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Sample records for addis ababa hospitals

  1. The consequence of delayed neurosurgical care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, David W; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Cadotte, Adam; Bernstein, Mark; Munie, Tadios; Freidberg, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH) is the major teaching hospital for Addis Ababa University and the only tertiary referral hospital for neurosurgery in Ethiopia. We explore the consequence of delayed treatment by examining the current system in place for treating patients and the wait times experienced by patients. A retrospective chart review was carried out on patients who received a neurosurgical operation at TAH between January 1 and June 30, 2007. We divided patients into those requiring an elective procedure and those requiring emergency surgical care. Based on data entered in the chart, we determined the length of time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation and the time from consultation to receiving an operation. Selective cases were chosen to illustrate the effects of delayed care. A total of 172 neurosurgical operations were performed between January 1 and June 30, 2007, at TAH. Of these, 107 (62.2%) charts were available for retrospective review. Fifty-six elective cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation was 185 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 44 days. Fifty-one trauma/emergency surgical cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset or traumatic event to neurosurgical consultation was 3 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 1 day. Delayed neurosurgical care comes with a high personal and social cost. By measuring the time from diagnosis to treatment and taking note of institutional practices, changes can be initiated to improve patient waiting times.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from inpatients with urinary tract infections in hospitals in Addis Ababa and Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Ringertz, S.; Bellete, B.; Karlsson, I.; Ohman, G.; Gedebou, M.; Kronvall, G.

    1990-01-01

    A high level of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria has been detected at the Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa, for many years. In contrast, at the Karolinska Hospital (KH), Stockholm, the level of resistance is low. Reported are the results of an investigation of the correlation between antibiotic usage and the antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in these hospitals. At TAH the strains of E. coli isolated were considerably more resistant to all seven antibiotics tested. The level of multiresistance was 63% at TAH and 7% at KH. There were no significant differences in the total amount of antibiotics used in the two hospitals, except for antituberculosis agents. The strain biotypes and antibiograms, together with the length of patients' hospitalization before a positive urine culture was obtained, suggest that the majority of the strains from TAH were of nosocomial origin. PMID:2189587

  3. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Gebru; Fentaw, Surafael; Mihret, Amete; Hassen, Mulu; Abebe, Engida

    2016-01-01

    Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1%) were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1%)) was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%)). More than 58 (75%) of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs). Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8%) Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5%) E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials. PMID:27446213

  4. Diabetes mellitus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: admissions, complications and outcomes in a large referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, M; Harries, A D; Ade, S; Tayler-Smith, K; Ali, E; Firdu, N; Yifter, H

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Hôpital de référence du Black Lion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter les indications d’admission, les complications et le devenir des patients atteints de diabète (DM) admis à l’hôpital entre 2010 et 2013.Schéma : Etude descriptive rétrospective sur dossiers médicaux.Résultats : Sur 8048 admissions, 523 (6,5%) avaient un DM et parmi eux, 418 dossiers médicaux ont été retrouvés : 301 (72%) patients avaient un DM de type 2 et 104 (28%) avaient un DM de type 1 ; les hommes (62%) et les personnes âgées (âge médian 60 ans) étaient caractéristiques du type 2. Les diagnostics d’admission les plus fréquents du type 2 étaient l’ulcère diabétique du pied (39%) et les problèmes cardiovasculaires (21%), et celui du type 1, l’acidocétose diabétique (62%). L’hypertension, les neuropathies, les néphropathies, la rétinopathie et le pied diabétique représentaient 85% des 756 complications existantes. La mortalité totale des patients admis a été de 21%. Sur ces 89 décès, 77 patients étaient de type 2 avec comme indications principales d’admission l’ulcère diabétique du pied/la gangrène et les problèmes cardiovasculaires.Conclusion : Le DM, surtout de type 2, est une cause importante d’admission dans le plus grand hôpital de référence du pays. De nombreux patients avaient déjà développé des complications liées au DM lors de l’admission, et la mortalité a été élevée. Il est nécessaire d’améliorer la connaissance et les soins relatifs au DM en Ethiopie.

  5. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Waja, Tsegereda; Ebrahim, Jemal; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60%) were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69]), not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39]), availability of house (AOR =2.04, [1.10, 3.78]), taking carbamazepine (AOR =2.38, [1.13, 5.01]), and drinking alcohol to find relief from stress (AOR =4.28, [1.89, 9.67]) were significantly associated with alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy. Conclusion and recommendation The findings of this

  6. Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

    2014-08-01

    Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses.

  7. Quantifying Entrepreneurial Networks: Data Collection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-10

    to have an enjoyable break when Ayib, Alem, and I ate a traditional lunch at a local cafe and then we had coffee at a student coffee hangout located...lunch in the Piazza area of Addis Ababa with my guides. We ate at a traditional cafe that was really a butcher with the fresh sides of beef displayed

  8. Twelve Years Later: The Revision of the Addis Ababa Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospects, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Processes and plans for redefinition of the goals of African educational systems are noted in this historical summary of educational development. Rationale for revision of the Addis Ababa plan by committees representing Unesco and the Organization of African Unity is presented. (SM)

  9. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated. PMID:22958880

  10. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tibebu, Abel; Mengistu, Daniel; Negesa, Lemma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN). The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence. Objective This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were ana-lyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016. Results The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52%) were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents. Conclusion The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle modifications and ongoing support for patients should be designed and studies which assess all the components of self-management should be conducted for comparison among different subgroups. PMID:28280305

  11. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting. PMID:24967300

  12. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  13. Selected micronutrient levels and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, Amare; Tsegaye, Aster; Petros, Beyene

    2014-12-01

    Poor micronutrient levels are associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS and are also suggested to influence outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), though existing data are inconclusive to support the latter. Few published data are available on micronutrient levels in Ethiopian HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART. The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P = 0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retinol levels in quartile 4 had a significantly lower mean CD4(+) T cell count compared to quartile 3 (P = 0.02). The significantly higher CD4(+) T cell counts in patients who were non-deficient in retinol imply the role of retinol in improving the production of CD4(+) T cells. However, both lower and higher retinol levels were associated with suppressed immunity (CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3)), suggesting an adverse effect of higher retinol levels. Thus, retinol may be potentially harmful depending on the dose, emphasizing the need for optimized level of retinol in nutrient supplements in patients taking HAART.

  14. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  15. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  16. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  17. Bacteriological Profile and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern of Blood Culture Isolates among Septicemia Suspected Children in Selected Hospitals Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Negussie, Adugna; Mulugeta, Gebru; Bedru, Ahmed; Ali, Ibrahim; Shimeles, Damte; Lema, Tsehaynesh; Aseffa, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood stream infections are major cause of morbidity and mortality in children in developing countries. The emerging of causative agents and resistance to various antimicrobial agents are increased from time to time. The main aim of this study was to determine the bacterial agents and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns among children suspected of having septicemia. Methods A cross sectional study involved about 201 pediatric patients (≤ 12 years) was conducted from October 2011 to February 2012 at pediatric units of TikurAnbessa Specialized Hospital and Yekatit 12 Hospital. Standard procedure was followed for blood sample collection, isolate identifications and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Results Among 201 study subjects 110 (54.7%) were males. Majority 147 (73.1%) of them were neonates (≤ 28 days). The mean length of hospital stay before sampling was 4.29 days. Out of the 201 tested blood samples, blood cultures were positive in 56 (27.9%).Gram negative and Gram positive bacteria constituted 29(51.8%) and 26(46.4%), respectively. The most frequent pathogen found was Staphylococcus aureus 13 (23.2%), followed by Serratia marcescens 12(21.4%), CoNS 11(19.6%), klebsiella spp 9(16%) and Salmonella spp 3(5.4%). Majority of bacterial isolates showed high resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin, Co-trimoxazole, Gentamicin and Tetracycline which commonly used in the study area. Conclusion Majority of the isolates were multidrug resistant. These higher percentages of multi-drug resistant emerged isolates urge us to take infection prevention measures and to conduct other large studies for appropriate empiric antibiotic choice. PMID:26997847

  18. Prevalence of Antipsychotic Polypharmacy and Associated Factors among Outpatients with Schizophrenia Attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tesfaye, Siranesh; Debencho, Nigussie; Kisi, Teresa; Tareke, Minale

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite recommendations by guidelines to avoid combinations of antipsychotics unless after multiple trials of antipsychotic monotherapy, it is quite a common practice to use combinations. This practice leads to unnecessary expenses and exposes the patient to severe drug adverse effects. Methods. An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted from April to May 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 study subjects. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify associated factors of antipsychotic polypharmacy among schizophrenia outpatients. Result. The overall prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be 28.2%. Extra pyramidal side effects (AOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.38, 5.71), repeated psychiatric hospitalization (AOR = 2.83; 95% CI: 1.45, 5.50), history of substance use (AOR = 2.82; 95% CI: 1.36, 5.88), longer duration of treatment (AOR = 2.10; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.87), and drug nonadherence (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.98) were found to be significantly associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. Conclusion. Prevalence of antipsychotic polypharmacy was found to be high among the current study participants. Individuals who had extra pyramidal side effects, admission, substance use, duration of treatment, and drug nonadherence were associated with antipsychotic polypharmacy. PMID:26904586

  19. Prevalence of Dermatophytic Infection and the Spectrum of Dermatophytes in Patients Attending a Tertiary Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Teklebirhan, Gebreabiezgi; Bitew, Adane

    2015-01-01

    Background. Dermatophytosis is common worldwide and continues to increase. Objective. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of dermatophytosis and the spectrum of ringworm fungi in patients attending a tertiary hospital. Methods. Samples were collected from 305 patients. A portion of each sample was examined microscopically and the remaining portion of each sample was cultured onto plates of Sabouraud's dextrose agar containing chloramphenicol with and without cycloheximide. Dermatophyte isolates were identified by studying macroscopic and microscopic characteristics of their colonies. Result. Of 305 samples, fungi were detected in 166 (54.4%) by KOH of which 95 were dermatophytes while 242 (79.4%) samples were culture positive of which 130 isolates were dermatophytes. Among dermatophyte isolates T. violaceum was the most common (37.7%) cause of infection. Tinea unguium was the predominant clinical manifestation accounting for 51.1% of the cases. Patients with age group 25–44 and 45–64 years were more affected. T. violaceum was the most common pathogen in tinea unguium and tinea capitis, whereas T. mentagrophytes was the most common pathogen in tinea pedis. Conclusion. Further intensive epidemiological studies of ring worm fungus induced dermatophytosis which have public health significance are needed. PMID:26448763

  20. Perception and management of tuberculosis symptoms in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sagbakken, Mette; Frich, Jan C; Bjune, Gunnar A

    2008-10-01

    Management of early tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and adherence to medical treatment are main challenges in controlling TB. The aim of this study is to explore how symptoms of TB are perceived and managed, from the onset of symptoms and during the course of treatment, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. We conducted a qualitative interview study, including 50 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups, with TB patients, their relatives, and health personnel. We found that a patient's perceptions and self-treatment of early symptoms could cause diagnostic delay. Stigma associated with TB and public health services made many patients approach private clinics, causing further delay. Both private and public clinics often labeled and managed symptoms according to lay explanatory models. Lack of adequate knowledge about TB's etiology and cure caused patients to continue relating to symptoms by reference to their own understanding. This affected patients' ability to manage TB and its treatment.

  1. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  2. Self-Care Practices among Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tewahido, Dagmawit; Berhane, Yemane

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-care practices that include self-monitoring of blood sugar level, diet management, physical exercise, adherence to medications, and foot care are the cornerstones of diabetes management. However, very little is known about self-care in developing countries where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Objective The objective of this study was to describe self-care practices among individuals with type II diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative method was used to gather data from type II diabetes patients. Patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a semi structured interview guide. A thematic analysis approach was used to process the data. Results Overall self-care practices were not adequate. Most patients reported irregular self-monitoring of blood sugar. Dietary and physical exercise recommendations were inadequately practiced by most of the participants. Most patients better adhered to medication prescriptions. Patients generally lack proper information/knowledge regarding the importance of self-care and how it should be implemented. Based on reported behavior we identified three main categories of patients; which are those ‘endeavor to be compliant’, ‘confused’ and ‘negligent’. Conclusion Diabetes patients largely depend on prescribed medications to control their blood sugar level. The importance of proper self-care practices for effective management of diabetes is not adequately emphasized in diabetes care centers and patients lack sufficient knowledge for proper self-care. PMID:28045992

  3. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of affective disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. The lifetime prevalence for specific affective disorders was as follows: bipolar disorders 0.3%, depressive episodes 2.7%, recurrent depressive episodes 0.2%, and persistent mood disorders 1.6%. The weighted lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was 5.0% (women 7.7% and men 3.2%). One-month prevalence was 3.8% (women 5.9% and men 2.3%). After adjusting for several potential confounders, the risk of affective disorders was only 29% higher in women compared to men. This difference in risk was not statistically significant. Age was also not associated with risk of affective disorders. On the other hand, education was associated with the risk of disorder, the risk decreasing with increasing educational attainment. This inverse trend was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.02). The risk was also 37% lower in the employed than the unemployed: Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.39, 1.01). There were no statistically significant associations between affective disorders and marital status or ethnicity.

  4. Educational Research Culture and Capacity Building: The Case of Addis Ababa University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on several projects over sixteen years which attempted to develop capacity in educational research at Addis Ababa University. It identifies what might be considered indicators of a thriving research environment as defined from a UK perspective, not simply the necessary skills and infrastructure requirements but also what might be…

  5. Characterization of GNSS amplitude scintillations over Addis Ababa during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Ejalonibu, A. H.; Doherty, P. H.; Radicella, S. M.; Groves, K. M.; Carrano, C. S.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Stoneback, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    This study characterizes GNSS amplitude scintillations over an African equatorial station: Addis Ababa (Lat 9.03°N, Lon 38.77°E, Mag. lat 0.18°N), Ethiopia during a five-year period (2009-2013). Scintillations were majorly localized within the hours of 2200-2400 LT. On a monthly basis, the highest occurrences of scintillation at Addis Ababa were recorded in April, and the lowest in June. Seasonally, the highest occurrences were recorded in equinoxes, and the lowest in June solstices. On a yearly scale, scintillations recorded the highest occurrences in 2012 and the lowest in 2009. Large proportions of the scintillations were localized within the northern sky of Addis Ababa. Supporting the characterization of the GNSS data with C/NOFS data, we noted that small-spatial scale density depletions are more detrimental to GNSS signals than their large-scale counterparts. Finally, EGNOS geostationary satellites' signals also scintillated steadily at Addis Ababa, with noticeable occurrences on the low elevation EGNOS satellite's (PRN 120) data. These events commenced around local sunset terminator, forming plateaus that vanished around local midnight.

  6. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were explored.…

  7. Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

    2006-01-01

    Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

  8. The Practice of Student Assessment: The Case of College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soromessa, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…

  9. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  10. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58–2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  11. Infection Control Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Healthcare Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614

  12. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  13. Reading Habits of Secondary School Teachers: A Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa and Dessie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2016-01-01

    This study is a small-scale study of an exploration of reading habit of high school teachers. Fifty-four teachers from five schools who teach in different schools in Addis Ababa and Dessie participated in this study. Data were collected through questionnaire and in-depth interview. The result of the study shows that reading is poorly developed…

  14. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  15. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006–2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Methodology Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36–12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001–0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48–40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01–11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53–20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38–50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37–22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from

  16. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Turago, Muluken Gizaw; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most serious acute complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with T1D. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D in Addis Ababa. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Children below the age of 12 years with DKA who were admitted to the pediatric ward in the selected hospitals between January 2009 and December 2014 and the residence of Addis Ababa were included. DKA was defined as children below the age of 12 years who have blood glucose level ≥250mg/dl, ketonuria, and ketonemia and diagnosed being T1D patient for the first time. Descriptive statistics was performed using frequency distribution, mean, median, tables, and graphs. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with the prevalence of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Results Of 395 DKA patients who were hospitalized during the five-year period, 142(35.8%) presented with DKA at first diagnosis of diabetes. On the other hand 253 (64.2%) children with DKA had longstanding T1D. Independent factors associated with DKA include: Age category 2–4.49years, 7–9.49 years and ≥9.5years (Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 3.14[1.21,8.06]), 3.44(1.39,8.49) and 4.02(1.68,9.60), respectively); parents’ knowledge on the sign and symptoms of DKA (AOR = 0.51[0.27, 0.95]); sign and symptoms of DKA before the onset of DKA (AOR = 0.35[0.21, 0.59]) and infection prior to DKA onset (AOR = 3.45[1.97, 6.04]). Conclusions The overall proportion of children diagnosed with DKA and new onset of T1D in Addis Ababa was high. In particular, children between 9–12 years of age and children whose parents did not know the sign and symptoms of DKA had a high risk of DKA at primary diagnosis of T1D. PMID:28135278

  17. Seven key actions to eradicate rheumatic heart disease in Africa: the Addis Ababa communiqué.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David; Zuhlke, Liesl; Engel, Mark; Daniels, Rezeen; Francis, Veronica; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kango, Mabvuto; Abul-Fadl, Azza; Adeoye, Abiodun; Ali, Sulafa; Al-Kebsi, Mohammed; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Bukhman, Gene; Damasceno, Albertino; Goshu, Dejuma Yadeta; Elghamrawy, Alaa; Gitura, Bernard; Haileamlak, Abraham; Hailu, Abraha; Hugo-Hamman, Christopher; Justus, Steve; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kennedy, Neil; Lwabi, Peter; Mamo, Yoseph; Mntla, Pindile; Sutton, Chris; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Mondo, Charles; Mtaja, Agnes; Musuku, John; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Murango, Louis; Nel, George; Ogendo, Stephen; Ogola, Elijah; Ojji, Dike; Olunuga, Taiwo Olabisi; Redi, Mekia Mohammed; Rusingiza, Kamanzi Emmanuel; Sani, Mahmoud; Sheta, Sahar; Shongwe, Steven; van Dam, Joris; Gamra, Habib; Carapetis, Jonathan; Lennon, Diana; Mayosi, Bongani M

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remain major causes of heart failure, stroke and death among African women and children, despite being preventable and imminently treatable. From 21 to 22 February 2015, the Social Cluster of the Africa Union Commission (AUC) hosted a consultation with RHD experts convened by the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to develop a 'roadmap' of key actions that need to be taken by governments to eliminate ARF and eradicate RHD in Africa. Seven priority areas for action were adopted: (1) create prospective disease registers at sentinel sites in affected countries to measure disease burden and track progress towards the reduction of mortality by 25% by the year 2025, (2) ensure an adequate supply of high-quality benzathine penicillin for the primary and secondary prevention of ARF/RHD, (3) improve access to reproductive health services for women with RHD and other non-communicable diseases (NCD), (4) decentralise technical expertise and technology for diagnosing and managing ARF and RHD (including ultrasound of the heart), (5) establish national and regional centres of excellence for essential cardiac surgery for the treatment of affected patients and training of cardiovascular practitioners of the future, (6) initiate national multi-sectoral RHD programmes within NCD control programmes of affected countries, and (7) foster international partnerships with multinational organisations for resource mobilisation, monitoring and evaluation of the programme to end RHD in Africa. This Addis Ababa communiqué has since been endorsed by African Union heads of state, and plans are underway to implement the roadmap in order to end ARF and RHD in Africa in our lifetime.

  18. Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Woreta, Seblewangel Ayalew; Mati, Komi Agbemavi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15-49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities.

  19. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  20. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, H.; Tefera, M.; Tesfaye, A.; Klinkenberg, E.; Yimer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Ethiopia is one of the high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. Efforts by the National TB Programme to control MDR-TB include expanding ambulatory care. Objective: To investigate the opportunities and challenges faced by treatment follow-up health centres (TFCs) when managing MDR-TB patients, with greater focus on recording, TB infection control (IC) and supervision practices. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records of all MDR-TB cases in all 25 TFCs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The TB focal point, pharmacy and laboratory heads were also interviewed. Result: A total of 221 MDR-TB patients were registered; 157 (71%) patients had been referred from one of the two treatment initiating centres. While some TFCs oversaw up to 41 patients, others had just one patient. The majority of the TFCs (n = 21, 84%) followed standardised TB IC procedures. Poor documentation of patient information was observed at all sites; for example, human immunodeficiency virus and current treatment status was not indicated for respectively 86 (38%) and 41 (18%) patients. Conclusion: The study revealed that infection prevention practices were largely adhered to. Documentation of patient-related information was a major challenge, and regular supervision of the TFCs should be emphasised. Record keeping is critical. PMID:26478512

  1. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. I. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    We report here on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994 to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and severe cognitive disorders. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. Weighted lifetime and one-month prevalence were 0.4% and 0.3%, for schizophrenia, and 0.5% and 0.4% for schizoaffective disorders, respectively. The prevalence of severe cognitive disorders was found to be 2.6%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the risk of lifetime psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar disorders, and depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms) was significantly higher in the age group 25-44 years compared to the reference age group of 15-24 years: adjusted Odds Ratio and 95% confidence interval, OR (95% CI) = 2.41 (1.01, 5.74); it was also significantly higher in the never married group compared to those married: OR (95% CI) = 3.01 (1.08, 8.42). The risk was significantly lower in the employed compared to the unemployed: OR (95% CI) = 0.42 (0.18, 1.00). There was a statistically significant trend of increasing risk of severe cognitive disorders with increasing age. The trend was in the reverse direction for educational status, the risk decreasing significantly with increasing educational attainment.

  2. Health providers' perception towards safe abortion service at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jemilla; Gebremariam, Mulugeta B

    2011-03-01

    In Ethiopia, unsafe abortion accounts up to 32% of maternal deaths. The perception of health providers towards safe abortion provision at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was assessed. A stratified random sampling was used to select 431 health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 25-April 15, 2008 using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The results were interpreted using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. A majority of the health providers (96.4%) recognized that unsafe abortion was a serious health problem. Providers who had safe abortion practice were 2.57 (95% CI 1.49-4.44) times more likely to have favorable attitude towards safe abortion than those without practice. Similarly, providers who knew the law governing abortion were 1.77 (95% CI 1.12-2.78) times more likely to have this favorable attitude than those who lack this knowledge. In conclusion, training of health providers on safe abortion and reproductive rights are essential to reduce maternal mortality.

  3. Poverty, sexual experience and HIV vulnerability risks: evidence from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sori, Assefa Tolera

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and vulnerability to HIV infection in Ethiopia using primary (quantitative and qualitative) and secondary data from two sub-cities of Addis Ababa. The data show that sexual experience is influenced by diverse factors such as age, gender, economic status and education level. Household economic status and migration explain the nature of sexual experience and level of vulnerability to HIV infection. Poor uneducated women in poor neighbourhoods are more likely to engage in risky sexual encounters despite awareness about the risk of HIV infection as they operate in an environment that provides the 'path of least resistance' (Lindegger & Wood, 1995, p. 7). This article argues that poverty provides a situation where early sexual initiation, 'transactional sex' and an inability to negotiate for safer sex are associated with low income, lack of education and increased vulnerability to HIV infection. This vulnerability is simultaneously contested and accepted as a commitment to even sacrifice one's life for the sake of one's loved ones. As a modest contribution to the 'structural violence' approach, which emphasizes social inequalities based on gender, class, ethnicity and race and inequalities in terms of exposure to risk and access to health care (Massé, 2007), this article challenges the 'African promiscuity' discourse, which 'does not permit policymakers to think beyond sex' (Stillwaggon, 2006, p. 156), and encourages researchers and policymakers to ask the right questions to understand the complexity of HIV/AIDS and seek solutions to the pandemic.

  4. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Primiparous Mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Anteneh Girma; Ganga-Limando, Makombo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. Objectives The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers during their prenatal period in terms of intentions/goals, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and socio-structural factors and assess their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices as well as identify the social-cognitive predictors of EBF practices among these mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A prospective follow up health facility-based study with quantitative methods was used with a sample of 233 primiparous women. Both structured and semi-structured questions were used for collection of data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for data analysis. Findings at the 95% confidence interval and P-value of 5% were reported as statistically significant. Results 39.1% (n = 59) of the respondents were found to have high breastfeeding self-efficacy, 51.4% (n = 71) have good breastfeeding outcome expectancies, and 6.5% (n = 9) respondents had supportive breastfeeding socio-structural factors. Bivariate correlation analysis showed positive and statistically significant correlation between each of breastfeeding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and socio-structural factors, with EBF practice. However, only breastfeeding self-efficacy and outcome expectancies were statistically significant predictors of EBF among the primiparous women when controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions and Recommendations Health programmes aimed at improving EBF among primiparous mothers should look beyond providing health information alone. Rather improving

  5. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. III. Neurotic and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime and point (one-month) prevalence of phobic anxiety, dissociative, other anxiety and somatoform disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. Phobic anxiety disorders were found to be the most common of all anxiety disorders, with lifetime prevalence of 4.8%. The lifetime prevalence for dissociative disorders was 0.8% and for other anxiety disorders it was 2.7%. The prevalence of somatoform disorders was 3.1%. The lifetime prevalence for all the above neurotic and somatoform disorders was 10.8%. Point prevalence estimates (percent) for the disorders were as follows: phobic anxiety disorders, 4.4; other anxiety disorders, 1.2; dissociative disorders, 0.4; and somatoform disorders, 2.5. After adjusting for several potential confounders, women had over a two-fold risk of having neurotic and somatoform disorders compared to men, odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.38 (1.78, 3.12). Age was also inversely associated with the disorders. Those aged 60 and above had a 60% lower risk compared to those aged 15-24 years, OR (95% CI): 0.41 (0.20, 0.81). The 25% decreased risk for the employed, compared to the unemployed, was also not statistically significant. Education, marital status, and ethnicity were not significantly associated with neurotic and somatoform disorders.

  6. "Sexual Violence Is Not Good for Our Country's Development". Students' Interpretations of Sexual Violence in a Secondary School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mat, Marielle L. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…

  7. The Role of Elementary School Teachers in Curriculum Development and Implementation in Selected Government Elementary Schools of Addis Ababa. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferede, Yigzaw

    The role of Ethiopian elementary school teachers in curriculum development and implementation was studied in twelve government schools in Addis Ababa through a questionnaire. The responses of 110 teachers were given to questions concerning the involvement of teachers in curriculum development, their relationship with the curriculum development…

  8. Relation between Tenth Grade Students' Attitude and Components of Attitude in Algebra with Algebra Achievement of Addis Ababa Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atnafu, Mulugeta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the attitudes and components of attitude of the students towards algebra with their algebra achievements. The population for this study consists of all government tenth grade students and their mathematics teachers in Addis Ababa city administration. Sixteen tenth grade sections were…

  9. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fiseha, D; Kumssa, H; Tefera, M; Tesfaye, A; Klinkenberg, E; Yimer, G

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : L'Ethiopie est l'un des pays durement frappés par la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). Les efforts du programme national de lutte contre la TB pour contrôler la TB-MDR incluent l'expansion des soins ambulatoires.Objectif : Etudier les opportunités et les défis affrontés par les centres de santé qui suivent le traitement des patients (TFC) dans la prise en charge de patients atteints de TB-MDR avec un accent sur la tenue des dossiers, la lutte contre l'infection tuberculeuse et les pratiques de supervision.Méthodes : Une étude transversale a été réalisée dans des centres de santé grâce à une revue des dossiers de tous les cas de TB-MDR dans les 25 TFC à Addis Ababa, Ethiopie. Le point focal TB, le chef de service de la pharmacie et du laboratoire ont également été interviewés.Résultats: Un total de 221 patients TB-MDR ont été inscrits ; 157 (71%) patients ont été transférés de l'un des deux centres de mise en route du traitement. Si certains TFC ont suivi jusqu'à 41 patients, d'autres n'ont vu qu'un patient. La majorité des TFC (n = 21, 84%) ont suivi les procédures standardisées de lutte contre l'infection TB. Dans tous les sites, on a observé une documentation insuffisante des informations relatives aux patients. Le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le traitement en cours n'étaient, par exemple, pas indiqués pour 86 (38%) et 41 (18%) patients, respectivement.Conclusion : L'étude a révélé que les pratiques de prévention de l'infection étaient largement observées. Le principal défi résidait en la documentation des informations relatives aux patients ; la supervision régulière des TFC devrait également être renforcée. La bonne tenue des dossiers est cruciale.

  10. The contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2%) efficacy, 109 (35.6%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0%) cost and 6 (2.0%) dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%), young age (20-40 years, 65.0%), never married (56.9%), orthodox (73.9%), Amhara (52.3%), educational status above grade 12 (34.6%) and government employees (29.4%) were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based apprenticeship was the

  11. The conceptions of care among family caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aga, Fekadu; Kylmä, Jari; Nikkonen, Merja

    2009-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study explores and describes the conceptions of care among family caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality is the conceptual anchor of this ethnographic study. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 6 key informants and 12 general informants were interviewed in their home in Amharic language. Data were analyzed in Amharic using Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis for qualitative data and then translated to English. Four major themes representing family caregivers' conceptions of care were identified: nourishing the PLWA while struggling with poverty, maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene of the person and surroundings, comforting the PLWA, and sacrificing self to sustain the PLWA. Valuable data were gathered about the family caregivers' conceptions of care. Nurses can use this knowledge to design and provide culturally congruent care to family caregivers and PLWAs in the community.

  12. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  13. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Smear positive TB patients living with children attending daily observed treatment at the TB clinic and health care workers providing service were approached to address the study objective. Structured questionnaires were administered to smear positive index cases living with children whether they were requested to bring children age five year and below for TB screening and to health care providers in HIV, TB and child health clinics to assess their knowledge and practice on contact screening and management. Double data entry and analysis was done using EpiData software 3.1. In 27 health centres, 688 smear-positive index tuberculosis patients were approached of whom 203 (29.5%) reported to have children five years and below in their household. A total of 48 (23.6%) index cases had been requested by the health care workers to bring their children for tuberculosis screening and 45 (93.8%) had complied with this request. Of 230 children living with index smear positive tuberculosis patient, 152 (66.1%) were not screened for tuberculosis, 78 (33.9%) children screened, 2 had tuberculosis, 76 screened negative of which 3 (3.8%) received preventive treatment. None of the health care workers indicated to routinely record and report on child contact management. Household child contact screening and preventive intervention was sub-optimal in Addis Ababa. An important opportunity lost to prevent tuberculosis in young children. Training of health care workers, availing simple symptom based screening tool, and proper documentation could improve implementation.

  14. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ(2) tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out

  15. Is Climate Chang Responsible to Recent Urban Flooding in Devloping Cities in Africa? A Case study of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Semu; Raschid-Sally, Liqa; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2013-04-01

    Cities in Africa show extraordinary expansion of the built environment and imperviousness of the surface condition. Addis Ababa is a case in point, where over the priod of 1984 to 2002, the city asphalted area has increased from 4.72 sq.km (1984) to 27.7 sq.km (2002). Similarly the paved area has expanded five fold from the original 11.1 sq.km, whilst the built environment expanded from 60.1 to 212.7 sq.km. Using hydrological modeling, we demonstrated due to the surface condition change, runoff generation potential has shown significant increase from 28% (in 1984) to 45% (in 2002), showing over 60% change in the runoff volume. The changing condition of the surface is increasing anabtedly, worsening the flooding condition. Similarly, climate change study shows likely increase of precipitation in and around Addis Ababa by about 13 to 17% and comparative increase in flooding. Unlike many cities in Europe, cities in developing countries are confronted with impact emanating from climate change as well as surface condition change. The impact of flooding caused due to the expansion of built environment is found to be more significant in the short term that the climate change, however, the climate change may dominate the long term future of flooding pattern as cities mature towards 2050. Therefore, It is important to view the impacts expansion of built environment and climate change in tandem in future time horizon since the dominance of the impact is different in different temporal scale. In the case of Addis Ababa, we strongly present the following four suggesions: i) the city adminstration re-estabilish the abandoned flood and drainage department of the city as the main flood regulatory and management body working in tandem with Addis Ababa Roads Authority, Water Supply and Sanitation Authority and Urban Planning Authority; ii) The old design guidlines for palnning and design of urban drainage system is not working any more (assumed stationarity condition), we suggest

  16. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  17. Use of treated wastewater for managed aquifer recharge in highly populated urban centers: a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu; Sulieman, Hameed; Ayalew, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Fast population growth and rapid industrialization, on one hand, and lack of sewerage network and poor living condition, on the other, have led to the deterioration of surface and ground water quality in the city of Addis Ababa. The urban wastewater is discharged largely into streams that drain the city. Only less than 3% join the wastewater treatment facilities. Due to sporadic rainfall that causes shortage in groundwater recharge, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) experiment was tested on soil column collected from Akaki Well Field which is located in the southern part of the city using water from the Big Akaki River that crosses the same well field and effluent from Kaliti Wastewater Treatment Plant. Water quality analysis for 17 different parameters was done for both the inflow and outflow water samples and soils were tested for electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. The results indicate improved water quality as a result of higher attenuation/filtration capacity of the vadose zone in the well field due to the presence of vertisols. The main geochemical processes that have acted in the soil column could be cation exchange, dissolution, precipitation, oxidation, nitrification, die off etc. that are responsible for the effectiveness of vadose zone for MAR.

  18. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m3) and median (72 μg/m3) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels. PMID:20886061

  19. Assessment of laboratory logistics management information system practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in selected public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. Results There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Conclusion Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping

  20. Health-related quality of life of HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but has not been studied extensively in resource-limited settings. Insight in the predictors or correlates of poor HRQoL may be helpful to identify patients most in need of additional support and to design appropriate interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2012 and April 2013 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients who were at least 6 months on cART were randomly selected and individual patient data were retrieved from medical records. HRQoL was measured by the WHOQoL-HIVBREF, depressive-symptoms by the Kessler-6 scale, and stigma by the Kalichman internalized AIDS-related stigma scale. Multivariate linear regression analysis was carried-out to examine associations between HRQoL and the other variables. A total of 664 patients (response-rate 95%) participated in the study. A higher level of depressive-symptoms was most strongly and consistently associated with a lower HRQoL, both in terms of the magnitude of the relationship and in the number of HRQoL domains associated with it. Also, a higher level of HIV-stigma was associated with a lower HRQoL except for the physical domain, while obtaining sufficient nutritious food and job opportunity were associated with a better HRQoL except for the spiritual and social domains, respectively. Demographics, clinical, and treatment characteristics yielded few significant associations with HRQoL. Our study findings suggest that interventions to improve HRQoL should focus on reducing depressive-symptoms and HIV-stigma, and on enhancing food security and job opportunity.

  1. Food insecurity and mental health: surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks.

  2. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. Satisfaction of patients with directly observed treatment strategy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, Belete; Nkosi, Zethu Zerish

    2017-01-01

    Background Directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy has been a cornerstone for Tuberculosis (TB) control programs in developing countries. However, in Ethiopia satisfaction level of patients’ with TB with the this strategy is not well understood. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the satisfaction level of patients with TB with the DOTS. Method Explanatory sequential mixed method design was carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered questionnaire with 601 patients with TB who were on follow-up was employed in the quantitative approach. In the qualitative approach telephonic-interview with 25 persons lost to follow-up and focus group discussions with 23 TB experts were conducted. Result Sixty seven percent of respondent was satisfied with the DOTS. Rural residency (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6, 7.6), having TB symptoms (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.94) and treatment supporter (AOR = 4.3, 95%CI 2.7, 6.8) were associated with satisfaction with DOTS. In qualitative finding, all persons lost to follow-up were dissatisfied while TB experts enlightened lack of evidence to affirm the satisfaction level of patients with DOTS. Explored factors contributing to satisfaction include: on time availability of health care providers, DOTS service delivery process, general condition of health care facilities, nutritional support and transportation. Conclusion DOTS is limited to satisfy patients with TB and lacks a consistent system that determines the satisfaction level of patients with TB. Therefore, DOTS strategy needs to have a system to captures patients’ satisfaction level to respond on areas that need progress to improve DOTS service quality. PMID:28182754

  4. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Adenager, Getinet Shewaseged; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Asefa, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%), 233 (54.8%), and 262 (61.6%) of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5)] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4)] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70)] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94)], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care. PMID:28348887

  5. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, S; Ali, E; Tayler-Smith, K; Hedt-Gauthier, B; Silkondez, W; Abebe, D; Deressa, W; Enquessilase, F; Edwards, J K

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Le service des urgences de l'hôpital Zewditu Memorial, Addis-Abeba, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter la proportion, la tendance, les caractéristiques et le devenir des patients (âgés ⩾15 ans) admis pour des blessures de la route (RTI) entre 2014 et 2015.Schéma : Une étude rétrospective transversale basée sur des données recueillies en routine par le service des urgences.Résultats : Sur 10 007 admissions aux urgences, 779 (8%) étaient des cas de RTI; cette proportion culminait au mois de janvier (11%). Les dossiers médicaux ont été disponibles pour 522 (67%) de ces cas de RTI. Leur âge médian était de 28 ans et 69% étaient des hommes. La majorité était des piétons (69%) blessés par une automobile (78%). Lors du triage, 32% ont été classés comme ayant besoin d'une intervention urgente/immédiate. Les traumatismes crâniens (20%) étaient au deuxième rang, suivant les blessures des membres inférieurs (36%). Le devenir des patients a été le suivant : sortie (68%), hospitalisation (17%), référence (17%) et décès (1%). Parmi les 78 cas hospitalisés, respectivement 62% et 16% ont été admis dans les services de chirurgie et d'orthopédie. Sur les 146 cas de RTI ayant eu un traumatisme crânien, 25% ont été hospitalisés, dont 82% ont été admis en service de chirurgie.Conclusion : Nos résultats peuvent guider les décideurs des hôpitaux de référence dans l'amélioration de la répartition des ressources et le choix de priorités en matière de besoins de santé publique liés au développement urbain ultérieur. Il y a un besoin urgent d'un plan complet de prévention des RTI, particulièrement parmi les piétons à Addis-Abeba.

  6. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Conclusion Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by

  7. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining

  8. Performance Evaluation of Malaria Microscopists at Defense Health Facilities in Addis Ababa and Its Surrounding Areas, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nega, Desalegn; Tasew, Geremew; Taye, Bineyam; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood film microscopy is the gold standard approach for malaria diagnosis, and preferred method for routine patient diagnosis in health facilities. However, the inability of laboratory professionals to correctly detect and identify malaria parasites microscopically leads to an inappropriate administration of anti-malarial drugs to the patients and incorrect findings in research areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of laboratory professionals in malaria diagnosis in health facilities under the Defense Health Main Department in Addis Ababa and its surroundings, Ethiopia. Method A cross sectional study was conducted from June to July 2015. Totally, 60 laboratory professionals out of the selected 16 health facilities were included in the study. Data were collected by distributing standardized pre-validated malaria slide-panels and self-administered questionnaires among professionals, onsite in each study facility. Sensitivity, specificity, and strength of agreement (with kappa score) in performance among the study participants against WHO-certified expert malaria microscopists were calculated. Result Of the 60 study participants, 8.3% (5/60) correctly read all the distributed slides in terms of parasite detection, species identification and parasite counting; whereas, each of the remaining 55(91.7%) interpreted at least two slides incorrectly. The overall sensitivity and specificity of participants’ performance in detection of malaria parasites were 65.7% and 100%, respectively. Overall, fair agreement (71.4%; Kappa: 0.4) in detection of malaria parasite was observed between the study subjects and expert readers. The overall sensitivity and specificity of participants in species identification of malaria parasites were respectively 41.3% and 100%. Overall, slight agreement (51.1%; kappa: 0.04) in identification of malaria species was observed. Generally, agreement was lower in parasite detection and species identification at low

  9. Effectiveness of a multimodal hand hygiene campaign and obstacles to success in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Hand hygiene is the cornerstone of infection control and reduces rates of healthcare associated infection. There are limited data evaluating hand hygiene adherence and hand hygiene campaign effect in resource-limited settings, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study assessed the impact of implementing a World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign at a hospital in Ethiopia. Methods This study included a before-and-after assessment of health care worker (HCW) adherence with WHO hand hygiene guidelines. It was implemented in three phases: 1) baseline evaluation of hand hygiene adherence and hospital infrastructure; 2) intervention (distribution of commercial hand sanitizer and implementation of an abbreviated WHO-recommended multimodal hand hygiene campaign); and 3) post-intervention evaluation of HCW hand hygiene adherence. HCWs’ perceptions of the campaign and hand sanitizer tolerability were assessed through a survey performed in the post-intervention period. Results At baseline, hand washing materials were infrequently available, with only 20% of sinks having hand-washing materials. There was a significant increase in hand hygiene adherence among HCWs following implementation of a WHO multimodal hand hygiene program. Adherence increased from 2.1% at baseline (21 hand hygiene actions/1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) to 12.7% (127 hand hygiene actions /1000 opportunities for hand hygiene) after the implementation of the hand hygiene campaign (OR = 6.8, 95% CI 4.2-10.9). Hand hygiene rates significantly increased among all HCW types except attending physicians. Independent predictors of HCW hand hygiene compliance included performing hand hygiene in the post-intervention period (aOR = 5.7, 95% CI 3.5-9.3), in the emergency department (aOR = 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.6), during patient care that did not involve Attending Physician Rounds (aOR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.5), and after patient contact (aOR = 2

  10. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  11. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  12. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Abe; Kemal, Jelalu; Alemayehu, Haile; Habte Mariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  13. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Abe; Alemayehu, Haile

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:27660816

  14. Perceived sufficiency and usefulness of IEC materials and methods related to HIV/AIDS among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cherie, Amsale; Mitkie, Getenet; Ismail, Shabbir; Berhane, Yemane

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the perceived sufficiency and usefulness of HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) messages and materials as well as to identify preferences for IEC sources and methods. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. A total of 901 students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, participated in the study. Over three quarters of the respondents believed in the usefulness of IEC. IEC materials were perceived to be useful in increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS by 456 (51%), to influence attitude by 357 (40%) and to acquire safer sexual practices by 382 (42%) of the respondents. None of the information sources and messages available for high school students highly satisfied the sufficiency indicators. Even though no single information source was highly preferred, radio and television ranked top. Life skills training was the most desired intervention by the students. IEC on HIV/AIDS was able to acquaint students with the disease rather than equipping them with knowledge and skill needed in their daily life. Therefore, appropriate and mutually reinforcing IEC messages with emphasis on life skill training are recommended.

  15. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  16. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Methods Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Results Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Conclusion Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy. PMID:26889317

  17. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation.

  18. Review paper on research ethics in Ethiopia: experiences and lessons learnt from Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Addissie, Adamu; Wamisho, Biruk L; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Health research in Ethiopia is increasing both in volume and type, accompanied with expansion of higher education and research since the past few years. This calls for a proportional competence in the governance of medical research ethics in Ethiopia in the respective research and higher learning institutes. The paper highlights the evolution and progress ofthe ethics review at Addis Ababa University - College of Health Sciences (AAU-CHS) in the given context of health research review system in Ethiopia. Reflections are made on the key lessons to be drawnfrom the formative experiences of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and their implications to the Ethiopian health research review system. This article is a review paper based on review of published and un published documents on research ethics in Ethiopia and the AAU-CHS (2007-2012). Thematic summaries of review findings are presented in thematic areas - formation of ethics review and key factors in the evolution of ethics review and implications. The IRB at AAU-CHS has been pivotal in providing review and follow-up for important clinical studies in Ethiopia. It has been one of the first IRBs to get WHO/SIDCER recognition from Africa and Ethiopia. Important factors in the successes of the IRB among others included leadership commitment, its placement in institutional structure, and continued capacity building. Financial challenges and sustainability issues need to be addressed for the sustained gains registered so far. Similar factors are considered important for the new and younger IRBs within the emergent Universities and research centers in the country.

  19. Sub-optimal adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy and its associated factors according to self-report, clinician-recorded and pharmacy-refill assessment methods among HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is generally high in most resource-limited settings. However, sub-optimal adherence occurs in a sizable proportion of patients, and is independently predictive of detectable viremia. We investigated sub-optimal adherence according to self-report, clinician-recorded, and pharmacy-refill assessment methods, and their associated factors among HIV-infected adults receiving cART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Eight-hundred seventy patients who initiated cART between May 2009 and April 2012 were randomly selected, and 664 patients who were alive, had remained in clinical care and were receiving cART for at least six-months were included. Sub-optimal adherence was defined as patients' response of less than "all-of the time" to the self-report adherence question, or any clinician-recorded poor adherence during the six most recent clinic visits, or a pharmacy-refill of <95% medication possession ratio (MPR). Logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with sub-optimal adherence. The average adherence level to cART, expressed as MPR, was nearly 97%. However, sub-optimal adherence occurred in 12%, 4%, and 27% of patients according to self-report, clinician-recorded, and pharmacy-refill measures, respectively. More satisfaction with social support was significantly associated with less sub-optimal adherence according to self-report and clinician-record. Younger age, lower educational level, and lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation were significantly associated with sub-optimal refill-based adherence. Findings from our large multi-center study suggest that sub-optimal adherence was present in up to a quarter of the patients, despite a high degree of average adherence to cART. Interventions aimed at preventing sub-optimal adherence should focus on improving social support, on younger patients, on patients with lower educational level, and on those who started cART at a lower CD4 cell count.

  20. Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Workagegn, Fikremariam; Kiros, Getachew; Abebe, Lakew

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) voluntary counseling test (VCT) use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001), but interviewees with high perceived self-efficacy were 1.9 times more likely to use HIV-test (AOR =1.90, CI [1.09–3.33], P<0.05). Conclusion and recommendation This study identifies perceived

  1. A Description of Mortality Associated with IPT plus ART Compared to ART Alone among HIV-Infected Individuals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Edessa, Dumessa; Likisa, Jimma

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) associated opportunistic infection. It is the leading cause of death in HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa. Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) are the two useful TB preventative strategies available to reduce TB among people living with HIV (PLHIV). Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare mortality associated with IPT taken together with ART, as well as ART alone, among PLHIV. Methods A retrospective cohort study was undertaken at Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital (TASH) and Zewditu Memorial Hospital (ZMH) on 185 patients receiving IPT (6 months) plus ART and 557 patients receiving ART alone. Mortality rates (MR) per 100 person-years (PYs) were used to compare mortality rates amongst the groups. Time-to-death and survival probabilities of the patients were determined using the Kaplan Meier Method. The Cox Proportional Hazard Model was employed to estimate the effect of IPT plus ART on survival of PLHIV. Results The mortality cases noted in patients treated by IPT plus ART versus ART alone were 18 (4.5 cases/100 PYs) and 116 (10 cases/100 PYs), respectively. In reference to the ART alone, the IPT plus ART reduced the likelihood of death significantly (aHR 0.48; 95% CI 0.38–0.69) and median time to death was about 26 months (IQR 19–34). Moreover, WHO stage IV (aHR 2.42: 95% CI 1.42–4.11), CD4 values ≥350cells/mm3 (aHR 0.52; 95% CI 0.28–0.94), adherence to ART (aHR 0.12; 95% CI 0.08–0.20), primary levels of education (aHR 2.20; 95% CI 1.07–4.52); and alcohol consumption (aHR 1.71; 95% CI 1.04–2.81) were factors strongly associated with mortality. Conclusion We found that PLHIV treated by the IPT plus ART had a lower likelihood of mortality and delayed time-to-death when compared to patients treated by ART alone. PMID:26348618

  2. Teaching Children with Disabilities: ICTs in Bangkok and Addis Ababa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiemer, Margarita; Proyer, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: This paper intends to explore the levels of availability and restrictions in relation to the use of ICTs (information and communication technologies) for educating children with disabilities in Thailand's and Ethiopia's capitals. Design/methodology/approach: In the course of an international research project, parents and teachers of…

  3. Network Science Center Research Teams Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    overseeing the program that includes approximately 20 kids ranging from age 4 to 12. We were able to visit the project site with him and this will be...companies or people to create video and multimedia productions. During filming, Samson has a crew of seven employees. Samson took his firm to the next...these two days driving to, and visiting a “One Laptop per Child” study site located near Lake Wenchi. This visit is discussed in a blog post authored by

  4. A qualitative study of the experience of obstetric fistula survivors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors' perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants' understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric fistula successfully, there should be family-based interventions that improve access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. These initiatives should also ensure men's participation, women's empowerment, and the utilization of community-based institutions.

  5. Assessment of Sexual and Reproductive Health Status of Street Children in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Habtamu, Demelash; Adamu, Addisie

    2013-01-01

    Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3%) of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42-4.56) and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41-7.22) increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9%) of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5%) was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them.

  6. Heteronormativity and 'troubled' masculinities among men who have sex with men in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Tadele, Getnet

    2011-04-01

    In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large.

  7. Assessment of Sexual and Reproductive Health Status of Street Children in Addis Ababa

    PubMed Central

    Habtamu, Demelash; Adamu, Addisie

    2013-01-01

    Street children worldwide do not have the information, skills, health services, and support they need to go through sexual development during adolescence. This study is undertaken to systematically investigate the fit between street children's sexual and reproductive health needs and the existing services. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 422 street children and four service providers. About 72.5% of the respondents were sexually active during data collection and 84.3% of males and 85.7% of females tended to have multiple sexual partners. More than two-thirds (67.3%) of the participants had used at least one type of substance. History of substance use (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.42–4.56) and being on the street for the first one to three years (OR = 5.9; 95% CI = 1.41–7.22) increased the likelihood of having sexual activity. More than half (64.9%) of the street children did not attend any kind of sexual or reproductive health education programs. Lack of information on available services (26.5%) was the biggest barrier for utilization of local sexual and reproductive health services. From the individual interview with coordinator, the financial and networking problems were hindering the service delivery for street children. In conclusion, street children who are special high risk group have not been targeted and hence continue to remain vulnerable and lacking in sexual and reproductive health services and sexual health services are poorly advertised and delivered to them. PMID:26316958

  8. Network Science Center Research Team’s Visit to Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    initial testing stages, but Michael is the man on the ground overseeing the program that includes approximately 20 kids ranging from age 4 to 12. We...film and production company. Samson is hired by other companies or people to create video and multimedia productions. During filming, Samson has a... Lake Wenchi. This visit is discussed in a blog post authored by Evan Szablowski: http://blog.netsciwestpoint.org/2012/08/13/one-laptop-per-child/. The

  9. Variability of Quality of Life at Small Scales: Addis Ababa, Kirkos Sub-City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfazghi, Elsa Sereke; Martinez, J. A.; Verplanke, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Urban quality of life (QoL) is becoming a subject of urban research mainly for western and Asian countries. Such attention is due to an increasing awareness of the contribution of QoL studies in identifying intervention areas and in monitoring urban planning policies. However, most studies are carried out at city or country level that can average…

  10. Social Scientists' Understanding of Academic Freedom in Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia: A Descriptive Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degefa, Demoze

    2015-01-01

    The perennial debate about academic freedom engages with assessing the extent to which academic freedom has been exercised by academics by using some normative and quantitative approaches. Often studies on academic freedom deal with the extent to which institutions comply with norms in terms of the rights of the academics on some international…

  11. Education and Culture in Africa; A Contribution to the Revision of the Addis Ababa Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamian, Bakari

    1974-01-01

    African education -- past and present -- is surveyed and suggestions are made to ensure that African national educational systems meet the needs of a modern world while fostering the full development of African culture and helping to satisfy the material and spiritual needs of the in people. (JH)

  12. The Economic Significance of Ethnicity: Unionized Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutt, Russell K.; Sisaye, Seleshi

    1981-01-01

    Investigated whether, as both class and assimilationist theories predict, changes in economic structure of a modernizing society and associated phenomena, such as unionization, would modify the social significance of ethnicity. Key elements of both theories received some support in the analysis of industrial and organizational development in Addis…

  13. Evaluation of Extension at the Haile Sellassie I University, Addis Ababa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, C. A.; And Others

    An evaluation of extension education at Haile Sellassie University is presented. It includes the following focal points: (1) extension development, (2) present extension services, (3) the need for a new concept of university extension, (4) extension in a developing country, (5) recommendations, and (6) future research. (CK)

  14. Students Talk about Their HIV/AIDS Education Courses: A Case of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambe, Mariam M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to explore how Ethiopian high school students experienced the HIV/AIDS education programs offered in their schools. The project also examined gender differences in the way HIV/AIDS education was perceived and the implications for the instructional design of the programs. A total of 15 high school students (eight…

  15. A qualitative study of the experience of obstetric fistula survivors in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Gebresilase, Yenenesh Tadesse

    2014-01-01

    Research on obstetric fistula has paid limited attention to the lived experiences of survivors. This qualitative study explored the evolution of survivors’ perceptions of their social relationships and health since developing this obstetric complication. In-depth interviews were conducted with eight survivors who were selected based on purposive and snowball sampling techniques. Thematic categorization and content analysis was used to analyze the data. The resultant themes included participants’ understanding of factors predisposing to fistula, challenges they encounter, their coping responses, and the meaning of their experiences. First, the participants had a common understanding of the factors that predisposed them to obstetric fistula. They mentioned poor knowledge about pregnancy, early marriage, cultural practices, and a delay in or lack of access to emergency obstetric care. Second, the participants suffered from powerlessness experienced during their childhood and married lives. They also faced prolonged obstructed labor, physical injury, emotional breakdown, depression, erosion of social capital, and loss of healthy years. Third, to control their negative emotions, participants reported isolating themselves, having suicidal thoughts, positive interpretation about the future, and avoidance. To obtain relief from their disease, the women used their family support, sold their properties, and oriented to reality. Fourth, the participants were struggling to keep going, to accept their changed reality, and to change their perspectives on life. In conclusion, obstetric fistula has significant physical, psychosocial, and emotional consequences. The study participants were not passive victims but rather active survivors of these challenges. Adequate support was not provided by their formal or informal support systems. To prevent and manage obstetric fistula successfully, there should be family-based interventions that improve access to and provision of emergency obstetric care. These initiatives should also ensure men’s participation, women’s empowerment, and the utilization of community-based institutions. PMID:25525395

  16. Searching for Addie: The Story behind a Famous Photograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winthrop, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a story behind the famous photograph of "Addie." Addie was a symbol of child labor reform. The author first saw the picture of Addie in the summer of 2002 at the Bennington Museum in Bennington, Vermont. Addie's picture was just one in an exhibit of child labor photographs taken by famed photographer…

  17. In Search of the Elusive ADDIE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origin of the ADDIE model of instructional design and concludes that the term came into use by word of mouth as a label for the whole family of systematic instructional development models. Examines the underlying ideas behind the acronym analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  18. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  19. Modifying ADDIE: Incorporating New Technologies in Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Clayton

    2014-01-01

    There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…

  20. Determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries in Ethiopia: a case of Addis Ababa and its surroundings.

    PubMed

    Lemma, Habtamu Regassa; Singh, Rajwinder; Kaur, Navjot

    2015-01-01

    Coordination of different business activities among units becomes vital as organizations pay much attention to their core activities. Thus, their fruitfulness constantly relies on their capacity to coordinate their internal and external activities in the supply chain outside their own boundaries. Giving consideration to these obvious reasons, this paper aims to investigate the determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries. The data were collected from 330 milk suppliers, processors, and retailers in the central part of Ethiopia. The structural equation modeling has been employed to develop the structural relationship between key constructs and measured variables. In total, 15 measured variables for coordination in the supply chain have been identified. These are further grouped into four factors namely, non-price coordination, price coordination, relationships and product development decision. It has been observed that the implementation of these factors could maximize the coordination linkage among supply chain members. Thus, dairy sectors should take the identified coordination factors into account in each of their business dealings.

  1. Standardization Techniques for Grade-Inflation Problems at Higher Educational Institutions of Ethiopia: The Case of Addis Ababa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassahun, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Cumulative Grade Point Average (CGPA) is a measure that is used to display the achievement of college students in Ethiopia. It also serves as a key yardstick in career and scholarship assessment. In recent time there has been a rapid massification of higher educational institutions (HEIs). Many academics believe that the expansion has increased a…

  2. Who Do You Know? Developing and Analyzing Entrepreneur Networks: An Analysis of the Entrepreneurial Environment of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    845.938.0804 References Greve, A., Salaff, J., 2003. Social networks and entrepreneurship . Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 28 (1), 1–22. Lin, Nan...adapted a technique used in sociology to measure social capital called the Position Generator (Lin & Dumin, 1986; Lin et Al, 2001). This technique...circumvents the massive effort of mapping an individual’s social network before locating the social resources in it. By approaching the entrepreneur’s

  3. Distance Education for Development. Proceedings of an International Seminar (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, September 13-15, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakemulder, Jan R., Ed.

    An extensive final report of the proceedings of an international seminar on distance education in developing nations of Africa includes presented papers, discussion proceedings, and views of several participants. Contents include the following: notes on the origin of the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa's initiative in distance…

  4. Towards New Ventures in Education. Workshop on Nonformal Education (Yared Music School, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, February 18, 1974).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neqniq, Ato Million

    The major responsibility of this workshop on nonformal education is to establish some prototypes of community training activities which will coordinate with the agricultural and health components of Ethiopia's Fourth Five Year Plan for rural development and which can later be reproduced in the countryside. Linking education to overall development…

  5. Instructional Supervision and Its Relationship with Professional Development: Perception of Private and Government Secondary School Teachers in Addis Ababa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaw, T. A.; Hofman, R. H.

    2012-01-01

    (Purpose) The purpose of this study is to examine the existing perceptions and preferences of teachers toward instructional supervision, more specifically on the actual and ideal use of selected instructional supervisory approaches (such as clinical supervision, peer coaching, cognitive coaching, mentoring, reflective coaching, teaching…

  6. Co-Creating a Psychiatric Resident Program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alem, Atalay; Pain, Clare; Araya, Mesfin; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Globalization in medical education often means a "brain drain" of desperately needed health professionals from low- to high-income countries. Despite the best intentions, partnerships that simply transport students to Western medical schools for training have shockingly low return rates. Ethiopia, for example, has sent…

  7. Assessment of client satisfaction in labor and delivery services at a maternity referral hospital in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Melese, Tadele; Gebrehiwot, Yirgu; Bisetegne, Daniel; Habte, Dereje

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Patients perception about service quality shapes their confidence with regard to use of the available health care facility. This study is aimed to assess the client`s satisfaction in a maternal health care setting. Methods This is an institution based cross sectional descriptive study. A total of 423 postpartum women were interviewed. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical package. Results The proportion of mothers who are completely satisfied with health care ranges between 2.4 to 21%. Pain control was the poorest source of satisfaction with 82% reporting dissatisfaction. Provider's communication with clients yielded complete satisfaction rates ranging between 0.7 to 26%. Inadequate information about the drug prescribed and explanation of procedures to be done to the client were found to be major causes of dissatisfaction. The complete satisfaction rate with environmental factor of the hospital was between 3.3 to 40.2%. Age of the client, educational status, income of the client and client's address away from Addis Ababa were found to be the predictors of client satisfaction. Provider's attitude and communication, as well as longer duration of stay in the ward were independent predictors of client satisfaction. Conclusion Pain management, client privacy and client provider communication need to be addressed to ensure the satisfaction of maternity clients. The clients need to be involved in the management of their own health problems. PMID:25018826

  8. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  9. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  10. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  11. The ABC's of Online Course Design According to Addie Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durak, Gürhan; Ataizi, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design the course of Programming Languages-I online, which is given on face-to-face basis at undergraduate level. It is seen in literature that there is no detailed research on the preparation of a fully-online course directly based on an instructional design model. In this respect, depending on the ADDIE design…

  12. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  13. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  14. Drug-related problems in medical wards of Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Mohammed Biset; Megersa, Teshome Nedi; Mengistu, Yewondwossen Taddese

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of drug-related problems (DRPs), identify the most common drugs, and drug classes involved in DRPs as well as associated factors with the occurrence of DRPs. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on 225 patients admitted to medical wards of Tikur Anbessa Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa from March to June 2014. Data regarding patient characteristics, medications, diagnosis, length of hospitalization, investigation, and laboratory results were collected using data abstraction forms through review of patients’ medical card and medication charts. Identified DRPs were recorded and classified using DRP registration forms. The possible intervention measures for the identified DRPs were proposed and communicated to either the physician or the patient. Data were entered into Epi Info 7 and analyzed using SPSS version 21 (IBM Corp. Released 2012, Armonk, NY: IBM Corp). Findings: DRPs were found in 52% of study subjects. A drug-drug interaction (48% of all DRPs) was the most common DRP followed by adverse drug reaction (23%). Anti-infectives and gastrointestinal medicines were commonly involved in DRPs. Drugs with the highest drug risk ratio were gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine. The number of drugs taken by the patient per day is an important risk factor for DRPs. Conclusion: DRPs are common among medical ward patients. Polypharmacy has a significant association with the occurrence of DRP. Drugs such as gentamycin, warfarin, nifedipine, and cimetidine have the highest probability of causing DRP. So, patients who are taking either of these drugs or polypharmacy should be closely assessed for identification and timely correction of DRPs. PMID:26645029

  15. High prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in Ethiopian cats in Addis Ababa, coinfection, and a review of toxoplasmosis in humans and other animals in Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV), and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLv) are related to Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and Human T-lymphotrophic Virus, respectively, and these viruses are immunosuppressive. In the present study, the p...

  16. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27): a short version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Wong, Jane L; Emmerich, Ashley; Lozano, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted three studies to construct and examine the psychometric properties of a 27-item version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90 (MASQ-90; Watson & Clark, 1991a). The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) contains three empirically derived scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress, which are relevant dimensions of the tripartite model of affect. Each scale is composed of nine items, and the estimate of scale reliability for each scale score was ≥ .80 across the three studies. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided adequate support for a 3-factor model. Additional estimates of concurrent validity documented the ADDI-27 scales' convergent and discriminant validity. We also identified three construct relevant correlates for each scale score. Overall, the ADDI-27 appears to be a content valid, reliable, and multidimensional measure of the tripartite model of affect.

  17. Using Multimedia to Enhance Knowledge of Service Attitude in the Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Chun Min

    2012-01-01

    Having used a quasi-experimental research model and the ADDIE (Analyze, Design, Develop, Implement, and Evaluate) calibration method to gather and implement data, the researcher developed an interactive multimedia assisted learning (MAL) program promoting proper service attitudes in the hospitality industry. In order to gauge MAL program's…

  18. African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development. Report and Recommendations = Colloque regional africain la telematique au service du developpement. Rapport et recommandations (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, April 3-7, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Telecommunication Union, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The African Regional Symposium on Telematics for Development was organized in view of the special educational and communication needs of Africa in a time of accelerating change and development of information technologies. The symposium brought together more than 150 African specialists, and over 40 participants from other regions and development…

  19. High Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid Supplementation during Pregnancy Time among Antenatal and Postnatal Care Attendant Mothers in Governmental Health Centers in Akaki Kality Sub City, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression

    PubMed Central

    Gebreamlak, Bisratemariam; Dadi, Abel Fekadu; Atnafu, Azeb

    2017-01-01

    Background Iron deficiency during pregnancy is a risk factor for anemia, preterm delivery, and low birth weight. Iron/Folic Acid supplementation with optimal adherence can effectively prevent anemia in pregnancy. However, studies that address this area of adherence are very limited. Therefore, the current study was conducted to assess the adherence and to identify factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake during pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care follow up in Akaki kality sub city. Methods Institutional based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 557 pregnant women attending antenatal and postnatal care service. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The mothers were interviewed and the collected data was cleaned and entered into Epi Info 3.5.1 and analyzed by R version 3.2.0. Hierarchical Negative Binomial Poisson Regression Model was fitted to identify the factors associated with a number of Iron/Folic Acid uptake. Adjusted Incidence rate ratio (IRR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was computed to assess the strength and significance of the association. Result More than 90% of the mothers were supplemented with at least one Iron/Folic Acid supplement from pill per week during their pregnancy time. Sixty percent of the mothers adhered (took four or more tablets per week) (95%CI, 56%—64.1%). Higher IRR of Iron/Folic Acid supplementation was observed among women: who received health education; which were privately employed; who achieved secondary education; and who believed that Iron/Folic Acid supplements increase blood, whereas mothers who reported a side effect, who were from families with relatively better monthly income, and who took the supplement when sick were more likely to adhere. Conclusion Adherence to Iron/Folic Acid supplement during their pregnancy time among mothers attending antenatal and postnatal care was found to be high. Activities that would address the above mentioned factors were highly recommended to ensure the sustainability of mothers’ adherence to the supplement. PMID:28129344

  20. Designing for Engagement: Using the ADDIE Model to Integrate High-Impact Practices into an Online Information Literacy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols Hess, Amanda Kathryn; Greer, Katie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors share how a team of librarians used the ADDIE instructional design model to incorporate best practices in teaching and learning into an online, four-credit information literacy course. In this redesign process, the Association of American Colleges and Universities' high-impact practices and e-learning best practices…

  1. Canadian Residents Teaching and Learning Psychiatry in Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Analysis Focusing on Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Shelley; Robertson, David; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP) is an international collaboration between University of Toronto and Addis Ababa University. University of Toronto psychiatric residents may participate in TAAPP as an elective. The authors explored the Canadian resident experience in a qualitative study of the project. Methods: Eleven…

  2. Thomas Addis, MD (1881-1949): Scottish-American clinical laboratory researcher, social activist and pioneer of renal medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated.

  3. Student Teaching in Nonwestern Science Classrooms: Analysis of Views from Potential Participants in the Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engida, Temechegn

    2000-01-01

    Surveys the student teaching program for science teachers at the Addis Ababa University. Investigates student teachers' perspectives on the discrepancies between theoretical and experiential science teaching that they have acquired. (Contains 13 references.) (Author/YDS)

  4. Sub-Saharan Africa Report, No. 2861.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Addis Ababa University. He has a degree from the Addis Ababa university in Political Science and international Relations, and in the past five years...completion of a five month course in military science and political education. The officers had distinguished themselves in their long-services in the...training and had acquired knowledge of military science during their training session to reinforce their practical experience. Certificates and prizes to

  5. Glasnost about Building Socialism in Ethiopia: Analysis of a Critical Soviet Article

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    contained in many research studies and documents of the 1970s, when any 𔄁Regulation on Peasant Producer Cooperatives, Addis Ababa, 1979 (in Amharic ...problems was underestimated. Emphases in programmatic 19Declaration of the iI Congress of COPWE (January 6, 1983), Addis Ababa, 1983 (in Amharic ). - 27...and the United Democratic Front of Ethiopia (UDFE) are active in several provinces with a predominantly Amharic population under the slogan of

  6. Addi-Chek filtration, BACTEC, and 10-ml culture methods for recovery of microorganisms from dialysis effluent during episodes of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Males, B M; Walshe, J J; Garringer, L; Koscinski, D; Amsterdam, D

    1986-02-01

    The Addi-Chek (filtration; Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.) and BACTEC (radiometric detection of growth in culture media; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) systems were compared with the 10-ml culture (centrifugation) method for the recovery of microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate collected from patients with clinical evidence of peritonitis and containing greater than or equal to 200 leukocytes per mm3. Both alternate methods were comparable, and results were not significantly different from those of the conventional 10-ml culture method. All systems were adversely affected in their capacity to recover organisms when dialysates had been collected during periods of antimicrobial therapy.

  7. Norovirus - hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Gastroenteritis - norovirus; Colitis - norovirus; Hospital acquired infection - norovirus ... fluids ( dehydration ). Anyone can become infected with norovirus. Hospital patients who are very old, very young, or ...

  8. The East African Training Initiative. A Model Training Program in Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine for Low-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Charles B; Carter, E Jane; Braendli, Otto; Getaneh, Asqual; Schluger, Neil W

    2016-04-01

    Despite an extensive burden of lung disease in East Africa, there are remarkably few pulmonary physicians in the region and no pulmonary subspecialty training programs. We developed a unique training program for pulmonary medicine in Ethiopia. The East African Training Initiative (EATI) is a 2-year fellowship program at Tikur Anbessa (Black Lion) Specialized Teaching Hospital, the largest public hospital in Ethiopia and the teaching hospital for the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The first year is devoted to clinical care and procedural skills. Lectures, conferences, daily inpatient and outpatient rounds, and procedure supervision by visiting faculty provide the clinical knowledge foundation. In the second year, training in clinical research is added to ongoing clinical training. Before graduation, fellows must pass rigorous written and oral examinations and achieve high marks on faculty evaluations. Funding derives from several sources. Ethiopian trainees are paid by the Ethiopian Ministry of Health and the Addis Ababa University School of Medicine. The World Lung Foundation and the Swiss Lung Foundation supply travel and housing costs for visiting faculty, who receive no other stipend. The first two trainees graduated in January 2015, and a second class of three fellows completed training in January 2016. All five presented research abstracts at the annual meetings of the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease in 2014 and 2015. The EATI has successfully provided pulmonary medicine training in Ethiopia and has capacity for local leadership. We believe that EATI could be a model for other resource-limited countries.

  9. Understanding hospitality.

    PubMed

    Patten, C S

    1994-03-01

    Bridging patient/"customer" issues and business aspects can be aided through developing a specific nursing basis for hospitality. The ancient practice of hospitality has evolved into three distinct levels: public, personal and therapeutic. Understanding these levels is helpful in integrating various dimensions of guest relations programs in hospitals into a more comprehensive vision. Hospitality issues must become a greater part of today's nursing management.

  10. Hospital marketing.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tony

    2003-01-01

    This article looks at a prescribed academic framework for various criteria that serve as a checklist for marketing performance that can be applied to hospital marketing organizations. These guidelines are drawn from some of Dr. Noel Capon of Columbia University's book Marketing Management in the 21st Century and applied to actual practices of hospital marketing organizations. In many ways this checklist can act as a "marketing" balanced scorecard to verify performance effectiveness and develop opportunities for innovation.

  11. Hospital philanthropy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Dean G; Clement, Jan P

    2013-01-01

    It remains an open question whether hospital spending on fundraising efforts to garner philanthropy is a good use of funds. Research and industry reports provide conflicting results. We describe the accounting and data challenges in analysis of hospital philanthropy, which include measurement of donations, measurement of fundraising expenses, and finding the relationships among organizations where these cash flows occur. With these challenges, finding conflicting results is not a surprise.

  12. Hospitality Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College of the Canyons, Valencia, CA.

    A project was conducted at College of the Canyons (Valencia, California) to initiate a new 2-year hospitality program with career options in hotel or restaurant management. A mail and telephone survey of area employers in the restaurant and hotel field demonstrated a need for, interest in, and willingness to provide internships for such a program.…

  13. Hospital finance.

    PubMed

    Herman, M J

    1998-01-01

    This article summarizes key areas of focus for the analysis of risk in the hospital segment of the health care industry. The article is written from a commercial bank lending perspective. Both for-profit (C-corporations) and 501 (c)(3) not-for-profit segments are addressed.

  14. Academic Hospitality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phipps, Alison; Barnett, Ronald

    2007-01-01

    Academic hospitality is a feature of academic life. It takes many forms. It takes material form in the hosting of academics giving papers. It takes epistemological form in the welcome of new ideas. It takes linguistic form in the translation of academic work into other languages, and it takes touristic form through the welcome and generosity with…

  15. Can hospitals compete on quality? Hospital competition.

    PubMed

    Sadat, Somayeh; Abouee-Mehrizi, Hossein; Carter, Michael W

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we consider two hospitals with different perceived quality of care competing to capture a fraction of the total market demand. Patients select the hospital that provides the highest utility, which is a function of price and the patient's perceived quality of life during their life expectancy. We consider a market with a single class of patients and show that depending on the market demand and perceived quality of care of the hospitals, patients may enjoy a positive utility. Moreover, hospitals share the market demand based on their perceived quality of care and capacity. We also show that in a monopoly market (a market with a single hospital) the optimal demand captured by the hospital is independent of the perceived quality of care. We investigate the effects of different parameters including the market demand, hospitals' capacities, and perceived quality of care on the fraction of the demand that each hospital captures using some numerical examples.

  16. Changing hospital payments: implications for teaching hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bentley, J D

    1983-09-01

    Hospitals cannot continue to view themselves only as social institutions whose performance will be assessed on the good they do. Teaching hospitals, in particular, cannot view themselves simply as distinctive combinations of social and educational institutions. Under Medicare's prospective pricing system, the hospital's role as production system is enhanced, and all hospitals must learn to balance the new economic realities as they work with their medical staff to adapt to a changed future.

  17. Going to the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Going to the Hospital KidsHealth > For Kids > Going to the Hospital Print ... you flowers, balloons, or other treats! previous continue Hospital People You'll meet lots of people in ...

  18. Critical Access Hospitals (CAH)

    MedlinePlus

    ... use requirements for Critical Access Hospitals related to Electronic Health Records (EHRs)? Critical Access Hospital (CAH) are eligible for Electronic Health Record (EHR) incentive payments and can receive ...

  19. Specialty hospitals: can general hospitals compete?

    PubMed

    Dummit, Laura A

    2005-07-13

    The rapid increase in specialty cardiac, surgical, and orthopedic hospitals has captured the attention of general hospitals and policymakers. Although the number of specialty hospitals remains small in absolute terms, their entry into certain health care markets has fueled arguments about the rules of "fair" competition among health care providers. To allow the smoke to clear, Congress effectively stalled the growth in new specialty hospitals by temporarily prohibiting physicians from referring Medicare or Medicaid patients to specialty hospitals in which they had an ownership interest. During this 18-month moratorium, which expired June 8, 2005, two mandated studies of specialty hospitals provided information to help assess their potential effect on health care delivery. This issue brief discusses the research on specialty hospitals, including their payments under Medicare's hospital inpatient payment system, the quality and cost of care they deliver, their effect on general hospitals and on overall health care delivery, and the regulatory and legal environment in which they have proliferated. It concludes with open issues concerning physician self-referral and the role of general hospitals in providing a range of health care services.

  20. Measuring Rural Hospital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moscovice, Ira; Wholey, Douglas R.; Klingner, Jill; Knott, Astrid

    2004-01-01

    Increased interest in the measurement of hospital quality has been stimulated by accrediting bodies, purchaser coalitions, government agencies, and other entities. This paper examines quality measurement for hospitals in rural settings. We seek to identify rural hospital quality measures that reflect quality in all hospitals and that are sensitive…

  1. Hospital marketing revisited.

    PubMed

    Costello, M M

    1987-05-01

    With more hospitals embracing the marketing function in their organizational management over the past decade, hospital marketing can no longer be considered a fad. However, a review of hospital marketing efforts as reported in the professional literature indicates that hospitals must pay greater attention to the marketing mix elements of service, price and distribution channels as their programs mature.

  2. Using Qualitative Methods with Poor Children in Urban Ethiopia: Opportunities & Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tekola, Bethlehem; Griffin, Christine; Camfield, Laura

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the advantages and challenges of using qualitative methods to elicit poor children's perspectives about threats and positive influences on their wellbeing. It draws on research carried out by the author on the subjective experiences of poor children in Addis Ababa, the capital of Ethiopia in terms of their understandings of…

  3. The Delivery of Business Courses via the African Virtual University: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Mark; Bolt, Susan

    2011-01-01

    In this case study the delivery of business courses as a result of the partnership between the African Virtual University (AVU) and Curtin University in Western Australia is described. From 2004 to 2008, degree and diploma business courses were delivered using WebCT in the four AVU partner locations: Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia), Kigali…

  4. The Prevalence of Mental Health Problems in Ethiopian Child Laborers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fekadu, Daniel; Alem, Atalay; Hagglof, Bruno

    2006-01-01

    Background: Child labor refers to a state when a child is involved in exploitative economical activities that are mentally, physically, and socially hazardous. There are no prevalence studies on the magnitude of psychiatric disorders among child laborers. Methods: A cross-sectional population survey was conducted in Addis Ababa using the…

  5. Assessment of Challenges and Opportunity of Basketball Developments in Some Selected Regions in Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tufa, Gemechu Beker

    2015-01-01

    The intent of this study is to assess the challenges and Opportunity of Basketball development of in Some Selected Regions Ethiopia. The research made Addis Ababa, Oromia, Gambella and South Nation Nationality and People Regional States as the sites of this study. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches particularly a descriptive survey were…

  6. Providing Online Textbooks to the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2008-01-01

    Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. To get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely distribute 1,000…

  7. Software Group Gets Online Textbooks to the Developing World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Andrea L.

    2007-01-01

    Learning is valuable, but in Africa it is more than that: It is prohibitively expensive. In Ethiopia, where the per-capita income is about $100 a year, a single textbook at Addis Ababa University can cost $50. In order to get more textbooks to students in developing nations, two people are leading an ambitious project to produce and freely…

  8. Technology in Ethiopian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szente, Judit

    2006-01-01

    A US Agency for International Development decided to start an educational project in Ethiopia. The project originated with Dr. James L. Hoot from the University of Buffalo in 2000. Since 2002, two primary schools in the capital, Addis Ababa, have received assistance to establish self-sustaining, technology-based learning environments for students…

  9. Government Voices, People's Voices: Literacy/Adult Education for Progress and Human Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasution, Amir H., Comp.

    A compilation of resolutions and recommendations from conferences held by African Governments and African regional and national Adult Education Associations, this booklet shows the progress made in adult education and literacy in the African States. The Conference of African States held in Addis Ababa May 15-25, 1961 laid the foundation for adult…

  10. African Flagship Universities: Their Neglected Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teferra, Damtew

    2016-01-01

    This study documents and analyzes the contributions of flagship universities in Africa in teaching, learning, graduates, and research productivity since their inception. On the basis of empirical evidence (from an ongoing study) on eleven "flagship" universities in Africa--Addis Ababa, Botswana, Cairo, Chiekh Anta Diop, Dar es Salaam,…

  11. AMHARIC BASIC COURSE, UNITS 1-50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OBOLENSKY, SERGE; AND OTHERS

    THE AMHARIC BASIC COURSE WAS DESIGNED TO TEACH THE AMHARIC LANGUAGE AS IT IS SPOKEN IN ADDIS ABABA, THE CAPITAL OF ETHIOPIA. ALTHOUGH OTHER SEMITIC LANGUAGES, AS WELL AS CUSHITIC LANGUAGES, ARE ALSO SPOKEN IN ETHIOPIA, AMHARIC IS THE PRESTIGE LANGUAGE AND IS OFFICIALLY USED IN GOVERNMENT, IN BUSINESS, FOR ALL INSTRUCTION IN GOVERNMENT SCHOOLS, AND…

  12. Health policy: Reducing rheumatic heart disease in Africa -- time for action.

    PubMed

    Beaton, Andrea; Sable, Craig

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) key opinion leaders, health ministers, clinicians, and industry representatives gathered in Ethiopia in February 2015. The question: how to eradicate RHD in Africa. The response: the Addis Ababa communiqué, a practical document outlining seven major barriers to RHD control in Africa and seven strategies to address them.

  13. Recalled Test Anxiety in Relation to Achievement, in the Context of General Academic Self-Concept, Study Habits, Parental Involvement and Socio-Economic Status among Grade 6 Ethiopian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raju, P. Mohan; Asfaw, Abebech

    2009-01-01

    The study investigated the predictive nature of test anxiety on achievement in the presence of perceived general academic self-concept, study habits, parental involvement in children's learning and socio-economic status. From a population of 2482 Grade 6 students from seven government primary schools of a sub-city in Addis Ababa, 497 participants…

  14. Distance Education in Entwicklungslandern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    German Foundation for International Development, Bonn (West Germany).

    Seminar and conference reports and working papers on distance education of adults, which reflect the experiences of many countries, are presented. Contents include the draft report of the 1979 International Seminar on Distance Education held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, which was jointly sponsored by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa…

  15. Contribution of Awraja Pedagogical Centres in the Improvement of Education in Ethiopia. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habtegaber, Haile

    Teachers and teacher center personnel were used to gather evaluative information on Awraja Pedagogical Centers (APCs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Teachers discussed their access to center facilities and services, and ratings of center materials and personnel. APC staff discussed their work, hours of center operation, procedures followed in the…

  16. Review of SISA Student Dissertations on Library and Information Systems and Services in Eastern and Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, G. G.; Tadesse, Taye T.

    1995-01-01

    Analyzes student dissertations at the School of Information Studies for Africa (SISA) at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) in order to present an overview of the library and information systems and services available in seven eastern and southern African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia. (Author/LRW)

  17. Raising a Child with Intellectual Disabilities in Ethiopia: What Do Parents Say?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weldeab, Chernet Tekle; Opdal, Liv Randi

    2007-01-01

    Parental experiences in raising children with intellectual disability in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia are described. Using a qualitative research approach, interviews from eleven families formed a rich contextual data base, in addition to informal observations, informal conversations, discussions with key informants, and document review. Findings show…

  18. Connecting Children with Modern Urban Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Jane

    1998-01-01

    An author relates memorable experiences of living in Ethiopia and describes how her brother's friendship with a poor boy in the city of Addis Ababa who cared for pigeons led to a children's book. Includes a descriptive list of books on pigeons, Africa, pets and wild animals, and cities, and a list of books by the author. (AEF)

  19. On-the-Spot Course: Early Childhood Education in Ethiopia (August 2-30, 1993). Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golda Meir Mount Carmel International Training Centre, Haifa (Israel).

    This report describes a course on early childhood education methodology and practice that was held at the Ministry of Education in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, for 35 Ethiopian early childhood educators and administrators. In addition to presenting developmental profiles of preschool children, the 3-week course addressed philosophies of early childhood…

  20. Development of Libraries, Documentation and Information Centres in Ethiopia in the Twentieth Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Sushma

    1995-01-01

    Describes the historical development of libraries in Ethiopia. Examines the National Library of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa University Libraries, the Institute of Ethiopian Studies Library, and the Ethiopian Science and Technology Documentation and Information Center. Discusses the development of special libraries, libraries and documentation centers of…

  1. A Bayesian Performance Prediction Model for Mathematics Education: A Prototypical Approach for Effective Group Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bekele, Rahel; McPherson, Maggie

    2011-01-01

    This research work presents a Bayesian Performance Prediction Model that was created in order to determine the strength of personality traits in predicting the level of mathematics performance of high school students in Addis Ababa. It is an automated tool that can be used to collect information from students for the purpose of effective group…

  2. Partnerships in the Education System of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndiaye, Malick

    2006-01-01

    After gaining independence, at the Addis Ababa meeting (1961) most African countries, including Senegal, decided to develop their education systems. In 1980, a number of objectives were set out, including the democratization of primary education and universal sustainable schooling. According to its economic possibilities, its human resources and…

  3. ABNCD+: A Prototype for an Integrated Information Storage and Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rorissa, Abebe; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes an integrated database developed at Addis Ababa University (Ethiopia) that includes bibliographic records, thesauri, and a union catalog of serials. Information products and services are described, fields and formats of the records are explained, data conversion and downloading are discussed, and sample records are appended. (five…

  4. Evaluation of 1982 Summer In-Service Secondary School Teacher Education Programmes in Ethiopia. African Studies in Curriculum Development and Evaluation. No. 131.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moraga, Gebre Yohannes

    An evaluation is presented of summer inservice secondary school teacher education programs given at five colleges of Addis Ababa University in 1982. A survey was conducted focusing on how academic and administrative affairs were operated. The first chapter of this report provides a statement of the problem, identifying the background history of…

  5. Report of the Utah Project in Ethiopia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah Univ., Salt Lake City.

    Since June of 1962, the University of Utah, in cooperation with the United States Agency for International Development and the Ethiopian Government, has helped to build a faculty of education at the Haile Sellassie I University in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The assignment has included two projects. The first was for preparation of junior-secondary and…

  6. Relationship between Instructional Supervision and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaw, Tadele Akalu; Hofman, Roelande H.

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine the existing perceptions of teachers toward instructional supervision in secondary schools of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. It also explore if there were differences between beginner and experienced teachers in their attitudes toward and satisfaction with supervisory practices and (possible) relationships…

  7. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Noether, M

    1988-09-01

    The traditional view of hospital competition has posited that hospitals compete primarily along 'quality' dimensions, in the form of fancy equipment to attract admitting physicians and pleasant surroundings to entice patients. Price competition among hospitals is thought to be non-existent. This paper estimates the effects of various hospital market characteristics on hospital prices and expenses in an attempt to determine the form of hospital competition. The results suggest that both price and quality competition are greater in markets that are less concentrated, although the net effect of the two on prices is insignificant. It appears, therefore, that, despite important distortions, hospital markets are not immune to standard competitive forces.

  8. Guide to Choosing a Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... your condition? Should you consider a specialty hospital, teaching hospital (usually part of a university), community hospital, ... been approved by Medicare. Hospitals may choose either method of evaluation. You can check with a hospital ...

  9. The application of hospitality elements in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ziqi; Robson, Stephani; Hollis, Brooke

    2013-01-01

    In the last decade, many hospital designs have taken inspiration from hotels, spurred by factors such as increased patient and family expectations and regulatory or financial incentives. Increasingly, research evidence suggests the value of enhancing the physical environment to foster healing and drive consumer decisions and perceptions of service quality. Although interest is increasing in the broader applicability of numerous hospitality concepts to the healthcare field, the focus of this article is design innovations, and the services that such innovations support, from the hospitality industry. To identify physical hotel design elements and associated operational features that have been used in the healthcare arena, a series of interviews with hospital and hotel design experts were conducted. Current examples and suggestions for future hospitality elements were also sought from the experts, academic journals, and news articles. Hospitality elements applied in existing hospitals that are addressed in this article include hotel-like rooms and decor; actual hotels incorporated into medical centers; hotel-quality food, room service, and dining facilities for families; welcoming lobbies and common spaces; hospitality-oriented customer service training; enhanced service offerings, including concierges; spas or therapy centers; hotel-style signage and way-finding tools; and entertainment features. Selected elements that have potential for future incorporation include executive lounges and/or communal lobbies with complimentary wireless Internet and refreshments, centralized controls for patients, and flexible furniture. Although the findings from this study underscore the need for more hospitality-like environments in hospitals, the investment decisions made by healthcare executives must be balanced with cost-effectiveness and the assurance that clinical excellence remains the top priority.

  10. Help prevent hospital errors

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23330698 . The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2014 National Patient Safety Goals. www.jointcommission. ... October 24, 2014. Accessed October 27, 2016. The Joint Commission. Hospital: 2016 National Patient Safety Goals. Updated January ...

  11. Hospitals as health educators

    MedlinePlus

    ... than your local hospital. From health videos to yoga classes, many hospitals offer information families need to ... care and breastfeeding Parenting Baby sign language Baby yoga or massage Babysitting courses for teens Exercise classes ...

  12. Surviving Your Child's Hospitalization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, David A.

    1988-01-01

    The parent of a young child who required major open heart surgery shares his suggestions for coping with a young child's hospitalization including parent visitation, relating to the hospital staff, getting answers to questions, and utilizing available services. (DB)

  13. Hospital Dermatology, Introduction.

    PubMed

    Fox, Lindy P

    2017-03-01

    Inpatient dermatology is emerging as a distinct dermatology subspecialty where dermatologists specialize in caring for patients hospitalized with skin disease. While the main focus of inpatient dermatology is the delivery of top-quality and timely dermatologic care to patients in the hospital setting, the practice of hospital-based dermatology has many additional components that are critical to its success.

  14. Positioning hospitals: a model for regional hospitals.

    PubMed

    Reddy, A C; Campbell, D P

    1993-01-01

    In an age of marketing warfare in the health care industry, hospitals need creative strategies to compete successfully. Lately, positioning concepts have been added to the health care marketer's arsenal of strategies. To blend theory with practice, the authors review basic positioning theory and present a framework for developing positioning strategies. They also evaluate the marketing strategies of a regional hospital to provide a case example.

  15. Central line infections - hospitals

    MedlinePlus

    ... infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired infection - central line infection; Patient safety - central ...

  16. Measuring hospital competition.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Chirikos, T N

    1988-03-01

    This paper appraises the use of the Herfindahl market share index as an exogenous competition variable in empirical studies of the hospital sector. An analysis of cross-sectional Florida data shows that this index itself is significantly influenced by the demand and supply factors commonly included in econometric models of hospital performance. The analysis then illustrates that biased inferences about the effects of market competition on the costs of hospital care may result unless the values of the Herfindahl Index are treated endogenously in hospital cost models.

  17. Hospitality Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Bureau of Homemaking Education.

    This curriculum guide on the hospitality occupations was developed to help secondary and postsecondary home economics teachers prepare individuals for entry-level jobs in the hospitality industry. The content is in seven sections. The first section presents organizational charts of a medium-size hotel, food and beverage division, housekeeping and…

  18. Hospitality, Tourism, and Recreation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novachek, James

    The Northern Arizona Hospitality Education Program is an exemplary three-year project designed to help students, mainly Indian, obtain job skills and attitudes necessary for successful employment in the hospitality industry. Nine high schools from Apache, Coconino, and Navajo Counties participated in the project. Objectives included providing an…

  19. Handbook on Hospital Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prynne, T. A.

    Designed for both hospital personnel interested in television and audiovisual personnel entering the medical field, this handbook is a verbal and pictorial survey of what is being done with TV within the medical profession. After an introduction which answers technical questions about medical TV posed during the American Hospital Association's…

  20. Hospitality Services. Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This guide, which was developed as part of Texas' home economics education program, is intended to assist teachers of a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The first 40% of the approximately 600-page guide consists of strategies for teaching each of 29 essential…

  1. Hospitality Services Reference Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This reference book provides information needed by employees in hospitality services occupations. It includes 29 chapters that cover the following topics: the hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization and management structures; safety practices and emergency procedures; technology; property maintenance and repair; purchasing…

  2. Virtual Pediatric Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thoracopaedia - An Imaging Encyclopedia of Pediatric Thoracic Disease Virtual Pediatric Hospital is the Apprentice's Assistant™ Last revised ... pediatric resources: GeneralPediatrics.com | PediatricEducation.org | SearchingPediatrics.com Virtual Pediatric Hospital is curated by Donna M. D' ...

  3. Hospital benefit segmentation.

    PubMed

    Finn, D W; Lamb, C W

    1986-12-01

    Market segmentation is an important topic to both health care practitioners and researchers. The authors explore the relative importance that health care consumers attach to various benefits available in a major metropolitan area hospital. The purposes of the study are to test, and provide data to illustrate, the efficacy of one approach to hospital benefit segmentation analysis.

  4. Leading a hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Paula A

    2002-01-01

    Hospital closures have become more common. The challenges facing a nursing leader in this situation are complex and difficult. This author suggests that looking for new beginnings rather than focusing on endings created an approach to closing a public hospital. The article includes approaches to employee morale, staffing, and patient care.

  5. Competition among hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Martin; Vogt, William B

    2003-01-01

    We examine competition in the hospital industry, in particular the effect of ownership type (for-profit, not-for-profit, government). We estimate a structural model of demand and pricing in the hospital industry in California, then use the estimates to simulate the effect of a merger. California hospitals in 1995 face an average price elasticity of demand of -4.85. Not-for-profit hospitals face less elastic demand and act as if they have lower marginal costs. Their prices are lower than those of for-profits, but markups are higher. We simulate the effects of the 1997 merger of two hospital chains. In San Luis Obispo County, where the merger creates a near monopoly, prices rise by up to 53%, and the predicted price increase would not be substantially smaller were the chains not-for-profit.

  6. Physician distribution and attrition in the public health sector of Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Assefa, Tsion; Haile Mariam, Damen; Mekonnen, Wubegzier; Derbew, Miliard; Enbiale, Wendimagegn

    2016-01-01

    Background Shortages and imbalances in physician workforce distribution between urban and rural and among the different regions in Ethiopia are enormous. However, with the recent rapid expansion in medical education training, it is expected that the country can make progress in physician workforce supply. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the distribution of physician workforce in Ethiopia and assess the role of retention mechanisms in the reduction of physician migration from the public health sector of Ethiopia. Methods This organizational survey examined physician workforce data from 119 hospitals from 5 regions (Amhara, Oromia, Southern Nations Nationalities and Peoples Region [SNNPR], Tigray, and Harari) and 2 city administrations (Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa City). Training opportunity, distribution, and turnover between September 2009 and July 2015 were analyzed descriptively. Poisson regression model was used to find the association of different covariates with physician turnover. Results There were 2,300 medical doctors in 5 regions and 2 city administrations in ~6 years of observations. Of these, 553 (24.04%) medical doctors moved out of their duty stations and the remaining 1,747 (75.96%) were working actively. Of the actively working, the majority of the medical doctors, 1,407 (80.5%), were males, in which 889 (50.9%) were born after the year 1985, 997 (57%) had work experience of <3 years, and most, 1,471 (84.2%), were general practitioners. Within the observation period, physician turnover among specialists ranged from 21.4% in Dire Dawa to 43.3% in Amhara region. The capital, Addis Ababa, was the place of destination for 32 (82%) of the physicians who moved out to other regions from elsewhere in the country. The Poisson regression model revealed a decreased incidence of turnover among physicians born between the years 1975 and 1985 (incident rate ratio [IRR]: 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.79) and among those who were born

  7. Hospitals' Internal Accountability

    PubMed Central

    Kraetschmer, Nancy; Jass, Janak; Woodman, Cheryl; Koo, Irene; Kromm, Seija K.; Deber, Raisa B.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to enhance understanding of the dimensions of accountability captured and not captured in acute care hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Based on an Ontario-wide survey and follow-up interviews with three acute care hospitals in the Greater Toronto Area, we found that the two dominant dimensions of hospital accountability being reported are financial and quality performance. These two dimensions drove both internal and external reporting. Hospitals' internal reports typically included performance measures that were required or mandated in external reports. Although respondents saw reporting as a valuable mechanism for hospitals and the health system to monitor and track progress against desired outcomes, multiple challenges with current reporting requirements were communicated, including the following: 58% of survey respondents indicated that performance-reporting resources were insufficient; manual data capture and performance reporting were prevalent, with the majority of hospitals lacking sophisticated tools or technology to effectively capture, analyze and report performance data; hospitals tended to focus on those processes and outcomes with high measurability; and 53% of respondents indicated that valuable cross-system accountability, performance measures or both were not captured by current reporting requirements. PMID:25305387

  8. Hospital service recovery.

    PubMed

    Gutbezahl, Cary; Haan, Perry

    2006-01-01

    An organization's ability to correct service errors is an important factor in achieving success in today's service economy. This paper examines service recovery in hospitals in the U.S. First is a general review of service recovery theories. Next is a discussion of specific service issues related to the hospital environment. The literature on service recovery is used to make specific recommendations to hospitals for ways to improve their ability to remedy service errors when they occur. Suggestions for future research in the field of service recovery are also made.

  9. Predicting hospital accounting costs

    PubMed Central

    Newhouse, Joseph P.; Cretin, Shan; Witsberger, Christina J.

    1989-01-01

    Two alternative methods to Medicare Cost Reports that provide information about hospital costs more promptly but less accurately are investigated. Both employ utilization data from current-year bills. The first attaches costs to utilization data using cost-charge ratios from the previous year's cost report; the second uses charges from current year's bills. The first method is the more accurate of the two, but even using it, only 40 percent of hospitals had predicted costs within plus or minus 5 percent of actual costs. The feasibility and cost of obtaining cost reports from a small, fast-track sample of hospitals should be investigated. PMID:10313352

  10. Hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christine M; Cuker, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The development of thrombocytopenia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent and important causes of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients include etiologies related to the underlying illness for which the patient is admitted, such as infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and iatrogenic etiologies such as drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, hemodilution, major surgery, and extracorporeal circuitry. This review presents a brief discussion of the pathophysiology, distinguishing clinical features, and management of these etiologies, and provides a diagnostic approach to hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia that considers the timing and severity of the platelet count fall, the presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis, the clinical context, and the peripheral blood smear. This approach may offer guidance to clinicians in distinguishing among the various causes of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia and providing management appropriate to the etiology.

  11. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... products that are not commonly stocked in hospital pharmacies. Examples include: Salagen ® , Evoxac ® , and Restasis ® Eye drops, ... prescription and OTC medications/products in their labeled pharmacy container or packaging. This is important in case ...

  12. Home versus hospital confinement

    PubMed Central

    Barry, C. N.

    1980-01-01

    The case for hospital rather than home delivery has been powerfully argued, especially in and since the Report of the Peel Committee. Nevertheless, evidence of comparison with other countries, notably the Netherlands, suggests the choice is not necessarily simple. Some general practitioner units are now reporting perinatal mortality rates which are consistently lower than those of specialist units, and recent statistical analyses suggest that the presence of more high risk cases in consultant units does not explain this. The only big controlled home-versus-hospital trial did not lead to a significantly lower perinatal mortality rate in the hospital group. The onus of proof now seems to lie with those who advocate 100 per cent hospital confinement. PMID:7373581

  13. Objections to hospital philosophers.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddick, W; Finn, W

    1985-01-01

    Like morally sensitive hospital staff, philosophers resist routine simplification of morally complex cases. Like hospital clergy, they favour reflective and principled decision-making. Like hospital lawyers, they refine and extend the language we use to formulate and defend our complex decisions. But hospital philosophers are not redundant: they have a wider range of principles and categories and a sharper eye for self-serving presuppositions and implicit contradictions within our practices. As semi-outsiders, they are often best able to take an 'external point of view,' unburdened by routine, details, and departmental loyalties. Their clarifications can temporarily disrupt routine, but can eventually improve staff morale, hence team practice and patient welfare. PMID:3981573

  14. Hospital free cash flow.

    PubMed

    Kauer, R T; Silvers, J B

    1991-01-01

    Hospital managers may find it difficult to admit their investments have been suboptimal, but such investments often lead to poor returns and less future cash. Inappropriate use of free cash flow produces large transaction costs of exit. The relative efficiency of investor-owned and tax-exempt hospitals in the product market for hospital services is examined as the free cash flow theory is used to explore capital-market conditions of hospitals. Hypotheses concerning the current competitive conditions in the industry are set forth, and the implications of free cash flow for risk, capital-market efficiency, and the cost of capital to tax-exempt institution is compared to capital-market norms.

  15. American Hospital Association

    MedlinePlus

    ... Hospitals & Health Networks H & HN Daily Trustee Research & Trends AHA Policy Research Health Research & Educational Trust AHA ... Associations unless otherwise indicated. AHA does not claim ownership of any content, including content incorporated by permission ...

  16. Hospital Ship Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    designed to operate primarily when anchored to reduce the effects of roll. Quantum markets two separate zero speed active roll fin models for small ...ships. Feasibility of scaling fins to the size of the hospital ship requires validation. 3.12 Lifeboats and Liferafts The safety appliances designated ...for Innovation in Ship Design Technical Report Hospital Ship Replacement By Hannah Allison, Christopher Mehrvarzi, Rebecca Piks, Beau Lovdahl

  17. Fast tracking hospital construction.

    PubMed

    Quirk, Andrew

    2013-03-01

    Hospital leaders should consider four factors in determining whether to fast track a hospital construction project: Expectations of project length, quality, and cost. Whether decisions can be made quickly as issues arise. Their own time commitment to the project, as well as that of architects, engineers, construction managers, and others. The extent to which they are willing to share with the design and construction teams how and why decisions are being made.

  18. Hospitals look to hospitality service firms to meet TQM goals.

    PubMed

    Hard, R

    1992-05-20

    Hospitals that hire contract service firms to manage one or all aspects of their hospitality service departments increasingly expect those firms to help meet total quality management goals as well as offer the more traditional cost reduction, quality improvement and specialized expertise, finds the 1992 Hospital Contract Services Survey conducted by Hospitals.

  19. 3. Hospital Point, general view toward Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Hospital Point, general view toward Portsmouth Naval Hospital Building showing cannon (at left) and Saunders Monument (at right in distance), view to southwest - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  20. The impact of hospital discharge on inappropriate hospital stay.

    PubMed

    Panis, Lambert J G G; Verheggen, Frank W S M; Pop, Peter; Prins, Martin H

    2004-01-01

    Appropriate hospital stay should be effective, efficient and tailored to patient needs. Previous studies have found that on average 20 per cent of hospital stay is inappropriate. Within obstetrics, inappropriate hospital stay consists mostly of delays in hospital discharge. The specific goals of this study were to reduce inappropriate hospital stay by fine-tuning patient logistics, increasing efficiency and providing more comfortable surroundings. New policies using strict discharge criteria were implemented. Total inappropriate hospital stay decreased from 13.3 to 7.2 per cent. The delay in discharge procedures halved. P-charts showed a decrease in inappropriate hospital stay, indicating the current process to be stable. Concludes that a significant reduction in inappropriate hospital stay was found following the implementation of innovative hospital discharge policies, indicating greater efficiency and accessibility of hospital services.

  1. Marketing the hospital library.

    PubMed

    Bridges, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Many librarians do not see themselves as marketers, but marketing is an essential role for hospital librarians. Library work involves education, and there are parallels between marketing and education as described in this article. It is incumbent upon hospital librarians actively to pursue ways of reminding their customers about library services. This article reinforces the idea that marketing is an element in many of the things that librarians already do, and includes a list of suggested marketing strategies intended to remind administrators, physicians, and other customers that they have libraries in their organizations.

  2. Tiered hospital networks.

    PubMed

    Yegian, Jill M

    2003-01-01

    As a result of rising health care costs, health plans are experimenting with insurance products that shift greater financial responsibility for medical care to consumers and create incentives for consumers to consider cost differences when choosing among providers. Based on an October 2002 roundtable discussion, this paper discusses insurance product trends, particularly tiered hospital networks. Issues addressed include these product features' potential to reduce system costs, the effect on the hospital-health plan relationship, consumers' ability to consider cost and quality in decision making, and financial barriers to care for the chronically ill.

  3. Toilet privacy in hospital.

    PubMed

    Logan, Karen

    Good practice in toilet management and continence promotion can help hospital patients to maintain their dignity. This article reports on an audit that highlighted the issues important to patients and nurses in terms of improving privacy and dignity for inpatients using the toilet.

  4. Drama Therapies in Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Judith; Prosperi, Mario

    1976-01-01

    Explores the use of drama as a therapeutic tool at various hospitals and records specific therapy groups dialogues. Available from: The Drama Review, 51 West 4th Street, Room 300, New York, N.Y. 10012. Subscription Rates: $12.50 per year. (MH)

  5. Mechanical engineering in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wallington, J W

    1980-10-01

    The design of a modern hospital owes more to engineering than the layman may realize. In this context, many engineers are in the position of laymen, being unfamiliar with the multitude of services that lies behind the impressive facade of a modern hospital. In recent years medicine and surgery themselves have taken on many of the characteristics of a technology. This has required a matching development of the services both mechanical and electrical that are required in modern health care buildings. In medical terms, if the architectural features provide the 'skin' of the hospital, the mechanical and electrical engineering services provide the nerves and sinews. If we take as an example the recently completed Freeman Hospital, Newcastle upon Tyne, (Fig. 1), which cost 10 million pounds at current cost, the service network was responsible for about half the total cost. About 400 miles (643 km) of electrical wiring and more than 40 mile (64.5 km) of copper and steel piping were used to service 3000 separate rooms. This compares with percentages of between 18 and 25 per cent for other large buildings such as office blocks, hotels and sports complexes.

  6. Speech intelligibility in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Ryherd, Erica E; Moeller, Michael; Hsu, Timothy

    2013-07-01

    Effective communication between staff members is key to patient safety in hospitals. A variety of patient care activities including admittance, evaluation, and treatment rely on oral communication. Surprisingly, published information on speech intelligibility in hospitals is extremely limited. In this study, speech intelligibility measurements and occupant evaluations were conducted in 20 units of five different U.S. hospitals. A variety of unit types and locations were studied. Results show that overall, no unit had "good" intelligibility based on the speech intelligibility index (SII > 0.75) and several locations found to have "poor" intelligibility (SII < 0.45). Further, occupied spaces were found to have 10%-15% lower SII than unoccupied spaces on average. Additionally, staff perception of communication problems at nurse stations was significantly correlated with SII ratings. In a targeted second phase, a unit treated with sound absorption had higher SII ratings for a larger percentage of time as compared to an identical untreated unit. Taken as a whole, the study provides an extensive baseline evaluation of speech intelligibility across a variety of hospitals and unit types, offers some evidence of the positive impact of absorption on intelligibility, and identifies areas for future research.

  7. Innovations in Hospitality Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzhandzhugazova, Elena A.; Blinova, Ekaterina A.; Orlova, Liubov N.; Romanova, Marianna M.

    2016-01-01

    The article focuses on the study of the role and importance of innovation, its classification, the problems of its application in the hotel industry with emphasis on the application of sensory marketing tools in the development of the innovative marketing mix within the hospitality industry. The article provides an analysis of the "seven…

  8. Going to the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking care of you — to explain. continue Your Room Once you're in the hospital, you may have a room all to yourself or you might share one with another kid. Your room will have a bed, usually with buttons to ...

  9. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  10. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  11. Cost characteristics of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Smet, Mike

    2002-09-01

    Modern hospitals are complex multi-product organisations. The analysis of a hospital's production and/or cost structure should therefore use the appropriate techniques. Flexible functional forms based on the neo-classical theory of the firm seem to be most suitable. Using neo-classical cost functions implicitly assumes minimisation of (variable) costs given that input prices and outputs are exogenous. Local and global properties of flexible functional forms and short-run versus long-run equilibrium are further issues that require thorough investigation. In order to put the results based on econometric estimations of cost functions in the right perspective, it is important to keep these considerations in mind when using flexible functional forms. The more recent studies seem to agree that hospitals generally do not operate in their long-run equilibrium (they tend to over-invest in capital (capacity and equipment)) and that it is therefore appropriate to estimate a short-run variable cost function. However, few studies explicitly take into account the implicit assumptions and restrictions embedded in the models they use. An alternative method to explain differences in costs uses management accounting techniques to identify the cost drivers of overhead costs. Related issues such as cost-shifting and cost-adjusting behaviour of hospitals and the influence of market structure on competition, prices and costs are also discussed shortly.

  12. Reengineering hospital materiel management.

    PubMed

    Giunipero, L C

    1995-08-01

    Reengineering involves significant change and dramatic rethinking of the business process. The expected result of these changed processes is dramatic improvement. Hospital cost pressures and technological change necessitate review or reengineering the process to enhance customer service at a lower cost. Three areas that yield significant results include reducing the cost of purchasing, implementing new technologies, and empowering teams to accomplish customer driven goals.

  13. Improving Hospital Discharge Time

    PubMed Central

    El-Eid, Ghada R.; Kaddoum, Roland; Tamim, Hani; Hitti, Eveline A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Delays in discharging patients can impact hospital and emergency department (ED) throughput. The discharge process is complex and involves setting specific challenges that limit generalizability of solutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of using Six Sigma methods to improve the patient discharge process. This is a quantitative pre and post-intervention study. Three hundred and eighty-six bed tertiary care hospital. A series of Six Sigma driven interventions over a 10-month period. The primary outcome was discharge time (time from discharge order to patient leaving the room). Secondary outcome measures included percent of patients whose discharge order was written before noon, percent of patients leaving the room by noon, hospital length of stay (LOS), and LOS of admitted ED patients. Discharge time decreased by 22.7% from 2.2 hours during the preintervention period to 1.7 hours post-intervention (P < 0.001). A greater proportion of patients left their room before noon in the postintervention period (P < 0.001), though there was no statistical difference in before noon discharge. Hospital LOS dropped from 3.4 to 3.1 days postintervention (P < 0.001). ED mean LOS of patients admitted to the hospital was significantly lower in the postintervention period (6.9 ± 7.8 vs 5.9 ± 7.7 hours; P < 0.001). Six Sigma methodology can be an effective change management tool to improve discharge time. The focus of institutions aspiring to tackle delays in the discharge process should be on adopting the core principles of Six Sigma rather than specific interventions that may be institution-specific. PMID:25816029

  14. [Leadership in the hospital].

    PubMed

    Schrappe, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    Current concepts in leadership and governance on the level of supervisory board, management and departments are often considered as insufficient to cope with the profound structural change which actually takes place in the German health care system. While vertical and horizontal disconnecting is typical of the professional bureaucracy of hospitals, transition from functional to divisional structure further increases this risk. Accordingly, medical experts are oriented towards their professional peers and patient care on the one side; on the other side the management gets isolated and looses operative and strategic control. Several studies provide evidence for the relevance of role models to serve as agents of change, which are now developed into the concept of "Clinical Governance": evidence-based medicine, guidelines, continuous quality improvement, safety culture, resource accountability and organisational learning. The present situation makes it necessary to extend this conception, which focuses on the departmental level in an organisation with divisional features, to one of "Clinical Corporate Governance". This term, which also includes supervisory structures and the management board and is relevant for the total hospital and company, respectively, is based on the corporate governance concept. Inside the hospital, the management and the heads of the departments have to agree that (1) experts really need to be integrated into the decision process, and that (2) the outcomes of the entire hospital have to be regarded as equal or superior to the aims of a single department. The public image of the hospital should be one of a strong and reliable partner in health care and health care business on a local, regional and national level. Members of the supervisory board should clearly put corporate aspects above political and other implications and pay attention to personal independence from the leaders of the medical departments.

  15. The frontline hospital.

    PubMed

    Mein, P

    1983-01-01

    This brief description of the planning process for a frontline hospital is intended as a guide only: there will be a variety of approaches depending on local conditions. However, certain of the principles raised have universal relevance for the construction of health facilities where resources are limited. In brief, these: - The changing role of the frontline hospital should not be allowed to obscure the fact that the small hospital still has a significant role to play and that future, as yet undefined, functional changes will take place necessitating generalized designs that can accommodate those changes. - The erection of new buildings is not always the appropriate solution to apparent problems with facilities. Often a more relevant course is to adapt existing buildings or to provide community-level primary health care services not based on facilities. - The development of standardized, though flexible, briefs for hospitals of different sizes is essential, since ther will, for some years to come, be a shortage of the professional manpower needed to enable completely individual designs to be produced for each facility. Standardized briefs are infinitely preferable to standard or type plans, which tend to be inflexible and lead to overbuilding. - Local involvement in the planning process is essential, not only because it provides useful knowledge but primarily because local commitment is the only way of avoiding the construction of inappropriate facilities. - Architectural expertise must be available within the health system, since very often outside consultants are unable or unwilling, because of the system of payment, to design suitable hospital buildings. - The type of construction used should be the simplest and most economical that will provide an effective environment for the health tasks to be carried out so that the limited resources available can be stretched to serve as many people as possible. - Local building materials should always be preferred- to

  16. How consumers view hospital advertising.

    PubMed

    Johns, H E; Moser, H R

    1988-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine: (a) consumers' attitudes toward advertising by hospitals; (b) which media consumers feel are appropriate for hospital advertising; and (c) whether consumers are seeing hospital advertisements, and if so, through which media. It was found that consumers indeed have a favorable attitude toward hospitals that advertise. It was also found that consumers feel that most media are appropriate for hospital advertising. Finally, it was found that most consumers have seen hospitals advertise their services, especially on television and radio and in the newspaper.

  17. The politics of hospital payment.

    PubMed

    Feder, J; Spitz, B

    1979-01-01

    This paper analyzes the politics of hospital payment over the last decade. The authors explain how provider interests and judgments became a standard for appropriate hospital payment: the impact of that standard on hospital costs; and the political obstacles to imposing an alternative standard and controlling hospital costs. The authors draw lessons from this experience, here and in other countries, to propose an alternative approach to hospital payment that would allow policymakers, accountable to the public, to make explicit choices about the level and nature of hospital expenditures.

  18. Hospital-acquired infections - when are hospitals legally liable?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David

    2012-04-12

    Hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections) are acquired in healthcare settings by patients admitted for reasons unrelated to the infection or not previously infected when admitted to the facility. Liability for hospital-acquired infections depends on whether the hospital: (i) has introduced best practice infection control measures; (ii) has implemented best practice infection control measures; or (iii) will be vicariously liable for negligent or intentional failures by staff to comply with the infection control measures implemented. A hospital and hospital administrators may be held directly liable for not introducing or implementing best practice infection control measures, resulting in harm to patients. The hospital may also be held vicariously liable where patients have been harmed because hospital staff negligently or intentionally failed to comply with the infection control measures that have been implemented by the hospital, during the course and scope of their employment.

  19. Hospital malnutrition: a 33-hospital screening study.

    PubMed

    Kamath, S K; Lawler, M; Smith, A E; Kalat, T; Olson, R

    1986-02-01

    A collaborative study involving nutrition screening of 3,047 patients (excluding 125 pregnant women) at admission to 33 hospitals in and around the greater Chicago area was carried out to identify patients at nutritional risk. Information on sex, age, admitting diagnosis, serum albumin, hemoglobin, total lymphocyte count, and height and weight was collected from the medical chart within 48 hours of admission. Nutrition screening could not be completed for a larger number of patients (60%) because data at admission were not available. Of the remaining 40% of patients, more than 50% had below normal values for one or more of the variables studied: serum albumin, hemoglobin, and total lymphocyte count. A large number of the patients (40%) also were considered at nutritional risk as judged by the criteria of weight/height (measured only). Early nutrition intervention for high-risk patients cannot be implemented, nor can the efficacy of nutrition services be evaluated, unless nutrition screening is carried out on patients at admission.

  20. [Hospital clinical ethics committees].

    PubMed

    Gómez Velásquez, Luis; Gómez Espinosa, Luis Néstor

    2007-01-01

    The scientific and technological advances have been surprising, more in the two last decades, but they don't go united with to the ethical values of the medical professional practice, it has been totally escaped, specially when the biological subsistence, the maintenance of the life through apparatuses and the mechanisms that prolong the existence are who undergoes an alteration that until recently time was mortal shortly lapse. It is common listening that exist a crisis in the medical profession, but what really is it of human values, which as soon and taken into nowadays, actually professional account, which gives rise to a dehumanization towards the life, the health, the disease, the suffering and the death. The ideal of the doctor to give to service to the man in its life and health, as well to be conscious that the last biological process that must fulfill is the death, and when it appears, does not have considered as a actually professional failure. It has protect to the patient as the extreme cruelty therapeutic, that it has right a worthy death. It's taking to the birth of the hospital ethics committees, they have like function to analyze, to advise and to think about the ethical dilemmas that appear actually clinical or in the biomedical investigation. In 1982 in the UEA only 1% of its hospitals had a ethics committees; by 1988, it was 67% and the 100% in 2000. In Mexico the process of the formation by these committees begins, only in the Military Central Hospital, to count the ethics committee on 1983, also the Hospital no. 14 of the IMSS in Guadalajara, it works with regularity from 1995, with internal teaching of bioethic. The Secretariat of Health has asked the formation of the bioethical committees in each hospital, and order the it was be coordinated by the National Committee of Bioética. The integration of these committees is indispensable that their members have the knowledge necessary of bioética. The Mexican Society of Ortopedia, conscious of

  1. Hospital Library Development. Hospital Library Handbooks No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Anne

    Addressed to the administrator of the hospital as well as the librarian, this handbook covers aspects of library service policy and long-range planning. While hospitals of all sizes are discussed, a special effort is made to cover problems of small hospitals (17 to 100 beds) in sparsely-settled regions. Contents: The library as a clinical service,…

  2. Hospitals report on cancer centers.

    PubMed

    Rees, T

    2001-01-01

    Woman's Hospital, Baton Rouge, La., is first-place winner among cancer centers. Holy Cross Hospital's Michael and Dianne Bienes Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., is named second; and, Cardinal Health System's Ball Cancer Center, Muncie, Ind., third.

  3. Community Hospital Telehealth Consortium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-04-01

    project involving the purchase of a neonatal retinal camera . This clinic transmits images from Lake Charles Memorial Hospital to a neonatal...ophthalmologist in New Orleans and assists in diagnosing Retinopathy of prematurity ( ROP ), a potentially blinding eye disorder that primarily affects...weeks). The smaller a baby is at birth, the more likely that baby is to develop ROP . This disorder—which usually develops in both eyes—is one of

  4. [Homicide crimes in hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dürwald, W

    1993-02-01

    Report of some cases of willful homicide in hospitals of the former GDR. In no case the patient has wished his death. Besides compassion the cause of the homicide was a large carefully expense and in two cases the attempt to prove the incapability of the competent doctor. The patients were only means to an end. All the cases are discovered by the great number of obscure death.

  5. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-28

    Burundi, Cameroon, Cote d’Ivoire, Ethiopia , Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia , Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal...Botswana, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia , Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone, Tunisia, Uganda, and Zambia. Headquarters Location There has been...Flight time from Washington, DC to the African Union (AU) headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia is approximately 16-20 hours. Deploying AFRICOM’s staff in

  6. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-22

    Security Locations (CSLs), and has access to locations in Algeria, Botswana, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia , Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone...AU) headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia , is approximately 16-20 hours. Deploying AFRICOM’s staff in close geographic proximity to their African...Service 11 AFRICOM already has military liaison officers (LNOs) at the African Union headquarters in Ethiopia , with ECOWAS in Nigeria, at the Kofi

  7. Africa Command: U.S. Strategic Interests and the Role of the U.S. Military in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-03

    CSLs), and currently has access to locations in Algeria, Botswana, Gabon, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia , Sao Tome and Principe, Sierra Leone...headquarters in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia , is approximately 16-20 hours. Deploying AFRICOM’s staff in close geographic proximity to their African...in Ethiopia and with ECOWAS in Nigeria, as well as at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Center in Ghana. Those presences are likely

  8. Studies of Total Electron Content variations at low-latitude stations within the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilian, Olatunbosun

    2016-07-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is an important parameter to monitor for possible space weather impacts. The radio waves that pass through the earth's ionosphere travel more slowly than their free space velocity due to group path delay of the ionosphere. This group path delay is directly proportional to the TEC of the ionosphere. Using dual frequency GPS receiver at low latitude stations of Ile-Ife (7.52oN, 4.28oE), Addis Ababa (9.04oN, 38.77oE) and Bangalore (13.03oE, 77.57oE), all located within 0 - 15oN of the equatorial anomaly region, the measurement of ionospheric TEC for 2012 has been carried out. The data from the three stations were used to study the diurnal, monthly and seasonal variations of TEC. The diurnal variations maximize between 10:00 - 16:00UT, 08:00 - 14:00UT and 06:00 - 12:00UT for Ile-Ife, Addis Ababa and Bangalore stations respectively. The diurnal variations showed wave-like pertubation during disturbed and quiet periods at Bangalore and Addis Ababa stations. The monthly average TEC variations showed that the month of March recorded the highest TEC value of ~59TECu at about 16:00UT in Ile-Ife station, while TEC at Addis Ababa and Bangalore maximize in October with ~72TECu and 65TECu at about 11:00UT and 09:00UT respectively. Seasonal variations showed that TEC maximizes during the equinoctial months and least in summer, over the three stations. Keywords: Total Electron Content, Equatorial Ionization Anomaly, Global Positioning System co-author:E.A. Ariyibi(Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria)

  9. Relationships between in-hospital and 30-day standardized hospital mortality: implications for profiling hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, G. E.; Baker, D. W.; Norris, D. G.; Way, L. E.; Harper, D. L.; Snow, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship of in-hospital and 30-day mortality rates and the association between in-hospital mortality and hospital discharge practices. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: A secondary analysis of data for 13,834 patients with congestive heart failure who were admitted to 30 hospitals in northeast Ohio in 1992-1994. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study was conducted. DATA COLLECTION: Demographic and clinical data were collected from patients' medical records and were used to develop multivariable models that estimated the risk of in-hospital and 30-day (post-admission) mortality. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for in-hospital and 30-day mortality were determined by dividing observed death rates by predicted death rates. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In-hospital SMRs ranged from 0.54 to 1.42, and six hospitals were classified as statistical outliers (p <.05); 30-day SMRs ranged from 0.63 to 1.73, and seven hospitals were outliers. Although the correlation between in-hospital SMRs and 30-day SMRs was substantial (R = 0.78, p < .001), outlier status changed for seven of the 30 hospitals. Nonetheless, changes in outlier status reflected relatively small differences between in-hospital and 30-day SMRs. Rates of discharge to nursing homes or other inpatient facilities varied from 5.4 percent to 34.2 percent across hospitals. However, relationships between discharge rates to such facilities and in-hospital SMRs (R = 0.08; p = .65) and early post-discharge mortality rates (R = 0.23; p = .21) were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: SMRs based on in-hospital and 30-day mortality were relatively similar, although classification of hospitals as statistical outliers often differed. However, there was no evidence that in-hospital SMRs were biased by differences in post-discharge mortality or discharge practices. PMID:10737447

  10. Library Hospitality: Some Preliminary Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Eric D. M.; Kazmer, Michelle M.

    2011-01-01

    Library scholars and practitioners have frequently reflected on the various factors that in combination make up a hospitable library, but there has been little theoretical synthesis of the notion of the library as a place of hospitality. The hospitality industry provides a rich vein of theoretical material from which to draw definitions of…

  11. Childrens Hospital Inservice Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lutz, Joan

    A description is provided of a 15-month, in-service nursing education program at Childrens Hospital (Los Angeles, California). The first sections of the paper describe Childrens Hospital and provide a rationale for the hospital-based program. A listing of program goals and objectives is also provided, indicating that the curriculum is designed to…

  12. Hospitality Services. Student Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This student activity book contains pencil-and-paper activities for use in a hospitality services course focusing on the food and lodging segments of the hospitality and tourism industry. The activities are organized into 29 chapters on the following topics: hospitality services industry; professional ethics; organization/management structures in…

  13. Hospitality Studies: Escaping the Tyranny?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashley, Conrad

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore current strands in hospitality management education and research, and suggest that future programs should reflect a more social science informed content. Design/methodology/approach: The paper reviews current research in hospitality management education and in the study of hospitality and…

  14. Hospital mergers and market overlap.

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, G R; Jones, V G

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To address two questions: What are the characteristics of hospitals that affect the likelihood of their being involved in a merger? What characteristics of particular pairs of hospitals affect the likelihood of the pair engaging in a merger? DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Hospitals in the 12 county region surrounding the San Francisco Bay during the period 1983 to 1992 were the focus of the study. Data were drawn from secondary sources, including the Lexis/Nexis database, the American Hospital Association, and the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development of the State of California. STUDY DESIGN: Seventeen hospital mergers during the study period were identified. A random sample of pairs of hospitals that did not merge was drawn to establish a statistically efficient control set. Models constructed from hypotheses regarding hospital and market characteristics believed to be related to merger likelihood were tested using logistic regression analysis. DATA COLLECTION: See Data Sources/Study Setting. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The analysis shows that the likelihood of a merger between a particular pair of hospitals is positively related to the degree of market overlap that exists between them. Furthermore, market overlap and performance difference interact in their effect on merger likelihood. In an analysis of individual hospitals, conditions of rivalry, hospital market share, and hospital size were not found to influence the likelihood that a hospital will engage in a merger. CONCLUSIONS: Mergers between hospitals are not driven directly by considerations of market power or efficiency as much as by the existence of specific merger opportunities in the hospitals' local markets. Market overlap is a condition that enables a merger to occur, but other factors, such as the relative performance levels of the hospitals in question and their ownership and teaching status, also play a role in influencing the likelihood that a merger will in fact take place. PMID

  15. Mother-baby friendly hospital.

    PubMed

    Aragon-choudhury, P

    1996-01-01

    In Manila, the Philippines, the Dr. Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital has been a maternity hospital for 75 years. It averages 90 deliveries a day. Its fees are P200-P500 for a normal delivery and P800-P2000 for a cesarean section. Patients pay what they can and pay the balance when they can. The hospital provides a safe motherhood package that encompasses teaching responsible parenthood, prenatal care, labor, delivery, postpartum care, breast feeding, family planning, and child survival. In 1986, the hospital introduced innovative policies and procedures that promote, protect, and support breast feeding. It has a rooming-in policy that has saved the hospital P6.5 million so far. In the prenatal stage, hospital staff inform pregnant women that colostrum protects the newborn against infections, that suckling stimulates milk production, and that there is no basis to the claim of having insufficient breast milk. Sales representatives of milk substitutes are banned from the hospital. Staff confiscate milk bottles or formula. A lactation management team demonstrates breast feeding procedures. Mothers also receive support on the correct way of breast feeding from hospital staff, volunteers from the Catholic Women's League, consumer groups, and women lawyers. The hospital's policy is no breast milk, no discharge. This encourages mothers to motivate each other to express milk immediately after birth. The hospital has received numerous awards for its breast feeding promotion efforts. UNICEF has designated Fabella Hospital as a model of the Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative. The hospital serves as the National Lactation Management Education Training Center. People from other developing countries have received training in lactation management here. The First Lady of the Philippines, the First Lady of the US, and the Queen of Spain have all visited the hospital. The hospital has also integrated its existing services into a women's health care center.

  16. Hospital closure and economic efficiency.

    PubMed

    Capps, Cory; Dranove, David; Lindrooth, Richard C

    2010-01-01

    We present a new framework for assessing the effects of hospital closures on social welfare and the local economy. While patient welfare necessarily declines when patients lose access to a hospital, closures also tend to reduce costs. We study five hospital closures in two states and find that urban hospital bailouts reduce aggregate social welfare: on balance, the cost savings from closures more than offset the reduction in patient welfare. However, because some of the cost savings are shared nationally, total surplus in the local community may decline following a hospital closure.

  17. Pesticide residues in drinking water and associated risk to consumers in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mekonen, Seblework; Argaw, Roba; Simanesew, Aklilu; Houbraken, Michael; Senaeve, David; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-11-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is vital for a healthy population. However, surface water may be contaminated with pesticides because of the nearby agricultural areas as well as from household application. Water samples were collected from water sources in Jimma zone and Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The extraction and clean up of the samples were undertaken using liquid-solid and liquid-liquid methods. Human exposure was assessed by calculating the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides in water and compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and the acute reference dose (ARfD). The mean concentrations of 2,4-D, malathion, diazinon and fenpropimorph were 1.59-13.90 μg/l and 0.11-138 µg/l in Jimma and Addis Ababa water sources, respectively. The residue level of some of the pesticides were above the European drinking water guide line values, which is an indication of an illegal use of pesticides in the study areas. Concerning human health risk estimation, there was no acute risk (EDI < ARfD). However, chronic risks to human health were observed from exposure to diazinon and fenpropimorph (EDI > ADI) for Jimma and Addis Ababa populations, respectively. A comprehensive monitoring is required to reduce the level of pesticide residues in the water and to minimize particularly the long term human health risks.

  18. [Success factors in hospital management].

    PubMed

    Heberer, M

    1998-12-01

    The hospital environment of most Western countries is currently undergoing dramatic changes. Competition among hospitals is increasing, and economic issues have become decisive factors for the allocation of medical care. Hospitals therefore require management tools to respond to these changes adequately. The balanced scorecard is a method of enabling development and implementation of a business strategy that equally respects the financial requirements, the needs of the customers, process development, and organizational learning. This method was used to derive generally valid success factors for hospital management based on an analysis of an academic hospital in Switzerland. Strategic management, the focus of medical services, customer orientation, and integration of professional groups across the hospital value chain were identified as success factors for hospital management.

  19. Hospital clowning: a paediatrician's view.

    PubMed

    van Venrooij, Lennard T; Barnhoorn, Pieter C

    2017-02-01

    This study investigates the current position of hospital clowns from the perspective of paediatricians and paediatric residents. A total of 14 attending paediatricians and paediatric residents participated in two focus group sessions. Data were analysed using Atlas.ti 5.0. In general, physicians reported positive experiences regarding the interaction between hospital clowns and paediatric patients on the ward. Physicians were more interested in research on children's perception of hospital clowns than in research on the clinical efficacy of hospital clowning. No direct collaboration between physicians and hospital clowns was reported. However, physicians proposed conditions which may streamline their encounters with hospital clowns such as clear communication prior to hospital clown visits, and the condition that visits do not impede medical interventions.

  20. Hospitality and Collegial Community: An Essay.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, John B.

    2000-01-01

    Explains a collegial ethic of hospitality as a cardinal academic virtue and suggests a way of building a "collegium," the covenantal community of academe. Discusses how academicians can develop hospitable teaching, hospitable scholarship, and hospitable service. (Author/SLD)

  1. [Satisfaction of hospitalized patients in a hospital in Apurimac, Peru].

    PubMed

    Sihuin-Tapia, Elsa Yudy; Gómez-Quispe, Oscar Elisban; Ibáñez-Quispe, Vladimiro

    2015-01-01

    In order to determine the satisfaction of hospitalized patients in the Sub-regional Hospital of Andahuaylas, 175 patients were surveyed using the Servqual multidimensional model. The estimate of variables associated with the satisfaction of the hospitalized patients was performed by using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. We found 25.0% satisfaction. Lower levels of satisfaction were associated with having a secondary level education (aOR: 0.05; 95% CI: 0.01 to 0.64) and with having been hospitalized in the surgery department (aOR 0.14, CI: 95%: 0.04 to 0.53). It was concluded that there was a low level of satisfaction with the quality of care received by hospitalized patients and this was associated with the level of education and type of hospital department.

  2. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses

    PubMed Central

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M.; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O.

    2015-01-01

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors. PMID:26729142

  3. Electronic Cigarettes on Hospital Campuses.

    PubMed

    Meernik, Clare; Baker, Hannah M; Paci, Karina; Fischer-Brown, Isaiah; Dunlap, Daniel; Goldstein, Adam O

    2015-12-29

    Smoke and tobacco-free policies on hospital campuses have become more prevalent across the U.S. and Europe, de-normalizing smoking and reducing secondhand smoke exposure on hospital grounds. Concerns about the increasing use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and the impact of such use on smoke and tobacco-free policies have arisen, but to date, no systematic data describes e-cigarette policies on hospital campuses. The study surveyed all hospitals in North Carolina (n = 121) to assess what proportion of hospitals have developed e-cigarette policies, how policies have been implemented and communicated, and what motivators and barriers have influenced the development of e-cigarette regulations. Seventy-five hospitals (62%) completed the survey. Over 80% of hospitals reported the existence of a policy regulating the use of e-cigarettes on campus and roughly half of the hospitals without a current e-cigarette policy are likely to develop one within the next year. Most e-cigarette policies have been incorporated into existing tobacco-free policies with few reported barriers, though effective communication of e-cigarette policies is lacking. The majority of hospitals strongly agree that e-cigarette use on campus should be prohibited for staff, patients, and visitors. Widespread incorporation of e-cigarette policies into existing hospital smoke and tobacco-free campus policies is feasible but needs communication to staff, patients, and visitors.

  4. Union Density and Hospital Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Koys, Daniel J; Martin, Wm Marty; LaVan, Helen; Katz, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    The authors address the hospital outcomes of patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income per bed. They define union density as the percentage of a hospital's employees who are in unions, healthcare quality as its 30-day acute myocardial infraction (AMI; heart attack) mortality rate, and patient satisfaction as its overall Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems score. Using a random sample of 84 union and 84 nonunion hospitals from across the United States, multiple regression analyses show that union density is negatively related to patient satisfaction. Union density is not related to healthcare quality as measured by the AMI mortality rate or to net income per bed. This implies that unions per se are not good or bad for hospitals. The authors suggest that it is better for hospital administrators to take a Balanced Scorecard approach and be concerned about employee satisfaction, patient satisfaction, healthcare quality, and net income.

  5. Strategies and performance in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Madorrán García, Cristina; de Val Pardo, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Today, more than ever in the past, the variables within the health care environment (demand, costs, system deregulation) are undergoing such rapid change that hospital administrators are finding it necessary to develop and implement competitive strategies in order to survive in the increasingly competitive hospital environment. The primary aim of this paper is to answer the following question: Is it possible to transfer strategic management research from other sectors into the hospital industry? The first objective was to identify strategies in hospital management. A questionnaire was designed and sent to hospital CEOs and the data extracted were used to construct the variables needed to identify strategies and perform the subsequent analyses. The second aim was to try to identify groups of organizations using similar strategies and, finally, analyse the impact of these on hospital performance.

  6. Does outsourcing affect hospital profitability?

    PubMed

    Danvers, Kreag; Nikolov, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Organizations outsource non-core service functions to achieve cost reductions and strategic benefits, both of which can impact profitability performance. This article examines relations between managerial outsourcing decisions and profitability for a multi-state sample of non-profit hospitals, across 16 states and four regions of the United States. Overall regression results indicate that outsourcing does not necessarily improve hospital profitability. In addition, we identify no profitability impact from outsourcing for urban hospitals, but somewhat positive effects for teaching hospitals. Our regional analysis suggests that hospitals located in the Midwest maintain positive profitability effects with outsourcing, but those located in the South realize negative effects. These findings have implications for cost reduction efforts and the financial viability of non-profit hospitals.

  7. Cross hospital bed management system.

    PubMed

    Abedian, S; Kazemi, H; Riazi, H; Bitaraf, E

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate numbers of hospital beds to accommodate the injured is a main problem in public hospitals. For control of occupancy of bed, we design a dynamic system that announces status of bed when it change with admission or discharge of a patient. This system provide a wide network in country for bed management, especially for ICU and CCU beds that help us to distribute injured patient in the hospitals.

  8. Controlling hospital library theft.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Theresa M; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-04-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal.

  9. Controlling hospital library theft

    PubMed Central

    Cuddy, Theresa M.; Marchok, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At Capital Health System/Fuld Campus (formerly Helene Fuld Medical Center), the Health Sciences Library lost many books and videocassettes. These materials were listed in the catalog but were missing when staff went to the shelves. The hospital had experienced a downsizing of staff, a reorganization, and a merger. When the library staff did an inventory, $10,000 worth of materials were found to be missing. We corrected the situation through a series of steps that we believe will help other libraries control their theft. Through regularly scheduling inventories, monitoring items, advertising, and using specific security measures, we have successfully controlled the library theft. The January 2002 inventory resulted in meeting our goal of zero missing books and videocassettes. We work to maintain that goal. PMID:12883573

  10. Hospital Ethics Committees in Poland.

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, Marek; Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Szymańska, Beata

    2015-12-01

    According to UNESCO guidelines, one of the four forms of bioethics committees in medicine are the Hospital Ethics Committees (HECs). The purpose of this study was to evaluate how the above guidelines are implemented in real practice. There were 111 hospitals selected out of 176 Polish clinical hospitals and hospitals accredited by Center of Monitoring Quality in Health System. The study was conducted by the survey method. There were 56 (50%) hospitals that responded to the survey. The number of HECs members fluctuated between 3 and 16 members, where usually 5 (22% of HECs) members were part of the board committee. The composition of the HECs for professions other than physicians was diverse and non-standardized (nurses-in 86% of HECs, clergy-42%, lawyers-38%, psychologists-28%, hospital management-23%, rehab staff-7 %, patient representatives-3%, ethicists-2%). Only 55% of HECs had a professional set of standards. 98% of HECs had specific tasks. 62% of HECs were asked for their expertise, and 55% prepared <6.88% of the opinions were related to interpersonal relations between hospital personnel, patients and their families with emphasis on the interactions between superiors and their inferiors or hospital staff and patients and their families. Only 12% of the opinions were reported by the respondents as related to ethical dilemmas. In conclusion, few Polish hospitals have HECs, and the structure, services and workload are not always adequate. To ensure a reliable operation of HECs requires the development of relevant legislation, standard operating procedures and well trained members.

  11. Wearing gloves in the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    Infection control - wearing gloves; Patient safety - wearing gloves; Personal protective equipment - wearing gloves; PPE - wearing gloves; Nosocomial infection - wearing gloves; Hospital acquired infection - wearing gloves

  12. [Hospitals and surgeons: Madrid 1940].

    PubMed

    de Quevedo, Francisco Vázquez

    2007-01-01

    The history of the hospitals and general surgeons that best represent the centres in Madrid are here in reviewed, comprising the period between 1940 and the closure of the Hospital Clinico (1957) as well as the Hospital General (General Hospital) (1967), both in Atocha. Other hospitals which are reviewed and highlighted are: the H. de la Princesa (the Princess Hospital), the H. del Nifio Jesus (Hospital of the Child Jesus), the H. Militar (Military Hospital) and the Cruz Roja (Red Cross). Data is provided on the permanent surgeons in the following centres: H. General: J. Goyanes, J. Die, J. de la Villa, T. Rodriguez, E. Diaz, G. Bueno e H. Huerta; H. Clinico: L. de la Peña, L. Cardenal, L. Olivares, R. Argüelles, J. Estella y M. F. Zumel; H. Militar: M. G. Ulla, M. Bastos, M. G. Durán, J. S. Galindo, y A. G. Durán; Hospital de la Cruz Roja: V. M. Noguera, L. Serrada, F. Luque y L. L. Durán; H. de la Princesa: P. Cifuentes, P. G. Duarte, L. Estella y R. Aiguabella; H. del Niño Jesús: J. Garrido Lestache; H. Clinico, last time, Atocha: F. M. Lagos, R. Vara y A. de la Fuente.

  13. Closure of a home hospital program: impact on hospitalization rates.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeremy M; Cohen, Aaron; Rozengarten, Ora; Meiller, Ludmila; Azoulay, Daniel; Hammerman-Rozenberg, Robert; Stessman, Jochanan

    2007-01-01

    Home hospitalization (HH), as a substitute to in-patient care, is an area of growing interest, particularly amongst the elderly. Debate nonetheless exists concerning its economic justification. This study describes a natural experiment that arose following spending cuts and closure of the 400 patient Jerusalem HH program. It examines the hypothesis that HH closure would cause increasing geriatric and general medical hospital utilization amongst the 45,000 beneficiaries of the Jerusalem Clalit Health Fund (HMO) aged 65 years and over. Hospitalization rates were measured prior to and following HH closure, and analysis of variance confirmed the significance of the differences in both geriatric (p<0.0001) and general medical hospitalization rates (p=0.02) over the study period. Linear regression analyses of the hospitalization rates prior to HH closure were performed to determine the expected trajectory of hospitalization rates following HH closure. The observed hospital utilization in the year following HH closure cost 6.2 million US dollars in excess of predicted expenditure; closure of the HH resulted in the saving of 1.3 million USdollars. The ratio of direct increased costs to savings was 5:1 thus confirming the hypothesis that HH closure would result in increased hospital utilization rates among the local elderly population.

  14. Pre-hospital emergency medicine.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mark H; Habig, Karel; Wright, Christopher; Hughes, Amy; Davies, Gareth; Imray, Chirstopher H E

    2015-12-19

    Pre-hospital care is emergency medical care given to patients before arrival in hospital after activation of emergency medical services. It traditionally incorporated a breadth of care from bystander resuscitation to statutory emergency medical services treatment and transfer. New concepts of care including community paramedicine, novel roles such as emergency care practitioners, and physician delivered pre-hospital emergency medicine are re-defining the scope of pre-hospital care. For severely ill or injured patients, acting quickly in the pre-hospital period is crucial with decisions and interventions greatly affecting outcomes. The transfer of skills and procedures from hospital care to pre-hospital medicine enables early advanced care across a range of disciplines. The variety of possible pathologies, challenges of environmental factors, and hazardous situations requires management that is tailored to the patient's clinical need and setting. Pre-hospital clinicians should be generalists with a broad understanding of medical, surgical, and trauma pathologies, who will often work from locally developed standard operating procedures, but who are able to revert to core principles. Pre-hospital emergency medicine consists of not only clinical care, but also logistics, rescue competencies, and scene management skills (especially in major incidents, which have their own set of management principles). Traditionally, research into the hyper-acute phase (the first hour) of disease has been difficult, largely because physicians are rarely present and issues of consent, transport expediency, and resourcing of research. However, the pre-hospital phase is acknowledged as a crucial period, when irreversible pathology and secondary injury to neuronal and cardiac tissue can be prevented. The development of pre-hospital emergency medicine into a sub-specialty in its own right should bring focus to this period of care.

  15. Faculty Internships for Hospitality Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Christine; Hales, Jonathan A; Wiener, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Internships can help hospitality faculty build industry relationships while also ensuring the best and most current training for their students. Many hospitality organizations have structured faculty internships available or are willing to work with faculty to provide individualized internship opportunities. Career and technical educators in…

  16. Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Schizophrenics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Ashoka Jahnavi; Kumar, Nirmal

    1988-01-01

    Compared 131 hospitalized schizophrenics who had attempted suicide within past year to 70 hospitalized schizophrenics who had not attempted suicide, using the Present State Examination depressive symptoms. Found that schizophrenics who had attempted suicide had significantly higher number of symptoms indicative of a depressive disorder. (Author/NB)

  17. Hospitality Management Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherton, Bob, Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Seven articles on hospitality management training discuss the following: computerized management games for restaurant manager training, work placement, real-life exercises, management information systems in hospitality degree programs, modular programming, service quality concepts in the curriculum, and General National Vocational Qualifications…

  18. Management of the Hospital Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Alvis G.

    1976-01-01

    Hospital studies indicate the need for an environmental/sanitarian specialist for control of nosocomial infection and maintenance of a quality environment. The author recommends these requirements for certification as a hospital environmentalist: academic studies including toxicology, epidemiology, hygiene, management, and an internship in…

  19. Segmentation in local hospital markets.

    PubMed

    Dranove, D; White, W D; Wu, L

    1993-01-01

    This study examines evidence of market segmentation on the basis of patients' insurance status, demographic characteristics, and medical condition in selected local markets in California in the years 1983 and 1989. Substantial differences exist in the probability patients may be admitted to particular hospitals based on insurance coverage, particularly Medicaid, and race. Segmentation based on insurance and race is related to hospital characteristics, but not the characteristics of the hospital's community. Medicaid patients are more likely to go to hospitals with lower costs and fewer service offerings. Privately insured patients go to hospitals offering more services, although cost concerns are increasing. Hispanic patients also go to low-cost hospitals, ceteris paribus. Results indicate little evidence of segmentation based on medical condition in either 1983 or 1989, suggesting that "centers of excellence" have yet to play an important role in patient choice of hospital. The authors found that distance matters, and that patients prefer nearby hospitals, moreso for some medical conditions than others, in ways consistent with economic theories of consumer choice.

  20. Occupational hazards to hospital personnel

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, W.B.; Craven, D.E.; Schwartz, D.A.; Nardell, E.A.; Kasmer, J.; Noble, J.

    1985-05-01

    Hospital personnel are subject to various occupational hazards. Awareness of these risks, compliance with basic preventive measures, and adequate resources for interventions are essential components of an occupational health program. Physical, chemical, and radiation hazards; important infectious risks; and psychosocial problems prevalent in hospital workers are reviewed. A rational approach to managing and preventing these problems is offered. 370 references.

  1. [Obstetric analgesia in Norwegian hospitals].

    PubMed

    Dahl, V; Hagen, I E; Raeder, J C

    1998-04-30

    We report the results of a questionnaire sent to anaesthetists and midwives on the use of obstetric analgesia and anaesthesia in Norwegian hospitals in 1996. 95% of the 49 hospitals involved responded to the questionnaire, representing a total of 56,884 births. The use of epidural analgesia in labour varied from 0 to 25% in the different hospitals with a mean value of 15%. Epidural analgesia was much more widely used in university and regional hospitals than in local hospitals (p < 0.001). Five of the local hospitals did not offer epidural analgesia during labour at all. The combination of low-dose local anaesthetic and an opioid (either sufentanil or fentanyl) had not been introduced in nine of the hospitals (20%). The optimal use of epidural analgesia to relieve labour pain was judged to be more frequent by the anaesthetists than by the midwives (19% versus 11%, p < 0.01). In response to what factors limited the frequency of epidural analgesia, the anaesthetists specified factors related to the attitude of the midwife, and the midwives specified factors related to the anaesthetist. Only five of the hospitals provided written information on the various analgesic methods that could be employed during labour. The majority of midwives considered the analgesic methods employed on their maternity ward to be good or excellent. The frequency of Caesarean section was 12%; spinal anaesthesia was used in 55%, epidural anaesthesia in 17%, and general anaesthesia in 28% of the cases.

  2. Comparing Candidate Hospital Report Cards

    SciTech Connect

    Burr, T.L.; Rivenburgh, R.D.; Scovel, J.C.; White, J.M.

    1997-12-31

    We present graphical and analytical methods that focus on multivariate outlier detection applied to the hospital report cards data. No two methods agree which hospitals are unusually good or bad, so we also present ways to compare the agreement between two methods. We identify factors that have a significant impact on the scoring.

  3. Practicing Hospitality in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burwell, Rebecca; Huyser, Mackenzi

    2013-01-01

    This article explores pedagogical approaches to teaching students how to practice hospitality toward the other. Using case examples from the college classroom, the authors discuss the roots of Christian hospitality and educational theory on transformative learning to explore how students experience engaging with others after they have…

  4. [Hospitals as vital links].

    PubMed

    Klink, A

    2013-01-01

    The reform of the system in 2006 aimed at reducing waiting lists in an efficient manner. Performance-linked funding and regulated competition did indeed lead to improved efficiency. The other side of the coin is overtreatment, and expensive and not infrequently damaging growth in volume. In order to control costs, three strategies have been determined: agreements with an annual cap on volume; (b) collaboration of regional health-care providers with the mission of improving results in health care (with profit-sharing if costs fall); and (c) fusions reducing the number of hospitals which reduces the burden of injuries (supply no longer creates its own demand). This article comments on these strategies. The author argues for a fourth approach: if the quality of health care improves, the number of complications will fall, overtreatment will decline and the outcome will be a decrease in burden of injuries. This requires the health care insurers to modify the way they manage their contracts and methods of payment, and stimulates competition based on quality.

  5. The single-hospital county: is its hospital at risk?

    PubMed

    Chang, C F; Tuckman, H P

    1991-06-01

    This article focuses on a hospital group that has not received adequate attention in the literature: the sole provider of short-term, acute hospital care located in a county. In Tennessee, SPHs (single provider hospitals) are fewer in number but are present in more counties than multiprovider hospitals (MPHs). They are smaller in size, less labor and capital intensive, more likely to be a government hospital, and more likely to be in a rural area with low income and limited health care resources. SPHs operate with lower costs, charge patients less, and have lower revenue write-offs than MPHs. As a result, their cash flow is sufficient to fund their depreciation and they consistently earn modest returns. Between 1982 and 1988, a total of 16 hospitals failed in Tennessee but only 3 were SPHs. While SPHs have not been profitable enough to make them ideal candidates for takeover by major hospital systems, they are not a population that is unduly at risk.

  6. National survey of hospital patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bruster, S.; Jarman, B.; Bosanquet, N.; Weston, D.; Erens, R.; Delbanco, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To survey patients' opinions of their experiences in hospital in order to produce data that can help managers and doctors to identify and solve problems. DESIGN--Random sample of 36 NHS hospitals, stratified by size of hospital (number of beds), area (north, midlands, south east, south west), and type of hospital (teaching or non-teaching, trust or directly managed). From each hospital a random sample of, on average, 143 patients was interviewed at home or the place of discharge two to four weeks after discharge by means of a structured questionnaire about their treatment in hospital. SUBJECTS--5150 randomly chosen NHS patients recently discharged from acute hospitals in England. Subjects had been patients on medical and surgical wards apart from paediatric, maternity, psychiatric, and geriatric wards. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Patients' responses to direct questions about preadmission procedures, admission, communication with staff, physical care, tests and operations, help from staff, pain management, and discharge planning. Patients' responses to general questions about their degree of satisfaction in hospitals. RESULTS--Problems were reported by patients, particularly with regard to communication with staff (56% (2824/5020) had not been given written or printed information); pain management (33% (1042/3162) of those suffering pain were in pain all or most of the time); and discharge planning (70% (3599/5124) had not been told about warning signs and 62% (3177/5119) had not been told when to resume normal activities). Hospitals failed to reach the standards of the Patient's Charter--for example, in explaining the treatment proposed and giving patients the option of not taking part in student training. Answers to questions about patient satisfaction were, however, highly positive but of little use to managers. CONCLUSIONS--This survey has highlighted several problems with treatment in NHS hospitals. Asking patients direct questions about what happened

  7. Hospitals: Soft Target for Terrorism?

    PubMed

    De Cauwer, Harald; Somville, Francis; Sabbe, Marc; Mortelmans, Luc J

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, the world has been rocked repeatedly by terrorist attacks. Arguably, the most remarkable were: the series of four coordinated suicide plane attacks on September 11, 2001 on buildings in New York, Virginia, and Pennsylvania, USA; and the recent series of two coordinated attacks in Brussels (Belgium), on March 22, 2016, involving two bombings at the departure hall of Brussels International Airport and a bombing at Maalbeek Metro Station located near the European Commission headquarters in the center of Brussels. This statement paper deals with different aspects of hospital policy and disaster response planning that interface with terrorism. Research shows that the availability of necessary equipment and facilities (eg, personal protective clothing, decontamination rooms, antidotes, and anti-viral drugs) in hospitals clearly is insufficient. Emergency teams are insufficiently prepared: adequate and repetitive training remain necessary. Unfortunately, there are many examples of health care workers and physicians or hospitals being targeted in both political or religious conflicts and wars. Many health workers were kidnapped and/or killed by insurgents of various ideology. Attacks on hospitals also could cause long-term effects: hospital units could be unavailable for a long time and replacing staff could take several months, further compounding hospital operations. Both physical and psychological (eg, posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]) after-effects of a terrorist attack can be detrimental to health care services. On the other hand, physicians and other hospital employees have shown to be involved in terrorism. As data show that some offenders had a previous history with the location of the terror incident, the possibility of hospitals or other health care services being targeted by insiders is discussed. The purpose of this report was to consider how past terrorist incidents can inform current hospital preparedness and disaster response planning

  8. Youth services in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Meredith, P

    1990-12-01

    Departing from the usual family planning education format in teenage counseling, the IPPF is funding youth centers providing contraception as well as education in Ethiopia, Kenya, Togo, Tunisia, and Turkey. The development concern is for a cost efficient and effective center with minimal criticism. 2 experimental Mexican models were used in the Ethiopian youth centers. Both models utilize young adult coordinators who supervise young promoters, however each operates differently. Mexican staff trained their African counterparts and a detailed project manual will be available soon. The Ethiopian youth centers utilizing NGO's and the private sector have been permitted freedom from central control. Alarming statistics include: 20.8% of pregnancies are teenaged; 20.8% of hospital reported abortions are teenaged; the contraceptive prevalence rate is 2%; population increased by 3% per year with the average children per woman of 7.5. Addis Ababa's youth project provides services to mostly zone 5 school aged adolescents who are informed and eager to purchase condoms, although they are not able to purchase them commercially. Revolutionary Ethiopian Youth Association (REYA) with its 200,000 membership, is increasing its contribution to expanding the network of promoters. Promoters are used to register those receiving free condoms, but the recommendation to cease this practice of registration is in, and replace it with the sale of 50 US cents per condom.

  9. Digitizing an Analog Radiography Teaching File Under Time Constraint: Trade-Offs in Efficiency and Image Quality.

    PubMed

    Loehfelm, Thomas W; Prater, Adam B; Debebe, Tequam; Sekhar, Aarti K

    2017-02-01

    We digitized the radiography teaching file at Black Lion Hospital (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia) during a recent trip, using a standard digital camera and a fluorescent light box. Our goal was to photograph every radiograph in the existing library while optimizing the final image size to the maximum resolution of a high quality tablet computer, preserving the contrast resolution of the radiographs, and minimizing total library file size. A secondary important goal was to minimize the cost and time required to take and process the images. Three workers were able to efficiently remove the radiographs from their storage folders, hang them on the light box, operate the camera, catalog the image, and repack the radiographs back to the storage folder. Zoom, focal length, and film speed were fixed, while aperture and shutter speed were manually adjusted for each image, allowing for efficiency and flexibility in image acquisition. Keeping zoom and focal length fixed, which kept the view box at the same relative position in all of the images acquired during a single photography session, allowed unused space to be batch-cropped, saving considerable time in post-processing, at the expense of final image resolution. We present an analysis of the trade-offs in workflow efficiency and final image quality, and demonstrate that a few people with minimal equipment can efficiently digitize a teaching file library.

  10. [Hospitals' evolution through the ages].

    PubMed

    de Micheli, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    The predecessor institutions of modern hospitals--Byzantine nosocómeion, European hospitale and Islamic maristan--were dissimilar both in their patients and their aims. The first charitable organizations in West Europe (Rome) and in the East (Cesarea in Cappadocia) were rather hospices. After the collapse of the Western Roman Empire (476 A.D.), some monastic centers were prepared to provide medical assistance to religious and secular patients. Since the XI and XII Centuries in all of Christian Europe the charitable institutions, designated as hospitale, multiplied. Among the Italian ones, the Roman Santo Spirito (Holy Ghost) Hospital, built in the 1201-1204 period, reached a preeminet position. This one soon became the most important of the entire Christendom (archihospital), with a lot of affiliated hospitals in Europe and later in America. The first American hospital, Saint Nicholas Hospital, opened on December 29, 1503 in Santo Domingo, obtained in 1541 its affiliation to the Santo Spirito archihospital. Regarding continental America, the first health centers were established in Mexico: the Immaculate Conception Hospital and the Saint Lazarus Hospital, both established by Hernán Cortés. For its part, clinical teaching was systematized at the Saint Francis Hospital in Padua and by there moved to Leyden. In Mexico, the chair of medical clinics or practical medicine was established in 1806 at the Saint Andrew Hospital. During the XX century, Dr. Ignacio Chávez was the driving force behind the creation of the modern Mexican Health Institutes. These ones are dedicated to the treatment of poor patients, as well as to medical teaching and research.

  11. The Status of Hospital Information Systems in Iranian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbakhsh, Maryam; Sharifi, Mohammed; Ayat, Masar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The area of e-Health is broad and has an excellent growth potential. An increasing number of experts believe that e-Health will fuel the next breakthroughs in health system improvements throughout the world, but there is frequent evidence of unsustainable use of e-Health systems in medical centres, particularly hospitals, for different reasons in different countries. Iran is also a developing country which is presently adopting this promising technology for its traditional healthcare delivery but there is not much information about the use of e-Health systems in its hospitals, and the weakness and opportunities of utilization of such Hospital Information Systems (HIS). Methods: For this research, a number of Hospitals from Isfahan, Iran, are selected using convenient sampling. E-health research professionals went there to observe their HIS and collect required data as a qualitative survey. The design of interview questions was based on the researchers’ experiences and knowledge in this area along with elementary interviews with experts on HIS utilization in hospitals. Results: Efficient administration of e-health implementation improves the quality of healthcare, reduces costs and medical errors, makes healthcare resources available to rural areas, etc. However, there are numerous issues affecting the successful utilization of e-health in Hospitals, such as a lack of a perfect HIS implementation plan and well-defined strategy, inadequate IT-security for the protection of e-health-related data, improper training and educational issues, legal challenges, privacy concerns, improper documentation of lessons learned, resistance to the application of new technologies, and finally a lack of recovery plan and disaster management. These results along with some informative stories are extracted from interview sessions to uncover associated challenges of HIS utilization in Iranian hospitals. Conclusion: The utilization of e-health in Iranian hospitals

  12. Potential for Hospital Based Corneal Retreival in Hassan District Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Melsakkare, Suresh Ramappa; Manipur, Sahana R.; Acharya, Pavana; Ramamurthy, Lakshmi Bomalapura

    2015-01-01

    Context In developing countries, corneal diseases are the second leading cause of blindness. This corneal blindness can be treated through corneal transplantation. Though the present infrastructure is strong enough to increase keratoplasty numbers at a required rate, India has largest corneal blind population in the world. So a constant supply of high quality donor corneal tissue is the key factor for reduction of prevalence of corneal blindness. Considering the magnitude of corneal blindness and shortage of donor cornea, there is a huge gap in the demand and supply. Aim To study the potential for hospital based retrieval of donor corneal tissue in Hassan district hospital after analysing the indicated and contraindicated causes of deaths, so that hospital corneal retrieval program in Hassan district hospital can be planned. Materials and Methods The cross-sectional, retrospective and record-based study included all hospital deaths with age group more than two years occurred during one year period (January 2014 to December 2014). Data regarding demographic profile, cause of death, treatment given and presence of any systemic diseases were collected. The causes of deaths which are contraindicated for the retrieval of corneas were analysed and noted. The contraindications were based on the NPCB guidelines for standard of eye banking in India 2009. Results Out of 855 deaths, number of deaths in males (565) was greater than females (290). Numbers of deaths were highest between 41-60 years age group (343). Deaths due to HIV, septicaemia, meningitis, encephalitis, disseminated malignancies were contraindicated for corneal retrieval. Corneas could be retrieved from 736 deaths out of 855. Potential for corneal retrieval in a period of one year in Hassan District hospital was 86%. Conclusion Hospital corneal retrieval program has got a great potential to bridge the gap between the need for the cornea and actually collected corneas which will contribute enormously in

  13. Internet connectivity for hospitals and hospital libraries: strategies.

    PubMed

    Fuller, S S

    1995-01-01

    Access to Internet resources and communications has rapidly become a necessity in many hospitals nationally. The results of a Pacific Northwest pilot Intenet connections project provides important evidence of the value of librarians in establishing such connections in their institutions The pilot project has resulted in a wealth of information regarding approaches to promoting the utility of the Internet to health professionals in hospitals. Roles that librarians are playing in support of such connections include facilitator, negotiator, provider, publisher, integrator, and educator.

  14. A computerized hospital maintenance system.

    PubMed

    Kresch, E; Katz, P; Schwartz, H; Hamarman, H

    1985-01-01

    The Biomedical Instrumentation Department at Thomas Jefferson University Hospital maintains most of the clinical equipment owned by the hospital and provides support to six other hospitals, as well. In order to document these services, a computerized support system has been developed. This system maintains the inventory of equipment, documents the occurrence of repair and preventive maintenance procedures, generates lists of items due for maintenance and inspection, and prints reports and summaries of all activities performed by department staff. The system was designed for ease of use and requires a minimum of training for personnel who use it.

  15. Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs'

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163886.html Hospital Room Floors May Harbor 'Superbugs' But that area often overlooked when it comes ... Hospital room floors may be more of a "superbug" threat than many hospital staffers realize, new research ...

  16. Improve Hospital-to-Home Transitions

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the hospital. One study found that seniors hospitalized with heart failure often have multiple medical conditions, and they have the highest hospital readmission rate of all adult patient groups. This indicates a serious breakdown during the ...

  17. 77 FR 34326 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... 0938-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident... Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term...

  18. Hospital financial performance trends to watch.

    PubMed

    Schuhmann, Thomas M

    2008-07-01

    Hospitals may wish to compare their performance with that of their peers to identify areas for possible improvement. Comparing financial indicators over five years shows directional trends and the influence of environmental factors such as regulatory change. For-profit hospitals appear to outperform their not-for-profit counterparts. Rural hospitals generally exhibit better financial performance than urban hospitals. Nonteaching hospitals show more desirable operating margins than teaching hospitals.

  19. Preventing Infections in the Hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... and your doctor discuss the best way to control your blood sugar before, during, and after your hospital stay. High blood sugar increases the risk of infection noticeably. If you are overweight, losing weight will ...

  20. Public policy regarding specialty hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Bryan E

    2008-10-01

    Why do we need "public policy" regarding specialty hospitals? What is the rationale for government involvement in decisions by the private sector to invest in specialty hospitals? Two possibilities are reduced access to services primarily by the uninsured (a fairness concern) and changes in the types of patients receiving care resulting from poor consumer information (an efficiency concern). The fairness argument faces logical and empirical difficulties, and even if it proved to be true, it is not clear that limiting the growth of specialty hospitals would be an efficient way to address the problem. However, there is some empirical evidence to support the efficiency concern, and if specialty hospitals result in the treatment of patients with lower expected net benefits from treatment, then it is possible that physician-owned facilities could result in an increasingly inefficient allocation of health care resources, higher insurance premiums, and higher rates of uninsurance.

  1. Facts about Hospital Worker Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... discount. Many hospitals are self-insured, so they bear the entire cost of workers’ compensation losses directly. ... satisfied patients or their families. All of society bears the cost of workplace injuries. All of society ...

  2. Health Hazards of Hospital Personnel

    PubMed Central

    Clever, Linda Hawes

    1981-01-01

    Health care workers historically have faced serious health problems, such as exposure to patients with tuberculosis. For hospital personnel today, a number of hazards exist. These range from toxic substance exposure to safety hazards presented by patients themselves. PMID:7281652

  3. Recommendations for managing hospital closure.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, R; Bouthillette, F; Havlovic, S J

    1998-01-01

    An acute care hospital was closed by the British Columbia Ministry of Health in 1993. A research study was conducted to investigate the ways closure of the hospital affected hospital employees and to identify ways to facilitate the closure/reorganization process. Unstructured interviews were conducted with 25 employees around the time of closure and six months after the closure. In the category Living with Closure, six themes arose from the qualitative analysis. They related to (1) provision of information; (2) effect of closure on the working environment and colleagues; (3) perceived stress; (4) recognition of one's worth; (5) provision of support services; and (6) the process of having a new job. The authors offer recommendations stemming from the analysis, which are intended to assist others planning for future hospital reorganizations or closures.

  4. Air handling units for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Amoroso, V; Gjestvang, R

    1989-10-01

    Air handling units should provide proper quality and conditioned air to various hospital areas. Unit capacity should be able to meet limited space functionality or load changes as well as any smoke control requirements. System components should be readily accessible and appropriate for spaces served. In summary, engineers should consider the following: Environmental design criteria for area being served Components desired Unit type required Economic issues affecting design. Using this approach, design engineers can design hospital air handling units methodically and logically.

  5. Facility management in German hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gudat, H

    2000-04-01

    Facility management and optimum building management offer for hospitals a chance to reduce costs and to increase quality, process sequences, employee motivation and customer satisfaction. Some years ago simple services such as cleaning, catering or laundry were outsourced. Now, German hospitals progress to more complex fields such as building and medical technology, clinical support processes such as pharmacy, central laboratory and sterilization, goods and logistics services.

  6. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods.

  7. Road Traffic Deaths and Injuries Are Under-Reported in Ethiopia: A Capture-Recapture Method

    PubMed Central

    Abegaz, Teferi; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Assrat, Abebe; Assefa, Abebayehu

    2014-01-01

    In low and middle income countries road traffic injuries are commonly under-reported. This problem is significantly higher among those less severely injured road users. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the level of ascertainment of road traffic injuries and deaths by traffic police and hospital registry. In this study two-sample capture-recapture method was applied using data from traffic police and hospital injury surveillance, through June 2012 to May 2013. The study was conducted on one of the busiest highways in Ethiopia, the Addis Ababa – Hawassa highway. Primary data were collected by accident investigators and hospital emergency nurses using a structured checklist. Four matching variables; name of the victim, sex, place and time of the accidents was used to get the matched cases. During the study period the police independently reported 224 deaths and 446 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer while hospitals reported 123 deaths and 1,046 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Both sources in common captured 73 deaths and 248 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Taking the two data sources into consideration, the capture-recapture model estimated the incidence of deaths and injuries ranged 368–390 and 1,869–1,895 per billion vehicle kilometer, respectively. The police source captured 57.4%–60.9% of deaths and 23.5%–23.9% of injuries while the hospital sources captured 31.5%–33.4% of deaths and 55.2%–56% of injuries. Deaths and injuries among females, younger age victims, cyclists/motorcyclists and pedestrians were under-reported by traffic police. In conclusion neither of the two sources independently provided accurate coverage of road traffic incident related deaths and injuries. Strengthening both systems is necessary to obtain accurate information on road accidents and human causalities. PMID:25054440

  8. Road traffic deaths and injuries are under-reported in Ethiopia: a capture-recapture method.

    PubMed

    Abegaz, Teferi; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Assrat, Abebe; Assefa, Abebayehu

    2014-01-01

    In low and middle income countries road traffic injuries are commonly under-reported. This problem is significantly higher among those less severely injured road users. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and the level of ascertainment of road traffic injuries and deaths by traffic police and hospital registry. In this study two-sample capture-recapture method was applied using data from traffic police and hospital injury surveillance, through June 2012 to May 2013. The study was conducted on one of the busiest highways in Ethiopia, the Addis Ababa - Hawassa highway. Primary data were collected by accident investigators and hospital emergency nurses using a structured checklist. Four matching variables; name of the victim, sex, place and time of the accidents was used to get the matched cases. During the study period the police independently reported 224 deaths and 446 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer while hospitals reported 123 deaths and 1,046 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Both sources in common captured 73 deaths and 248 injuries/billion vehicle kilometer. Taking the two data sources into consideration, the capture-recapture model estimated the incidence of deaths and injuries ranged 368-390 and 1,869-1,895 per billion vehicle kilometer, respectively. The police source captured 57.4%-60.9% of deaths and 23.5%-23.9% of injuries while the hospital sources captured 31.5%-33.4% of deaths and 55.2%-56% of injuries. Deaths and injuries among females, younger age victims, cyclists/motorcyclists and pedestrians were under-reported by traffic police. In conclusion neither of the two sources independently provided accurate coverage of road traffic incident related deaths and injuries. Strengthening both systems is necessary to obtain accurate information on road accidents and human causalities.

  9. [Evaluation of satisfaction of patients hospitalized at the Kairouan Hospital].

    PubMed

    Mtiraoui, Ali; Alouini, Borhane

    2002-03-01

    The patients' satisfaction studies are more and more utilized to underline the health centers' deficiencies and consequently set improvement action plans. Our survey aims to measure inpatients' satisfaction in its different dimensions. A survey centered around a transversal inquiry has been conducted during a period going from February to April 2000 and reached a total number of 817 patients hospitalized in six service units at kairouan hospital. The data has been gathered by structured interviews led by a previously trained social worker. The investigation tool was a standardized questionnaire prepared by a group of experts from WHO in the Oriental Mediterranean region. The main results are as follow: High satisfaction level concerning the global evaluation of the hospital service units was recorded (score = 70%). The patient who are more satisfied are those who have the feeling that their health situation has considerably improved, and who will probably recommend this hospital to their surroundings. Big proportion of the patients (77%) was expecting better services. The main reason behind their unhappiness is the information emanated whether from the nurses or the doctors, the comfort and the cleanness of waiting room, linen, room comfort, food and the emergency. These results showed that the quality of care improvements priorities, according to patient expectations are especially in relation with the quality of information, the relational aspects and the hospital stay conditions.

  10. Hospital network performance: a survey of hospital stakeholders' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bravi, F; Gibertoni, D; Marcon, A; Sicotte, C; Minvielle, E; Rucci, P; Angelastro, A; Carradori, T; Fantini, M P

    2013-02-01

    Hospital networks are an emerging organizational form designed to face the new challenges of public health systems. Although the benefits introduced by network models in terms of rationalization of resources are known, evidence about stakeholders' perspectives on hospital network performance from the literature is scanty. Using the Competing Values Framework of organizational effectiveness and its subsequent adaptation by Minvielle et al., we conducted in 2009 a survey in five hospitals of an Italian network for oncological care to examine and compare the views on hospital network performance of internal stakeholders (physicians, nurses and the administrative staff). 329 questionnaires exploring stakeholders' perspectives were completed, with a response rate of 65.8%. Using exploratory factor analysis of the 66 items of the questionnaire, we identified 4 factors, i.e. Centrality of relationships, Quality of care, Attractiveness/Reputation and Staff empowerment and Protection of workers' rights. 42 items were retained in the analysis. Factor scores proved to be high (mean score>8 on a 10-item scale), except for Attractiveness/Reputation (mean score 6.79), indicating that stakeholders attach a higher importance to relational and health care aspects. Comparison of factor scores among stakeholders did not reveal significant differences, suggesting a broadly shared view on hospital network performance.

  11. Reporting hospital adverse events using the Alfred Hospital's morbidity data.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Rhonda; McLean, Jenny; Walsh, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Hospital morbidity data were analysed to determine their usefulness for reporting adverse events. The entire ICD-10-AM classification system was reviewed in conjunction with the Australian Coding Standards to identify external cause codes and code prefixes associated with adverse events. For the 50,712 separations registered at The Alfred from July 2000-June 2001, 4,740 external cause codes were associated with adverse events. Place of occurrence code CY92.22 was considered the best indicator of the number of separations associated with adverse events. Approximately 4% of all separations were associated with adverse events occurring during an episode of care. Results suggest that hospital morbidity data are useful for monitoring adverse events at hospital level. Reliable reporting across the health care industry requires consistent reporting requirements at state and national levels and the adoption of standard code prefixes nationally.

  12. Internet connectivity for hospitals and hospital libraries: strategies.

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, S S

    1995-01-01

    Access to Internet resources and communications has rapidly become a necessity in many hospitals nationally. The results of a Pacific Northwest pilot Intenet connections project provides important evidence of the value of librarians in establishing such connections in their institutions The pilot project has resulted in a wealth of information regarding approaches to promoting the utility of the Internet to health professionals in hospitals. Roles that librarians are playing in support of such connections include facilitator, negotiator, provider, publisher, integrator, and educator. PMID:7703936

  13. Measuring nutritional risk in hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Henrik H; Holst, Mette; Kondrup, Jens

    2010-01-01

    About 20%–50% of patients in hospitals are undernourished. The number varies depending on the screening tool amended and clinical setting. A large number of these patients are undernourished when admitted to the hospital, and in most of these patients, undernutrition develops further during hospital stay. The nutrition course of the patient starts by nutritional screening and is linked to the prescription of a nutrition plan and monitoring. The purpose of nutritional screening is to predict the probability of a better or worse outcome due to nutritional factors and whether nutritional treatment is likely to influence this. Most screening tools address four basic questions: recent weight loss, recent food intake, current body mass index, and disease severity. Some screening tools, moreover, include other measurements for predicting the risk of malnutrition. The usefulness of screening methods recommended is based on the aspects of predictive validity, content validity, reliability, and practicability. Various tools are recommended depending on the setting, ie, in the community, in the hospital, and among elderly in institutions. The Nutrition Risk Screening (NRS) 2002 seems to be the best validated screening tool, in terms of predictive validity ie, the clinical outcome improves when patients identified to be at risk are treated. For adult patients in hospital, thus, the NRS 2002 is recommended. PMID:21042553

  14. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  15. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  16. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  17. Hospital pricing policies: the simple economics.

    PubMed

    Robison, G A; Robison, H D

    1986-10-01

    Changes in hospital reimbursement structures and the shrinking inpatient service market are forcing hospitals to reexamine their pricing strategies. This article examines historical hospital pricing, the effect of pricing in a competitive market and considerations for hospitals moving toward competitive pricing for services.

  18. A conflict of interest policy for hospitals.

    PubMed

    McClure, A E

    1993-01-01

    As the environment in which community hospitals operate becomes ever more complex, the opportunity for conflict of interest between the hospital and members of its governing board increases. This article examines the duties and responsibilities of hospital trustees and the ways in which hospitals can identify and manage conflict of interest.

  19. Report: hospitals need more sophisticated planning efforts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J

    1990-09-20

    Sophisticated planning efforts are increasing among hospitals. However, hospital planners and marketers still have far to go before they can match their counterparts in industry. This is according to a report on hospital planning recently released by the Society for Healthcare Planning and Marketing of the American Hospital Association, Chicago.

  20. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  1. 46 CFR 108.209 - Hospital spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital spaces. 108.209 Section 108.209 Shipping COAST... Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.209 Hospital spaces. (a) Each unit carrying twelve or more persons on a voyage of more than three days must have a hospital space. (b) Each hospital...

  2. Appropriate measures of hospital market areas.

    PubMed Central

    Garnick, D W; Luft, H S; Robinson, J C; Tetreault, J

    1987-01-01

    As public and private policymakers turn to market-oriented strategies to control hospital prices, it is necessary to understand the conceptual underpinnings of hospital market area measurement. This article provides a framework for evaluating which definitions of hospital market areas are suitable for various types of analyses. Hospital market areas can be defined from two perspectives: an individual hospital perspective and that of the overall market. From each perspective, empirical definitions can be based on geopolitical boundaries, distance between hospitals, and patient-origin data. In this article, market areas are compared based on various descriptions using data on California hospitals and patient discharge abstracts. PMID:3570813

  3. Enterprise resource planning for hospitals.

    PubMed

    van Merode, Godefridus G; Groothuis, Siebren; Hasman, Arie

    2004-06-30

    Integrated hospitals need a central planning and control system to plan patients' processes and the required capacity. Given the changes in healthcare one can ask the question what type of information systems can best support these healthcare delivery organizations. We focus in this review on the potential of enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems for healthcare delivery organizations. First ERP systems are explained. An overview is then presented of the characteristics of the planning process in hospital environments. Problems with ERP that are due to the special characteristics of healthcare are presented. The situations in which ERP can or cannot be used are discussed. It is suggested to divide hospitals in a part that is concerned only with deterministic processes and a part that is concerned with non-deterministic processes. ERP can be very useful for planning and controlling the deterministic processes.

  4. SARS in Hospital Emergency Room

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yee-Chun; Huang, Li-Min; Chan, Chang-Chuan; Su, Chan-Ping; Chang, Ying-Ying; Chen, Mei-Ling; Hung, Chien-Ching; Chen, Wen-Jone; Lin, Fang-Yue; Lee, Yuan-Teh

    2004-01-01

    Thirty-one cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) occurred after exposure in the emergency room at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The index patient was linked to an outbreak at a nearby municipal hospital. Three clusters were identified over a 3-week period. The first cluster (5 patients) and the second cluster (14 patients) occurred among patients, family members, and nursing aids. The third cluster (12 patients) occurred exclusively among healthcare workers. Six healthcare workers had close contact with SARS patients. Six others, with different working patterns, indicated that they did not have contact with a SARS patient. Environmental surveys found 9 of 119 samples of inanimate objects to be positive for SARS coronavirus RNA. These observations indicate that although transmission by direct contact with known SARS patients was responsible for most cases, environmental contamination with the SARS coronavirus may have lead to infection among healthcare workers without documented contact with known hospitalized SARS patients. PMID:15200809

  5. [The future of hospitals and the hospitals in the future].

    PubMed

    Illés, S Tamás

    2016-07-01

    By the end of the 20th century the vertically organized hospitals formed into a closed hierarchical system, in which the healthcare supply significantly fragmented. The existing hospitals in the current organization are not prepared for the increase in longevity, nor for the high growth in the number of chronic and long-term illnesses and the multi-morbidity since they were not designed for extended carry treatments. The fast incorporation of high-tech and very expensive technologies into healthcare generates an economic crisis. Solving the supply and economic crisis at the same time cannot be achieved without changing the structure of hospitals. Future hospitals will be organized in a network, conducting special treatments according to disease profiles. According to present knowledge, this is the only structure that allows for economies in scale, the proper spending of the ever-shrinking resources, and to ensure the effective patient care required after the changing of disorder structures and patient corporate identities. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(28), 1099-1104.

  6. Field guide to hospital cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Smith, R P

    1986-09-01

    We have all faced the problem of whether or not to venture into that gastronomic wasteland known as the hospital cafeteria. Hospital cafeterias have developed a reputation, deserved or otherwise, as less than ideal places to eat. Many people overlook the fact that this is a direct result of trying to provide patient meals that are salt-free, sugar-free, fiber-free, and taste-free. (Some faint traces of color may, occasionally, be found.) How then does one go about choosing whether to venture in, and how does one survive the encounter once there? The following guide has been assembled to help the reader through this difficult process.

  7. Pricing objectives in nonprofit hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Bauerschmidt, A D; Jacobs, P

    1985-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of 60 financial managers of nonprofit hospitals in the eastern United States relating to the importance of a number of factors which influence their pricing decisions and the pricing objectives which they pursue. Among the results uncovered by the responses: that trustees are the single most important body in the price-setting process (doctors play a relatively unimportant role); that hospital pricing goals are more related to target net revenue than profit maximizing; and that regional factors seem to play an important role in management differences. PMID:4008272

  8. Evaluation methods for hospital projects.

    PubMed

    Buelow, Janet R; Zuckweiler, Kathryn M; Rosacker, Kirsten M

    2010-01-01

    The authors report the findings of a survey of hospital managers on the utilization of various project selection and evaluation methodologies. The focus of the analysis was the empirical relationship between a portfolio of project evaluation(1) methods actually utilized for a given project and several measures of perceived project success. The analysis revealed that cost-benefit analysis and top management support were the two project evaluation methods used most often by the hospital managers. The authors' empirical assessment provides evidence that top management support is associated with overall project success.

  9. 42 CFR 486.322 - Condition: Relationships with hospitals, critical access hospitals, and tissue banks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Condition: Relationships with hospitals, critical... Measures § 486.322 Condition: Relationships with hospitals, critical access hospitals, and tissue banks. (a... Medicaid participating hospitals and critical access hospitals in its service area that have both...

  10. 42 CFR 447.280 - Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed... Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services Swing-Bed Hospitals § 447.280 Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals). (a) General rule. If the State plan provides for NF...

  11. 42 CFR 447.280 - Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed... Inpatient Hospital and Long-Term Care Facility Services Swing-Bed Hospitals § 447.280 Hospital providers of NF services (swing-bed hospitals). (a) General rule. If the State plan provides for NF...

  12. Bibliography for the Hospitality Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Elizabeth A.

    This annotated bibliography is a sample collection of reference materials in the hospitality industry suitable for a small academic library. It is assumed that the library has a general reference collection. Publication dates range from 1992-96, with two publication dates in the 1980s. No periodicals are included. The 41 reference materials are…

  13. Antidepressants in the general hospital.

    PubMed Central

    Gelenberg, A. J.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to the use of antidepressant medication in the general hospital is presented. The type of depression most likely to respond to chemotherapy is described, categories of available antidepressant agents are discussed, and relevant pharmacologic aspects are outlined. This paper suggests clinical guidelines for the use of these drugs, particularly in medical and surgical patients. PMID:455184

  14. Emergency contraception and Catholic hospitals.

    PubMed

    Bucar, L; Nolan, D

    1999-01-01

    The "Ethical and Religious Directives for Catholic Health Care," which outline policies for Catholic hospitals in the US, are ambiguous on the topic of emergency contraception. Recent evidence suggests that, in the absence of definitive guidelines, Catholic hospitals are erring on the side of not providing emergency contraception. A survey of 589 US Catholic hospitals conducted by Catholics for a Free Choice found that 82% refused to supply emergency contraception--even to rape victims. Directive 36, which governs cases of sexual assault, could be argued to sanction the provision of emergency contraception. It states, "A female who has been raped should be able to defend herself against a potential conception from the sexual assault. If, after appropriate testing, there is no evidence that conception has occurred already, she may be treated with medications that would prevent ovulation, sperm capacitation, or fertilization. It is not permissible, however, to initiate or to recommend treatments that have as their purpose or direct effect the removal, destruction, or interference with the implantation of a fertilized ovum." Because the process of conception takes approximately 2 days, it would be consistent with the Catholic Church's position to offer emergency contraception within 24 hours of a rape. Since no currently available test can confirm or deny conception as early as 72 hours after unprotected intercourse, the timetable for emergency contraception, Catholic hospitals should be able to provide this service to all women and still abide by the directives.

  15. The Johns Hopkins Hospital Network

    PubMed Central

    Tolchin, Stephen G.; Barta, Wendy; Harkness, Kenneth

    1985-01-01

    The Johns Hopkins Hospital has initiated an ambitious program to apply modern technologies to the development of a new, comprehensive clinical information system. One component of this system is a networking technology for supporting the integration of diverse and functionally distinct information systems. This paper discusses the selection of the networking technology implemented at JHH, issues and problems, networking concepts, protocols and reliability.

  16. The PSRO hospital review system.

    PubMed

    Goran, M J; Roberts, J S; Kellogg, M A; Fielding, J; Jessee, W

    1975-04-01

    The 1972 Social Security amendments contained the landmark Professional Standards Review Organization (PSRO) provisions as well as several sections upgrading existing utilization review (UR) requirements under Medicare and Medicaid. With issuance of the PSRO Program Manual and the recent publication of the new UR regulations, HEW for the first time has brought Medicare and Medicaid hospital review requirements into conformity and made them compatible with and supportive of the PSRO program. This article defines the PSRO hospital review system, describes how the three major components-concurrent review, medical care evaluation studies, and profile analysis-interrelate and provides examples of each of these components. Under utilization review requirements or PSRO, hospitals will be required to implement an integrated system of review designed to assure appropriate utilization practices and improve the quality of care. These aims are to be accomplished through the application of concepts of peer review, the use of norms, criteria, and standards, the identification of deficiencies in the quality, administration, or appropriateness of health care services, and their correction through linkage with programs of continuing medical education. Although PSROs are initially responsible for review in hospitals, they will likely provide the locus for a community-wide system of peer review for all services provided under National Health Insurance.

  17. Social Group Work in Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stambler, Moses

    This literature review focuses on social group work in the hospital setting. The first section addresses the need for a holistic approach within a typology of illness, and discusses the social work role and intervention tasks required at different stages of illness, i.e., diagnosis, adaptation to long-term illness, and the ending of the illness…

  18. Hospital autopsy: Endangered or extinct?

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, Angus; Osborn, Michael; Nicholas, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Aim To determine the hospital autopsy rate for the UK in 2013. Methods A study of data from a ‘Freedom of Information’ request to all (n=186) acute NHS Trusts within England (n=160), NHS Boards in Scotland (n=14) and Wales (n=7) and Social Care Trusts in Northern Ireland (n=5). Hospital autopsy rates were calculated from the number of hospital autopsies performed in 2013 as a percentage of total inpatient deaths in the Trust that year. Results The UK response rate was 99% (n=184), yielding a mean autopsy rate of 0.69%. The mean rates were 0.51% (England), 2.13% (Scotland), 0.65% (Wales) and 0.46% (Northern Ireland). 23% (n=38) of all included respondents had a rate of 0% and 86% (n=143) a rate less than 1%. Conclusions The decline in hospital autopsy has continued relentlessly and, for better or for worse, the practice is on the verge of extinction in the UK. The study highlights to health professionals and policy makers the magnitude of this decline. Further research should investigate the impact of this on patient safety, clinical audit, public health and medical education. PMID:26076965

  19. Hospital mutual aid evacuation plan.

    PubMed

    Phillips, R

    1997-02-01

    Health care facilities need to be prepared for disasters such as floods, tornadoes and earthquakes. Rochester, NY, and its surrounding communities devised a hospital mutual aid evacuation plan in the event a disaster occurs and also to comply with the Joint Commission. This document discusses the plan's development process and also provides the end result.

  20. Hospital hygiene in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Emmerson, A M

    1996-12-01

    ICT's in the UK are experienced, well trained and are enthusiastic. However, their efforts are frustrated through lack of resources. Infection Control is now a quality issue and defined separate budgets are being established and hospital contracts now contain elements of infection control as part of the service. Infection control is coming of age in the UK after 25 years of earnest effort.

  1. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  2. Antidepressant adherence after psychiatric hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Zivin, Kara; Ganoczy, Dara; Pfeiffer, Paul N.; Miller, Erin M.; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Objective Depressed patients discharged from psychiatric hospitalizations face increased risks for adverse outcomes including suicide, yet antidepressant adherence rates during this high-risk period are unknown. Using Veterans Affairs (VA) data, we assessed antidepressant adherence and predictors of poor adherence among depressed veterans following psychiatric hospitalization. Method We identified VA patients nationwide with depressive disorders who had a psychiatric hospitalization between April 1, 1999 and September 30, 2003, received antidepressant medication, and had an outpatient appointment following discharge. We calculated medication possession ratios (MPRs), a measure of medication adherence, within three and six months following discharge. We assessed patient factors associated with having lower levels of adherence (MPRs <0.8) after discharge. Results 20,931 and 23,182 patients met criteria for three and six month MPRs. The mean three month MPR was 0.79 (s.d.=0.37). The mean six month MPR was 0.66 (s.d.=0.40). Patients with poorer adherence were male, younger, non-white, and had a substance abuse disorder, but were less likely to have PTSD or other anxiety disorders. Conclusion Poor antidepressant adherence is common among depressed patients after psychiatric hospitalization. Efforts to improve adherence at this time may be critical in improving the outcomes of these high-risk patients. PMID:19609666

  3. Markets for hospital services in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Nakamba, Pamela; Hanson, Kara; McPake, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    Hospital reforms involving the introduction of measures to increase competition in hospital markets are being implemented in a range of low and middle-income countries. However, little is understood about the operation of hospital markets outside the USA and the UK. This paper assesses the degree of competition for hospital services in two hospital markets in Zambia (Copperbelt and Midlands), and the implications for prices, quality and efficiency. We found substantial differences among different hospital types in prices, costs and quality, suggesting that the hospital service market is a segmented market. The two markets differ significantly in their degree of competition, with the high cost inpatient services market in Copperbelt relatively more competitive than that in the Midlands market. The implications of these differences are discussed in terms of the potential for competition to improve hospital performance, the impact of market structure on equity of access, and how the government should address the problem of the mine hospitals.

  4. Measuring efficiency among US federal hospitals.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Jeffrey P; Meyer, Sean

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficiency of federal hospitals, specifically those hospitals administered by the US Department of Veterans Affairs and the US Department of Defense. Hospital executives, health care policymakers, taxpayers, and federal hospital beneficiaries benefit from studies that improve hospital efficiency. This study uses data envelopment analysis to evaluate a panel of 165 federal hospitals in 2007 and 157 of the same hospitals again in 2011. Results indicate that overall efficiency in federal hospitals improved from 81% in 2007 to 86% in 2011. The number of federal hospitals operating on the efficiency frontier decreased slightly from 25 in 2007 to 21 in 2011. The higher efficiency score clearly documents that federal hospitals are becoming more efficient in the management of resources. From a policy perspective, this study highlights the economic importance of encouraging increased efficiency throughout the health care industry. This research examines benchmarking strategies to improve the efficiency of hospital services to federal beneficiaries. Through the use of strategies such as integrated information systems, consolidation of services, transaction-cost economics, and focusing on preventative health care, these organizations have been able to provide quality service while maintaining fiscal responsibility. In addition, the research documented the characteristics of those federal hospitals that were found to be on the Efficiency Frontier. These hospitals serve as benchmarks for less efficient federal hospitals as they develop strategies for improvement.

  5. Peptic ulcers: mortality and hospitalization.

    PubMed

    Riley, R

    1991-01-01

    This study analyzes data on peptic ulcer disease based on deaths for 1951-1988 and hospital separations for 1969-1988. The source of the data are mortality and morbidity statistics provided to Statistics Canada by the provinces. The age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for peptic ulcer disease decreased from 1951 to 1988 by 69.4% for men (8.5 to 2.6 per 100,000 population), and 31.8% for women (2.2 to 1.5). Separation rates from hospitals during 1969-1988 for peptic ulcer disease also decreased by 59.8% for men (242.7 to 97.6 per 100,000 population) and 35.6% for women (103.2 to 66.5). Age-specific rates for both mortality and hospital separations increased with age. Epidemiological studies indicate that the incidence of peptic ulcer disease is declining in the general population. The downward trends in mortality and hospitalization rates for peptic ulcer disease reflect this change in incidence, but additional factors probably contribute as well to this decline. Male rates for both mortality and hospital separations were much higher than female rates at the beginning of the study period; but toward the end, the gap between the sexes narrowed considerably, mainly because the male rates declined substantially while the female rates decline moderately. The slower decline in the rates for women may be related to such factors as the increasing labour force participation among women and the slower decline in the population of female smokers.

  6. Nursing: the hospital's competitive edge.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, F A; Preziosi, P

    1988-09-01

    The health care marketplace is becoming increasingly competitive. The hospital has a built-in marketing force with the nursing department, because nurses are in constant, direct contact with the customer. Nursing must identify the case mix profile of the community and focus the hospital product lines to meet community needs. The nursing department should decentralize, change, measure, and innovate the staff mix needed to operationalize these product lines. The development of nursing practice standards for the case mix will help to identify the staff mix needed and create systems to efficiently manage the product lines. Nursing management must become aware of cross-subsidization and downward skill substitution of nursing personnel. Nursing information systems must generate quality reports that invoke cost consciousness on the part of nursing staff. Quality assurance programs must become unit based and complete with frequent audits to correlate length of stay with nursing quality. Correlations must be determined between nursing productivity and case mix to determine the hospital's niche in the marketplace. The transformation of health care into a competitive business industry has created many opportunities for nursing. The health care industry's incentives for efficiency along with the decreasing demand for inpatient hospital services will be the forces driving health care toward a competitive marketplace. The hospital's nursing department should be strategically positioned to become accountable for increasing market share and enhancing quality patient outcomes. The focus has shifted from the theoretical to the tactical, which is a step in the right direction, particularly for nursing. Nursing, if strategically positioned, will not only thrive but will also excel in this chaotic environment by capturing the opportunities and being innovative.

  7. Hospital advertising in California, 1991-1997.

    PubMed

    Town, Robert J; Currim, Imran

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the advertising behavior of California hospitals from 1991 to 1997. Using highly detailed hospital-level information, we found that hospital advertising in California increased dramatically: annual spending on advertising grew (inflation adjusted) more than sixfold over the period. In addition, advertising expenditures varied significantly across hospitals. We found that hospital advertising increased with market concentration; with the number of nearby potential patients; with the percentage of nearby patients insured through Medicare, health maintenance organizations (HMOs), and indemnity insurance; and with chain affiliation. For-profit hospitals were not found to advertise more than their not-for-profit counterparts.

  8. Malnutrition among hospitalized patients in King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh.

    PubMed

    Bani, I A; Al-Kanhal, M A

    1998-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the incidence of malnutrition among hospitalized patients. A cross-sectional study of patients were evaluated for findings suggestive of protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). Hundred and sixty patients admitted to the medical and surgical wards over a period of five months were studied. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were used. Nutrition status was calculated based on some nutrition parameters weight for height, midarm, circumference, serum albumin and total lymphocyte count. Anthropometric measurements, weight for height and midarm circumference reflected malnutrition (PCM) of 33.8% and 30% respectively. The overall prevalence of obesity was 21%. A higher proportion (23.9%) of medical cases were found to be obese compared to surgical cases (19.7%). If malnutrition can be documented on hospital admission, attempts can be made to reverse malnutrition in the high risk patients.

  9. Mold remediation in a hospital.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tang G

    2009-01-01

    As occupants in a hospital, patients are susceptible to air contaminants that can include biological agents dispersed throughout the premise. An exposed patient can become ill and require medical intervention. A consideration for patients is that they may have become environmentally sensitive and require placement in an environment that does not compromise their health. Unfortunately, the hospital environment often contains more biological substances than can be expected in an office or home environment. When a hospital also experiences water intrusion such as flooding or water leaks, resulting mold growth can seriously compromise the health of patients and others such as nursing staff and physicians (Burge, Indoor Air and Infectious Disease. Occupational Medicine: State of the Art Reviews, 1980; Lutz et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases 37: 786-793, 2003). Micro-organism growth can propagate if the water is not addressed quickly and effectively. Immunocompromised patients are particularly at risk when subjected to fungal infection such that the US Center for Disease Control issued guideline for building mold in health care facilities (Centers for Disease and Control [CDC], Centers for Disease and Control: Questions and Answers on Stachybotrys chartarum and Other Molds, 2000). This paper is based on mold remediation of one portion of a hospital unit due to water from construction activity and inadequate maintenance, resulting in mold growth. A large proportion of the hospital staff, primarily nurses in the dialysis unit, exhibited health symptoms consistent with mold exposure. Unfortunately, the hospital administrators did not consider the mold risk to be serious and refused an independent consultant retained by the nurse's union to examine the premise (Canadian Broadcasting Corporation [CBC], Nurses file complaints over mold at Foothills. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation, 2003). The nurse's union managed to have the premise examined by submitting a court order of

  10. [Historical exploration of Acapulco hospitals, Guerrero, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Fajardo-Ortiz, Guillermo; Salcedo-Alvarez, Rey Arturo

    2006-01-01

    This study attempts to recount the history of the main hospitals of the port of Acapulco from colonial times until the end of the 20th century. The Augustine friars began hospital care at the end of the first part of the 16th century. Later, Bernardino Alvarez (1514?-1584), with the support of the Spanish crown, founded the first formal hospital in Acapulco called Hospital de Nuestra Señora de la Consolación (Our Lady of Consolation Hospital). During the 16th and 17th centuries, the sick were attended by friars, and by the end of the 19th century there were physicians and surgeons. From the end of the Independence War until the end of the 19th century, the port did not have any true hospital. The first degreed physicians and surgeons arrived and resided in Acapulco in 1920. In 1938, the Hospital Civil Morelos (Morelos Civil Hospital) began providing services. It was replaced by the Hospital General de Acapulco (General Hospital of Acapulco). At the fourth decade of the past century the Cruz Roja (Red Cross) was created. In 1957 the hospital services of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS, Mexican Institute of Social Security), which was founded in 1963, was inaugurated with the Unidad Medico/Social (Medical and Social Unit) of the IMSS in Acapulco. This began the journey of modernity in Acapulco. In 1992, Hospital Regional Vicente Guerrero (Regional Hospital Vicente Guerrero) of the IMSS, initiated its services. In 1960, medical services for civil workers and their families were housed in the Hospital Civil Morelos (Morelos Civil Hospital). Shortly afterwards, the Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales para los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE, Security and Social Services Institute for State Employees) had their own hospital. During the 20th century, Acapulco has added other hospital services to care for members of the navy and armed forces, as well as for those persons with financial resources for private care.

  11. Shingles Vaccine Cuts Chronic Pain, Hospitalizations

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164156.html Shingles Vaccine Cuts Chronic Pain, Hospitalizations Protection lasts years after ... age, researchers said. The new study showed the vaccine was 74 percent effective in preventing hospitalizations for ...

  12. Hospital demand for licensed practical nurses.

    PubMed

    Spetz, Joanne; Dyer, Wendy T; Chapman, Susan; Seago, Jean Ann

    2006-10-01

    Despite evidence that hospital use of licensed practical nurses (LPNs) declined in the 1990s, the current registered nurse (RN) shortage has prompted interest in LPNs as substitutes for RNs. Hospitals, being the dominant employer of RNs, have an economic incentive to use less expensive LPNs as substitutes. Beside wages, there are several forces underlying hospital demand for LPNs. In this article, the authors model and estimate hospital demand for LPNs as a function of nurse wages and hospital, market, and patient characteristics using a longitudinal data set of short-term general hospitals in the United States. The authors find evidence that higher RN wages increase hospital demand for LPNs, both in levels and relative to RNs, suggesting that hospitals at least partially substitute RNs with LPNs.

  13. Learning to speak up about hospital failures.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Dawne

    2016-08-17

    The recent Public Accounts Committee (PAC) report on discharging older people from acute hospitals in England revealed that rising numbers of patients are remaining in hospital when they are clinically ready to go home.

  14. Hospital Sinks May Be Awash in 'Superbugs'

    MedlinePlus

    ... 163800.html Hospital Sinks May Be Awash in 'Superbugs' Study finds drug-resistant bacteria can colonize in ... News) -- New research suggests that the battle against "superbugs" -- multidrug-resistant bacteria -- should begin in hospital sinks. ...

  15. Metadata - National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The National Hospital Discharge Survey (NHDS) is an annual probability survey that collects information on the characteristics of inpatients discharged from non-federal short-stay hospitals in the United States.

  16. Getting your home ready - after the hospital

    MedlinePlus

    ... 000432.htm Getting your home ready - after the hospital To use the sharing features on this page, ... home ready after you have been in the hospital often requires much preparation. Set up your home ...

  17. Observations on Hospitalized Dengue Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    DENGUE PATIENTS IN MANILA Carman. R. Min oto* be" S. Siqpo Ommon D. Leus** Curds G. Ibyes* INTRODUCION to the Hospital of Infant Jesus between October...31, 1983 and March 31, 1984: Criteria for the diagnosis of dengue Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) has been recognized infection were based on the...titer of later sample < 1:640. DHF epidemic.4𔃿 Since that time, there have only been a few- was differentiated from dengue fever (DF), and DHF was

  18. Salmonella isolation from hospital areas.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, R. W.; Price, T. H.; Joynson, D. H.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence of the presence of salmonellas in a paediatric ward, a special care baby unit, a maternity unit and a hospital kitchen was obtained by culture of sewer swabs, faeces and food samples. The survey was designed to cause as little administrative interference as possible. The technical aspects of the survey did not strain laboratory facilities. Minimal secondary spread of salmonella infection was experienced. PMID:390044

  19. [Pericarditis in a general hospital].

    PubMed

    Faintuch, J J; Friedmann, A A

    1996-01-01

    The authors studied 57 patients with pericarditis in the Ward of Internal Medicine of the University of São Paulo from January 1993 through May 1995. A comparison was made with the results of a similar study performed in the same hospital in 1989. Increasing frequency of pericarditis was verified. Tuberculosis, formerly the most frequent etiologic agent, decreased while neoplastic diseases became more common.

  20. Business Intelligence in Hospital Management.

    PubMed

    Escher, Achim; Hainc, Nicolin; Boll, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Business intelligence (BI) is a worthwhile investment, and will play a significant role in hospital management in the near future. Implementation of BI is challenging and requires resources, skills, and a strategy, but enables management to have easy access to relevant analysis of data and visualization of important key performance indicators (KPI). Modern BI applications will help to overcome shortages of common "hand-made" analysis, save time and money, and will enable even managers to do "self-service" analysis and reporting.

  1. Sociodemographic and Clinical Characteristics of Psychiatric Inpatients Hospitalized Involuntarily and Voluntarily in a Mental Health Hospital

    PubMed Central

    GÜLTEKİN, Bülent Kadri; ÇELİK, Seda; TİHAN, Aysu; BEŞKARDEŞ, Ali Fuat; SEZER, Umut

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to investigate and compare the sociodemographic and clinical characteristics of psychiatric inpatients hospitalized involuntarily and voluntarily. To our knowledge, there is no study analyzing involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in our country. Method In this retrospective study, we included a total of 504 patients who were involuntarily or voluntarily hospitalized in Bolu Izzet Baysal Mental Health Hospital between 1st of May and 31st October 2010. The data were obtained from the hospital records. Result In the 6-month period, 13.1% of 504 inpatients were hospitalized involuntarily. The number of male patients who were involuntarily hospitalized was higher than the number of female patients. Most of the patients in the involuntary hospitalized group were graduates of primary school, were not married and were not working at the time of hospitalization. Schizophrenia was the most common diagnosis in the involuntarily hospitalized psychiatric patients and these patients needed longer stay in the hospital. The next hospitalization of the involuntarily hospitalized patients was mostly involuntary. Conclusion Most of the involuntarily hospitalized psychiatric inpatients were male, were not working and had the diagnosis of schizophrenia. These general psychiatric risk factors were more important in involuntary hospitalization compared to voluntary hospitalization. We concluded that the high prevalence of involuntary hospitalizations deserved further studies.

  2. Welfare standards in hospital mergers.

    PubMed

    Katona, Katalin; Canoy, Marcel

    2013-08-01

    There is a broad literature on the consequences of applying different welfare standards in merger control. Total welfare is usually defined as the sum of consumer and provider surplus, i.e., potential external effects are not considered. The general result is then that consumer welfare is a more restrictive standard than total welfare, which is advantageous in certain situations. This relationship between the two standards is not necessarily true when the merger has significant external effects. We model mergers on hospital markets and allow for not-profit-maximizing behavior of providers and mandatory health insurance. Mandatory health insurance detaches the financial and consumption side of health care markets, and the concept consumer in merger control becomes non-evident. Patients not visiting the merging hospitals still are affected by price changes through their insurance premiums. External financial effects emerge on not directly affected consumers. We show that applying a restricted interpretation of consumer (neglecting externality) in health care merger control can reverse the relation between the two standards; consumer welfare standard can be weaker than total welfare. Consequently, applying the wrong standard can lead to both clearing socially undesirable and to blocking socially desirable mergers. The possible negative consequences of applying a simple consumer welfare standard in merger control can be even stronger when hospitals maximize quality and put less weight on financial considerations. We also investigate the implications of these results for the practice of merger control.

  3. Prognosis after Hospitalization for Erythroderma.

    PubMed

    Egeberg, Alexander; Thyssen, Jacob P; Gislason, Gunnar H; Skov, Lone

    2016-11-02

    Erythrodermic psoriasis (EP) and erythroderma exfoliativa (EE) are acute and potentially life-threatening inflammatory reactions. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of 3-year mortality following hospitalization for EP or EE compared with general population controls, patients hospitalized for psoriasis vulgaris, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), respectively. We identified 26 and 48 patients with a first-time hospitalization (1997-2010) for EP and EE, respectively (10 matched population-controls for each patient), 1,998 patients with psoriasis vulgaris, and 60 patients with TEN. During follow-up, 8 (30.8%) patients with EP, 19 (39.6%) patients with EE, and 34 (56.7%) patients with TEN died. Compared with population-controls, adjusted HRs were 4.40 (95% CI 1.66-11.70) for EP and 2.16 (1.21-3.82) for EE. Compared with psoriasis vulgaris, adjusted HRs were 1.83 (0.90-3.73) for EP, and 1.28 (1.01-1.63) for EE. The risk was significantly lower in EP (0.38 (0.16-0.91)) and in EE (0.50 (0.36-0.71)), compared with TEN. Mortality in EP and EE is high, and close follow-up is advised.

  4. Functional seismic evaluation of hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guevara, L. T.

    2003-04-01

    Functional collapse of hospitals (FCH) occurs when a medical complex, or part of it, although with neither structural nor nonstructural damage, is unable to provide required services for immediate attention to earthquake victims and for the recovery of the affected community. As it is known, FCH during and after an earthquake, is produced, not only by the damage to nonstructural components, but by an inappropriate or deficient distribution of essential and supporting medical spaces. This paper presents some conclusions on the analysis of the traditional architectural schemes for the design and construction of hospitals in the 20th Century and some recommendations for the establishment of evaluation parameters for the remodeling and seismic upgrade of existing hospitals in seismic zones based on the new concepts of: a) the relative location of each essential service (ES) into the medical complex, b) the capacity of each of these spaces for housing temporary activities required for the attention of a massive emergency (ME); c) the relationship between ES and the supporting services (SS); d) the flexibility of transformation of nonessential services into complementary spaces for the attention of extraordinary number of victims; e) the dimensions and appropriateness of evacuation routes; and d) the appropriate supply and maintenance of water, electricity and vital gases emergency installations.

  5. Recognition of dementia in hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    Maslow, Katie; Mezey, Mathy

    2008-01-01

    Many hospital patients with dementia have no documented dementia diagnosis. In some cases, this is because they have never been diagnosed. Recognition of Dementia in Hospitalized Older Adults proposes several approaches that hospital nurses can use to increase recognition of dementia. This article describes the Try This approaches, how to implement them, and how to incorporate them into a hospital's current admission procedures. For a free online video demonstrating the use of these approaches, go to http://links.lww.com/A216.

  6. Current trends in hospital mergers and acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Thomas C; Werling, Krist A; Walker, Barton C; Burgdorfer, Rex J; Shields, J Jordan

    2012-03-01

    Healthcare reform will impact hospital consolidation in three key areas: Payment rates will decrease, indirectly encouraging consolidation by forcing hospitals to find new ways to reduce costs and increase negotiating clout with suppliers and payers. The cost of doing business will increase as hospitals spend more on compliance, technology, and physician employment. The ACO model will encourage hospital network formation by rewarding integrated healthcare systems that can reduce costs and improve quality.

  7. Management control literature and French public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Irène

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of activity based pricing in combination with hospitals' reorganizations has created a new financial logic in French public hospitals. The organization has an obligation to produce certain levels of activity, since hospitals' resources are directly dependent on the activity level. These changes also imply the implementation of financial results controls in these organizations. The purpose of this answer is to demonstrate how the literature on management control can help to understand what has been happening within the French public hospitals.

  8. Marketing issues for the hospital industry.

    PubMed

    Godiwalla, Yezdi H; Godiwalla, Shirley Y

    2002-01-01

    The controls on payments by insurance companies and governmental agencies (Medicare, Medicaid, Title 19) to hospitals have led to restricted hospital services for patients. This situation has caused over-capacity in hospitals. Also, there is a surplus of both hospital capacity and doctors. However, there are frequent shortages of nurses and many other trained technical personnel. This situation has behavioral implications which are discussed in this paper.

  9. Market orientation and organizational culture in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Proenca, E J

    1996-01-01

    Hospitals have been advised to respond to environmental pressures by changing from a product to a market orientation. Such changes are difficult to accomplish because of the entrenched behaviors and attitudes of hospitals employees. This article proposes organizational cultures as the avenue to a market orientation. It describes the role of hospital culture as an antecedent to market orientation. It also suggests ways to develop and maintain a market-oriented culture in hospitals.

  10. Hospital Library Standards: An Administrator's View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koughan, William P.

    1975-01-01

    The current Standards for Professional Library Services of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals are analyzed. It is concluded that the standards are weak and that this has a negative effect on both hospital administrators and hospital librarians. Recommendations to remedy the situation are offered. (Author)

  11. Developing Marketing Strategies for University Teaching Hospitals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Daniel J.

    1980-01-01

    University teaching hospitals face increasing competition from community hospitals, expanding regulation of health care, consumerism, and a declining urban population base. New marketing strategies are seen as ways in which teaching hospitals can achieve better relationships with institutions, practitioners, and surrounding communities and…

  12. The risks of getting hospital discharge wrong.

    PubMed

    2016-08-01

    Hospital discharge remains a hot topic for all of us who work with older people. As the recent National Audit Office (NAO) 2016 report on discharging older patients from hospital rather bluntly put it: 'There are currently far too many older people in hospitals who do not need to be there.'

  13. [Psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria].

    PubMed

    Evans, Janet; Dummer, Verena; Kinzl, Johann

    2016-12-01

    This paper on psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria first looks at the overall situation of Austrian day clinics then, in a second step, compares psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals. For this purpose, a questionnaire was developed and sent to all psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals in Austria. The first part consisted of closed questions and was used to gather and evaluate the categories: general conditions for treatment in day hospitals, tasks of day hospitals, therapeutic paradigms, indication and contraindication, diagnostics, day hospital organisation, interdisciplinary cooperation and the offering in day hospitals. The second section consisted of open questions which were used to gather and evaluate active factors, difficulties, specifics and requests for future treatment in day hospitals. The results show that there is a trend towards more day hospitals. Psychosomatic day hospitals are a rather new phenomenon. Furthermore, the distinction between psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals is important in order to offer patients distinguishable treatment options in future. The results show that psychiatric and psychosomatic day hospitals both have a strong focus on psychotherapy and both fulfill the active factors for psychotherapy by Grawe.

  14. Financial Indicators for Critical Access Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pink, George H.; Holmes, G. Mark; D'Alpe, Cameron; Strunk, Lindsay A.; McGee, Patrick; Slifkin, Rebecca T.

    2006-01-01

    Context: There is a growing recognition of the need to measure and report hospital financial performance. However, there exists little comparative financial indicator data specifically for critical access hospitals (CAHs). CAHs differ from other hospitals on a number of dimensions that might affect appropriate indicators of performance, including…

  15. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  16. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  17. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  18. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  19. 42 CFR 412.534 - Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospitals within hospitals and satellites of long-term care hospitals. 412.534 Section 412.534 Public Health... Hospitals § 412.534 Special payment provisions for long-term care hospitals within hospitals and satellites... § 412.22(e)(2), or satellite facilities of long-term care hospitals that meet the criteria in §...

  20. 4. Hospital Point, Saunders Monument, view to northeast Portsmouth ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Hospital Point, Saunders Monument, view to northeast - Portsmouth Naval Hospital, Bounded by Elizabeth River, Crawford Street, Portsmouth General Hospital, Parkview Avenue, & Scotts Creek, Portsmouth, Portsmouth, VA

  1. 76 FR 67567 - Medicare Program; Inpatient Hospital Deductible and Hospital and Extended Care Services...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... Medicare Program; Inpatient Hospital Deductible and Hospital and Extended Care Services Coinsurance Amounts... Services RIN 0938-AQ14 Medicare Program; Inpatient Hospital Deductible and Hospital and Extended Care... extended care services coinsurance amounts for services furnished in calendar year (CY) 2012 under...

  2. 75 FR 60640 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System Changes and FY... Rehabilitation and Respiratory Care Services; Medicaid Program: Accreditation for Providers of Inpatient... ``Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

  3. 42 CFR 412.22 - Excluded hospitals and hospital units: General rules.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... status. A satellite of a long-term care hospital that occupies space in a building used by another..., a hospital that occupies space in a building also used by another hospital, or in one or more... from the governing body of the hospital occupying space in the same building or on the same campus....

  4. Nursing Home Residents at Risk of Hospitalization and the Characteristics of Their Hospital Stays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murtaugh, Christopher M.; Freiman, Marc P.

    1995-01-01

    Analysis of national medical data identified elderly nursing home residents with an elevated risk of hospitalization and the characteristics of their hospital stays. Findings indicate an elevated risk of hospitalization for residents diagnosed with one of several different primary diagnoses. Infections accounted for over 25% of hospital stays.…

  5. 77 FR 60315 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific...

  6. 78 FR 15882 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...-AR12 Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific...

  7. 77 FR 63751 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ...; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the Long-Term Care Hospital Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year 2013 Rates; Hospitals' Resident Caps for Graduate Medical Education Payment Purposes; Quality Reporting Requirements for Specific Providers and for Ambulatory...

  8. Strategic management of Public Hospitals' medical services.

    PubMed

    Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction.

  9. A Computerized Hospital Patient Information Management System

    PubMed Central

    Wig, Eldon D.

    1982-01-01

    The information processing needs of a hospital are many, with varying degrees of complexity. The prime concern in providing an integrated hospital information management system lies in the ability to process the data relating to the single entity for which every hospital functions - the patient. This paper examines the PRIMIS computer system developed to accommodate hospital needs with respect to a central patient registry, inpatients (i.e., Admission/Transfer/Discharge), and out-patients. Finally, the potential for expansion to permit the incorporation of more hospital functions within PRIMIS is examined.

  10. Organ donation: the role of hospitals.

    PubMed

    Land, W; Schulz, C

    1990-11-01

    Three models of cooperation between hospitals and transplant centres are: (1) performance of brain death diagnosis, organ removal and preservation at the peripheral hospital; (2) performance of brain death diagnosis at the peripheral hospital and transportation of the dead body under ICU modalities to the transplant centre; (3) transport of a potential organ donor to the transplant centre. The key issues for success in cooperation between peripheral hospitals and transplant centres are: positive attitudes of hospital representatives; motivation and acceptance of ICU staff, supported by the whole community; and availability of adequate facilities to perform organ recovery in practice.

  11. Hospital Closure and Insights into Patient Dispersion

    PubMed Central

    Garg, N.; Husk, G.; Nguyen, T.; Onyile, A.; Echezona, S.; Kuperman, G.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Hospital closures are becoming increasingly common in the United States. Patients who received care at the closing hospitals must travel to different, often farther hospitals for care, and nearby remaining hospitals may have difficulty coping with a sudden influx of patients. Objectives Our objectives are to analyze the dispersion patterns of patients from a closing hospital and to correlate that with distance from the closing hospital for three specific visit types: emergency, inpatient, and ambulatory. Methods In this study, we used data from a health information exchange to track patients from Saint Vincent’s Medical Center, a hospital in New York City that closed in 2010, to determine where they received emergency, inpatient, and ambulatory care following the closure. Results We found that patients went to the next nearest hospital for their emergency and inpatient care, but ambulatory encounters did not correlate with distance. Discussion It is likely that patients followed their ambulatory providers as they transitioned to another hospital system. Additional work should be done to determine predictors of impact on nearby hospitals when another hospital in the community closes in order to better prepare for patient dispersion. PMID:25848422

  12. [A future path toward cooperation: hospital partnership].

    PubMed

    de Roodenbeke, E

    1994-01-01

    Development agencies have been promoting hospital programs in developing countries for several years. Although they have placed the accent on reorganising the management of these hospitals, most funds have been used for investment in buildings and equipment. This policy has failed, for several reasons. In many cases the field of intervention is too narrow, and involved too few professionals. There is also an erroneous belief that management restructuring can solve all the problems of running an hospital. Indeed, practitioners themselves, who are the cutting edge, are often ignored. Many projects are started without evaluating the resources of the hospital team. And a training program is not always the best solution when there is a lack of motivation or poor basic knowledge. Development agencies are often simply regarded a funding sources, yet money is not the answer to all hospital problems. Clearly development agencies cannot enter partnerships directly with hospitals in developing countries, but the solution may be to get these hospital more involved. For example, French hospitals are legally authorized to undertake international cooperation programs, free from time limits and political pressures, contrary to development agencies. What is more, hospitals in the developed countries can learn much about cost rationalization from their counterparts in the developing countries. Development agencies should thus encourage this sort of hospital "twinning" initiative and provide financial support, but it is important that the hospitals involved should be fully independent to avoid excessive bureaucracy.

  13. [Medical clowns at hospitals and their effect on hospitalized children].

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Yossi

    2008-01-01

    Healing by the use of humor has become popular over the last few years and it is used not only in alternative medicine but also in conventional medicine in hospitals all over the world, particularly in the USA and Europe. This practice has been well implemented in pediatric wards. It is easier to make a child laugh than an adult. In the framework of healing by humor, use is made of a medical clown who is in fact a person who has undergone special training in acting and clowning, combined with medical knowledge and an understanding of patient behavior. Some medical clowns come from the world of entertainment, and are actors, clowns, and magicians. Some have a paramedical or medical background. Medical research demonstrates that medical clowns and humor have a positive effect on patients. The implementation of medical clowning has been increasing throughout the world from year to year and has, slowly but surely, started a movement to integrate it into formal frameworks in both pediatric and adult wards in hospitals. However, there is still a necessity to conduct larger, well controlled clinical trials regarding the influence of the different programs. Maybe the growing awareness in the world will fill the void that demands resources of both personnel and budgets, both of which are often missing from health budgets.

  14. Costs of Physician-Hospital Integration.

    PubMed

    Cho, Na-Eun

    2015-10-01

    Given that the enactment of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 is expected to generate forces toward physician-hospital integration, this study examined an understudied, albeit important, area of costs incurred in physician-hospital integration. Such costs were analyzed through 24 semi-structured interviews with physicians and hospital administrators in a multiple-case, inductive study. Two extreme types of physician-hospital arrangements were examined: an employed model (ie, integrated salary model, a group of physicians integrated by a hospital system) and a private practice (ie, a physician or group of physicians who are independent of economic or policy control). Interviews noted that integration leads to 3 evident costs, namely, monitoring, coordination, and cooperation costs. Improving our understanding of the kinds of costs that are incurred after physician-hospital integration will help hospitals and physicians to avoid common failures after integration.

  15. 'Patient satisfaction' in hospitalized cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Skarstein, Jon; Dahl, Alv A; Laading, Jacob; Fosså, Sophie D

    2002-01-01

    Predictors of 'patient satisfaction' with hospitalization at a specialized cancer hospital in Norway are examined in this study. Two weeks after their last hospitalization, 2021 consecutive cancer patients were invited to rate their satisfaction with hospitalization, quality of life, anxiety and depression. Compliance rate was 72% (n = 1453). Cut-off levels separating dissatisfied from satisfied patients were defined. It was found that 92% of the patients were satisfied with their stay in hospital, independent of cancer type and number of previous admissions. Performance of nurses and physicians, level of information perceived, outcome of health status, reception at the hospital and anxiety independently predicted 'patient satisfaction'. The model explained 35% of the variance with an area under the curve of 0.76 of the Receiver Operator Curve. Cancer patients' satisfaction with their hospital stay was high, and predicted by four independently predictive variables related to the performance of caregivers. These suggest areas for further improvement in the healthcare service.

  16. Hubble Systems Optimize Hospital Schedules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    Don Rosenthal, a former Ames Research Center computer scientist who helped design the Hubble Space Telescope's scheduling software, co-founded Allocade Inc. of Menlo Park, California, in 2004. Allocade's OnCue software helps hospitals reclaim unused capacity and optimize constantly changing schedules for imaging procedures. After starting to use the software, one medical center soon reported noticeable improvements in efficiency, including a 12 percent increase in procedure volume, 35 percent reduction in staff overtime, and significant reductions in backlog and technician phone time. Allocade now offers versions for outpatient and inpatient magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, interventional radiology, nuclear medicine, Positron Emission Tomography (PET), radiography, radiography-fluoroscopy, and mammography.

  17. [Dialogical leadership in hospitals institutions].

    PubMed

    Amestoy, Simone Coelho; Trindade, Letícia de Lima; Waterkemper, Roberta; Heidman, Ivonete Teresinha Schülter; Boehs, Astrid Egged; Backes, Vânia Marli Schubert

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is make a theorical-reflection about the importance of using dialogical leadership in hospital institutions through Freirean referencial. The dialogical leadership pattern differs from the coercive and autocratic methods, for being reasoned on the establishment of an efficient communicational process, able to stimulate autonomy, co-responsibility and appreciation of each member from nurse team. The dialogical leadership, unlike the directive one, is a management instrument, that pursuits to minimize the conflicts and stimulate the formation of healthy interpersonal relationships, which can contribute to the improvement of organizational atmosphere and quality care provided to health services users.

  18. Salisbury hospital's steam trap success.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    With the Carbon Reduction Commitment now fully in force, and the NHS tasked with achieving tough carbon emission reduction targets in line with both UK and EU mandates, healthcare estates teams across the country are seeking cost-effective ways to reduce energy consumption. Against this backdrop, Salisbury District Hospital has implemented a concerted energy-saving programme, key elements of which include replacing existing bucket steam traps with higher performing, lower maintenance, and more effective GEM venturi steam traps from Thermal Energy International (TEI), installing a new gas CHP engine, and looking into fitting a TEI condensate economiser system.

  19. Managing hospitals in turbulent times: do organizational changes improve hospital survival?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S Y; Alexander, J A

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine (1) the degree to which organizational changes affected hospital survival; (2) whether core and peripheral organizational changes affected hospital survival differently; and (3) how simultaneous organizational changes affected hospital survival. DATA SOURCES: AHA Hospital Surveys, the Area Resource File, and the AHA Hospital Guides, Part B: Multihospital Systems. STUDY DESIGN: The study employed a longitudinal panel design. We followed changes in all community hospitals in the continental United States from 1981 through 1994. The dependent variable, hospital closure, was examined as a function of multiple changes in a hospital's core and peripheral structures as well as the hospital's organizational and environmental characteristics. Cox regression models were used to test the expectations that core changes increased closure risk while peripheral changes decreased such risk, and that simultaneous core and peripheral changes would lead to higher risk of closure. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Results indicated more peripheral than core changes in community hospitals. Overall, findings contradicted our expectations. Change in specialty, a core change, was beneficial for hospitals, because it reduced closure risk. The two most frequent peripheral changes, downsizing and leadership change, were positively associated with closure. Simultaneous organizational changes displayed a similar pattern: multiple core changes reduced closure risk, while multiple peripheral changes increased the risk. These patterns held regardless of the level of uncertainty in hospital environments. CONCLUSIONS: Organizational changes are not all beneficial for hospitals, suggesting that hospital leaders should be both cautious and selective in their efforts to turn their hospitals around. PMID:10536977

  20. Physician-owned Surgical Hospitals Outperform Other Hospitals in the Medicare Value-based Purchasing Program

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Adriana G; Tracci, Margaret C; Stukenborg, George J; Turrentine, Florence E; Kozower, Benjamin D; Jones, R Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program measures value of care provided by participating Medicare hospitals while creating financial incentives for quality improvement and fostering increased transparency. Limited information is available comparing hospital performance across healthcare business models. Study Design 2015 hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program results were used to examine hospital performance by business model. General linear modeling assessed differences in mean total performance score, hospital case mix index, and differences after adjustment for differences in hospital case mix index. Results Of 3089 hospitals with Total Performance Scores (TPS), categories of representative healthcare business models included 104 Physician-owned Surgical Hospitals (POSH), 111 University HealthSystem Consortium (UHC), 14 US News & World Report Honor Roll (USNWR) Hospitals, 33 Kaiser Permanente, and 124 Pioneer Accountable Care Organization affiliated hospitals. Estimated mean TPS for POSH (64.4, 95% CI 61.83, 66.38) and Kaiser (60.79, 95% CI 56.56, 65.03) were significantly higher compared to all remaining hospitals while UHC members (36.8, 95% CI 34.51, 39.17) performed below the mean (p < 0.0001). Significant differences in mean hospital case mix index included POSH (mean 2.32, p<0.0001), USNWR honorees (mean 2.24, p 0.0140) and UHC members (mean =1.99, p<0.0001) while Kaiser Permanente hospitals had lower case mix value (mean =1.54, p<0.0001). Re-estimation of TPS did not change the original results after adjustment for differences in hospital case mix index. Conclusions The Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program revealed superior hospital performance associated with business model. Closer inspection of high-value hospitals may guide value improvement and policy-making decisions for all Medicare Value-Based Purchasing Program Hospitals. PMID:27502368

  1. [Procedure optimization in hospital management].

    PubMed

    Bauer, M; Hanss, R; Schleppers, A; Steinfath, M; Tonner, P H; Martin, J

    2004-05-01

    Starting January 1st 2004 the German diagnosis-related group (DRG) system was established for in-patient cases. Consequently, the detection and realization of cost-saving potentials are becoming more and more important. For a successful future, efficient allocation of resources is essential. Economically, anaesthesia-related time delays during perioperative work-flow should be minimized. Since numerous entities contribute to perioperative care, it is extremely complex to analyze and optimize this process flow. In this publication single steps leading to an optimized perioperative process flow will be presented: documentation of predefined time points, calculation of relevant time intervals and analysis of key numbers for complex settings. Single steps of the given process analysis will be demonstrated using data from surgical patients at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel. The attached data collection sheets can be used by interested hospital departments and are meant to serve as a template for further process analyses. Based on the shown analysis, an example will be given to develop an optimized work-flow as a standard operating procedure (SOP). The implementation of the SOP module in an interdisciplinary clinical pathway (CP), which defines efficient medical care from admission to discharge, is mainly responsible for decreased process costs but increased quality of care.

  2. Utilization of Facilities of a University Hospital

    PubMed Central

    McCorkle, Lois P.

    1966-01-01

    The lengths of hospital stay among adult inpatients discharged during 1962 from the medical and surgical specialty departments of a large urban university-affiliated general hospital have been examined. Data are shown comparing the durations of hospitalization of patients who had a private physician directly responsible for their hospital care (private patients) and of those who did not (staff patients). The relation between the lengths of stay of private patients and those of staff patients varied considerably from one hospital department to another. On the medical services, staff patients had longer hospital stays than did private patients, a discrepancy that could not be accounted for by differences between the two groups in age, race, sex, or source of payment for hospitalization and it is being studied further. A major cause of the apparent difference in lengths of hospitalization between private and staff surgical patients proved to be inconsistencies in the criteria used to define the terms “hospital admission” and “inpatient” among various patient groups. Some of the possible effects of variations in the definition of these terms and of the terms “medical patients” and “surgical patients” in hospital-use studies are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:5915337

  3. Hospitals' marketing challenge: influencing physician behavior.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R C

    1985-05-01

    Physicians' referring and admitting behavior as well as their clinical management practices are major determinants of hospitals' profitability under prospective payment. Four techniques are available to hospitals that seek to increase market share: Recruitment and retention strategies. In planning the mix of specialties represented on staff, hospitals should consider the effects of a physician's practice on the hospital's case mix. Peer pressure. Peer review programs in hospitals as well as through medical or specialty societies may help persuade physicians to alter their use of services. Education and information programs. Hospitals can assist physicians in patient management by conducting economic grand rounds, developing committees to study and communicate cost data to physicians, and providing information on alternatives to hospitalization. Incentives. Putting physicians at risk by linking planned expenditures to hospital financial performance can influence practice patterns. Other techniques include offering limited partnerships to medical staff members and merging the hospital and medical staff into one corporation. Hospitals may also need to influence physicians away from ventures that compete directly with the institution, such as ambulatory surgery centers.

  4. The Transformation of the Fleet Hospital Program from a Platform-Based Hospital to a Modular, Capability-Based Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    dental services and facilities maintained by the Department of the Navy. BUMED is responsible for active duty fleet hospital staffing decisions and...exception of dental -oral surgery. 10 Assembly of this facility requires three-to-five days and eleven acres of clear land (Fleet Hospitals 2001, 2-3...utilize digital radiography , each service has adopted the use of these systems. These systems allow the hospitals to copy x-ray images to a CD that is

  5. The Impact of Setting the Standards of Health Promoting Hospitals on Hospital Indicators in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Mohammad; Khosravi, Ahmad; Riyahi, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Hospitals play a critical role in the health promotion of the society. This study aimed to determine the impact of establishing standards of health promoting hospitals on hospital indicators in Shahroud. This applied study was a quasi-experimental one which was conducted in 2013. Standards of health promoting hospitals were established as an intervention procedure in the Fatemiyeh hospital. Parameters of health promoting hospitals were compared in intervention and control hospitals before and after of intervention (6 months). The data were analyzed using chi-square and t-test. With the establishment of standards for health promotion hospitals, standard scores in intervention and control hospitals were found to be 72.26 ± 4.1 and 16.26 ± 7.5, respectively. T-test showed a significant difference between the mean scores of the hospitals under study (P = 0.001).The chi-square test also showed a significant relationship between patient satisfaction before and after the intervention so that patients’ satisfaction was higher after the intervention (P = 0.001). Commenting on the short-term or long-term positive impacts of establishing standards of health promoting hospitals on all hospital indicators is a bit difficult but preliminary results show the positive impact of the implementation of standards in case hospitals which has led to the improvement of many indicators in the hospital. PMID:27959930

  6. Soft Budget Constraints in Public Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Wright, Donald J

    2016-05-01

    A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare.

  7. Evaluation of Nigerian hospital meal carts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayodeji, Sesan P.; Adeyeri, Michael K.; Omoniyi, Olaoluwa

    2015-03-01

    Hospital meal carts are used to deliver meals, drugs and some other materials to patients in the hospital environment. These carts which are moved manually by operators, the health workers, mostly do not comply with ergonomics guidelines and physical requirements of the equipment users in terms of anthropometry data of the region thus increasing the risk of musculoskeletal disorder among the meal cart users. This study carried out ergonomic evaluation of the available meal carts in some western Nigeria hospitals. A well-structured questionnaire has two major segments: Operational survey and biomechanical survey, which were administered to the health workers using hospital meal carts in some hospitals in southwestern Nigeria, and physical assessment, which was undertaken to collect data for the ergonomic evaluation. The responses from the questionnaires show that some areas on the existing hospital meal carts are of concern to the users which need to be improved upon.

  8. CEO Compensation and Hospital Financial Performance

    PubMed Central

    Reiter, Kristin L.; Sandoval, Guillermo A.; Brown, Adalsteinn D.; Pink, George H.

    2010-01-01

    Growing interest in pay-for-performance and the level of CEO pay raises questions about the link between performance and compensation in the health sector. This study compares the compensation of non-profit hospital Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) in Ontario, Canada to the three longest reported and most used measures of hospital financial performance. Our sample consisted of 132 CEOs from 92 hospitals between 1999 and 2006. Unbalanced panel data were analyzed using fixed effects regression. Results suggest that CEO compensation was largely unrelated to hospital financial performance. Inflation-adjusted salaries appeared to increase over time independent of hospital performance, and hospital size was positively correlated with CEO compensation. The apparent upward trend in salary despite some declines in financial performance challenges the fundamental assumption underlying this paper, that is, financial performance is likely linked to CEO compensation in Ontario. Further research is needed to understand long-term performance related to compensation incentives. PMID:19605619

  9. All-Round Marketing Increases Hospital Popularity.

    PubMed

    Ziqi, Tao

    2015-06-01

    Xuzhou Center Hospital is in a competing medical market in Xuzhou city. This hospital has been dedicating to improve the medical skills and provide professional and individualized service to the patients in order to improve the patient's experience and increase the patient's satisfaction. On the other side, this hospital has provided an all-round marketing campaign to build up the social influence and public reputation through public-praise marketing, web marketing, media marketing, and scholar marketing. Besides, this hospital has been cooperating with foreign medical institutions and inviting foreign medical specialists to academic communication. With the combined effects of improving medical service and all-round marketing, the hospital's economic performance has been enhanced significantly and laid a solid foundation for its ambition to become the first-class hospital in Huaihai Economic Zone.

  10. [Development of green hospitals home and abroad].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yiju; Zeng, Na; Shen, Minxue; Sun, Zhenqiu

    2013-09-01

    Green hospital construction is a new challenge for medical industry after global sustainable development strategy was put forward. The core connotation of green hospital includes green building, green healthcare, patient safety, and doctor-patient harmony. Many countries have established green building evaluation system to deal with energy crisis. Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED), Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) in the U.S., and Evaluation System for Green Hospital Building (CSUS/GBC 2-2011) in China have guiding significance for the development of green hospitals in China. The evaluation system of green hospitals home and abroad still focuses on green building, and establishment of suitable synthesis evaluation system of green hospitals in China needs further research.

  11. The architecture of enterprise hospital information system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xudong; Duan, Huilong; Li, Haomin; Zhao, Chenhui; An, Jiye

    2005-01-01

    Because of the complexity of the hospital environment, there exist a lot of medical information systems from different vendors with incompatible structures. In order to establish an enterprise hospital information system, the integration among these heterogeneous systems must be considered. Complete integration should cover three aspects: data integration, function integration and workflow integration. However most of the previous design of architecture did not accomplish such a complete integration. This article offers an architecture design of the enterprise hospital information system based on the concept of digital neural network system in hospital. It covers all three aspects of integration, and eventually achieves the target of one virtual data center with Enterprise Viewer for users of different roles. The initial implementation of the architecture in the 5-year Digital Hospital Project in Huzhou Central hospital of Zhejiang Province is also described.

  12. What determines hospital sponsorship of an HMO?

    PubMed

    McCue, M J

    2000-01-01

    Using a strategic adaptation framework, this study evaluates the underlying institutional, market, organizational, and financial factors leading to hospital sponsorship of a health maintenance organization (HMO) insurance product. Analyzing hospitals in Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in 1995 and 1996, the study found that a hospital is more likely to sponsor an HMO in markets that see a combined interaction effect of a large number of competing HMOs and high HMO penetration. HMO sponsorship also is more likely among hospitals with relatively low market share. Only in small MSA markets do hospitals with greater liquidity sponsor an HMO. Finally, hospitals that are affiliated with a multihospital system and under public ownership are more likely to sponsor HMOs.

  13. Medical tourism private hospitals: focus India.

    PubMed

    Brotman, Billie Ann

    2010-01-01

    This article examines demand factors for sophisticated medical treatments offered by private hospitals operating in India. Three types of medical tourism exist: Outbound, Inbound, and Intrabound. Increased profitability and positive growth trends by private hospital chains can be attributed to rising domestic income levels within India. Not all of the chains examined were financially solvent. Some of the hospital groups in this sample that advertised directly to potential Inbound medical tourists appear to be experiencing negative cash flows.

  14. Market orientation in the hospital industry.

    PubMed

    Bhuian, S N; Abdul-Gader, A

    1997-01-01

    Using the more recent methodological developments in the assessment of the unidemensionality, reliability, and validity, the authors developed and examined a scale of market orientation for the hospital industry. The scale is based on a clear definition of the content of the construct of market orientation in the hospital industry. To this end, a national random sample of 237 hospital administrators was used. In addition to the support for the reliability and validity, the scale promises parsimony, pragmatism, and wide-ranging applicability.

  15. Does hospital financial performance measure up?

    PubMed

    Cleverley, W O; Harvey, R K

    1992-05-01

    Comparisons are continuously being made between the financial performance, products and services, of the healthcare industry and those of non-healthcare industries. Several useful measures of financial performance--profitability, liquidity, financial risk, asset management and replacement, and debt capacity, are used by the authors to compare the financial performance of the hospital industry with that of the industrial, transportation and utility sectors. Hospitals exhibit weaknesses in several areas. Goals are suggested for each measure to bring hospitals closer to competitive levels.

  16. Internationalization of multi hospital systems.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, C; Chandran, R; O'Hara, L

    1992-01-01

    Much like the manufacturing multinationals of yore, professional service establishments are now going abroad in large numbers. Two factors drive their expansion overseas--the increasing restrictions on their operations domestically, and the inviting opportunities in some of the global markets. A survey of multi hospital corporations both with and without experience in foreign markets was conducted regarding the expansion of their operations overseas. Examined were factors central to the decision-making process including: the various types of foreign health care systems; the entry strategies in penetrating foreign markets (fully owned, joint ventures, etc.); favorable factors and barriers considered in choosing foreign markets; the ability to transfer standardized systems from operations in the U.S.; and the profits from such operations. Respondents provided information regarding the above factors that are critical in determining an overseas expansion strategy.

  17. Recommendations for Using Barcode in Hospital Process

    PubMed Central

    Hachesu, Peyman Rezaei; Zyaei, Leila; Hassankhani, Hadi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lack of attention to the proper barcode using leads to lack of use or misuse in the hospitals. The present research aimed to investigate the requirements and barrier for using barcode technology and presenting suggestions to use it. Methods: The research is observational-descriptive. The data was collected using the designed checklist which its validity was assessed. This check list consists of two parts: “Requirements” and “barrier” of using the barcodes. Research community included 10 teaching hospitals and a class of 65 participants included people in the hospitals. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: Required changes of workflow processes in the hospital and compliance them with the hospital policy are such requirements that had been infringed in the 90 % of hospitals. Prioritization of some hospital processes for barcoding, system integration with Hospital Information system (HIS), training of staff and budgeting are requirements for the successful implementation which had been infringed in the 80% of hospitals. Dissatisfaction with the quality of barcode labels and lacks of adequate scanners both whit the rate of 100 %, and the lack of understanding of the necessary requirements for implementation of barcodes as 80% were the most important barrier. Conclusion: Integrate bar code system with clinical workflow should be considered. Lack of knowledge and understanding toward the infrastructure, inadequate staff training and technologic problems are considered as the greatest barriers. PMID:27482137

  18. Hospital strategic preparedness planning: the new imperative.

    PubMed

    Ginter, Peter M; Duncan, W Jack; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    Strategic preparedness planning is an important new imperative for many hospitals. Strategic preparedness planning goes beyond traditional product/market strategic planning by focusing on disaster prevention, containment, and response roles. Hospitals, because of their unique mission, size, complexity, the types of materials they handle, and the types of patients they encounter, are especially vulnerable to natural and human-initiated disasters. In addition, when disasters occur, hospitals must develop well-conceived first responder (receiver) strategies. This paper argues the case for strategic preparedness planning for hospitals and proposes a process for this relatively new and much needed type of planning.

  19. Hospital Contracts: Important Issues for Medical Groups.

    PubMed

    Rosolio, Charles E

    2016-01-01

    Relationships with hospitals and outpatient medical facilities have always been an important part of the business model for private medical practices. As healthcare delivery to patients has evolved in the United States (much of it driven by the new government mandates, regulations, and the Affordable Care Act), the delivery of such services is becoming more and more centered on the hospital or institutional setting, thus making contractual relationships with hospitals even more important for medical practices. As a natural outgrowth of this relationship, attention to hospital contracts is becoming more important.

  20. The funding of private hospitals in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Abby L

    2002-01-01

    Private hospitals are an essential component of Australia's complex mix of public and private health funding and provision. Private hospitals account for 34.3 per cent of all hospital separations, and over half (56.2%) of all same-day separations. The revenue (funding) of the sector approached $4 billion by 1998/99, and as a result of its recent rapid growth capital expenditure in the sector was nearly $550 million in the same year. Private casemix of private hospitals is distinctive, and characterised by a high proportion of surgical procedures in general (48.1 per cent), and more than a majority of all services in such areas as rehabilitation, orthopaedics (shoulder, knee, spinal fusion, and hand surgery), alcohol disorders, same day colonoscopy and sleep disorders. This chapter synthesizes data from a multitude of sources to produce a comprehensive picture of Australia's private hospital sector and its funding. It examines the funding (revenue) sources of private hospitals, and considers how and why private hospitals approach the issue of funding from a different perspective than their public sector colleagues. To illustrate how Australian private hospitals approach revenue (funding) strategically, a series of indicative types of hospitals is explored.

  1. An inquiry - aesthetics of art in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Gates, Jillian

    2008-09-01

    Historically, art has served a significant purpose within hospital waiting rooms. However, in recent times we have experienced cuts in funding and less interest in improving the aesthetic of art displayed in Australian hospitals. This article briefly discusses the history of art in hospitals and explores a methodology for researching the preference of Australian patients today. Potentially, Australians waiting in hospitals and medical clinics could benefit from art works that reflect their preferences; this may help to ease the pain, anxiety, and boredom of waiting.

  2. The changing power equation in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, J M; Rayburn, L G

    1997-01-01

    This research traces the origins, development, and reasons for change in the power equation in the U.S. hospitals between physicians, administrators and accountants. The paper contains three major sections: a review of the literature concerning authority, power, influence, and institutional theory; a review of the development of the power of professions, especially physicians, accounting and healthcare administrators, and the power equilibrium of a hospital; and, a discussion of the social policy implications of the power struggle. The basis for physicians' power derives from their legal ability to act on which others are dependent, such as choosing which hospital to admit patients, order tests and procedures for their patients. The Federal Government's prospective payment system and the hospitals' related case-mix accounting systems appear to influence the power structure in hospitals by redistributing that power. The basis of the accountants' power base is control of financial information. Accountants have a definite potential for influencing which departments receive financial resources and for what purpose. This moves hospital accountants into the power equation. The basis of the hospital administrators' power is their formal authority in the organization. Regardless of what actions federal government agencies, hospital accountants, or hospital administrators take, physicians are expected to remain the dominant factor in the power equation. Without major environmental changes to gain control of physician services, only insignificant results in cost containment will occur.

  3. Developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Dychtwald, K; Zitter, M

    1988-09-01

    The initial stages of developing a strategic marketing plan for hospitals are explored in this excerpt from the book, The Role of the Hospital in an Aging Society: A Blueprint for Action. The elderly have unique perceptual, cognitive, social, and psychological needs and preferences, and a marketing strategy for eldercare services must reflect these factors, as well as the financial role of third-party payers and the decision-making influence of families and physicians. Among the elements the hospital must address when developing a marketing strategy are market selection and segmentation, targeting markets with specific services, pricing, and positioning the hospital for a maximum share of the eldercare market.

  4. Image acquisition system for a hospital enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Stephen M.; Beecher, David E.

    1998-07-01

    Hospital enterprises are being created through mergers and acquisitions of existing hospitals. One area of interest in the PACS literature has been the integration of information systems and imaging systems. Hospital enterprises with multiple information and imaging systems provide new challenges to the integration task. This paper describes the requirements at the BJC Health System and a testbed system that is designed to acquire images from a number of different modalities and hospitals. This testbed system is integrated with Project Spectrum at BJC which is designed to provide a centralized clinical repository and a single desktop application for physician review of the patient chart (text, lab values, images).

  5. Analysis on antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ziyong; Li, Li; Zhu, Xuhui; Ma, Yue; Li, Jingyun; Shen, Zhengyi; Jin, Shaohong

    2006-01-01

    The distinction of antimicrobial resistance of clinical bacteria isolated from county hospitals and a teaching hospital was investigated. Disc diffusion test was used to study the antimicrobial resistance of isolates collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital. The data was analyzed by WHONET5 and SPSS statistic software. A total of 655 strains and 1682 strains were collected from county hospitals and a teaching hospital, respectively, in the year of 2003. The top ten pathogens were Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS), E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. areus, P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp., Enterobacter spp., otherwise Salmonella spp., Proteus spp., Shigella spp. in county hospitals and Streptococcus spp., Acinetobacter spp., X. maltophilia in the teaching hospital. The prevalence of multi-drug resistant bacteria was 5% (4/86) of methicillin-resistant S. areus (MRSA), 12% (16/133) and 15.8% (9/57) of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases producing strains of E. coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively, in county hospitals. All of the three rates were lower than that in the teaching hospital and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0. 01). However, the incidence of methicillin-resistant CNS (MRCNS) reached to 70% (109/156) in the two classes of hospitals. Generally, the antimicrobial resistant rates in the county hospitals were lower than those in the teaching hospital, except the resistant rates of ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, clindamycin, SMZco which were similar in the two classes of hospitals. There were differences between county hospitals and the teaching hospital in the distribution of clinical isolates and prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. It was the basis of rational use of antimicrobial agents to monitor antimicrobial resistance by each hospital.

  6. Reforming the hospital service structure to improve efficiency: urban hospital specialization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwang-soo; Chun, Ki-Hong; Lee, Jung-Soo

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to explain the relationship between the case-mix specialization index and efficiency of inpatient hospital care services. Hospital specialization was measured using the information theory index constructed from diagnosis-related group numbers of hospitals in Seoul, Korea, in 2004. Hospital performance was measured by technical efficiency scores computed by data envelopment analysis for 2004. Multiple regression analysis models were applied to identify the internal and external factors that affected the extent of hospital specialization status as well as the efficiency of hospitals. The data envelopment analysis showed that input variables such as the number of beds, doctors and nurses were related to hospital efficiency. Hospitals had different levels of specialization in patient services, and more specialized hospitals were more likely to be efficient (odds ratio=25.95). Internal characteristics of providers had more significant effects on the extent of specialization than market conditions. These findings help to explain the relationship among hospitals, specialization, market conditions and provider performance. The study results related to the rearrangement of hospital services in a city. Further study including hospitals from other regions will increase the generalizability of results, and policy makers can use the information in making policy for the specialized hospital industry in Korea.

  7. The equatorial electrojet satellite and surface comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cain, J. C. (Editor); Sweeney, R. E. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    The OGO 4 and 6 (POGO) magnetic field results for the equatorial electrojet indicate that while the present models are approximately correct, the possibility of a westward component must be incorporated. The scatter diagrams of POGO amplitudes and surface data show a correlation. The ratios between the amplitudes estimated from surface data and those at 400 km altitude are as follows: India 5 to 8, East Africa (Addis Ababa) 4, Central Africa 3, West Africa (Nigeria) 3, South America (Huancayo) 5, and Philippines 5. The variation in the ratio is due to the conductivity structure of the earth in various zones.

  8. Political Warfare in Sub-Saharan Africa: U.S. Capabilities and Chinese Operations in Ethiopia, Kenya, Nigeria, and South Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    Perry.1 That same month, U.S. troops on patrol nearby discovered two cheetah cubs tied up with ropes around their necks at a restaurant, where the...Embassy in Ethiopia, and a U.S.-based cheetah rescue organization, eventually flying the two cubs to the National Palace in Addis Ababa. “This is the...first kind of rescue of animals, let alone cheetahs , that we have done,” said Army Sgt. Leah Cobble.2 The follow- ing month, a U.S. Army Civil

  9. Hospital volume, hospital teaching status, patient socioeconomic status, and outcomes in patients hospitalized with sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    McCavit, Timothy L.; Lin, Hua; Zhang, Song; Ahn, Chul; Quinn, Charles T.; Flores, Glenn

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) accounts for ~100,000 hospitalizations in the US annually. Quality of care for hospitalized SCD patients has been insufficiently studied. Therefore, we aimed to examine whether four potential determinants of quality care, [1] hospital volume, [2] hospital teaching status, [3] patient socioeconomic status (SES), and [4] patient insurance status are associated with three quality indicators for patients with SCD: [1] mortality, [2] length of stay (LOS), and [3] hospitalization costs. We conducted an analysis of the 2003–2005 Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) datasets. We identified cases using all ICD-9CM codes for SCD. Both overall and SCD-specific hospital volumes were examined. Multivariable analyses included mixed linear models to examine LOS and costs, and logistic regression to examine mortality. About 71,481 SCD discharges occurred from 2003 to 2005. Four hundred and twenty five patients died, yielding a mortality rate of 0.6%. Multivariable analyses revealed that SCD patients admitted to lower SCD-specific volume hospitals had [1] increased adjusted odds of mortality (quintiles 1–4 vs. quintile 5: OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05, 1.76) and [2] decreased LOS (quintiles 1–4 vs. quintile 5, effect estimate −0.08; 95% CI, −0.12, −0.04). These are the first data describing associations between lower SCD-specific hospital volumes and poorer outcomes. PMID:21442644

  10. Rural Residents Who Are Hospitalized in Rural and Urban Hospitals: United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... the factors influencing hospital choice, merit continued study. Definitions Urban and rural residents and hospitals : Using ZIP ... categories reported here are very broad using this definition, analysis of more refined categories would not be ...

  11. Competition among Turkish hospitals and its effect on hospital efficiency and service quality.

    PubMed

    Torun, Nazan; Celik, Yusuf; Younis, Mustafa Z

    2013-01-01

    The level of competition among hospitals in Turkey was analyzed for the years 1990 through 2006 using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index (HHI). Multiple and simple regression analyses were run to observe the development of competition among hospitals over this period of time, to examine likely determinants of competition, and to calculate the effects of competition on efficiency and quality in individual hospitals. This study found that the level of competition among hospitals in Turkey has increased throughout the years. Also, competition has had a positive effect on the efficiency of hospitals; however, it did not have a significant positive effect on their quality. Moreover, there are important differences in the level of competition among hospitals that vary according to the geographical region, the type of ownership, and the type of hospital. This study is one of the first to evaluate the effects of health policies on competition as well as the effects of increasing competition on hospital quality and efficiency in Turkey.

  12. Hospital prices and market structure in the hospital and insurance industries.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Asako S; Vogt, William B; Gaynor, Martin

    2010-10-01

    There has been substantial consolidation among health insurers and hospitals, recently, raising questions about the effects of this consolidation on the exercise of market power. We analyze the relationship between insurer and hospital market concentration and the prices of hospital services. We use a national US dataset containing transaction prices for health care services for over 11 million privately insured Americans. Using three years of panel data, we estimate how insurer and hospital market concentration are related to hospital prices, while controlling for unobserved market effects. We find that increases in insurance market concentration are significantly associated with decreases in hospital prices, whereas increases in hospital concentration are non-significantly associated with increases in prices. A hypothetical merger between two of five equally sized insurers is estimated to decrease hospital prices by 6.7%.

  13. Costs of surgical procedures in Indian hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Susmita; Laxminarayan, Ramanan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Despite a growing volume of surgical procedures in low-income and middle-income countries, the costs of these procedures are not well understood. We estimated the costs of 12 surgical procedures commonly conducted in five different types of hospitals in India from the provider perspective, using a microcosting method. Design Cost and utilisation data were collected retrospectively from April 2010 to March 2011 to avoid seasonal variability. Setting For this study, we chose five hospitals of different types: a 57-bed charitable hospital, a 200-bed private hospital, a 400-bed district hospital, a 655-bed private teaching hospital and a 778-bed tertiary care teaching hospital based on their willingness to cooperate and data accessibility. The hospitals were from four states in India. The private, charitable and tertiary care hospitals serve urban populations, the district hospital serves a semiurban area and the private teaching hospital serves a rural population. Results Costs of conducting lower section caesarean section ranged from rupees 2469 to 41 087; hysterectomy rupees 4124 to 57 622 and appendectomy rupees 2421 to 3616 (US$1=rupees 52). We computed the costs of conducting lap and open cholecystectomy (rupees 27 732 and 44 142, respectively); hernia repair (rupees 13 204); external fixation (rupees 8406); intestinal obstruction (rupees 6406); amputation (rupees 5158); coronary artery bypass graft (rupees 177 141); craniotomy (rupees 75 982) and functional endoscopic sinus surgery (rupees 53 398). Conclusions Estimated costs are roughly comparable with rates of reimbursement provided by the Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana (RSBY)—India's government-financed health insurance scheme that covers 32.4 million poor families. Results from this type of study can be used to set and revise the reimbursement rates. PMID:23794591

  14. Hospital management principles applicable to the veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Harris, Donna L; Lloyd, James W; Marrinan, Mike

    2004-01-01

    The Skills, Knowledge, Aptitude, and Attitude (SKA) Subcommittee of the National Commission on Veterinary Economic Issues (NCVEI) has identified the need for veterinary teaching hospitals (VTH) to be at the forefront of progressive business management to serve as a model for both students and practitioners to emulate. To provide a foundation for developing a model, this study reviewed pertinent literature applicable to the management of a VTH. Much of the literature relevant to VTH management relates to work completed for the human side of medicine (academic health centers, or AHCs) or to the private sector. This review explores management practices in strategic planning, financial management, human resource management, marketing, pricing, operations, and legal issues. It is concluded that strategic management is important to provide the foundation for success in the VTH. In addition, periodic financial reports are recommended, as are the development and use of benchmarks for financial management. Establishing positive, motivating human resource practices is also suggested, along with development of a marketing plan based on a clear understanding of VTH core competencies and the market's specific needs.

  15. Revoking hospital privileges: new directions in Ontario. Dr. N. v. Brantford General Hospital.

    PubMed

    Liswood, J; McClure, A E

    1993-01-01

    Recent decisions by the Ontario Hospital Appeal Board have helped hospital boards understand the importance of due process when revoking a physician's hospital privileges. The authors illustrate the need to have a mechanism to suspend privileges immediately but which also provides physicians with the opportunity to respond to allegations. The article outlines 11 clauses that serve as a practical guide to due process and can be added to hospital by-laws.

  16. 42 CFR 412.101 - Special treatment: Inpatient hospital payment adjustment for low-volume hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... adjustment for low-volume hospitals. 412.101 Section 412.101 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID... Inpatient Operating Costs § 412.101 Special treatment: Inpatient hospital payment adjustment for low-volume... payment to a qualifying hospital for the higher incremental costs associated with a low volume...

  17. 75 FR 31118 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...This notice contains the final wage indices, hospital reclassifications, payment rates, impacts, and other related tables effective for the fiscal year (FY) 2010 hospital inpatient prospective payment systems (IPPS) and rate year 2010 long-term care hospital (LTCH) prospective payment system (PPS). The rates, tables, and impacts included in this notice reflect changes required by or resulting......

  18. Physician participation in hospital strategic decision making: the effect of hospital strategy and decision content.

    PubMed Central

    Ashmos, D P; McDaniel, R R

    1991-01-01

    An exploratory study examined variation in the participation of physicians in hospital strategic decision making as a function of (1) strategic decision content or (2) hospital strategy, or both. The findings revealed that who participates is a function of decision content while how physicians participate is a function of decision content and the interaction of decision content and hospital strategy. PMID:1869445

  19. 78 FR 27485 - Medicare Program; Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment Systems for Acute Care Hospitals and the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-10

    ... 106-554 BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics CAH Critical access hospital CARE Continuity Assessment Record... Disproportionate share hospital ECI Employment cost index EDB Enrollment Database EHR Electronic health record EMR Electronic medical record FAH Federation of American Hospitals FDA Food and Drug Administration FFY...

  20. FPs lower hospital readmission rates and costs.

    PubMed

    Chetty, Veerappa K; Culpepper, Larry; Phillips, Robert L; Rankin, Jennifer; Xierali, Imam; Finnegan, Sean; Jack, Brian

    2011-05-01

    Hospital readmission after discharge is often a costly failing of the U.S. health care system to adequately manage patients who are ill. Increasing the numbers of family physicians (FPs) is associated with significant reductions in hospital readmissions and substantial cost savings.

  1. Continuing Education for Rural Hospital Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Nancy; Pickard, Myrna R.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a rural outreach program to provide continuing education in nursing practice to all levels of nursing personnel in rural hospitals. Covers difficulties in planning and implementing the programs and the steps taken to explain the program philosophy and gain the trust of hospital adminstration and staff. (MF)

  2. Cost of hospital-acquired infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mahmud; Tuckman, Howard P; Patrick, Robert H; Kountz, David S; Kohn, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The authors assessed the costs of hospital-acquired infections using rigorous econometric methods on publicly available data, controlling for the interdependency of length of stay and the incidence of hospital acquired infection, and estimated the cost shares of different payers. They developed a system of equations involving length of stay, incidence of infection, and the total hospital care cost to be estimated using simultaneous equations system. The main data came from the State of New Jersey UB 92 for 2004, complimented with data from the Annual Survey of Hospitals by the American Hospital Association and the Medicare Cost Report of 2004. The authors estimated that an incidence of hospital acquired infection increases the hospital care cost of a patient by $10,375 and it increases the length of stay by 3.30 days, and that a disproportionately higher portion of the cost is attributable to Medicare. They conclude that reliable cost estimates of hospital-acquired infections can be made using publicly available data. Their estimate shows a much larger aggregate cost of $16.6 billion as opposed to $5 billion reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention but much less than $29 billion as reported elsewhere in the literature.

  3. [Incorporation of the hospital into modern technology].

    PubMed

    Foucault, M

    1978-01-01

    This address traces the emergence of the hospital in the 18th century as a facility for combating disease and tending to the sick. Reference is made to the reports of Tenon and Howard on hospitals in several European countries, which instead of considering the hospital as a mere architectural object make recommendations based on the numbers of beds of an institution, its usable space, the dimensions of wards, mortaility rates, etc.; the result is a new functional concept of the medical and physical organization of the hospital. The author delves into the characteristics of the hospital and medical practice in the Middle Ages, the 17th and 18th centuries, and since the middle of the 18th. He brings out the direct relationship of hospital organization to the economic regulations that emerged with mercantilism. He stresses the importance of man for social and military development on the one hand, and, on the other hand, to the application of a technology that could be described as political: the discipline. He is of the view that the introduction of disciplinary mechanisms in the confused environment of the hospital permitted its "medicalization" and the development of the medical-therapeutic hospital.

  4. Environmental Risk Factors in Hospital Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Daniel Z.; Resnik, Harvey L.P.; Holder-Perkins, Vicenzio

    2004-01-01

    Suicide of hospitalized patients is the most common sentinel event reviewed by The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations. Shorter lengths of stay, sicker patients, and higher patient to staff ratios challenge the ability of the hospital to maintain safety. Risk factors associated with the physical environment of the…

  5. Quality Assurance in a Children's Psychiatric Hospital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggish, Rosemary C.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the use of short-term isolation (STI) in a children's psychiatric hospital. The Joint Commission on Accreditation of Hospitals quality assurance mode was used. Studied the quality use of STI and its documentation. Data gathered served as the basis for recommendations that led to planned, informed program changes. (Author)

  6. Rubicon crossed in acute hospital design?

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2008-06-01

    With construction work now underway on the new pound sterling 227 million PFI-funded Pembury Hospital near Tunbridge Wells in Kent, Jonathan Baillie talks to John Cooper of architects Anshen + Allen, who is convinced that this exciting new acute facility will become the first of a new generation of 100% single-bedroom hospitals in the UK.

  7. [Proximity and breastfeeding at the maternity hospital].

    PubMed

    Fradin-Charrier, Anne-Claire

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of breastfeeding, as well as its duration, are facilitated through the proximity of the mother with her new baby. However, in maternity hospitals, breastfeeding mothers very often leave their baby in the nursery at night time. A study carried out in 2014 in several maternity hospitals put forward suggestions and highlighted areas to improve in everyday practice.

  8. Daptomycin Use in United States Children's Hospitals.

    PubMed

    Larru, Beatriz; Cowden, Carter L; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2015-03-01

    We described 1035 pediatric hospitalizations with daptomycin use in 794 patients since 2004. Daptomycin use was uncommon but increased over time. A minority of hospitals accounted for the majority of use. This variability of daptomycin use highlights the need for future studies to assess the efficacy and safety of daptomycin in children.

  9. Community perceptions of rural hospital closure.

    PubMed

    Muus, K J; Ludtke, R L; Gibbens, B

    1995-02-01

    Hospital closure, a devastating event in the life of small communities, can have long-lasting medical, economic, and psychological consequences. This study focuses on a 1991 closure that occurred in the rural North Dakota town of Beach that left local residents 40 and 61 miles away from the nearest hospitals. Two hundred residents of the hospital's former service area were selected via systematic random sampling to share their perceptions on the causes and effects of closing their local hospital. According to respondents, this hospital closure was caused by a number of influences, with the most commonly cited being under-utilization of services by local residents, exacting government rules and regulations, doleful economic climate, dwindling population, poor and unstable local physician care, and poor management of hospital matters. Findings further indicated that Beach area residents were most concerned with poor access to emergency medical care as a result of the closing. Area dwellers perceived that the hospital closure's aftermath would include the loss of local jobs, further declines in the local economy, the suffering of elderly and children, transportation problems, and out-migration of some area residents. These concerns, coupled with the notable decrease in hospital care access, motivated many area residents to think of solutions to these problems rather than to place blame on others for the closure.

  10. Future pension accounting changes: implications for hospitals.

    PubMed

    Weld, Tim; Klein, Gina

    2011-05-01

    Proposed rules in accounting for defined benefit plans may affect hospitals' statement of operations and affect the time, effort, and cost to comply with periodic financial reporting requirements. The new standard would require immediate recognition of the full amount of plan amendments in determining operating income. Hospitals should consider the role of pension plans in their compensation programs.

  11. 45 CFR 211.8 - Continuing hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES CARE AND TREATMENT OF MENTALLY ILL NATIONALS OF THE UNITED STATES, RETURNED FROM FOREIGN COUNTRIES § 211.8 Continuing hospitalization... in need of continuing care and treatment in a hospital cannot be accomplished under § 211.7, or...

  12. Anaesthesia at the District Hospital. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Michael B.

    This practical manual is designed to help medical officers in small hospitals provide safe and effective anesthesia for patients. Intended for doctors with at least one year of postgraduate clinical experience, it describes anesthetic techniques suitable for use in hospitals with limited resources. Chapter 2 describes fundamental principles and…

  13. Hospital closure: Phoenix, Hydra or Titanic?

    PubMed

    Dunne, T; Davis, S

    1996-01-01

    Very little has been published about the effects of hospital closure in terms of the service, financial or management issues of the process. Attempts through a case-study format to redress the balance and as such represents the reflections of practitioners who have recently undergone the experience of hospital closure and the often neglected issues arising both during and after the process.

  14. Psychiatric Hospitalization after Deliberate Self-Poisoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Gregory L.; Safranko, Ivan; Lewin, Terry J.; Whyte, Ian M.; Bryant, Jennifer L.

    2006-01-01

    The decision for psychiatric hospitalization after deliberate self-poisoning (DSP) is not well understood. This study, a longitudinal cohort study of 3,148 consecutive DSP patients found 920 (29.2%) subjects were referred for psychiatric hospitalization, 576 (18.3%) on involuntary basis. A logistic regression analysis showed increased risk for:…

  15. Introduction to Hospitality and Tourism. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan S.

    This teacher's guide is the core publication of a series of instructional materials developed for the hospitality and tourism industry. It includes the entry-level competencies students will need to enter any of the occupational areas identified in the four cluster areas of the hospitality and tourism industry: lodging, food service, travel and…

  16. Youth Employment in the Hospitality Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Bradley R.

    A study used data from the National Longitudinal Surveys of Youth to analyze the long-term effects of hospitality industry employment on youth. The subsample extracted for the study included all youth who were aged 16-24 in 1980 and employed in the civilian sector for pay at any time in the year. Statistics indicated the hospitality sector was…

  17. Promoting Regional Disaster Preparedness among Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Janine C.; Kang, JungEun; Silenas, Rasa

    2008-01-01

    Context and Purpose: Rural communities face substantial risks of natural disasters but rural hospitals face multiple obstacles to preparedness. The objective was to create and implement a simple and effective training and planning exercise to assist individual rural hospitals to improve disaster preparedness, as well as to enhance regional…

  18. Implementing Patient Safety Initiatives in Rural Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingner, Jill; Moscovice, Ira; Tupper, Judith; Coburn, Andrew; Wakefield, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Implementation of patient safety initiatives can be costly in time and energy. Because of small volumes and limited resources, rural hospitals often are not included in nationally driven patient safety initiatives. This article describes the Tennessee Rural Hospital Patient Safety Demonstration project, whose goal was to strengthen capacity for…

  19. Measures of performance in Scottish maternity hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, A H; Pritchard, C W; McLoone, P; Boddy, F A

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To develop measures of hospital performance over time with particular reference to maternal and neonatal care by controlling for case mix. DESIGN--Analysis of computerised records of births. SETTING--Scotland, 1980-7. SUBJECTS--Over half a million singleton live births and stillbirths. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Numbers of perinatal deaths and caesarean sections. RESULTS--Scottish maternity hospitals perform more or less equally with regard to perinatal mortality. When caesarean sections are considered, there is evidence that hospitals differ in their treatment of different groups of women; in two examples one hospital had an increased rate among women of parity 2 or more and another had a reduced rate of repeat caesarean section. CONCLUSIONS--Developing measures of performance over time by controlling for case mix is a valid system for monitoring hospital outcomes and activity, and allows comparison either between hospitals or with data for all Scottish maternity hospitals. Hospital profiles permit identification of differences for particular patient groups after allowance is made for other case mix variables. PMID:1912806

  20. Educational Facilities in the Hospital for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Alan C.

    1965-01-01

    Planning and design criteria are established for educational facilities in VA hospitals, rendering them more effective for medical education. Rather than developing plans for prototype teaching hospitals, guidelines are presented which may be utilized to meet the needs of a particular situation. Three broad categories of facilities are…

  1. Examining General Hospitals' Smoke-Free Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitman, Marilyn V.; Harbison, Phillip Adam

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine the level of smoke-free policies in general hospitals and the barriers faced in implementing restrictive policies banning smoking inside buildings and on surrounding grounds. Design/methodology/approach; A survey was developed to gather data on hospitals' current smoke-free policies, including the challenges…

  2. Community-, Healthcare- and Hospital-Acquired Severe Sepsis Hospitalizations in the University HealthSystem Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Page, David B.; Donnelly, John P.; Wang, Henry E.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Severe sepsis poses a major burden on the U.S. healthcare system. Previous epidemiologic studies have not differentiated community-acquired severe sepsis from healthcare-associated severe sepsis or hospital-acquired severe sepsis hospitalizations. We sought to compare and contrast community-acquired severe sepsis, healthcare-associated severe sepsis, and hospital-acquired severe sepsis hospitalizations in a national hospital sample. Setting United States Interventions None Measurements & Main Results Prevalence of community-acquired severe sepsis, healthcare-associated severe sepsis, and hospital-acquired severe sepsis, adjusted hospital mortality, length of hospitalization, length of stay in an ICU, and hospital costs. Among 3,355,753 hospital discharges, there were 307,491 with severe sepsis, including 193,081 (62.8%) community-acquired severe sepsis, 79,581 (25.9%) healthcare-associated severe sepsis, and 34,829 (11.3%) hospital-acquired severe sepsis. Hospital-acquired severe sepsis and healthcare-associated severe sepsis exhibited higher in-hospital mortality than community-acquired severe sepsis (hospital-acquired [19.2%] vs healthcare-associated [12.8%] vs community-acquired [8.6%]). Hospital-acquired severe sepsis had greater resource utilization than both healthcare-associated severe sepsis and community-acquired severe sepsis, with higher median length of hospital stay (hospital acquired [17 d] vs healthcare associated [7 d] vs community-acquired [6 d]), median length of ICU stay (hospital-acquired [8 d] vs healthcare-associated [3 d] vs community-acquired [3 d]), and median hospital costs (hospital-acquired [$38,369] vs healthcare-associated [$8,796] vs community-acquired [$7,024]). Conclusions In this series, severe sepsis hospitalizations included CA-SS (62.8%), HCA-SS (25.9%) and HA-SS (11.3%) cases. HA-SS was associated with both higher mortality and resource utilization than CA-SS and HCA-SS. PMID:26110490

  3. Project Management in Instructional Design: ADDIE Is Not Enough

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Rooij, Shahron Williams

    2010-01-01

    In the digital age, instructional designers must possess both a sound instructional design knowledge base and solid project management skills that will enable them to complete courseware projects on time, on budget and in conformance with client expectations. Project management skills include the ability to apply repeatable processes, along with…

  4. Using ADDIE To Design a Web-Based Training Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohr, Linda

    Modeling the functions of a teacher in a computer interface is not a new practice; most computer applications employ electronic performance support systems (EPSS) such as online help, wizards, coaches, and even some forms of artificial intelligence. This paper presents easy-to-implement strategies for increasing learner autonomy by embedding…

  5. [Adolescent and physical activity: addi(c)tive excesses].

    PubMed

    Tercier, Stéphane; Gojanovic, Boris; Depallens, Sarah; Vust, Sophie; Ambresin, Emmanuelle

    2016-06-08

    Benefits of physical activity during adolescence have widely been demonstrated. Yet, raising awareness among young athletes and their surrounding about risks associated with too early specialization or energy deficit--with or without eating disorder--is of outmost importance. Such behaviours can affect adolescents' physical or psychological development as well as compromise their athletic career not to mention the potential negative impact on their athletic performance. Primary care practitioners play an important role in early detection and prevention of overuse injuries as well as psychological distress associated with intense physical activity. Such situations need the intervention of an interdisciplinary team in order to prevent long-term complications.

  6. [Possibilities for rehabilitation in a county hospital].

    PubMed

    Mohr, P

    1981-01-01

    A county hospital with an infirmary surely offers the possibilities for rehabilitation as much as any other institution. Due to its manageable size, the county hospital can probably guarantee deeper personal care. The following possibilities are discussed: activating care, mental stimulation in a reality orientation program, dance and music therapy, plus the opening of the infirmary outwards, which remains a very important aspect. The rehabilitation in a county hospital can be guaranteed only by the complete cooperation between hospital internal and external medicine. An outpatient ward such as the day- and night-clinic is also a useful institution. In the future, the employment of volunteers in and outside the hospital will be of greater importance. Already now, greater efforts should be made on behalf of continued training and greater social prestige for these volunteers.

  7. Hospital finances and patient safety outcomes.

    PubMed

    Encinosa, William E; Bernard, Didem M

    2005-01-01

    Hospitals recently have experienced greater financial pressures. Whether these financial pressures have led to more patient safety problems is unknown. Using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) State Inpatient Data for Florida from 1996 to 2000, this study examines whether financial pressure at hospitals is associated with increases in the rate of patient safety events (e.g., medical errors) for major surgeries. Findings show that patients have significantly higher odds of having adverse patient safety events (nursing-related patient safety events, surgery-related patient safety events, and all likely preventable patient safety events) when hospital profit margins decline over time. The finding that a within-hospital erosion of hospital operating profits increases the rate of adverse patient safety events suggests that any cost-cutting efforts be carefully designed and managed.

  8. Acoustic pollution in hospital environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivera, J. M.; Rocha, L. A.; Rotger, V. I.; Herrera, M. C.

    2011-12-01

    There are many different services within a hospital. This means different types of noise which can be considered as acoustic pollution. Knowing that preterm infants exposed to high amounts of noise in the NICU are at a much higher risk because of their neurologic immaturity and physiologic instability, that excessive levels of noise also affect the persons and it can also impede some studies on patients, it was proposed to evaluate the Sound Pressure Level in some services of the Instituto de Maternidad, Tucumán, Argentina. There were evaluated the Level III NICU, the laundry service, a physical space destined for a service of evoked potential and a neonatal incubator under working conditions. The measurements were performed with a type II sonometer (CENTER 322) and it was also used an incubator analyzer (FLUKE INCU) for the incubator. The average values obtained were of 63.6 dBA for the NICU, 82.5dBA for the laundry room, 52.7 dBA for the evoked potential room and 62.8 dBA in the inside of the incubator under 64 dBA in the outside. The reports were documented in compliance with the appropriate standards.

  9. [Visa at a tertiary hospital].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Jiménez, S; Lluch-Colomer, A; Desongles-Corrales, T; Bernal-González, D; Santos-Rubio, M D; Alfaro-Lara, E R; Galván-Banqueri, M

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Analizar el procedimiento de visado y su actividad en un hospital de tercer nivel. Material y métodos: Estudio descriptivo del procedimiento de visado durante el período abril 2011-abril 2012. Se diseñó una base de datos y se definieron categorías relativas a las variables de estudio: pacientes y recetas. Para los pacientes atendidos en la Unidad de Visado se registraron las incidencias detectadas en base a una clasificación previamente establecida. Resultados: Se incluyeron 6.738 pacientes (8.465 recetas visadas). Se visaron 170 medicamentos y productos de nutrición diferentes, siendo el mayoritario Tacrolimus. Se detectaron un total de 420 incidencias, siendo las más frecuentes la «Ausencia de documento clínico» (46,67 %) y los «Errores formales de cumplimentación» (28,57%). Conclusiones: El presente trabajo ha permitido un conocimiento más pormenorizado de la actividad, los tipos de incidencias y la identificación de áreas de mejora.

  10. Hospital mergers and reproductive health care.

    PubMed

    Donovan, P

    1996-01-01

    In the US, when one of the two hospitals involved in a merger is a Catholic hospital, comprehensive reproductive health care tends to suffer. The Catholic Church forbids its hospitals from providing and making direct referrals for many reproductive health services (i.e., reversible contraception, infertility treatments, male and female sterilization, abortion, condoms for HIV prevention, and emergency contraception). These mergers are especially severe in small towns and rural areas. Several groups have formed to address this hidden crisis. In Troy, New York, a settlement was reached about 12 months after a law suit was filed against the conditions of a merger between a Catholic hospital and a nonsectarian hospital. After a long fight, the settlement essentially guaranteed that patients who are dependent on religious institutions obtain the contraceptive and sterilization services they need and want, but abortion services and referrals continued to be denied. The state of Montana considered the impact of a merger of a Catholic institution and a nonsectarian institution, yet continued availability of all reproductive health services was not guaranteed. The American Civil Liberties Union asked the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) to investigate the merger's impact on reproductive health care, since the merger created a monopoly on acute care in Great Falls. FTC took no action. Key factors to provision of reproductive health services other than abortion in cases of mergers between a Catholic hospital and a nonsectarian hospital include the type of association the two hospitals enter into, the local bishop's willingness to accept a creative solution, and the willingness of the state to consider the implications of such a merger and take steps to guarantee the continued availability of services. State reproductive health care advocacy groups (e.g., MergerWatch in New York) are increasing public awareness of the risks these mergers pose and helping residents ensure that

  11. [Hospital solid waste: quantification. Bacteriological analyses--case of hospital Ibn Sina].

    PubMed

    Bahri, Meriem; Belkhadir, Rachid; Benzakour, Mohammed; Idrissi, Larbi; Khadri, Abdelhamid

    2006-01-01

    Hospital waste represent, by their nature and their constitution, a big threat to health in the intra and extra hospital area. and a source of pollution for the environment. A 12-day campaign of weighing of the waste produced by the hospital Ibn Sina of Rabat-Morocco should an average of 1.75 kg/bed/day. In order to identify the hospital pathogenic germs as well as their sensitivities to antibiotics, some bacteriological analyses have been done on the percolat waste of this hospital. The results of these analyses put in evidence the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus and their resistance to some antibiotics.

  12. Ancon Hospital: an American Hospital during the construction of the Panama Canal, 1904-1914.

    PubMed

    Chaves-Carballo, E

    1999-10-01

    The control of yellow fever, malaria, and other tropical diseases was essential for the successful completion of the Panama Canal. COL William C. Gorgas, Chief Sanitary Officer, found Ancon Hospital quite satisfactory as a site from which to direct his sanitation efforts. Ancon Hospital played an important role during the period of the excavation of the canal (1904-1914). In 1928, Ancon Hospital was renamed Gorgas Hospital to commemorate this achievement. After more than a century of clinical and research activities in Panama, Ancon Hospital closed its doors in 1997.

  13. Hospitalization for ambulatory care sensitive conditions at health insurance organization hospitals in Alexandria, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Mosallam, Rasha A; Guirguis, Wafaa W; Hassan, Mona Ha

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at estimating the percentage of hospital discharges and days of care accounted for by Ambulatory Care Sensitive Conditions (ACSCs) at Health Insurance Organization (HIO) hospitals in Alexandria, calculating hospitalization rates for ACSCs among HIO population and identifying determinants of hospitalization for those conditions. A sample of 8300 medical records of patients discharged from three hospitals affiliated to HIO at Alexandria was reviewed. The rate of monthly discharges for ACSCs was estimated on the basis of counting number of combined ACSCs detected in the three hospitals and the hospitals' average monthly discharges. ACSCs accounted for about one-fifth of hospitalizations and days of care at HIO hospitals (21.8% and 20.8%, respectively). Annual hospitalization rates for ACSCs were 152.5 per 10,000 insured population. The highest rates were attributed to cellulitis/abscess (47.3 per 10,000 population), followed by diabetes complications and asthma (42.8 and 20.8 per 10,00 population). Logistic regression indicated that age, number of previous admissions, and admission department are significant predictors for hospitalization for an ACSC.

  14. Additional funding mechanisms for Public Hospitals in Greece: the case of Chania Mental Health Hospital

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580

  15. Hospital Value-Based Purchasing And 30-Day Readmissions: Are Hospitals Ready?

    PubMed

    Haley, D Rob; Zhao, Mei; Spaulding, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    To better understand the relationship between a hospital's Total Performance Score (TPS) and unplanned readmissions, a multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between hospital TPS and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), heart failure (HF), and pneumonia (PN). Hospital TPS was significantly and inversely related to AMI, HF, and PN readmission rates. The higher the hospital TPS, the lower the readmission rates for patients with AMI, HF, and PN. Hospitals with higher Medicare and Medicaid patients had higher readmission rates for all three conditions. The TPS methodology will likely evolve to include additional measures or dimensions to assess hospital quality and payment. Policymakers and hospital administrators should consider other structure elements and process measures to assess and improve patient safety and quality.

  16. Simulation shows hospitals that cooperate on infection control obtain better results than hospitals acting alone.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bruce Y; Bartsch, Sarah M; Wong, Kim F; Yilmaz, S Levent; Avery, Taliser R; Singh, Ashima; Song, Yeohan; Kim, Diane S; Brown, Shawn T; Potter, Margaret A; Platt, Richard; Huang, Susan S

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to control life-threatening infections, such as with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), can be complicated when patients are transferred from one hospital to another. Using a detailed computer simulation model of all hospitals in Orange County, California, we explored the effects when combinations of hospitals tested all patients at admission for MRSA and adopted procedures to limit transmission among patients who tested positive. Called "contact isolation," these procedures specify precautions for health care workers interacting with an infected patient, such as wearing gloves and gowns. Our simulation demonstrated that each hospital's decision to test for MRSA and implement contact isolation procedures could affect the MRSA prevalence in all other hospitals. Thus, our study makes the case that further cooperation among hospitals--which is already reflected in a few limited collaborative infection control efforts under way--could help individual hospitals achieve better infection control than they could achieve on their own.

  17. 42 CFR 412.92 - Special treatment: Sole community hospitals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special treatment: Sole community hospitals. 412.92... treatment: Sole community hospitals. (a) Criteria for classification as a sole community hospital. CMS classifies a hospital as a sole community hospital if it is located more than 35 miles from other...

  18. Determinants and Outcomes of Collective Organizational Climate among Shipboard Independent Duty Hospital Corpsmen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-29

    job yclated attitudes and behaviors, litltlc is known about the sirhipboard climate and its potential impact on TpCs. Clima te generally refel.rs to...approach to def mne the aggi-ega te organi aat iona.] cli mateus or percep tuLl, env i ronmen ts in Ahich 1DCs f uinc t ionl ab)o artd Shlip). 1n iidd...due to ndssixng data. Addi t inal organi zat ional outcnmes of i nteres t in this study wer e spe- rific !,atisfactions (Hackman and Oldham, 197-5

  19. Support for hospital-based HIV testing and counseling: a national survey of hospital marketing executives.

    PubMed Central

    Boscarino, J A; Steiber, S R

    1995-01-01

    Today, hospitals are involved extensively in social marketing and promotional activities. Recently, investigators from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimated that routine testing of hospital patients for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) could identify more than 100,000 patients with previously unrecognized HIV infections. Several issues are assessed in this paper. These include hospital support for voluntary HIV testing and AIDS education and the impact that treating AIDS patients has on the hospital's image. Also tested is the hypothesis that certain hospitals, such as for-profit institutions and those outside the AIDS epicenters, would be less supportive of hospital-based AIDS intervention strategies. To assess these issues, a national random sample of 193 executives in charge of hospital marketing and public relations were surveyed between December 1992 and January 1993. The survey was part of an ongoing annual survey of hospitals and included questions about AIDS, health education, marketing, patient satisfaction, and hospital planning. Altogether, 12.4 percent of executives indicated their hospital had a reputation for treating AIDS patients. Among hospitals without an AIDS reputation, 34.1 percent believed developing one would be harmful to the hospital's image, in contrast to none in hospitals that had such a reputation (chi 2 = 11.676, df = 1, P = .0006). Although 16.6 percent did not know if large-scale HIV testing should be implemented, a near majority (47.7 percent) expressed some support. In addition, 15 percent reported that HIV-positive physicians on the hospital's medical staff should not be allowed to practice medicine, but 32.1 percent indicated that they should.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7638335

  20. Epidemiology of systemic inflammatory response syndrome and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    Babyak, Jonathan M; Sharp, Claire R

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the epidemiology of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis in cats hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. DESIGN Observational study. ANIMALS 246 client-owned cats. PROCEDURES During a 3-month period, daily treatment records were evaluated for all hospitalized cats. Information extracted included signalment, temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, diagnostic test results, diagnosis, duration of hospitalization, and outcome (survival or death). Cats were classified into 1 of 4 disease categories (sepsis [confirmed infection and SIRS], infection [confirmed infection without SIRS], noninfectious SIRS [SIRS without a confirmed infection], and no SIRS [no SIRS or infection]). RESULTS Of the 246 cats, 26 and 3 were hospitalized 2 and 3 times, respectively; thus, 275 hospitalizations were evaluated. When SIRS was defined as the presence of ≥ 2 of 4 SIRS criteria, 17 cats had sepsis, 16 had infections, 81 had noninfectious SIRS, and 161 were classified in the no SIRS category at hospital admission. The prevalence of sepsis at hospital admission was 6.2 cases/100 admissions. Four cats developed sepsis while hospitalized, resulting in a sepsis incidence rate of 1.5 cases/100 hospital admissions. Four of 17 cats with sepsis at hospital admission and 3 of 4 cats that developed sepsis while hospitalized died or were euthanized, resulting in a mortality rate of 33.3% for septic cats; 239 hospitalizations resulted in survival, 28 resulted in euthanasia, and 8 resulted in death. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated that many hospitalized cats have evidence of SIRS and some have sepsis. In cats, sepsis is an important clinical entity with a high mortality rate.

  1. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2012-11-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the établissement francais du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding to recipients, blood products, blood supply of the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, the integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So, it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed to be a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  2. [Computerization of hospital blood banks in France].

    PubMed

    Daurat, G; Py, J-Y

    2011-04-01

    In France, most blood products are delivered by the Établissement français du sang, directly to the recipients, and hospital blood banks deliver a minor part, but are independent from it. However that may be, hospital blood banks are hazardous activities regarding recipients, blood products, blood supply for the hospital and regional blood supply. Because of the high risk level, a computerized information system is compulsory for all hospital blood banks, except for those only devoted to vital emergency transfusion. On the field, integration of computerization in the different processes is very heterogeneous. So it has been decided to publish guidelines for computerizing hospital blood banks information systems and production management. They have been built according to risk assessment and are intended to minimize those risks. The principle is that all acquisition and processing of data about recipients or blood products and tracking, must be fully computerized and that the result of all manual processes must be checked by computer before proceeding to the next step. The guidelines list the different processes and, for each of them, the functions the software must play. All together, they form the basic level all hospital blood banks should reach. Optional functions are listed. Moreover, the guidelines are also aimed at being a common tool for regional health authorities who supervise hospital blood banks.

  3. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs.

    PubMed

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W

    1988-12-01

    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  4. Shift in power to hospital accountants.

    PubMed

    Rayburn, L G; Rayburn, J M

    1996-01-01

    With the introduction of the Prospective Payment System, hospital accountants' role changed from reimbursement maximizers to an important role in decision making. Faced with increased competition, many hospitals are installing financial controls. Many hospitals are engaging in promotion and health awareness campaigns and expanding their services to stabilize income and reduce the effects of a changing environment. Thus, hospitals operate in a more competitive environment with much uncertainty. When faced with uncertainty, organizations often believe that they must convince society that their existence is legitimate. Increasing specialization and organizational complexity in healthcare professions have made the expert important. Experts, such as the role assumed by hospital accountants, maintain power because the organization depends on them for their special skills and information. Scarce resources coupled with uncertainty move hospital accountants as experts into the power equation in the changing control of the U.S. healthcare system. Since accountants often serve as monitors of scarce resources, information about the resource allocation directly affects the distribution of power. This places hospital accountants in a critical role of assisting their institutions in adapting to a new environment.

  5. [The hospital: reality and proposable future].

    PubMed

    Cardinale, A E; Torregrossa, M V

    2008-01-01

    In this work we run over hospital history from Middle ages to the present time. Hospitals were charitable institutions in fact they rise inside monasterys, churches or castles with an architecture in modum crucis as a symbolic expression of Christ crucifix. During Renaissance, new scientific Knowledges and the need of technical assistance in a suitable place, lead to a new kind of hospital included into the functional centres of the city were medical practice takes the places of spiritual assistance. In XVIII century hospital is like a "human diseases botanical garden" divided into departments with a circular structure in conformity with a functional model of control. To exceed the isolation of single room, rectangular rooms born with a radially arrangement. At the end of 700's born the pavilions structures typical of hospitals until half 900's when the "monobloc" take place. Today hospital becomes horizontal, include in the context of the city, with hall as a big hotel and with trading centres in accordance with Renzo Piano model and with a new vision of hospital as a welcome place were the patient is a guest to treat as a person of consequence.

  6. Approaching hospital administration about adopting cooling technologies.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, Lisa L; Parham, William M; Pastores, Stephen M

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide intensivists with information and examples regarding cooling technology selection, cost assessment, adaptation, barriers, and presentation to hospital administrators. A review of medical and business literature was conducted using the following search terms: technology assessment, organizational innovation, intensive care, critical care, hospital administration, and presentation to administrators. General recommendations for intensivists are made for assessing cooling technology with descriptions of common new technology implementation stages. A study of 16 hospitals implementing a new cardiac surgery technology is described. A description of successful implementation of an induced hypothermia protocol by one of the authors is presented. Although knowledgeable about the applications of new technologies, including cooling technology, intensivists have little guidance or training on tactics to obtain a hospital administration's funding and support. Intensive care unit budgets are usually controlled by nonintensivists whose interests are neutral, at best, to the needs of intensivists. To rise to the top of the large pile of requisition requests, an intensivist's proposal must be well conceived and aligned with hospital administration's strategic goals. Intensivists must understand the hospital acquisition process and administrative structure and participate on high-level hospital committees. Using design thinking and strong leadership skills, the intensivist can marshal support from staff and administrators to successfully implement cooling technology.

  7. Impact of PACS in hospital management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Gham; Cha, Soon-Joo; Kim, Yong H.; Hwang, Yoon J.; Kim, Soo Y.

    2002-05-01

    Since the low-cost, NT-based, full PACS was successfully implemented in a large-scale hospital at the end of 1999, many hospital administrators have rushed to purchase the system competitively. It is now a worldwide trend to implement the technology, but Korea has several unique environments for the fast spread of the full PACS. Since hospitals in Korea operate inpatient and outpatient clinics in the same building and use identical OCS, full integration of PACS with the OCS was relatively easy and highly efficient. The simple governing structures of the hospitals also made the decision-making process short and effective. In addition, the national health insurance reimbursement policy that started pay in the beginning of 2000 has also played a catalytic role for the swift propagation of PACS. The recent appearance of the affordable PACS gave hospital administrators the opportunity to learn and understand the role of digital imaging in the areas that are directly related to the efficiency and quality of medical services, as well as cost containment. Furthermore, PACS provided them with windows to the 'all-digital hospital,' which will lead them to realign policies in the management of the hospitals in order to compete successfully in the fast-changing world of health care.

  8. [Experience of the Baby Friendly Hospital initiative].

    PubMed

    Lamounier, J A

    1998-01-01

    In the study is analyzed and described the initiative called "Initiative Baby Friendly Hospitals", a program which started in Brazil, 1992. This initiative intends to support, to protect and to promote the breastfeeding as proposed in a meeting in 1990 in Florence, Italy, which was promoted by WHO and UNICEF. The basic goal of this initiative is to mobilize health professionals and hospital or maternity workers for changing their routines and conducts aiming to prevent the early wean. The health establishments are evaluated based on the "ten steps for success of breastfeeding, a group of goals created in the same meeting. In Brazil, the evaluation is coordinated by the Federal Government through the PNIAM (Programa Nacional de Incentivo ao Aleitamento Materno). A baby friendly hospital, if approved, receives from the Minister of Health, a Federal Governmental Agency (SUS) a differential payment for childbirth assistance and prenatal accompaniment, 10% and 40%, more respectively. Until 1998 year there were 103 baby friendly hospitals in Brazil, with the majority of them located in the northeast area (68.1%). However, taking in accounting the number of 5650 hospitals linked to SUS in the country, less than 2.0% are baby friendly hospitals. On the basis of the experience and according with PNIAM data the implementation of the ten steps and the incentive to breastfeeding through baby friendly hospitals have resulted in a significant increase of breastfeeding incidence and duration in Brazil.

  9. Marketing healthcare: lessons for smaller hospitals.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, N R

    2000-02-01

    Recently, I have noted ubiquitous trends that lead me to conclude that we are on the brink of a fundamental change in the structure of healthcare delivery. Hospitals are changing. The hospital, that enduring and pervasive organization, which for decades has delivered the vast majority of acute care services is being re-conceptualized. Administrators and executives in today's hospitals are beginning to recognize the disaffection of constituents and the necessity to change from placing their own agenda or that of their profession over the needs of the customer. A lesson that is increasingly being heeded, particularly by the leading hospitals, is that a belief in one's own importance or a feeling of invulnerability represents an anachronistic stance. No hospital today can afford to retain a view that it is more important than the patients it serves, or that it is invulnerable. The external pressures are already clear--the actors, factors and forces in the external environment are forcing hospitals to re-evaluate efficiency, effectiveness and delivery arrangements. The rise to prominence of the outcomes movement is part of this trend. The present study was an attempt to assess the practices and trends in the modern smaller hospitals as a part of their strategy to match the competitive pressures.

  10. 42 CFR 412.331 - Determining hospital-specific rates in cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. 412.331 Section 412.331 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. (a) New hospital merger or consolidation. If... dissolution. If a hospital separates into two or more hospitals that are subject to capital payments...

  11. 42 CFR 412.331 - Determining hospital-specific rates in cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. 412.331 Section 412.331 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. (a) New hospital merger or consolidation. If... dissolution. If a hospital separates into two or more hospitals that are subject to capital payments...

  12. 42 CFR 412.331 - Determining hospital-specific rates in cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. 412.331 Section 412.331 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. (a) New hospital merger or consolidation. If... dissolution. If a hospital separates into two or more hospitals that are subject to capital payments...

  13. 42 CFR 412.331 - Determining hospital-specific rates in cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. 412.331 Section 412.331 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... cases of hospital merger, consolidation, or dissolution. (a) New hospital merger or consolidation. If... dissolution. If a hospital separates into two or more hospitals that are subject to capital payments...

  14. Reliability and Validity of Amharic Version of EORTC QLQ-C 30 Questionnaire among Gynecological Cancer Patients in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ayana, Birhanu Abera; Negash, Shiferaw; Yusuf, Lukman; Tigeneh, Wendemagegnhu

    2016-01-01

    Background Cancer is a growing public health problem worldwide. The focus of cancer treatment, in addition to curation, is improving the quality of life (QOL). This study aimed to assess the reliability and validity of Amharic version of European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Core Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) among gynecological cancer patients in Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted using the Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 on 153 gynecological cancer patients in Tikur Anbassa Specialized Hospital (TASH), Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics, correlation analysis and multivariable linear regression were employed in statistical analysis. Results The Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 had a Cronbach’s α value of 0.81. The internal consistency for each domain of EORTC QLQ-C30 was also acceptable (Cronbach’s α >0.7) except for cognitive function domain (Cronbach’s α = 0.29). Stepwise multivariable linear regression analysis showed that emotional functioning (p<0.001), fatigue (p<0.001) and social functioning (p = 0.004) were the determinative scales of EORTC QLQ-C30 on global health status (GHS). The clinical validity test (Known group validity) showed that there were significant differences in score for twelve out of 15 domains, between surgery and radiation scheduled patients. All items of emotional function, role function, fatigue, and GHS meet the discriminate validity criterion. Conclusion The Amharic version of EORTC QLQ-C30 found to be reliable and had an acceptable validity to assess the QOL for gynecological cancer patients. We recommend further work on the validity and responsiveness of the EORTC QLQ-C30 with stronger design. PMID:27304066

  15. Hospital keeps cool and cuts its costs.

    PubMed

    Pitman, Russ

    2013-09-01

    Energy usage--particularly electricity--in hospitals is a hot topic, and the sector is under increasing pressure to reduce load and carbon emissions. The cost of 'going green' can, however, be high, and many hospitals shy away from more costly energy-efficient solutions, instead selecting cheaper options to suit the short term. One Hampshire healthcare facility, however, bucked the trend when selecting new chilled water plant, thanks to the advice and expertise of chartered consulting engineers, Henderson Green. Examining whether other hospitals should follow suit, managing director, Russ Pitman, explains 'why considering the bigger picture perspective does pay off'.

  16. Segmenting hospitals for improved management strategy.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, N K

    1989-09-01

    The author presents a conceptual framework for the a priori and clustering-based approaches to segmentation and evaluates them in the context of segmenting institutional health care markets. An empirical study is reported in which the hospital market is segmented on three state-of-being variables. The segmentation approach also takes into account important organizational decision-making variables. The sophisticated Thurstone Case V procedure is employed. Several marketing implications for hospitals, other health care organizations, hospital suppliers, and donor publics are identified.

  17. Hospital characteristics: can an audit be predicted?

    PubMed

    Chang, C F; Tuckman, H P

    1993-01-01

    Each year Medicare-participant hospitals submit a cost report to the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) to settle their reimbursement claims. These reports are subject to audit, and a decision by HCFA to audit can be costly to the auditee. This article uses data from 6,270 cost reports filed in 1986 to explore the factors related to the probability of an audit. Logistic regression equations are estimated to examine how hospital characteristics influence the chance of audit. The results suggest that audit probability can be predicted with reasonable accuracy by a hospital's bed size, ownership type, teaching status, function, proportion of Medicare inpatient days, and geographic location.

  18. [The national union for private hospital oncology].

    PubMed

    Parmentier, Gérard

    2013-06-01

    In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.

  19. The Burgholzli Hospital: Its history and legacy

    PubMed Central

    Kallivayalil, Roy Abraham

    2016-01-01

    The Burgholzli Hospital Zurich has a very important place in history, as part of of modern era in Psychiatry. Founded in 1870 by the efforts of Griesinger, it was here many eminent path breakers in Psychiatry like Bleuler, Jung, Adolf Meyer and others once worked. From here, Bleuler coined the term “Schizophrenia”. Now the University Hospital of Zurich, Burgholzli's transformation from a mental hospital to a centre of excellence speaks of a rich legacy. It is a model worth emulating in many parts of the world. PMID:27385861

  20. [Training concepts for in-hospital emergencies].

    PubMed

    Fritzsche, Katrin; Jantzen, Tanja; Rüsseler, Miriam; Müller, Michael P

    2013-06-01

    In this manuscript training concepts, which help us to manage in-hospital emergency situations adequately, are described. International courses such as the Basic Life Support Course and the Advanced Life Support Course of the ERC are introduced. Recently the European Trauma Course has been established; technical and non-technical skills, which are necessary to treat traumatised patients, are taught in this course. The quality of the medical emergency team in the hospital should be monitored to find deficits and to improve teaching. The use of the new in-hospital emergency chart and participation in the new emergency register of the DGAI may be helpful.

  1. Nursing administration in small rural hospitals.

    PubMed

    Henry, B M; Moody, L E

    1986-01-01

    Most of the world's population is rural and 45% of all United States hospitals are small or located outside of urban centers. The interdependence of rapidly changing rural communities and hospitals is described in this study of nursing directors' jobs. Findings provide needed information about the challenges and demands of nursing administration in small organizations useful for development of curriculums sensitive to values, politics, and economies; and for all nurse executives eager to understand the complexity of decisions and actions, whether in small organizations or in large multi-institutional systems comprising hospitals of varying sizes.

  2. Hospital auditors--friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Okamoto, C L

    1987-05-01

    Now, with the direct linkage to the hospital's financial position, medical record departments are sharing part of the internal review process which hospital financial areas have historically undergone. Without a good financial background, most medical record managers lack the basic understanding of the purpose and usefulness of financial auditors. It is critical that medical record managers understand that purpose so that they can better serve their institutions. This article discusses the process undertaken and the results produced by hospital financial auditors, so that record managers gain benefits from financial auditor reviews, and see them as friends, rather than foes.

  3. [Hospital readmissions: A reliable quality indicator?].

    PubMed

    van Galen, Louise S; Nanayakkara, Prabath W B

    2016-01-01

    The percentage of readmissions within 30 days after discharge is an official quality indicator for Dutch hospitals in 2016. In this commentary the authors argue why readmissions cannot be regarded as a reliable way of assessing quality of healthcare in a hospital. To date, policy makers have been struggling with its precise definition and the indicator has not been properly formulated yet. It does not distinguish between planned and unplanned readmissions and does not take into account the 'preventability'. Therefore the authors believe that the indicator in its current form might falsely interpret the quality of care of a hospital and it is questionable to use readmissions as a quality indicator.

  4. The financial performance of diversified hospital subsidiaries.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, J P; D'Aunno, T; Poyzer, B L

    1993-01-01

    Despite its proliferation, we know relatively little about the impact of hospital restructuring to offer new services. This exploratory study examines the relationship between types of services offered and financial performance among separately incorporated subsidiaries of acute care hospitals. We draw data from the subsidiaries of all hospital firms operating in one state (Virginia) that requires reporting by all such firms. Results from multiple regression analyses of 1987 data indicate that units that existed longer, produced health care or related products, or were nonprofit subsidiaries of nonprofit firms tended to be more profitable than the other subsidiaries. PMID:8428811

  5. The ecological footprint of Lions Gate Hospital.

    PubMed

    Germain, S

    The first-ever Ecological Footprint of a hospital was carried out in the summer of 2001 in North Vancouver, British Columbia. Although there has been growing concern that the healthcare system in Canada might be adversely affecting the environment, there have been few analyses of its environmental impact. Lions Gate Hospital bravely agreed to participate in this study and have its footprint calculated. This displays real leadership, reflecting very positively on the hospital's commitment to becoming more environmentally responsible and its willingness to open up to scrutiny.

  6. A new methodology for hospital design.

    PubMed

    Mejia, Ana Maria Silva

    2013-08-01

    According to architect, Ana Maria Silva Mejia, 'a new era for the design of hospitals in Guatemala has arrived', with a considerable growth in interest around good healthcare facility design. Here, in a slightly adapted version of an article, 'A new methodology for design', first published in the IFHE (International Federation of Hospital Engineering) Digest 2012, she reports on the application of a new methodology designed to optimise efficient use of space, and clinical and other adjacencies, in a district hospital in the City of Zacapa. The system has subsequently been successfully applied to a number of other Guatemalan healthcare facilities.

  7. [Information use in public hospital management].

    PubMed

    Escrivão Junior, Alvaro

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates managerial perceptions of the use of information in health management and planning in 24 Public Hospitals in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region, analyzing its usefulness for the decision-making process. In addition, some characteristics of the existing information system are studied. The findings show that ample amounts of information and data are available in the hospitals covered by this study, despite some gaps, and that managers do not know about the existing data and do not use this information to guide hospital management.

  8. Leveraging hospital formularies for improved prescribing.

    PubMed

    Karas, Albert; Kuehl, Bonnie

    2014-01-01

    Hospital formularies, guided by the Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committee, exist to optimize medication use by identifying and designating drugs of choice to guide rational prescribing, ultimately reducing patient risk and costs and improving patient outcomes. Guidelines and a framework exist to guide critical evaluations of medications for formulary listing; however, there may be opportunities to improve and standardize how a formulary change could be instituted in Canadian hospitals. A formulary change at an Ontario hospital revealed that there are some key challenges to the formulary change process including the importance of a robust project plan, appropriate resources, healthcare staff education, and acceptance.

  9. Lunar phases and psychiatric hospital admissions.

    PubMed

    Gorvin, J J; Roberts, M S

    1994-12-01

    To assess the lunar hypothesis as predictive of mental health emergencies and antisocial behavior, the relation of the lunar hypothesis and the occurrence of psychiatric hospital admissions of developmentally disabled adults was examined. The full moon phase of the lunar cycle did not explain a higher rate of hospital admission and accounted for only .007% of the variance. A critique of the methodology in prior research led to the suggestion that more immediate stressors and environmental factors are more plausible contributing factors to hospital admission.

  10. Reforming the Medicaid Disproportionate Share Hospital Program

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Teresa A.; Ku, Leighton; Kim, Johnny

    2000-01-01

    Since 1991, three Federal laws have sought to reform the Medicaid disproportionate share hospital (DSH) program, which is designed to help safety net hospitals. This article provides findings from a 40-State survey about Medicaid DSH and supplemental payment programs in 1997. Results indicate that the overall size of the DSH program did not grow from 1993 to 1997, but the composition of DSH revenues and expenditures changed substantially: A much higher share of the DSH funds were being paid to local hospitals and relatively less was being retained by the States. The study also revealed that large differences in States' use of DSH still persist. PMID:12500325

  11. What happens in hospitals does not stay in hospitals: antibiotic-resistant bacteria in hospital wastewater systems.

    PubMed

    Hocquet, D; Muller, A; Bertrand, X

    2016-08-01

    Hospitals are hotspots for antimicrobial-resistant bacteria (ARB) and play a major role in both their emergence and spread. Large numbers of these ARB will be ejected from hospitals via wastewater systems. In this review, we present quantitative and qualitative data of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli, vancomycin-resistant enterococci and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in hospital wastewaters compared to community wastewaters. We also discuss the fate of these ARB in wastewater treatment plants and in the downstream environment. Published studies have shown that hospital effluents contain ARB, the burden of these bacteria being dependent on their local prevalence. The large amounts of antimicrobials rejected in wastewater exert a continuous selective pressure. Only a few countries recommend the primary treatment of hospital effluents before their discharge into the main wastewater flow for treatment in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Despite the lack of conclusive data, some studies suggest that treatment could favour the ARB, notably ESBL-producing E. coli. Moreover, treatment plants are described as hotspots for the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes between bacterial species. Consequently, large amounts of ARB are released in the environment, but it is unclear whether this release contributes to the global epidemiology of these pathogens. It is reasonable, nevertheless, to postulate that it plays a role in the worldwide progression of antibiotic resistance. Antimicrobial resistance should now be seen as an 'environmental pollutant', and new wastewater treatment processes must be assessed for their capability in eliminating ARB, especially from hospital effluents.

  12. 45 CFR 211.10 - Termination of hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... of the hospital finds that the eligible person hospitalized for mental illness (whether or not... accordance with laws governing hospitalization for mental illness as may be in force and generally...

  13. 45 CFR 211.10 - Termination of hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... of the hospital finds that the eligible person hospitalized for mental illness (whether or not... accordance with laws governing hospitalization for mental illness as may be in force and generally...

  14. 45 CFR 211.10 - Termination of hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the hospital finds that the eligible person hospitalized for mental illness (whether or not... accordance with laws governing hospitalization for mental illness as may be in force and generally...

  15. 45 CFR 211.10 - Termination of hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the hospital finds that the eligible person hospitalized for mental illness (whether or not... accordance with laws governing hospitalization for mental illness as may be in force and generally...

  16. 45 CFR 211.10 - Termination of hospitalization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of the hospital finds that the eligible person hospitalized for mental illness (whether or not... accordance with laws governing hospitalization for mental illness as may be in force and generally...

  17. Patient and hospital characteristics associated with average length of stay.

    PubMed

    Shi, L

    1996-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between patient, hospital characteristics, and hospital average length of stay controlling for major disease categories. A constellation of patient and physician factors were found to be significantly associated with average hospital length of stay.

  18. Organizational Culture and Its Relationship with Hospital Performance in Public Hospitals in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Data Sources Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Study Design Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Principal Findings Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Conclusions Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. PMID:22092228

  19. Trends in hospital librarianship and hospital library services: 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Patricia L.; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The research studied the status of hospital librarians and library services to better inform the Medical Library Association's advocacy activities. Methods: The Vital Pathways Survey Subcommittee of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians distributed a web-based survey to hospital librarians and academic health sciences library directors. The survey results were compared to data collected in a 1989 survey of hospital libraries by the American Hospital Association in order to identify any trends in hospital libraries, roles of librarians, and library services. A web-based hospital library report form based on the survey questions was also developed to more quickly identify changes in the status of hospital libraries on an ongoing basis. Results: The greatest change in library services between 1989 and 2005/06 was in the area of access to information, with 40% more of the respondents providing access to commercial online services, 100% more providing access to Internet resources, and 28% more providing training in database searching and use of information resources. Twenty-nine percent (n = 587) of the 2005/06 respondents reported a decrease in staff over the last 5 years. Conclusions: Survey data support reported trends of consolidation of hospitals and hospital libraries and additions of new services. These services have likely required librarians to acquire new skills. It is hoped that future surveys will be undertaken to continue to study these trends. PMID:19851491

  20. The Relationship Between Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program Scores and Hospital Bond Ratings.

    PubMed

    Rangnekar, Anooja; Johnson, Tricia; Garman, Andrew; O'Neil, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Tax-exempt hospitals and health systems often borrow long-term debt to fund capital investments. Lenders use bond ratings as a standard metric to assess whether to lend funds to a hospital. Credit rating agencies have historically relied on financial performance measures and a hospital's ability to service debt obligations to determine bond ratings. With the growth in pay-for-performance-based reimbursement models, rating agencies are expanding their hospital bond rating criteria to include hospital utilization and value-based purchasing (VBP) measures. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the Hospital VBP domains--Clinical Process of Care, Patient Experience of Care, Outcome, and Medicare Spending per Beneficiary (MSPB)--and hospital bond ratings. Given the historical focus on financial performance, we hypothesized that hospital bond ratings are not associated with any of the Hospital VBP domains. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study of all hospitals that were rated by Moody's for fiscal year 2012 and participated in the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services' VBP program as of January 2014 (N = 285). Of the 285 hospitals in the study, 15% had been assigned a bond rating of Aa, and 46% had been assigned an A rating. Using a binary logistic regression model, we found an association between MSPB only and bond ratings, after controlling for other VBP and financial performance scores; however, MSPB did not improve the overall predictive accuracy of the model. Inclusion of VBP scores in the methodology used to determine hospital bond ratings is likely to affect hospital bond ratings in the near term.