8000-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase systems containing 0.215M NaCl and 0.5M osmolyte (sorbitol, sucrose, TMAO) and poly(ethylene glycol)-10000-sodium sulfate-0.215M NaCl system, all in 0.01M sodium phosphate buffer, pH 6.8. The differences between the solvent properties of the coexisting phases (solvent dipolarity/polarizability, hydrogen bond donor acidity, and hydrogen bond acceptor basicity) were characterized with solvatochromic dyes using the solvatochromic comparison method. Differences between the electrostatic properties of the phases were determined by analysis of partitioning of sodium salts of dinitrophenylated (DNP-) amino acids with aliphatic alkyl side-chain. The partition coefficients of all compounds examined (including proteins) were described in terms of solute-solvent interactions. The results obtained in the study show that solute-solvent interactions of nonionic organic compounds and proteins in polyethylene glycol-sodium sulfate aqueous two-phase system change in the presence of NaCl additive.

  9. The effect of substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride on the physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory properties of Halloumi cheese.

    PubMed

    Kamleh, R; Olabi, A; Toufeili, I; Najm, N E O; Younis, T; Ajib, R

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of salt reduction and partial replacement with KCl on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of fresh and matured Halloumi cheese. Halloumi samples were matured for 8 wk and moisture, fat, protein, pH, lactic acid, sodium, and potassium contents determined. Instrumental textural characteristics of the samples were measured using a texture analyzer. Microbiological analyses included counts of total bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, and psychrophilic bacteria. Descriptive sensory analysis was carried out by a 9-member panel, and acceptability testing was conducted with 72 panelists. Salt treatment had a significant effect on the pH, sodium, and potassium contents of the cheeses, whereas age by salt treatment interaction had a significant effect on the pH, lactic acid, and potassium contents of the samples. No major trends could be discerned from the texture profile analysis. All tested microorganisms increased with storage but in general did not differ between treatments and were, in certain instances, lower than levels reported in the literature for other cheeses. Descriptive analysis revealed a significant difference between salt treatments for bitterness, crumbliness, and moistness, whereas age of cheese was significant for saltiness and squeakiness. Salt treatment had no significant effect on any of the acceptability variables for all Halloumi samples.

  10. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition Solutions with and without Added Cysteine: Compatibility Studies Using Laser and Micro-Flow Imaging Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Alshahrani, Sultan M.; Mohamed, Sumeia M.; Clark, Sara M.; Nason, Jeffrey A.; Wu, Ying Xing

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies of compatibility of calcium chloride (CaCl2) and phosphates have not included particle counts in the range specified by the United States Pharmacopeia. Micro-flow imaging techniques have been shown to be comparable to light obscuration when determining particle count and size in pharmaceutical solutions. Objective The purpose of this study was to do compatibility testing for parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions containing CaCl2 using dynamic light scattering and micro-flow imaging techniques. Methods Solutions containing TrophAmine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA), CaCl2, and sodium phosphate (NaPhos) were compounded with and without cysteine. All solutions contained standard additives to neonatal PN solutions including dextrose, trace metals, and electrolytes. Control solutions contained no calcium or phosphate. Solutions were analyzed for particle size and particle count. Means of Z-average particle size and particle counts of controls were determined. Study solutions were compared to controls and United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Chapter 788 guidelines. The maximum amount of Phos that was compatible in solutions that contained at least 10 mmol/L of Ca in 2.5% amino acids (AA) was determined. Compatibility of these solutions was verified by performing analyses of 5 repeats of these solutions. Microscopic analyses of the repeats were also performed. Results Amounts of CaCl2 and NaPhos that were compatible in solutions containing 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, and 3% AA were determined. The maximum amount of NaPhos that could be added to TrophAmine solutions of > = 2.5% AA containing at least 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 was 7.5 mmol/L. Adding 50 mg/dL of cysteine increased the amount of NaPhos that could be added to solutions containing 10 mmol/L of CaCl2 to 10 mmol/L. Conclusion Calcium chloride can be added to neonatal PN solutions containing NaPhos in concentrations that can potentially provide an intravenous intake of adequate amounts of calcium and phosphorus

  11. Durability of class C fly ash belite cement in simulated sodium chloride radioactive liquid waste: influence of temperature.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, A; Goñi, S; Allegro, V R

    2009-03-15

    This work is a continuation of a previous durability study of class C fly ash belite cement (FABC-2-W) in simulated radioactive liquid waste (SRLW) that is very rich in sulphate salts. The same experimental methodology was applied in the present case, but with a SRLW rich in sodium chloride. The study was carried out by testing the flexural strength of mortars immersed in simulated radioactive liquid waste that was rich in chloride (0.5M), and demineralised water as a reference, at 20 and 40 degrees C over a period of 180 days. The reaction mechanism of chloride ions with the mortar was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), porosity and pore-size distribution, and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results showed that the FABC mortar was stable against simulated chloride radioactive liquid waste (SCRLW) attack at the two chosen temperatures. The enhancement of mechanical properties was a result of the formation of non-expansive Friedel's salt inside the pores; accordingly, the microstructure was refined.

  12. Individual effects of sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride salts on Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae growth.

    PubMed

    Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Durán-Quintana, M C; Garrido-Fernandez, A

    2008-07-01

    A quantitative investigation on the individual effects of sodium (NaCl), potassium (KCl), calcium (CaCl2), and magnesium (MgCl2) chloride salts against Lactobacillus pentosus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, two representative microorganisms of table olives and other fermented vegetables, was carried out. In order to assess their potential activities, both the kinetic growth parameters and dose-response profiles in synthetic media (deMan Rogosa Sharpe broth medium and yeast-malt-peptone-glucose broth medium, respectively) were obtained and analyzed. Microbial growth was monitored via optical density measurements as a function of contact time in the presence of progressive chloride salt concentrations. Relative maximum specific growth rate and lag-phase period were modeled as a function of the chloride salt concentrations. Moreover, for each salt and microorganism tested, the noninhibitory concentrations and the MICs were estimated and compared. All chloride salts exerted a significant antimicrobial effect on the growth cycle; particularly, CaCl2 showed a similar effect to NaCl, while KCl and MgCl2 were progressively less inhibitory. Microbial susceptibility and resistance were found to be nonlinearly dose related.

  13. Stream Tracer Integrity: Comparative Analyses of Rhodamine-WT and Sodium Chloride through Transient Storage Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smull, E. M.; Wlostowski, A. N.; Gooseff, M. N.; Bowden, W. B.; Wollheim, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    Solute transport in natural channels describes the transport of water and dissolved matter through a river reach of interest. Conservative tracers allow us to label a parcel of stream water, such that we can track its movement downstream through space and time. A transient storage model (TSM) can be fit to the breakthrough curve (BTC) following a stream tracer experiment, as a way to quantify advection, dispersion, and transient storage processes. Arctic streams and rivers, in particular, are continuously underlain by permafrost, which provides for a simplified surface water-groundwater exchange. Sodium chloride (NaCl) and Rhodamine-WT (RWT) are widely used tracers, and differences between the two in conservative behavior and detection limits have been noted in small-scale field and laboratory studies. This study seeks to further this understanding by applying the OTIS model to NaCl and RWT BTC data from a field study on the Kuparuk River, Alaska, at varying flow rates. There are two main questions to be answered: 1) Do differences in NaCl and RWT manifest in OTIS parameter values? 2) Are the OTIS model results reliable for NaCl, RWT, or both? Fieldwork was performed in the summer of 2012 on the Kuparuk River, and modeling was performed using a modified OTIS framework, which provided for parameter optimization and further global sensitivity analyses. The results of this study will contribute to the greater body of literature surrounding Arctic stream hydrology, and it will assist in methodology for future tracer field studies. Additionally, the modeling work will provide an analysis for OTIS parameter identifiability, and assess stream tracer integrity (i.e. how well the BTC data represents the system) and its relation to TSM performance (i.e. how well the TSM can find a unique fit to the BTC data). The quantitative tools used can be applied to other solute transport studies, to better understand potential deviations in model outcome due to stream tracer choice and

  14. Adsorption of water molecules on selected charged sodium-chloride clusters.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, James A; Gordon, Sidney L; Leavitt, Andrew J; Whetten, Robert L

    2012-01-12

    The adsorption of water molecules (H(2)O) on sodium chloride cluster cations and anions was studied at 298 K over a mass range of 100-1200 amu using a custom-built laser desorption ionization reactor and mass spectrometer. Under the conditions used, the cations Na(3)Cl(2)(+) and Na(4)Cl(3)(+) bind up to three water molecules, whereas the larger cations, Na(5)Cl(4)(+) to Na(19)Cl(18)(+), formed hydrates with one or two only. The overall trend is a decrease in hydration with increasing cluster size, with an abrupt drop occurring at the closed-shell Na(14)Cl(13)(+). As compared to the cluster cations, the cluster anions showed almost no adsorption. Among smaller clusters, a weak adsorption of one water molecule was observed for the cluster anions Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-). In the higher mass region, a substantial adsorption of one water molecule was observed for Na(14)Cl(15)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) computations were carried out for the adsorption of one molecule of H(2)O on the cations Na(n)Cl(n-1)(+), for n = 2-8, and the anions Na(n)Cl(n+1)(-), for n = 1-7. For each ion, the structure of the hydrate, the hydration energy, and the standard-state enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs energy of hydration at 298 K were computed. In addition, it was useful to compute the distortion energy, defined as the electronic energy lost due to weakening of the Na-Cl bonds upon adsorption of H(2)O. The results show that strong adsorption of a H(2)O molecule occurs for the linear cations only at an end Na ion and for the nonlinear cations only at a corner Na ion bonded to two Cl ions. An unexpected result of the theoretical investigation for the anions is that certain low-energy isomers of Na(6)Cl(7)(-) and Na(7)Cl(8)(-) bind H(2)O strongly enough to produce the observed weak adsorption. The possible implications of these results for the initial hydration of extended NaCl surfaces are discussed.

  15. Osmotic virial coefficients of hydroxyethyl starch from aqueous hydroxyethyl starch-sodium chloride vapor pressure osmometry.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jingjiang; Gier, Martin; Ross-Rodriguez, Lisa U; Prasad, Vinay; Elliott, Janet A W; Sputtek, Andreas

    2013-09-05

    Hydroxyethyl starch (HES) is an important industrial additive in the paper, textile, food, and cosmetic industries and has been shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for red blood cells; however, little is known about its thermodynamic solution properties. In many applications, in particular those in biology, HES is used in an aqueous solution with sodium chloride (NaCl). The osmotic virial solution thermodynamics approach accurately captures the dependence of osmolality on molality for many types of solutes in aqueous systems, including electrolytes, sugars, alcohols, proteins, and starches. Elliott et al. proposed mixing rules for the osmotic virial equation to be used for osmolality of multisolute aqueous solutions [Elliott, J. A. W.; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2007, 111, 1775-1785] and recently applied this approach to the fitting of one set of aqueous HES-NaCl solution data reported by Jochem and Körber [Cryobiology 1987, 24, 513-536], indicating that the HES osmotic virial coefficients are dependent on HES-to-NaCl mass ratios. The current study reports new aqueous HES-NaCl vapor pressure osmometry data which are analyzed using the osmotic virial equation. HES modifications were measured after dialysis (membrane cut off: 10,000 g/mol) and freeze-drying using vapor pressure osmometry at different mass ratios of HES to NaCl for HES up to 50% and NaCl up to 25% with three different HES modifications (weight average molecular weights [g/mol]/degree of substitution: 40,000/0.5; 200,000/0.5; 450,000/0.7). Equations were then fit to the data to provide a model for HES osmotic virial coefficient dependence on mass ratio of HES to NaCl. The osmolality data of the three HES modifications were accurately described over a broad range of HES-to-NaCl mass ratios using only four parameters, illustrating the power of the osmotic virial approach in analyzing complex data sets. As expected, the second osmotic virial coefficients increase with molecular weight of the HES and

  16. Chemical oxygen demand analysis of wastewater using trivalent manganese oxidant with chloride removal by sodium bismuthate pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Miller, D G; Brayton, S V; Boyles, W T

    2001-01-01

    Current chemical oxygen demand (COD) analyses generate wastes containing hexavalent and trivalent chromium, mercury, and silver. Waste disposal is difficult, expensive, and poses environmental hazards. A new COD test is proposed that eliminates these metals and shortens analysis time, where trivalent manganese oxidant replaces hexavalent chromium (dichromate). A silver catalyst is not required. Optional pretreatment removes chloride via oxidation to chlorine using sodium bismuthate, eliminating the need for mercury. Sample aqueous and solid components are separated for chloride removal, then recombined for total COD measurement. Soluble and nonsoluble COD can be determined separately. Digestion at 150 degrees C is complete in 1 hour. Results are determined by titration or by spectrophotometric reading. Test wastes contain none of the metals regulated for disposal under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Results are shown for selected organic compounds and various wastewaters. Statistical comparisons are made with dichromate COD and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) test values.

  17. Stability of butorphanol-tropisetron mixtures in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for patient-controlled analgesia use.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fu-Chao; Shi, Xiao-Ya; Li, Peng; Yang, Jin-Guo; Zhou, Ben-Hong

    2015-02-01

    Tropisetron is an adjuvant for butorphanol used in intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) and has been reported to provide superior pain control. It is efficacious in reducing the incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting. However, this admixture is not available commercially and stability data applicable to hospital practice are limited. This study aimed to describe the drug compounding and evaluates the long-term (up to 14 days) stability of butorphanol and tropisetron in 0.9% sodium chloride injection for PCA use.In this study, commercial solutions of butorphanol tartrate and tropisetron hydrochloride were combined and further diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride injection to final concentrations of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05 mg/mL. The polyolefin bags and glass bottles were stored at 4°C and 25°C for up to 14 days. The drug stabilities were determined by visual inspection, pH measurement, and high-pressure liquid chromatography assay of drug concentrations.The data obtained for admixtures prepared and stored at temperatures of 25°C and 4°C show the drugs have maintained at least 98% of the initial concentration. All solutions remained clear and colorless over the 14-day period, and the pH value did not change significantly.The results indicate that admixtures of butorphanol tartrate 0.08 mg/mL and tropisetron hydrochloride 0.05 mg/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection solution were stable for 14 days when stored in polyolefin bags or glass bottles at 4°C and 25°C and protected from light. The infusion is feasible for manufacturing in pharmacy aseptic units and can be stored for up to 14 days for routine use in PCA infusions.

  18. Effect of water stress by Polyethylene Glycol 8000 and Sodium Chloride on germination of Ephedra alata Decne seeds.

    PubMed

    Al-Taisan, Wafa'a A; Al-Qarawi, Abdulaziz A; Alsubiee, Moodi S

    2010-07-01

    Ephedra alata Decne is a perennial shrub and it is a very effective sand-binder. In Saudi Arabia, the species is associated with sand dunes formation, especially the mobile, non-saline and low moisture content ones. Its geographical distribution in Saudi Arabia includes the Northern, Eastern and Central regions. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of temperature, water potential and Sodium Chloride on germination of E. alata. Seeds were collected from King Khalid Centre of Wildlife Research and Development at Thumama (80 km north east of Riyadh), Saudi Arabia. Seeds were germinated at four alternating temperature regimes (8/22; 9/23; 13/27 and 18/35 °C). Seeds were also germinated under stress of aqueous Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) solutions mixed to create water potentials of 0; -0.3; -0.6; -1.2 and -1.5 MPa. Seed were also germinated in Sodium Chloride solutions of 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mol l(-1). Optimum germination was attained at 13/28 °C that corresponds to temperatures prevailing during spring time. Seeds germinated in Polyethylene Glycol solutions exhibited significantly lower germination than control especially when water potential fell below -0.3 MPa. Germination was also negatively affected by 0.1 mol l(-1) Sodium Chloride solution or above. Results indicated that the germination temperature responses of the nondormant seeds synchronize the event of germination with the season when environmental conditions are more favorable for subsequent growth and seedling establishment. Germination was also sensitive to both water potential and salinity.

  19. Efficacy of formalin, hydrogen-peroxide, and sodium-chloride on fungal-infected rainbow-trout eggs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schreier, T.M.; Rach, J.J.; Howe, G.E.

    1996-01-01

    Antifungal agents are essential for the maintenance of healthy stocks of fish and their eggs in intensive aquaculture operations. In the usa, formalin is the only fungicide approved for use in fish culture, however, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride have been granted low regulatory priority drug status by the united states food and drug administration (fda) and their use is allowed. We evaluated the efficacy of these fungicides for controlling fungal infections on rainbow trout eggs. A pilot study was conducted to determine the minimum water flow rate required to administer test chemicals accurately in heath incubators. A minimum water flow rate of 7.6 1 min(-1) was necessary to maintain treatment concentrations during flow-through chemical exposures, the antifungal activity of formalin, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium chloride was evaluated by treating uninfected and 10% fungal-infected (saprolegnia parasitica) rainbow trout eggs (oncorhynchus mykiss) for 15 min every other day until hatch. There were no significant differences among treatments in percent hatch or final infection for uninfected eggs receiving prophylactic chemical treatments, eggs of the negative control group (uninfected and untreated) had a mean hatch exceeding 86%, all chemical treatments conducted on the infected egg groups controlled the spread of fungus and improved hatching success compared with the positive control groups (infected and untreated), formalin treatments of 1000 and 1500 mu l 1(-1) and hydrogen peroxide treatments of 500 and 1000 mu l 1(-1) were the most effective. Sodium chloride treatments of 30000 mg 1(-1) improved fry hatch, but the compound was less effective at inhibiting fungal growths compared with hydrogen peroxide and formalin treatments.

  20. Physico-chemical changes during storage and sensory acceptance of low sodium probiotic Minas cheese added with arginine.

    PubMed

    Felicio, T L; Esmerino, E A; Vidal, V A S; Cappato, L P; Garcia, R K A; Cavalcanti, R N; Freitas, M Q; Conte Junior, C A; Padilha, M C; Silva, M C; Raices, R S L; Arellano, D B; Bollini, H M A; Pollonio, M A R; Cruz, A G

    2016-04-01

    The partial substitution of sodium chloride by potassium chloride (0%, 25%, and 50%) and addition of arginine (1% w/w) in probiotic Minas cheese was investigated. Microbiological (Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus acidophilus counts, and functionality of the prebiotics L. acidophilus), physicochemical (pH, proteolysis, organic acids, fatty acids, and volatile profiles), rheological (uniaxial compression) and sensory (hedonic test with 100 consumers) characterizations were carried out. The sodium reduction and addition of arginine did not constitute a hurdle to lactic and probiotic bacteria survival, with presented values of about 9 log CFU/g, ranging from 7.11 to 9.21 log CFU/g, respectively. In addition, lower pH values, higher proteolysis, and a decrease in toughness, elasticity and firmness were observed, as well as an increase in lactic, citric, and acetic acid contents. In contrast, no change was observed in the fatty acid profile. With respect to the sensory acceptance, the probiotic low-sodium Minas cheese presented scores above 6.00 (liked slightly) for the attributes flavor and overall acceptance. The addition of arginine can be a potential alternative for the development of probiotic dairy products with reduced sodium content.

  1. Shock Hugoniot and equations of states of water, castor oil, and aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gojani, A. B.; Ohtani, K.; Takayama, K.; Hosseini, S. H. R.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a result of experiments for the determination of reliable shock Hugoniot curves of liquids, in particular, at relatively low pressure region, which are needed to perform precise numerical simulations of shock wave/tissue interaction prior to the development of shock wave related therapeutic devices. Underwater shock waves were generated by explosions of laser ignited 10 mg silver azide pellets, which were temporally and spatially well controlled. Measuring temporal variation of shock velocities and over-pressures in caster oil, aqueous solutions of sodium chloride, sucrose and gelatin with various concentrations, we succeeded to determine shock Hugoniot curves of these liquids and hence parameters describing Tait type equations of state.

  2. Proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon as affected by the partial substitution of sodium chloride with potassium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhang, Yingyang; Long, Men; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2014-03-01

    Quadriceps femoris muscle samples (48) from 24 pigs were processed into dry-cured bacon. This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) on proteolysis and sensory properties of dry-cured bacon. Three salt treatments were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (60% NaCl, 40% KCl), and III (30% NaCl, 70% KCl). No significant differences were observed among treatments in the proteolysis, which was reflected by SDS-PAGE, proteolysis index, amino acid nitrogen, and peptide nitrogen contents. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in the moisture content between control and treatment II, whereas the moisture content in treatment III was significantly higher (p<0.05) in comparison with control (treatment I). The sensory analysis indicated that it was possible to reduce NaCl by 40% without adverse effects on sensory properties, but 70% replacement of NaCl with KCl resulted in bacon with less hardness and saltiness and higher (p<0.05) juiciness and bitterness.

  3. Thermodynamics of aqueous borate solutions I. Mixture of boric acid with sodium or potassium borate and chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Simonson, J.M.; Roy, R.N.; Roy, L.N.; Johnson, D.A.

    1987-10-01

    Potentials for the cell without liquid junction H/sub 2/, Ptlt. slashB(OH)/sub 3/(m/sub 1/),MB(OH)/sub 4/(m/sub 2/),MCl(m/sub 3/)lt. slashAgCl,Ag where M is sodium or potassium are reported over a range of ionic strength to I = 3 mol-kg/sup -1/ at 5 to 55/sup 0/C. Total boron concentration in the solutions was restricted to low levels to minimize formation of polynuclear boron species. Cell potentials are treated with the Pitzer ion interaction treatment for mixed electrolytes, with linear ionic strength dependence assumed for the activity coefficient of undissociated boric acid. Trace activity coefficients of sodium and potassium borates in chloride media are calculated at various temperatures.

  4. Sodium and chloride accumulation in leaf, woody, and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Zalesny, Jill A; Zalesny, Ronald S; Wiese, Adam H; Sexton, Bart; Hall, Richard B

    2008-09-01

    The response of Populus to irrigation sources containing elevated levels of sodium (Na(+)) and chloride (Cl(-)) is poorly understood. We irrigated eight Populus clones with fertilized well water (control) (N, P, K) or municipal solid waste landfill leachate weekly during 2005 and 2006 in Rhinelander, Wisconsin, USA (45.6 degrees N, 89.4 degrees W). During August 2006, we tested for differences in total Na(+) and Cl(-) concentration in preplanting and harvest soils, and in leaf, woody (stems+branches), and root tissue. The leachate-irrigated soils at harvest had the greatest Na(+) and Cl(-) levels. Genotypes exhibited elevated total tree Cl(-) concentration and increased biomass (clones NC14104, NM2, NM6), elevated Cl(-) and decreased biomass (NC14018, NC14106, DM115), or mid levels of Cl(-) and biomass (NC13460, DN5). Leachate tissue concentrations were 17 (Na(+)) and four (Cl(-)) times greater than water. Sodium and Cl(-) levels were greatest in roots and leaves, respectively.

  5. The effect of reduced sodium chloride content on the microbiological and biochemical properties of a soft surface-ripened cheese.

    PubMed

    Dugat-Bony, E; Sarthou, A-S; Perello, M-C; de Revel, G; Bonnarme, P; Helinck, S

    2016-04-01

    Many health authorities have targeted salt reduction in food products as a means to reduce dietary sodium intake due to the harmful effects associated with its excessive consumption. In the present work, we evaluated the effect of reducing sodium chloride (NaCl) content on the microbiological and biochemical characteristics of an experimental surface-ripened cheese. A control cheese (1.8% NaCl) and a cheese with a reduced NaCl content (1.3% NaCl) were sampled weekly over a period of 27d. Reducing NaCl content induced microbial perturbations such as the lesser development of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii and the greater development of the gram-negative bacterium Hafnia alvei. This was accompanied by changes in proteolytic kinetics and in profiles of volatile aroma compounds and biogenic amine production. Finally, the development of the spoilage microorganism Pseudomonas fragi was significantly higher in the cheese with a reduced salt content.

  6. Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products.

  7. Growth/no growth interfaces of table olive related yeasts for natamycin, citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Bautista-Gallego, J; Romero-Gil, V; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-04-16

    The present work uses a logistic/probabilistic model to obtain the growth/no growth interfaces of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Candida boidinii (three yeast species commonly isolated from table olives) as a function of the diverse combinations of natamycin (0-30 mg/L), citric acid (0.00-0.45%) and sodium chloride (3-6%). Mathematical models obtained individually for each yeast species showed that progressive concentrations of citric acid decreased the effect of natamycin, which was only observed below 0.15% citric acid. Sodium chloride concentrations around 5% slightly increased S. cerevisiae and C. boidinii resistance to natamycin, although concentrations above 6% of NaCl always favoured inhibition by this antimycotic. An overall growth/no growth interface, built considering data from the three yeast species, revealed that inhibition in the absence of citric acid and at 4.5% NaCl can be reached using natamycin concentrations between 12 and 30 mg/L for growth probabilities between 0.10 and 0.01, respectively. Results obtained in this survey show that is not advisable to use jointly natamycin and citric acid in table olive packaging because of the observed antagonistic effects between both preservatives, but table olives processed without citric acid could allow the application of the antifungal.

  8. Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement on the Sensory and Physico-Chemical Properties of Restructured Chicken Jerky.

    PubMed

    Luckose, Feby; Pandey, Mohan Chandra; Abhishek, Virat

    2015-10-05

    Replacement of sodium chloride (NaCl) with potassium chloride (KCl) and potassium lactate (KLact) in restructured chicken jerky was studied. The experiment was conducted considering three levels of each NaCl (1%, 1.5%, 2%), KCl (0%, 0.5%, 1%) and KLact (0%, 0.5%, 1%) resulting in six treatments with a total salt content of 2% in the product. Physico-chemical and sensory properties of the jerky containing salt replacers were examined and the most suitable NaCl replacement was to be identified. The jerky samples had moisture content below 25%, more than 60% protein and about 5-6% fat. All samples attained a water activity level below 0.8 after 5 hours of drying. Reduction of NaCl in jerky led to increased shrinkage and shear force values. Significant difference was also observed in the hunter color values especially in the case of L* values which increased as the NaCl content in the samples decreased. Scanning electron microscopy images showed that replacing NaCl reduced the structural density and compactness in jerky. Sensory panelists preferred treatments with only KCl. According to principal component analysis carried out and from sensory point of view, 50% replacement of NaCl with KCl was found to be most suitable strategy for developing low sodium jerky without compromising the product quality. (Key words: Restructured jerky, salt replacement, Sensory analysis, JAR profile, Microstructure, Dried meat).

  9. [Immunobiological blood parameters in rabbits after addition to the diet suspensions of chlorella, sodium sulfate, citrate and chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Lesyk, Ia V; Fedoruk, R S; Dolaĭchuk, O P

    2013-01-01

    We studied the content of glycoproteins and their individual carbohydrate components, the phagocyte activity of neutrophils, phagocyte index, phagocyte number lizotsym and bactericidal activity of the serum concentration of circulating immune complexes and middle mass molecules in the blood of rabbits following administration into the diet chlorella suspension, sodium sulfate, chromium citrate and chromium chloride. The studies were conducted on rabbits weighing 3.7-3.9 kg with altered diet from the first day of life to 118 days old. Rabbits were divided into five groups: the control one and four experimental groups. We found that in the blood of rabbits of experimental groups recieved sodium sulphate, chromium chloride and chromium citrate, the content of glycoprotein's and their carbohydrate components was significantly higher during the 118 days of the study compared with the control group. Feeding rabbits with mineral supplements likely reflected the differences compared with the control parameters of nonspecific resistance in the blood for the study period, which was more pronounced in the first two months of life.

  10. Human body frequency modulation by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions: a new paradigm and perspective for human health.

    PubMed

    Sudan, B J

    2000-08-01

    This case study demonstrates that the normal human body frequency, which can be disturbed by electromagnetic influences of the environment, can be modulated by 0.9% sodium chloride solutions (physiological saline) and that occurrence of allergic reactions have subsequently been suppressed as a result of this modulation. The use of distilled water as control showed no effect on occurrence of allergic reactions. Further observations on the growth of various plants in a greenhouse exposed to various geomagnetic fields support the previous observations on humans. The neutralization of electromagnetic influences on humans using 0.9% sodium chloride solution or by enclosure of plants within a copper wire Faraday cage resulting in a normal and uniform growth of plants as compared with disturbed and irregular growth in unenclosed controls, is demonstrated. These original observations propose a new strategy to suppress or prevent allergic reactions and possibly other effects observed in various human pathologies in relation to a disturbance of human body frequencies. It is hypothesized that the double helix structure of desoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) could be modified by environmental electromagnetic fields and that disresonance between the two chains of DNA could lead to the expression of specific pathology.

  11. Comparison of pressure drop and filtration efficiency of particulate respirators using welding fumes and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Woo; Yoon, Chung-Sik; Lee, Jin-Ho; Lee, Seung-Joo; Viner, Andrew; Johnson, Erik W

    2011-07-01

    Respirators are used to help reduce exposure to a variety of contaminants in workplaces. Test aerosols used for certification of particulate respirators (PRs) include sodium chloride (NaCl), dioctyl phthalate, and paraffin oil. These aerosols are generally assumed to be worst case surrogates for aerosols found in the workplace. No data have been published to date on the performance of PRs with welding fumes, a hazardous aerosol that exists in real workplace settings. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of respirators and filters against a NaCl aerosol and a welding fume aerosol and determine whether or not a correlation between the two could be made. Fifteen commercial PRs and filters (seven filtering facepiece, two replaceable single-type filters, and six replaceable dual-type filters) were chosen for investigation. Four of the filtering facepiece respirators, one of the single-type filters, and all of the dual-type filters contained carbon to help reduce exposure to ozone and other vapors generated during the welding process. For the NaCl test, a modified National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health protocol was adopted for use with the TSI Model 8130 automated filter tester. For the welding fume test, welding fumes from mild steel flux-cored arcs were generated and measured with a SIBATA filter tester (AP-634A, Japan) and a manometer in the upstream and downstream sections of the test chamber. Size distributions of the two aerosols were measured using a scanning mobility particle sizer. Penetration and pressure drop were measured over a period of aerosol loading onto the respirator or filter. Photos and scanning electron microscope images of clean and exposed respirators were taken. The count median diameter (CMD) and mass median diameter (MMD) for the NaCl aerosol were smaller than the welding fumes (CMD: 74 versus 216 nm; MMD: 198 versus 528 nm, respectively). Initial penetration and peak penetration were higher with the NaCl aerosol

  12. High dietary sodium chloride causes further protein loss during head-down tilt bed rest (HDBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehlmeier, Judith; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Baecker, Natalie; Stehle, Peter; Heer, Martina

    Human spaceflight is associated with a loss of body protein most likely caused by muscle degradation. Additionally astronauts tend towards a high dietary intake of sodium chloride (NaCl), which has recently been shown to induce low grade metabolic acidosis (Frings-Meuthen et al. JBMR, Epub 2007). In several patterns, e.g. chronical renal failure, metabolic acidosis is associated with protein catabolism. We therefore hypothesized that high dietary intake of NaCl enforces protein losses in HDBR, a model for physiological changes in microgravity (µG). Eight healthy male subjects (mean age 26.25 ± 3.5; mean body weight: 78.5 ± 4.1 kg) participated in a 14-day bed rest study in the metabolic ward of the DLR - Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Cologne, Germany. The study was carried out in a cross over design, consisting of two phases, each lasting 22 days (5 days adaptation, 14 days 6° HDBR and 3 days recovery). Both study phases were identical with respect to environmental conditions and study protocol. Subjects received an individually tailored, weight-maintaining diet containing 1.3 g protein/kg/day. The diet was identical in both study phases with the exception of NaClintake: Every subject received a low NaCl diet (0.7 mmol/kg/day) in one phase and a high NaCl diet (7.7 mmol/kg/day) in another one. Blood gas for analysis of acid-base balance was implemented at days 4 and 5 of adaptation, days 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 of HDBR and days 2, 3 of recovery. Continuous urine collection started on the first day in the metabolic ward to analyze nitrogen excretion. Nitrogen balance was calculated from the difference between protein intake and urinary nitrogen excretion, determined by use of chemiluminescence (Grimble et al. JPEN, 1988). Plasma pH did not change significantly (p=0.285), but plasma bicarbonate and base excess decreased (p=0.0175; p=0.0093) with high NaCl intake in HDBR compared to the low NaCl diet. Nitrogen balance in HDBR was negative, as expected in

  13. Effect of whey protein concentrate and sodium chloride concentrations on the odour profile of sous vide cooked whole-muscle beef from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Grigioni, G; Langman, L; Szerman, N; Irurueta, M; Vaudagna, S R

    2008-07-01

    Semitendinosus muscles added with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and sodium chloride (NaCl) were submitted to sous vide cooking. Four enhancement treatments and a control were tested: 0.875% WPC (w/w)+0.625% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+0.625% NaCl, 0.875% WPC+1.875% NaCl, 2.625% WPC+1.875% NaCl, and control (non-injected muscles). Odour analyses were carried out with an electronic nose (EN) system. EN data were evaluated applying Principal Component Analysis, Linear Discriminant Analysis and Partial Least Squares algorithm. EN was able to discriminate the odour profiles of cooked enhanced beef as a function of the amount of WPC added. No significant differences in odour profiles were observed regarding NaCl concentration. These results agreed with those obtained when odour profiles were analysed in WPC dispersions. The reported results support the applicability of EN methodology for analysing the impact of processing parameters on beef odour profiles.

  14. SPAK isoforms and OSR1 regulate sodium-chloride co-transporters in a nephron-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Grimm, P Richard; Taneja, Tarvinder K; Liu, Jie; Coleman, Richard; Chen, Yang-Yi; Delpire, Eric; Wade, James B; Welling, Paul A

    2012-11-02

    STE20/SPS-1-related proline-alanine-rich protein kinase (SPAK) and oxidative stress-related kinase (OSR1) activate the potassium-dependent sodium-chloride co-transporter, NKCC2, and thiazide-sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter, NCC, in vitro, and both co-localize with a kinase regulatory molecule, Cab39/MO25α, at the apical membrane of the thick ascending limb (TAL) and distal convoluted tubule (DCT). Yet genetic ablation of SPAK in mice causes a selective loss of NCC function, whereas NKCC2 becomes hyperphosphorylated. Here, we explore the underlying mechanisms in wild-type and SPAK-null mice. Unlike in the DCT, OSR1 remains at the TAL apical membrane of KO mice where it is accompanied by an increase in the active, phosphorylated form of AMP-activated kinase. We found an alterative SPAK isoform (putative SPAK2 form), which modestly inhibits co-transporter activity in vitro, is more abundant in the medulla than the cortex. Thus, enhanced NKCC2 phosphorylation in the SPAK knock-out may be explained by removal of inhibitory SPAK2, sustained activity of OSR1, and activation of other kinases. By contrast, the OSR1/SPAK/M025α signaling apparatus is disrupted in the DCT. OSR1 becomes largely inactive and displaced from M025α and NCC at the apical membrane, and redistributes to dense punctate structures, containing WNK1, within the cytoplasm. These changes are paralleled by a decrease in NCC phosphorylation and a decrease in the mass of the distal convoluted tubule, exclusive to DCT1. As a result of the dependent nature of OSR1 on SPAK in the DCT, NCC is unable to be activated. Consequently, SPAK(-/-) mice are highly sensitive to dietary salt restriction, displaying prolonged negative sodium balance and hypotension.

  15. Purification and identification of the functional sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid transport glycoprotein from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Radian, R; Bendahan, A; Kanner, B I

    1986-11-25

    Using the reconstitution conditions developed recently (Radian, R., and Kanner, B. I. (1985) J. Biol. Chem. 260, 11859-11865) we have now purified the sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter from rat brain to apparent homogeneity. A partially purified transporter preparation was passed over wheat germ agglutinin-Sepharose 6MB and non-bound proteins were washed away. The transport activity, as expressed upon reconstitution of the protein into liposomes, was eluted by a solution containing Triton X-100 and N-acetylglucosamine. The specific transport activity was increased almost 400-fold over that of the crude extract. Taking into account an approximately 2.5-fold inactivation during the lectin column chromatography, the actual purification is about 1000-fold. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide electrophoresis of the active fractions revealed one band of 80 kDa and small amounts of a band which ran at an apparent molecular mass of 160 kDa. The ratio between the two could be experimentally changed such as, for instance, by lyophilization. Polyclonal antibodies were prepared against the 80-kDa band which also cross-reacted with the 160-kDa band, indicating that the latter apparently represents a dimer form of the first. Using Protein A-Sepharose Cl-4B and the antibody against the 80-kDa band, we were able to quantitatively immunoprecipitate the potential gamma-aminobutyric acid transport activity from a crude transporter preparation. The pure transporter preparation exhibited the same features of the transporter in synaptic plasma membrane vesicles, namely dependence on sodium and chloride, electrogeneity, affinity, and efflux and exchange properties. We conclude that the 80-kDa band represents the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter.

  16. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-07-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde.

  17. Assessing the effectiveness of 30% sodium chloride aqueous solution for the preservation of fixed anatomical specimens: a 5-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Fabrício Singaretti

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical specimens used in human or veterinary anatomy laboratories are usually prepared with formaldehyde (a cancerous and teratogenic substance), glycerin (an expensive and viscous fluid), or ethanol (which is flammable). This research aimed to verify the viability of an aqueous 30% sodium chloride solution for preservation of anatomical specimens previously fixed with formaldehyde. Anatomical specimens of ruminant, carnivorous, equine, swine and birds were used. All were previously fixed with an aqueous 20% formaldehyde solution and held for 7 days in a 10% aqueous solution of the same active ingredient. During the first phase of the experiment, small specimens of animal tissue previously fixed in formaldehyde were distributed in vials with different concentrations of formaldehyde, with or without 30% sodium chloride solution, a group containing only 30% sodium chloride, and a control group containing only water. During this phase, no contamination was observed in any specimen containing 30% sodium chloride solution, whether alone or in combination with different concentrations of formaldehyde. In the second phase of the experiment, the 30% sodium chloride solution, found to be optimal in the first phase of the experiment, was tested for its long-term preservation properties. For a period of 5 years, the preserved specimens were evaluated three times a week for visual contamination, odors, and changes in color and texture. There was no visual contamination or decay found in any specimen. Furthermore, no strange odors, or changes in color or softness were noted. The 30% sodium chloride solution was determined to be effective in the preservation of anatomic specimens previously fixed in formaldehyde. PMID:24762210

  18. Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M

    2014-12-01

    Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/l) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (i.v.) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 ml/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/l. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/l was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/l. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to i.v. 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia.

  19. Hourly oral sodium chloride for the rapid and predictable treatment of hyponatremia

    PubMed Central

    Kerns, Eric; Patel, Shweta; Cohen, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Hypertonic NaCl is first-line therapy for acute, severe and symptomatic hyponatremia; however, its use is often restricted to the intensive care unit (ICU). A 35-year-old female inpatient with an optic chiasm glioma and ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus developed acute hyponatremia (sodium 122 mEq/L) perhaps coinciding with haloperidol treatment. The sum of her urinary sodium and potassium concentrations was markedly hypertonic vis-à-vis plasma; it was inferred that serum sodium concentration would continue to fall even in the complete absence of fluid intake. Intravenous (IV) 3% NaCl was recommended; however, a city-wide public health emergency precluded her transfer to the ICU. She was treated with hourly oral NaCl tablets in a dose calculated to deliver the equivalent of 0.5 mL/kg/h of 3% NaCl with an objective of increasing the serum sodium concentration by 6 mEq/L. She experienced a graded and predictable increase in serum sodium concentration. A slight overshoot to 129 mEq/L was rapidly corrected with 0.25 l of D5W, and she stabilized at 127 mEq/L. We conclude that hourly oral NaCl, in conjunction with careful monitoring of the serum sodium concentration, may provide an attractive alternative to IV 3% NaCl for selected patients with severe hyponatremia. PMID:23816479

  20. A solution NMR investigation into the early events of amelogenin nanosphere self-assembly initiated with sodium chloride or calcium chloride.

    PubMed

    Buchko, Garry W; Tarasevich, Barbara J; Bekhazi, Jacky; Snead, Malcolm L; Shaw, Wendy J

    2008-12-16

    Using solution-state NMR spectroscopy, new insights into the early events governing amelogenin supramolecular self-assembly have been identified using sodium chloride and calcium chloride to trigger the association. Two-dimensional 1H-15N HSQC spectra were recorded for 15N- and 13C-labeled murine amelogenin as a function of increasing NaCl and CaCl2 concentration beginning with solution conditions of 2% acetic acid at pH 3.0, where amelogenin was monomeric. Residue specific changes in molecular dynamics, manifested by the reduction in intensity and disappearance of 1H-15N HSQC cross-peaks, were observed with the addition of either salt to the protein. With increasing NaCl concentrations, residues between T21 and R31 near the N-terminus were affected first, suggesting that these residues may initiate amelogenin dimerization, the first step in nanosphere assembly. At higher NaCl concentrations, more residues near the N-terminus (Y12-I51) were affected, and with further additions of NaCl, residues near the C-terminus (L141-T171) began to show a similar change in molecular dynamics. With increasing CaCl2 concentrations, a similar stepwise change in molecular dynamics involving essentially the same set of amelogenin residues was observed. As the concentration of either salt was increased, a concomitant increase in the estimated overall rotational correlation time (tau(c)) was observed, consistent with assembly. Self-assembly into a dimer or trimer was established with dynamic light scattering studies under similar conditions that showed an increase in diameter of the smallest species from 4.1 nm in the absence of salt to 10 nm in the presence of salt. These results suggest a possible stepwise interaction mechanism, starting with the N-terminus and followed by the C-terminus, leading to amelogenin nanosphere assembly.

  1. Role of added chloride ions in alteration of reaction pathway in the oxidation of cyclic ketones by dichloroisocyanuric acid—A kinetic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshman Kumar, Y.; Venkata Nadh, R.; Radhakrishnamurti, P. S.

    2015-03-01

    Effect of added chloride ions on kinetics and pathway of reaction between cyclic ketones (five to eight membered rings) and dichloroisocyanuric acid (DCICA) was studied in aqueous acetic acid—perchloric acid medium. Formation of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids as the end products demonstrates the ring cleavage oxidation. Positive effect of acid and negative effect of dielectric constant on the reaction rate reveals a interaction between positive ion (oxidant in the form of H2OCl+) and dipolar substrate molecule. Zero and first orders by oxidant in absence and presence of added chloride ions illustrates the participation of substrate as enolic form of ketone and protonated ketone, respectively, in the rate determining steps. The observed order of reactivity of cyclic ketones (cyclohexanone > cyclooctanone > cyclopentanone > cycloheptanone) was explained on the bases of ring strain, change of hybridization and conformational considerations. The envisaged plausible mechanism based on order of reactants in presence and absence of added chloride ions was substantiated by the order of Arrhenius parameters.

  2. Intracellular chloride activities in canine tracheal epithelium. Direct evidence for sodium-coupled intracellular chloride accumulation in a chloride-secreting epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Welsh, M J

    1983-01-01

    Canine tracheal epithelium secretes Cl via an electrogenic transport process that appears to apply to a wide variety of secretory epithelia. To examine the mechanisms involved, intracellular chloride activity, acCl, was measured with Cl-selective intracellular microelectrodes. The results indicate that when the rate of secretion was minimal acCl was 37 mM; with stimulation of secretion the intracellular voltage depolarized, but acCl was not significantly altered, at 39 mM. These findings indicate that: (a) Cl is accumulated across the basolateral membrane under nonsecreting and secreting conditions at an activity 3.8 and 2.4 times, respectively, that predicted for an equilibrium distribution; (b) Cl exit across the apical membrane may be passive with an electrochemical driving force of 22 mV; and (c) stimulation of secretion enhanced the rate of Cl entry across the basolateral membrane, since Cl transport increased without a change in acCl. In the absence of Na in the extracellular fluid, acCl approached the value expected for an equilibrium distribution. This finding suggests that "uphill" entry of Cl into the cell against its electrochemical gradient is dependent upon, and energized by, the entry of Na down its gradient. Submucosal bumetanide, a loop diuretic, also decreased the rate of Cl secretion and decreased acCl, indicating an inhibition of Cl entry. These findings indicate that Cl entry into the cell is directed against its electrochemical gradient and is mediated by a Na-coupled, bumetanide-inhibitable, transport process at the basolateral membrane and that Cl may exit passively down a favorable electrochemical gradient across the apical membrane. PMID:6853719

  3. Effects of Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Calcium Chloride on the Formation of α-Dicarbonyl Compounds, Furfurals and Development of Browning in Cookies during Baking.

    PubMed

    Kocadağlı, Tolgahan; Gökmen, Vural

    2016-10-02

    Effect of NaCl, KCl, CaCl2, NaHCO3, and NH4HCO3 on the formation of glucosone, 1-deoxyglucosone, 3-deoxyglucosone, glyoxal, methylglyoxal, diacetyl, 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural, 2-furfural and browning were investigated in cookies. Presence of 1.5% NaCl, 1% KCl, and 1% CaCl2 on flour basis had no effect on α-dicarbonyl compounds, except 1-deoxyglucosone increased in the presence of KCl and CaCl2. The increase in 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural formation in the presence of NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 did not relate to 3-deoxyglucosone formation and pH changes. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 increased browning in cookies. Model reaction systems indicated that NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 enhance browning by increasing furfurals in caramelization. NaCl, KCl, and CaCl2 decreased browning intensity in heated glucose-glycine system. Usage of CaCl2 in cookies may considerably increase furfurals but not α-dicarbonyl compounds. Sodium reduction can be obtained by replacement with potassium without sacrificing the desired consequences of caramelization in sugar rich bakeries.

  4. Sodium chloride concentration affects yield, quality, and sensory acceptability of vacuum-tumbled marinated broiler breast fillets.

    PubMed

    Lopez, K; Schilling, M W; Armstrong, T W; Smith, B S; Corzo, A

    2012-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of sodium chloride concentration on yield, instrumental quality, and sensory acceptability of broiler breast meat that was vacuum tumbled with a 15% solution (over green weight) for 30 min. Different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, and 1.50%) of NaCl (salt) and 0.35% sodium tripolyphosphate were included in the marinade solution. After marinating, breast fillets were evaluated for marination yields, pH, surface color, cooking loss, tenderness, expressible moisture, proximate composition, purge loss, sodium content, and sensory acceptability. As salt concentration increased, CIE L* decreased linearly, with a concentration of 0.75% having lower (P < 0.05) CIE L* values when compared with the control, 0, and 0.25% NaCl treatments. In addition, there was a linear and quadratic decrease (P < 0.05) in shear force as salt concentration increased, with no further decrease (P < 0.05) when greater than 0.75% NaCl was used. Cooking yield increased (P < 0.05) as the salt concentration increased to 1.0%. All marinated treatments were preferred (P < 0.05) over the control treatment, and all treatments marinated with at least 0.50% sodium chloride had an average rating of like moderately. Cluster analysis indicated that consumer groups varied in their preference of broiler breast meat treatments and that samples that were marinated with between 0.5 to 1.0% NaCl were acceptable to the majority of consumers. Marination with 0.75% NaCl was sufficient to maximize yields and decrease lightness (L*) in vacuum-tumbled, marinated broiler breast that is sold raw, but 1.0% NaCl could be used in a precooked product because it minimizes cook loss. In addition, use of 0.50% NaCl had minimal effects on yields, color, and sensory acceptability when compared with products that were marinated with greater concentrations of NaCl.

  5. Catalytic conversion of corncob and corncob pretreatment hydrolysate to furfural in a biphasic system with addition of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Qing, Qing; Guo, Qi; Zhou, Linlin; Wan, Yilun; Xu, Youqing; Ji, Huilong; Gao, Xiaohang; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic conversion of corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob into furfural in a modified biphasic system by SO4(2-)/SnO2(-) MMT solid catalyst has been developed. The influence of the organic solvent type, organic to water phase ratio, sodium chloride concentration, reaction temperature and time on the furfural production were comparatively evaluated. The results showed that furfural yields of 81.7% and 66.1% were achieved at 190°C for 15mins and 190°C for 20mins, respectively, for corncob pretreatment hydrolysate and raw corncob by this solid catalyst. The solid catalyst used in this study exhibited good stability and high efficiency applied in the modified biphasic system in addition to excellent recyclability. The proposed catalytic system displayed high performance for catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into important platform chemicals and has great potential in industrial application.

  6. [Sylvinite speleochamber and general chloride sodium baths in medical rehabilitation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Rassulova, M A

    2008-01-01

    Clinico-laboratory, functional and bronchoscopic examinations were performed in 120 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 50 patients (41.7%) were in stage of low-intensity exacerbation, 70 patients (58.3%)--in remission stage. 55 patients (45.8%) had I degree respiratory failure, 65 patients (54.2%)--II degree respiratory failure. Easy degree of disease was detected in 58 patients (48.3%), mid degree--in 62 patients (51.7%). Possibility and reasonability of the use of artificial sylvinite speleotherapy and general chloride sodium baths in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were proved. Clinical results were confirmed by data of blood morphology and biochemical analysis, microscopy of sputum, spirometry, bronchoscopy, dynamics of immunological indices.

  7. Liquid water-ice I phase diagrams under high pressure: sodium chloride and sucrose models for food systems.

    PubMed

    Guignon, Bérengère; Otero, Laura; Molina-García, Antonio D; Sanz, Pedro D

    2005-01-01

    The knowledge of high pressure and low temperature phase diagrams of aqueous systems is required in fields such as food sciences, biology, cryo-microscopy and geology, to reduce processing costs, improve treatments results or advance in physical phenomena understanding. The phase transition curve between liquid water and ice I for sucrose and sodium chloride solutions has been obtained for concentrations ranging from 16% to 36% and from 1.63% to 16.09% (w/w), respectively. An accurate experimental method, based on the pressurization of an ice-solution mixture, adequate to build the entire phase transition curve at constant concentration, has been developed. Simon-like equations have been used to empirically describe the phase transition curves, so that they allow easy data interpolation.

  8. Sodium chloride enhances cadmium tolerance through reducing cadmium accumulation and increasing anti-oxidative enzyme activity in tobacco.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bing-Lin; Shang, Sheng-Hua; Zhang, Hai-Tao; Jabeen, Zahra; Zhang, Guo-Ping

    2013-06-01

    The effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) on cadmium (Cd) uptake, translocation, and oxidative stress was investigated using 2 tobacco cultivars differing in Cd tolerance. The growth inhibition of the tobacco plants exposed to Cd toxicity was in part alleviated by moderate addition of NaCl in the culture solution. Cadmium concentration of shoots and roots in the 2 cultivars increased with increasing Cd levels in the solution and decreased with the addition of NaCl. The addition of NaCl could alleviate the oxidative stress caused by Cd toxicity, as reflected by reduced production of malondialdehyde and recovered or enhanced activities of antioxidative enzymes catalase and glutathione peroxidase. The results also showed that the enhancement of antioxidative enzyme activity by NaCl for the tobacco plants exposed to Cd stress is related to induced Ca signaling.

  9. Structural, dynamic, and transport properties of concentrated aqueous sodium chloride solutions under an external static electric field.

    PubMed

    Ren, Gan; Shi, Rui; Wang, Yanting

    2014-04-24

    In the absence of an external electric field, it has already been known that ion clusters are formed instantaneously in moderately concentrated ionic solutions. In this work, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the changes of structural, dynamic, and transport properties in a sodium chloride solution under an external electric field from the ion cluster perspective. Our MD simulation results indicate that, with a strong external electric field E (≥0.1 V/nm) applied, ion clusters become smaller and less net charged, and the structures and dynamics as well as transport properties of the ion solution become anisotropic. The influence of the cluster structure and shell structure to transport properties was analyzed and the Einstein relation was found invalid in this system.

  10. Corrosion behavior of ruthenium oxide-titanium anodes during production of sodium chlorate by electrolysis of chloride-chlorate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Uzbekov, A.A.; Klement 'pva, V.S.; Kubasov, V.L.; Lambrev, V.G.

    1985-09-01

    The authors studied the influence of specific factors in chlorate electrilysis on the corrosion behavior of ROTA. The technique used in the investigation was based on neutron activation of the test specimens followed by corrosion tests. Figures show the dependence rate of ruthenium dissolution on the sodium chloride production during production of chlorate by electrolysis with ROTA, and dependence of the rate of ruthenium dissolution and of the rate of oxygen evolution during polarization of ROTA. Over the entire range of ROTA potentials studied the process of oxygen evolution conforms to the Tafel relationship. The rate of ruthenium dissolution in chlorate solution rises by more than 4 orders of magnitude with increase of the ROTA potential.

  11. Effect of Polyvnylpyrrolidone (PVP) in Binary Solution on the Performance of Polyethersulfone Hollow Fibre Membrane for Sodium Chloride Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolong, N.; Ismail, A. F.; Salim, M. R.

    2010-03-01

    In membrane preparation, phase inversion is a versatile technique that allow polymer to be transformed from liquid to a solid state in a controlled manner. The preparation and process involves many factors and parameters specifically in fabricating hollow fibre membrane. In this study, dope solution factor in the process of fabricating hollow fibre membrane were explored. The effects of polymer concentration and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as additive in the dope solution on the morphology and separation performance were found able to produced high porous membranes, well interconnected pores and surface properties. Employing polyethersulfone (PES) as polymer, hollow fibre membranes were fabricated using N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) as solvent and using water as the external coagulant. Finally the fabricated ultrafiltration membranes were characterized and evaluated based on solute transport concentration (sodium chloride) and pure water permeation properties.

  12. Norepinephrine-evoked salt-sensitive hypertension requires impaired renal sodium chloride cotransporter activity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kathryn R; Kuwabara, Jill T; Shim, Joon W; Wainford, Richard D

    2016-01-15

    Recent studies have implicated a role of norepinephrine (NE) in the activation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) to drive the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. However, the interaction between NE and increased salt intake on blood pressure remains to be fully elucidated. This study examined the impact of a continuous NE infusion on sodium homeostasis and blood pressure in conscious Sprague-Dawley rats challenged with a normal (NS; 0.6% NaCl) or high-salt (HS; 8% NaCl) diet for 14 days. Naïve and saline-infused Sprague-Dawley rats remained normotensive when placed on HS and exhibited dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide. NE infusion resulted in the development of hypertension, which was exacerbated by HS, demonstrating the development of the salt sensitivity of blood pressure [MAP (mmHg) NE+NS: 151 ± 3 vs. NE+HS: 172 ± 4; P < 0.05]. In these salt-sensitive animals, increased NE prevented dietary sodium-evoked suppression of peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide, suggesting impaired NCC activity contributes to the development of salt sensitivity [peak natriuresis to hydrochlorothiazide (μeq/min) Naïve+NS: 9.4 ± 0.2 vs. Naïve+HS: 7 ± 0.1; P < 0.05; NE+NS: 11.1 ± 1.1; NE+HS: 10.8 ± 0.4). NE infusion did not alter NCC expression in animals maintained on NS; however, dietary sodium-evoked suppression of NCC expression was prevented in animals challenged with NE. Chronic NCC antagonism abolished the salt-sensitive component of NE-mediated hypertension, while chronic ANG II type 1 receptor antagonism significantly attenuated NE-evoked hypertension without restoring NCC function. These data demonstrate that increased levels of NE prevent dietary sodium-evoked suppression of the NCC, via an ANG II-independent mechanism, to stimulate the development of salt-sensitive hypertension.

  13. The use of chloride-sodium ratio in the evaluation of metabolic acidosis in critically ill neonates.

    PubMed

    Kurt, Abdullah; Ecevit, Ayşe; Ozkiraz, Servet; Ince, Deniz Anuk; Akcan, Abdullah Baris; Tarcan, Aylin

    2012-06-01

    Acid-base disturbances have been usually evaluated with the traditional Henderson-Hasselbach method and Stewart's physiochemical approach by quantifying anions of tissue acids (TA). It is hypothesized that an increase in tissue acids during metabolic acidosis would cause a compensatory decrease in the plasma chloride (Cl) relative to sodium (Cl-Na ratio) in order to preserve electroneutral balance. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the use of Cl-Na ratio as a bedside tool to evaluate the identifying raised TA in neonates as an alternative to complex calculations of Stewart's physiochemical approach. This retrospective study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. Infants were included in the study when blood gas analysis reveals a metabolic acidosis; pH <7.25 and sHCO(3) concentration was <22 mEq/L. The Cl-Na ratio, sodium-chloride difference (Diff(NaCl)), anion gap (AG), albumin-corrected AG (AG(corr)), strong ion difference (SID), unmeasured anions (UMA), and TA were calculated at each episode of metabolic acidosis. A total of 105 metabolic acidosis episodes occurred in 59 infants during follow-up. Hypochloremic metabolic acidosis occurred in 17 (16%) of samples, and all had increased TA. The dominant component of TA was UMA rather than lactate. There was a negative correlation between the Cl-Na ratio and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Also, there was a positive correlation between Diff(NaCl) and SID, AG(corr), UMA, and TA. Base deficit and actual bicarbonate performed poorly in identifying the TA. In conclusion, our study suggested that Diff(NaCl) and Cl-Na ratio are simple and fast, and may be an alternative method to complex Stewart's physiochemical approach in identifying raised UMA and TA in critically ill neonates.

  14. Exploring time of death from potassium, sodium, chloride, glucose & calcium analysis of postmortem synovial fluid in semi arid climate.

    PubMed

    Siddhamsetty, Arun K; Verma, Satish K; Kohli, Anil; Verma, Aditi; Puri, Dinesh; Singh, Archana

    2014-11-01

    Estimation of time of death (TOD) with fair accuracy from postmortem changes still remains an important but difficult task to be performed by every autopsy surgeon under different climatic conditions. The environment plays an important role in the process of decomposition and thereby affecting the levels of electrolytes and other biochemical parameters in the postmortem samples. Since, there is limited information available on the levels of these biochemical parameters from semi arid environment, the present study was aimed to explore time of death by analyzing electrolyte, glucose and calcium levels of postmortem synovial fluid collected from samples under such climatic conditions. The synovial fluid samples from two hundred and ten bodies brought to University College of Medical Sciences and associated Guru Teg Bahadur Hospital Delhi for medico-legal postmortem examination, during the period of November 2010 to April 2012, were analyzed for potassium, sodium, chloride, glucose and calcium. Univariate regression analysis of electrolyte concentrations of synovial fluid showed significant positive relationship between time of death and potassium (r = 0.840, p = 0.000). However, there was negative relationship between time of death and sodium (r = -0.175, p = 0.011) & glucose (r = -0.427, p = 0.000) and no significant relationship was found between time of death and calcium (r = 0.099, p = 0.152) & chloride (r = 0.082, p = 0.24) among the samples analyzed.

  15. RNA sequencing analysis of transcriptional change in the freshwater mussel Elliptio complanata after environmentally relevant sodium chloride exposure.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Laura S; Galbraith, Heather S; Iwanowicz, Deborah; Blakeslee, Carrie J; Cornman, R Scott

    2017-02-22

    To identify potential biomarkers of salt stress in a freshwater sentinel species, we examined transcriptional responses of the common mussel Elliptio complanata to controlled sodium chloride (NaCl) exposures. Ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNA-Seq) of mantle tissue identified 481 transcripts differentially expressed in adult mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl (1.2 ppt chloride) for 7 d, of which 290 had nonoverlapping intervals. Differentially expressed gene categories included ion and transmembrane transport, oxidoreductase activity, maintenance of protein folding, and amino acid metabolism. The rate-limiting enzyme for synthesis of taurine, an amino acid frequently linked to osmotic stress in aquatic species, was upregulated, as was the transmembrane ion pump sodium/potassium adenosine 5'-triphosphatase. These patterns confirm a primary transcriptional response to the experimental dose, albeit likely overlapping with nonspecific secondary stress responses. Substantial involvement of the heat shock protein 70 chaperone family and the water-transporting aquaporin family was not detected, however, in contrast to some studies in other bivalves. A subset of the most significantly regulated genes was confirmed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in an independent sample. Cluster analysis showed separation of mussels exposed to 2 ppt NaCl from control mussels in multivariate space, but mussels exposed to 1 ppt NaCl were largely indistinguishable from controls. Transcriptome-scale analysis of salt exposure under laboratory conditions efficiently identified candidate biomarkers for further functional analysis and field validation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-15. © Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.

  16. USDA monitors levels of added sodium in processed and prepared foods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective is to provide a progress report for efforts by the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) to monitor sodium in processed and prepared foods frequently consumed by the U.S. population. Recent concerns by the U.S. public health community about the intake of sodium by Americans have led ARS, USD...

  17. Evaluation of antibiofilm effect of benzalkonium chloride, iodophore and sodium hypochlorite against biofilm of Pseudomonas aeruginosa of dairy origin.

    PubMed

    Pagedar, Ankita; Singh, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    The present study was undertaken with objectives of; a) to investigate and compare Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from two dairies for biofilm formation potential and, b) to compares three common biocides for biofilm eradication efficiencies. Amongst the isolates from commercial dairy, 70 % were strong and/or moderate biofilm former in comparison to 40 % isolates from small scale dairy. All isolates, irrespective of source, exhibited higher susceptibility to biocides in planktonic stage than in biofilm. Antibiofilm efficiencies of three biocides i.e. benzalkonium chloride, sodium hypochlorite and iodophore were determined in terms of their microbial biofilms eradicating concentration (MBEC). Our findings show that the three biocides were ineffective against preformed biofilms at recommended in-use concentrations. Biofilms were the most resistant to benzalkonium chloride and least against iodophore. A trend of decreasing MBECs was observed with extended contact time. The findings of present study warrant for a systematic approach for selecting types and concentrations of biocide for application as antibiofilm agent in food industry.

  18. Benefits of a silica-based fluoride toothpaste containing o-cymen-5-ol, zinc chloride and sodium fluoride.

    PubMed

    Newby, Craig S; Rowland, Joanna L; Lynch, Richard J M; Bradshaw, David J; Whitworth, Darren; Bosma, Mary Lynn

    2011-08-01

    Fluoride toothpastes in conjunction with tooth brushing are used to clean teeth, control plaque build-up and for anti-caries benefits. Toothpastes are designed with attractive flavours and appearances to encourage regular prolonged use to maximise these benefits. The incorporation of additional ingredients into toothpaste is a convenient way to provide supplementary protection that fits into people's everyday oral care routine. Such ingredients should not compromise the primary health benefits of toothpaste nor discourage its use. o-Cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride have been incorporated into a sodium fluoride (NaF)/silica toothpaste at 0.1%w/w and 0.6%w/w respectively to provide additional benefits. These include improved gingival health maintenance, in terms of the reduction of plaque, gingival index and bleeding, and an immediate and long lasting reduction in volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) measured on breath. These benefits can be attributed to the antimicrobial and neutralisation actions of the toothpaste. The use of established fluoride models demonstrated no compromise in NaF bioavailability. The toothpaste was formulated without compromising product aesthetics. The combination of o-cymen-5-ol and zinc chloride in toothpaste gave superior maintenance of gingival health and reduction in malodour related VSCs without compromising the primary health benefits of the toothpaste or diminishing attributes preferred for the product's use.

  19. Separation of no-carrier-added rhenium from bulk tantalum by the sodium malonate-PEG aqueous biphasic system.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Binita; Lahiri, Susanta; Tomar, B S

    2014-02-01

    The aqueous biphasic system (ABS) involving sodium malonate-polyethylene glycol (PEG) phases has been applied for the first time for separation of no-carrier-added (183)Re (T1/2=70 d) from α-particle irradiated bulk tantalum target. The various ABS conditions were applied for investigating the separation by varying pH, temperature, PEG-molecular weight, concentration of salt. The extraction pattern was hardly affected by change in pH and the molecular weight of PEG. One step separation of nca (183)Re from Ta was achieved at the optimal conditions of (i) 50% (w/w) PEG-4000-2 M sodium malonate, 40 °C and (ii) 50% (w/w) PEG-4000-3 M sodium malonate, room temperature (27 °C).

  20. Accumulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HSP32) in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells treated with sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride or proteasomal inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Music, Ena; Khan, Saad; Khamis, Imran; Heikkila, John J

    2014-11-01

    The present study examined the effect of sodium arsenite, cadmium chloride, heat shock and the proteasomal inhibitors MG132, withaferin A and celastrol on heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as HSP32) accumulation in Xenopus laevis A6 kidney epithelial cells. Immunoblot analysis revealed that HO-1 accumulation was not induced by heat shock but was enhanced by sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. Immunocytochemistry revealed that these metals induced HO-1 accumulation in a granular pattern primarily in the cytoplasm. Additionally, in 20% of the cells arsenite induced the formation of large HO-1-containing perinuclear structures. In cells recovering from sodium arsenite or cadmium chloride treatment, HO-1 accumulation initially increased to a maximum at 12h followed by a 50% reduction at 48 h. This initial increase in HO-1 levels was likely the result of new synthesis as it was inhibited by cycloheximide. Interestingly, treatment of cells with a mild heat shock enhanced HO-1 accumulation induced by low concentrations of sodium arsenite and cadmium chloride. Finally, we determined that HO-1 accumulation was induced in A6 cells by the proteasomal inhibitors, MG132, withaferin A and celastrol. An examination of heavy metal and proteasomal inhibitor-induced HO-1 accumulation in amphibians is of importance given the presence of toxic heavy metals in aquatic habitats.

  1. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 – 65C), sodium chloride (NaCl, 0-2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE, 0-3%) on heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags submerged in ...

  2. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt %) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes ...

  3. Involvement of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 in the Regulation of Selective Excretion of Sodium or Chloride Ions by the Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Marina, A S; Kutina, A V; Shakhmatoba, E I; Natochin, Yu V

    2017-02-01

    An increase of total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentration in the plasma in rats was revealed 5 min after oral, but not intraperitoneal administration of NaCl or Trizma HCl solutions. The increase in GLP-1 level was similar to that after oral glucose administration. After intraperitoneal administration of 2.5% NaCl, GLP-1 mimetic exenatide accelerated natriuresis and urinary chloride excretion. Under conditions of normonatriemia and hyperchloremia induced by injection of 6.7% Trizma HCl, exenatide stimulated chloride excretion and reabsorption of sodium ions in the kidneys. These findings suggest that GLP-1 participates in selective regulation of the balance of sodium and chloride ions.

  4. Separation of sodium chloride from the evaporated residue of the reverse osmosis reject generated in the leather industry--optimization by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Boopathy, R; Sekaran, G

    2014-08-01

    Reverse osmosis (RO) concentrate is being evaporated by solar/thermal evaporators to meet zero liquid discharge standards. The resulted evaporated residue (ER) is contaminated with both organic and inorganic mixture of salts. The generation of ER is exceedingly huge in the leather industry, which is being collected and stored under the shelter to avoid groundwater contamination by the leachate. In the present investigation, a novel process for the separation of sodium chloride from ER was developed, to reduce the environmental impact on RO concentrate discharge. The sodium chloride was selectively separated by the reactive precipitation method using hydrogen chloride gas. The selected process variables were optimized for maximum yield ofNaCl from the ER (optimum conditions were pH, 8.0; temperature, 35 degrees C; concentration of ER, 600 g/L and HCl purging time, 3 min). The recovered NaCl purity was verified using a cyclic voltagramm.

  5. Water-soluble copolymers. XLV. Ampholytic terpolymers of acrylamide with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, C.L.; Salazar, L.C. )

    1993-05-10

    Water-soluble, low charge density polyampholytes have been synthesized by free-radical terpolymerization of acrylamide (AM) with sodium 3-acrylamide-3-methylbutanoate (NaAMB) and 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropanetrimethylammonium chloride (AMPTAC). Terpolymer compositions obtained by [sup 13]C0NMR reflect monomer feed concentrations. Molecular weights and second virial coefficients range from 3.43 to 19.4 [times] 10[sup 6] g/mol and from 1.63 to 3.61 mL mol/g[sup [minus]2], respectively, as determined by low-angle laser light scattering. Ionic associations were explored by investigating the dilute solution properties as a function of terpolymer concentration, terpolymer charge density, and added electrolytes. Terpolymers with 0.5, 2.5, and 5.0 mol% of both of the cationic (AMTAC) and anionic (NaAMB) monomers were soluble in deionized water, whereas those with 10 and 15 mol% of each monomer required electrolyte addition. The higher-density terpolymers undergo a 700% increase in intrinsic viscosity upon changing NaCl concentration from 0.05 to 1M. Polyelectrolyte behavior could be induced by decreasing solution pH below the pK[sub a] of the NaAMB mer. Intermolecular ionic associations resulting in gel networks were studied utilizing dynamic mechanical analysis.

  6. Dietary potassium: a key mediator of the cardiovascular response to dietary sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Kanbay, Mehmet; Bayram, Yeter; Solak, Yalcin; Sanders, Paul W

    2013-01-01

    Potassium and sodium share a yin/yang relationship in the regulation of blood pressure (BP). BP is directly associated with the total body sodium and negatively correlated with the total body potassium. Epidemiologic, experimental, and clinical studies have shown that potassium is a significant regulator of BP and further improves cardiovascular outcomes. Hypertensive cardiovascular damage, stroke, and stroke-related death are accelerated by salt intake but might be curbed by increasing dietary potassium intake. The antihypertensive effect of potassium supplementation appears to occur through several mechanisms that include regulation of vascular sensitivity to catecholamines, promotion of natriuresis, limiting plasma renin activity, and improving endothelial function. In the absence of chronic kidney disease, the combined evidence suggests that a diet rich in potassium content serves a vasculoprotective function, particularly in the setting of salt-sensitive hypertension and prehypertension.

  7. Stability of tranexamic acid in 0.9% sodium chloride, stored in type 1 glass vials and ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Susan V; Sztajnkrycer, Matthew D; Jenkins, Donald A; Zietlow, Scott P; Berns, Kathleen S; Park, Myung S

    2014-01-01

    Tranexamic acid has recently been demonstrated to decrease all-cause mortality and deaths due to hemorrhage in trauma patients. The optimal administration of tranexamic acid is within one hour of injury, but not more than three hours from the time of injury. To aid with timely administration, a premixed solution of 1 gram tranexamic acid and 0.9% sodium chloride was proposed to be stocked as a medication in both the aeromedical transport helicopters and Emergency Department at Mayo Clinic Hospital--Rochester Saint Marys Campus. Since no published stability data exists for tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride, this study was undertaken to determine the stability of tranexamic acid diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride while being stored in two types of containers. Stability was determined through the use of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid reverse phase chromatography assay, pH, and visual tests. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 65 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 90 days in ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers, protected from light, and at both controlled room and refrigerated temperatures. Tranexamic acid solutions of 1 gram in 0.9% sodium chloride 50 mL were studied at predetermined intervals for 180 days in clear Type 1 borosilicate glass vials sealed with intact elastomeric, Flourotec-coated stoppers, stored protected from light at controlled room temperature. Solutions stored in the ethylene/propylene copolymer plastic containers at both storage temperatures maintained at least 98% of initial potency throughout the 90-day study period. Solutions stored in glass vials at controlled room temperature maintained at least 92% of initial potency throughout the 180-day study period. Visual and pH tests revealed stable, clear, colorless, and particulate-free solutions throughout the respective study periods.

  8. Quantitative interaction effects of carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite on neurotoxin gene expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum type B.

    PubMed

    Lövenklev, Maria; Artin, Ingrid; Hagberg, Oskar; Borch, Elisabeth; Holst, Elisabet; Rådström, Peter

    2004-05-01

    The effects of carbon dioxide, sodium chloride, and sodium nitrite on type B botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT/B) gene (cntB) expression in nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum were investigated in a tryptone-peptone-yeast extract (TPY) medium. Various concentrations of these selected food preservatives were studied by using a complete factorial design in order to quantitatively study interaction effects, as well as main effects, on the following responses: lag phase duration (LPD), growth rate, relative cntB expression, and extracellular BoNT/B production. Multiple linear regression was used to set up six statistical models to quantify and predict these responses. All combinations of NaCl and NaNO(2) in the growth medium resulted in a prolonged lag phase duration and in a reduction in the specific growth rate. In contrast, the relative BoNT/B gene expression was unchanged, as determined by the cntB-specific quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. This was confirmed when we measured the extracellular BoNT/B concentration by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CO(2) was found to have a major effect on gene expression when the cntB mRNA levels were monitored in the mid-exponential, late exponential, and late stationary growth phases. The expression of cntB relative to the expression of the 16S rRNA gene was stimulated by an elevated CO(2) concentration; the cntB mRNA level was fivefold greater in a 70% CO(2) atmosphere than in a 10% CO(2) atmosphere. These findings were also confirmed when we analyzed the extracellular BoNT/B concentration; we found that the concentrations were 27 ng x ml(-1). unit of optical density(-1) in the 10% CO(2) atmosphere and 126 ng x ml(-1). unit of optical density(-1) in the 70% CO(2) atmosphere.

  9. Upregulation of apical sodium-chloride cotransporter and basolateral chloride channels is responsible for the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Capasso, Giovambattista; Rizzo, Maria; Garavaglia, Maria Lisa; Trepiccione, Francesco; Zacchia, Miriam; Mugione, Alessandra; Ferrari, Patrizia; Paulmichl, Markus; Lang, Florian; Loffing, Johannes; Carrel, Monique; Damiano, Sara; Wagner, Carsten A; Bianchi, Giuseppe; Meyer, Giuliano

    2008-08-01

    We investigated which of the NaCl transporters are involved in the maintenance of salt-sensitive hypertension. Milan hypertensive (MHS) rats were studied 3 mo after birth. In MHS, compared with normotensive strain (MNS), mRNA abundance, quantified by competitive PCR on isolated tubules, was unchanged, both for Na+/H+ isoform 3 (NHE3) and Na+-K+-2Cl- (NKCC2), but higher (119%, n = 5, P < 0.005) for Na+-Cl- (NCC) in distal convoluted tubules (DCT). These results were confirmed by Western blots, which revealed: 1) unchanged NHE3 in the cortex and NKCC2 in the outer medulla; 2) a significant increase (52%, n = 6, P < 0.001) of NCC in the cortex; 3) alpha- and beta-sodium channels [epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC)] unaffected in renal cortex and slightly reduced in the outer medulla, while gamma-ENaC remained unchanged. Pendrin protein expression was unaffected. The role of NCC was reinforced by immunocytochemical studies showing increased NCC on the apical membrane of DCT cells of MHS animals, and by clearance experiments demonstrating a larger sensitivity (P < 0.001) to bendroflumethiazide in MHS rats. Kidney-specific chloride channels (ClC-K) were studied by Western blot experiments on renal cortex and by patch-clamp studies on primary culture of DCT dissected from MNS and MHS animals. Electrophysiological characteristics of ClC-K channels were unchanged in MHS rats, but the number of active channels in a patch was 0.60 +/- 0.21 (n = 35) in MNS rats and 2.17 +/- 0.59 (n = 23) in MHS rats (P < 0.05). The data indicate that, in salt-sensitive hypertension, there is a strong upregulation, both of NCC and ClC-K along the DCT, which explains the persistence of hypertension.

  10. Effect of algogenic organic matter (AOM) and sodium chloride on Nannochloropsis salina flocculation efficiency.

    PubMed

    Garzon-Sanabria, Andrea J; Ramirez-Caballero, Silvia S; Moss, Francesca E P; Nikolov, Zivko L

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluates the effect of polymer molecular weight and charge density, algogenic organic matter (AOM), and salt concentration on harvesting efficiency of marine microalgae. Aluminum chloride (AlCl3), chitosan, and five synthetic cationic polymers of different molecular weights and charge density levels were used as flocculation agents. Polymer flocculation of marine microalgae was most efficient when using the highest charge density polymer (FO4990). The flocculant dosage irrespectively of the agent chemistry and charge density was affected by the amount of AOM secreted into the culture media. The presence of AOM increased the amount of required flocculant 7-fold when using synthetic cationic polymers; 10-fold with chitosan; and ~3-fold with AlCl3. Salt concentration of 5 or 35 g/L NaCl alone did not significantly affect removal efficiency, indicating that AOM were the main cause for the increased flocculant dosage requirement. The synthetic cationic polymer (FO4990) was the least expensive flocculation agent.

  11. Green synthesis of graphitic carbon nitride nanodots using sodium chloride template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Bo; Zou, Xianshuai; Yan, Tingnan; Fei, Junjie; Chu, Zengyong

    2016-05-01

    Graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) nanodots are simply prepared by a thermal treatment of dicyandiamide (DCDA) confined within NaCl templates. Cyano groups are introduced to the nanodots due to the catalytic effect of NaCl. NaCl could facilitate the polymerization of DCDA at lower temperatures, but will promote the decomposition when the temperature is above 550 °C. Thermal treatment at 600 °C for 30 min is the optimal condition for the scalable synthesis of g-C3N4 nanodots with an average diameter of 9 nm. g-C3N4 nanodots have a higher band gap of 3.1 eV, which can emit bright blue light due to the decreased diameter, the introduction of cyano groups, and the incorporation of some sodium ions. The residue sodium ions and the cyano groups might lead to the local distortion of the graphitic crystals, or act as recombination centers for the enhanced photoluminescence.

  12. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... AACC products and services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  13. Activity of urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection and stored in glass or plastic syringes.

    PubMed

    Patel, J P; Tran, L T; Sinai, W J; Carr, L J

    1991-07-01

    The effects of the diluent, the container, the i.v. set, and the drug concentration on the adsorption of urokinase to i.v. administration systems were studied, along with the compatibility of urokinase with plastic and glass syringes. Solutions of urokinase 1500 and 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injection in glass and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers were sampled at 2 and 30 minutes. Administration sets were attached to PVC containers containing the urokinase-5% dextrose injection solutions, and samples were collected at 90 and 150 minutes. Glass and polypropylene syringes containing urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 0.9% sodium chloride injection or 5% dextrose injection were sampled at 0, 4, 8, and 24 hours. Urokinase activity was measured by an in vitro clot lysis assay. No urokinase diluted in 0.9% sodium chloride injection adsorbed to glass or PVC containers. For urokinase 1500 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, a loss of 15% to 20% occurred almost instantaneously in PVC containers; additional losses to the infusion sets were minimal. However, for urokinase 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection, no losses were observed in the PVC systems. No drug loss to glass bottles was seen for urokinase 1500 or 5000 IU/mL in 5% dextrose injection. Urokinase potency remained constant in polypropylene and glass syringes for 24 hours. To minimize urokinase sorption to PVC containers, higher concentrations of urokinase diluted in 5% dextrose injection should be used, provided that clinical safety and efficacy are not compromised. The use of 0.9% sodium chloride injection as a diluent also prevents sorption losses.

  14. Sensory evaluation of sodium chloride-containing water-in-oil emulsions.

    PubMed

    Rietberg, Matthew R; Rousseau, Dérick; Duizer, Lisa

    2012-04-25

    The sensory perception of water-in-oil emulsions containing a saline-dispersed aqueous phase was investigated. Manipulating saltiness perception was achieved by varying the mass fraction aqueous phase (MFAP), initial salt load, and surfactant concentration [(polyglycerol polyricinoleate (PgPr)] of the emulsions, with formulations based on a central composite design. Saltiness and emulsion thickness were evaluated using a trained sensory panel, and collected data were analyzed using response surface analysis. Emulsion MFAP was the most important factor correlated with increased salt taste intensity. Emulsifier concentration and interactions between NaCl and PgPr had only minor effects. Emulsions more prone to destabilization were perceived as saltier irrespective of their initial salt load. The knowledge gained from this study provides a powerful tool for the development of novel sodium-reduced liquid-processed foods.

  15. Hydrochlorothiazide attenuates lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus independently of the sodium-chloride cotransporter.

    PubMed

    Sinke, Anne P; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; de Groot, Theun; Baumgarten, Ruben; Devuyst, Olivier; Wetzels, Jack F M; Loffing, Johannes; Deen, Peter M T

    2014-03-01

    Lithium is the most common cause of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (Li-NDI). Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) combined with amiloride is the mainstay treatment in Li-NDI. The paradoxical antidiuretic action of HCTZ in Li-NDI is generally attributed to increased sodium and water uptake in proximal tubules as a compensation for increased volume loss due to HCTZ inhibition of the Na-Cl cotransporter (NCC), but alternative actions for HCTZ have been suggested. Here, we investigated whether HCTZ exerted an NCC-independent effect in Li-NDI. In polarized mouse cortical collecting duct (mpkCCD) cells, HCTZ treatment attenuated the Li-induced downregulation of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel abundance. In these cells, amiloride reduces cellular Li influx through the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC). HCTZ also reduced Li influx, but to a lower extent. HCTZ increased AQP2 abundance on top of that of amiloride and did not affect the ENaC-mediated transcellular voltage. MpkCCD cells did not express NCC mRNA or protein. These data indicated that in mpkCCD cells, HCTZ attenuated lithium-induced downregulation of AQP2 independently of NCC and ENaC. Treatment of Li-NDI NCC knockout mice with HCTZ revealed a significantly reduced urine volume, unchanged urine osmolality, and increased cortical AQP2 abundance compared with Li-treated NCC knockout mice. HCTZ treatment further resulted in reduced blood Li levels, creatinine clearance, and alkalinized urinary pH. Our in vitro and in vivo data indicate that part of the antidiuretic effect of HCTZ in Li-NDI is NCC independent and may involve a tubuloglomerular feedback response-mediated reduction in glomerular filtration rate due to proximal tubular carbonic anhydrase inhibition.

  16. Formation of palladium(II) hydroxychloride complexes and precipitates in sodium chloride solutions and seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, Robert H.; Yao, Wensheng

    2000-12-01

    Spectrophotometric measurements of Pd(II) in 0.5 M NaCl indicate that the PdCl3OH2- formation constant at 25°C is ClK∗1 = [PdCl3OH2-][H+][Cl-][PdCl42-]-1 = 10-8.98. This constant is more than two orders of magnitude smaller than previous results derived through solubility analysis. Kinetic experiments indicate that equilibration between PdCl42- and PdCl3OH2- is complete in less than one second. The discrepancy between depictions of Pd(II) speciation obtained by using spectrophotometric and solubility analysis is apparently caused by the formation of mixed hydroxychloride solid phases (PdClaOH2-a), rather than pure Pd(OH)2(s), when Pd(OH)2(s) is equilibrated in concentrated chloride solutions at high pH. In Pd(II) solubility analysis, and solubility analyses of other strongly hydrolyzed metals in seawater, the composition of the solid phase must be carefully examined for appropriate deconvolution of data.

  17. Novel ternary molten salt electrolytes for intermediate-temperature sodium/nickel chloride batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Guosheng; Lu, Xiaochuan; Coyle, Christopher A.; Kim, Jin Y.; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-12-15

    The sodium–nickel chloride (ZEBRA) battery is operated at relatively high temperature (250–350 °C) to achieve adequate electrochemical performance. Reducing the operating temperature in the range of 150200 °C can not only lead to enhanced cycle life by suppressing temperature-related degradations, but also allow the use of lower cost materials for construction. To achieve adequate electrochemical performance at lower operating temperatures, reduction in ohmic losses is required, including the reduced ohmic resistance of β"-alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) and the incorporation of low melting point secondary electrolytes. In present work, planar-type Na/NiCl2 cells with a thin BASE (600 μm) and low melting point secondary electrolyte were evaluated at reduced temperatures. Molten salts used as secondary electrolytes were fabricated by the partial replacement of NaCl in the standard secondary electrolyte (NaAlCl4) with other lower melting point alkali metal salts such as NaBr, LiCl, and LiBr. Electrochemical characterization of these ternary molten salts demonstrated improved ionic conductivity and sufficient electrochemical window at reduced temperatures. Furthermore, Na/NiCl2 cells with 50 mol% NaBr-containing secondary electrolyte exhibited reduced polarizations at 175 °C compared to the cell with the standard NaAlCl4 catholyte. Finally, the cells also exhibited stable cycling performance even at 150 °C.

  18. Microstructure design of metal composite for active material in sodium nickel-iron chloride battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Cheol-Woo; Kim, Mangi; Hahn, Byung-Dong; Hong, Inchul; Kim, Woosung; Moon, Goyoung; Lee, Heesoo; Jung, Keeyoung; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Choi, Joon-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    In this manuscript, it is reported how the microstructure of metal composites can be designed to obtain excellent cycle performance in Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 battery. The microstructure consists of an active material and a conducting material. The conducting material is an active material as well as a conducting chain (an electron path). In Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cells, it is preferable that Ni is selected as the conducting material, since the nickel chloride is not formed on the surface of Ni particles during the electrochemical reaction of Fe particles. In addition, the particle size of Ni should be smaller than that of Fe, in order to ensure that the conducting chain is well-connected. Through this design, the cycle performance of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was significantly improved, compared to that of a Na-NiCl2 cell. At the 100th cycle, the charge/discharge capacity of a Na-(Ni,Fe)Cl2 cell was much higher than that of a Na-NiCl2 cell, approximately 42%.

  19. The solubility of ozone and kinetics of its chemical reactions in aqueous solutions of sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levanov, A. V.; Kuskov, I. V.; Antipenko, E. E.; Lunin, V. V.

    2008-12-01

    The solubility of ozone and the kinetics of its decomposition and interaction with chloride ions in a 1 M aqueous solution of NaCl at 20°C and pH 8.4-10.8 were studied. The ratio between the concentration of O3 in solution and the gas phase was found to be 0.16 at pH 8.4-9.8. The concentration of dissolved ozone decreased sharply as pH increased to 10.8 because of a substantial increase in the rate of its decomposition. It was observed for the first time that the interaction of O3 with Cl- in alkaline media resulted in the formation of ClO{3/-} chlorate ions. The dependence of the rate of formation of ClO{3/-} on pH was determined; its maximum value was found to be 9.6 × 10-6 mol l-1 min-1 at pH 10.0 and the concentration of ozone at the entrance of the reactor 30.0 g/m3. A spectrophotometric method for the determination of chlorate ions (concentrations 1 × 10-5-3 × 10-4 M) in aqueous solutions was suggested.

  20. An Investigative Study on the Effect of Silver Nanoparticles on E.Coli K12 in Various Sodium Chloride Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levard, C.; Mitra, S.; Badireddy, A.; Jew, A. D.; Brown, G. E.

    2011-12-01

    Engineered nanomaterials have had an increasing presence in consumer products. Consequently, their release in wastewater systems is believed to pose a viable threat to the environment. NPs are used for drug delivery devices, imaging agents, and consumer products like sunscreens, paints, and cosmetics. Among the major types of manufactured nanoparticles, silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are currently the most widely used in the nanotechnology industry. These particles have unique antibacterial, antiviral, and antifungal properties and as a result, there is a growing concern about the environmental impact of released Ag nanoparticles, particularly their unintended impact on organisms and ecosystems. Even though the toxicity of Ag-NPs has been extensively studied, the environmental transformations that the Ag-NPs may experience once released in the environment have not been considered. These transformations can readily impact their properties and therefore their behavior in terms of reactivity and toxicity. For example, it is known that silver strongly react with Chloride (Cl), which is ubiquitous in natural waters. At a low Cl/Ag ratio, Cl may precipitate on the surface and partly inhibit dissolution. On the contrary, for a high Cl/Ag ratio, chloride may enhance dissolution and therefore toxicity since soluble Ag species are a main source of toxicity. In this context, the focus of this study is on understanding the toxicity of coated Ag-NPs at various concentrations (1ppb-100ppm) on E.Coli (K12) in deionized water and various sodium chloride concentrations that mimic natural conditions (.5, .1 and .01 M NaCl). Ag+ ions (100 ppm-1ppb) were also tested in these salt concentrations as a control. Samples were inoculated in bacteria and incubated for 24 hours. Based on this test, we inferred that increasing concentrations of Ag+ ions/ AgNps played a role in the inhibition of growth of E.Coli K12. A live-dead staining test has shown the correlation between inhibition of

  1. Sodium (Salt or Sodium Chloride)

    MedlinePlus

    ... foods available to you and millions of other consumers. You will have the power to choose the ... cutting back and how to build a healthier relationship with food. Sea Salt Versus Table Salt Discover ...

  2. Donnan effect on chloride ion distribution as a determinant of body fluid composition that allows action potentials to spread via fast sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Kurbel, Sven

    2011-05-30

    Proteins in any solution with a pH value that differs from their isoelectric point exert both an electric Donnan effect (DE) and colloid osmotic pressure. While the former alters the distribution of ions, the latter forces water diffusion. In cells with highly Cl--permeable membranes, the resting potential is more dependent on the cytoplasmic pH value, which alters the Donnan effect of cell proteins, than on the current action of Na/K pumps. Any weak (positive or negative) electric disturbances of their resting potential are quickly corrected by chloride shifts.In many excitable cells, the spreading of action potentials is mediated through fast, voltage-gated sodium channels. Tissue cells share similar concentrations of cytoplasmic proteins and almost the same exposure to the interstitial fluid (IF) chloride concentration. The consequence is that similar intra- and extra-cellular chloride concentrations make these cells share the same Nernst value for Cl-.Further extrapolation indicates that cells with the same chloride Nernst value and high chloride permeability should have similar resting membrane potentials, more negative than -80 mV. Fast sodium channels require potassium levels >20 times higher inside the cell than around it, while the concentration of Cl- ions needs to be >20 times higher outside the cell.When osmotic forces, electroneutrality and other ions are all taken into account, the overall osmolarity needs to be near 280 to 300 mosm/L to reach the required resting potential in excitable cells. High plasma protein concentrations keep the IF chloride concentration stable, which is important in keeping the resting membrane potential similar in all chloride-permeable cells. Probable consequences of this concept for neuron excitability, erythrocyte membrane permeability and several features of circulation design are briefly discussed.

  3. Root structure and cellular chloride, sodium and potassium distribution in salinized grapevines.

    PubMed

    Storey, R.; Schachtman, D. P.; Thomas, M. R.

    2003-06-01

    X-ray microanalysis was used to study the patterns of K+, Na+ and Cl- accumulation in salinized (25 mm NaCl) and non-salinized grapevine (Vitis) roots. The aim was to determine whether NaCl affects patterns of Cl- accumulation differentially in the roots of a Cl--excluding genotype and a non-excluding genotype. Two regions of fibrous roots were analysed: (1) a region 2-3 mm basipetal to the root tip; and (2) a region of the root 10-12 mm basipetal to the root tip where the outermost layer is the hypodermis. The ion contents of the hypodermis, cortex, endodermis and pericycle vacuoles were analysed. Data were also collected from the cytoplasm of the endodermal and pericycle cells. The analyses showed that the ion profiles of the hypodermis and the endodermis were significantly different from those of the cortex and pericycle. The hypodermis and endodermis had higher K+ and lower Na+ and Cl- than surrounding cells. Some changes due to salinity such as increased K+ concentrations in the hypodermis were also noted. Chloride concentrations did not differ between the genotypes in the hypodermis, across the cortex or in the endodermis, but were higher in the pericycle of the excluder in comparison with the non-excluding genotype. However, K+/Na+ ratios of the cortex and endodermis were higher in the excluder. The pericycle cells exhibited the greatest ability to sequester Na+ and Cl- in vacuoles. Overall the data show cell-type-specific ion accumulation patterns and small but significant differences were found between genotypes. The possibility that these accumulation patterns arise from differences in uptake properties of cell types and/or result from the spatial distribution of the cell types along the competing symplastic and apoplastic ion transport pathways across the root is discussed.

  4. Some aspects of the atmospheric corrosion of copper in the presence of sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Strandberg, H.; Johansson, L.G.

    1998-04-01

    The effect of NaCl in combination with O{sub 3} and SO{sub 2} on the atmospheric corrosion of copper was investigated. Corrosion products formed after 4 weeks exposure were characterized qualitatively by X-ray diffraction and quantitatively by gravimetry and ion chromatography of leaching solutions. Studies of SO{sub 2} deposition and O{sub 3} consumption were performed using on-line gas analysis. Large amounts of cuprite (Cu{sub 2}O) formed in all environments at 70 and 90% relative humidity. The corrosive effect of salt was strong in pure humid air and in air containing O{sub 3} or SO{sub 2}. Corrosion rate was correlated to the amount of chloride applied to the surface and to humidity. In an atmosphere containing a combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} at 90% relative humidity, corrosion was rapid in the absence of NaCl. In this case, small additions of NaCl resulted in a marked decrease in corrosion rate. In the absence of SO{sub 2}, tenorite (CuO), nantokite (CuCl), clinoatacamite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 3}Cl], and malachite [Cu{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}] were identified. In the presence of SO{sub 2}, brochantite [Cu{sub 4}(OH){sub 6}SO{sub 4}], soluble sulfate, and an unknown phase occurred, while no tenorite or malachite was formed. The combination of SO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} resulted in the formation of antlerite [Cu{sub 3}(OH){sub 4}SO{sub 4}] and Cu{sub 2.5}(OH){sub 3}SO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O as well.

  5. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  6. Exacerbation of lupus nephritis by high sodium chloride related to activation of SGK1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xi; Yao, Genhong; Chen, Weiwei; Tang, Xiaojun; Feng, Xuebing; Sun, Lingyun

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the effects of high salt diet (HSD) on the severity of lupus nephritis (LN) and its mechanism. MRL/lpr mice were randomly divided into two groups, which were fed with normal diet or sodium-rich chow and tap. C57BL/6 mice were selected as control. Spleen Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells were detected by flow cytometry. Serum TGF-β and IL-17 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. CD4(+) T cells from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients and healthy donors were treated by NaCl with or without SGK1 inhibitor. Then, Th17 and Treg cells were detected. The HSD MRL/lpr mice had decreased survival rate and increased disease severity. The frequencies of Th1 and Th17 cells increased in HSD treatment group. The ratios of Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg in HSD treated MRL/lpr mice significantly increased. Serum TGF-β increased after HSD treatment. In vitro, high salt could up-regulate Th17 cells of CD4(+) T cells. The effects of high salt treatment on CD4(+) T cells were reversed by SGK1 inhibitor. Our findings demonstrated that excessive intake of salt in diet is an aggravating factor for LN. High salt diet may deteriorate LN through SGK1 pathway.

  7. The effect of ferrocyanide ions on sodium chloride crystallization in salt mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Sonia; Pel, Leo; Steiger, Michael; Kopinga, Klaas

    2015-01-01

    The use of crystallization inhibitors has been proposed as a potential preventive treatment method against damage and is extensively tested for crystallization of single salts. However, in practice salt mixtures are present. Therefore, before using inhibitors in practice there is a strong need to explore their effect on salt mixtures. In this research, we studied the effect of ferrocyanide ions ([Fe(CN)6]4-) on NaCl crystallization in single salt and in salt mixtures of NaCl-KCl and NaCl-LiCl. A series of micro droplet drying experiments were undertaken. Time lapse microscopy of the crystallization was performed along with NMR measurements of hydrogen, sodium and lithium ions. This gives the possibility to visualize the drying of the droplet while simultaneously obtaining information of both NaCl and LiCl concentration in the droplet. For a NaCl solution droplet, in the presence of inhibitor, a significantly higher supersaturation prior to the onset of crystallization and a change in crystal morphology were observed. On the other hand, for salt mixtures, lower supersaturation compared to single salt and dendritic crystal morphology was seen in the presence of inhibitor. In a porous material, such a type of morphology can promote the formation of efflorescence that causes only little structural damage.

  8. Cardiovascular effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solutions when injected into the liquor space of anaesthetized cats.

    PubMed

    Feldberg, W; Wei, E

    1979-05-01

    1 In cats anaesthetized with chloralose, hyper- and hypotonic solutions were injected into the cisterna magna (in 0.5 ml) or into a lateral cerebral ventricle (in 0.2 to 0.3 ml), with aqueduct cannulated to prevent the injected solution from entering the subarachnoid space, and the effects on blood pressure and heart rate were examined. 2 Cisternal injections of hyper- and hypotonic solutions of NaCl (0.51 M and 0.05 M), glucose (1.03 M and 0.10 M), or sucrose (1.02 M and 0.10 M), as well as distilled water produced a rise in arterial blood pressure with tachycardias. Isotonic solutions of NaCl, glucose or sucrose were ineffective. 3 Ventricular injections of the hypertonic NaCl solution, also produced a pressor response with tachycardia effects when injected in this way. 4 The pressor responses and the tachycardias occurred after bilateral vagotomy and resulted from a sympathetic discharge which, on cisternal injection, originated from structures reached from the subarachnoid space, and on ventricular injection, from structures in the ventricular walls, probably in the hypothalamus. 5 The stimuli responsible for the discharge, were, on cisternal injection, the changes in osmolarity and on ventricular injection, the sodium ions.

  9. Development of intermediate temperature sodium nickel chloride rechargeable batteries using conventional polymer sealing technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Hee Jung; Lu, Xiaochuan; Bonnett, Jeff F.; Canfield, Nathan L.; Son, Sori; Park, Yoon-Cheol; Jung, Keeyoung; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Li, Guosheng

    2017-04-01

    Developing advanced and reliable electrical energy storage systems is critical to fulfill global energy demands and stimulate the growth of renewable energy resources. Sodium metal halide batteries have been under serious consideration as a low cost alternative energy storage device for stationary energy storage systems. Yet, there are number of challenges to overcome for the successful market penetration, such as high operating temperature and hermetic sealing of batteries that trigger an expensive manufacturing process. Here we demonstrate simple, economical and practical sealing technologies for Na-NiCl2 batteries operated at an intermediate temperature of 190 °C. Conventional polymers are implemented in planar Na-NiCl2 batteries after a prescreening test, and their excellent compatibilities and durability are demonstrated by a stable performance of Na-NiCl2 battery for more than 300 cycles. The sealing methods developed in this work will be highly beneficial and feasible for prolonging battery cycle life and reducing manufacturing cost for Na-based batteries at elevated temperatures (<200 °C).

  10. Design considerations for the development of advanced sodium/metal-chloride cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloom, I.; Nelson, P. A.; Redey, L.; Orth, S. K.; Hammer, C. L.

    The effects of charge/discharge rates, temperature, electrode porosity, and sulfur content on nickel electrode performance for the Na/NiCl2 cell were determined. Of all electrode design parameters studied, electrode porosity, sulfur content, and charge rates have the greatest effect on utilization and area specific impedance values. The impedance of thin NiCl2 electrodes can be modeled using a set of equations having just one adjustable parameter. The model suggests that most of the electrode impedance can be reduced by altering the reaction impedance. The model suggests that reducing the value of this parameter by improving electrode fabrication techniques is the key to improving electrode performance. The study is now being expanded to include thicker NiCl2 electrodes, and the model is being refined. The beta-double prime-alumina-glass composite electrolyte work has led to the development of a highly conductive composite material. At 250 C, its resistivity is about 20 Ohm-cm. Preliminary results suggest that these materials may have the needed chemical stability against sodium.

  11. Influence of magnesium, water, and sodium chloride on urolithiasis in veal calves.

    PubMed

    Petersson, K H; Warner, R G; Kallfelz, F A; Crosetti, C F

    1988-12-01

    Forty veal calves were fed milk replacers containing differing concentrations of Mg in a 16-w study. The concentrations were .1% (basal), .3%, .6% Mg, and .6% Mg plus 2% NaCl. The four groups were further subdivided into two groups fed reconstituted milk replacer at 14 or 17.9% DM. Weight gain was greater at the two lower concentrations of Mg. Calves fed .6% Mg or .6% Mg plus NaCl excreted significantly more Mg than calves fed .1 or .3% magnesium. The low water group (17.9% DM) excreted a more concentrated urine relative to Mg, Ca, and P than did the high water group (14% DM). No urethral obstructions were observed. Seventy percent of calves at .6% Mg and 30% of calves at .6% Mg plus NaCl had stones in their kidneys consisting primarily of calcium apatite and secondarily of struvite. Added NaCl reduced kidney and bladder calculi formation. When high amounts of water were fed, added NaCl prevented calculi formation completely. All calves fed the NRC level of .1% Mg performed normally.

  12. Observation of particle ejection behavior following laser-induced breakdown on the rear surface of a sodium chloride optical window

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Chao; Cheng, Xiang'ai; Xu, Zhongjie; Wei, Ke; Jiang, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Laser-induced rear surface breakdown process of sodium chloride (NaCl) optical window was investigated based on the time-resolved shadowgraphy and interferometry. Violent particle ejection behavior lasting from tens of nanoseconds to tens of microseconds after the breakdown was observed. Classified by the particle velocity and propagating direction, the ejection process can be divided into three phases: (1) high-speed ejection of liquid particles during the first 100-ns delay; (2) micron-sized material clusters ejection from ˜100-ns to ˜1-μs delay; (3) larger and slower solid-state particles ejection from ˜1 μs to tens of microseconds delay. The moving directions of particles in the first and third phases are both perpendicular to the sample surface while particles ejected in the second phase exhibits angular ejection and present a V-like particle pattern. Mechanisms include explosive boiling, impact ejection, and shockwave ejection are discussed to explain this multiple phase ejection behavior. Our results highlight the significance of impact ejection induced by recoil pressure and backward propagating internal shockwave for laser-induced rear surface breakdown events of optical materials with low melting point.

  13. Dietary salt regulates the phosphorylation of OSR1/SPAK kinases and the sodium chloride cotransporter through aldosterone.

    PubMed

    Chiga, Motoko; Rai, Tatemitsu; Yang, Sung-Sen; Ohta, Akihito; Takizawa, Toichiro; Sasaki, Sei; Uchida, Shinichi

    2008-12-01

    Pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHAII) is caused by mutations in the WNK1 and WNK4 genes (WNK with-no-lysine kinase). In a mouse model of this disease where a mutant of Wnk4 D561A was knocked in, increased phosphorylation of the sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) was found and the transporter was concentrated on the apical membrane of the distal tubules. In addition, we recently found that other kinases, such as the oxidative stress response kinase-1/STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (OSR1/SPAK), also showed increased phosphorylation in these mice. Here we determined whether this kinase cascade is regulated by dietary salt intake. We found that the phosphorylation states of NCC and OSR1/SPAK were increased by low-salt diets and decreased by high-salt diets; a regulation completely lost in the knock-in mice. Increased phosphorylation was reversed by spironolactone and this decreased phosphorylation was reversed by administration of exogenous aldosterone. These studies suggest that that the WNK-OSR1/SPAK-NCC cascade may be a novel effector system of aldosterone action in the kidney.

  14. Individual differences in sour and salt sensitivity: detection and quality recognition thresholds for citric acid and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Wise, Paul M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2013-05-01

    Taste sensitivity is assessed with various techniques, including absolute detection and quality recognition. For any stimulus, one might expect individual differences in sensitivity to be reflected in all measures, but they are often surprisingly independent. Here, we focus on sensitivity to sour and salty taste, in part because processing of these qualities is poorly understood relative to other tastes. In Study 1, we measured retest reliability for detection (modified, forced-choice staircase method) and recognition (modified Harris-Kalmus procedure) for both citric acid (CA) and sodium chloride (NaCl). Despite good retest reliability, individual differences in detection and recognition were weakly correlated, suggesting that detection and recognition of sour and salty stimuli may reflect different physiological processes. In Study 2, a subset of subjects returned to contribute full detection (psychometric) functions for CA and NaCl. Thresholds estimated from full detection functions correlated with both staircase and recognition thresholds, suggesting that both tasks may reflect absolute sensitivity to some extent. However, the ranges of individual differences were systematically compressed for staircase thresholds relative to those from full detection functions. Thus, individual differences in sensitivity appear to interact with different test methodologies in lawful ways. More work will be required to understand how different taste phenotypes relate to one another.

  15. Structural and functional studies on the sodium- and chloride-coupled. gamma. -aminobutyric acid transporter: Deglycosylation and limited proteolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kanner, B.I.; Keynan, S.; Radian, R. )

    1989-05-02

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled {gamma}-aminobutyric transporter, an 80-kDa glycoprotein, has been subjected to deglycosylation and limited proteolysis. The treatment of the 80-kDa band with endoglycosidase F results in its disappearance and reveals the presence of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa, which is devoid of {sup 125}I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binding activity but is nevertheless recognized by the antibodies against the 80-kDa band. Upon limited proteolysis with papain or Pronase, the 80-kDa band was degraded to one with an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa. This polypeptide still contains the {sup 125}I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binding activity but is not recognized by the antibody. The effect of proteolysis on function is examined. The transporter was purified by use of all steps except that for the lectin chromatography. After papain treatment and lectin chromatography, {gamma}-aminobutyric transport activity was eluted with N-acetylglucosamine. The characteristics of transport were the same as those of the pure transporter, but the preparation contained instead of the 80-kDa polypeptide two fragments of about 66 and 60 kDa. The ability of the anti-80-kDa antibody to recognize these fragments was relatively low. The observations indicate that the transporter contains exposed domains which are not important for function.

  16. [Effect of high sodium chloride concentrations on the pigment content and free-radical processes in corn seedlings leaves].

    PubMed

    Vasylyk, Iu V; Lushchak, V I

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sodium chloride on general morphometrical parameters of seedlings, and biochemical parameters in the leaves of corn seedlings was studied. Exposure to 100 and 200 mM NaCl slowed down the growth of stem and roots, whereas 100 and 200 mM NaCl during 24 h enhanced the concentration of chlorophylls, carotenoids, anthocyans, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The decrease in protein carbonyl groups was found at 24-hour exposure to 200 mM salt. The treatment during 24, 48 and 72 h to 200 mM salt increased the level of total and high molecular mass thiols, whereas low molecular mass thiol content was by 20-25% higher at 48 h exposure to all used salt concentrations. The activity of guaiacol peroxidase was higher only at 24 h exposure to 100 and 200 mM salt, and catalase--at 50 mM during 48 h. At 72-hour exposure, catalase activity was by 27 and 41% higher in seedlings, exposed to 50 and 200 mM NaCl, respectively. Therefore, it is concluded the plant exposure to 50-200 mM salt initially developed oxidative stress, inducing adaptive response--an increase in antioxidant potential and efficiency of systems of energy production. That results in plant adaptation to unfavourable conditions.

  17. Solid-State (17)O NMR of Oxygen-Nitrogen Singly Bonded Compounds: Hydroxylammonium Chloride and Sodium Trioxodinitrate (Angeli's Salt).

    PubMed

    Lu, Jiasheng; Kong, Xianqi; Terskikh, Victor; Wu, Gang

    2015-07-23

    We report a solid-state NMR study of (17)O-labeled hydroxylammonium chloride ([H(17)O-NH3]Cl) and sodium trioxodinitrate monohydrate (Na2[(17)ONNO2]·H2O, Angeli's salt). The common feature in these two compounds is that they both contain oxygen atoms that are singly bonded to nitrogen. For this class of oxygen-containing functional groups, there is very limited solid-state (17)O NMR data in the literature. In this work, we experimentally measured the (17)O chemical shift and quadrupolar coupling tensors. With the aid of plane-wave DFT computation, the (17)O NMR tensor orientations were determined in the molecular frame of reference. We found that the characteristic feature of an O-N single bond is that the (17)O nucleus exhibits a large quadrupolar coupling constant (13-15 MHz) but a rather small chemical shift anisotropy (100-250 ppm), in sharp contrast with the nitroso (O═N) functional group for which both quantities are very large (e.g., 16 MHz and 3000 ppm, respectively).

  18. The role of the binding salt sodium salicylate in semidilute ionic cetylpyridinium chloride micellar solutions: a rheological and scattering study.

    PubMed

    Gaudino, D; Pasquino, R; Stellbrink, J; Szekely, N; Krutyeva, M; Radulescu, A; Pyckhout-Hintzen, W; Grizzuti, N

    2016-12-21

    The micellar system based on cetylpyridinium chloride (CPyCl) and sodium salicylate (NaSal) in brine solution is investigated on both macro- and micro-length scales through rheology and scattering measurements. The linear viscoelasticity of the system and its structural parameters are explored by systematically changing the amount of NaSal over an extremely wide range of concentrations, thus producing salt-to-surfactant molar ratios from zero to about 8.5. As a result, the well-known non-monotonic behaviour of the zero-shear rate viscosity as a function of salinity can be connected to micellar morphological changes, whose driving force is represented by the simultaneous binding and screening actions of NaSal. The viscosity behaviour can be seen as a direct consequence of consecutive lengthening/shortening of the contour length, where the micelles attempt to minimize the electrostatic charge density on their surface. Along similar lines, the scattering measurements of the semidilute solutions show that the local stiffness of the micellar chain changes with increasing salt content influencing the elasticity of the resulting network. Within this general view, the branching of the micelles can be seen as a side effect attributable to the main character of the play, namely, the binding salt NaSal, whereas the overall dynamics of the system is driven by the considerable changes in the entanglement density of the micellar network.

  19. Effect of Sodium Sulfate, Ammonium Chloride, Ammonium Nitrate, and Salt Mixtures on Aqueous Phase Partitioning of Organic Compounds.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chen; Lei, Ying Duan; Wania, Frank

    2016-12-06

    Dissolved inorganic salts influence the partitioning of organic compounds into the aqueous phase. This influence is especially significant in atmospheric aerosol, which usually contains large amounts of ions, including sodium, ammonium, chloride, sulfate, and nitrate. However, empirical data on this salt effect are very sparse. Here, the partitioning of numerous organic compounds into solutions of Na2SO4, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3 was measured and compared with existing data for NaCl and (NH4)2SO4. Salt mixtures were also tested to establish whether the salt effect is additive. In general, the salt effect showed a decreasing trend of Na2SO4 > (NH)2SO4 > NaCl > NH4Cl > NH4NO3 for the studied organic compounds, implying the following relative strength of the salt effect of individual anions: SO4(2-) > Cl(-) > NO3(-) and of cations: Na(+) > NH4(+). The salt effect of different salts is moderately correlated. Predictive models for the salt effect were developed based on the experimental data. The experimental data indicate that the salt effect of mixtures may not be entirely additive. However, the deviation from additivity, if it exists, is small. Data of very high quality are required to establish whether the effect of constituent ions or salts is additive or not.

  20. Gitelman syndrome and glomerular proteinuria: a link between loss of sodium-chloride cotransporter and podocyte dysfunction?

    PubMed

    Demoulin, Nathalie; Aydin, Selda; Cosyns, Jean-Pierre; Dahan, Karin; Cornet, Georges; Auberger, Ines; Loffing, Johannes; Devuyst, Olivier

    2014-09-01

    We report on a 27-year-old patient presenting with chronic hypokalaemia, inappropriate kaliuresis, hypomagnesaemia and alkalosis, associated with moderate proteinuria. Genetic analysis evidenced a homozygous mutation (p.Arg399Cys) in the SLC12A3 gene coding for the sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC), confirming the diagnosis of Gitelman syndrome. Further genetic testing did not show any mutation in NPHS2. A renal biopsy was performed in view of the unusual association with proteinuria. Light microscopy showed hypertrophy of the juxtaglomerular apparatus and discrete mesangial thickening. In addition to possible focal segmental glomerular sclerosis lesions, electron microscopy showed extensive segments of variably thickened glomerular basement membrane (GBM), contrasting with segments of regular GBM of low range thickness, and effacement of podocyte foot processes. Of interest, alterations of the GBM were also observed in a Slc12a3 knock-out mouse model for Gitelman syndrome. These data suggest that the association between Gitelman syndrome and secondary changes of the GBM is probably not coincidental. Possible mechanisms include angiotensin II- or renin-induced podocyte lesions, as well as chronic hypokalaemia.

  1. Chronic Metabolic Acidosis Activates Renal Tubular Sodium Chloride Cotransporter through Angiotension II-dependent WNK4-SPAK Phosphorylation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Wei; Yang, Sung-Sen; Cheng, Chih-Jen; Tseng, Min-Hua; Hsu, Hui-Min; Lin, Shih-Hua

    2016-01-05

    The mechanism by which chronic metabolic acidosis (CMA) regulates sodium (Na(+))-chloride (Cl(-)) cotransporter (NCC) in the renal distal convoluted tubules remains unexplored. We examined the role of STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and with-no-lysine kinase 4 (WNK4) on expression of NCC in mouse models of CMA. CMA was induced by NH4Cl in wild type mice (WTA mice), SPAK, and WNK4 knockout mice. The quantities of Ncc mRNA, expression of total NCC, phosphorylated (p)-NCC, SPAK and WNK4 in the kidneys as well as NCC inhibition with hydrochlorothiazide and Na(+) balance were evaluated. Relative to WT mice, WTA mice had similar levels of Ncc mRNA, but increased expression of total and p-NCC, SPAK, and WNK4 and an exaggerated response to hydrochlorothiazide which could not be observed in SPAK or WNK4 knockout mice with CMA. In WTA mice, increased plasma renin activity, aldosterone and angiotensin II concentrations accompanied by a significantly negative Na(+) balance. High Na(+) diet abolished the enhanced NCC expression in WTA mice. Furthermore, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker rather than a mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist exerted a marked inhibition on Na(+) reabsorption and NCC phosphorylation in WTA mice. CMA increases WNK4-SPAK-dependent NCC phosphorylation and appears to be secondary to previous natriuresis with volume-dependent angiotensin II activation.

  2. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Hashim M.; Iedema, Martin J.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Cowin, James P.

    2014-06-20

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium particles was studied by utilizing a crossflow-mini reactor. The reaction kinetics was followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely SEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry’s law solubility of H2O2 to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to eventually a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted rates using previously established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the Henry’s law constant of H2O2 dependence on ionic strength.

  3. A relatively small change in sodium chloride concentration has a strong effect on adhesion of ocular bacteria to contact lenses.

    PubMed

    Cowell, B A; Willcox, M D; Schneider, R P

    1998-06-01

    Adhesion of bacteria to hydrogel lenses is thought to be an initial step of ocular colonization allowing evasion of normal host defences. The salt concentration of media is an important parameter controlling microbial adhesion. Salinity varies from 0.97% NaCl equivalents in the open eye to 0.89% in the closed eye state. In this study, the effect of sodium chloride in the concentration range of 0.8-1.0% (w/v) NaCl on adhesion of ocular bacteria to soft contact lenses was investigated using a static adhesion assay. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to adhere to lenses in significantly greater amounts than Serratia marcescens, Flavobacterium meningosepticum, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Staphylococcus intermedius. Increasing NaCl from 0.8% to 1.0% (w/v) increased adhesion of all bacteria tested. This adhesion was strong since the organisms could not be removed by washing in low ionic buffer. Adhesion of these organisms did not correlate with their cell surface properties as determined by bacterial adhesion to hydrocarbons (BATH) and retention on sepharose columns.

  4. A Fiber-Optic Sensor Using an Aqueous Solution of Sodium Chloride to Measure Temperature and Water Level Simultaneously

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Wook Jae; Sim, Hyeok In; Shin, Sang Hun; Jang, Kyoung Won; Cho, Seunghyun; Moon, Joo Hyun; Lee, Bongsoo

    2014-01-01

    A fiber-optic sensor system using a multiplexed array of sensing probes based on an aqueous solution of sodium chloride (NaCl solution) and an optical time-domain reflectometer (OTDR) for simultaneous measurement of temperature and water level is proposed. By changing the temperature, the refractive index of the NaCl solution is varied and Fresnel reflection arising at the interface between the distal end of optical fiber and the NaCl solution is then also changed. We measured the modified optical power of the light reflected from the sensing probe using a portable OTDR device and also obtained the relationship between the temperature of water and the optical power. In this study, the water level was simply determined by measuring the signal difference of the optical power due to the temperature difference of individual sensing probes placed inside and outside of the water. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the temperature and water level can be obtained simultaneously by measuring optical powers of light reflected from sensing probes based on the NaCl solution. It is anticipated that the proposed fiber-optic sensor system makes it possible to remotely monitor the real-time change of temperature and water level of the spent fuel pool during a loss of power accident. PMID:25310471

  5. Profiles of gene expression changes in L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells treated with methyl methanesulfonate and sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Shawn D; Sparrow, Barney R; Kan, H Lynn; Stott, William T; Schisler, Melissa R; Linscombe, V Ann; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar

    2004-05-01

    Treatment of cells with genotoxic chemicals is expected to set into motion a series of events including gene expression changes to cope with the damage. We have investigated gene expression changes in L5178Y TK(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells in culture following treatment with methyl methanesulfonate (MMS), a direct acting genotoxin, and sodium chloride (NaCl), which induces mutations in these cells through indirect mechanisms at high concentrations. The mouse lymphoma cells were treated for 4 or 24 h and the cells were harvested for RNA isolation at the end of the treatment. Analysis of the transcriptome was performed using Clontech Mouse 1.2K cDNA microarrays (1185 genes) and hybridized using 32P-labeled cDNA. The microwell methodology was used to quantify the mutagenic response. Of the genes examined, MMS altered the expression (1.5-fold or more) of only five (four at 4 h and one after 24 h treatment). NaCl altered two genes after 4 h treatment, but after 24 h it altered 19 genes (13 down- and six up-regulated). Both compounds altered the expression of several genes associated with apoptosis and NaCl altered genes involved in DNA damage/response and GTP-related proteins. This, along with other data, indicates that the widely used L5178Y TK(+/-) mouse lymphoma cells in culture are relatively recalcitrant in terms of modulating gene expression to deal with genotoxic insult.

  6. Viscosities of the ternary solution dimethyl sulfoxide/water/sodium chloride at subzero temperatures and their application in cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaozhi; Yu, Xiaoyi; Chen, Zhaojie; Chen, Guangming

    2013-04-01

    Vitrification is considered as the most promising method for long-term storage of tissues and organs. An effective way to reduce the accompanied cryoprotectant (CPA) toxicity, during CPA addition/removal, is to operate at low temperatures. The permeation process of CPA into/out of biomaterials is affected by the viscosity of CPA solution, especially at low temperatures. The objective of the present study is to measure the viscosity of the ternary solution, dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO)/water/sodium chloride (NaCl), at low temperatures and in a wide range of concentrations. A rotary viscometer coupled with a low temperature thermostat bath was used. The measurement was carried out at temperatures from -10 to -50°C. The highest mass fraction of Me2SO was 75% (w/w) and the lowest mass fraction of Me2SO was the value that kept the solution unfrozen at the measurement temperature. The concentration of NaCl was kept as a constant [0.85% (w/w), the normal salt content of extracellular fluids]. The Williams-Landel-Ferry (WLF) model was employed to fit the obtained viscosity data. As an example, the effect of solution viscosity on modeling the permeation of Me2SO into articular cartilage was qualitatively analyzed.

  7. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by a combination of nisin, pulsed electric fields, and water activity reduction by sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Terebiznik, M; Jagus, R; Cerrutti, P; de Huergo, M S; Pilosof, A M R

    2002-08-01

    The effect of nisin combined with pulsed electric fields (PEF) and water activity reduction by sodium chloride (NaCl) on the inactivation of E. coli in simulated milk ultrafiltrate media was studied with a Doehlert design and a response surface method. The reduction of water activity from 0.99 to 0.95 by the addition of NaCl (without any other hurdle) did not affect E. coli viability of approximately 10(8) CFU/ml. A reduction in PEF effectiveness occurred when the NaCl concentration was increased because of an increase in conductance, which reduced the pulse decay time. In cells submitted to PEF nisin activity was decreased, probably as a consequence of the nonspecific binding of nisin to cellular debris or the emergence of new binding sites in or from cells. However, the lethal effect due to nisin was reestablished and further improved when water activity was reduced to 0.95. A synergistic effect was evidenced when low-intensity PEF were applied. Decreasing water activity to 0.95 and applying PEF at 5 kV/cm (a nonlethal intensity when no other hurdle is used) with the further addition of nisin (1,200 IU/ml) resulted in a 5-log cycle reduction of the bacterial population.

  8. A method of calculating quartz solubilities in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fournier, R.O.

    1983-01-01

    The aqueous silica species that form when quartz dissolves in water or saline solutions are hydrated. Therefore, the amount of quartz that will dissolve at a given temperature is influenced by the prevailing activity of water. Using a standard state in which there are 1,000 g of water (55.51 moles) per 1,000 cm3 of solution allows activity of water in a NaCl solution at high temperature to be closely approximated by the effective density of water, pe, in that solution, i.e. the product of the density of the NaCl solution times the weight fraction of water in the solution, corrected for the amount of water strongly bound to aqueous silica and Na+ as water of hydration. Generally, the hydration of water correction is negligible. The solubility of quartz in pure water is well known over a large temperature-pressure range. An empirical formula expresses that solubility in terms of temperature and density of water and thus takes care of activity coefficient and pressure-effect terms. Solubilities of quartz in NaCl solutions can be calculated by using that equation and substituting pe, for the density of pure water. Calculated and experimentally determined quartz solubilities in NaCl solutions show excellent agreement when the experiments were carried out in non-reactive platinum, gold, or gold plus titanium containers. Reactive metal containers generally yield dissolved silica concentrations higher than calculated, probably because of the formation of metal chlorides plus NaOH and H2. In the absence of NaOH there appears to be no detectable silica complexing in NaCl solutions, and the variation in quartz solubility with NaCl concentration at constant temperature can be accounted for entirely by variations in the activity of water. The average hydration number per molecule of dissolved SiO2 in liquid water and NaCl solutions decreases from about 2.4 at 200??C to about 2.1 at 350??C. This suggests that H4SiO4 may be the dominant aqueous silica species at 350??C, but other

  9. Osmotic Adjustment of Cultured Tobacco Cells (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsum) Grown on Sodium Chloride 1

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, James W.; Nabors, Murray W.

    1981-01-01

    Tobacco cell cultures (var. Samsum) were grown on increasing levels of NaCl to select variants for increased salt tolerance. The osmotic adjustment of NaCl-adapted and nonadapted cell lines was studied. Both cell lines were grown on modified Linsmaier and Skoog medium with or without NaCl. Few differences were found in the response of adapted and nonadapted lines to NaCl. The concentrations of sugars, Na+, Cl−, and NO3− were identical in the cells and medium. Potassium and amino acids were accumulated by the cells. All of the above solutes accounted for 80 to 90% of the osmotic potential for both cell lines when grown on basal medium with or without NaCl. The osmotic potential of growing cells was always 1 to 3 bars more negative than that of the medium. During the first 10 days culture, the cells hydrolyzed the 117 millimolar sucrose present in the fresh media, and the media became more negative by 3 bars. Growing cells absorbed and metabolized the sugars, NH4+, and NO3− during the next 25 days, and the osmotic potential of the media and cells became less negative. The addition of 130 millimolar NaCl made the media and cells osmotically more negative by 6 bars throughout the growth cycle, as compared with cells growing on basal medium. The efflux of cellular solutes during distilled H2O washes was resolved into two components. The fast component (0.6 to 1.7 minutes half-time) included solutes of the free space and cytoplasm, whereas the slow component (1.6 to 4.9 hours half-time) represented the vacuolar solutes. Sodium and Cl− were present in the vacuole. No differences were observed in the solute efflux between the adapted and nonadapted cell lines. PMID:16661743

  10. Concentration dependence of ionic conductance measured with ion-selective sub-micro pipette probes in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Son, J. W.; Takami, T.; Lee, J.-K.; Kawai, T.; Park, B. H.

    2011-07-01

    Selective ionic currents in aqueous sodium and potassium chloride solutions with concentrations from 0.01 M to 1.0 M were measured using sub-micro pipette probes in which a poly(vinyl chloride) film containing crown ethers selectively filtered sodium or potassium ions. The selective ionic currents were monitored with a sub-picoampere current measurement system developed from the techniques of TΩ-gap impedance scanning tunneling microscopy. The ionic currents increased with the concentration of the corresponding solution, and thus these sub-micro pipette probes can be applied to detect local ionic concentration of a specific ion in living cells with ionic concentration higher than 0.1 M.

  11. In vitro influence of D/L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite on the infectivity of feline calicivirus and of ECHO virus as potential surrogates for foodborne viruses.

    PubMed

    Straube, J; Albert, T; Manteufel, J; Heinze, J; Fehlhaber, K; Truyen, U

    2011-11-15

    The importance of foodborne viruses is increasingly recognized. Thus, the effect of commonly used food preservation methods on the infectivity of viruses is questioned. In this context, we investigated the antiviral properties of D,L-lactic acid, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite by in vitro studies. Two model viruses, Feline Calicivirus (FCV) and Enteric Cytophatic Human Orphan (ECHO) virus, were chosen for this study simulating important foodborne viruses (human noroviruses (NoV) and human enteroviruses, resp.). The model viruses were exposed to different solutions of D,L-lactic acid (0.1-0.4% w/w, pH 6.0-3.2), of sodium chloride (2-20%, w/v) and of sodium nitrite (100, 150 and 200 ppm) at 4 and 20 °C for a maximum of 7 days. Different results were obtained for the two viruses. ECHO virus was highly stable against D,L-lactic acid and sodium chloride when tested under all conditions. On the contrary, FCV showed less stability but was not effectively inactivated when exposed to low acid and high salt conditions at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C). FCV titers decreased more markedly at 20 °C than 4 °C in all experiments. Sodium nitrite did not show any effect on the inactivation of both viruses. The results indicate that acidification, salting or curing maybe insufficient for effective inactivation of foodborne viruses such as NoV or human enteroviruses during food processing. Thus, application of higher temperature during fermentation and ripening processes maybe more effective toward the inactivation kinetics of less stable viruses. Nevertheless, more studies are needed to examine the antiviral properties of these preserving agents on virus survival and inactivation kinetics in the complex food matrix.

  12. [Spectral analysis of the variability of heart rhythm in the analysis of changes in the autonomic regulation during treatment of hypertension with sodium chloride baths].

    PubMed

    Gribanov, A N; Dvornikov, V E

    2001-01-01

    Changes in spectral parameters of heart rate variability were assessed in patients with mild and moderate hypertension (n = 48) and healthy subjects (n = 34) taking sodium chloride bath and in active orthostatic test before and after balneotherapy. Significant changes were not registered. The course of balneotherapy stimulated sympathetic or parasympathetic activity (relative enhancement occurred in 67, absolute in 15% versus 8 and 10% patients, respectively).

  13. Effects of electric voltage and sodium chloride level on electrolysis of swine wastewater.

    PubMed

    Cho, J H; Lee, J E; Ra, C S

    2010-08-15

    The effects of electric voltage and NaCl concentration on the removal of pollutants in swine wastewater were investigated to determine the optimum operation conditions for a designed electrolysis process. An up-flow electrolytic reactor was fabricated from Plexiglas, and one titanium anode coated with iridium oxide (IrO(2)) and two stainless steel cathodes were installed in it. The anode surface area was 80 cm(2)/L and the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was 6h. The results indicated that the pollutant removal was highly proportional to the electric voltage and removal could be enhanced by adding NaCl. The removal efficiencies of NH(4)-N, soluble nitrogen (NH(4)-N plus NO(x)-N), soluble total organic carbon (STOC), and color were proportional to the NaCl level up to 0.05% NaCl level, beyond which no further enhancement in removal was observed. However, such a tendency was not observed in the case of PO(4)-P removal. The obtained results indicate that 7 V and 0.05% (8.56 mM) NaCl level would be the optimum conditions for the designed electrolysis process. Under these conditions, the average removal efficiencies of NH(4)-N, soluble nitrogen, PO(4)-P, STOC, and color were 99%, 94%, 59%, 64%, and 93%, respectively.

  14. Predictive model for the reduction of heat resistance of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef by the combined effect of sodium chloride and apple polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Altuntaş, Evrim Güneş; Ayhan, Kamuran; Hwang, Cheng-An; Sheen, Shiowshuh; Friedman, Mendel

    2013-06-03

    We investigated the combined effect of three internal temperatures (57.5, 60, and 62.5°C) and different concentrations (0 to 3.0 wt/wt.%) of sodium chloride (NaCl) and apple polyphenols (APP), individually and in combination, on the heat-resistance of a five-strain cocktail of Listeria monocytogenes in ground beef. A complete factorial design (3×4×4) was used to assess the effects and interactions of heating temperature, NaCl, and APP. All 48 combinations were tested twice, to yield 96 survival curves. Mathematical models were then used to quantitate the combined effect of these parameters on heat resistance of the pathogen. The theoretical analysis shows that compared with heat alone, the addition of NaCl enhanced and that of APP reduced the heat resistance of L. monocytogenes measured as D-values. By contrast, the protective effect of NaCl against thermal inactivation of the pathogen was reduced when both additives were present in combination, as evidenced by reduction of up to ~68% in D-values at 57.5°C; 65% at 60°C; and 25% at 62.5°C. The observed high antimicrobial activity of the combination of APP and low salt levels (e.g., 2.5% APP and 0.5% salt) suggests that commercial and home processors of meat could reduce the salt concentration by adding APP to the ground meat. The influence of the combined effect allows a reduction of the temperature of heat treatments as well as the salt content of the meat. Meat processors can use the predictive model to design processing times and temperatures that can protect against adverse effects of contaminated meat products. Additional benefits include reduced energy use in cooking, and the addition of antioxidative apple polyphenols may provide beneficial health affects to consumers.

  15. An empirical equation with tables of smoothed solubilities of methane in water and aqueous sodium chloride solutions up to 25 weight percent, 360 degrees C, and 138 MPa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haas, John L.

    1978-01-01

    The total pressure for the system H2O-CH 4 is given by p(total) = P(H2O,t) + exp10[log x(CH 4) - a - b x(CH4)], where P(H2O,t) is the vapor pressure of H2O liquid at the temperature t (?C) and x(CH 4) is the molal concentration of methane in the solution. The terms a and b are functions of temperature only. Where the total pressure and temperature are known, the concentration of methane, x(CH4), is found by iteration. The concentration of methane in a sodium chloride brine, y(CH4), is estimated using the function log y(CH4) = log x(CH4) - A I, where A is the salting out constant and I is the ionic strength. For sodium chloride solutions, the ionic strength is equal to the molality of the salt. The equations are valid to 360?C, 138 MPa, and 25 weight percent sodium chloride.

  16. Phytohemagglutinin from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) inhibits sodium and chloride absorption in the rabbit ileum.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J W; Laurenson, J P; Gorelick, F S; Banwell, J G

    1986-06-01

    Phytohemagglutinin (PHA), derived from red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), can induce malabsorption and diarrhea when fed to rats. In this study, we determined the effect of PHA on ion transport in the rabbit ileum in vitro. Compared with control tissues, PHA (1 mg/ml) added to the mucosal solution increased short-circuit current (1.1 +/- 0.2 microEq/cm2 X h, p less than 0.001), decreased net Na (-1.0 +/- 0.5 microEq/cm2 X h, p less than 0.02) and Cl (-1.2 +/- 0.6 microEq/cm2 X h, p less than 0.025) absorption, and decreased tissue conductance (-1.8 +/- 0.5 mS/cm2, p less than 0.001). Serosal addition of PHA had no effect on the short-circuit current or tissue conductance. Mucosal PHA did not increase mucosal levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate or cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Removal of serosal calcium did not affect the increase in short-circuit current induced by mucosal PHA. Utilizing fluorescent microscopy, rhodamine-labeled PHA was found to bind to the luminal border of villus cells, but not to crypt cells, in the ileum. In the descending rabbit colon, PHA did not affect either the short-circuit current or conductance, and rhodaminated PHA did not bind to the epithelial surface. Using the increase in short-circuit current as an indicator of absorption, PHA did not affect Na-coupled glucose or amino acid absorption in the ileum. This study suggests that dietary lectins may play a role in regulating intestinal fluid and electrolyte transport.

  17. Aldosterone modulates thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter abundance via DUSP6-mediated ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiuyan; Zhang, Yiqian; Shao, Ningjun; Wang, Yanhui; Zhuang, Zhizhi; Wu, Ping; Lee, Matthew J; Liu, Yingli; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhuang, Jieqiu; Delpire, Eric; Gu, Dingying; Cai, Hui

    2015-05-15

    Thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) plays an important role in maintaining blood pressure. Aldosterone is known to modulate NCC abundance. Previous studies reported that dietary salts modulated NCC abundance through either WNK4 [with no lysine (k) kinase 4]-SPAK (Ste20-related proline alanine-rich kinase) or WNK4-extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2) signaling pathways. To exclude the influence of SPAK signaling pathway on the role of the aldosterone-mediated ERK1/2 pathway in NCC regulation, we investigated the effects of dietary salt changes and aldosterone on NCC abundance in SPAK knockout (KO) mice. We found that in SPAK KO mice low-salt diet significantly increased total NCC abundance while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas high-salt diet decreased total NCC while increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Importantly, exogenous aldosterone administration increased total NCC abundance in SPAK KO mice while increasing DUSP6 expression, an ERK1/2-specific phosphatase, and led to decreasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation without changing the ratio of phospho-T53-NCC/total NCC. In mouse distal convoluted tubule (mDCT) cells, aldosterone increased DUSP6 expression while reducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation. DUSP6 Knockdown increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation while reducing total NCC expression. Inhibition of DUSP6 by (E)-2-benzylidene-3-(cyclohexylamino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-inden-1-one increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and reversed the aldosterone-mediated increments of NCC partly by increasing NCC ubiquitination. Therefore, these data suggest that aldosterone modulates NCC abundance via altering NCC ubiquitination through a DUSP6-dependent ERK1/2 signal pathway in SPAK KO mice and part of the effects of dietary salt changes may be mediated by aldosterone in the DCTs.

  18. Curcumin attenuates gastric cancer induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and saturated sodium chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Sintara, Kawiya; Thong-Ngam, Duangporn; Patumraj, Suthiluk; Klaikeaw, Naruemon

    2012-01-01

    To determine effects of curcumin on N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) and saturated sodium chloride (s-NaCl)-induced gastric cancer in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: control (CO), control supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin (CC), MNU + s-NaCl, MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with 200 mg/kg curcumin daily for the first 3 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C3W), and MNU + s-NaCl supplemented with curcumin for 20 weeks (MNU + s-NaCl + C20W). To induce stomach cancer, rats except for CO and CC were orally treated with 100 mg/kg MNU on day 0 and 14, and s-NaCl twice-a-week for the first 3 weeks. The experiment was finished and rats were sacrificed at the end of 20 weeks. Cancers were found in forestomachs of all rats in MNU + s-NaCl. The expressions of phosphorylated inhibitor kappaB alpha (phospho-IκBα), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and cyclin D1 significantly increased in MNU + s-NaCl compared with CO. Curcumin treatments for 3 and 20 weeks reduced the cancer incidence resulting in a decrease of phospho-IκBα expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin treatment for 20 weeks also decreased 8-OHdG expression in benign tumor-bearing rats compared with MNU + s-NaCl. Curcumin can attenuate cancer via a reduction of phospho-IκBα and 8-OHdG expressions, which may play a promising role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  19. Influence of salicylic acid on rubisco and rubisco activase in tobacco plant grown under sodium chloride in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lee, So Young; Damodaran, Puthanveettil Narayanankutty; Roh, Kwang Soo

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the influence of salicylic acid (SA) on the growth of salt stress (sodium chloride) induced in tobacco plants. In addition, quantification of rubisco and rubisco activase contents of the plants was also determined in treatments with the control, 10−4 mM SA, 50 mM NaCl, 100 mM NaCl, 150 mM NaCl, SA + 50 mM NaCl, SA + 100 mM NaCl and SA + 150 mM NaCl, respectively after in vitro culture for 5 weeks. The growth of the tobacco plant decreased in 50 mM and 100 mM NaCl when not treated with SA. However, the growth was accelerated by SA, and the growth retardation caused by NaCl was improved by SA. The content of rubisco was improved by SA only in plants treated with 50 mM NaCl, and the activity of rubisco was increased by SA resulting in the decreased effect of NaCl, but only in 50 mM NaCl treated plants. The content of rubisco activase decreased due to NaCl, and SA did not improve the effect caused by NaCl. The activity of rubisco activase was increased by SA resulting in decreased activity caused by NaCl, but increased effect by SA was not recovered to the level of NaCl untreated plants. The activity of rubisco and rubisco activase, which decreased due to denaturing agents, did not demonstrate significant improvement when compared to the control. PMID:25313276

  20. Effect of sodium chloride concentration on elemental analysis of brines by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    PubMed

    Goueguel, Christian; Singh, Jagdish P; McIntyre, Dustin L; Jain, Jinesh; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2014-01-01

    Leakage of injected carbon dioxide (CO2) or resident fluids, such as brine, is a major concern associated with the injection of large volumes of CO2 into deep saline formations. Migration of brine could contaminate drinking water resources by increasing their salinity or endanger vegetation and animal life as well as human health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium chloride (NaCl) concentration on the detection of calcium and potassium in brine samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The ultimate goals were to determine the suitability of the LIBS technique for in situ measurements of metal ion concentrations in NaCl-rich solution and to develop a chemical sensor that can provide the early detection of brine intrusion into formations used for domestic or agricultural water production. Several brine samples of NaCl-CaCl2 and NaCl-KCl were prepared at NaCl concentrations between 0.0 and 3.0 M. The effect of NaCl concentration on the signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for calcium (422.67 nm) and potassium (769.49 nm) emission lines was evaluated. Results show that, for a delay time of 300 ns and a gate width of 3 μs, the presence of and changes in NaCl concentration significantly affect the SBR and SNR for both emission lines. An increase in NaCl concentration from 0.0 to 3.0 M produced an increase in the SNR, whereas the SBR dropped continuously. The detection limits obtained for both elements were in the milligrams per liter range, suggesting that a NaCl-rich solution does not severely limit the ability of LIBS to detect trace amount of metal ions.

  1. Phorbol ester stimulation of RasGRP1 regulates the sodium-chloride cotransporter by a PKC-independent pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Benjamin; Joshi, Leena M.; Cooke, Leslie L.; Vazquez, Norma; Musch, Mark W.; Hebert, Steven C.; Gamba, Gerardo; Hoover, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    The sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) is the principal salt-absorptive pathway in the mammalian distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and is the site of action of one of the most effective classes of antihypertensive medications, thiazide diuretics. We developed a cell model system to assess NCC function in a mammalian cell line that natively expresses NCC, the mouse DCT (mDCT) cell line. We used this system to study the complex regulation of NCC by the phorbol ester (PE) 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), a diacylglycerol (DAG) analog. It has generally been thought that PEs mediate their effects on transporters through the activation of PKC. However, there are at least five other DAG/PE targets. Here we describe how one of those alternate targets of DAG/PE effects, Ras guanyl-releasing protein 1 (RasGRP1), mediates the PE-induced suppression of function and the surface expression of NCC. Functional assessment of NCC by using thiazide-sensitive 22Na+ uptakes revealed that TPA completely suppresses NCC function. Biotinylation experiments demonstrated that this result was primarily because of decreased surface expression of NCC. Although inhibitors of PKC had no effect on this suppression, MAPK inhibitors completely prevented the TPA effect. RasGRP1 activates the MAPK pathway through activation of the small G protein Ras. Gene silencing of RasGRP1 prevented the PE-mediated suppression of NCC activity, the activation of the H-Ras isoform of Ras, and the activation of ERK1/2 MAPK. This finding confirmed the critical role of RasGRP1 in mediating the PE-induced suppression of NCC activity through the stimulation of the MAPK pathway. PMID:18077438

  2. Effect of sodium chloride and cadmium on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Zygosaccharomyces rouxii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chunsheng; Xu, Ying; Jiang, Wei; Lv, Xin; Dong, Xiaoyan

    2014-06-01

    Zygosaccharomyces rouxii is a salt-tolerant yeast species capable of removing cadmium (Cd) pollutant from aqueous solution. Presently, the physiological characteristics of Z. rouxii under the stress of sodium chloride (NaCl) and Cd are poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of NaCl and Cd on the growth, oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii after stress treatment for 24 h. Results showed that NaCl or Cd alone negatively affected the growth of Z. rouxii, but the growth-inhibiting effect of Cd on Z. rouxii was reduced in the presence of NaCl. Flow cytometry assay showed that under Cd stress, NaCl significantly reduced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell death of Z. rouxii compared with those in the absence of NaCl. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD) of Z. rouxii were significantly enhanced by 2%-6% NaCl, which likely contributed to the high salt tolerance of Z. rouxii. The POD activity was inhibited by 20 mg L-1 Cd while the SOD and CAT activities were enhanced by 8 mg L-1 Cd and inhibited by 20 mg L-1 or 50 mg L-1 Cd. The inhibitory effect of high-level Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activities of Z. rouxii was counteracted by the combined use of NaCl, especially at 6%. This probably accounted for the decrease in Cd-induced ROS production and cell death of Z. rouxii after incubation with NaCl and Cd. Our work provided physiological clues as to the use of Z. rouxii as a biosorbent for Cd removal from seawater and liquid highly salty food.

  3. Structural and functional studies on the sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter: deglycosylation and limited proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Kanner, B I; Keynan, S; Radian, R

    1989-05-02

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric transporter, an 80-kDa glycoprotein, has been subjected to deglycosylation and limited proteolysis. The treatment of the 80-kDa band with endoglycosidase F results in its disappearance and reveals the presence of a polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa, which is devoid of 125I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binding activity but is nevertheless recognized by the antibodies against the 80-kDa band. Upon limited proteolysis with papain or Pronase, the 80-kDa band was degraded to one with an apparent molecular mass of about 60 kDa. This polypeptide still contains the 125I-labeled wheat germ agglutinin binding activity but is not recognized by the antibody. The effect of proteolysis on function was examined. The transporter was purified by use of all steps except that for the lectin chromatography [Radian, R., Bendahan, A., & Kanner, B.I. (1986) J. Biol. Chem. 261, 15437-15441]. After papain treatment and lectin chromatography, gamma-aminobutyric transport activity was eluted with N-acetylglucosamine. The characteristics of transport were the same as those of the pure transporter, but the preparation contained instead of the 80-kDa polypeptide two fragments of about 66 and 60 kDa. The ability of the anti-80-kDa antibody to recognize these fragments was relatively low. The observations indicate that the transporter contains exposed domains which are not important for function.

  4. Using Fish Sauce as a Substitute for Sodium Chloride in Culinary Sauces and Effects on Sensory Properties.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Hue Linh; Danhi, Robert; Yan, See Wan

    2016-01-01

    Historically, fish sauce has been a standard condiment and ingredient in various Southeast Asian cuisines. Moreover, fish sauce imparts umami taste, which may enhance perceived saltiness in food. This quality suggests that fish sauce may be used as a partial substitute for sodium chloride (NaCl) in food preparation, which may present a valuable option for health-conscious and salt-restricted consumers. However, the degree to which NaCl can be decreased in food products without compromising taste and consumer acceptance has not been determined. We hypothesized that NaCl content in food may be reduced by partial replacement with fish sauce without diminishing palatability and consumer acceptance. Preparations of 3 types of food were assessed to test this hypothesis: chicken broth (n = 72); tomato sauce (n = 73); and coconut curry (n = 70). In the first session, the percentage of NaCl that could be replaced with fish sauce without a significant change in overall taste intensity was determined for each type of food using the 2-Alternative Forced Choice method. In the second session, subjects rated 5 samples for each food with varying NaCl and/or fish sauce content on 3 sensory attributes: deliciousness; taste intensity; and saltiness. Our results demonstrate that NaCl reduction was possible in chicken broth, tomato sauce, and coconut curry at 25%, 16%, and 10%, respectively, without a significant loss (P < 0.05) in deliciousness and overall taste intensity. These results suggest that it is possible to replace NaCl in foods with fish sauce without reducing overall taste intensity and consumer acceptance.

  5. Effect of Added Brine on the Physico Chemical Studies of Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate and Aqueous Gelatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Jinu; Sreejith, Lisa

    2011-10-01

    Effect of added brine on the structural transitions of SDS, in different compositions of gelatin has been investigated by viscosity, circular dichroism, TGA and DSC. The slow and steady growth of the normal spherical micelles to the higher order aggregates were predicted by viscosity and conductivity measurements. The large negative value for ellipticity observed from CD measurements indicated absence of any conformational change for gelatin. Other measurements were used to study the molecular packing in the micellar aggregates. The complex formed exhibits fantastic properties to be explored in the field of smart gels.

  6. Effect of adding sodium hexametaphosphate liquefier on basic properties of calcium phosphate cements.

    PubMed

    Hesaraki, S; Zamanian, A; Moztarzadeh, F

    2009-02-01

    Sodium hexametaphosphate (Na-HMP) is a common liquefying agent widely used in the ceramics industry for modifying the rheological behavior of ceramic slurries. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of Na-HMP on several properties of calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). Various types of CPCs were prepared by mixing the same powder, namely, a mixture of tetracalcium phosphate and dicalcium phosphate anhydrate, with various liquids, namely, distilled water, Na(2)HPO(4) solutions, and Na-HMP solutions. The setting time, mechanical strength, rheological properties, and injectability of the cement pastes were examined in this work. Also, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques were employed for phase analysis and morphological evaluations, respectively. The results showed that, compared to CPCs made with water and Na(2)HPO(4) solutions, the CPC pastes made with Na-HMP solutions had improved stability and injectability but prolonged setting times. The XRD and SEM studies showed that Na-HMP inhibited the growth of apatite crystals during soaking of the cements in Ringer's solution. Thus, the CPC made with Na-HMP solution had lower compressive strength than those made with water or Na(2)HPO(4) solutions. Although Na-HMP could improve the injectability and stability of the CPC paste, it impaired other basic properties of the cement. Thus, it is not an appropriate liquefier additive.

  7. Use of sodium stearoyl lactylate and azodicarbonamide in wheat flour breads with added pea flour.

    PubMed

    Alasino, Maria C; Osella, Carlos A; De La Torre, Maria A; Sanchez, Hugo D

    2011-06-01

    Different amounts of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL) (X(1)) and azodicarbonamide (ADA) (X(2)) were analyzed to measure their effect on breadmaking using wheat flour with incorporation of pea flour (Pisum sativum) to the dough. The objective of the present work was to optimize the physical properties of dough (Y(1)Y(2)Y(3)Y(4)), the dough consistency during mixing (Y(5)Y(6)) and the baking performance (Y(7)Y(8)Y(9)). A central composite design and second-order models for Y(i) were employed. For dough physical properties and dough consistency during mixing, the best response was found when SSL varied between 0.5 and 1.5% and ADA between 110 and 170 ppm. For responses concerning the baking performance, better values for specific volume, crumb texture scores and bread score were obtained using SSL between 0.9 and 1.4% and ADA between 50 and 80 ppm. It is concluded that for baking with wheat flour replaced at about 10% with inactivated pea flour it should be advised to use SSL at levels close to 1% with ADA between 50 and 80 ppm.

  8. Effects of pH, sodium chloride, and curing salt on the infectivity of Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts.

    PubMed

    Pott, S; Koethe, M; Bangoura, B; Zöller, B; Daugschies, A; Straubinger, R K; Fehlhaber, K; Ludewig, M

    2013-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most common zoonotic parasites in the world. The parasite causes no or mild symptoms in immunocompetent humans. However, a high potential hazard exists for seronegative pregnant women and immunocompromised patients. The consumption of meat containing tissue cysts or oocyst-contaminated vegetables and fruits or the handling of cat feces poses a high risk of infection with T. gondii. It is known that raw minced meat, raw fresh sausages, and locally produced raw meat products are possible causes of T. gondii infection. The infectivity of T. gondii tissue cysts in meat products depends, among other factors, on the pH and the salt concentration. Therefore, the impact of these two factors on the tissue cysts was examined. For this purpose, dissected musculature and brain from experimentally infected mice (donor mice) were placed in a cell culture medium (RPMI 1640). The medium was adjusted to different pH values (pH 5, 6, and 7) with lactic acid and to different salt concentrations (2.0, 2.5, and 3.0%) with sodium chloride (NaCl) or nitrite-enriched curing salt (NCS) for the various tests. After storage at 4°C for different time periods, the materials were fed to bioassay mice. Later, the brains were examined for presence of T. gondii to assess the infectivity. The data show that T. gondii tissue cysts have a high pH tolerance. Cysts were infectious in the muscle for up to 26 days (pH 5). In contrast to their tolerance to pH, cysts were very sensitive to salt. Muscle cysts survived at an NaCl concentration of up to 2.0% only, and for no longer than 8 days. At NaCl concentrations of 2.5 and 3.0%, the cysts lost their infectivity after 1 day. When NCS instead of NaCl was used under the same conditions, T. gondii muscle cysts retained infectivity for only 4 days at 2.0%. Consequently, NCS (NaCl plus 0.5% nitrite) has a stronger effect on T. gondii cysts than does common table salt. Sausages produced with low NaCl concentration and short

  9. Effect of sodium fluoride and stannous chloride associated with Nd:YAG laser irradiation on the progression of enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    João-Souza, Samira Helena; Bezerra, Sávio José Cardoso; Borges, Alessandra Bühler; Aranha, Ana Cecília; Scaramucci, Tais

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the progression of enamel erosion after treatment with gels containing sodium fluoride (NaF; 9047 ppm F) and stannous chloride (SnCl2; 3000 ppm Sn), associated or not with Nd:YAG laser irradiation. Sixty enamel specimens were prepared from bovine incisors and protected by a tape, leaving an exposed surface area of 4 × 1 mm. The specimens were immersed in 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3) for 10 min to create an initial erosion lesion. After, they were randomly divided into six groups: (C) control: gel without active ingredient; (F): NaF gel; (F + Sn): NaF + SnCl2 gel; (laser): Nd:YAG laser irradiation (0.5 W; 50 mJ; ∼41.66 J/cm(2); 10 Hz; 40 s); (F + laser): NaF gel + Nd:YAG; (F + Sn + laser): NaF + SnCl2 gel + Nd:YAG. All gels had pH = 4.5 and were applied for 1 min. Laser irradiation was performed after gel application. The specimens were then submitted to a 5-day erosion-remineralization cycling model using 1 % citric acid (pH = 2.3), six times per day. Enamel surface loss (SL) was analyzed by optical profilometry in the end of the cycling (in μm). Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Holm-Sidak tests (alpha = 0.05). The control and the laser groups presented the highest enamel loss (means ± SD = 53.52 ± 3.65 and 53.30 ± 2.73, respectively), followed by F + Sn (44.76 ± 2.83). The groups F (36.76 ± 2.28), F + laser (36.25 ± 3.59), and F + Sn + laser (39.83 ± 4.62) showed the lowest enamel loss, with no significant difference among them (p > 0.05). In conclusion, NaF by itself or associated with SnCl2 and Nd:YAG laser was able to reduce enamel erosion progression. Nd:YAG laser alone did not show a protective effect.

  10. Therapeutic Effects of Sodium Hyaluronate on Ocular Surface Damage Induced by Benzalkonium Chloride Preserved Anti-glaucoma Medications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Yu, Fen-Fen; Zhong, Yi-Min; Guo, Xin-Xing; Mao, Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Long-term use of benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-preserved drugs is often associated with ocular surface toxicity. Ocular surface symptoms had a substantial impact on the glaucoma patients’ quality of life and compliance. This study aimed to investigate the effects of sodium hyaluronate (SH) on ocular surface toxicity induced by BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. Methods: Fifty-eight patients (101 eyes), who received topical BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment and met the severe dry eye criteria, were included in the analysis. All patients were maintained the original topical anti-glaucoma treatment. In the SH-treated group (56 eyes), unpreserved 0.3% SH eye drops were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days. In the control group (55 eyes), phosphate-buffered saline were administered with 3 times daily for 90 days. Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, break-up time (BUT) test, corneal fluorescein staining, corneal and conjunctival rose Bengal staining, Schirmer test, and conjunctiva impression cytology were performed sequentially on days 0 and 91. Results: Compared with the control group, SH-treated group showed decrease in OSDI scores (Kruskal-Wallis test: H = 38.668, P < 0.001), fluorescein and rose Bengal scores (Wilcoxon signed-ranks test: z = −3.843, P < 0.001, and z = −3.508, P < 0.001, respectively), increase in tear film BUT (t-test: t = −10.994, P < 0.001) and aqueous tear production (t-test: t = −10.328, P < 0.001) on day 91. The goblet cell density was increased (t-test: t = −9.981, P < 0.001), and the morphology of the conjunctival epithelium were also improved after SH treatment. Conclusions: SH significantly improved both symptoms and signs of ocular surface damage in patients with BAC-preserved anti-glaucoma medications treatment. SH could be proposed as a new attempt to reduce ocular surface toxicity, and alleviate symptoms of ocular surface damage in BAC-preserved anti

  11. A comparative study on the electrochemical corrosion behavior of iron and X-65 steel in 4.0 wt % sodium chloride solution after different exposure intervals.

    PubMed

    Sherif, El-Sayed M

    2014-07-09

    In this work, the results obtained from studying the anodic dissolution of pure iron and API X-65 5L pipeline steel after 40 min and 12 h exposure period in 4.0 wt % NaCl solutions at room temperature were reported. Potential-time, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, potentiodynamic polarization, and chronoamperometric current-time at constant potential techniques were employed. It has been found that the iron electrode corrodes in the chloride test solutions faster than the API X-65 5L steel does under the same conditions. Increasing the exposure period for the electrodes from 40 min to 12 h showed a significant reduction in the corrosion parameters for both iron and steel in the 4.0 wt % NaCl solution. Results together confirmed clearly that the X-65 steel is superior to iron against corrosion in sodium chloride solutions.

  12. The neuroprotective action of the mood stabilizing drugs lithium chloride and sodium valproate is mediated through the up-regulation of the homeodomain protein Six1

    SciTech Connect

    Plant, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Elizabeth; Simecek, Nicole; Brown, Richard; Forster, Sam; Spinks, Jenny; Toms, Nick; Gibson, G. Gordon; Lyon, Jon; Plant, Nick

    2009-02-15

    The mood stabilizing agents lithium chloride (LiCl) and sodium valproate (VPA) have recently gained interest as potential neuroprotective therapeutics. However, exploitation of these therapeutic applications is hindered by both a lack of molecular understanding of the mode of action, and a number of sub-optimal properties, including a relatively small therapeutic window and variable patient response. Human neuroblastoma cells (SH-SY5Y) were exposed to 1 mM lithium chloride or 1 mM sodium valproate for 6 h or 72 h, and transcriptomes measured by Affymetrix U133A/B microarray. Statistically significant gene expression changes were identified using SAM software, with selected changes confirmed at transcript (TaqMan) and protein (Western blotting) levels. Finally, anti-apoptotic action was measured by an in vitro fluorescent assay. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to therapeutically relevant concentrations of either lithium chloride or sodium valproate elicited 936 statistically significant changes in gene expression. Amongst these changes we observed a large (maximal 31.3-fold) increase in the expression of the homeodomain protein Six1, and have characterized the time- and dose-dependent up-regulation of this gene in response to both drugs. In addition, we demonstrate that, like LiCl or VPA treatment, Six1 over-expression protects SH-SY5Y cells from staurosporine-induced apoptosis via the blockade of caspsase-3 activation, whereas removal of Six1 protein via siRNA antagonises the ability of LiCl and VPA to protect SH-SY5Y cells from STS-induced apoptosis. These results provide a novel mechanistic rationale underlying the neuroprotective mechanism of LiCl and VPA, suggesting exciting possibilities for the development of novel therapeutic agents against neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinsonism.

  13. Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Arun K.; Banerjee, Rituparna; Sharma, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF. PMID:25049565

  14. Conversion of adamsite (phenarsarzin chloride) by fungal manganese peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Haas, R; Tsivunchyk, O; Steinbach, K; von Löw, E; Scheibner, K; Hofrichter, M

    2004-02-01

    Fungal manganese peroxidase was found to convert the persistent chemical warfare agent adamsite (phenarsarzin chloride) in a cell-free reaction mixture containing sodium malonate, Mn(2+) ions, and reduced glutathione. The organo-arsenical compound disappeared completely within 48 h accompanied by the formation of a more polar metabolite with a clearly modified UV spectrum. Thus, As(III) in the adamsite molecule was oxidized by manganese peroxidase to As(V) which added dioxygen and released chloride.

  15. Stimulation of cell division in the rat by NaCl, KCl, MgCl2, and CaCl2, and inhibition of the sodium chloride effect on the glandular stomach by ascorbic acid and beta-carotene.

    PubMed

    Lugli, S M; Lutz, W K

    1999-01-01

    Three questions associated with the stimulation of cell division by chloride salts have been investigated: (i) whether cations other than sodium show a similar effect, (ii) whether vitamins can have a preventive activity, and (iii) whether subchronic treatment with sodium chloride in the diet is also effective. Male Fischer 344 rats were given solutions of the chloride salts of sodium, potassium, magnesium, and calcium by oral gavage. Water was used for control. After 4 h, a 24-h osmotic minipump containing 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine was implanted subcutaneously. The forestomach and glandular stomach, as well as liver and bladder were analyzed immunohistochemically 24 h later for the proportion of cells in S phase as an indicator of the rate of replicative DNA synthesis. For both the forestomach and the glandular stomach, potassium was as potent as sodium, and the divalent cations Mg and Ca were even more potent on a molar basis. Supplementation of the diet with ascorbic acid (2 g/kg food) or beta-carotene (12.5 mg/kg food) for 1 week before gavage of the sodium chloride solution resulted in an inhibition of the stimulation of cell division. A putative tumor-chemopreventive activity of the two vitamins might therefore not only rely on their antioxidative properties but may include effects on the cell cycle. A 4-week treatment with a sodium chloride supplement in the diet (2% and 4% supplement) resulted in a significant stimulation of cell division not only in both parts of the stomach and in the bladder (with the 4% supplement) but also in the liver (even with the 2% supplement). Sodium-chloride-stimulated cell turnover therefore is a sustained effect.

  16. Alloy 22 Localized Corrosion Susceptibility In Aqueous Solutions Of Chloride And Nitrate Salts Of Sodium And Potassium At 110 - 150?C

    SciTech Connect

    Felker, S; Hailey, P D; Lian, T; Staggs, K J; Gdowski, G E

    2006-01-17

    Alloy 22 (a nickel-chromium-molybdenum-tungsten alloy) is being investigated for use as the outer barrier of waste containers for a high-level nuclear waste repository in the thick unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Experiments were conducted to assess crevice corrosion of Alloy 22 in de-aerated aqueous solutions of chloride and nitrate salts of potassium and sodium in the temperature range 110-150 C (some limited testing was also conducted at 90 C). Electrochemical tests were run in neutral salt solutions without acid addition and others were run in salt solutions with an initial hydrogen ion concentration of 10{sup -4} molal. The Alloy 22 specimens were weld prism specimens and de-aeration was performed with nitrogen gas. No evidence of crevice corrosion was observed in the range 125-150 C. In the 120 to 160 C temperature range, the anionic concentration of stable aqueous solutions is dominated by nitrate relative to chloride. At nominally 120 C, the minimum nitrate to chloride ratio is about 4.5, and it increases to about 22 at nominally 155 C. The absence of localized corrosion susceptibility in these solutions is attributed to the known inhibiting effect of the nitrate anion. At 110 C, aqueous solutions can have dissolved chloride in excess of nitrate. Localized corrosion was observed at nitrate to chloride ratios up to 1.0, the highest ratio tested. The extent of localized corrosion was confined to the crevice region of the samples, and was limited for nitrate to chloride ratios greater than or equal to 0.3. Aqueous solution chemistry studies indicate that nitrate to chloride ratios of less than 0.5 are possible for temperatures up to nominally 116 C. However, the exact upper temperature limit is unknown and no electrochemical testing was done at these temperatures. Limited comparison between 8 m Cl aqueous solutions of Na + K on the one hand and Ca on the other indicated similar electrochemical E{sub crit} values and similar morphology of attack

  17. Evaluating the effectiveness of adding magnesium chloride to conventional protocol of citrate alkali therapy on kidney stone size

    PubMed Central

    Niroomand, Hassan; Ziaee, Amin; Ziaee, Keivan; Gheissari, Alaleh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Potassium citrate (K-Cit) is one of the therapeutic solutions broadly used in patients with urolithiasis. However, recent studies have shown that it is not so effective. Therefore, the goal of our study was to evaluate the effect of a combination of K-Cit - MgCl2 oral supplements, on urinary stone size. Materials and Methods: This study was performed on 70 asymptomatic urolithiasis cases. The supplements included K-Cit and magnesium chloride (MgCl2), purchased from (Merck Company, Germany). The patients were randomly divided into two groups. The urinary stone size was measured in the control group after prescribing K-Cit alone and the treated group with combination of K-Cit and MgCl2 for 4 weeks by ultrasonography and also urinary parameter was measured in each groups. Results: The mean age of patients was 16.26 ± 5.70 years. Hyperoxaluria and hypercalciuria were seen in 70% and 52% of patients, respectively. Initially, the mean urinary stone size was measured in each groups and there is not any significant different. However, we find a significant decrease in urinary stone size in group which is treated with combination of K-Cit and MgCl2 for 4 weeks in comparison with control group treated with K-Cit alone in the same duration of therapeutic course (5.1 ± 0.8 vs. 2.5 ± 1.2, P < 0.05). All ultrasonography were performed by one radiologist and device. Conclusion: Our results suggested that a combination of K-Cit and MgCl2 chloride is more effective on decreasing urinary stone size than K-Cit alone. PMID:27995107

  18. Effects of Different Oral Doses of Sodium Chloride on the Basal Acid-Base and Mineral Status of Exercising Horses Fed Low Amounts of Hay

    PubMed Central

    Zeyner, Annette; Romanowski, Kristin; Vernunft, Andreas; Harris, Patricia; Müller, Ann-Marie; Wolf, Carola; Kienzle, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    The provision of NaCl, according to current recommendations, to horses in moderate work has been shown to induce immediate postprandial acidosis. The present study aimed to clarify whether this NaCl induced acidosis i) persists beyond the immediate postprandial period, and ii) is still present after a 2 week adaptation period. Six adult warmblood mares in moderate work received daily 1.00 kg hay per 100 kg body weight (bwt) only together with 0.64 kg unprocessed cereal grains/100 kg bwt.d as fed basis. Using a 3x3 Latin Square, either 0 (NaCl-0), 50 (NaCl-50) or 100 (NaCl-100) g NaCl/d were fed together with the concentrates in two equal doses for 3 weeks. During the final week, a mineral digestibility trial was undertaken. The middle sodium and chloride intake (NaCl-50) at least met the most common recommendations for moderate work. Morning (7:00 AM) urine and venous blood samples were collected on days 0, 1–4, 8, and 15, and analysed for pH, acid-base status, creatinine and electrolyte concentrations. Fractional electrolyte clearances (FC) were determined. Mean apparent sodium digestibility ranged between 60–62% whereas chloride digestibility was consistently above 94%. Supplementing 100 g but not 50 g of NaCl resulted in significant reduction of blood pH and base excess as well as urinary pH and urine acid excretion. Both 50 g and 100 g NaCl supplementation caused a significant reduction in base and net acid-base excretion, urine density and potassium concentration, but increased urine sodium concentration and the FC of sodium and chloride (P < 0.05). This suggests that a high proportion of the recommended salt doses is excreted renally. The above effects of NaCl supplementation persisted over the 2 week measurement period. Results suggest that feeding 100 g NaCl to moderately exercising horses results in mild metabolic acidosis, whereas feeding 50 g according to current recommendations resulted in compensated acidosis. PMID:28045916

  19. Interaction of alkylmercuric compounds with sodium selenite. III. Biotransformation, levels of metallothioneinlike proteins and endogenous copper in some tissues of rats exposed to methyl or ethylmercuric chloride with and without sodium selenite.

    PubMed Central

    Brzeźnicka, E A; Chmielnicka, J

    1985-01-01

    The biotransformation efficiency of alkylmercurial compounds was studied in rat liver, kidneys, blood, and brain after 2-week administration of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) and ethylmercuric chloride (EtHg) at doses of 0.25 or 2.5 mg Hg/kg, alone or in combination with sodium selenite (Se) at a level of 0.5 mg Se/kg. Simultaneously, the level of metallothioneinlike proteins (MTP) and endogenous copper (Cu) was monitored in tissues of control rats and intoxicated rats. Regardless of the dose, the highest concentrations of inorganic mercury from both the alkylmercurials was found in the rat kidneys. Sodium selenite had a variable effect on the amount of inorganic mercury liberated, depending on the organ and the molar ratio of Hg:Se administered. A statistically significant increase in the levels of MTP and endogenous Cu, compared with control group, was found only in the kidneys of intoxicated rats. This increase was dependent on the concentration of inorganic mercury liberated by biotransformation of alkylmercurials. The observed changes appeared when the level of inorganic mercury exceeded 10 micrograms Hg/g tissue and reached a plateau at about 40 micrograms Hg/g tissue. In the presence of selenium the plateau of MTP and Cu levels were no observed in the kidneys, regardless of the amount of inorganic mercury liberated. PMID:3928366

  20. Interaction of alkylmercuric compounds with sodium selenite. III. Biotransformation, levels of metallothioneinlike proteins and endogenous copper in some tissues of rats exposed to methyl or ethylmercuric chloride with and without sodium selenite

    SciTech Connect

    Brzeznicka, E.A.; Chmielnicka, J.

    1985-05-01

    The biotransformation efficiency of alkylmercurial compounds was studied in rat liver, kidneys, blood, and brain after 2-week administration of methylmercuric chloride (MeHg) and ethylmercuric chloride (EtHg) at doses of 0.25 or 2.5 mg Hg/kg, alone or in combination with sodium selenite (Se) at a level of 0.5 mg Se/kg. Simultaneously, the level of metallothioneinlike proteins (MTP) and endogenous copper (Cu) was monitored in tissues of control rats and intoxicated rats. Regardless of the dose, the highest concentrations of inorganic mercury from both the alkylmercurials was found in the rat kidneys. Sodium selenite had a variable effect on the amount of inorganic mercury liberated, depending on the organ and the molar ratio of Hg:Se administered. A statistically significant increase in the levels of MTP and endogenous Cu, compared with control group, was found only in the kidneys of intoxicated rats. This increase was dependent on the concentration of inorganic mercury liberated by biotransformation of alkylmercurials. The observed changes appeared when the level of inorganic mercury exceeded 10 g Hg/g tissue and reached a plateau at about 40 g Hg/g tissue. In the presence of selenium the plateau of MTP and Cu levels were not observed in the kidneys, regardless of the amount of inorganic mercury liberated.

  1. Effect of external sodium on intracellular chloride activity in the surface cells of frog gastric mucosa. Microelectrode studies.

    PubMed

    Curci, S; Schettino, T

    1984-06-01

    The intracellular chloride activity and its dependence on ionic substitutions in the bathing media was studied in individual surface cells of resting gastric mucosa using conventional and Cl- selective microelectrodes. When the tissue was perfused with control NaCl-Ringer the cell membrane p.d.'s, cell-lumen (psi cm) and cell-serosa (psi cs) were -40.9 +/- 0.6 mV and -66.8 +/- 0.5 mV (n = 175) respectively and the p.d. measured by the Cl- selective microelectrodes across the serosal membrane (psi csCl-) averaged -32.4 +/- 0.7 mV (n = 138). From these values an intracellular Cl- activity (acCl-) of 15.3 mmol/l can be estimated. The data indicate that chloride ion is distributed close to equilibrium at the luminal membrane while it is accumulated by an energy requiring step at the serosal membrane. Reduction (2 mmol/l) or absence of chloride from the luminal bath did not result in any detectable change of acCl-; on the other hand, after removal of Cl- from the serosal bath the intracellular Cl- activity fell to 7.1 mmol/l. When the tissue was exposed to serosal Na+-free Ringer (Na+ replaced by choline or TMA), although the acCl- remained unaffected, a marked reduction of the electrochemical gradient for Cl- at the serosal membrane was observed. These data indicate that: chloride is accumulated in the surface cells against its electrochemical potential difference at the serosal membrane; the luminal membrane has a negligible conductance to Cl-, while the serosal membrane represents a conductive pathway to chloride; the uphill entry of chloride at the serosal membrane seems to be, at least partially, Na+-dependent.

  2. Sodium and chloride requirements of young broiler chickens fed corn-soybean diets (one to twenty-one days of age).

    PubMed

    Oviedo-Rondón, E O; Murakami, A E; Furlan, A C; Moreira, I; Macari, M

    2001-05-01

    Sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) nutritional requirements, dietary electrolyte balance (DEB), and their effects on acid-base balance, litter moisture, and tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) incidence for young broiler chickens were evaluated in two trials. One-day-old Cobb broilers were distributed in a completely randomized design with six treatments, five replicates, and 50 birds per experimental unit. Treatments used in both experiments were a basal diet with 0.10% Na+ (Experiment 1) or Cl- (Experiment 2) supplemented to result in diets with Na+ or Cl- levels of 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, or 0.35%, respectively. In Experiment 1, results indicated an optimum Na+ requirement of 0.26%. Sodium levels caused a linear increase in arterial blood gas parameters, indicating an alkalogenic effect of Na+. The hypertrophic area of growth plate in the proximal tibiotarsi decreased with Na+ levels. The TD incidence decreased with increases in dietary Na+. Litter moisture increased linearly with sodium levels. In Experiment 2, the Cl- requirement was estimated as 0.25%. Chloride levels caused a quadratic effect (P < or = 0.01) on blood gas parameters, with an estimated equilibrium [blood base excess (BE) = 0] at 0.30% of dietary Cl-. No Cl- treatment effects (P > or = 0.05) were observed on litter moisture or TD incidence. The best DEB for maximum performance was 298 to 315 mEq/kg in Experiment 1 and 246 to 264 mEq/kg in Experiment 2. We concluded that the Na+ and Cl- requirements for optimum performance of young broiler chickens were 0.28 and 0.25%, respectively.

  3. Hyperosmolar sodium chloride is toxic to cultured neurons and causes reduction of glucose metabolism and ATP levels, an increase in glutamate uptake, and a reduction in cytosolic calcium.

    PubMed

    Morland, Cecilie; Pettersen, Mi Nguyen; Hassel, Bjørnar

    2016-05-01

    Elevation of serum sodium, hypernatremia, which may occur during dehydration or treatment with sodium chloride, may cause brain dysfunction and damage, but toxic mechanisms are poorly understood. We found that exposure to excess NaCl, 10-100mmol/L, for 20h caused cell death in cultured cerebellar granule cells (neurons). Toxicity was due to Na(+), since substituting excess Na(+) with choline reduced cell death to control levels, whereas gluconate instead of excess Cl(-) did not. Prior to cell death from hyperosmolar NaCl, glucose consumption and lactate formation were reduced, and intracellular aspartate levels were elevated, consistent with reduced glycolysis or glucose uptake. Concomitantly, the level of ATP became reduced. Pyruvate, 10mmol/L, reduced NaCl-induced cell death. The extracellular levels of glutamate, taurine, and GABA were concentration-dependently reduced by excess NaCl; high-affinity glutamate uptake increased. High extracellular [Na(+)] caused reduction in intracellular free [Ca(2+)], but a similar effect was seen with mannitol, which was not neurotoxic. We suggest that inhibition of glucose metabolism with ensuing loss of ATP is a neurotoxic mechanism of hyperosmolar sodium, whereas increased uptake of extracellular neuroactive amino acids and reduced intracellular [Ca(2+)] may, if they occur in vivo, contribute to the cerebral dysfunction and delirium described in hypernatremia.

  4. Assessing the toxicity of sodium chloride to the glochidia of freshwater mussels: implications for salinization of surface waters.

    PubMed

    Gillis, Patricia L

    2011-06-01

    Chloride concentrations in surface waters have increased significantly, a rise attributed to road salt use. In Canada, this may be a concern for endangered freshwater mussels, many with ranges limited to southern Ontario, Canada's most road-dense region. The acute toxicity of NaCl was determined for glochidia, the mussel's larval stage. The 24h EC50s of four (including two Canadian endangered) species ranged from 113-1430 mg Cl L⁻¹ (reconstituted water, 100 mg CaCO₃ L⁻¹). To determine how mussels would respond to a chloride pulse, natural river water (hardness 278-322 mg CaCO₃ L⁻¹) was augmented with salt. Lampsilis fasciola glochidia were significantly less sensitive to salt in natural water (EC50s 1265-1559 mg Cl L⁻¹) than in reconstituted water (EC50 285 mg L⁻¹). Chloride data from mussel habitats revealed chloride reaches levels acutely toxic to glochidia (1300 mg L⁻¹). The increased salinization of freshwater could negatively impact freshwater mussels, including numerous species at risk.

  5. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  6. Stability, compatibility and plasticizer extraction of quinine injection added to infusion solutions and stored in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers.

    PubMed

    Faouzi, M A; Khalfi, F; Dine, T; Luyckx, M; Brunet, C; Gressier, B; Goudaliez, F; Cazin, M; Kablan, J; Belabed, A; Cazin, J C

    1999-12-01

    The stability of quinine was determined in various diluents and in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) containers. The release of diethyhexyl phthalate (DEHP) from PVC bags into intravenous infusions of quinine was also measured. We used an injection of two doses of quinine; quiniforme at 500 mg and quinimax at 400 mg in either 250- or 500-ml PVC infusion bags containing 5% dextrose, to give initial nominal concentrations of 2 or 1 mg ml(-1) quiniforme and 1.6 or 0.8 mg ml(-1) quinimax, the mean concentrations commonly used in clinical practice. Samples were assayed by stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the clarity was determined visually. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the stability and compatibility of quinine would be compromised, and whether DEHP would be leached from PVC bags and PVC administration sets during storage and simulated infusion. There was no substantial loss of quiniforme and quinimax over 1- or 2-h simulated infusion irrespective of the diluent, and storage during 8 h at 22 degrees C, 48 or 72 h at 4 degrees C and 96 h at 45 degrees C. Leaching of DEHP was also detected during simulated infusion delivery using PVC bags and PVC administration sets. The quantity was less than 2 microg ml(-1). During storage at 4 degrees C and room temperature the leaching of DEHP was low, but when the temperature was 45 degrees C the quantity was high, 21 microg ml(-1). To minimise patient exposure to DEHP, quinine solutions with all drugs should be infused immediately or stored for a maximum of 48 h at 4 degrees C.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  8. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate)

    PubMed Central

    Maestro, Armando; Llamas, Sara; Álvarez-Rodríguez, Jesús; Ortega, Francisco; Maroto-Valiente, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Summary This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate). Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers. PMID:26977377

  9. Dietary sodium chloride intake independently predicts the degree of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis in healthy humans consuming a net acid-producing diet.

    PubMed

    Frassetto, Lynda A; Morris, R Curtis; Sebastian, Anthony

    2007-08-01

    We previously demonstrated that typical American net acid-producing diets predict a low-grade metabolic acidosis of severity proportional to the diet net acid load as indexed by the steady-state renal net acid excretion rate (NAE). We now investigate whether a sodium (Na) chloride (Cl) containing diet likewise associates with a low-grade metabolic acidosis of severity proportional to the sodium chloride content of the diet as indexed by the steady-state Na and Cl excretion rates. In the steady-state preintervention periods of our previously reported studies comprising 77 healthy subjects, we averaged in each subject three to six values of blood hydrogen ion concentration ([H]b), plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)]p), the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pco(2)), the urinary excretion rates of Na, Cl, NAE, and renal function as measured by creatinine clearance (CrCl), and performed multivariate analyses. Dietary Cl strongly correlated positively with dietary Na (P < 0.001) and was an independent negative predictor of [HCO(3)(-)]p after adjustment for diet net acid load, Pco(2) and CrCl, and positive and negative predictors, respectively, of [H]b and [HCO(3)(-)]p after adjustment for diet acid load and Pco(2). These data provide the first evidence that, in healthy humans, the diet loads of NaCl and net acid independently predict systemic acid-base status, with increasing degrees of low-grade hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis as the loads increase. Assuming a causal relationship, over their respective ranges of variation, NaCl has approximately 50-100% of the acidosis-producing effect of the diet net acid load.

  10. Stability-Indicating UPLC Method for Tramadol HCl Impurities in the Tramadol Injection after Dilution by Infusion Fluids (5% Dextrose and 0.9% Sodium Chloride).

    PubMed

    Binnor, Anil K; Mukkanti, Khagga; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Roy, Sunilendu B

    2013-01-01

    A novel, rapid, and sensitive ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) method has been developed and validated as per ICH guidelines for the determination of tramadol HCl impurities in the tramadol HCl injection after reconstitution by infusion fluids (5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride). The tramadol HCl injection is for the treatment of patients with moderate-to-severe pain. The stability of the reconstituted solution is critical before intravenous injection. The literature search resulted in few published articles on assays of tramadol in infusion fluids by conventional HPLC. No attempts have yet been made to determine the impurities in infusion fluids, as the concentration of tramadol after reconstitution is extremely low (0.4 mg/mL) and that of impurities is even lower. The proposed method is novel as it allows the quantitation of the impurities of tramadol HCl and is based on modern chromatographic techniques like UPLC. The method was developed using the Waters Acquity BEH C18 column with a mobile phase consisting of a gradient mixture of solvent A (trifluroacetic acid buffer) and solvent B (methanol: acetonitrile). The model stability study was designed by diluting the tramadol HCl injection in the 5% dextrose injection and 0.9% sodium chloride injection. Each mixture was kept under storage at room temperature (25 ± 2°C) for testing at initial, 2, 4, 8, 12, 18 & 24 hours. The validation study illustrates that the proposed method is suitable for the determination of tramadol and its impurities. The proposed method makes use of the LC-MS-compatible mobile phase. It can be useful for the determination of tramadol HCl and its impurities in plasma samples and other pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  11. In vitro pharmacologic restoration of CFTR-mediated chloride transport with sodium 4-phenylbutyrate in cystic fibrosis epithelial cells containing delta F508-CFTR.

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, R C; Egan, M E; Zeitlin, P L

    1997-01-01

    The most common cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator mutation, delta F508-CFTR, is a partially functional chloride channel that is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded. We hypothesize that a known transcriptional regulator, sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (4PBA), will enable a greater fraction of delta F508-CFTR to escape degradation and appear at the cell surface. Primary cultures of nasal polyp epithelia from CF patients (delta F508 homozygous or heterozygous), or the CF bronchial epithelial cell line IB3-1 (delta F508/W1282X) were exposed to 4PBA for up to 7 d in culture. 4PBA treatment at concentrations of 0.1 and 2 mM resulted in the restoration of forskolin-activated chloride secretion. Protein kinase A-activated, linear, 10 pS chloride channels appeared at the plasma membrane of IB3-1 cells at the tested concentration of 2.5 mM. Treatment of IB3-1 cells with 0.1-1 mM 4PBA and primary nasal epithelia with 5 mM 4PBA also resulted in the appearance of higher molecular mass forms of CFTR consistent with addition and modification of oligosaccharides in the Golgi apparatus, as detected by immunoblotting of whole cell lysates with anti-CFTR antisera. Immunocytochemistry in CF epithelial cells treated with 4PBA was consistent with increasing amounts of delta F508-CFTR. These data indicate that 4PBA is a promising pharmacologic agent for inducing correction of the CF phenotype in CF patients carrying the delta F508 mutation. PMID:9366560

  12. Effect of sodium chloride on glassy and crystalline transitions of wheat starch treated with high hydrostatic pressure: Prediction of solute-induced barostability from nonmonotonic solute-induced thermostability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat starch was high hydrostatic pressure (HHP)-treated in various sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations (0 to near-saturation), in order to explore the effects of salt on glassy and crystalline transitions of starch during the treatment, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For wheat st...

  13. Effect of sodium chloride and nitroprusside on protein carbonyl groups content and antioxidant enzyme activity in leaves of corn seedlings Zea mays L.

    PubMed

    Vasylyk, Yu V; Semchuk, N M; Lushchak, Ok V; Lushchak, V I

    2012-01-01

    The effect of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and sodium chloride (NaCl) on protein carbonyl group content and activity of antioxidant enzymes was investigated in leaves of maize seedlings. Incubation with NaCl and SNP+NaCl increased the content of carbonyl proteins after 24 h. Treatment with SNP+NaCl during 48 h showed lower and after 72 h higher carbonyl protein content than that in the control. Catalase activity was higher in the leaves of SNP+NaCl-treated than in the leaves of SNP-treated seedlings after 24 h. Ascorbate peroxidase activity increased after incubation with 0.2 mM SNP for 24 h. Significant increment of guaiacol peroxidase activity was obtained in all treated groups in comparison with the control after 72 h. Glutathione-S-transferase activity increased after 48 h seedling treatment with NaCl or SNP and 72 h seedling incubation with NaCl. Under experimental conditions used, glutathione reductase activity was virtually not affected. It is proposed that SNP can be used to prevent salt-induced oxidative stress in maize.

  14. Sodium instead of potassium and chloride is an important macronutrient to improve leaf succulence and shoot development for halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dongyang; Wang, Haiyan; Han, Bing; Wang, Bin; Guo, Anping; Zheng, Dong; Liu, Chongjing; Chang, Lili; Peng, Ming; Wang, Xuchu

    2012-02-01

    Soil salinity is contributed largely by NaCl but some halophytes such as Sesuvium portulacastrum have evolved to adapt salinity environment and demonstrate optimal development under moderate salinity. To elucidate the detail mechanisms of the great salt tolerance and determine the respective contributions of Na(+), K(+) and Cl(-) on the development of S. portulacastrum, morphological and physiological analysis were performed using plants supplied with 200 mM of different ions including cations (Na(+), K(+), Li(+)) and anions (Cl(-), NO(3)(-), Ac(-)) respectively. The results revealed that the salt-treated plants accumulated large amounts of sodium in both leaf and stem. There was a greater shoot growth in presence of external Na(+) compared to K(+) and Cl(-). Na(+) was found more effective than K(+) and Cl(-) in cell expansion, leaf succulence, and shoot development. Flame emission and X-Ray microanalysis revealed the relative Na(+) content was much higher than K(+) and Cl(-) in both leaf and stem of well developed S. portulacastrum, leading to a higher Na(+)/K(+) ratio. The effects of different ions on the development of S. portulacastrum were listed as the following: Na(+) > NO(3)(-) > CK > Cl(-) > K(+) > Ac(-) > Li(+). These results demonstrated NaCl toxicity is attributable largely to the effect of Cl(-) but rarely to Na(+), and thus sodium is concluded as a more important macronutrient than potassium and chloride for improving leaf succulence and shoot development of halophyte S. portulacastrum.

  15. Chloride in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. National Academy Press, Washington, DC: 2005. PMID: 101209392 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nlmcatalog/101209392 Mason JB. Vitamins, trace ...

  16. Dietary mercury exposure resulted in behavioral differences in mice contaminated with fish-associated methylmercury compared to methylmercury chloride added to diet.

    PubMed

    Bourdineaud, Jean-Paul; Marumoto, Masumi; Yasutake, Akira; Fujimura, Masatake

    2012-01-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a potent neurotoxin, and humans are mainly exposed to this pollutant through fish consumption. However, in classical toxicological studies, pure methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) is injected, given to drink or incorporated within feed assuming that its effects are identical to those of MeHg naturally associated to fish. In the present study, we wanted to address the question whether a diet containing MeHg associated to fish could result in observable adverse effects in mice as compared to a diet containing the same concentration of MeHg added pure to the diet and whether beneficial nutriments from fish were able to counterbalance the deleterious effects of fish-associated mercury, if any. After two months of feeding, the fish-containing diet resulted in significant observable effects as compared to the control and MeHg-containing diets, encompassing altered behavioral performances as monitored in a Y-shaped maze and an open field, and an increased dopamine metabolic turnover in hippocampus, despite the fact that the fish-containing diet was enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids and selenium compared to the fish-devoid diets.

  17. Nano spray-dried sodium chloride and its effects on the microbiological and sensory characteristics of surface-salted cheese crackers.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Marvin; Astete, Carlos; Sabliov, Cristina; Olson, Douglas; Boeneke, Charles; Aryana, Kayanush J

    2015-09-01

    Reducing particle size of salt to approximately 1.5 µm would increase its surface area, leading to increased dissolution rate in saliva and more efficient transfer of ions to taste buds, and hence, perhaps, a saltier perception of foods. This has a potential for reducing the salt level in surface-salted foods. Our objective was to develop a salt using a nano spray-drying method, to use the developed nano spray-dried salt in surface-salted cheese cracker manufacture, and to evaluate the microbiological and sensory characteristics of cheese crackers. Sodium chloride solution (3% wt/wt) was sprayed through a nano spray dryer. Particle sizes were determined by dynamic light scattering, and particle shapes were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Approximately 80% of the salt particles produced by the nano spray dryer, when drying a 3% (wt/wt) salt solution, were between 500 and 1,900 nm. Cheese cracker treatments consisted of 3 different salt sizes: regular salt with an average particle size of 1,500 µm; a commercially available Microsized 95 Extra Fine Salt (Cargill Salt, Minneapolis, MN) with an average particle size of 15 µm; and nano spray-dried salt with an average particle size of 1.5 µm, manufactured in our laboratory and 3 different salt concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2% wt/wt). A balanced incomplete block design was used to conduct consumer analysis of cheese crackers with nano spray-dried salt (1, 1.5, and 2%), Microsized salt (1, 1.5, and 2%) and regular 2% (control, as used by industry) using 476 participants at 1wk and 4mo. At 4mo, nano spray-dried salt treatments (1, 1.5, and 2%) had significantly higher preferred saltiness scores than the control (regular 2%). Also, at 4mo, nano spray-dried salt (1.5 and 2%) had significantly more just-about-right saltiness scores than control (regular 2%). Consumers' purchase intent increased by 25% for the nano spray-dried salt at 1.5% after they were notified about the 25% reduction in sodium content of the

  18. Modeling the effects of temperature, sodium chloride, and green tea and their interactions on the thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes in turkey.

    PubMed

    Juneja, Vijay K; Garcia-Dávila, Jimena; Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; Pena-Ramos, Etna Aida; Camou, Juan Pedro; Valenzuela-Melendres, Martin

    2014-10-01

    The interactive effects of heating temperature (55 to 65°C), sodium chloride (NaCl; 0 to 2%), and green tea 60% polyphenol extract (GTPE; 0 to 3%) on the heat resistance of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in ground turkey were determined. Thermal death times were quantified in bags that were submerged in a circulating water bath set at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65°C. The recovery medium was tryptic soy agar supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract and 1% sodium pyruvate. D-values were analyzed by second-order response surface regression for temperature, NaCl, and GTPE. The data indicated that all three factors interacted to affect the inactivation of the pathogen. The D-values for turkey with no NaCl or GTPE at 55, 57, 60, 63, and 65°C were 36.3, 20.8, 13.2, 4.1, and 2.9 min, respectively. Although NaCl exhibited a concentration-dependent protective effect against heat lethality on L. monocytogenes in turkey, addition of GTPE rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. GTPE levels up to 1.5% interacted with NaCl and reduced the protective effect of NaCl on heat resistance of the pathogen. Food processors can use the predictive model to design an appropriate heat treatment that would inactivate L. monocytogenes in cooked turkey products without adversely affecting the quality of the product.

  19. Contact toxicity of metals in sewage sludge: Evaluation of alternatives to sodium chloride in the Microtox[reg sign] assay

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson-Ekvall, C.E.A.; Morrison, G.M. . Dept. of Sanitary Engineering)

    1995-01-01

    The presence of chloride ions in the Microtox[reg sign] test can cause problems when testing metal toxicity, both due to extraction of metals from solid samples and formation of chloro complexes of metals in the liquid phase. To investigate alternatives to NaCl in the Microtox test, the toxicity of Cu, Cd, Pb, and Zn to Photobacterium phosphoreum was tested in 28 osmotic surrogates for NaCl. It was found that Na[sup +] must be present to keep the blank luminescence stable for 30 min. The results point to NaClO[sub 4] as the most satisfactory surrogate solution as it has an inert behavior and does not form complexes with any metal of environmental interest. Raw, digested, and reference sewage sludges were tested in the osmotic surrogates. The EC50 values for sludges were lower in solutions of NaNO[sub 3], Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4], and NaClO[sub 4], and higher in sucrose, mannitol, and KCl, compared to NaCl. NaClO[sub 4] can be recommended as an osmotic surrogate for sewage sludge testing. Another problem with the Microtox assay is the lack of pH control in the cuvette. Copper toxicity tests were carried out in Tris buffer and KH[sub 2]PO[sub 4] at two different concentrations and at pH 7 and 8. The results show that 1 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.0, can be recommended for solid samples. However, owing to formation of KClO[sub 4] a buffer containing potassium is not recommended in combination with NaClO[sub 4].

  20. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures, and ammonium chloride is recovered... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138...

  4. Rutin and quercetin show greater efficacy than nifedipin in ameliorating hemodynamic, redox, and metabolite imbalances in sodium chloride-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Olaleye, M T; Crown, O O; Akinmoladun, A C; Akindahunsi, A A

    2014-06-01

    Rutin and quercetin were investigated for their effects on blood pressure and antioxidant defense system of rats fed with 8% sodium chloride-supplemented diet (high salt diet) for 6 weeks. Animals fed with high salt diet demonstrated an increase in systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial blood pressures (p < 0.05) as well as lipid peroxidation but decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes compared with control group. Groups post-treated with rutin and quercetin for 2 weeks showed significant reversals in the values of these indices compared with the group fed with only the high salt diet but not post-treated. The high salt diet also led to significant increase in serum glucose, urea, creatinine, triglycerides, low-density-lipoprotein, and total cholesterol concentrations. Treatment with rutin and quercetin ameliorated the effects of high salt diet on these biochemical indices. The reference standard, nifedipin was less effective than rutin and quercetin. The results of this study highlight the risk of high salt consumption on cardiovascular health and the potent antioxidant and antihypertensive property of rutin and quercetin.

  5. Feasibility of using sodium chloride as a tracer for the characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment 3D bioreactors for stem cell culture.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Jörg C; Witaschek, Tom; Strobel, Catrin; Brayfield, Candace A; Bornemann, Reinhard; Catapano, Gerardo; Zeilinger, Katrin

    2010-06-01

    The experimental characterization of the distribution of matter in complex multi-compartment three-dimensional membrane bioreactors for human cell culture is complicated by tracer interactions with the membranes and other bioreactor constituents. This is due to the fact that membranes with a high specific surface area often feature a hydrophobic chemical backbone that may adsorb tracers often used to this purpose, such as proteins and dyes. Membrane selectivity, and its worsening caused by protein adsorption, may also hinder tracer transfer across neighboring compartments, thus preventing effective characterization of the distribution of matter in the whole bioreactor. Tracer experiments with sodium chloride (NaCl) may overcome some of these limitations and be effectively used to characterize the distribution of matter in complex 3D multi-compartments membrane bioreactors for stem cell culture. NaCl freely permeates most used membranes, it does not adsorb on uncharged membranes, and its concentration may be accurately measured in terms of solution conductivity. In this preliminary study, the feasibility of complex multi-compartment membrane bioreactors was investigated with a NaCl concentration pulse challenge to characterize how their distribution of matter changes when they are operated under different conditions. In particular, bioreactors consisting of three different membrane types stacked on top of one another to form a 3D network were characterized under different feed conditions.

  6. Effects of bulk colloidal stability on adsorption layers of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate at the air-water interface studied by neutron reflectometry.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Richard A; Yanez Arteta, Marianna; Angus-Smyth, Anna; Nylander, Tommy; Varga, Imre

    2011-12-29

    We show for the oppositely charged system poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)/sodium dodecyl sulfate that the cliff edge peak in its surface tension isotherm results from the comprehensive precipitation of bulk complexes into sediment, leaving a supernatant that is virtually transparent and a depleted adsorption layer at the air/water interface. The aggregation and settling processes take about 3 days to reach completion and occur at bulk compositions around charge neutrality of the complexes which lack long-term colloidal stability. We demonstrate excellent quantitative agreement between the measured surface tension values and a peak calculated from the surface excess of surfactant in the precipitation region measured by neutron reflectometry, using the approximation that there is no polymer left in the liquid phase. The nonequilibrium nature of the system is emphasized by the production of very different interfacial properties from equivalent aged samples that are handled differently. We go on to outline our perspective on the "true equilibrium" state of this intriguing system and conclude with a comment on its practical relevance given that the interfacial properties can be so readily influenced by the handling of kinetically trapped bulk aggregates.

  7. Influence of sodium chloride treatment and polysaccharides as debittering agent on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) juice.

    PubMed

    Siti Rashima, R; Maizura, M; Kang, W M; Fazilah, A; Tan, L X

    2017-01-01

    The effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) (3.5%) solution and polysaccharides, such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) (0.1, 0.3 and 0.5%) and gum arabic (5, 10 and 15%), on the physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacity and sensory characteristics of bitter gourd juice were investigated. An increase in the concentration of CMC and gum arabic significantly was observed to increase the lightness (L value) and the viscosity (mPas) of bitter gourd juice at all levels. Increased concentrations of gum arabic significantly increased the total soluble solids. The bitter gourd fruit treated with NaCl solution produced the highest lightness (L value) and scavenging activity of free radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl of bitter gourd juice. Increased concentration of gum arabic up to 15% significantly increased the total phenolic content. The addition of 5% gum arabic effectively reduced the bitterness of the bitter gourd juice. Viscosity of the juice resulted in negative correlation for bitterness.

  8. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Jessica B.; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride, NaCl, and spark generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <103; Medium, 103–104; and High, >104 particles/cm3). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared to those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 21% of those measured by reference instruments for polydisperse aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +130% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. PMID:23473056

  9. The study of the varying characteristics of cathodic regions for defective coating in 3.5% sodium chloride solution by EIS and WBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haijie; Wang, Jia; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Wei

    2015-04-01

    The current distributions over carbon steel under iron red alkyd primer exposed to 3.5% sodium chloride solution were mapped using the wire beam electrode (WBE). The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) of the WBE was carried out to analyze the performance of coating delamination and corrosion behavior of carbon steel beneath defective coating. The EIS data revealed that protective capability of coating decreased with immersion time and the degree of cathodic delamination showed a rapid rise. The current density distribution of WBE indicated that cathodic sites was located at the defect at the beginning of immersion and gradually spread into the intact coating. The cathodic regions were distinguished from the anodic area and distributed over the WBE. The changes of cathodic sites could reflect the deterioration process of defective coating. The cathodic area ratio was a more useful parameter than the cathodic delamination degree to evaluate the coating cathodic delamination. The polarity reversals of electrodes at the defect and beneath coating were observed. A simple discussion of relationship between the blister and the polarity reversal was made from a standpoint of electrochemical distribution. WBE method was able to map and record the changes of local cathodic sites beneath defective coating in real time, which could provide more detailed information about the local degradation of coating.

  10. The dye or humic acid water treatment and membrane fouling by polyaluminum chloride composited with sodium alginate in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zhang, Feng; Chu, Yongbao; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan

    2013-01-01

    Composite flocculants have been extensively studied and applied in recent years in order to improve the water treatment efficiency. In this study, a new composite flocculant prepared by polyaluminum chloride (PAC) and sodium alginate (SA) was used to treat dye and humic acid water in the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. The subsequent effects of PAC/SA on ultrafiltration membrane fouling were investigated by calculating the Modified Fouling Index (MFI). The results showed that the application of PAC/SA could not only restrict the membrane fouling but also improve the removal efficiency of the coagulation-ultrafiltration process. MFI of PAC/SA was the lowest, followed by PAC and the raw water for coagulated effluents filtered by ultrafiltration membrane. For example, MFI of PAC/SA was 0.40 s mL(-2) for reactive blue KGL (denoted as RB-KGL) treatment, while that of PAC was 2.26 s mL(-2). The removal efficiencies were improved as coagulation was used as pretreatment of ultrafiltration membrane. And PAC/SA could form the higher removal efficiency than PAC, especially for RB-KGL. The color removal efficiency of PAC/SA was 96.36% for RB-KGL treated by coagulation-ultrafiltration process, which was higher than that of PAC (85.62%).

  11. [The use of sodium chloride baths in children with a heart lesion subjected to long-term exposure to low radiation doses].

    PubMed

    Poberskaia, V A; Dement'eva, O I

    1997-01-01

    Children exposed to low-dose radiation are often treated in sanatoria with mineral baths. Of the latter balneoprocedures widely practiced are sodium chloride (SC) baths with mineralization 20-30 g/l. Mineralization 40 g/l is less frequently used. To specify changes in the function of cardiovascular system induced by SC baths of different concentration (40 versus 20 g/l) 131 senior schoolchildren exposed to low-dose radiation or other environmental pollutants were examined both after a single balneological procedure and after the course treatment (maximum 10 procedures). The baths lasted 8-15 min at water temperature 36-38 OC in a day intervals. The response was assessed by ECG, tetrapolar chest rheography, bicycle exercise. All the children had cardiovascular disorders of non-rheumatic origin. Therapeutic effect was more pronounced after baths with SC concentration 40 g/l. These baths are recommended for improvement of vegetative regulation of the heart, correction of hemodynamic defects. Baths with mineralization 20 g/l are better in upgrading function of the autonomic nervous system.

  12. Application of In-Line Mid-Infrared (MIR) Spectroscopy Coupled with Calorimetry for the Determination of the Molar Enthalpy of Reaction between Ammonium Chloride and Sodium Nitrite.

    PubMed

    Kartnaller, Vinicius; Mariano, Danielly C O; Cajaiba, João

    2016-03-01

    The reaction between ammonium chloride and sodium nitrite has been known for its application as a source of heat because of its large enthalpy of reaction, for which it has been used by the oil industry. There have been no known calorimetric studies for the experimental determination of its molar enthalpy of reaction, which is necessary in order to predict the limits achieved for up-scale applications. Attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR FT-IR) and reaction calorimetry were used to determine this value by using a simple methodology. Both techniques were used concomitantly as a source of information regarding the time-dependent moles converted (Δn) and the amount of exchanged heat (ΔH). The molar enthalpy of reaction was calculated to be -74 ± 4 kcal mol(-1). The percentage between the confidence interval and the calculated value was 5.4%, which shows that the methodology was precise. After the determination of the molar enthalpy of reaction, it was proved that the ATR FT-IR alone was able to be used as a substitute for the reaction calorimetry technique, in which the IR signal is converted to the heat information, presenting as an easier technique for the monitoring of the heat released by this system for future applications.

  13. The effect of Perasafe and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) against spores of Clostridium difficile and Bacillus atrophaeus on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride surfaces.

    PubMed

    Block, C

    2004-06-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important cause of nosocomial diarrhoea. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential for Perasafe, a recently introduced biocide, to contribute to control of C. difficile spores in the patient environment, in comparison with the chlorine-releasing agent sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). These agents were evaluated against a water control, in a surface test on stainless steel and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) floor covering, materials commonly found in the hospital environment. The organisms studied were a toxigenic clinical isolate of C. difficile, and Bacillus atrophaeus (formerly B. subtilis var niger). The data indicate that in our in vitro system, Perasafe was significantly more active than NaDCC (1000 ppm available chlorine) against C. difficile spores dried on stainless steel surfaces, and against B. atrophaeus on PVC floor covering material, achieving mean log10 reduction factors in viable counts of 6 and 5.5, respectively, at 10 min exposures. Perasafe appeared to be less lethal in 10 min exposures to C. difficile spores fixed on PVC floor covering material. In general, 1000 ppm chlorine generated from NaDCC showed lower log10 reduction factors in viable counts at 10 min, ranging from 0.7 to 1.5, than Perasafe which ranged from 2.7 to 6.0. The potential efficacy of Perasafe in reducing the density of C. difficile spores in the patient environment in hospitals, nursing homes or other long-stay facilities should be evaluated in field studies.

  14. Fabrication Of Metal Chloride Cathodes By Sintering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Di Stefano, Salvador; Bankston, C. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Transition-metal chloride cathodes for use in high-temperature rechargeable sodium batteries prepared by sintering transition-metal powders mixed with sodium chloride. Need for difficult and dangerous chlorination process eliminated. Proportions of transition metal and sodium chloride in mixture adjusted to suit specific requirements. Cathodes integral to sodium/metal-chloride batteries, which have advantages over sodium/sulfur batteries including energy densities, increased safety, reduced material and thermal-management problems, and ease of operation and assembly. Being evaluated for supplying electrical power during peak demand and electric vehicles.

  15. Volume regulation in mammalian skeletal muscle: the role of sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporters during exposure to hypertonic solutions.

    PubMed

    Lindinger, Michael I; Leung, Matthew; Trajcevski, Karin E; Hawke, Thomas J

    2011-06-01

    Controversy exists as to whether mammalian skeletal muscle is capable of volume regulation in response to changes in extracellular osmolarity despite evidence that muscle fibres have the required ion transport mechanisms to transport solute and water in situ. We addressed this issue by studying the ability of skeletal muscle to regulate volume during periods of induced hyperosmotic stress using single, mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle fibres and intact muscle (soleus and EDL). Fibres and intact muscles were loaded with the fluorophore, calcein, and the change in muscle fluorescence and width (single fibres only) used as a metric of volume change. We hypothesized that skeletal muscle exposed to increased extracellular osmolarity would elicit initial cellular shrinkage followed by a regulatory volume increase (RVI) with the RVI dependent on the sodium–potassium–chloride cotransporter (NKCC). We found that single fibres exposed to a 35% increase in extracellular osmolarity demonstrated a rapid, initial 27–32% decrease in cell volume followed by a RVI which took 10-20 min and returned cell volume to 90–110% of pre-stimulus values. Within intact muscle, exposure to increased extracellular osmolarity of varying degrees also induced a rapid, initial shrinkage followed by a gradual RVI, with a greater rate of initial cell shrinkage and a longer time for RVI to occur with increasing extracellular tonicities. Furthermore, RVI was significantly faster in slow-twitch soleus than fast-twitch EDL. Pre-treatment of muscle with bumetanide (NKCC inhibitor) or ouabain (Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor), increased the initial volume loss and impaired the RVI response to increased extracellular osmolarity indicating that the NKCC is a primary contributor to volume regulation in skeletal muscle. It is concluded that mouse skeletal muscle initially loses volume then exhibits a RVI when exposed to increases in extracellular osmolarity. The rate of RVI is dependent on the

  16. Sympathetic stimulation of thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransport in the generation of salt-sensitive hypertension.

    PubMed

    Terker, Andrew S; Yang, Chao-Ling; McCormick, James A; Meermeier, Nicholas P; Rogers, Shaunessy L; Grossmann, Solveig; Trompf, Katja; Delpire, Eric; Loffing, Johannes; Ellison, David H

    2014-07-01

    Excessive renal efferent sympathetic nerve activity contributes to hypertension in many circumstances. Although both hemodynamic and tubular effects likely participate, most evidence supports a major role for α-adrenergic receptors in mediating the direct epithelial stimulation of sodium retention. Recently, it was reported, however, that norepinephrine activates the thiazide-sensitive NaCl cotransporter (NCC) by stimulating β-adrenergic receptors. Here, we confirmed this effect and developed an acute adrenergic stimulation model to study the signaling cascade. The results show that norepinephrine increases the abundance of phosphorylated NCC rapidly (161% increase), an effect largely dependent on β-adrenergic receptors. This effect is not mediated by the activation of angiotensin II receptors. We used immunodissected mouse distal convoluted tubule to show that distal convoluted tubule cells are especially enriched for β₁-adrenergic receptors, and that the effects of adrenergic stimulation can occur ex vivo (79% increase), suggesting they are direct. Because the 2 protein kinases, STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase (encoded by STK39) and oxidative stress-response kinase 1, phosphorylate and activate NCC, we examined their roles in norepinephrine effects. Surprisingly, norepinephrine did not affect STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase abundance or its localization in the distal convoluted tubule; instead, we observed a striking activation of oxidative stress-response kinase 1. We confirmed that STE20p-related proline- and alanine-rich kinase is not required for NCC activation, using STK39 knockout mice. Together, the data provide strong support for a signaling system involving β₁-receptors in the distal convoluted tubule that activates NCC, at least in part via oxidative stress-response kinase 1. The results have implications about device- and drug-based treatment of hypertension.

  17. Effects of postexsanguination vascular infusion of cattle with a solution of saccharides, sodium chloride, and phosphates or with calcium chloride on quality and sensory traits of steaks and ground beef.

    PubMed

    Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Addist, P B; Schoenbeck, H J; Pullen, M; Katsanidis, E; Yancey, E J

    2003-01-01

    Grain-finished Hereford x Angus steers (n = 36) were assigned to one of three treatmentgroups. Immediately after jugular exsanguination, 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight via the left carotid artery with a solution developed by MPSC, Inc. (St. Paul, MN) consisting of 98.52% water, 0.97% saccharides, 0.23% sodium chloride, and 0.28% phosphate blend (MPSC); 12 steers were infused at 10% of live weight with 0.30 M CaCl2 (CaCl2); and 12 steers were exsanguinated conventionally and served as noninfused controls (CON). Declines in pH for three muscles were measured. CaCl2-infused carcasses exhibited extensive muscle contraction at the time of cooler entry. Carcasses were graded at 24 h postmortem and fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semitendinosus (ST), and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles were removed, vacuum packaged, and stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem. Then, 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut from the LL and ST for shear force and sensory evaluations. Ground beef was formulated from the QF to contain 20% fat. Steers infused with MPSC and CaCl2 had 4.0 and 2.3% higher dressing percentage points, respectively, than CON steers. Calcium concentrations of the LL muscle for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses, as well as the CON carcasses, were 892.0, 158.9, and 216.6 ppm, respectively. For the TB and longissimus thoracis muscles, pH decline was more rapid for CaCl2- and MPSC-infused carcasses than for CON carcasses, but there were no differences in 24-h pH. Warner-Bratzler shear force values were much higher (P < 0.05), and descriptive attribute sensory panel tenderness scores much lower (P < 0.05), for the LL from CaCl2-infused carcasses than for MPSC-infused and CON carcasses. Flavor intensity of the LL of CaCl2-infused carcasses was reduced (P < 0.05); however, overall tenderness and flavor of the ST were unaffected (P > 0.05) by CaCl2 infusion. Beef flavor identification, brown-roasted flavor, and bloody/serumy flavor were

  18. Growth, Water Content, and Solute Accumulation of Two Tobacco Cell Lines Cultured on Sodium Chloride, Dextran, and Polyethylene Glycol 1

    PubMed Central

    Heyser, James W.; Nabors, Murray W.

    1981-01-01

    Simulated drought tolerance was compared for an NaCl-adapted and a nonadapted cell line of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Samsum) to determine the relationship of salt and drought tolerances. The osmotic adjustment and growth of these two lines was followed when cultured on solid media which contained isosmotic concentrations of NaCl, KCl, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or dextran. One line was adapted to growth on 130 millimolar NaCl, but the other was not. The growth of NaCl-adapted and nonadapted cell lines was equally inhibited (61 per cent of control) by 130 millimolar NaCl. Growth inhibition was greater on PEG or dextran than on NaCl. Growth ceased on the second passage of dextran for the nonadapted cells, while the NaCl-adapted cells grew slowly for four passages on dextran. Water contents for both cell lines were 95 per cent on NaCl or KCl and 70 to 88 per cent on PEG 1540 or 4000 or dextran after the second passage on these media. On dextran or PEG 4000, 46 to 89 per cent of the cellular osmotic potential was produced by the solutes initially present in the medium. Similarly, on NaCl, almost 100 per cent was attributable to solutes in the medium. It was concluded that cells grown on the nonpenetrating solutes had a more negative osmotic potential than those grown in the absence of added solute due to partial dehydration, greater uptake of external ions, and possibly the production of unidentified osmotica. Adjustment to growth on penetrating solutes may have enabled the adapted line to overcome the osmotic stress produced by nonpenetrating dextran. PMID:16662125

  19. Hypertension from chronic central sodium chloride in mice is mediated by the ouabain-binding site on the Na,K-ATPase α₂-isoform.

    PubMed

    Van Huysse, James W; Dostanic, Iva; Lingrel, Jerry B; Hou, Xiaohong; Wu, Hengwei

    2011-11-01

    A chronic increase in the concentration of sodium chloride in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (↑CSF [NaCl]) appears to be critically important for the development of salt-dependent hypertension. In agreement with this concept, increasing CSF [NaCl] chronically by intracerebroventricular (icv) infusion of NaCl-rich artificial CSF (aCSF-HiNaCl) in rats produces hypertension by the same mechanisms (i.e., aldosterone-ouabain pathway in the brain) as that produced by dietary sodium in salt-sensitive strains. We first demonstrate here that icv aCSF-HiNaCl for 10 days also causes hypertension in wild-type (WT) mice. We then used both WT and gene-targeted mice to explore the mechanisms. In WT mice with a ouabain-sensitive Na,K-ATPase α(2)-isoform (α2(S/S)), mean arterial pressure rose by ~25 mmHg within 2 days of starting aCSF-HiNaCl (0.6 nmol Na/min) and remained elevated throughout the study. Ouabain (171 pmol/day icv) increased blood pressure to a similar extent. aCSF-HiNaCl or ouabain given at the same rates subcutaneously instead of intracerebroventricularly had no effect on blood pressure. The pressor response to icv aCSF-HiNaCl was abolished by an anti-ouabain antibody given intracerebroventricularly but not subcutaneously, indicating that it is mediated by an endogenous ouabain-like substance in the brain. We compared the effects of icv aCSF-HiNaCl or icv ouabain on blood pressure in α2(S/S) versus knockout/knockin mice with a ouabain-resistant endogenous α(2)-subunit (α2(R/R)). In α2(R/R), there was no pressor response to icv aCSF-HiNaCl in contrast to WT mice. The α2(R/R) genotype also lacked a pressor response to icv ouabain. These data demonstrate that chronic ↑CSF [NaCl] causes hypertension in mice and that the blood pressure response is mediated by the ouabain-like substance in the brain, specifically by its binding to the α(2)-isoform of the Na,K-ATPase.

  20. Renal Blood Flow Response to Angiotensin 1-7 versus Hypertonic Sodium Chloride 7.5% Administration after Acute Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Maryam; Nematbakhsh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) plays an important role in renal circulation. Hemorrhagic shock (HS) may cause kidney circulation disturbance, and this study was designed to investigate the renal blood flow (RBF) response to Ang1-7 after HS. Methods. 27 male Wistar rats were subjected to blood withdrawal to reduce mean arterial pressure (MAP) to 45 mmHg for 45 min. The animals were treated with saline (group 1), Ang1-7 (300 ng·kg−1 min−1), Ang1-7 in hypertonic sodium chloride 7.5% (group 3), and hypertonic solution alone (group 4). Results. MAP was increased in a time-related fashion (Ptime < 0.0001) in all groups; however, there was a tendency for the increase in MAP in response to hypertonic solution (P = 0.09). Ang1-7, hypertonic solution, or combination of both increased RBF in groups 2-4, and these were significantly different from saline group (P = 0.05); that is, Ang1-7 leads to a significant increase in RBF to 1.35 ± 0.25 mL/min compared with 0.55 ± 0.12 mL/min in saline group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Although Ang1-7 administration unlike hypertonic solution could not elevate MAP after HS, it potentially could increase RBF similar to hypertonic solution. This suggested that Ang1-7 recovers RBF after HS when therapeutic opportunities of hypertonic solution are limited. PMID:27073699

  1. Dietary salt modulates the sodium chloride cotransporter expression likely through an aldosterone-mediated WNK4-ERK1/2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lingyun; Feng, Xiuyan; Liu, Defeng; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Yiqian; Niu, Bowen; Gu, Yong; Cai, Hui

    2012-03-01

    WNK is a serine/threonine kinase. Mutation in WNK1 or WNK4 kinase results in pseudohypoaldosteronism type II (PHA II) featuring hypertension, hyperkalemia and metabolic acidosis. Sodium chloride cotransporter (NCC) is known to be regulated by phosphorylation and trafficking. Dietary salt and hormonal stimulation, such as aldosterone, also affect the regulation of NCC. We have previously reported that WNK4 inhibits NCC protein expression. To determine whether dietary salt affects NCC abundance through WNK4-mediated mechanism, we investigated the effects of dietary salt change with or without aldosterone infusion (1 mg/kg/day) on NCC and WNK4 expression in rats. We found that high-salt (HS, 4% NaCl) diet significantly inhibits NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while enhancing WNK4 mRNA and protein expression, whereas low-salt (LS, 0.07% NaCl) diet increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while reducing WNK4 expression. We also found that aldosterone infusion in HS-fed rats increases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance, but decreases WNK4 expression. Administration with spironolactone (0.1 g/kg/day) in LS-fed rats decreases NCC mRNA expression and protein abundance while increasing WNK4 expression. We further showed that ERK1/2 phosphorylation was increased in HS-fed rats, but decreased in LS-fed rats. In HEK293 cells, over-expressed WNK4 increases ERK1/2 phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of WNK4 expression decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Aldosterone treatment for 3 h decreases ERK1/2 phosphorylation. These data suggest that dietary salt change affects NCC protein abundance in an aldosterone-dependent mechanism likely via the WNK4-ERK1/2-mediated pathway.

  2. Synergistic bactericidal action of phytic acid and sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 cells protected by a biofilm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2016-06-16

    The food industry must prevent the build-up of strong Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilms in food processing environments. The present study examined the bactericidal action of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran and the hulls/peels of legumes, against E. coli O157:H7 biofilms. The synergistic bactericidal effects of PA plus sodium chloride (NaCl) were also examined. E. coli O157:H7 biofilms were allowed for form on stainless steel coupons by culture in both rich (tryptic soy broth, TSB) and minimal (M9) medium at 22°C for 6days. Bacterial cells within biofilms grown in M9 medium were significantly more resistant to PA than those grown in TSB (p<0.05); thus M9 medium was selected for further experiments. The anti-biofilm effect of PA was significantly increased by addition of NaCl (2-4%) (p<0.05); indeed, the combination of 0.4% PA plus 3-4% NaCl completely inactivated E. coli O157:H7 biofilms without recovery (a>6.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Neither PA nor NaCl alone were this effective (PA, 1.6-2.7logCFU/cm(2) reduction; NaCl, <0.5logCFU/cm(2) reduction). Confocal laser scanning microscopy images of propidium iodide-treated cells showed that PA (0.4%) plus NaCl (2-4%) had marked membrane permeabilizing effects. These results suggest that a sanitizer that combines these two naturally occurring antimicrobial agents may be useful to food safety managers who encounter thick biofilm formation in food processing environments.

  3. Influence of sodium chloride on the regulation of Krebs cycle intermediates and enzymes of respiratory chain in mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Saha, Papiya; Kunda, Pranamita; Biswas, Asok K

    2012-11-01

    The effect of common salt (NaCl) on ion contents, Krebs cycle intermediates and its regulatory enzymes was investigated in growing mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek, B 105) seedlings. Sodium and chloride ion contents increased in both root and shoot whereas potassium ion content decreased in shoot of test seedlings with increasing concentrations of NaCl. Organic acids like pyruvate and citrate levels increased whereas malate level decreased under stress in both roots and shoots. Salt stress also variedly affected the activities of different enzymes of respiratory chain. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.2.4.1) decreased in 50 mM NaCl but increased in 100 mM and 150 mM concentrations, in both root and shoot samples. Succinate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.3.5.1) activity was reduced in root whereas stimulated in shoot under increasing concentrations of salt. The activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.41) and malate dehydrogenase (E.C. 1.1.1.37) decreased in both root and shoot samples under salt stress. On the contrary, pretreatment of mungbean seeds with sublethal dose of NaCl was able to overcome the adverse effects of stress imposed by NaCl to variable extents with significant alterations of all the tested parameters, resulting in better growth and efficient respiration in mungbean seedlings. Thus, plants can acclimate to lethal level of salinity by pretreatment of seeds with sublethal level of NaCl, which serves to improve their health and production under saline condition, but the sublethal concentration of NaCl should be carefully chosen.

  4. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam Hee

    2015-01-01

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA. PMID:26637600

  5. The effect of different topical agents (silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and sodium chloride 0.9%) on burn injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Yüksel, Emir Burak; Yıldırım, Alpagan Mustafa; Bal, Ali; Kuloglu, Tuncay

    2014-01-01

    It was aimed to comparatively evaluate the effects of dressing methods with silver sulfadiazine, povidone-iodine, and saline which have a common use in routine practices for burn injuries. Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley adult female rats were used in this study. All the rats were divided into 4 groups: the control group, the povidone-iodine group, the saline group, and the silver sulfadiazine group. On each rat, a second degree burn which covered less than 10% of the body surface area was created under general anesthesia by a metal comb including four probes with 2 × 1 cm area. The control group did not have any treatment during the experiment. Povidone-iodine, saline, and silver sulfadiazine administrations were performed under ether anesthesia every day. On 0, 7th, 14th, and 21st days of the study, tissue samples were taken for histological analyses. The sections taken from the paraffin blocks were stained and avidin-biotin-peroxidase method was used for collagen immune-reactivity. In the light microscope analyses, number of inflammatory cells, vascularization, fibroblast proliferation, collagen formation and epithelialization were evaluated histologically in all groups and analysed statistically. The agents that we used for injury healing in the treatment groups did not show any significant better results in comparison with the control group. In conclusion, further studies with the use of sodium chloride, silver sulfadiazine, and povidone-iodine by creating deeper and/or larger burn injury models are needed in order to accept these agents in routine treatment.

  6. Concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for preventing the introduction of nonindigenous species in the ballast tanks of ships declaring no ballast on board.

    PubMed

    Santagata, Scott; Bacela, Karolina; Reid, David F; Mclean, Kevin A; Cohen, Jill S; Cordell, Jeffery R; Brown, Christopher W; Johengen, Thomas H; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2009-02-01

    Currently, seawater flushing is the only management strategy for reducing the number of viable organisms in residual sediments and water of ballast tanks of vessels declaring no ballast on board (NOBOB) that traffic ports of the eastern United States. Previously, we identified several species of freshwater and brackish-water peracarid crustaceans able to survive the osmotic shock that occurs during open-ocean ballast water exchange and, potentially, to disperse over long distances via ballasted ships and NOBOB vessels. We tested the efficacy of concentrated sodium chloride brine solutions as an additional treatment for eradicating the halotolerant taxa often present in the ballast tanks of NOBOB ships. The lowest brine treatments (30 ppt for 1 h) caused 100% mortality in several species of cladocerans and copepods collected from oligohaline habitats. Several brackish-water peracarid crustaceans, however, including some that can survive in freshwater as well, required higher brine concentrations and longer exposure durations (45-60 ppt for 3-24 h). The most resilient animals were widely introduced peracarid crustaceans that generally prefer mesohaline habitats but do not tolerate freshwater (required brine treatments of 60-110 ppt for 3-24 h). Brine treatments (30 ppt) also required less time to cause 100% mortality for eight taxa compared with treatments using 34 ppt seawater. Based on these experiments and published data, we present treatment strategies for the ballast tank biota often associated with NOBOB vessels entering the Great Lakes region. We estimate the lethal dosage of brine for 95% of the species in our experiments to be 110 ppt (95% confidence interval, 85-192 ppt) when the exposure time is 1 h and 60 ppt (95% confidence interval, 48-98 ppt) when the exposure duration is 6 h or longer.

  7. Sodium chloride stress induces nitric oxide accumulation in root tips and oil body surface accompanying slower oleosin degradation in sunflower seedlings.

    PubMed

    David, Anisha; Yadav, Sunita; Bhatla, Satish C

    2010-12-01

    Present work highlights the involvement of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in sodium chloride (NaCl)-induced biochemical regulation of seedling growth in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Morden). The growth response is dependent on NaCl concentration to which seedlings are exposed, they being tolerant to 40 mM NaCl and showing a reduction in extension growth at 120 mM NaCl. NaCl sensitivity of sunflower seedlings accompanies a fourfold increase in Na(+) /K(+) ratio in roots (as compared to that in cotyledons) and rapid transport of Na(+) to the cotyledons, thereby enhancing Na(+) /K(+) ratio in cotyledons as well. A transient increase in endogenous NO content, primarily contributed by putative NOS activity in roots of 4-day-old seedlings subjected to NaCl stress and the relative reduction in Na(+) /K(+) ratio after 4 days, indicates that NO regulates Na(+) accumulation, probably by affecting the associated transporter proteins. Root tips exhibit an early and transient enhanced expression of 4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) positive NO signal in the presence of 120 mM NaCl. Oil bodies from 2-day-old seedling cotyledons exhibit enhanced localization of NO signal in response to 120 mM NaCl treatment, coinciding with a greater retention of the principal oil body membrane proteins, i.e. oleosins. Abolition of DAF positive fluorescence by the application of specific NO scavenger [2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyllimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)] authenticates the presence of endogenous NO. These novel findings provide evidence for a possible protective role of NO during proteolytic degradation of oleosins prior to/accompanying lipolysis.

  8. Effects of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, and cetylpyridinium chloride on dentin hypersensitivity: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the efficacy of a mouthwash containing potassium nitrate (KNO3) as its main component, along with sodium fluoride (NaF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). The primary endpoint was the relief of dentin hypersensitivity (DH) against the cold stimuli. The effects on other DH tests and periodontal inflammation were also evaluated. Methods We used a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized design. A total of 82 patients with DH (40 in the test group, 42 placebo controls) were analyzed using visual analog scales (VASs) for a cold test, a tactile test, a compressive air test, and self-reported pain during daily activities, as well as clinical parameters including plaque index, gingival index, modified sulcular bleeding index (mSBI), gingival recession, and probing depth, which were collected at baseline and after four and six weeks of mouthwash use. Results VAS scores for cold sensations, tactile sensations, the compressive air test, and self-reported pain significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks in both groups (P<0.01), and no significant differences between the groups were found. In male patients (10 in the test group and 7 in the control group), both groups showed significant reductions in VAS scores for the cold test over the six weeks, and greater reductions were found in the test group than in the control group between four and six weeks (P=0.01) and between baseline and six weeks (P<0.01). In addition, the mSBI in the test group significantly decreased from baseline during the six weeks (P<0.01), and the changes at four and six weeks from baseline were significantly greater in the test group compared to the control group (P=0.03 and P=0.02, respectively). Conclusions A mouthwash containing a mixture of KNO3, NaF, and CPC reduced DH and gingival inflammation, however, the efficacy was comparable to the control group. PMID:26937293

  9. Comparison of the DiSCmini aerosol monitor to a handheld condensation particle counter and a scanning mobility particle sizer for submicrometer sodium chloride and metal aerosols.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jessica B; Park, Jae Hong; Peters, Thomas M

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the robust, lightweight DiSCmini (DM) aerosol monitor for its ability to measure the concentration and mean diameter of submicrometer aerosols. Tests were conducted with monodispersed and polydispersed aerosols composed of two particle types (sodium chloride [NaCl] and spark-generated metal particles, which simulate particles found in welding fume) at three different steady-state concentration ranges (Low, <10(3); Medium, 10(3)-10(4); and High, >10(4) particles/cm(3)). Particle number concentration, lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration, and mean size measured with the DM were compared with those measured with reference instruments, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and a handheld condensation particle counter (CPC). Particle number concentrations measured with the DM were within 16% of those measured by the CPC for polydispersed aerosols. Poorer agreement was observed for monodispersed aerosols (±35% for most tests and +101% for 300-nm NaCl). LDSA concentrations measured by the DM were 96% to 155% of those estimated with the SMPS. The geometric mean diameters measured with the DM were within 30% of those measured with the SMPS for monodispersed aerosols and within 25% for polydispersed aerosols (except for the case when the aerosol contained a substantial number of particles larger than 300 nm). The accuracy of the DM is reasonable for particles smaller than 300 nm, but caution should be exercised when particles larger than 300 nm are present. [Supplementary materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of the Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene for the following free supplemental resources: manufacturer-reported capabilities of instruments used, and information from the SMPS measurements for polydispersed test particles.].

  10. Combined effect of concentrations of algal food (Chlorella vulgaris) and salt (sodium chloride) on the population growth of Brachionus calyciflorus and Brachionus patulus (Rotifera).

    PubMed

    Peredo-Alvarez, Víctor M; Sarma, S S; Nandini, S

    2003-06-01

    Salinity is an important variable influencing the density and diversity of rotifers. Studies on salt tolerance of rotifers have so far concentrated on euryhaline species while very little information is available on non-euryhaline taxa. In the present work, we have evaluated the combined effects of Chlorella vulgaris and sodium chloride on the population growth of two freshwater rotifers B. calyciflorus and B. patulus. A 24 hr acute tolerance test using NaCl revealed that B. calyciflorus was more resistant (LC50 = 3.75 +/- 0.04 g l-1) than B. patulus (2.14 +/- 0.09 g l-1). The maximal population density (mean +/- standard error) for B. calyciflorus in the control at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 (algal level) was 80 +/- 5 ind. ml-1, which was nearly a fifth of the one for B. patulus (397 +/- 7 ind. ml-1) under comparable conditions. Data on population growth revealed that regardless of salt concentration, the density of B. calyciflorus increased with increasing food levels, while for B. patulus, this trend was evident only in the controls. Regardless of salt concentration and algal food level, the day of maximal population density was lower (4 +/- 0.5 days) for B. calyciflorus than for B. patulus (11 +/- 1 day). The highest rates of population increase (r values) for B. calyciflorus and B. patulus were 0.429 +/- 0.012 and 0.367 +/- 0.004, respectively, recorded at 4.5 x 10(6) cells ml-1 of Chlorella in the controls. The protective role of algae in reducing the effect of salt stress was more evident in B. calyciflorus than B. patulus.

  11. Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths.

    PubMed

    Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2013-12-10

    Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.8±33.2, 403.5±107.9, and 239.3±21.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of <195.9 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of freshwater aspiration and that of >282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.8±40.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings.

  12. Chemopreventive effects of curcumin on glandular stomach carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine and sodium chloride in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikezaki, S; Nishikawa, A; Furukawa, F; Kudo, K; Nakamura, H; Tamura, K; Mori, H

    2001-01-01

    The modifying effects of pure curcumin on glandular stomach carcinogenesis were investigated during the post-initiation phase in male Wistar rats treated with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanisine (MNNG) and sodium chloride. A total of 110 male 6-week-old rats were divided into four groups. Groups 1-3 (consisting of 30 rats/group) were given MNNG in their drinking water at a concentration of 100 ppm and simultaneously fed a diet supplemented with 5% NaCl for 8 weeks. They were then fed a diet containing either 0.2% (group 1) or 0.05% (group 2) pure curcumin or kept on a basal diet alone (group 3) for 55 weeks. The rats of the curcumin-treated groups (groups 1 and 2) were then switched to the basal diet for the following 4 weeks before sacrifice. Group 4 (20 rats) served as a non-treatment control. The total incidence of combined atypical hyperplasias and adenocarcinomas in the glandular stomachs was rather lower in groups 1 (93%) and 2 (90%) than in group 3 (100%), albeit without statistical significance. However, the mean number of atypical hyperplasias or adenocarcinomas of the glandular stomachs in group 1 (4.70) was significantly less than the value of group 3 (7.17) (p<0.05). Thus, the development of cancerous and precancerous lesions in the glandular stomach was decreased by exposure to pure curcumin. The present results indicate that the compound exerts chemopreventive effects, when given during the post-initiation phase of glandular stomach carcinogenesis in rats.

  13. Phytic Acid and Sodium Chloride Show Marked Synergistic Bactericidal Effects against Nonadapted and Acid-Adapted Escherichia coli O157:H7 Strains.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam Hee; Rhee, Min Suk

    2015-12-04

    The synergistic antimicrobial effects of phytic acid (PA), a natural extract from rice bran, plus sodium chloride against Escherichia coli O157:H7 were examined. Exposure to NaCl alone at concentrations up to 36% (wt/wt) for 5 min did not reduce bacterial populations. The bactericidal effects of PA alone were much greater than those of other organic acids (acetic, citric, lactic, and malic acids) under the same experimental conditions (P < 0.05). Combining PA and NaCl under conditions that yielded negligible effects when each was used alone led to marked synergistic effects. For example, whereas 0.4% PA or 3 or 4% NaCl alone had little or no effect on cell viability, combining the two completely inactivated both nonadapted and acid-adapted cells, reducing their numbers to unrecoverable levels (>7-log CFU/ml reduction). Flow cytometry confirmed that PA disrupted the cell membrane to a greater extent than did other organic acids, although the cells remained viable. The combination of PA and NaCl induced complete disintegration of the cell membrane. By comparison, none of the other organic acids acted synergistically with NaCl, and neither did NaCl-HCl solutions at the same pH values as the test solutions of PA plus NaCl. These results suggest that PA has great potential as an effective bacterial membrane-permeabilizing agent, and we show that the combination is a promising alternative to conventional chemical disinfectants. These findings provide new insight into the utility of natural compounds as novel antimicrobial agents and increase our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the antibacterial activity of PA.

  14. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  15. Sodium Chloride Toxicity in Dogs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    arterial hypertension and atherosclerosis in man. Twenty-three beagles from unrelated AKC registered litters, whelped May 1965, had carotid loop procedures October 1965, base-line physiologic measurements until February 1966, when 1 male and 1 female from each litter were randomly assigned to rations containing 1.5%, 6%, and 12% NaCl. At a farm, daily maintenance and primary care were given. Monthly veterinary inspection, blood pressure measurements, weighting, quarterly urine and blood collections, and semi-annual ECGs in medical school laboratories were monitored.

  16. A Quick Reference on Chloride.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Andrea A; de Morais, Helio Autran

    2017-03-01

    Chloride is an essential element, playing important roles in digestion, muscular activity, regulation of body fluids, and acid-base balance. As the most abundant anion in extracellular fluid, chloride plays a major role in maintaining electroneutrality. Chloride is intrinsically linked to sodium in maintaining osmolality and fluid balance and has an inverse relationship with bicarbonate in maintaining acid-base balance. It is likely because of these close ties that chloride does not get the individual attention it deserves; we can use these facts to simplify and interpret changes in serum chloride concentrations.

  17. Giant extracellular Glossoscolex paulistus Hemoglobin (HbGp) upon interaction with cethyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) surfactants: Dissociation of oligomeric structure and autoxidation.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Patricia S; Moreira, Leonardo M; de Almeida, Erika V; Tabak, Marcel

    2007-04-01

    The effects of two ionic surfactants on the oligomeric structure of the giant extracellular hemoglobin of Glossoscolex paulistus (HbGp) in the oxy - form have been studied through the use of several spectroscopic techniques such as electronic optical absorption, fluorescence emission, light scattering, and circular dichroism. The use of anionic sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cationic cethyltrimethyl ammonium chloride (CTAC) has allowed to differentiate the effects of opposite headgroup charges on the oligomeric structure dissociation and hemoglobin autoxidation. At pH 7.0, both surfactants induce the protein dissociation and a significant oxidation. Spectral changes occur at very low CTAC concentrations suggesting a significant electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interaction. At low protein concentration, 0.08 mg/ml, some light scattering within a narrow CTAC concentration range occurs due to protein-surfactant precipitation. Light scattering experiments showed the dissociation of the oligomeric structure by SDS and CTAC, and the effect of precipitation induced by CTAC. At higher protein concentrations, 3.0 mg/ml, a precipitation was observed due to the intense charge neutralization upon formation of ion pair in the protein-surfactant precipitate. The spectral changes are spread over a much wider SDS concentration range, implying a smaller electrostatic contribution to the protein-surfactant interactions. The observed effects are consistent with the acid isoelectric point (pI) of this class of hemoglobins, which favors the intense interaction of HbGp with the cationic surfactant due to the existence of excess acid anionic residues at the protein surface. Protein secondary structure changes are significant for CTAC at low concentrations while they occur at significantly higher concentrations for SDS. In summary, the cationic surfactant seems to interact more strongly with the protein producing more dramatic spectral changes as compared to the

  18. Antimicrobial Efficacy of a Sulfuric Acid and Sodium Sulfate Blend, Peroxyacetic Acid, and Cetylpyridinium Chloride against Salmonella on Inoculated Chicken Wings.

    PubMed

    Scott, Brittney R; Yang, Xiang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Delmore, Robert J; Woerner, Dale R; Reagan, James O; Morgan, J Brad; Belk, Keith E

    2015-11-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a commercial blend of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfate (SSS) in reducing Salmonella on inoculated whole chilled chicken wings and to compare its efficacy to peroxyacetic acid (PAA) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC). Wings were spot inoculated (5 to 6 log CFU/ml of sample rinsate) with a five-strain mixture of novobiocin- and nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella and then left untreated (control) or treated by immersing individual wings in 350 ml of antimicrobial solution. An initial study evaluated two treatment immersion times, 10 and 20 s, of SSS (pH 1.1) and compared cell recoveries following rinsing of treated samples with buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth. In a second study, inoculated wings were treated with SSS (pH 1.1; 20 s), PAA (700 ppm, 20 s), or CPC (4,000 ppm, 10 s) and analyzed for survivors immediately after treatment (0 h) and after 24 h of aerobic storage at 4°C. Color and pH analyses were also conducted in the latter study. Recovery of Salmonella survivors following treatment with SSS (10 or 20 s) was not (P ≥ 0.05) affected by the type of cell recovery rinse solution (buffered peptone water or Dey/Engley neutralizing broth), but there was an effect (P < 0.05) of SSS treatment time. Immersion of samples for 10 or 20 s in SSS resulted in pathogen reductions of 0.8 to 0.9 and 1.1 to 1.2 log CFU/ml, respectively. Results of the second study showed that there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between antimicrobial type and storage time. Efficacy against Salmonella at 0 h increased in the order CPC , SSS , PAA; however, after 24 h of aerobic storage, pathogen counts of SSS- and PAA-treated wings did not differ (P ≥ 0.05). Overall, the results indicated that SSS applied at pH 1.1 for 20 s was an effective antimicrobial intervention to reduce Salmonella contamination on chicken wings.

  19. Modulatory effect of naringenin on N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine- and saturated sodium chloride-induced gastric carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ganapathy, Ekambaram; Peramaiyan, Rajendran; Rajasekaran, Devaraja; Venkataraman, Magesh; Dhanapal, Sakthisekaran

    2008-10-01

    Naringenin is a flavanone that is believed to have many biological actions, including as an anti-oxidant, free radical scavenger and an antiproliferative agent. The global incidence of gastric carcinoma is increasing rapidly, more than for any other cancer. Therefore, in the present study, we tested the effects of naringenin on gastric carcinogenesis induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and saturated sodium chloride (S-NaCl) in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups and treated over a period of 20 weeks as follows: (i) a control group given corn oil (1 mL/rat, p.o.) daily 20 weeks; (ii) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14 with S-NaCl (1 mL/rat) administered twice a week for the first 3 weeks; (iii) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14, with naringenin (200 mg/kg, p.o., daily) treatment for the entire 20 weeks; (iv) 200 mg/kg, p.o., MNNG on Days 0 and 14, with naringenin treatment (200 mg/kg, p.o., daily) initiated from 6 to 20 weeks; (v) 200 mg/kg, p.o., naringenin alone daily for 20 weeks. In Group II rats in which gastric cancer was inducted with MNNG and S-NaCl, there was a significant increase in hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels, with decreases in reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase. In addition, in Group II rats with gastric cancer, there were significant increases in the activity of cytochrome P450, cytochrome b(5) and NADPH cytochrome c reductase, with concomitant decreases in the activity of the phase II enzymes glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase. Naringenin treatment (Groups III and IV) restored enzyme activity to near control levels. These results indicate that naringenin has a chemopreventive action against MNNG-induced gastric carcinoma in experimental rats.

  20. Comparison of analytical methods to determine sodium content of low-sodium foods.

    PubMed

    Ehling, Stefan; Tefera, Sebhat; Earl, Robert; Cole, Shannon

    2010-01-01

    U.S. nutrition labeling regulations require the declaration of sodium content on food products. Accurate and reproducible determination of Na in foods with low Na content (< 140 mg/serving) is challenging because of laboratory contamination. Within-laboratory performance of inductively coupled plasma/MS (ICP/MS), flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (FAAS), ion-selective electrode (ISE), and potentiometric titration of chloride ion were evaluated in 17 low-sodium foods. For 13 types of food, statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) exist between the within-day andlor interday means obtained by ICP/MS, FAAS, and ISE. Median within-day and interday precent RSD values were 2.7 and 6.1, 3.5 and 3.2, and 5.6 and 6.2%, respectively, by ICP/MS, FAAS, and ISE. The fewest matrix effects were found with ICP/MS, followed by FAAS, and ISE. FAAS gave higher results in a variety of matrixes when compared to ICP/MS and/or ISE. ISE did not perform well in fatty foods or at very low Na concentrations. Manufacturers' Nutrition Facts Panel sodium declarations exceeded levels found by analysis in > 70% of the foods. Analysis of chloride content does not produce reliable Na estimates in low-sodium foods, even when added sodium chloride is present. Methodological issues and contamination sources are discussed.

  1. Facile one-pot synthesis of 4,5-disubstituted 1,2,3-(NH)-triazoles through Sonogashira coupling/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of acid chlorides, terminal acetylenes, and sodium azide.

    PubMed

    Li, Jihui; Wang, Dong; Zhang, Yuanqing; Li, Jiting; Chen, Baohua

    2009-07-16

    A novel and efficient way of synthesizing 4,5-disubstituted-1,2,3-(NH)-triazoles through palladium-catalyzed and ultrasonic promoted Sonogashira coupling/1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of acid chlorides, terminal acetylenes, and sodium azide in one pot is developed. The reaction scope is quite general, and the methodology can produce excellent yields. The regioselective 1,4,5-trisubstituted-1,2,3-(NH)-triazoles can be made easily from 4,5-disubstituted-1,2,3-(NH)-triazoles.

  2. Nine out of 10 food advertisements shown during Saturday morning children's television programming are for foods high in fat, sodium, or added sugars, or low in nutrients.

    PubMed

    Batada, Ameena; Seitz, Maia Dock; Wootan, Margo G; Story, Mary

    2008-04-01

    A 2005 review by the Institute of Medicine of the National Academies concluded that food marketing influences children's food preferences, consumption, and health. Given the powerful influence of marketing on children's diets, this cross-sectional study examined the types of foods, the nutritional quality of those foods, and the marketing techniques and messages used in food advertising during Saturday morning children's television programming. During 27.5 hours of programming in May 2005, 49% of advertisements shown were for food (281 food advertisements out of 572 total advertisements). The most commonly advertised food categories were ready-to-eat breakfast cereal and cereal bars (27% of all food advertisements), restaurants (19% of food advertisements), and snack foods (18% of food advertisements). Ninety-one percent of food advertisements were for foods or beverages high in fat, sodium, or added sugars or were low in nutrients. Cartoon characters were used in 74% of food advertisements, and toy or other giveaways were used in 26% of food advertisements. About half of food advertisements contained health/nutrition or physical activity messages and 86% of food advertisements contained emotional appeals. This study provides food and nutrition professionals with information about the amount and types of food children are encouraged to eat during Saturday morning television programming. The findings can help food and nutrition professionals counsel children about healthful eating and/or develop programs or policies to balance those advertisements with healthful eating messages.

  3. Determination of Chloride in Hydraulic Fluids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-10-01

    chloride stock solution (1000 mg/L) was prepared by dissolv- ing sodium chloride in deionized distilled water. A 5M sodium nitrate solu- tion was used as...electrode as the reference electrode. Calibration curves were prepared by measuring the potentials (millivolts) of standard chloride solution (1, 10, 100...Therefore, it is recommended that only 10% (v/v) hydraulic fluid ( ehtylene glycol) solutions be used for analysis. The electrode must not stay in the

  4. Determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury in mercury ores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fahey, J.J.

    1937-01-01

    A method for the determination of mercurous chloride and total mercury on the same sample is described. The mercury minerals are volatilized in a glass tube and brought into intimate contact with granulated sodium carbonate. The chlorine is fixed as sodium chloride, determined with silver nitrate, and computed to mercurous chloride. The mercury is collected on a previously weighed gold coil and weighed.

  5. Increased dietary sodium chloride concentrations reduce endogenous amino acid flow and influence the physiological response to the ingestion of phytic acid by broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Cowieson, A J; Bedford, M R; Ravindran, V; Selle, P H

    2011-10-01

    A total of 240 Ross 308 broilers were used to investigate the effect of sodium (1·5 or 2·5 g/kg), phytate-P (0 or 3·2 g/kg), and phytase (0 or 1000 FTU/kg; 2x2x2 factorial) on endogenous amino acid flow using the enzyme-hydrolysed casein method. The ingestion of phytate increased endogenous amino acid flow (∼30%) compared with the phytate-free control diets. Phytase reduced endogenous amino acid flow only when fed in concert with phytate, resulting in a significant phytate x phytase interaction. Increasing dietary sodium concentration from 1·5 to 2·5 g/kg reduced endogenous amino acid flow by around 10%. This reduction of endogenous flow was particularly evident in diets which contained phytate, resulting in a significant sodium x phytate interaction for several amino acids, including Thr and Ser. Further, high sodium concentrations muted the effect of phytase resulting in a significant sodium x phytase interaction for some amino acids. The concentration of Asp, Thr, Ser and some other amino acids was increased in the endogenous protein in response to the ingestion of phytate. Both sodium and phytase essentially restored the composition of endogenous protein to that of the phytate-free control. Further, as both sodium and phytase had similar effects there were significant interactions between sodium and phytase for most amino acids, such that one was only effective in the absence of the other. These data confirm previous reports that phytate is a nutritional aggressor, causing quantitative and qualitative changes in endogenous protein flow. However, this is the first report which has shown that dietary sodium concentrations play a role in the severity of this antinutritional effect and consequently may blunt the efficacy of exogenous phytase. The mechanism is obscure, though it has been previously demonstrated that sodium can disrupt phytate:protein complexes, thus mitigating one of the mechanisms by which phytate exerts its antinutritional effect.

  6. Calcium Chloride in Neonatal Parenteral Nutrition: Compatibility Studies Using Laser Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Huston, Robert K.; Christensen, J. Mark; Karnpracha, Chanida; Rosa, Jill E.; Clark, Sara M.; Migaki, Evelyn A.; Wu, YingXing

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We have previously reported results of precipitation studies for neonatal parenteral nutrition solutions containing calcium chloride and sodium phosphate using visual methods to determine compatibility. The purpose of this study was to do further testing of compatibility for solutions containing calcium chloride using more sensitive methods. Methods Solutions of Trophamine (Braun Medical Inc, Irvine, CA) and Premasol (Baxter Pharmaceuticals, Deerfield, IL) were compounded with calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. Controls contained no calcium or phosphate. After incubation at 37° for 24 hours solutions without visual precipitation were analyzed to determine mean particle size using dynamic light scattering from a laser light source. Results Particle sizes were similar for control solutions and those without visual precipitation and a mean particle size <1000 nm. Compatible solutions were defined as those with added calcium and phosphate with no visual evidence of precipitation and mean particle size <1000 nm. In solutions containing 2.5–3% amino acids and 10 mmol/L of calcium chloride the maximum amount of potassium phosphate that was compatible was 7.5 mmol/L. Conclusion Maximum amounts of phosphate that could be added to parenteral nutrition solutions containing Trophamine and calcium chloride were about 7.5–10 mmol/L less for a given concentration of calcium based upon laser methodology compared to visual techniques to determine compatibility. There were minor differences in compatibility when adding calcium chloride and potassium phosphate to Premasol versus Trophamine. PMID:25192060

  7. Cyanuric chloride/sodium borohydride: a new reagent combination for reductive opening of 4,6-benzylidene acetals of carbohydrates to primary alcohols.

    PubMed

    Tatina, Madhubabu; Yousuf, Syed Khalid; Aravinda, Subrayashastry; Singh, Baldev; Mukherjee, Debaraj

    2013-11-15

    In the first such example, NaBH4 in combination with cyanuric chloride (TCT) has been used to obtain 6-hydroxy-4-benzyl ether derivatives from 4,6-benzylidene acetals of carbohydrates. The nature of hydride donor determines the regioselectivity of acetal opening. High regioselectivity, scope for using a broad range of substrates, functional group tolerance, mild reaction conditions, easy handling process, inexpensive reagents and wide application mark the benefits of the newly developed reagent system.

  8. Interaction between dietary content of protein and sodium chloride on milk urea concentration, urinary urea excretion, renal recycling of urea, and urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Spek, J W; Bannink, A; Gort, G; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2013-09-01

    Dietary protein and salt affect the concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and the relationship between MUN and excretion of urea nitrogen in urine (UUN; g of N/d) of dairy cattle. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of dietary protein and sodium chloride (NaCl) intake separately, and their interaction, on MUN and UUN, on the relationship between UUN and MUN, on renal recycling of urea, and on urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract. Twelve second-parity cows (body weight of 645±37 kg, 146±29 d in milk, and a milk production of 34.0±3.28 kg/d), of which 8 were previously fitted with a rumen cannula, were fitted with catheters in the urine bladder and jugular vein. The experiment had a split-plot arrangement with dietary crude protein (CP) content as the main plot factor [116 and 154 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)] and dietary NaCl content as the subplot factor (3.1 and 13.5 g of Na/kg of DM). Cows were fed at 95% of the average ad libitum feed intake of cows receiving the low protein diets. Average MUN and UUN were, respectively, 3.90 mg of N/dL and 45 g of N/d higher for the high protein diets compared with the low protein diets. Compared with the low NaCl diets, MUN was, on average, 1.74 mg of N/dL lower for the high NaCl diets, whereas UUN was unaffected. We found no interaction between dietary content of protein and NaCl on performance characteristics or on MUN, UUN, urine production, and renal clearance characteristics. The creatinine clearance rate was not affected by dietary content of protein and NaCl. Urea transfer to the gastrointestinal tract, expressed as a fraction of plasma urea entry rate, was negatively related to dietary protein, whereas it was not affected by dietary NaCl content. We found no interaction between dietary protein and NaCl content on plasma urea entry rate and gastrointestinal urea entry rate or their ratio. The relationship between MUN and UUN was significantly affected by the class variable

  9. Dilution method study on the interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural parameters of W/O microemulsions stabilized by 1-pentanol and surfactants in absence and presence of sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Paul, Bidyut K; Nandy, Debdurlav

    2007-12-15

    The phase behaviors, interfacial composition, thermodynamic properties and structural characteristics of water-in-oil microemulsions under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant (omega) at 303 K and also by varying temperatures at a fixed omega(=40) by mixing with 1-pentanol and decane or dodecane in absence and presence of sodium chloride have been studied by the method of dilution. The surfactants used were cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and polyoxyethylene (23) lauryl ether (Brij-35). The compositions of 1-pentanol and the surfactant at the interfacial region, the distribution of 1-pentanol between the interfacial region and the continuous oil phase, and the effective packing parameter (P(eff)) at the threshold level of stability have been estimated. The thermodynamics of transfer of 1-pentanol from the continuous oil phase to the interface have been evaluated. The structural parameters viz. radii of the droplet (R(e)) and the waterpool (R(w)), effective thickness of the interfacial layer (d(I)), average aggregation numbers of surfactants (N (s)) and the cosurfactant (1-pentanol) (N (a)) and the number of droplets (N(d)) have also been estimated. The prospect of using these w/o microemulsions for the synthesis of nanoparticles with small size, have been discussed in the light of the radii of the droplet, and waterpool, the extent of variation of effective thickness of the droplet under varied molar ratio of water to surfactant and temperature. An attempt has been made to rationalize the results in a comprehensive manner.

  10. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  11. Chloridization and Reduction Roasting of High-Magnesium Low-Nickel Oxide Ore Followed by Magnetic Separation to Enrich Ferronickel Concentrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-02-01

    The chloridization and reduction roasting of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore containing 0.82 pct Ni and 31.49 pct MgO were investigated in this study. Mineralogical investigation indicated that 84.6 pct of nickel was associated with silicates, and nickel was well distributed in mineral in the form of isomorphism. A series of chloridization tests with different added proportions of sodium chloride and coal along with different roasting temperatures and times was conducted. The results indicate that for a ferronickel content of 7.09 pct Ni, a nickel recovery of 98.31 pct could be obtained by chloridizing the laterite ore at 1473 K (1200 °C) for 20 minutes with the addition of 10 wt pct sodium chloride and 8 wt pct coal followed by the application of a 150-mT magnetic field. X-ray diffraction indicated that the nickel is mainly present in the form of ferronickel, which can also be detected by SEM-EDS. Compared with the roasted ore with no added chlorinating agent, the ore roasted in the presence of sodium chloride exhibited enhanced ferronickel particle growth.

  12. Comparison of short-term chronic and chronic silver toxicity to fathead minnows in unamended and sodium chloride-amended waters.

    PubMed

    Naddy, Rami B; Rehner, Anita B; McNerney, Gina R; Gorsuch, Joseph W; Kramer, James R; Wood, Chris M; Paquin, Paul R; Stubblefield, William A

    2007-09-01

    The chronic (early life stage [ELS]) and short-term chronic (STC) toxicity of silver (as silver nitrate) to fathead minnows (FHM) was determined concurrently in flow-through exposures (33 volume additions/d). Paired ELS (approximately 30 d) and STC (7 d) studies were conducted with and without the addition of 60 mg/L Cl (as NaCl). The paired studies in unamended water were later repeated using standard flow conditions (9 volume additions/d). The purpose of the paired studies was to determine if short-term chronic endpoints can be used to predict effects in ELS studies. For each experiment, a "split-chamber" design (organisms were held in a common exposure chamber) allowed the direct comparison between short-term and chronic exposures. It appeared that the chronic toxicity of silver was mitigated to some extent by NaCl addition. The maximum acceptable toxicant concentration for growth in the ELS study was 0.53 microg dissolved Ag/L under standard flow conditions. Early life stage and STC endpoints in all three studies typically agreed within a factor of two. Whole-body sodium and silver concentrations measured in individual fathead minnows during these studies showed an increase in silver body burdens and a decrease in sodium concentration. These results indicate that the STC study could be used as a surrogate test to estimate chronic toxicity and that the mechanism of chronic silver toxicity may be the same as for acute toxicity.

  13. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    PubMed Central

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina; Norliana, Sarian; Yibadatihan, Simayi; Abdul-Kadir, Razak

    2016-01-01

    Background Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0–1.2%) and MSG (0–1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG. PMID:27356909

  14. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  15. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  16. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  17. 43 CFR 3511.11 - If I am mining calcium chloride, may I obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... obtain a noncompetitive mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? 3511.11 Section 3511.11... mineral lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride? Yes. If you are producing calcium chloride in... lease to produce the commingled sodium chloride. You must already have authorization, under part 3800...

  18. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V.; Distefano, Salvador; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Bankston, Clyde P.

    1990-07-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  19. Copper chloride cathode for a secondary battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bugga, Ratnakumar V. (Inventor); Distefano, Salvador (Inventor); Nagasubramanian, Ganesan (Inventor); Bankston, Clyde P. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    Higher energy and power densities are achieved in a secondary battery based on molten sodium and a solid, ceramic separator such as a beta alumina and a molten catholyte such as sodium tetrachloroaluminate and a copper chloride cathode. The higher cell voltage of copper chloride provides higher energy densities and the higher power density results from increased conductivity resulting from formation of copper as discharge proceeds.

  20. Chloride Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the imbalance. In persons with too much base, urine chloride measurements can tell the healthcare practitioner whether the cause ... healthcare practitioner will look at whether the chloride measurement changes ... an acid-base imbalance and helps to guide treatment. ^ Back to ...

  1. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4–19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003–2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (−32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (−16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (−0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (−166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children’s diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures. PMID:27983573

  2. Trends in Consumption of Solid Fats, Added Sugars, Sodium, Sugar-Sweetened Beverages, and Fruit from Fast Food Restaurants and by Fast Food Restaurant Type among US Children, 2003-2010.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-12-13

    Energy intakes from fast food restaurants (FFRs) have declined among US children. Less is known about the corresponding trends for FFR-sourced solid fats, added sugars, and sodium, and food groups of interest, such as fruit and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). Using data from a single 24-h dietary recall among 12,378 children aged 4-19 years from four consecutive cycles of the nationally-representative National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-2010 a custom algorithm segmented FFRs into burger, pizza, sandwich, Mexican cuisine, chicken, Asian cuisine, fish restaurants, and coffee shops. There was a significant population-wide decline in FFR-sourced solid fats (-32 kcal/day, p-trend < 0.001), added sugars (-16 kcal/day; p-trend < 0.001), SSBs (-0.12 servings (12 fluid ounces or 355 mL)/day; p-trend < 0.001), and sodium (-166 mg/day; p-trend < 0.001). Declines were observed when restricted to fast food consumers alone. Sharp declines were observed for pizza restaurants; added sugars, solid fats, and SSBs declined significantly from burger restaurants. Fruit did not change for fast food restaurants overall. Temporal analyses of fast food consumption trends by restaurant type allow for more precise monitoring of the quality of children's diets than can be obtained from analyses of menu offerings. Such analyses can inform public health interventions and policy measures.

  3. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    PubMed

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments.

  4. Modelling the effect of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and sodium chloride on the kinetic responses of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in table olive storage using a specifically implemented Quasi-chemical primary model.

    PubMed

    Echevarria, R; Bautista-Gallego, J; Arroyo-López, F N; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2010-04-15

    The goal of this work was to apply the Quasi-chemical primary model (a system of four ordinary differential equations that derives from a hypothetical four-step chemical mechanism involving an antagonistic metabolite) in the study of the evolution of yeast and lactic acid bacteria populations during the storage of Manzanilla-Aloreña table olives subjected to different mixtures of ascorbic acid, sodium metabisulphite and NaCl. Firstly, the Quasi-chemical model was applied to microbial count data to estimate the growth-decay biological parameters. The model accurately described the evolution of both populations during storage, providing detailed information on the microbial behaviour. Secondly, these parameters were used as responses and analysed according to a mixture design experiment (secondary model). The contour lines of the corresponding response surfaces clearly disclosed the relationships between growth and environmental conditions, showing the stimulating and inhibitory effect of ascorbic acid and sodium metabisulphite, respectively, on both populations of microorganisms. This work opens new possibilities for the potential use of the Quasi-chemical primary model in the study of table olive fermentations.

  5. Fabrication and icing property of superhydrophilic and superhydrophobic aluminum surfaces derived from anodizing aluminum foil in a sodium chloride aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Meirong; Liu, Yuru; Cui, Shumin; Liu, Long; Yang, Min

    2013-10-01

    An aluminum foil with a rough surface was first prepared by anodic treatment in a neutral aqueous solution with the help of pitting corrosion of chlorides. First, the hydrophobic Al surface (contact angle around 79°) became superhydrophilic (contact angle smaller than 5°) after the anodizing process. Secondly, the superhydrophilic Al surface became superhydrophobic (contact angle larger than 150°) after being modified by oleic acid. Finally, the icing property of superhydrophilic, untreated, and superhydrophobic Al foils were investigated in a refrigerated cabinet at -12 °C. The mean total times to freeze a water droplet (6 μL) on the three foils were 17 s, 158 s and 1604 s, respectively. Thus, the superhydrophilic surface accelerates the icing process, while the superhydrophobic surface delays the process. The main reason for this transition might mainly result from the difference of the contact area of the water droplet with Al substrate: the increase in contact area with Al substrate will accelerate the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process; the decrease in contact area with Al substrate will delay the heat conduct process, as well as the icing process. Compared to the untreated Al foil, the contact area of the water droplet with the Al substrate was higher on superhydrophilic surface and smaller on the superhydrophobic surface, which led to the difference of the heat transfer time as well as the icing time.

  6. Effect of dietary selenium and vitamin E on the ultrastructure and ATP concentration of boar spermatozoa, and the efficacy of added sodium selenite in extended semen on sperm motility.

    PubMed

    Marin-Guzman, J; Mahan, D C; Whitmoyer, R

    2000-06-01

    Three experiments evaluated the effects of dietary Se and vitamin E on the ultrastructure of spermatozoa, ATP concentration of spermatozoa, and the effects of adding sodium selenite to semen extenders on subsequent sperm motility. The experiment was a 2 x 2 arrangement of treatments in a randomized complete block design. A total of 10 mature boars were fed from weaning to 18 mo of age diets fortified with two levels of supplemental Se (0 or .5 ppm) or vitamin E (0 or 220 IU/kg diet). The nonfortified diets contained .06 ppm Se and 4.4 IU vitamin E/kg. In Exp. 1, the spermatozoa from all boars were examined by electron microscopy. Vitamin E had no effect on structural abnormalities in the spermatozoa. When the low-Se diet was fed the acrosome or nuclei of the spermatozoa was unaffected, but the mitochondria in the tail midpiece were more oval with wider gaps between organelles. The plasma membrane connection to the tail midpiece was not tightly bound as when boars were fed Se. Immature spermatozoa with cytoplasmic droplets were more numerous when boars were fed the low-Se diet, but the occurrence of midpiece abnormalities occurred in boars fed diets with or without Se or vitamin E. Our results suggest that Se may enhance spermatozoa maturation in the epididymis and may reduce the number of sperm with cytoplasmic droplets. In Exp. 2, the concentration of ATP in the spermatozoa was evaluated in the semen of all treatment boars. When the low-Se diet was fed, ATP concentration was lower (P < .01), whereas vitamin E had no effect on ATP concentration. Experiment 3 investigated the effect of diluting boar semen with a semen extender with sodium selenite added at 0, .3, .6, or .9 ppm Se. Three ejaculates from each boar were used to evaluate these effects on sperm motility to 48 h after dilution. Sperm motility declined (P < .01) when Se was added to the extender, and this decline was exacerbated as the concentration of added Se increased (P < .01). The added Se was

  7. The effect of the electrochemical chloride extraction treatment on steel-reinforced mortar. Part II: Microstructural characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Marcotte, T.D.; Hansson, C.M.; Hope, B.B.

    1999-10-01

    A study has been made of the changes in cement composition and microstructures resulting from electrochemical chloride extraction applied to mortar samples in which the chlorides were added with the mixing water, ingressed by ponding with an NaCl solution, or both. After exposure for 1 year, specimens with and without chlorides were subjected to an electrochemical chloride extraction treatment. Microstructural analyses of fracture surfaces through the steel/mortar interface revealed a significant alteration of the cementitious phases. In untreated samples, calcium-silicon-rich phases consistent with Types I and II calcium silicate hydrate were observed. After the extraction treatment, these phases were not detectable and instead, sodium-rich, iron-rich, and calcium-aluminum-rich phases were observed.

  8. Sensory characterisation and consumer acceptability of potassium chloride and sunflower oil addition in small-caliber non-acid fermented sausages with a reduced content of sodium chloride and fat.

    PubMed

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors; Serra, Xavier; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint

    2016-02-01

    The effect of the simultaneous reduction of fat proportion (from 20% to 10% and 7%) and added salt (from 2.5% to 1.5%) and the subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl and sunflower oil (1.5% and 3.0%) on the physicochemical, instrumental colour and texture, sensory properties and consumer acceptability of small caliber non-acid fermented sausages (fuet type) was studied. This simultaneous reduction of fat and salt increased weight loss, moisture, water activity (aw), redness, instrumental texture parameters (hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness), sensory attributes (darkness, hardness, elasticity) and the consumer acceptability. The subsequent addition of 0.64% KCl to the leanest batch decreased the aw and barely affected instrumental texture parameters and consumer acceptability. Subsequent sunflower oil addition decreased hardness, chewiness and cohesiveness and increased crumbliness and oil flavour which may decrease the consumer acceptability. The simultaneous reduction of fat and NaCl with the addition of 0.64% KCl was the preferred option by the consumers.

  9. Manufacturing artificial aggregates from industrial sludge and marine clay with addition of sodium salt.

    PubMed

    Tay, J H; Hong, S Y; Show, K Y; Chien, C Y; Lee, D J

    2003-01-01

    The potential of converting industrial sludge and dredged marine clay into building and construction materials as an alternative to disposal was investigated in this study. The industrial sludge was mixed with marine clay at various compositions and was shaped into round pellets to be used as concrete aggregates. The pellets were then dried and transferred into a high temperature kiln where they were heated at 1,135 degrees C. The artificial aggregates were more porous then the normal granite aggregate. The occurrence of this condition was suspected to be attributed to two factors, viz. the firing temperature and the amount of sodium in the aggregates. To validate this hypothesis, the aggregates with and without added sodium chloride were fired at temperatures of 1,100 and 1, 200 degrees C. Results showed a reduction in the densities of the aggregates with the addition of sodium chloride and the increase in firing temperature.

  10. Enhancement by sodium chloride of the selectivity of thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose agar for isolating Vibrio cholerae biotype El Tor.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, G K; DeWitt, W E; Gangarosa, E J; McCormack, W M

    1976-01-01

    In this study we utilized the salt-tolerant characteristics of vibrios to develop a more selective medium by addition of NaCl to thiosulfate citrate bile salts sucrose (TCBS) agar. The effect of adding salt to TCBS agar varied greatly among brands of TCBS agar and between lots of the same brand. The addition of salt at concentrations as high as 1.5% (2.5% total NaCl) caused the inhibition of growth of three species of commonly encountered normal bowel flora and one strain of classical Vibrio cholerae but did not compromise the use of TCBS agar for isolation of V. cholerae biotype El Tor. PMID:965476

  11. Optimization of Low Sodium Salts Mix for Shoestring Potatoes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Heverton Carrara; de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Azevedo, Natália Csizmar; Rodrigues, Daniela Maria; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown the close relationship between the sodium consumption and health problems such as hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Thus, the demand for products with reduced sodium content, but with sensory quality, is increasing every day. In this context, this study aimed to optimize a low sodium salts mix using sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and monosodium glutamate to the development of shoestring potatoes with low sodium content and high sensory quality, through mixture design and response surface methodology. The salts mix that promotes the same salting power and similar sensory acceptability that the shoestring potatoes with 1.6% sodium chloride (ideal concentration) and at the same time promotes the greatest possible reduction of sodium, about 65%, should provide the composition as follows: 0.48% of sodium chloride, 0.92% of potassium chloride, and 0.43% of monosodium glutamate.

  12. Sodium chloride in supercritical water as a function of density: potentials of mean force and an equation for the dissociation constant from 723 to 1073 K and from 0 to 0.9 g/cm(3).

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbin; Wood, Robert H; Doren, Douglas J

    2008-06-19

    The potential of mean force (PMF) of sodium chloride in water has been calculated by using the ab initio classical free-energy perturbation method at five state points: at 973 K with densities of 0.2796, 0.0935, and 0.0101 g/cm (3) and at 723 K with densities of 0.0897 and 0.0098 g/cm (3). The method is based on a QM-MM model in which Na-H 2O, Cl-H 2O, and Na-Cl interactions are calculated by ab initio methods. The water-water interactions are from the polarizable TIP4P-FQ model. The logarithm of the dissociation constant (log K c) has been calculated from the PMF. These predictions, together with experimental measurements, were used to derive an equation for log K c at densities from 0 to 0.9 g/cm (3) and temperatures from 723 to 1073 K, as well as from 600 to 1073 K for densities from 0.29 g/cm (3) to 0.9 g/cm (3). Extrapolation of the present equation below 723 K for densities less than 0.29 g/cm (3) does not fit the experimental results. This is attributed to long-range changes in the local dielectric constant due to the high compressibility. Comparisons with previous predictions and simulations are presented.

  13. Study of the sensitization of tetradecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride for the color development reaction between lysine and sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate and the determination of lysine in pharmaceutical and biological samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanmin; Zhang, Tiantian

    2007-06-01

    A rapid, simple and sensitive method for the determination of lysine (Lys) using sodium 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulfonate (NQS) and tetradecyl benzyl dimethyl ammonium chloride (Zeph) is presented in this paper. The method is based on the russety product formed from Lys, NQS and Zeph in a buffer solution of pH 9.60, and the stoichiometric ratio of the product is 1:2:2. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 0.09-18 μg ml -1 of Lys at the maximum absorption of 474 nm ( ɛ474 is 8.1 × 10 5 l mol -1 cm -1). The equation of linear regression is A = 0.40427 + 0.06112 C, with a linearly correlation coefficient of 0.9972. The limit of detection is 0.07 μg ml -1, R.S.D. 0.8%, and average recovery rate in a range of 98.9-100.1%. This paper further optimizes the determination of Lys compared with the previous methods, and the reaction mechanism is studied intensively. The proposed method has been successfully applied to the determination of Lys in pharmaceutical and biological samples. The common components as nutritional additives in pharmaceuticals and other compounds in biological samples nearly do not interfere with the proposed method.

  14. 21 CFR 101.74 - Health claims: sodium and hypertension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... distinguished from sodium chloride, or salt, which is 39 percent sodium by weight. (2) The scientific evidence... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health claims: sodium and hypertension. 101.74... claims: sodium and hypertension. (a) Relationship between sodium and hypertension (high blood...

  15. High temperature oxidation and sodium chloride-induced accelerated corrosion of hot-dip aluminized 9chromium-1molybdenum and 310 stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Charng-Cheng

    The behaviors of high temperature corrosion on hot-dip aluminized on 9Cr-1Mo and 310 stainless steels when catalyzed by NaCl and cyclic heating environment were studied experimentally. The corrosion behavior and morphological development were investigated by weight gain kinetics, metallographs, depths of attack, metal losses, and X-ray analyses. The results of 310SS deposited with salt mixtures show that weight gain kinetics in simple oxidation reveals a steady-state parabolic rate law after 3 hr, while the kinetics with salt deposits display multi-stage growth rates. NaCl is the main corrosive specie in high-temperature corrosion involving mixtures of NaCl/Na2SO 4 and is responsible for the formation of internal attack. Uniform internal attack is the typical morphology of NaCl-induced hot corrosion, while the extent of intergranular attack is more pronounced as the content of Na 2SO4 in the mixture is increased. The thermal-cycling test results of 310SS deposited NaCl and coated 7wt%Si/93wt%Al show that the aluminized layers have good corrosion resistance during the first four cycles of testing, while degradation occurs after testing for five cycles. The reason for degradation of aluminized layers is attributed to the formation of inter-connecting voids caused by aluminum inward diffusion, chloridation/oxidation cyclic reactions and the penetration of molten NaCl through the voids into the alloy substrate. The 9Cr-1Mo steels coated with 7wt%Si/93wt%Al oxidized at 750, 850, and 950°C in static air show that oxidation kinetics followed a parabolic rate law at 750 and 850°C. The cracks propagated through the Fex Aly layer due to the growth of brittle FeAl2 and Fe2Al5 at 750 and 850°C. The voids condensed in the interface of intermetallics and substrate are attributed to the Kirkendall effect. At 950°C, the fast growing aluminide layer has a different expansion coefficient than oxide scale, leading to scale cracking, oxygen penetration, and internal oxidized

  16. Salt, chloride, bleach, and innate host defense

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoshun; Nauseef, William M.

    2015-01-01

    Salt provides 2 life-essential elements: sodium and chlorine. Chloride, the ionic form of chlorine, derived exclusively from dietary absorption and constituting the most abundant anion in the human body, plays critical roles in many vital physiologic functions, from fluid retention and secretion to osmotic maintenance and pH balance. However, an often overlooked role of chloride is its function in innate host defense against infection. Chloride serves as a substrate for the generation of the potent microbicide chlorine bleach by stimulated neutrophils and also contributes to regulation of ionic homeostasis for optimal antimicrobial activity within phagosomes. An inadequate supply of chloride to phagocytes and their phagosomes, such as in CF disease and other chloride channel disorders, severely compromises host defense against infection. We provide an overview of the roles that chloride plays in normal innate immunity, highlighting specific links between defective chloride channel function and failures in host defense. PMID:26048979

  17. Salt, chloride, bleach, a