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Sample records for addis zemen town

  1. Searching for Addie: The Story behind a Famous Photograph

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winthrop, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author presents a story behind the famous photograph of "Addie." Addie was a symbol of child labor reform. The author first saw the picture of Addie in the summer of 2002 at the Bennington Museum in Bennington, Vermont. Addie's picture was just one in an exhibit of child labor photographs taken by famed photographer…

  2. In Search of the Elusive ADDIE Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenda, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origin of the ADDIE model of instructional design and concludes that the term came into use by word of mouth as a label for the whole family of systematic instructional development models. Examines the underlying ideas behind the acronym analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation. (Author/LRW)

  3. Augmenting the ADDIE Paradigm for Instructional Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ni, Xiaopeng; Branch, Robert Maribe

    2008-01-01

    The authors discuss topics appropriate for augmenting the ADDIE paradigm for instructional design. The topics selected are based on data from a study of working professionals who successfully completed an instructional design and technology certificate program and who identified related topics that they regarded as beneficial. The participants…

  4. Modifying ADDIE: Incorporating New Technologies in Library Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Paul Clayton

    2014-01-01

    There are many instructional design theories to assist librarians in creating effective instructional modules for student learning. ADDIE is a generic instructional design model that has been in existence for more than 30 years and is known for its flexibility in application (Molenda, 2003). Using instructional design theories such as ADDIE helps…

  5. Terrace Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, Heather

    2010-01-01

    The "Terrace Town" program brings architecture and city planning curriculum to elementary schools in Madison, Wisconsin, and surrounding areas. Over eight weeks, classrooms discuss what makes a community livable, sustainable, and kid-friendly. Throughout the process, students gain a better understanding of their own city environments and…

  6. Our Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    This article outlines an issue-based lesson for a physical science course in which students investigate potential alternative energy sources for Alternatown, a fictitious city. Students are randomly selected to serve as town council members or as representatives of different alternative energy source options put before the council. The…

  7. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  8. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  9. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  10. The ABC's of Online Course Design According to Addie Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durak, Gürhan; Ataizi, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design the course of Programming Languages-I online, which is given on face-to-face basis at undergraduate level. It is seen in literature that there is no detailed research on the preparation of a fully-online course directly based on an instructional design model. In this respect, depending on the ADDIE design…

  11. Quantifying Entrepreneurial Networks: Data Collection in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-10

    to have an enjoyable break when Ayib, Alem, and I ate a traditional lunch at a local cafe and then we had coffee at a student coffee hangout located...lunch in the Piazza area of Addis Ababa with my guides. We ate at a traditional cafe that was really a butcher with the fresh sides of beef displayed

  12. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  13. 24 CFR 92.604 - ADDI allocation formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false ADDI allocation formula. 92.604 Section 92.604 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM American Dream Downpayment Initiative § 92.604...

  14. Twelve Years Later: The Revision of the Addis Ababa Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prospects, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Processes and plans for redefinition of the goals of African educational systems are noted in this historical summary of educational development. Rationale for revision of the Addis Ababa plan by committees representing Unesco and the Organization of African Unity is presented. (SM)

  15. Climate change induced risk analysis of Addis Ababa city (Ethiopia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalayer, Fatemeh; Herslund, Lise; Cavan, Gina; Printz, Andreas; Simonis, Ingo; Bucchignani, Edoardo; Jean-Baptiste, Nathalie; Hellevik, Siri; Fekade, Rebka; Nebebe, Alemu; Woldegerima, Tekle; Workalemahu, Liku; Workneh, Abraham; Yonas, Nebyou; Abebe Bekele, Essete; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    CLUVA (CLimate change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa; http://www.cluva.eu/) is a 3 years project, funded by the European Commission in 2010. Its objective is to develop context-centered methods to assess vulnerability and increase knowledge on managing climate related risks and to estimate the impacts of climate changes in the next 40 years at urban scale in Africa. The project downscales IPCC climate projections to evaluate threats to selected African test cities; mainly floods, sea-level rise, droughts, heat waves, desertification. It also evaluates and links: social vulnerability; urban green structures and ecosystem services; urban-rural interfaces; vulnerability of urban built environment and lifelines; and related institutional and governance dimensions of adaptation. CLUVA combines assessment approaches to investigate how cities, communities and households can resist and cope with, as well as recover from climate induced hazards. This multi-scale and multi-disciplinary qualitative, quantitative and probabilistic approach of CLUVA is currently being applied to selected African test cities (Addis Ababa - Ethiopia; Dar es Salaam - Tanzania; Douala - Cameroun; Ouagadougou - Burkina Faso; St. Louis - Senegal). In particular, the poster will report on the progresses of the Addis Ababa case study. Addis Ababa, the largest city in Ethiopia, is exposed to heat waves, drought, and, more recently, to flash floods. Due to undulating topography, poor waste management and the absence of sustainable storm water management, Addis Ababa is prone to severe flood events during the rainy seasons. Metropolitan Addis Ababa is crossed by several small watercourses. Torrential rains, very common during the rainy season, cause a sudden rise in the flow of these water courses, inundating and damaging the settlements along their banks and affecting the livelihood of the local population. The combination of climate change and development pressures are expected to exacerbate the

  16. Townes-Brocks syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Powell, C.; Michaelis, R.

    1999-01-01

    Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple malformations and variable expression. Major findings include external ear anomalies, hearing loss, preaxial polydactyly and triphalangeal thumbs, imperforate anus, and renal malformations. Most patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome have normal intelligence, although mental retardation has been noted in a few.


Keywords: Townes-Brocks syndrome; chromosome 16q12.1; SALL1 PMID:10051003

  17. Perception and management of tuberculosis symptoms in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sagbakken, Mette; Frich, Jan C; Bjune, Gunnar A

    2008-10-01

    Management of early tuberculosis (TB) symptoms and adherence to medical treatment are main challenges in controlling TB. The aim of this study is to explore how symptoms of TB are perceived and managed, from the onset of symptoms and during the course of treatment, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. We conducted a qualitative interview study, including 50 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups, with TB patients, their relatives, and health personnel. We found that a patient's perceptions and self-treatment of early symptoms could cause diagnostic delay. Stigma associated with TB and public health services made many patients approach private clinics, causing further delay. Both private and public clinics often labeled and managed symptoms according to lay explanatory models. Lack of adequate knowledge about TB's etiology and cure caused patients to continue relating to symptoms by reference to their own understanding. This affected patients' ability to manage TB and its treatment.

  18. Indoor air pollution in slum neighbourhoods of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanbata, Habtamu; Asfaw, Araya; Kumie, Abera

    2014-06-01

    An estimated 95% of the population of Ethiopia uses traditional biomass fuels, such as wood, dung, charcoal, or crop residues, to meet household energy needs. As a result of the harmful smoke emitted from the combustion of biomass fuels, indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 50,000 deaths annually and causes nearly 5% of the burden of disease in Ethiopia. Very limited research on indoor air pollution and its health impacts exists in Ethiopia. This study was, therefore, undertaken to assess the magnitude of indoor air pollution from household fuel use in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. During January and February, 2012, the concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in 59 households was measured using the University of California at Berkeley Particle Monitor (UCB PM). The raw data was analysed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS version 20.0) software to determine variance between groups and descriptive statistics. The geometric mean of 24-h indoor PM2.5 concentration is approximately 818 μg m-3 (Standard deviation (SD = 3.61)). The highest 24-h geometric mean of PM2.5 concentration observed were 1134 μg m-3 (SD = 3.36), 637 μg m-3 (SD = 4.44), and 335 μg m-3 (SD = 2.51), respectively, in households using predominantly solid fuel, kerosene, and clean fuel. Although 24-h mean PM2.5 concentration between fuel types differed statistically (P < 0.05), post hoc pairwise comparison indicated no significant difference in mean concentration of PM2.5 between improved biomass stoves and traditional stoves (P > 0.05). The study revealed indoor air pollution is a major environmental and health hazard from home using biomass fuel in Addis Ababa. The use of clean fuels and efficient cooking stoves is recommended.

  19. Company Town Shutdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnage, Martha A.

    Saltville, Virginia, is a former company town whose main employer, a soda ash plant, shut down on July 1, 1971. The closure of the chemical plant displaced 700 workers, and created a crisis that threatened not only the existence of the town, but of the entire region. In response, Virginia Highlands Community College (VHCC), in cooperation with the…

  20. Memories of Charles Townes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-06-01

    Charles Townes, the Nobel laureate acclaimed for his pioneering work on lasers and nonlinear optics, sadly passed away in January this year. Here I offer personal reflections of working with him as one of his graduate students.

  1. Town Square for Kids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dan

    2001-01-01

    Presents design features of the Dawson Elementary School (Corpus Chriti, Texas) where an atmosphere of an old town square and the feeling of community have been created. Photos and a floor plan are provided. (GR)

  2. Stigma against Tuberculosis Patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tadesse, Sebsibe

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma attached to tuberculosis contributes to the limited effectiveness of current TB control approaches. However, there is a dearth of studies that explore the causes of stigma attached to tuberculosis and its effects on patients and tuberculosiscontrol programs in Ethiopia. Methods An institution-based qualitative study was conducted at St. Peter Tuberculosis Specialized Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia from July to August, 2015. Ten in-depth interviews and 6 key-informant interviews were carried out among tuberculosis patients and healthcare workers, respectively.The Open Code computer software package was used to analyze the data thematically. Results The study revealed that fear of infection and inappropriate health education messages by media were the main causes of tuberculosis stigma. The patients experienced isolation within their family and community, separation, and financial crisis. The stigma attached to tuberculosis may contribute to delayed healthcare seeking, poor treatment adherence, and poor prognosis. Conclusion Interventions thatreduce the stigma attached to tuberculosis should target on areas, such as creating community awareness, patient counseling on problem-solving and emotional skills, preparing culturally sensitive and scientifically sound media messages, providing financial support for the patients, and enhancing the qualities of the healthcare workers, such as empathy, concern, respect for the patient and cultural sensitivity. PMID:27054714

  3. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. II. Affective disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report examines the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of affective disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. The lifetime prevalence for specific affective disorders was as follows: bipolar disorders 0.3%, depressive episodes 2.7%, recurrent depressive episodes 0.2%, and persistent mood disorders 1.6%. The weighted lifetime prevalence of affective disorders was 5.0% (women 7.7% and men 3.2%). One-month prevalence was 3.8% (women 5.9% and men 2.3%). After adjusting for several potential confounders, the risk of affective disorders was only 29% higher in women compared to men. This difference in risk was not statistically significant. Age was also not associated with risk of affective disorders. On the other hand, education was associated with the risk of disorder, the risk decreasing with increasing educational attainment. This inverse trend was statistically significant (P for trend = 0.02). The risk was also 37% lower in the employed than the unemployed: Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.63 (0.39, 1.01). There were no statistically significant associations between affective disorders and marital status or ethnicity.

  4. Building up College Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Elia

    2007-01-01

    When it comes to college towns and neighborhoods near urban campuses, quaint will not cut it anymore. An increasing number of institutions are finding ways--directly or indirectly--to promote a mix of commercial and residential development just beyond their borders that they hope will lure students and faculty. This article discusses how…

  5. Reviving the Town Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Tim

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the use of the National Issues Forum's (NIF's) town meetings in efforts to increase citizen participation in democratic processes. Describes the Catholic adaptation of the NIF approach, providing examples of its use at the high school, college, and community level. (MAB)

  6. Tox Town Farm

    MedlinePlus

    ... download the Flash player. City Farm Town Port US Southwest U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike Bethesda, MD 20894 1-888-FIND-NLM National Institutes of Health Department of Health & Human Services ... Updates Contact Us: tehip@teh.nlm.nih.gov Copyright Privacy Freedom ...

  7. Educational Research Culture and Capacity Building: The Case of Addis Ababa University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This paper draws on several projects over sixteen years which attempted to develop capacity in educational research at Addis Ababa University. It identifies what might be considered indicators of a thriving research environment as defined from a UK perspective, not simply the necessary skills and infrastructure requirements but also what might be…

  8. Characterization of GNSS amplitude scintillations over Addis Ababa during 2009-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akala, A. O.; Ejalonibu, A. H.; Doherty, P. H.; Radicella, S. M.; Groves, K. M.; Carrano, C. S.; Bridgwood, C. T.; Stoneback, R. A.

    2017-04-01

    This study characterizes GNSS amplitude scintillations over an African equatorial station: Addis Ababa (Lat 9.03°N, Lon 38.77°E, Mag. lat 0.18°N), Ethiopia during a five-year period (2009-2013). Scintillations were majorly localized within the hours of 2200-2400 LT. On a monthly basis, the highest occurrences of scintillation at Addis Ababa were recorded in April, and the lowest in June. Seasonally, the highest occurrences were recorded in equinoxes, and the lowest in June solstices. On a yearly scale, scintillations recorded the highest occurrences in 2012 and the lowest in 2009. Large proportions of the scintillations were localized within the northern sky of Addis Ababa. Supporting the characterization of the GNSS data with C/NOFS data, we noted that small-spatial scale density depletions are more detrimental to GNSS signals than their large-scale counterparts. Finally, EGNOS geostationary satellites' signals also scintillated steadily at Addis Ababa, with noticeable occurrences on the low elevation EGNOS satellite's (PRN 120) data. These events commenced around local sunset terminator, forming plateaus that vanished around local midnight.

  9. A Comparative Study on the Practice of Continuous Assessment between Addis Ababa and Unity Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeleke, Aytaged Sisay

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to explore the practice of continuous assessment at Unity University College and Addis Ababa University. It has also investigated constraints instructors say they have been facing in implementing continuous assessment. Students' attitudes about the practice of this assessment mode towards their course achievements were explored.…

  10. Migration and Vulnerability among Adolescents in Slum Areas of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erulkar, Annabel S.; Mekbib, Tekle-Ab; Simie, Negussie; Gulema, Tsehai

    2006-01-01

    Studies of urban rural migration often find the most likely migrants are adolescents and young people. Yet few studies have explored patterns of adolescent migration and the role of migration in transitions to adulthood. This study uses data from a population-based survey of over 1000 adolescents aged 10-19 in slum areas of Addis Ababa.…

  11. The Practice of Student Assessment: The Case of College of Natural Science, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soromessa, Teshome

    2015-01-01

    This study attempted to assess the practice of student assessment in the College of Natural Science of Addis Ababa University, specifically aimed at investigating whether or not science instructors are well aware of test blue-print, general principles of evaluation and rule of test construction as anticipated in the new education and training…

  12. Isolation of Viable Toxoplasma gondii from Tissues and Feces of Cats from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cats are important in the epidemiology of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in feces. In the present study, hearts, serum, and feces from 36 feral cats from Addis Ababa area, Ethiopia were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to ...

  13. The Townes Laser Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Martin

    2009-06-01

    The State of Florida has recently established a new center of excellence in advanced core laser technologies, associated with the College of Optics & Photonics. This center, dedicated in 2007 in tribute to the pioneering work of Charles Townes, whose insight lead to the development of the maser and the laser, will invest in next generation laser technologies for applications to medicine, advanced manufacturing and defense. It joins the cluster of photonics-related centers at UCF, adding a focused national center for the education and training of scientists and engineers in laser technology. This paper describes the mission and objectives of the Townes Institute, the educational and training programs it is creating, its current investments and opportunities, and the future institutional and industrial partnerships and global reach it hopes to create.

  14. County town -- jian-zhi town differentials and migration to towns in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, R

    1993-07-01

    China's urbanization process is unique in having been due to economic systems and migration policies. Towns and townships in rural areas are different from cities in their social and economic characteristics and their structure and function. The urban system in China is initially described with the distinction drawn between cities, "jian-zhi towns", (organic town) which are officially recognized, and rural areas. Analysis is provided f the economic and residential registration status of town residents and migration in northern China. Data were obtained from a 1987 survey of 1314 households in Wongnioute Banner in Inner Mongolia, and a 1985 migration survey of 2089 rural households in 41 villages. The study area was selected because jian-zhi town status was easily obtained and the are needed more towns for local administration and trade; the area was similar in geographic, social, economic, and cultural characteristics to other northern and northwestern regions. The Wongnioute Banner comprises 5 towns (Qiaotou, Wufendi, Hairesu, Wuduentaohai, and Wutonghua) and 1 country town (Wudan). All citizens from birth have an agricultural or nonagricultural status, which can be changed by passing national exams or completing a university education, joining the military and becoming an officer, marrying someone with a nonagricultural status, reunifying the family, or holding a special program. Quotas are set annually for status changes, e.g. in Tibet Autonomous Region the annual quota was 3%. Town residents may have either status. In the sample, 56.6% lived in town and had a nonagricultural status; 17.7% of heads of household town residents had an agricultural status and had stronger ties to villages because of family connections. Commuters are a third group and comprise 8.9%. County towns and jian-zhi towns are grouped the same, but are quite different in population size. Wudan had a population of 27,600 spread over an area of 480 hectares. The jian-zhi towns each had an

  15. Socioeconomic Status and Hypertension among Teachers and Bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Lemma, Seblewengel

    2016-01-01

    Background. The social and economic changes taking place in developing countries are influencing the pace at which hypertension and its risk factors are expanding. As opposed to the already established inverse association in developed nations, the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension in developing countries is poor and inconsistent. This study aims to determine the association between socioeconomic status and hypertension among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. This study is based on a cross-sectional study conducted to assess the prevalence of NCDs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study was undertaken among workers of the Commercial Bank of Ethiopia and teachers of public schools in 2010. Results. Majority of participants were teachers (70.3%). Most of the respondents (54.1%) earn an annual income between 15,000 ETB and 48,000 ETB, and 51.9% of them have educational status of first degree and above. Among the socioeconomic factors income was strongly associated with the odds of having hypertension (AOR: 2.17 with 95% CI: 1.58–2.98). Conclusions. Higher burden of hypertension is observed among teachers and bankers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Promotion of healthy behaviors and interventions that target higher income groups needs to be put in place. PMID:27313874

  16. Student Planning of Town Configuration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baird, John C.; And Others

    1972-01-01

    Two experiments are presented on the planning of ideal towns by undergraduates. The basic approach involved a modified map-sketching technique in which subjects placed sixteen town elements into two-dimensional physical environments. Results were analyzed by information theory, cluster analysis, and multidimensional scaling. (BL)

  17. RadTown USA: Basic Information

    MedlinePlus

    ... Burbs Countryside Waterfront Downtown Did you know? RadTown Games Educational Materials Bring RadTown into the classroom with ... Waterfront Downtown Educational Materials RadTown A to Z Games Link to Us Glossary News Feeds Podcasts EPA ...

  18. New western boom towns

    SciTech Connect

    Daneke, G.A.

    1980-09-30

    The Mountain West, particularly isolated rural communities, can expect rapid growth which cannot be accurately predicted by the usual population-forecasting techniques. Mining and defense projects, combined with a general population shift to the South and West, have already brought some anticipatory migration to areas that have not prepared an infrastructure to handle the social and economic demands of boom towns. The relationship between meeting the physical and human needs of a community are poorly understood, with the result that most local planners concentrate on the water, sewer, and street planning of traditional urban-sprawl patterns and contribute to community disintegration. A carefully planned infrastructure which incorporates social-service planning could anticipate many problems and introduce innovative environmental and energy-saving ideas. (DCK)

  19. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  20. The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27): a short version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90.

    PubMed

    Osman, Augustine; Freedenthal, Stacey; Gutierrez, Peter M; Wong, Jane L; Emmerich, Ashley; Lozano, Gregorio

    2011-06-01

    The authors conducted three studies to construct and examine the psychometric properties of a 27-item version of the Mood and Anxiety Symptom Questionnaire-90 (MASQ-90; Watson & Clark, 1991a). The Anxiety Depression Distress Inventory-27 (ADDI-27) contains three empirically derived scales: Positive Affect, Somatic Anxiety, and General Distress, which are relevant dimensions of the tripartite model of affect. Each scale is composed of nine items, and the estimate of scale reliability for each scale score was ≥ .80 across the three studies. Results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided adequate support for a 3-factor model. Additional estimates of concurrent validity documented the ADDI-27 scales' convergent and discriminant validity. We also identified three construct relevant correlates for each scale score. Overall, the ADDI-27 appears to be a content valid, reliable, and multidimensional measure of the tripartite model of affect.

  1. Townes' contribution to nonlinear optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garmire, Elsa

    2015-03-01

    In honour of the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Nobel Prize in Physics, this talk introduced the contributions of Nicholas Basov and Alexei Prokhorov, who shared the prize with Charles Townes. The talk then detailed the quantum electronics research of Townes, particularly at MIT, which was related to nonlinear optics. The years from 1961 to 1968 were particularly exciting, as the ruby laser enabled a wide variety of new physics to be discovered and explored.

  2. Self-Care Practices among Diabetes Patients in Addis Ababa: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Tewahido, Dagmawit; Berhane, Yemane

    2017-01-01

    Background Self-care practices that include self-monitoring of blood sugar level, diet management, physical exercise, adherence to medications, and foot care are the cornerstones of diabetes management. However, very little is known about self-care in developing countries where the prevalence of diabetes is increasing. Objective The objective of this study was to describe self-care practices among individuals with type II diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A qualitative method was used to gather data from type II diabetes patients. Patients were recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinics of two public hospitals in Addis Ababa. Data were collected using a semi structured interview guide. A thematic analysis approach was used to process the data. Results Overall self-care practices were not adequate. Most patients reported irregular self-monitoring of blood sugar. Dietary and physical exercise recommendations were inadequately practiced by most of the participants. Most patients better adhered to medication prescriptions. Patients generally lack proper information/knowledge regarding the importance of self-care and how it should be implemented. Based on reported behavior we identified three main categories of patients; which are those ‘endeavor to be compliant’, ‘confused’ and ‘negligent’. Conclusion Diabetes patients largely depend on prescribed medications to control their blood sugar level. The importance of proper self-care practices for effective management of diabetes is not adequately emphasized in diabetes care centers and patients lack sufficient knowledge for proper self-care. PMID:28045992

  3. Modeling Urban Growth Spatial Dynamics: Case studies of Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchta, Katja; Abo El Wafa, Hany; Printz, Andreas; Pauleit, Stephan

    2013-04-01

    Rapid urbanization, and consequently, the dramatic spatial expansion of mostly informal urban areas increases the vulnerability of African cities to the effects of climate change such as sea level rise, more frequent flooding, droughts and heat waves. The EU FP 7 funded project CLUVA (Climate Change and Urban Vulnerability in Africa, www.cluva.eu) aims to develop strategies for minimizing the risks of natural hazards caused by climate change and to improve the coping capacity of African cities. Green infrastructure may play a particular role in climate change adaptation by providing ecosystem services for flood protection, stormwater retention, heat island moderation and provision of food and fuel wood. In this context, a major challenge is to gain a better understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of the cities and how these impact on green infrastructure and hence their vulnerability. Urban growth scenarios for two African cities, namely Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, were developed based on a characterization of their urban morphology. A population growth driven - GIS based - disaggregation modeling approach was applied. Major impact factors influencing the urban dynamics were identified both from literature and interviews with local experts. Location based factors including proximity to road infrastructure and accessibility, and environmental factors including slope, surface and flood risk areas showed a particular impact on urban growth patterns. In Addis Ababa and Dar es Salaam, population density scenarios were modeled comparing two housing development strategies. Results showed that a densification scenario significantly decreases the loss of agricultural and green areas such as forests, bushland and sports grounds. In Dar es Salaam, the scenario of planned new settlements with a population density of max. 350 persons per hectare would lead until 2025 to a loss of agricultural land (-10.1%) and green areas (-6.6%). On the other

  4. Perceived Principals' Leadership Styles and Faculty Job Satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Is There a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamrat Zeleke, Frew

    2013-01-01

    The job satisfaction of higher education faculty can be affected by the kind of leadership style practiced by leaders of an institution. This study examined perceived principals' leadership styles related to faculty job satisfaction in Higher Theological Institutions of Addis Ababa (HTIAA), Ethiopia. Leadership style in this study was defined as…

  5. Reading Habits of Secondary School Teachers: A Study of Selected Secondary Schools in Addis Ababa and Dessie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassen, Rukya

    2016-01-01

    This study is a small-scale study of an exploration of reading habit of high school teachers. Fifty-four teachers from five schools who teach in different schools in Addis Ababa and Dessie participated in this study. Data were collected through questionnaire and in-depth interview. The result of the study shows that reading is poorly developed…

  6. Designing for Engagement: Using the ADDIE Model to Integrate High-Impact Practices into an Online Information Literacy Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols Hess, Amanda Kathryn; Greer, Katie

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors share how a team of librarians used the ADDIE instructional design model to incorporate best practices in teaching and learning into an online, four-credit information literacy course. In this redesign process, the Association of American Colleges and Universities' high-impact practices and e-learning best practices…

  7. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, David H.; Dunn, Douglas

    A small town can strengthen its local economy as a result of business people and concerned citizens collectively identifying that community's uniqueness and then capitalizing on it via advertising, personal selling, sales promotion, or publicity. This publication relates the science of marketing to communities. Seven simple techniques are provided…

  8. Our Town's Planning Commission Meeting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vort, Jeanine VanDe

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the development and implementation of a simulation game for a sixth-grade class that used the structure of Thornton Wilder's play, "Our Town," to examine the geographical issues involved in community planning. The land development issue discussed was based on a real-life local concern. (MJP)

  9. The Cheapest Apartments in Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ankele, Chad; Sommer, Robert

    1973-01-01

    Several surveys are reported of tenants in a low-rent apartment complex in a university town before and after renovation. The tenants were willing to trade off the lack of amenities and anomie in return for low rent and casual lease arrangements. (JP)

  10. The Buried Town of Beaver.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jostad, Karen

    Local history as source material for environmental education is uniquely portrayed in this resource kit. Utilizing a Winona County Historical Society publication, "The Beaver Story" and accompanied by a teacher's guide, "The Buried Town of Beaver," and other teaching aids, a case study of the area can be developed. Based on the reminiscences of…

  11. Reimagining Education in Small Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Patrick J.; Kefalas, Maria J.

    2010-01-01

    Things are not going so well in small-town America. While the so-called "Great Recession" of the moment has focused considerable attention on the travails of Main Street and Middle America, the truth is that the troubles that plague such places have been a long time in the making. For the past 30 years, nonmetropolitan counties and the…

  12. Marketing the Uniqueness of Small Towns. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Douglas; Hogg, David H.

    The key to marketing a town is determining and promoting the town's "differential advantage" or uniqueness that would make people want to visit or live there. Exercises to help communities gain important insights into the town's competitive edge include a brainstorming session with knowledgeable community members, a visitor…

  13. Democratic Designs for Electronic Town Meetings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abramson, Jeffrey B.

    The 1992 presidential campaign put the idea of the electronic town meeting firmly on the political scene, and each of the presidential debates during that campaign experimented with the town meeting format. This paper reviews the tradition of town meeting democracy in the United States and proposes ways to carry that tradition on with the help of…

  14. Urbanization: priority to development of towns.

    PubMed

    1997-02-01

    This news brief discusses the development of new towns and socioeconomic development in rural areas in China. The Ministry of Construction is currently engaged in piloting the promotion of rural urbanization in 500 selected towns in all provinces. Suburban towns in Beijing, Tianjin, and Tangshan were selected as demonstration areas. 1200 towns will be formulating their own plans based on local conditions. The Ministry of Construction aims to establish new towns by the year 2000 and to create favorable conditions for the movement of over 30 million surplus laborers. The Chinese government also plans to modernize 20% of its towns. Guidelines will strictly control the growth of large cities, reasonably developing medium-sized cities, small cities, and vigorously developing towns. China has about 55,000 towns and 3.7 million villages. The National Program for Town and Village Development is responsible for the transfer of surplus labor to the new towns. It is estimated that the urban town population will reach over 200 million. The aim is to establish over 10,000 economically developed towns, of which each of 2000 should have a population of over 10,000. The development will require 2.79 billion sq. m of space for housing. 42% of the new housing will have access to running water, and 55% should have access to paved roads. 16% of urban acreage will be devoted to green cover, which amounts to about 2.85 sq. m per person in public areas.

  15. Seven key actions to eradicate rheumatic heart disease in Africa: the Addis Ababa communiqué.

    PubMed

    Watkins, David; Zuhlke, Liesl; Engel, Mark; Daniels, Rezeen; Francis, Veronica; Shaboodien, Gasnat; Kango, Mabvuto; Abul-Fadl, Azza; Adeoye, Abiodun; Ali, Sulafa; Al-Kebsi, Mohammed; Bode-Thomas, Fidelia; Bukhman, Gene; Damasceno, Albertino; Goshu, Dejuma Yadeta; Elghamrawy, Alaa; Gitura, Bernard; Haileamlak, Abraham; Hailu, Abraha; Hugo-Hamman, Christopher; Justus, Steve; Karthikeyan, Ganesan; Kennedy, Neil; Lwabi, Peter; Mamo, Yoseph; Mntla, Pindile; Sutton, Chris; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Mondo, Charles; Mtaja, Agnes; Musuku, John; Mucumbitsi, Joseph; Murango, Louis; Nel, George; Ogendo, Stephen; Ogola, Elijah; Ojji, Dike; Olunuga, Taiwo Olabisi; Redi, Mekia Mohammed; Rusingiza, Kamanzi Emmanuel; Sani, Mahmoud; Sheta, Sahar; Shongwe, Steven; van Dam, Joris; Gamra, Habib; Carapetis, Jonathan; Lennon, Diana; Mayosi, Bongani M

    Acute rheumatic fever (ARF) and rheumatic heart disease (RHD) remain major causes of heart failure, stroke and death among African women and children, despite being preventable and imminently treatable. From 21 to 22 February 2015, the Social Cluster of the Africa Union Commission (AUC) hosted a consultation with RHD experts convened by the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, to develop a 'roadmap' of key actions that need to be taken by governments to eliminate ARF and eradicate RHD in Africa. Seven priority areas for action were adopted: (1) create prospective disease registers at sentinel sites in affected countries to measure disease burden and track progress towards the reduction of mortality by 25% by the year 2025, (2) ensure an adequate supply of high-quality benzathine penicillin for the primary and secondary prevention of ARF/RHD, (3) improve access to reproductive health services for women with RHD and other non-communicable diseases (NCD), (4) decentralise technical expertise and technology for diagnosing and managing ARF and RHD (including ultrasound of the heart), (5) establish national and regional centres of excellence for essential cardiac surgery for the treatment of affected patients and training of cardiovascular practitioners of the future, (6) initiate national multi-sectoral RHD programmes within NCD control programmes of affected countries, and (7) foster international partnerships with multinational organisations for resource mobilisation, monitoring and evaluation of the programme to end RHD in Africa. This Addis Ababa communiqué has since been endorsed by African Union heads of state, and plans are underway to implement the roadmap in order to end ARF and RHD in Africa in our lifetime.

  16. Wisconsin Gas eases town`s recovery from train explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Hilliker, C.

    1997-04-01

    One quiet morning last winter, while most of Weyauwega slept in their warm homes, an 81-car freight train carrying millions of pounds of hazardous materials pummeled down the Wisconsin Central Ltd. railroad. On the frigid Monday morning of March 4, 1996, more than 35 cars, with 14 containing 1 million pounds of propane liquid gas. Some of the mammoth time bombs exploded into flames just 100 feet from a Wisconsin Gas natural gas gate station and the main gas line feeding the town of Weyauwega. Once the all-clear signal was given 15 days later, the utility went house-to-house in the empty town to shut off all 700 meters. Next, the crew made minor repairs to the gate station and repressurized and purged the gas mains, leaving the system on test overnight. To begin re-entry, Waupaca County emergency services staff devised a strategy in which Weyauwega was divided into four zones based on the Wisconsin Gas restoration plan. This helped in the coordination of buses and routing of families back into the town. A convoy of 40 Wisconsin Gas technical services employees from Milwaukee and other offices drove to Weyauwega to assist with the relighting efforts. Using gas leak detection equipment, they swept each building and secured it. They were teamed with electric, water and construction crews who assessed any damage to homes and appliances. The primary owner of a residence or business was allowed on the premises with the inspection crew and was allowed to return permanently only after it was declared safe. With the exception of some water damage, no other severe scarring was done to the homes. The restoration of service to the town was completed in just three days.

  17. Predictors of voluntary HIV counselling and testing services utilization among people with disabilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Woreta, Seblewangel Ayalew; Mati, Komi Agbemavi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated HIV testing prevalence and factors associated with the utilization of voluntary HIV counselling and testing (VCT) services among individuals with disabilities in Addis Ababa. The analysis was based on a survey of 209 men and 203 women with disabilities, aged 15-49, who had ever heard about HIV and AIDS in four sub-cities in Addis Ababa. HIV testing prevalence was 53.2%, with no significant difference between males and females. Comprehensive HIV knowledge, living with spouse, and religious affiliations positively predicted utilization of VCT services among participants. Living with both parents and having physical or mental/intellectual disabilities were negative predictors of VCT services utilization. More research on the predictors of utilization of VCT services by gender and urban/rural divides are needed among people with disabilities.

  18. The burden of road traffic injuries in an emergency department in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getachew, S; Ali, E; Tayler-Smith, K; Hedt-Gauthier, B; Silkondez, W; Abebe, D; Deressa, W; Enquessilase, F; Edwards, J K

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Le service des urgences de l'hôpital Zewditu Memorial, Addis-Abeba, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter la proportion, la tendance, les caractéristiques et le devenir des patients (âgés ⩾15 ans) admis pour des blessures de la route (RTI) entre 2014 et 2015.Schéma : Une étude rétrospective transversale basée sur des données recueillies en routine par le service des urgences.Résultats : Sur 10 007 admissions aux urgences, 779 (8%) étaient des cas de RTI; cette proportion culminait au mois de janvier (11%). Les dossiers médicaux ont été disponibles pour 522 (67%) de ces cas de RTI. Leur âge médian était de 28 ans et 69% étaient des hommes. La majorité était des piétons (69%) blessés par une automobile (78%). Lors du triage, 32% ont été classés comme ayant besoin d'une intervention urgente/immédiate. Les traumatismes crâniens (20%) étaient au deuxième rang, suivant les blessures des membres inférieurs (36%). Le devenir des patients a été le suivant : sortie (68%), hospitalisation (17%), référence (17%) et décès (1%). Parmi les 78 cas hospitalisés, respectivement 62% et 16% ont été admis dans les services de chirurgie et d'orthopédie. Sur les 146 cas de RTI ayant eu un traumatisme crânien, 25% ont été hospitalisés, dont 82% ont été admis en service de chirurgie.Conclusion : Nos résultats peuvent guider les décideurs des hôpitaux de référence dans l'amélioration de la répartition des ressources et le choix de priorités en matière de besoins de santé publique liés au développement urbain ultérieur. Il y a un besoin urgent d'un plan complet de prévention des RTI, particulièrement parmi les piétons à Addis-Abeba.

  19. Town Hall with Secretary Moniz

    SciTech Connect

    Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz; Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman

    2013-07-18

    In a town hall meeting with Department staff, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz spoke about his plans for a reorganization of the Energy Department’s management structure. The plans will help better achieve the Department’s key priorities and those of the President, including implementing the President’s Climate Action Plan, “all of the above” energy strategy and nuclear security agenda. After his remarks, Moniz, joined by Deputy Secretary Dan Poneman, took questions from the audience in the Forrestal Auditorium as well as email questions from other Department locations.

  20. Town Hall with Secretary Moniz

    ScienceCinema

    Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz; Deputy Secretary of Energy Daniel Poneman

    2016-07-12

    In a town hall meeting with Department staff, Energy Secretary Ernest Moniz spoke about his plans for a reorganization of the Energy Department’s management structure. The plans will help better achieve the Department’s key priorities and those of the President, including implementing the President’s Climate Action Plan, “all of the above” energy strategy and nuclear security agenda. After his remarks, Moniz, joined by Deputy Secretary Dan Poneman, took questions from the audience in the Forrestal Auditorium as well as email questions from other Department locations.

  1. The consequence of delayed neurosurgical care at Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cadotte, David W; Viswanathan, Ashwin; Cadotte, Adam; Bernstein, Mark; Munie, Tadios; Freidberg, Stephen R

    2010-04-01

    Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH) is the major teaching hospital for Addis Ababa University and the only tertiary referral hospital for neurosurgery in Ethiopia. We explore the consequence of delayed treatment by examining the current system in place for treating patients and the wait times experienced by patients. A retrospective chart review was carried out on patients who received a neurosurgical operation at TAH between January 1 and June 30, 2007. We divided patients into those requiring an elective procedure and those requiring emergency surgical care. Based on data entered in the chart, we determined the length of time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation and the time from consultation to receiving an operation. Selective cases were chosen to illustrate the effects of delayed care. A total of 172 neurosurgical operations were performed between January 1 and June 30, 2007, at TAH. Of these, 107 (62.2%) charts were available for retrospective review. Fifty-six elective cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset to neurosurgical consultation was 185 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 44 days. Fifty-one trauma/emergency surgical cases were reviewed. The median time from symptom onset or traumatic event to neurosurgical consultation was 3 days. The median time from neurosurgical consultation to operation was 1 day. Delayed neurosurgical care comes with a high personal and social cost. By measuring the time from diagnosis to treatment and taking note of institutional practices, changes can be initiated to improve patient waiting times.

  2. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kumssa, H.; Tefera, M.; Tesfaye, A.; Klinkenberg, E.; Yimer, G.

    2014-01-01

    Setting: Ethiopia is one of the high multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) burden countries. Efforts by the National TB Programme to control MDR-TB include expanding ambulatory care. Objective: To investigate the opportunities and challenges faced by treatment follow-up health centres (TFCs) when managing MDR-TB patients, with greater focus on recording, TB infection control (IC) and supervision practices. Methods: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted by reviewing the records of all MDR-TB cases in all 25 TFCs in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The TB focal point, pharmacy and laboratory heads were also interviewed. Result: A total of 221 MDR-TB patients were registered; 157 (71%) patients had been referred from one of the two treatment initiating centres. While some TFCs oversaw up to 41 patients, others had just one patient. The majority of the TFCs (n = 21, 84%) followed standardised TB IC procedures. Poor documentation of patient information was observed at all sites; for example, human immunodeficiency virus and current treatment status was not indicated for respectively 86 (38%) and 41 (18%) patients. Conclusion: The study revealed that infection prevention practices were largely adhered to. Documentation of patient-related information was a major challenge, and regular supervision of the TFCs should be emphasised. Record keeping is critical. PMID:26478512

  3. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. I. Schizophrenia, schizoaffective and cognitive disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    We report here on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994 to estimate the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of schizophrenia, schizoaffective, and severe cognitive disorders. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. Weighted lifetime and one-month prevalence were 0.4% and 0.3%, for schizophrenia, and 0.5% and 0.4% for schizoaffective disorders, respectively. The prevalence of severe cognitive disorders was found to be 2.6%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that the risk of lifetime psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective, bipolar disorders, and depressive episodes with psychotic symptoms) was significantly higher in the age group 25-44 years compared to the reference age group of 15-24 years: adjusted Odds Ratio and 95% confidence interval, OR (95% CI) = 2.41 (1.01, 5.74); it was also significantly higher in the never married group compared to those married: OR (95% CI) = 3.01 (1.08, 8.42). The risk was significantly lower in the employed compared to the unemployed: OR (95% CI) = 0.42 (0.18, 1.00). There was a statistically significant trend of increasing risk of severe cognitive disorders with increasing age. The trend was in the reverse direction for educational status, the risk decreasing significantly with increasing educational attainment.

  4. Health providers' perception towards safe abortion service at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Jemilla; Gebremariam, Mulugeta B

    2011-03-01

    In Ethiopia, unsafe abortion accounts up to 32% of maternal deaths. The perception of health providers towards safe abortion provision at selected health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was assessed. A stratified random sampling was used to select 431 health providers. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 25-April 15, 2008 using a structured self-administered questionnaire. The results were interpreted using descriptive statistics and odds ratios. A majority of the health providers (96.4%) recognized that unsafe abortion was a serious health problem. Providers who had safe abortion practice were 2.57 (95% CI 1.49-4.44) times more likely to have favorable attitude towards safe abortion than those without practice. Similarly, providers who knew the law governing abortion were 1.77 (95% CI 1.12-2.78) times more likely to have this favorable attitude than those who lack this knowledge. In conclusion, training of health providers on safe abortion and reproductive rights are essential to reduce maternal mortality.

  5. Poverty, sexual experience and HIV vulnerability risks: evidence from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Sori, Assefa Tolera

    2012-11-01

    This study explores the relationship between poverty and vulnerability to HIV infection in Ethiopia using primary (quantitative and qualitative) and secondary data from two sub-cities of Addis Ababa. The data show that sexual experience is influenced by diverse factors such as age, gender, economic status and education level. Household economic status and migration explain the nature of sexual experience and level of vulnerability to HIV infection. Poor uneducated women in poor neighbourhoods are more likely to engage in risky sexual encounters despite awareness about the risk of HIV infection as they operate in an environment that provides the 'path of least resistance' (Lindegger & Wood, 1995, p. 7). This article argues that poverty provides a situation where early sexual initiation, 'transactional sex' and an inability to negotiate for safer sex are associated with low income, lack of education and increased vulnerability to HIV infection. This vulnerability is simultaneously contested and accepted as a commitment to even sacrifice one's life for the sake of one's loved ones. As a modest contribution to the 'structural violence' approach, which emphasizes social inequalities based on gender, class, ethnicity and race and inequalities in terms of exposure to risk and access to health care (Massé, 2007), this article challenges the 'African promiscuity' discourse, which 'does not permit policymakers to think beyond sex' (Stillwaggon, 2006, p. 156), and encourages researchers and policymakers to ask the right questions to understand the complexity of HIV/AIDS and seek solutions to the pandemic.

  6. The Jeffrey Town Model for Community Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ivy Veronica

    2014-01-01

    The Jeffrey Town model for community development has been effectively applied to the rural community of Jeffrey Town in Jamaica with Information and Computer Technology (ICT) as a key element. The farmer's association is the vehicle that has driven the change. Included is a brief outline of the community plus highlights of the tangible and…

  7. Democratic Participation in Small-Town Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Patricia A.; Schmuck, Richard A.

    Using first-hand material collected by interview and observation during a 160-day trip around 21 states, this report describes the current situation of democratic participation in small-town schools. The small-town school is like a vortex drawing everyone into its activities and serving as a foundation for the community's social and cultural…

  8. [Comparison of a rural town and a fishing town: diet and circulatory system diseases].

    PubMed

    Liang, H; Ozasa, K; Higashi, A; Watanabe, Y; Hayashi, K; Aoike, A; Kawai, K

    1993-10-01

    We report a comparative study of the Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for circulatory system diseases and diet in a rural town and a fishing town in Kyoto Prefecture. SMR was assessed during the 5-year period from 1983 through 1987, and compared with the standard age- and sex-adjusted demographic and mortality statistics compiled by the National Census Bureau of Japan in 1985. A food frequency questionnaire in which the respondents evaluated their food consumption during the previous 1-year period was used to assess diet. The questionnaire was administered during February 1989 in the rural town and during February 1990 in the fishing town. In comparison with the standard statistics, SMR was higher in the rural town and lower in the fishing town. The inhabitants of the fishing town more frequently consumed low-fat and low-sodium foods, such as fish, potatoes, tofu, and green, yellow and other vegetables, and less frequently consumed high-fat and high-sodium foods, such as meat, fried food, pickles, than did the inhabitants of the rural town. The residents of the fishing town also consumed a greater variety of foods in one week. The two towns differ in geography and economic structure, and their inhabitants have different life-styles and eating habits. The lower SMR for circulatory system diseases in the fishing town may be related to the greater consumption of fish and vegetables with lower meat and salt intake, as well as the balanced of diet.

  9. Odorization in a small town

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This application for Low Volume Odorization leads to the proactive town of Berwick, LA, located in the bayous 120 miles southeast of New Orleans. Like many municipal systems, Berwick provides distribution for electric, water and gas for its 4,800 residents. As with many small distribution systems, Berwick was operating a wick odorizor at its city gate station, which received its supply gas from a river crossing. After experiencing several barge accidents that interrupted the gas supply to the city gate, Berwick decided to build a new city gate station with a gas supply delivery from a new direction, thus improving its reliability. With that decision, the next question they asked was whether to continue with a wick method odorization system or integrate state-of-the-art methods in the odorization program. The company investigated electronic odorization as an alternative. The paper discusses system changes and system performance.

  10. Infection Control Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices among Healthcare Workers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tenna, Admasu; Stenehjem, Edward A.; Margoles, Lindsay; Kacha, Ermias; Blumberg, Henry M.; Kempker, Russell R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To better understand hospital infection control practices in Ethiopia. Design A cross-sectional evaluation of healthcare worker (HCW) knowledge, attitudes and practices about hand hygiene and tuberculosis (TB) infection control measures. Methods An anonymous, 76-item questionnaire was administered to HCWs at two university hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Knowledge items were scored as correct/incorrect. Attitude and practice items were assessed using a Likert scale. Results 261 surveys were completed by physicians (51%) and nurses (49%). Fifty-one percent of respondents were male; mean age was 30 years. While hand hygiene knowledge was fair, self-reported practice was suboptimal. Physicians reported performing hand hygiene 7% and 48% before and after patient contact, respectively. Barriers for performing hand hygiene included lack of hand hygiene agents (77%), sinks (30%), proper training (50%), and irritation and dryness (67%) caused by hand sanitizer made per WHO formulation. TB infection control knowledge was excellent (>90% correct). Most HCWs felt at high risk for occupational acquisition of TB (71%) and that proper TB infection control can prevent nosocomial transmission (92%). Only 12% of HCWs regularly wore a mask when caring for TB patients. Only 8% of HCWs reported masks were regularly available and 76% cited a lack of infrastructure to isolate suspected/known TB patients. Conclusions Training HCWs about the importance and proper practice of hand hygiene along with improving hand sanitizer options may improve patient safety. Additionally, enhanced infrastructure is needed to improve TB infection control practices and allay HCW concerns about acquiring TB in the hospital. PMID:24225614

  11. Social-Cognitive Predictors of Exclusive Breastfeeding among Primiparous Mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Minas, Anteneh Girma; Ganga-Limando, Makombo

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite the presence of high impact interventions to improve infant and young child feeding, only about 52% of mothers in Ethiopia exclusively breastfeed their child for the first six months after delivery. Although the decision to breastfeed a child is ultimately that of the mother, this decision could be influenced by a variety of factors including social-cognitive ones. Objectives The objectives of the study were to describe the breastfeeding behaviour of primiparous mothers during their prenatal period in terms of intentions/goals, outcome expectancies, self-efficacy, and socio-structural factors and assess their exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) practices as well as identify the social-cognitive predictors of EBF practices among these mothers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A prospective follow up health facility-based study with quantitative methods was used with a sample of 233 primiparous women. Both structured and semi-structured questions were used for collection of data. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21 was used for data analysis. Findings at the 95% confidence interval and P-value of 5% were reported as statistically significant. Results 39.1% (n = 59) of the respondents were found to have high breastfeeding self-efficacy, 51.4% (n = 71) have good breastfeeding outcome expectancies, and 6.5% (n = 9) respondents had supportive breastfeeding socio-structural factors. Bivariate correlation analysis showed positive and statistically significant correlation between each of breastfeeding self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and socio-structural factors, with EBF practice. However, only breastfeeding self-efficacy and outcome expectancies were statistically significant predictors of EBF among the primiparous women when controlling for confounding variables. Conclusions and Recommendations Health programmes aimed at improving EBF among primiparous mothers should look beyond providing health information alone. Rather improving

  12. Major mental disorders in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. III. Neurotic and somatoform disorders.

    PubMed

    Kebede, D; Alem, A

    1999-01-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime and point (one-month) prevalence of phobic anxiety, dissociative, other anxiety and somatoform disorders based on a survey conducted in Addis Ababa between September and December of 1994. An Amharic version of the CIDI was used to collect data from a random community sample of 1420 individuals aged 15 and above. Phobic anxiety disorders were found to be the most common of all anxiety disorders, with lifetime prevalence of 4.8%. The lifetime prevalence for dissociative disorders was 0.8% and for other anxiety disorders it was 2.7%. The prevalence of somatoform disorders was 3.1%. The lifetime prevalence for all the above neurotic and somatoform disorders was 10.8%. Point prevalence estimates (percent) for the disorders were as follows: phobic anxiety disorders, 4.4; other anxiety disorders, 1.2; dissociative disorders, 0.4; and somatoform disorders, 2.5. After adjusting for several potential confounders, women had over a two-fold risk of having neurotic and somatoform disorders compared to men, odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.38 (1.78, 3.12). Age was also inversely associated with the disorders. Those aged 60 and above had a 60% lower risk compared to those aged 15-24 years, OR (95% CI): 0.41 (0.20, 0.81). The 25% decreased risk for the employed, compared to the unemployed, was also not statistically significant. Education, marital status, and ethnicity were not significantly associated with neurotic and somatoform disorders.

  13. Cooling Town - a hot topic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerle, A.; Heinl, M.; Leitinger, G.

    2012-04-01

    The research project "Cooling Town" will investigate the thermal properties of landscapes and landscape elements and assess the thermal connectivity between urban areas and surrounding landscape components in South Tyrol (Italy). Surface temperature regimes will be analysed for selected municipalities and evaluated in regard to their relations to urban temperatures, regional land use/cover and topography. The study accounts for the little knowledge on temperature regimes of mountain landscapes and on the thermal connectivity between urban areas and surrounding landscapes. Three different levels of temporal and spatial detail are considered to investigate the driving forces of rural-urban temperature regimes and their connectivity. A static approach will relate temperature levels of urban areas with surrounding land use, land cover, landscape composition, and topographic setting, for deriving the landscape components and characteristics that are affecting urban temperatures. A repetitive approach will use monthly thermal satellite imagery to derive surface temperatures to analyse the correlation between urban temperatures and the temperature distribution in the surrounding landscapes. The dynamic approach will focus on one local area and will provide spatial and temporal temperature profiles that will result in a four-dimensional (4D) temperature model for a larger city in South Tyrol. The project provides new scientific insight into the thermal properties of landscape components, the temperature regimes of landscapes and their spatio-temporal relation to urban areas in mountain environments.

  14. Ambulatory care for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis: lessons learned in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Fiseha, D; Kumssa, H; Tefera, M; Tesfaye, A; Klinkenberg, E; Yimer, G

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : L'Ethiopie est l'un des pays durement frappés par la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MDR). Les efforts du programme national de lutte contre la TB pour contrôler la TB-MDR incluent l'expansion des soins ambulatoires.Objectif : Etudier les opportunités et les défis affrontés par les centres de santé qui suivent le traitement des patients (TFC) dans la prise en charge de patients atteints de TB-MDR avec un accent sur la tenue des dossiers, la lutte contre l'infection tuberculeuse et les pratiques de supervision.Méthodes : Une étude transversale a été réalisée dans des centres de santé grâce à une revue des dossiers de tous les cas de TB-MDR dans les 25 TFC à Addis Ababa, Ethiopie. Le point focal TB, le chef de service de la pharmacie et du laboratoire ont également été interviewés.Résultats: Un total de 221 patients TB-MDR ont été inscrits ; 157 (71%) patients ont été transférés de l'un des deux centres de mise en route du traitement. Si certains TFC ont suivi jusqu'à 41 patients, d'autres n'ont vu qu'un patient. La majorité des TFC (n = 21, 84%) ont suivi les procédures standardisées de lutte contre l'infection TB. Dans tous les sites, on a observé une documentation insuffisante des informations relatives aux patients. Le statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine et le traitement en cours n'étaient, par exemple, pas indiqués pour 86 (38%) et 41 (18%) patients, respectivement.Conclusion : L'étude a révélé que les pratiques de prévention de l'infection étaient largement observées. Le principal défi résidait en la documentation des informations relatives aux patients ; la supervision régulière des TFC devrait également être renforcée. La bonne tenue des dossiers est cruciale.

  15. Job satisfaction and determinant factors among midwives working at health facilities in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Bekru, Eyasu Tamru; Cherie, Amsale; Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu

    2017-01-01

    Background Midwives are the primary source of care and support for mothers and newborns at the most vulnerable time in their lives.The Ethiopian National Reproductive Health Strategy targeted reduction of Maternal Mortality rate to 267/100,000 live births in the years 2006–2015. Midwives play a crucial role in the care of pregnant women, from the first antenatal visit right through to the delivery and the postpartum period. Methodology Institution based cross-sectional study was carried out from March 2015 to April 2015 in Addis Ababa city, Ethiopia to assess job satisfaction and its determinants among midwives working at government health facilities. A total of 234 midwives were involved from 84 health centers and 8 governmental hospitals proportional to the size of health centers and hospitals using simple random sampling method. A total of 175 and 59 midwives were taken from health centers and government hospitals respectively. Different variables like Socio demographic, Job related domain and Organizational domain were collected using pre structured questionnaire after getting written consent. Data entry and analysis were done using SPSS 21.00. Binary logistic regression was used to determine factors affecting job satisfaction. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Result From 234 eligible respondents 221 midwives participated in this study which makes a response rate of 94.44%. The overall mean job satisfaction was 52.9%. Independent predictors of job satisfaction includes Sex [AOR = 4.07 (95%CI: 1.36–12.37)], working unit [AOR = 0.04 (95%CI:(0.001–0.45)], Educational status [AOR = 5.74(95%CI: 1.48–40.47)], Marital status [AOR = 3.48 [1.01–11.97)], supervision [AOR = 4.33 (95%CI: 1.53–20.22)], standard of care[AOR 4.80, (3.38–50.10)] and work load [AOR 8.94, (95%CI 2.37–22.65)]. Midwives were least satisfied from salary, extrinsic reward and professional opportunity subscales while they were most satisfied from

  16. Diabetes mellitus in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: admissions, complications and outcomes in a large referral hospital.

    PubMed

    Gizaw, M; Harries, A D; Ade, S; Tayler-Smith, K; Ali, E; Firdu, N; Yifter, H

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Hôpital de référence du Black Lion, Addis Ababa, Ethiopie.Objectif : Documenter les indications d’admission, les complications et le devenir des patients atteints de diabète (DM) admis à l’hôpital entre 2010 et 2013.Schéma : Etude descriptive rétrospective sur dossiers médicaux.Résultats : Sur 8048 admissions, 523 (6,5%) avaient un DM et parmi eux, 418 dossiers médicaux ont été retrouvés : 301 (72%) patients avaient un DM de type 2 et 104 (28%) avaient un DM de type 1 ; les hommes (62%) et les personnes âgées (âge médian 60 ans) étaient caractéristiques du type 2. Les diagnostics d’admission les plus fréquents du type 2 étaient l’ulcère diabétique du pied (39%) et les problèmes cardiovasculaires (21%), et celui du type 1, l’acidocétose diabétique (62%). L’hypertension, les neuropathies, les néphropathies, la rétinopathie et le pied diabétique représentaient 85% des 756 complications existantes. La mortalité totale des patients admis a été de 21%. Sur ces 89 décès, 77 patients étaient de type 2 avec comme indications principales d’admission l’ulcère diabétique du pied/la gangrène et les problèmes cardiovasculaires.Conclusion : Le DM, surtout de type 2, est une cause importante d’admission dans le plus grand hôpital de référence du pays. De nombreux patients avaient déjà développé des complications liées au DM lors de l’admission, et la mortalité a été élevée. Il est nécessaire d’améliorer la connaissance et les soins relatifs au DM en Ethiopie.

  17. "Sexual Violence Is Not Good for Our Country's Development". Students' Interpretations of Sexual Violence in a Secondary School in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Mat, Marielle L. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been increasingly recognised that sexual violence in schools is one of the major concerns with regard to promoting sexual and reproductive health and rights. This paper examines how boys and girls define, experience, and interpret sexual violence in a secondary school in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, and considers from their perspectives, how…

  18. The Role of Elementary School Teachers in Curriculum Development and Implementation in Selected Government Elementary Schools of Addis Ababa. African Studies in Curriculum Development & Evaluation No. 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferede, Yigzaw

    The role of Ethiopian elementary school teachers in curriculum development and implementation was studied in twelve government schools in Addis Ababa through a questionnaire. The responses of 110 teachers were given to questions concerning the involvement of teachers in curriculum development, their relationship with the curriculum development…

  19. Relation between Tenth Grade Students' Attitude and Components of Attitude in Algebra with Algebra Achievement of Addis Ababa Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atnafu, Mulugeta

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relation between the attitudes and components of attitude of the students towards algebra with their algebra achievements. The population for this study consists of all government tenth grade students and their mathematics teachers in Addis Ababa city administration. Sixteen tenth grade sections were…

  20. The contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethiopian people have been using traditional medicine since time immemorial with 80% of its population dependent on traditional medicines. However, the documentation of traditional healers' clinics contribution to modern public health system in cosmopolitan cities is scanty. Studies conducted so far are limited and focused on the perceptions and practices of modern and traditional health practitioners about traditional medicine. Thus, a cross sectional study was conducted from February to May 2010 to assess the contribution of traditional healers' clinics to public health care system in Addis Ababa. Materials and methods Ten traditional healers who were willing to participate in the study and 306 patients who were visiting these traditional healers' clinics were interviewed using two types of semi-structured questionnaires. Data were summarized using percentages, tables and bar chart. Results The diseases mostly treated by traditional healers were wound, inflammation, herpes zoster, hemorrhoids, fracture, paralysis, back-pain, liver diseases, cancer and eczema. This study showed that traditional healers' clinics considerably contribute to public health care in Addis Ababa. Fifty two percent of patients reported that traditional healers' clinics were their first choice when they faced health problems. The reasons for visiting these clinics were 175 (57.2%) efficacy, 109 (35.6%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine, 10 (3.3%) dissatisfaction with modern medicine and efficacy, 6 (2.0%) cost and 6 (2.0%) dissatisfaction and cost. Females (55.2%), young age (20-40 years, 65.0%), never married (56.9%), orthodox (73.9%), Amhara (52.3%), educational status above grade 12 (34.6%) and government employees (29.4%) were frequent visitors. Healers reported that there was no form of cooperation with modern health professionals. The reasons were lack of motivation to collaborate and communicate with modern health service workers. Family based apprenticeship was the

  1. The conceptions of care among family caregivers of persons living with HIV/AIDS in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aga, Fekadu; Kylmä, Jari; Nikkonen, Merja

    2009-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study explores and describes the conceptions of care among family caregivers of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWAs) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality is the conceptual anchor of this ethnographic study. Using semistructured interviews and participant observation, 6 key informants and 12 general informants were interviewed in their home in Amharic language. Data were analyzed in Amharic using Leininger's phases of ethnonursing analysis for qualitative data and then translated to English. Four major themes representing family caregivers' conceptions of care were identified: nourishing the PLWA while struggling with poverty, maintenance of cleanliness and hygiene of the person and surroundings, comforting the PLWA, and sacrificing self to sustain the PLWA. Valuable data were gathered about the family caregivers' conceptions of care. Nurses can use this knowledge to design and provide culturally congruent care to family caregivers and PLWAs in the community.

  2. Antibiotic susceptibility of Escherichia coli isolates from inpatients with urinary tract infections in hospitals in Addis Ababa and Stockholm.

    PubMed Central

    Ringertz, S.; Bellete, B.; Karlsson, I.; Ohman, G.; Gedebou, M.; Kronvall, G.

    1990-01-01

    A high level of antimicrobial resistance of bacteria has been detected at the Tikur Anbessa Hospital (TAH), Addis Ababa, for many years. In contrast, at the Karolinska Hospital (KH), Stockholm, the level of resistance is low. Reported are the results of an investigation of the correlation between antibiotic usage and the antimicrobial resistance rates of Escherichia coli isolates from patients with urinary tract infections in these hospitals. At TAH the strains of E. coli isolated were considerably more resistant to all seven antibiotics tested. The level of multiresistance was 63% at TAH and 7% at KH. There were no significant differences in the total amount of antibiotics used in the two hospitals, except for antituberculosis agents. The strain biotypes and antibiograms, together with the length of patients' hospitalization before a positive urine culture was obtained, suggest that the majority of the strains from TAH were of nosocomial origin. PMID:2189587

  3. Pollution Assessment of Toxic and Potentially Toxic Elements in Agricultural Soils of the City Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Aschale, Minbale; Sileshi, Yilma; Kelly-Quinn, Mary; Hailu, Dereje

    2017-02-01

    Due to the significantly fast urban expansion and increased industrial activities, the soils in the farms in Addis Ababa are contaminated by some toxic and potentially toxic elements (As, V, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, B, Ba, Sr, Zn, Mn, Pb and Cd) in varying degrees. The mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, As and B in most of the soil farms were found to be higher than the maximum recommended limits. The mean concentrations of Cd, Cu, Pb, Co, Ni and Mn were found to be higher than the background soil concentrations given for uncontaminated soils. Multivariate analyses coupled with correlation analysis were used to identify possible sources. The geo-accumulation index values for Cr, Mn and Pb indicated that the farm soils were unpolluted to moderately polluted as a result of anthropogenic activities. A comprehensive environmental management strategy should be formulated by the government to measure further pollution of the farmland soil.

  4. Cross Sectional Study Evaluating Routine Contact Investigation in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Missed Opportunity to Prevent Tuberculosis in Children.

    PubMed

    Assefa, Dawit; Klinkenberg, Eveline; Yosef, Genet

    2015-01-01

    The 2013 global roadmap for childhood tuberculosis calls for countries to implement contact screening and provide preventive therapy to children younger than 5 years. Therefore, this study designed to evaluate the implementation status of child contact screening and management in the health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Smear positive TB patients living with children attending daily observed treatment at the TB clinic and health care workers providing service were approached to address the study objective. Structured questionnaires were administered to smear positive index cases living with children whether they were requested to bring children age five year and below for TB screening and to health care providers in HIV, TB and child health clinics to assess their knowledge and practice on contact screening and management. Double data entry and analysis was done using EpiData software 3.1. In 27 health centres, 688 smear-positive index tuberculosis patients were approached of whom 203 (29.5%) reported to have children five years and below in their household. A total of 48 (23.6%) index cases had been requested by the health care workers to bring their children for tuberculosis screening and 45 (93.8%) had complied with this request. Of 230 children living with index smear positive tuberculosis patient, 152 (66.1%) were not screened for tuberculosis, 78 (33.9%) children screened, 2 had tuberculosis, 76 screened negative of which 3 (3.8%) received preventive treatment. None of the health care workers indicated to routinely record and report on child contact management. Household child contact screening and preventive intervention was sub-optimal in Addis Ababa. An important opportunity lost to prevent tuberculosis in young children. Training of health care workers, availing simple symptom based screening tool, and proper documentation could improve implementation.

  5. Thomas Addis, MD (1881-1949): Scottish-American clinical laboratory researcher, social activist and pioneer of renal medicine.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank E

    2011-01-01

    Addis was born and educated in Edinburgh, from the University of which he graduated MB in 1905, and MD in 1908, in which year he also gained membership of Edinburgh's Royal College of Physicians. After researching disordered haemostasis associated with various clinical conditions, he spent over a year in Germany: in Berlin with Dr. E.L. Salkowski learning urinalysis and at Heidelberg under Ludolph von Krehl studying haemophilics. Back in Edinburgh he concluded that the ultimate cause of haemophilia was an 'anatomical defect in the molecule of prothrombin'. He was the first to monitor the effects on plasma clotting times of transfusion of anticoagulated blood into a haemophilic. In 1911 he was recruited by Ray Lyman Wilbur, the first dean of the Stanford University School of Medicine, to investigate metabolic disorders including jaundice, diabetes and ultimately chronic renal disease. In 1917 he described the 'urea ratio'--the mathematical and conceptual forerunner of clearance formulae--and over the next 30 years developed a combined clinical and laboratory service for patients with inexorably failing kidneys. He devised an effective, rational and individually based dietary treatment--some patients such as Linus Pauling, who presented in 1941 with marked nephrosis, responded completely. Addis' Calvinist upbringing gave him a strong sense of 'mission' which during the American Depression developed into support for poverty-stricken workers in America, and against the fascists in Spain. He died before the full development of the 'McCarthy Witch Hunts' of the 1950s, although many associates, including Robert Oppenheimer, were interrogated.

  6. Town of Pagosa Springs geothermal heating system

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, M.B.

    1997-08-01

    The Town of Pagosa Springs has owned and operated a geothermal heating system since December 1982 to provide geothermal heating during the fall, winter and spring to customers in this small mountain town. Pagosa Springs is located in Archuleta County, Colorado in the southwestern corner of the State. The Town, nestled in majestic mountains, including the Continental Divide to the north and east, has an elevation of 7,150 feet. The use of geothermal water in the immediate area, however, dates back to the 1800`s, with the use of Ute Bands and the Navajo Nation and later by the U.S. Calvery in the 1880`s (Lieutenant McCauley, 1878). The Pagosa area geothermal water has been reported to have healing and therapeutic qualities.

  7. Archaeological Documentation of a Defunct Iraqi Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šedina, J.; Pavelka, K.; Housarová, E.

    2016-06-01

    The subject of this article is the possibilities of the documentation of a defunct town from the Pre-Islamic period to Early Islamic period. This town is located near the town Makhmur in Iraq. The Czech archaeological mission has worked at this dig site. This Cultural Heritage site is threatened by war because in the vicinity are positions of ISIS. For security reasons, the applicability of Pleiades satellite data has been tested. Moreover, this area is a no-fly zone. However, the DTM created from stereo-images was insufficient for the desired application in archeology. The subject of this paper is the testing of the usability of RPAS technology and terrestrial photogrammetry for documentation of the remains of buildings. RPAS is a very fast growing technology that combines the advantages of aerial photogrammetry and terrestrial photogrammetry. A probably defunct church is a sample object.

  8. Improved Security Via ''Town Crier'' Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R. G.; Garcia, A. R. E.; Pacheco, A. N.

    2003-02-26

    Waste managers are increasingly expected to provide good security for the hazardous materials they marshal. Good security requires, among other things, effective tamper and intrusion detection. We have developed and demonstrated a new method for tamper and intrusion detection which we call the ''town crier method''. It avoids many of the problems and vulnerabilities associated with traditional approaches, and has significant advantages for hazardous waste transport. We constructed two rudimentary town crier prototype systems, and tested them for monitoring cargo inside a truck. Preliminary results are encouraging.

  9. 1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOWN OF ATLANTIC CITY, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF TOWN OF ATLANTIC CITY, LOOKING NORTH FROM NINTH FLOOR OF CEASAR'S PARKING GARAGE ON KENTUCKY AVENUE - Town of Atlantic City, North end of Absecon Island, South of Absecon Channel, Atlantic City, Atlantic County, NJ

  10. 77 FR 11524 - Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Walden, Colorado; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 1, 2012, Town of Walden, Colorado (Walden) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission... area within which Walden may, without further Commission authorization, provide natural...

  11. RadTown USA Neighborhoods | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-09-08

    Learn about radiation sources and uses in the interactive, virtual community of RadTown USA! Explore radiation sources and uses in homes and schools, medical buildings and laboratories and outdoors. You will also find information about coal-fired power plants and nuclear power plants, power lines and learn about responding to radiation emergencies.

  12. The Best-Kept Secret in Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perna, Mark C.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how he has toured many impressive schools over the years and has heard one familiar statement that amazes him: "We are the best-kept secret in town." How can a school exist for any significant period of time and be virtually unknown to the community it serves? The truth is that if one considers his school to…

  13. The Teacher and Town Planner as Facilitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peel, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of theories of facilitation in teaching focuses on citizen participation and the role of the facilitator in town planning. Highlights include hierarchies of learning; student-centered learning; facilitating community participation; information technology skills and interpersonal skills; and a rationale for participation. (LRW)

  14. Shopping for Mathematics in Consumer Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Ann L.; Wimer, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Justin and Jenny, grade 12 math students, walk with their preschool friends Sean and Meg to the local grocery store. There, two classmates are tending the cash registers. The six of them, along with others, are participating in an in-school "field trip" to Consumer Town, located in the South Windsor High School front lobby. The field…

  15. The private sector invades medicare's home town

    PubMed Central

    Gray, C

    1998-01-01

    If Canada's medicare system has a home town it is probably Ottawa, where the system was first welded together 30 years ago. Charlotte Gray reports that there is a certain irony now that examples of private health care are sprouting up in the nations's capital. PMID:9700332

  16. The Bicentennial in a Small Town.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murdoch, Norman H.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the bicentennial celebration of the United States Constitution and the Northwest Ordinance held during September and October 1987 in Milford, Ohio. Organized by university faculty, town officials, citizens, and students, the celebration included speeches, debates on constitutional ratification, and the publication of documents and other…

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Townes-Brocks Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Botzenhart EM, Green A, Ilyina H, König R, Lowry RB, Lo IF, Shohat M, Burke L, McGaughran J, Chafai R, Pierquin G, Michaelis RC, Whiteford ML, Simola KO, Rösler B, Kohlhase J. SALL1 mutation analysis in Townes-Brocks syndrome: twelve novel mutations and ...

  18. Town Hall on AGU Publishing Practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlini, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Representatives from AGU's leadership and Wiley fielded questions at a town hall during Fall Meeting that ranged from the pricing of AGU's digital library to the fate of AGU books to the role of the governance structure in approving the AGU-Wiley publications partnership.

  19. International Mathematics Tournament of the Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Andy

    The International Mathematics Tournament of the Towns is a mathematics competition for junior and senior high school students all over the world. The tournament began in 1980 in the former Soviet Union. Participants write contest papers locally, with emphasis on solving within a very generous time allowance a small number of interesting problems.…

  20. Going to Town: Where Is the Nearest Steakhouse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Growing up in Loretto, Tennessee, population 1,700, people called it "going to town" when they went to any city big enough to have a McDonald's, Walmart, or a movie theater. If someone is not from a small town, they may not know what type of economic activities a small town can support. Will the town have a police department? Will there…

  1. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL

  2. Most Rural Towns Lost Physicians after Their Hospitals Closed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, L. Gary; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Between 1980 and 1988, 132 rural hospitals closed and as a result many rural towns also lost physicians, including 19 communities that were still without a physician 2 years after closure. Smaller, more remote towns had few physicians to begin with and were more likely than larger towns to lose physicians along with their hospitals. (LP)

  3. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  4. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  5. Anthropogenic sinkholes in the town of Naples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Carmela; Parise, Mario

    2016-04-01

    The importance of sinkhole as a natural hazard is often underrated when compared with landslides, floods, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes in Italy. Sinkholes are rarely included in risk analysis despite their frequent occurrence in several parts of Italy, especially in karst lands or in those sectors of the country where artificial cavities have been realized underground by man for different purposes. Among the most affected Italian regions, Campania (southern Italy) stands out for several reasons, with particular regard to the town of Naples, highly affected by anthropogenic sinkholes. These latter have caused serious damage to society, and above all to people in terms of deaths, missing persons, and injured people, due to the high urbanization of the city, developed above a complex and extensive network of cavities, excavated during the 2000 years of history of the town. Among the different typologies of artificial cavities, it is worth mentioning the high number of ancient quarry used to extract the building materials for the town construction. The Institute of Research for the Hydrological Protection (IRPI) of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) has been working in the last years at populating a specific chronological database on sinkholes in the whole Italian country. On the base of the collected data, Naples appears to have been affected by not less than 250 events from the beginning of the century to nowadays. The IRPI database includes only sinkholes for which a temporal reference on their time of occurrence is known. Particular attention was given on this information, since the catalogue idea is to make a starting point for a complete sinkhole hazard analysis. At this aim, knowledge of the time of occurrence is mandatory. Day, month and year of the event are known for about 70% of sinkholes that took place in Naples, but the hour of occurrence is known for just 6% of the data. Information about site of occurrence are, on the other hand, highly

  6. Is Climate Chang Responsible to Recent Urban Flooding in Devloping Cities in Africa? A Case study of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moges, Semu; Raschid-Sally, Liqa; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2013-04-01

    Cities in Africa show extraordinary expansion of the built environment and imperviousness of the surface condition. Addis Ababa is a case in point, where over the priod of 1984 to 2002, the city asphalted area has increased from 4.72 sq.km (1984) to 27.7 sq.km (2002). Similarly the paved area has expanded five fold from the original 11.1 sq.km, whilst the built environment expanded from 60.1 to 212.7 sq.km. Using hydrological modeling, we demonstrated due to the surface condition change, runoff generation potential has shown significant increase from 28% (in 1984) to 45% (in 2002), showing over 60% change in the runoff volume. The changing condition of the surface is increasing anabtedly, worsening the flooding condition. Similarly, climate change study shows likely increase of precipitation in and around Addis Ababa by about 13 to 17% and comparative increase in flooding. Unlike many cities in Europe, cities in developing countries are confronted with impact emanating from climate change as well as surface condition change. The impact of flooding caused due to the expansion of built environment is found to be more significant in the short term that the climate change, however, the climate change may dominate the long term future of flooding pattern as cities mature towards 2050. Therefore, It is important to view the impacts expansion of built environment and climate change in tandem in future time horizon since the dominance of the impact is different in different temporal scale. In the case of Addis Ababa, we strongly present the following four suggesions: i) the city adminstration re-estabilish the abandoned flood and drainage department of the city as the main flood regulatory and management body working in tandem with Addis Ababa Roads Authority, Water Supply and Sanitation Authority and Urban Planning Authority; ii) The old design guidlines for palnning and design of urban drainage system is not working any more (assumed stationarity condition), we suggest

  7. SERVIR Town Hall - Connecting Space to Village

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limaye, Ashutosh S.; Searby, Nancy D.; Irwin, Daniel; Albers, Cerese

    2013-01-01

    SERVIR, a joint NASA-USAID project, strives to improve environmental decision making through the use of Earth observations, models, and geospatial technology innovations. SERVIR connects these assets with the needs of end users in Mesoamerica, East Africa, and Hindu Kush-Himalaya regions. This Town Hall meeting will engage the AGU community by exploring examples of connecting Space to Village with SERVIR science applications.

  8. Innovative sewerage solutions for small rural towns.

    PubMed

    Diaper, C; Sharma, A

    2007-01-01

    The development and implementation of alternative wastewater servicing approaches in rural communities in Australia appears more feasible than in larger urban developments as many rural centres rely on septic tanks and surface discharge of greywater. This method of disposal creates many environmental, social and economic issues and is seen to limit potential for growth in many towns. This paper describes a generic methodology for the selection of innovative sewerage options for six regional towns in Victoria, Australia. The method includes consultation with stakeholders, multi-criteria assessment and concept design of the most favourable option. Despite the broad range of initial wastewater servicing options presented which included cluster-scale systems, upgrade of existing systems, greywater reuse and alternative collection, the outcome for five of the six towns was a modified centralised collection system as the preferred option. Lack of robust and reliable data on the human health risks and environmental impacts of alternative systems were identified as the primary data gaps in the sustainability assessment. In addition, biases in the assessment method due to stakeholder perceptions were found to be an additional issue.

  9. [Ascertaining a Venezuelan oil town's health conditions].

    PubMed

    Mijares-Seminario, Rodrigo; Hernández, Leicy

    2013-01-01

    Objective Analysing health conditions in the town of Carirubana in Falcón State, Venezuela, as a prior study to the construction of a gas conditioning plant there. Methods This study formed part of a field research project which involved consulting primary and secondary sources. The former consisted of evaluating public and private health-centres and those in the Barrio Adentro system; the aforementioned health centres' medical staff were interviewed to determine current health-disease status and the factors determining health for the town being studied. Likewise, both situations (health-disease and factors determining health) were evaluated and analysed in the secondary sources at national, state and municipal level. Results Deficits were observed at national level regarding public health infrastructure; there were 1.3 beds per thousand inhabitants, this being less than half that recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) (i.e. three to four beds per thousand inhabitants). State and municipal cancer mortality rates were relatively stable over a four-year period (2001-2004). Conclusions The mortality rate in Carirubana was characteristic of a low-income area. The poverty and pollution directly produced by the oil refining plants were the key determinants for this town's morbidity and mortality rates.

  10. Use of treated wastewater for managed aquifer recharge in highly populated urban centers: a case study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiye, Tamiru Alemayehu; Sulieman, Hameed; Ayalew, Michael

    2009-07-01

    Fast population growth and rapid industrialization, on one hand, and lack of sewerage network and poor living condition, on the other, have led to the deterioration of surface and ground water quality in the city of Addis Ababa. The urban wastewater is discharged largely into streams that drain the city. Only less than 3% join the wastewater treatment facilities. Due to sporadic rainfall that causes shortage in groundwater recharge, managed aquifer recharge (MAR) experiment was tested on soil column collected from Akaki Well Field which is located in the southern part of the city using water from the Big Akaki River that crosses the same well field and effluent from Kaliti Wastewater Treatment Plant. Water quality analysis for 17 different parameters was done for both the inflow and outflow water samples and soils were tested for electrical conductivity and cation exchange capacity. The results indicate improved water quality as a result of higher attenuation/filtration capacity of the vadose zone in the well field due to the presence of vertisols. The main geochemical processes that have acted in the soil column could be cation exchange, dissolution, precipitation, oxidation, nitrification, die off etc. that are responsible for the effectiveness of vadose zone for MAR.

  11. Pattern of Bacterial Pathogens and Their Susceptibility Isolated from Surgical Site Infections at Selected Referral Hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mulugeta, Gebru; Fentaw, Surafael; Mihret, Amete; Hassen, Mulu; Abebe, Engida

    2016-01-01

    Background. The emergence of multidrug resistant bacterial pathogens in hospitals is becoming a challenge for surgeons to treat hospital acquired infections. Objective. To determine bacterial pathogens and drug susceptibility isolated from surgical site infections at St. Paul Specialized Hospital Millennium Medical College and Yekatit 12 Referral Hospital Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted between October 2013 and March 2014 on 107 surgical site infected patients. Wound specimens were collected using sterile cotton swab and processed as per standard operative procedures in appropriate culture media; and susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. The data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20. Result. From a total of 107 swabs collected, 90 (84.1%) were culture positive and 104 organisms were isolated. E. coli (24 (23.1%)) was the most common organism isolated followed by multidrug resistant Acinetobacter species (23 (22.1%)). More than 58 (75%) of the Gram negative isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance (resistance ≥ 5 drugs). Pan-antibiotic resistance was noted among 8 (34.8%) Acinetobacter species and 3 (12.5%) E. coli. This calls for abstinence from antibiotic abuse. Conclusion. Gram negative bacteria were the most important isolates accounting for 76 (73.1%). Ampicillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, cephazoline, and tetracycline showed resistance while gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were relatively effective antimicrobials. PMID:27446213

  12. Inhalation Exposures to Particulate Matter and Carbon Monoxide during Ethiopian Coffee Ceremonies in Addis Ababa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Keil, Chris; Kassa, Hailu; Brown, Alexander; Kumie, Abera; Tefera, Worku

    2010-01-01

    The unique Ethiopian cultural tradition of the coffee ceremony increases inhalation exposures to combustion byproducts. This pilot study evaluated exposures to particulate matter and carbon monoxide in ten Addis Ababa homes during coffee ceremonies. For coffee preparers the geometric mean (57 μg/m3) and median (72 μg/m3) contributions to an increase in a 24-hour time-weighted average exposure were above World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. At 40% of the study sites the contribution to the 24-hour average exposure was greater than twice the WHO guideline. Similar exposure increases existed for ceremony participants. Particulate matter concentrations may be related to the use of incense during the ceremony. In nearly all homes the WHO guideline for a 60-minute exposure to carbon monoxide was exceeded. Finding control measures to reduce these exposures will be challenging due to the deeply engrained nature of this cultural practice and the lack of availability of alternative fuels. PMID:20886061

  13. Town mouse or country mouse: identifying a town dislocation effect in Chinese urbanization.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shu; Bai, Xin-Wen; Ren, Xiao-Peng; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the "town dislocation effect." When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention.

  14. Town Mouse or Country Mouse: Identifying a Town Dislocation Effect in Chinese Urbanization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fei; Li, Shu; Bai, Xin-Wen; Ren, Xiao-Peng; Rao, Li-Lin; Li, Jin-Zhen; Liu, Huan; Liu, Hong-Zhi; Wu, Bin; Zheng, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Understanding urbanization and evaluating its impact are vital for formulating global sustainable development. The results obtained from evaluating the impact of urbanization, however, depend on the kind of measurement used. With the goal of increasing our understanding of the impact of urbanization, we developed direct and indirect subjective indicators to measure how people assess their living situation. The survey revealed that the projected endorsements and perceived social ambiance of people toward living in different types of settlements did not improve along with the urbanization level in China. The assessment scores from the city dwellers were not significantly different from those from the country areas and, more surprisingly, both were significantly higher than the assessment scores of the town dwellers, which we had expected to fall between the assessment scores of the country and city dwellers. Instead their scores were the lowest. We dubbed this V-shaped relationship the “town dislocation effect.” When searching for a potential explanation for this effect, we found additional town dislocation effects in social support, loss aversion, and receptivity toward genetically modified food. Further analysis showed that only social support mediated the relationship between the three tiers of settlements (cities, country areas, and towns) and the subjective indicator. The projected endorsements yielded significant subjective assessments that could enhance our understanding of Chinese urbanization. Towns posed specific problems that require special attention. PMID:25973960

  15. VIEW OF TOWN CENTER, MARINA VIEW TOWERS SOUTH BUILDING (ORIGINALLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TOWN CENTER, MARINA VIEW TOWERS SOUTH BUILDING (ORIGINALLY TOWN CENTER PLAZA WEST) AT 1000-1100 SIXTH STREET; TOWN CENTER PLAZA WEST WAS DESIGNED BY I.M. PEI & PARTNERS AND BUILT IN 1962 BY WEBB & KNAPP - Southwest Washington, Urban Renewal Area, Bounded by Independence Avenue, Washington Avenue, South Capitol Street, Canal Street, P Street, Maine Avenue & Washington Channel, Fourteenth Street, D Street, & Twelfth Street, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  16. Some problems of Maryland towns as seen by their mayors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peake, H. J.

    1978-01-01

    Conversations were held with the mayors of six Maryland towns to discuss possible models and needs for technology transfer. An unexpected outcome of the discussions was a considerable insight into local problems as perceived by the mayors. Problems, whether administrative, socio-economic, or technological, are different, from town to town, in degree, not in kind. Recognition of this feature of local priorities is vital to any considerations of external assistance.

  17. Town Hall MEETING—SCCM 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggert, J.; Ryan, S. J.; Ramesh, K. T.; Funk, D.; Proud, W. G.

    2009-12-01

    The following article contains the summary of the discussion held at the Shock Compression of Condensed Matter Town Hall Meeting. This was held on Tuesday afternoon of the meeting and attracted 100+ attendees. This meeting, chaired by John Eggert, was planned to introduce challenges in selected topics relevant to shock wave science. The three subjects and speakers were: space research introduced by Shannon Ryan, nanotechnology presented by Kaliat T. Ramesh, and compression tools delivered by Dave Funk. After each presentation there were a number of questions.

  18. Health-related quality of life of HIV-infected adults receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure among HIV-infected patients receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), but has not been studied extensively in resource-limited settings. Insight in the predictors or correlates of poor HRQoL may be helpful to identify patients most in need of additional support and to design appropriate interventions. A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 2012 and April 2013 in 10 healthcare facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Patients who were at least 6 months on cART were randomly selected and individual patient data were retrieved from medical records. HRQoL was measured by the WHOQoL-HIVBREF, depressive-symptoms by the Kessler-6 scale, and stigma by the Kalichman internalized AIDS-related stigma scale. Multivariate linear regression analysis was carried-out to examine associations between HRQoL and the other variables. A total of 664 patients (response-rate 95%) participated in the study. A higher level of depressive-symptoms was most strongly and consistently associated with a lower HRQoL, both in terms of the magnitude of the relationship and in the number of HRQoL domains associated with it. Also, a higher level of HIV-stigma was associated with a lower HRQoL except for the physical domain, while obtaining sufficient nutritious food and job opportunity were associated with a better HRQoL except for the spiritual and social domains, respectively. Demographics, clinical, and treatment characteristics yielded few significant associations with HRQoL. Our study findings suggest that interventions to improve HRQoL should focus on reducing depressive-symptoms and HIV-stigma, and on enhancing food security and job opportunity.

  19. Food insecurity and mental health: surprising trends among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit

    2010-05-01

    The 2008 food crisis may have increased household food insecurity and caused distress among impoverished populations in low-income countries. Policy researchers have attempted to quantify the impact that a sharp rise in food prices might have on population wellbeing by asking what proportion of households would drop below conventional poverty lines given a set increase in prices. Our understanding of the impact of food crises can be extended by conducting micro-level ethnographic studies. This study examined self-reported household food insecurity (FI) and common mental disorders (CMD) among 110 community health AIDS care volunteers living in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia during the height of the 2008 food crisis. We used generalized estimating equations that account for associations between responses given by the same participants over 3 survey rounds during 2008, to model the longitudinal response profiles of FI, CMD symptoms, and socio-behavioral and micro-economic covariates. To help explain the patterns observed in the response profiles and regression results, we examine qualitative data that contextualize the cognition and reporting behavior of AIDS care volunteers, as well as potential observation biases inherent in longitudinal, community-based research. Our data show that food insecurity is highly prevalent, that is it associated with household economic factors, and that it is linked to mental health. Surprisingly, the volunteers in this urban sample did not report increasingly severe FI or CMD during the peak of the 2008 food crisis. This is a counter-intuitive result that would not be predicted in analyses of population-level data such as those used in econometrics simulations. But when these results are linked to real people in specific urban ecologies, they can improve our understanding of the psychosocial consequences of food price shocks.

  20. Food insecurity among volunteer AIDS caregivers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia was highly prevalent but buffered from the 2008 food crisis.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Tesfaye, Yihenew Alemu

    2009-09-01

    Our objective in this study was to assess the validity and dependability of the Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), which was developed for international use, among community health volunteers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The HFIAS was translated into Amharic and subsequently tested for content and face validity. This was followed by a quantitative validation study based on a representative sample (n = 99) of female community volunteers (HIV/AIDS home-based caregivers), with whom the HFIAS was administered at 3 time points over the course of 2008, in the context of the local and global "food crisis." By pooling observations across data collection rounds and accounting for intra-individual correlation in repeated measures, we found that the HFIAS performed well according to standards in the field. We also observed slight amelioration in reported food insecurity (FI) status over time, which seems paradoxical given the increasing inaccessibility of food over the same time period due to inflating prices and disappearing food aid. We attempted to resolve this paradox by appealing to self-report-related phenomena that arise in the context of longitudinal study designs: 1) observation bias, in which respondents change their reports according to changing expectations of the observer-respondent relationship or change their behavior in ways that ameliorate FI after baseline self-reports; and 2) "response shift," in which respondents change their reports according to reassessment of internal standards of FI. Our results are important for the validation of FI tools and for the sustainability of community health programs reliant on volunteerism in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Satisfaction of patients with directly observed treatment strategy in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A mixed-methods study

    PubMed Central

    Getahun, Belete; Nkosi, Zethu Zerish

    2017-01-01

    Background Directly observed treatment, short course (DOTS) strategy has been a cornerstone for Tuberculosis (TB) control programs in developing countries. However, in Ethiopia satisfaction level of patients’ with TB with the this strategy is not well understood. Therefore, the study aimed to assess the satisfaction level of patients with TB with the DOTS. Method Explanatory sequential mixed method design was carried out in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Interviewer-administered questionnaire with 601 patients with TB who were on follow-up was employed in the quantitative approach. In the qualitative approach telephonic-interview with 25 persons lost to follow-up and focus group discussions with 23 TB experts were conducted. Result Sixty seven percent of respondent was satisfied with the DOTS. Rural residency (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI 1.6, 7.6), having TB symptoms (AOR = 0.6, 95% CI 0.4, 0.94) and treatment supporter (AOR = 4.3, 95%CI 2.7, 6.8) were associated with satisfaction with DOTS. In qualitative finding, all persons lost to follow-up were dissatisfied while TB experts enlightened lack of evidence to affirm the satisfaction level of patients with DOTS. Explored factors contributing to satisfaction include: on time availability of health care providers, DOTS service delivery process, general condition of health care facilities, nutritional support and transportation. Conclusion DOTS is limited to satisfy patients with TB and lacks a consistent system that determines the satisfaction level of patients with TB. Therefore, DOTS strategy needs to have a system to captures patients’ satisfaction level to respond on areas that need progress to improve DOTS service quality. PMID:28182754

  2. Factors Associated with Treatment Delay among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients in Public and Private Health Facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Adenager, Getinet Shewaseged; Alemseged, Fessahaye; Asefa, Henok

    2017-01-01

    Background. Early detection and diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and the timely commencement of antituberculosis (anti-TB) treatment are the parts of efficient tuberculosis prevention and control program. Delay in the commencement of anti-TB treatment worsens the prognosis and increases the risk of death and the chance of transmission in the community and among health care workers. Objective. To assess tuberculosis treatment delay and associated factors among pulmonary TB patients in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 10 public and 10 private health facilities that provide TB treatment. The data were collected from 425 newly registered pulmonary TB patients using pretested structured questionnaire from April to June 2012. Data were entered in EPI info version 3.5.1 and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0. Findings. The median durations of a patient, health care system, and total treatment delays were 17, 9, and 35 days, respectively. Overall 179 (42.1%), 233 (54.8%), and 262 (61.6%) of patients experienced patient delay, health care system delay, and total treatment delay, respectively. Distance more than 2.5 km from TB treatment health facility [AOR = 1.6, 95% CI (1.1–2.5)] and the presence of TB-associated stigma [AOR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.3, 3.4)] indicate higher odds of patient delay, whereas, being unemployed, patients with the hemoptysis symptom complain indicated lower odds of health care system delay [AOR = 0.41, 95% CI (0.24, 0.70)] and [AOR = 0.61 (0.39, 0.94)], respectively. Conclusions. A significant proportion of clients experienced patient and health care system delay. Thus, there is a need for designing and implementing appropriate strategies to decrease the delays. Efforts to reduce delays should give focus on integrating prevention programs such as active case detection and expanding access to TB care. PMID:28348887

  3. Sundown Town to "Little Mexico": Old-Timers and Newcomers in an American Small Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Eileen Diaz; Miraftab, Faranak

    2009-01-01

    For more than a century, communities across the United States legally employed strategies to create and maintain racial divides. One particularly widespread and effective practice was that of "sundown towns," which signaled to African Americans and others that they were not welcome within the city limits after dark. Though nearly 1,000…

  4. The transport of atmospheric sulfur over Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenner, Samantha L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-11-01

    Cape Town, renowned for its natural beauty, is troubled by an unpleasant brown haze pollution, in which atmospheric sulfur plays a major role. This study investigates whether Cape Town is a net producer or recipient of anthropogenic sulfur pollution. In the study, two atmospheric chemistry-transport models (RegCM and WRF) are used to simulate atmospheric flow and chemistry transport over South Africa for two years (2001 and 2002). Both models reproduce the observed seasonal variability in the atmospheric flow and SO2 concentration over Cape Town. The models simulations agree on the seasonal pattern of SO2 over South Africa but disagree on that of SO4. The simulations show that ambient sulfur in Cape Town may be linked with pollutant emissions from the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa's most industrialized region. While part of atmospheric SO2 from the Highveld is transported at 700 hPa level toward the Indian Ocean (confirming previous studies), part is transported at low level from the Highveld toward Cape Town. In April, a band of high concentration SO2 extends between the Highveld and Cape Town, following the south coast. Extreme sulfur pollution events in Cape Town are associated with weak flow convergence or stagnant conditions over the city, both of which encourage the accumulation of pollution. However the study suggests that atmospheric sulfur is being advected from Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town and this may contribute to atmospheric pollution problems in Cape Town.

  5. Clinical Characteristics of Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children with Newly Diagnosed Type 1 Diabetes in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Turago, Muluken Gizaw; Tegegne, Balewgizie Sileshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is one of the most serious acute complications of type 1 diabetes (T1D) and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children with T1D. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence and associated factors of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D in Addis Ababa. Methods A hospital based cross-sectional study was conducted in selected hospitals in Addis Ababa. Children below the age of 12 years with DKA who were admitted to the pediatric ward in the selected hospitals between January 2009 and December 2014 and the residence of Addis Ababa were included. DKA was defined as children below the age of 12 years who have blood glucose level ≥250mg/dl, ketonuria, and ketonemia and diagnosed being T1D patient for the first time. Descriptive statistics was performed using frequency distribution, mean, median, tables, and graphs. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent factors associated with the prevalence of DKA in children with newly diagnosed T1D. Results Of 395 DKA patients who were hospitalized during the five-year period, 142(35.8%) presented with DKA at first diagnosis of diabetes. On the other hand 253 (64.2%) children with DKA had longstanding T1D. Independent factors associated with DKA include: Age category 2–4.49years, 7–9.49 years and ≥9.5years (Adjusted odd ratio (AOR) = 3.14[1.21,8.06]), 3.44(1.39,8.49) and 4.02(1.68,9.60), respectively); parents’ knowledge on the sign and symptoms of DKA (AOR = 0.51[0.27, 0.95]); sign and symptoms of DKA before the onset of DKA (AOR = 0.35[0.21, 0.59]) and infection prior to DKA onset (AOR = 3.45[1.97, 6.04]). Conclusions The overall proportion of children diagnosed with DKA and new onset of T1D in Addis Ababa was high. In particular, children between 9–12 years of age and children whose parents did not know the sign and symptoms of DKA had a high risk of DKA at primary diagnosis of T1D. PMID:28135278

  6. Addi-Chek filtration, BACTEC, and 10-ml culture methods for recovery of microorganisms from dialysis effluent during episodes of peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Males, B M; Walshe, J J; Garringer, L; Koscinski, D; Amsterdam, D

    1986-02-01

    The Addi-Chek (filtration; Millipore Corp., Bedford, Mass.) and BACTEC (radiometric detection of growth in culture media; Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) systems were compared with the 10-ml culture (centrifugation) method for the recovery of microorganisms from peritoneal dialysate collected from patients with clinical evidence of peritonitis and containing greater than or equal to 200 leukocytes per mm3. Both alternate methods were comparable, and results were not significantly different from those of the conventional 10-ml culture method. All systems were adversely affected in their capacity to recover organisms when dialysates had been collected during periods of antimicrobial therapy.

  7. Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from regional climate model (RegCM4) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface-850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  8. "With One Mighty Pull": Interracial Town Boosting in Nicodemus, Kansas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Claire

    1996-01-01

    Describes the cooperative and egalitarian race relations in Nicodemus, Kansas--a town founded by former slaves in 1877--and the town's "boom" period in the 1880s. The white leaders who found common cause with their black counterparts were not abolitionists or social agitators, but common settlers who demonstrated that different choices…

  9. Health Care and Consumer Control: Pittsburgh's Town Meeting for Seniors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Fred H.; Black, Judith S.

    1992-01-01

    Two hospitals have conducted semiannual Town Meeting for Seniors to provide community-based health education, helping seniors make informed decisions about medical care, Medigap insurance, advance directives, and proper nutrition. Town Meeting has been enthusiastically received by consumers and has led to creation of several new community…

  10. Being Superintendent of a Small-Town District.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmuck, Richard A.; Schmuck, Patricia A.

    Because of their visibility at the center stage of community life, small-town superintendents have a greater opportunity to act as participatory managers and instructional leaders. This paper reports the results of surveys with 25 small-town school superintendents to discover rural/urban differences, work patterns, and exemplary practices in…

  11. Flanagan's Island: How Boys Town Rescues Troubled Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jendryka, Brian

    1994-01-01

    Describes Boys Town, founded in 1917, as a model for foster care and an attractive alternative to a welfare system that undermines parental responsibility. Boys Town now operates satellite facilities for boys and girls in nine communities, as well as seven emergency shelters, a hospital, and a national hotline. (SLD)

  12. Why Devil's town has Devil's water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovic, Sladjana; Mitriceski, Bojana

    2015-04-01

    Why Devil's town has Devil's water In the south of Serbia, lies a first-class natural landmark "Devil's Town" at an altitude of 660-700 m. Earthen figures or "towers" as the locals call them, are located in the watershed between two gullies, whose sources joined together create a unique erosive formation, tremendously demolished by the erosive processes. The gullies also have strange names: "Devil's Gully" and "Hell's Gully". There are two rare natural phenomena at the same spot: 202 earthen figures of different shape and dimension, from 2 m to 15 m in height, and from 0.5 m to 3 m in width, with stone caps on the top. They are an outcome of a specific erosive process that lasts for centuries. When figures are formed, they grow, change, shorten, gradually (very slowly) disappear and reappear. The loose soil is dissolved and washed away by the rain. However, the material under the stone caps is protected from the "bombardment" of the rain drops and washout, and remains in place in the form of the rising earthen pillars - figures. Another natural rarity in "Devil's Town" are two springs of extraordinary properties "Devil's Water", which is located in vicinity of these earthen figures, is a cold and extremely acid spring (pH 1.5) of high mineral concentration (15 g/l of water), springing out in "Devil's Gully". In comparison to drinking water, it is 10 to 1000 times richer in minerals (aluminium, iron, potassium, copper, nickel, sulphur, and alaun). "Red Well" is another spring located downstream, in the alluvial plain, 400 m away from the first spring. Its water (pH 3.5) is less acid and has a lower general mineral concentration (4.372 mg/l of water). Due to the oxidation of iron, which is contained in water in large amounts, an attractive red terrace in the form of a fan is created. The main assessment for students is to take some examples of water from Devils Gully and the others from Red Well . Second part is to find out content of minerals in water examples and

  13. Urban food insecurity in the context of high food prices: a community based cross sectional study in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High food prices have emerged as a major global challenge, especially for poor and urban households in low-income countries such as Ethiopia. However, there is little empirical evidence on urban food security and how people living in urban areas are coping with sustained high food prices. This study aims to address this gap by investigating the food insecurity situation in urban Ethiopia -a country experiencing sustained high food prices, high rates of urban poverty, and a growing urban population. Methods A community based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 18 to February 14, 2012. A total of 550 households were selected from three sub-cities of Addis Ababa using three-stage sampling technique. Data were collected using questionnaire based interview with household heads. Items in the questionnaire include, among others, basic socioeconomic variables, dietary diversity and coping strategies. Food security status of households was assessed by a Household Food Insecurity Access Score. Data analysis was done using SPSS software and both univariate and bivariate analysis were done. Results The study found that 75% of households were food insecure and 23% were in a state of hunger. Households with higher food insecurity scores tend to have lower dietary diversity and are less likely to consume high quality diets. Reduction in meal size and shifting to poor quality/less expensive/food types were among the common coping strategies to high food price used by households. Household incomes, occupational and educational status of household heads were significant determinants of food security. Conclusion Food insecurity in Ethiopia is not only a rural problem. Urban food insecurity is a growing concern due to the toxic combination of high rates of urban poverty, high dependency of urban households on food supplied by the market, and fluctuating food prices. Household food insecurity was particularly high among low income households and those headed by

  14. Applying the theory of planned behaviour to explain HIV testing in antenatal settings in Addis Ababa - a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To facilitate access to the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) services, HIV counselling and testing are offered routinely in antenatal care settings. Focusing a cohort of pregnant women attending public and private antenatal care facilities, this study applied an extended version of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) to explain intended- and actual HIV testing. Methods A sequential exploratory mixed methods study was conducted in Addis Ababa in 2009. The study involved first time antenatal attendees from public- and private health care facilities. Three Focus Group Discussions were conducted to inform the TPB questionnaire. A total of 3033 women completed the baseline TPB interviews, including attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioural control and intention with respect to HIV testing, whereas 2928 completed actual HIV testing at follow up. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests, Fisher's Exact tests, Internal consistency reliability, Pearson's correlation, Linear regression, Logistic regression and using Epidemiological indices. P-values < 0.05 was considered significant and 95% Confidence Interval (CI) was used for the odds ratio. Results The TPB explained 9.2% and 16.4% of the variance in intention among public- and private health facility attendees. Intention and perceived barriers explained 2.4% and external variables explained 7% of the total variance in HIV testing. Positive and negative predictive values of intention were 96% and 6% respectively. Across both groups, subjective norm explained a substantial amount of variance in intention, followed by attitudes. Women intended to test for HIV if they perceived social support and anticipated positive consequences following test performance. Type of counselling did not modify the link between intended and actual HIV testing. Conclusion The TPB explained substantial amount of variance in intention to test but was less sufficient in explaining

  15. Prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Waja, Tsegereda; Ebrahim, Jemal; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality. Methods An institution-based cross sectional study was conducted from April 15, 2014 to May 15, 2014 with the aim of assessing prevalence of alcohol use disorders and associated factors among people with epilepsy attending Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 413 randomly selected epileptic patients were included in this study. Data were structured using the 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS Version 20. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association, and variables with P-value <0.05 were considered as having a statistically significant association at 95% confidence interval. Results A total of 423 study participants were selected, of whom 413 completely filled the questionnaire making the response rate 97.6%. The mean age of the respondents was 31.9 years with standard deviation of ±10.97, and 248 (60%) were males. The prevalence of alcohol use disorder was 17.4%. Educational status (grade 9–12) (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =3.25, [1.21, 8.69]), not living with family members (AOR =1.89, [1.06, 3.39]), availability of house (AOR =2.04, [1.10, 3.78]), taking carbamazepine (AOR =2.38, [1.13, 5.01]), and drinking alcohol to find relief from stress (AOR =4.28, [1.89, 9.67]) were significantly associated with alcohol use disorder among people with epilepsy. Conclusion and recommendation The findings of this

  16. Performance Evaluation of Malaria Microscopists at Defense Health Facilities in Addis Ababa and Its Surrounding Areas, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nega, Desalegn; Tasew, Geremew; Taye, Bineyam; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Background Blood film microscopy is the gold standard approach for malaria diagnosis, and preferred method for routine patient diagnosis in health facilities. However, the inability of laboratory professionals to correctly detect and identify malaria parasites microscopically leads to an inappropriate administration of anti-malarial drugs to the patients and incorrect findings in research areas. This study was carried out to evaluate the performance of laboratory professionals in malaria diagnosis in health facilities under the Defense Health Main Department in Addis Ababa and its surroundings, Ethiopia. Method A cross sectional study was conducted from June to July 2015. Totally, 60 laboratory professionals out of the selected 16 health facilities were included in the study. Data were collected by distributing standardized pre-validated malaria slide-panels and self-administered questionnaires among professionals, onsite in each study facility. Sensitivity, specificity, and strength of agreement (with kappa score) in performance among the study participants against WHO-certified expert malaria microscopists were calculated. Result Of the 60 study participants, 8.3% (5/60) correctly read all the distributed slides in terms of parasite detection, species identification and parasite counting; whereas, each of the remaining 55(91.7%) interpreted at least two slides incorrectly. The overall sensitivity and specificity of participants’ performance in detection of malaria parasites were 65.7% and 100%, respectively. Overall, fair agreement (71.4%; Kappa: 0.4) in detection of malaria parasite was observed between the study subjects and expert readers. The overall sensitivity and specificity of participants in species identification of malaria parasites were respectively 41.3% and 100%. Overall, slight agreement (51.1%; kappa: 0.04) in identification of malaria species was observed. Generally, agreement was lower in parasite detection and species identification at low

  17. Micro Climate Simulation in new Town 'Hashtgerd'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in streets will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by

  18. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  19. Green Infrastructure Implementation Strategy for the Town of Franklin, Massachusetts

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The report outlines best techniques for the Town, based on land uses and physical constraints, experience with the implementation of existing practices, and the findings of recently completed reviews of current programs and practices.

  20. VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EIGHT COKE OVENS ON EAST SIDE OF TOWN OF ALVERTON, CONSTRUCTED OF YELLOW REFRACTORY BRICK. "WOODLAND M2" AND "BENEZETT - Alverton Coke Works, State Route 981, Alverton, Westmoreland County, PA

  1. Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_162573.html Pregnant Women Should Avoid Zika-Hit Texas Town: CDC Advisory follows reports of ... border with Mexico, because five cases of local Zika infection have been reported there, U.S. health officials ...

  2. First Images from the 74 MHz VLA - Pie Town Link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lane, W. M.; Cohen, A. S.; Kassim, N. E.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2005-12-01

    A 74 MHz (4m wavelength) receiver has now been added to the VLBA antenna at Pie Town, bringing the full resolving power of the VLA + Pie Town Link to this low frequency. With baselines up to 73 km, corresponding to resolutions of ˜10 arcsec, and sensitivities ˜20 mJy bm-1, the first observations shown here have achieved by far the highest resolution and sensitivity of any images at this frequency to date.

  3. Tropospheric ozone and its regional transport over Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nzotungicimpaye, Claude-Michel; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Steyn, Douw G.

    2014-04-01

    As part of efforts to understand the sources of air pollution in Cape Town, this study investigates the local variation of tropospheric ozone (O3) and identifies possible advection paths of O3 pollution from a remote source to Cape Town. Measurements of O3 and wind from three sites in the Cape Town area were analyzed to study the local variations of O3. At each site, the diurnal variation of O3 is found to be mainly driven by photochemical production while the seasonal variation of O3 is mostly driven by wind conditions. The highest concentration of O3 is observed at the remote site (Cape Point) while lowest O3 concentration is observed at the sub-urban site (Goodwood), where there are chemical sinks of O3 such as NOx. Atmospheric pollution over southern Africa was simulated to study the regional transport of O3. The simulations show that extreme O3 levels in Cape Town can be caused by air pollution transported from the industrial Highveld of South Africa, in the lower troposphere. Such extreme O3 pollution events over Cape Town are simulated to occur in January (14%), March (44%), April (28%) and September (14%). Lagrangian trajectories suggest four paths by which air parcels can be transported from the industrial Highveld to Cape Town: a north-easterly path which is the most frequent route, a tropical deviation route, a deviation along the south coastline and an oceanic deviation path which is the less frequent route. The major advection paths associated with poor air quality in Cape Town are the north-easterly route and the path along the south coastline of the country. Hence the study suggests that emissions in the industrial Highveld may contribute to O3 concentration in the Cape Town area.

  4. View northwest across town green showing residential and commercial buildings ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View northwest across town green showing residential and commercial buildings on the north side of North Green Road adjacent to the Town Hall (to the east) - Brooklyn Green, North Green, South Green, & West Green, parts of Brown Road, Canterbury Road (Route 169), Hartford Road (Route 6), Hyde Road, Pomfret Road (Route 169), Prince Hill Road, Providence Road (Route 6), Wauregan Road (Routes 169 & 205), & Wolf Den Road, Brooklyn, Windham County, CT

  5. Work-related stress and associated factors among nurses working in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Salilih, Selamawit Zewdu; Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu

    2014-08-01

    Work-related stress is a pattern of reactions to work demands unmatched to nurses' knowledge, skills, or abilities; these challenges exceed their ability to cope, resulting in burnout, turnover, and low quality patient care. An institution-based cross-sectional study of 343 nurses was conducted in public hospitals of Addis Ababa in 2012. Data were collected by pretested and self-administered questionnaires using a nursing stress scale. One hundred twenty-one (37.8%) (95% confidence interval: 34.3 to 39.1) nurses reported experiencing occupational stress. Significant associations were found between nurses' stress and gender, work shift, illness, marital status, and worksite or unit. Prevalence of work-related stress was higher than expected and opportunities exist for stake holders to design stress reduction and management programs for nurses.

  6. Are Industrial Towns Safe for Human Dwelling?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singla, C.; Garg, S.; Aggarwal, R.; Jutla, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Water resources in the developing countries are under severe stress with multiple stakeholders claiming rights to it. Regional industries, in absence to strict regulations, are responsible for dumping toxic wastes to rivers, ponds and other waterway which have devastating effects on water habitat as well as population that derives water for its daily needs. Key methodological challenges remain in connecting environment to levels of pollution and its relationship with diseases that affect humans. We present a case study from one of the highly industrialized town of South Asia. Ludhiana is the largest city and the largest urban settlement in Punjab, India. With the development of industry, agriculture and the growth of urban population, its water pollution has become a serious problem. Here, we will show how the distribution of heavy metals for groundwater affects its quality and role of regional hydrology on it. We will start with one of the major waterways in the Ludhiana district. Groundwater water samples including sewage water sample were collected within its vicinity of 2.0 km along the waterway (Buddha Nala). The concentration of nickel(Ni) and iron(Fe) in sewage water as well as in groundwater samples was much higher than the maximum permissible limits at a distance of 1.0 Km away from Buddha Nala. In general, all the groundwater samples collected beyond 1.0 Km away from Buddha Nala were found to be having normal concentrations of arsenic and Fe. We will also demonstrate regional health problems resulting from poor groundwater quality. Role of regional hydrology in modulating water quality will be discussed.

  7. Charles Hard Townes: Remarkable Scientist and Inspiring Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.

    2015-05-01

    Charles Townes is renowned for his work elucidating the structure of molecules through microwave spectroscopy and for his invention of the maser and the laser. He also had a lifelong interest in astronomy, and in the later portion of his remarkable and long career devoted himself to astronomical research, pioneering the study of molecules in interstellar space and the development of infrared spectroscopy, first from the ground and then from airborne facilities. His interest in high angular resolution, as well as high spectral resolution observations, led to development of the first infrared spatial interferometer employing coherent signal processing techniques. In this short review I will only touch on some of Townes' many scientific contributions, concentrating on astronomy, and will also give some personal thoughts about how he inspired students in their research, helping to make the "Townes Group" at the University of California, Berkeley, an ideal environment in which to start a career in research.

  8. Charles Hard Townes: Remarkable Scientist and Inspiring Teacher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.

    2016-05-01

    Charles Townes is renowned for his work elucidating the structure of molecules through microwave spectroscopy and for his invention of the maser and the laser. He also had a lifelong interest in astronomy, and in the later portion of his remarkable and long career devoted himself to astronomical research, pioneering the study of molecules in interstellar space and the development of infrared spectroscopy, first from the ground and then from airborne facilities. His interest in high angular resolution, as well as high spectral resolution observations, led to development of the first infrared spatial interferometer employing coherent signal processing techniques. In this short review I will only touch on some of Townes' many scientific contributions, concentrating on astronomy, and will also give some personal thoughts about how he inspired students in their research, helping to make the "Townes Group" at the University of California, Berkeley, an ideal environment in which to start a career in research.

  9. External quality assessment of AFB smear microscopy performances and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mosissa, Lemi; Kebede, Abebaw; Mindaye, Tedla; Getahun, Muluwork; Tulu, Sisay; Desta, Kassu

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is still a public health problem in sub Saharan African countries. In resource-limited settings, TB diagnosis relies on sputum smear microscopy, with low and variable sensitivities, especially in paucibacillary pediatric and HIV-associated TB patients. Tuberculosis microscopy centers have several weaknesses like overworking, insufficiently trained personnel, inconsistent reagent supplies, and poorly maintained equipments; thus, there is a critical need for investments in laboratory infrastructure, capacity building, and quality assurance schemes. The performance of TB microscopy centers in the private health facilities in Addis Ababa is not known so far. The main objective of the study was to assess laboratory performance of acid fast bacilli (AFB) smear microscopy and its associated factors in selected private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 33 selected private health facilities of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia comprising 7 hospitals, 2 NGO health centers, 23 higher clinics and 1 diagnostic laboratory that provide AFB smear microscopy services. The study was conducted from January to April 2014. A total of 283 stained sputum smears were randomly collected from participant laboratories for blinded rechecking, 320 panel slides were sent to 32 microscopy centers to evaluate their performance on AFB reading, staining and reporting. Checklists were used to assess quality issues of laboratories. Data were captured, cleaned, and analyzed using SPSS version 16.0; χ(2) tests, kappa statistics were used for comparison purpose. P value < 0.05 considered statistically significant. Among the 32 participant laboratories, 2-scored 100%, 15 scored 80-95% & the remaining 15 scored 50-75% for overall proficiency test performance. There were 10 (3.15%) major errors and 121 (37.8%) minor errors. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of panel reading by microscopy centers were 89%, 96%, 96%, and 90% respectively. Out

  10. 1. VIEW LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, THE TOWN OF BODIE IS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING EAST SOUTHEAST, THE TOWN OF BODIE IS IN THE APPROXIMATE RIGHT CENTER OF THE IMAGE, THE MILL IS IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE IMAGE. THERE ARE MINE DUMPS AND A NATURAL SADDLE ON THE HILLSIDE BEHIND THE MILL, WITHIN-THE SADDLE THERE ARE STRUCTURES ASSOCIATED WITH THE TERMINUS OF THE BODIE RAILROAD. ONE OF THESE STRUCTURES IS AN EXTANT WATER TOWER. LOCATED IN THE FLATS BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE TOWN ARE THE TAILINGS FROM THE MILL. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  11. The 1992 town meetings: Toward a shared vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    With the goal of developing a shared vision for the future of NASA, the U.S. civil aeronautics and space agency conducted a series of town meetings across the country in Nov. and Dec. 1992. Specifically, NASA sought comment on the Agency's new vision statement and mission values, which were developed by the Agency's employees in an effort to redefine NASA's priorities and purpose for the 1990's and beyond. In practice, the meetings constituted a sort of nationwide brainstorming session on how to make aeronautics and space research more relevant to people's daily lives. Primary findings, NASA's action plan, town meeting proceedings, and conclusions are described.

  12. Planning for Small Town Revitalization: Economic Development Invigorates the Columbia Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winchell, Dick G.

    1991-01-01

    Describes rural revitalization efforts for small towns in central Washington. Planning analysis by Eastern Washington University faculty and students emphasizes community participation. Details revitalization of the town of Wilbur from planning stages to final outcomes. Describes overall project results. (KS)

  13. 3. Photographer unknown, early 1880s OLD TOWN CENTER, SHOWING THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographer unknown, early 1880s OLD TOWN CENTER, SHOWING THE OCTAGONAL BRICK HALL OF RECORDS (built 1882) AND THE CLASSICAL REVIVAL COUNTY COURT HOUSE (Built 1894) - Town of Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, CA

  14. 3. Photocopy of photograph ('Town and Community Planning, Walter Burley ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photocopy of photograph ('Town and Community Planning, Walter Burley Griffin,' Western Architect, Vol. 19, No. 8, August, 1913, following page 80) ca 1913 MAIN FACADE AND GARAGE FACADE - Arthur L. Rule House, 11 South Rock Glen, Mason City, Cerro Gordo County, IA

  15. 9. Town of Hamden, 1868 Map detail photocopied from F. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Town of Hamden, 1868 Map detail photocopied from F. W. Beers, et al., Atlas of New Haven County, Connecticut (New York, 1868), p. 25. Shows the newly created Lake Whitney and, one quarter mile south of the armory, a 'Rifle Factory.' - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  16. Road to Recovery: Bringing Recovery to Small Town America

    SciTech Connect

    Nettamo, Paivi

    2010-01-01

    The Recovery Act hits the road to reach out to surrounding towns of the Savannah River Site that are struggling with soaring unemployment rates. This project helps recruit thousands of people to new jobs in environmental cleanup at the Savannah River Site.

  17. Road to Recovery: Bringing Recovery to Small Town America

    ScienceCinema

    Nettamo, Paivi

    2016-07-12

    The Recovery Act hits the road to reach out to surrounding towns of the Savannah River Site that are struggling with soaring unemployment rates. This project helps recruit thousands of people to new jobs in environmental cleanup at the Savannah River Site.

  18. A Clear Channel: Circulating Resistance in a Rural University Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    This article offers an extended treatment of two social justice efforts in a rural university town as historical examples of civic engagement with contemporary implications for Writing Democracy and similar projects. The article begins with an analysis of local activism initiated by John Carlos in 1967 while he was still a student at our…

  19. The Town-Gown Relationship: Collaboration in University Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotsones, Rena K.

    2013-01-01

    As communities and universities confront increasingly complex social and fiscal pressures, there is a growing need to align and maximize local resources, knowledge and efforts. Historic and current tensions between town and gown can challenge the ability of universities and communities to collaborate for mutual benefit. This dissertation explores…

  20. Chattanooga, Tennessee: Train Town. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hankins, Caneta Skelley

    Railroads influenced and reflected U.S. settlement and development patterns from the 1830s to the 1950s. In cities, they shaped and stimulated economic growth, planning, and architecture. Chattanooga, Tennessee's sprawling Terminal Station, is a tribute to the town's importance as a southeastern transportation hub. This lesson is based on the…

  1. Intercommunity Cooperation: How Iowa Towns Band Together for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Betty; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Community clusters allow small towns to combine their efforts to enhance economic development, promote tourism, or share public services. Two successful clusters of communities in Iowa are the Area Community Commonwealth and the North Iowa Rural Area Development. Both clusters participated in Iowa State University's Cooperative Extension Service…

  2. 8. Town of Hamden, 1852. Photocopied from a photostatic detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Town of Hamden, 1852. Photocopied from a photostatic detail in the collection of the Hamden Historical Society, Hamden, Connecticut. From R. Whiteford, 'Map of the County of New Haven, Connecticut' (New Haven, 1852). Shown are 'Witney's sic Armory,' 'Whitney's Marine Clock Factory,' and 'Whitney' s Pistol Factory.' - Eli Whitney Armory, West of Whitney Avenue, Armory Street Vicinity, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  3. Teaching Comparative Local History: Upper Mississippi River Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crozier, William L.

    Intended to engage students in a comparative look at local history in two upper Mississippi river towns (Winona, Minnesota and Dubuque, Iowa), this paper describes the computer-assisted component of an upper-level American Studies course. With emphasis on the 19th century, students examine the transition made by the United States from a…

  4. Water quality of Lake Austin and Town Lake, Austin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, Freeman L.; Wells, Frank C.; Shelby, Wanda J.; McPherson, Emma

    1988-01-01

    Water-quality data collected from Lake Austin and Town Lake, following runoff, generally were not adequate to fully determine the effects of runoff on the lakes. Data collection should not to be limited to fixed-station sampling following runoff, and both lakes need to be sampled simultaneously as soon as possible following significant precipitation.

  5. Studying a Town with Non-Examination Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Richard

    1979-01-01

    Describes five successful geography courses centered around local studies for students in the lower ability range. Includes pollution, mapping, traffic surveys of cars and pedestrians, and discovering town trails. Journal available from Longman Group Ltd, Directories and Periodicals Division, 43/45 Annandale Street, Edinburgh EH7 4AT Scotland.…

  6. Democratic Education in an Era of Town Hall Protests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stitzlein, Sarah M.

    2011-01-01

    One central aspect of a healthy democracy is the practice of democratic dissent. For the first time in many years, dissent is being widely practiced in town hall meetings and on street corners across the United States. Despite this presence, dissent is often suppressed or omitted in the prescribed, tested, hidden, and external curriculum of US…

  7. Municipal Underbounding: Annexation and Racial Exclusion in Small Southern Towns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichter, Daniel T.; Parisi, Domenico; Grice, Steven Michael; Taquino, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines patterns of annexation, including municipal "underbounding," in nonmetropolitan towns in the South; that is, whether blacks living adjacent to municipalities are systematically excluded from incorporation. Annexation--or the lack of annexation--can be a political tool used by municipal leaders to exclude disadvantaged or…

  8. Preliminary Findings of Electronic Town Hall Project (MINERVA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Policy Research, New York, NY.

    Participatory democracy in its purest form, the town hall meeting, has been lost in modern mass society. The sheer number of citizens prevent effective interaction between themselves and their leaders. The aim of this study is to explore the various means available to correct that loss, which until the advent of this McLuhanesque era, was…

  9. District-Led Instructional Improvement in a Remote Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Ryan

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how stakeholders in one school district located in a remote town perceived the instructional improvement efforts of the district, as well as the constraints and enablers of implementing instructional reforms. A qualitative approach, consisting mainly of interviews with teachers, principals, district administrators, and other…

  10. Proceedings of the African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference 17-22 November 2013 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: plenaries and oral presentations

    PubMed Central

    Gitta, Sheba Nakacubo; Mwesiga, Allan; Kamadjeu, Raoul

    2015-01-01

    Biennially, trainees and graduates of Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Programs (FELTPs) are presented with a platform to share investigations and projects undertaken during their two-year training in Applied Epidemiology. The African Field Epidemiology Network (AFENET) Scientific Conference, is a perfect opportunity for public health professionals from various sectors and organizations to come together to discuss issues that impact on public health in Africa. This year's conference was organized by the Ethiopian Health and Nutrition Research Institute in collaboration with the Ethiopia Ministry of Health, Ethiopian Public Health Association (EPHA), Ethiopia Field Epidemiology Training Program (EFETP), Addis Ababa University (AAU), Training Programs in Epidemiology and Public Health Interventions Network (TEPHINET) and AFENET. Participants at this year's conference numbered 400 from over 20 countries including; Angola, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ethiopia, Ghana, Indonesia, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen and Zimbabwe. The topics covered in the 144 oral presentations included: global health security, emergency response, public health informatics, vaccine preventable diseases, immunization, outbreak investigation, Millennium Development Goals, Non-Communicable Diseases, and public health surveillance. The theme for the 5th AFENET Scientific Conference was; “Addressing Public Health Priorities in Africa through FELTPs.” Previous AFENET Scientific conferences have been held in: Accra, Ghana (2005), Kampala, Uganda (2007), Mombasa, Kenya (2009) and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania (2011). PMID:26491534

  11. An investigation into the seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Bartonella spp., feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) in cats in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tiao, N; Darrington, C; Molla, B; Saville, W J A; Tilahun, G; Kwok, O C H; Gebreyes, W A; Lappin, M R; Jones, J L; Dubey, J P

    2013-05-01

    Toxoplasma gondii and Bartonella spp. are zoonotic pathogens of cats. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) are immunosuppressive viruses of cats that can affect T. gondii oocyst shedding. In this study, the prevalence of antibodies to T. gondii, Bartonella spp., FIV, as well as FeLV antigens were determined in sera from feral cats (Felis catus) from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Using the modified agglutination test, IgG antibodies to T. gondii were found in 41 (85.4%) of the 48 cats with titres of 1:25 in one, 1:50 in one, 1:200 in six, 1:400 in six, 1:800 in six, 1:1600 in eight, and 1:3200 in 13 cats. Toxoplasma gondii IgM antibodies were found in 11/46 cats tested by ELISA, suggesting recent infection. Antibodies to Bartonella spp. were found in five (11%) of 46 cats tested. Antibodies to FIV or FeLV antigen were not detected in any of the 41 cats tested. The results indicate a high prevalence of T. gondii and a low prevalence of Bartonella spp. infection in cats in Ethiopia.

  12. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kebede, Abe; Kemal, Jelalu; Alemayehu, Haile; Habte Mariam, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals.

  13. Isolation, Identification, and Antibiotic Susceptibility Testing of Salmonella from Slaughtered Bovines and Ovines in Addis Ababa Abattoir Enterprise, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kebede, Abe; Alemayehu, Haile

    2016-01-01

    Salmonellae are ubiquitous, found in animals, humans, and the environment, a condition which facilitates transmission and cross contamination. Salmonella enterica serotypes exert huge health and economic impacts due to their virulence or carriage of antibiotic resistance traits. To address this significant issues with regard to public health, availability of adequate information on the prevalence and antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella, and establishment of adequate measures to control contamination and infection are needed. A cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the level of Salmonella infection in slaughtered bovines and ovines at Addis Ababa abattoir. Samples were collected randomly and processed for identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Salmonella spp. From 280 animals examined, 13 (4.64%) (8 bovines and 5 ovines) were positive, with most samples (12/13, 92%) comprising Salmonella Dublin. Very high level of resistance to some antibiotics used in human medicine was detected. Most isolates were susceptible to gentamycin and amikacin. Nine (69%) of all isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Serotyping revealed 12 of 13 isolates to be of the Dublin serotype with 9,12:g,p:- antigenic formula. This study emphasizes the importance of improving the evisceration practice during slaughtering and restricting the use of antibiotics in farm animals. PMID:27660816

  14. Perceived sufficiency and usefulness of IEC materials and methods related to HIV/AIDS among high school youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Cherie, Amsale; Mitkie, Getenet; Ismail, Shabbir; Berhane, Yemane

    2005-04-01

    This study was conducted to assess the perceived sufficiency and usefulness of HIV/AIDS information, education and communication (IEC) messages and materials as well as to identify preferences for IEC sources and methods. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and focus group discussions. A total of 901 students in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, participated in the study. Over three quarters of the respondents believed in the usefulness of IEC. IEC materials were perceived to be useful in increasing knowledge about HIV/AIDS by 456 (51%), to influence attitude by 357 (40%) and to acquire safer sexual practices by 382 (42%) of the respondents. None of the information sources and messages available for high school students highly satisfied the sufficiency indicators. Even though no single information source was highly preferred, radio and television ranked top. Life skills training was the most desired intervention by the students. IEC on HIV/AIDS was able to acquaint students with the disease rather than equipping them with knowledge and skill needed in their daily life. Therefore, appropriate and mutually reinforcing IEC messages with emphasis on life skill training are recommended.

  15. High load of multi-drug resistant nosocomial neonatal pathogens carried by cockroaches in a neonatal intensive care unit at Tikur Anbessa specialized hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cockroaches have been described as potential vectors for various pathogens for decades; although studies from neonatal intensive care units are scarce. This study assessed the vector potential of cockroaches (identified as Blatella germanica) in a neonatal intensive care unit setup in Tikur Anbessa Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A total of 400 Blatella germanica roaches were aseptically collected for five consecutive months. Standard laboratory procedures were used to process the samples. Results From the external and gut homogenates, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Citrobacter spp. Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter diversus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Providencia rettgeri, Klebsiella ozaenae, Enterobacter aeruginosa, Salmonella C1, Non Group A streptococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter spp. and Shigella flexneri were isolated. Multi-drug resistance was seen in all organisms. Resistance to up to all the 12 antimicrobials tested was observed in different pathogens. Conclusion Cockroaches could play a vector role for nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit and environmental control measures of these vectors is required to reduce the risk of infection. A high level of drug resistance pattern of the isolated pathogens was demonstrated. PMID:22958880

  16. 78 FR 37553 - Maternal Health Town Hall Listening Session; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Maternal Health Town Hall Listening Session; Notice of Meeting Name: Maternal Health Town Hall Listening Session. Date and Time: August 27, 2013, 2:00... ideas in support of the National Maternal Health Initiative. The Town Hall Listening Session will...

  17. 77 FR 55691 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Circle Town, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...This action establishes Class E airspace at Circle Town County Airport, Circle Town, MT to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Circle Town County Airport. This improves the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  18. Dynamical Autler-Townes control of a phase qubit.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian; Paraoanu, G S; Cicak, Katarina; Altomare, Fabio; Park, Jae I; Simmonds, Raymond W; Sillanpää, Mika A; Hakonen, Pertti J

    2012-01-01

    Routers, switches, and repeaters are essential components of modern information-processing systems. Similar devices will be needed in future superconducting quantum computers. In this work we investigate experimentally the time evolution of Autler-Townes splitting in a superconducting phase qubit under the application of a control tone resonantly coupled to the second transition. A three-level model that includes independently determined parameters for relaxation and dephasing gives excellent agreement with the experiment. The results demonstrate that the qubit can be used as a ON/OFF switch with 100 ns operating time-scale for the reflection/transmission of photons coming from an applied probe microwave tone. The ON state is realized when the control tone is sufficiently strong to generate an Autler-Townes doublet, suppressing the absorption of the probe tone photons and resulting in a maximum of transmission.

  19. [Blood trace elements content in adolescents in an industrial town].

    PubMed

    Namazbaeva, Z I; Amanzhol, I A; Shibuchikova, Zh B; Sabirov, Zh B; Zhumabekova, S Zh

    2013-01-01

    A cohort blind study of blood trace elements content in children-adolescents aged 14-16 years old, residing in an industrial town, where large industrial enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy have been functioning for long periods, has been performed There was established a lack of vital important element selenium in the blood, that causes the accumulation of toxic metals, cadmium and mercury.

  20. 1. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM NEW TOWN NEIGHBORHOOD (CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW LOOKING EAST FROM NEW TOWN NEIGHBORHOOD (CORNER OF LEITNER AND MARSHALL ST.) AT MILL COMPLEX. THIS NEIGHBORHOOD OF MILL WORKER HOUSING WAS BUILT ON THE HILL EAST OF GRANITEVILLE MILL TO ACCOMMODATE THE GROWTH OF THE WORK FORCE WITH THE CONSTRUCTION OF HICKMAN MILL IN 1901. NOTE WATER TOWER, AND ORIGINAL BOARDINGHOUSES JUST BEYOND MILL COMPLEX. - 259 Rennie Street (House), Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  1. The Original "Brown" Town after 50 Years: Desegregated, Not Integrated

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    The story of Summerton and its schools is a footnote to history. On the surface, daily life in this small South Carolina town today is a far cry from a half century ago. At the same time, little seems to have changed--and many residents seem to prefer it that way. And with good reason, for the townspeople, especially whites, still cast a wary eye…

  2. Automobile exhaust level of CO: study in Chidambaram town.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, N; Thirumarran, M

    2002-01-01

    The exhaust gases from automobiles constitute about 75% of air pollution. Among the various pollutants emitted from vehicles, CO is the primary pollutant and very toxic one. The CO monitor method was used to predict the CO level in Chidambaram town. From the study it is evident that the pollution level is closely related to the density of motor vehicles on the roads. With increase in number of motor vehicles pollution level also increases which pollutes the roadside environment severely in future.

  3. Reducing HIV-related risk and mental health problems through a client-centred psychosocial intervention for vulnerable adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Nrupa; Vu, Lung; Kay, Lynnette; Habtamu, Kassahun; Kalibala, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Ethiopia is experiencing an increasingly urban HIV epidemic, alongside a rise in urban adolescent migration. Adolescent migrants are often confronted by unique social challenges, including living in a difficult environment, abuse and mental health problems. These issues can increase adolescents’ vulnerability to HIV and compromise their capacity to protect themselves and others from HIV. We piloted and assessed the effects of a targeted psychosocial intervention to reduce mental health problems and improve HIV-related outcomes among migrant adolescents in Addis Ababa. Methods A pre- and post-comparison design was used in a cohort of 576 female and 154 male migrant adolescents aged 15 to 18 years in Addis Ababa receiving services from two service delivery organizations, Biruh Tesfa and Retrak. We implemented a three-month client-centred, counsellor-delivered psychosocial intervention, based on findings from formative research among the same target population, to address participants’ increased vulnerability to HIV. The intervention package comprised individual, group and creative arts therapy counselling sessions. Key outcome indicators included anxiety, depression, aggressive behaviour, attention problems, social problems, knowledge of HIV, safer sex practices and use of sexual health services. Longitudinal data analysis (McNemar test and random effects regression) was used to assess changes over time in key indicators by gender. Results For females, aggressive behaviour decreased by 60% (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 0.4 (0.25 to 0.65)) and any mental health problem decreased by 50% (AOR: 0.5 (0.36 to 0.81)) from baseline to end line. In addition, knowledge of HIV increased by 60% (AOR: 1.6 (1.08 to 2.47)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV increased by 70% (AOR: 1.7 (1.12 to 2.51)) and HIV testing increased by 80% (AOR: 1.8 (1.13 to 2.97)). For males, HIV knowledge increased by 110% (AOR: 2.1 (1.1 to 3.94)), knowledge of a place to test for HIV

  4. Factors determining waste generation in Spanish towns and cities.

    PubMed

    Prades, Miriam; Gallardo, Antonio; Ibàñez, Maria Victoria

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the generation and composition of municipal solid waste in Spanish towns and cities with more than 5000 inhabitants, which altogether account for 87% of the Spanish population. To do so, the total composition and generation of municipal solid waste fractions were obtained from 135 towns and cities. Homogeneity tests revealed heterogeneity in the proportions of municipal solid waste fractions from one city to another. Statistical analyses identified significant differences in the generation of glass in cities of different sizes and in the generation of all fractions depending on the hydrographic area. Finally, linear regression models and residuals analysis were applied to analyze the effect of different demographic, geographic, and socioeconomic variables on the generation of waste fractions. The conclusions show that more densely populated towns, a hydrographic area, and cities with over 50,000 inhabitants have higher waste generation rates, while certain socioeconomic variables (people/car) decrease that generation. Other socioeconomic variables (foreigners and unemployment) show a positive and null influence on that waste generation, respectively.

  5. Town Meeting on Plasma Physics at the National Science Foundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-11-01

    We invite you to the Town Meeting on the role of the National Science Foundation (NSF) in supporting basic and applied research in Plasma Physics in the U.S. The overarching goal of NSF is to promote the progress of science and to enable training of the next generation of scientists and engineers at US colleges and universities. In this context, the role of the NSF Physics Division in leading the nearly 20 year old NSF/DOE Partnership in Basic Plasma Science and Engineering serves as an example of the long history of NSF support for basic plasma physics research. Yet, the NSF interest in maintaining a healthy university research base in plasma sciences extends across the Foundation. A total of five NSF Divisions are participating in the most recent Partnership solicitation, and a host of other multi-disciplinary and core programs provide opportunities for scientists to perform research on applications of plasma physics to Space & Solar Physics, Astrophysics, Accelerator Science, Material Science, Plasma Medicine, and many sub-disciplines within Engineering. This Town Meeting will provide a chance to discuss the full range of relevant NSF funding opportunities, and to begin a conversation on the present and future role of NSF in stewarding basic plasma science and engineering research at US colleges and universities. We would like to particularly encourage early career scientists and graduate students to participate in this Town Meeting, though everyone is invited to join what we hope to be a lively discussion.

  6. The water balance of a sub-Arctic town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semádeni-Davies, Annette F.; Bengtsson, Lars

    1999-09-01

    Urban water balances differ from their rural counterparts due to extreme spatial heterogeneity, water imported from outside catchment boundaries and changed flow paths (e.g., drainage pipes and impervious surfaces). Urban catchments are characterized by increased peak discharges and fast response times, each contributing to specific environmental problems. The water balances of towns in the northern high latitudes are further complicated by snow which represents an energy dependent seasonal water store.This paper investigates the monthly water balance of Luleå (June 1992 to June 1996), a Swedish town of 71 000 inhabitants 100 km south of the Arctic Circle. The town has snow cover for five to six months of the year and thaw is usually in late April. Data available included daily precipitation, temperature and inflow to the Uddebo waste water treatment plant; and monthly potential evapotranspiration, groundwater levels and water supply statistics.Of interest were the seasonal differences in runoff volumes and flow pathways to the waste water treatment plant and receiving waters. It was found that increased volumes of runoff, reduced concentration times and long duration led to flooding and high waste water loads at the treatment plant. The surface water component of sewage originates from direct flow into pipe inlets and infiltration into sewer pipes. Autumn and spring were found to be the periods of groundwater recharge, although frozen soil can limit water percolation.

  7. Municipal Solid Waste Management in Kadapa Town: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Sumithra, S; Sunitha, V; Nagaraju, G

    2014-01-01

    Solid waste management (SWM) is a worldwide phenomenon. It is a big challenge all over the world for human beings. The problem of municipal solid waste management (MSWM) is also prevailing in the environment of Kadapa town in India. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to find out the problems and prospects of municipal solid waste in Kadapa town. A detailed investigation was made regarding the methods of practices associated with sources, quantity generated, collection, transportation, storage, treatment and disposal of municipal solid waste in the study area. The data related to SWM in the study area was obtained through questionnaire, individual field visits, interaction with people and authentic record of municipal corporation. Status of the MSW in Kadapa town was studied. The results indicated that the major constituents of municipal solid waste were organic in nature and approximately one fourth of municipal solid waste was recyclable. Detailed data on solid waste management practices, including collection, recovery and disposal method, has been presented in this paper.

  8. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting. PMID:24967300

  9. The status of medical laboratory towards of AFRO-WHO accreditation process in government and private health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Mesfin, Eyob Abera; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Ashenafi, Aytenew

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The World Health Organization Regional Office for Africa (WHO AFRO) introduces a step wise incremental accreditation approach to improving quality of laboratory and it is a new initiative in Ethiopia and activities are performed for implementation of accreditation program. Methods Descriptive cross sectional study was conducted in 30 laboratory facilities including 6 laboratory sections to determine their status towards of accreditation using WHO AFRO accreditation checklist and 213 laboratory professionals were interviewed to assess their knowledge on quality system essentials and accreditation in Addis Ababa Ethiopia. Results Out of 30 laboratory facilities 1 private laboratory scored 156 (62%) points, which is the minimum required point for WHO accreditation and the least score was 32 (12.8%) points from government laboratory. The assessment finding from each section indicate that 2 Clinical chemistry (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Hematology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Serology (55.2% & 62.8%), 2 Microbiology (55.2% & 62.4%), 1 Parasitology (62.8%) & 1 Urinalysis (61.6%) sections scored the minimum required point for WHO accreditation. The average score for government laboratories was 78.2 (31.2%) points, of these 6 laboratories were under accreditation process with 106.2 (42.5%) average score, while the private laboratories had 71.2 (28.5%) average score. Of 213 respondents 197 (92.5%) professionals had a knowledge on quality system essentials whereas 155 (72.8%) respondents on accreditation. Conclusion Although majority of the laboratory professionals had knowledge on quality system and accreditation, laboratories professionals were not able to practice the quality system properly and most of the laboratories had poor status towards the WHO accreditation process. Thus government as well as stakeholders should integrate accreditation program into planning and health policy. PMID:26889317

  10. Assessment of laboratory logistics management information system practice for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in selected public health facilities in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Desale, Adino; Taye, Bineyam; Belay, Getachew; Nigatu, Alemayehu

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Logistics management information system for health commodities remained poorly implemented in most of developing countries. To assess the status of laboratory logistics management information system for HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis laboratory commodities in public health facilities in Addis Ababa. Methods A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted from September 2010-January 2011 at selected public health facilities. A stratified random sampling method was used to include a total of 43 facilities which, were investigated through quantitative methods using structured questionnaires interviews. Focus group discussion with the designated supply chain managers and key informant interviews were conducted for the qualitative method. Results There exists a well-designed logistics system for laboratory commodities with trained pharmacy personnel, distributed standard LMIS formats and established inventory control procedures. However, majority of laboratory professionals were not trained in LMIS. Majority of the facilities (60.5%) were stocked out for at least one ART monitoring and TB laboratory reagents and the highest stock out rate was for chemistry reagents. Expired ART monitoring laboratory commodities were found in 25 (73.5%) of facilities. Fifty percent (50%) of the assessed hospitals and 54% of health centers were currently using stock/bin cards for all HIV/AIDS and TB laboratory commodities in main pharmacy store, among these only 25% and 20.8% of them were updated with accurate information matching with the physical count done at the time of visit for hospitals and health centers respectively. Conclusion Even though there exists a well designed laboratory LMIS, keeping quality stock/bin cards and LMIS reports were very low. Key ART monitoring laboratory commodities were stock out at many facilities at the day of visit and during the past six months. Based on findings, training of laboratory personnel's managing laboratory commodities and keeping

  11. Perceived Stigma and Associated Factors among People with Schizophrenia at Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: A Cross-Sectional Institution Based Study.

    PubMed

    Bifftu, Berhanu Boru; Dachew, Berihun Assefa

    2014-01-01

    Background. While effective treatments are available for people with schizophrenia, presence of perceived stigma prevents them from accessing and receiving the help they need to get. Objectives. To assess the prevalence and associated factors of perceived stigma among people with schizophrenia attending the Outpatient Department of Amanuel Mental Specialized Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods. Institution based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 411 subjects using an Amharic version of the perceived devaluation and discrimination scale. Single population proportion formula was used to calculate sample size. Subjects were selected by systematic sampling techniques. Binary logistic regression and odds ratio with 95% confidence interval were used to identify the association factors of outcome variables. Results. A total of 411 subjects participated in the study giving a response rate of 97.4%. The prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be 83.5%. Education status (not able to read and write) (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI: 1.118, 6.227), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic drug (AOR = 4.49, 95% CI: 2.309, 8.732), and duration of illness less than one year (AOR = 3.48, 95% CI: 2.238, 5.422) were factors associated with perceived stigma. Conclusion. Overall, the prevalence of perceived stigma was found to be high. Education status (not able to read and write), difficulties of adherence to antipsychotic medication, and duration of illness were factors associated with perceived stigma. Adherence to antipsychotic medication particularly during the early stage of the illness and strengthening the educational status of the participants were suggested in the clinical care setting.

  12. Selected micronutrient levels and response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Eshetu, Amare; Tsegaye, Aster; Petros, Beyene

    2014-12-01

    Poor micronutrient levels are associated with an increased risk of progression to AIDS and are also suggested to influence outcome of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), though existing data are inconclusive to support the latter. Few published data are available on micronutrient levels in Ethiopian HIV/AIDS patients taking HAART. The objective of the study was to determine the association of micronutrient levels and response to HAART (CD4(+) T cell count) among adult HIV/AIDS patients attending a teaching Hospital in Addis Ababa. CD4(+) T cell counts and micronutrient (retinol, zinc, and iron) levels for 171 subjects were determined using standard procedures. Some proportions of the study participants were found deficient for retinol (14.03 %), zinc (47.3 %), and iron (2.8 %). Patients who were deficient in retinol had a significantly lower median CD4(+) T cell counts (P = 0.002) compared to non-deficient subjects. Association of micronutrient quartiles with CD4+ T cell count was assessed using adjusted multivariate regression by taking quartile 4 as a reference category. Accordingly, patients who had retinol levels in quartile 4 had a significantly lower mean CD4(+) T cell count compared to quartile 3 (P = 0.02). The significantly higher CD4(+) T cell counts in patients who were non-deficient in retinol imply the role of retinol in improving the production of CD4(+) T cells. However, both lower and higher retinol levels were associated with suppressed immunity (CD4 < 200 cells/mm(3)), suggesting an adverse effect of higher retinol levels. Thus, retinol may be potentially harmful depending on the dose, emphasizing the need for optimized level of retinol in nutrient supplements in patients taking HAART.

  13. Volunteer home-based HIV/AIDS care and food crisis in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: sustainability in the face of chronic food insecurity.

    PubMed

    Maes, Kenneth C; Shifferaw, Selamawit; Hadley, Craig; Tesfaye, Fikru

    2011-01-01

    Low-income volunteers constitute a major part of AIDS care workforces in sub-Saharan Africa, yet little research has been conducted to determine how poverty and insecurity among volunteers impact their wellbeing and the sustainability of the AIDS treatment programmes they support. This paper presents longitudinal ethnographic and epidemiological research documenting how the 2008 food crisis in Addis Ababa affected AIDS care volunteers' care relationships and motivations. Ethnographic results highlight the distress and demotivation that rising food costs created for caregivers by contributing to their own and their care recipients' experiences of food insecurity and HIV-related stigmatization. Epidemiological results underscore a high prevalence of food insecurity (approximately 80%) even prior to the peak of food prices. Rising food prices over the 3 years prior to 2008, underemployment and household per capita incomes averaging less than US$1/day, likely contributed to the very high prevalence of food insecurity reported by caregivers in our sample. We also show that new volunteers recruited in early 2008 by one of the non-governmental organizations (NGOs) involved in this study were more likely to be dependants within their households, and that these participants reported lower rates of food insecurity and higher household income. While this shift in volunteer recruitment may help sustain volunteer care programmes in the face of widespread poverty and underemployment, food insecurity was still highly prevalent (58-71%) among this sub-group. Given the inability of the local NGOs that organize volunteers to address the challenge of food insecurity for programme sustainability, our results raise important policy questions regarding compensation for volunteers' valuable labour and poverty reduction through public health sector job creation.

  14. Adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications and factors associated for hypertensive patients attending chronic follow-up units of selected public hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Tibebu, Abel; Mengistu, Daniel; Negesa, Lemma

    2017-01-01

    Introduction One of the most prevalent noncommunicable diseases is hypertension (HTN). The availability of effective antihypertensive medications does not result in the expected outcomes in terms of controlling blood pressure. The rationale for these and other findings of uncontrolled HTN points toward poor adherence. The most neglected causes of uncontrolled HTN are unhealthy lifestyles. Few studies have been conducted to show the gap and magnitude of self-management adherence. Objective This study aimed to assess adherence to recommended lifestyle modifications of hypertensive patients undergoing follow-up at chronic follow-up units of public health hospitals in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Methods Institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted in four public health hospitals which were selected by drawing lots. Systematic random sampling was used to select study subjects. The results of the descriptive statistics were expressed as percentages and frequencies. Associations between lifestyle modification and independent variables were ana-lyzed using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. The study was conducted from February 15, 2016 to April 15, 2016. Results The study included 404 respondents with a 97% response rate; 210 (52%) were male and the mean age was 54.00±10.77 years. The respondents’ adherence to lifestyle modifications was 23%. The lifestyle adherence was found to be better in females, patients who had comorbidities, and had been knowledgeable about the disease and was poor among young adult respondents. Conclusion The rates of adherence to lifestyle changes were generally found to be low. Educational sessions that especially focus on lifestyle modifications and ongoing support for patients should be designed and studies which assess all the components of self-management should be conducted for comparison among different subgroups. PMID:28280305

  15. Review paper on research ethics in Ethiopia: experiences and lessons learnt from Addis Ababa University College of Health Sciences 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Feleke, Yeweyenhareg; Addissie, Adamu; Wamisho, Biruk L; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Health research in Ethiopia is increasing both in volume and type, accompanied with expansion of higher education and research since the past few years. This calls for a proportional competence in the governance of medical research ethics in Ethiopia in the respective research and higher learning institutes. The paper highlights the evolution and progress ofthe ethics review at Addis Ababa University - College of Health Sciences (AAU-CHS) in the given context of health research review system in Ethiopia. Reflections are made on the key lessons to be drawnfrom the formative experiences of the Institutional Review Board (IRB) and their implications to the Ethiopian health research review system. This article is a review paper based on review of published and un published documents on research ethics in Ethiopia and the AAU-CHS (2007-2012). Thematic summaries of review findings are presented in thematic areas - formation of ethics review and key factors in the evolution of ethics review and implications. The IRB at AAU-CHS has been pivotal in providing review and follow-up for important clinical studies in Ethiopia. It has been one of the first IRBs to get WHO/SIDCER recognition from Africa and Ethiopia. Important factors in the successes of the IRB among others included leadership commitment, its placement in institutional structure, and continued capacity building. Financial challenges and sustainability issues need to be addressed for the sustained gains registered so far. Similar factors are considered important for the new and younger IRBs within the emergent Universities and research centers in the country.

  16. Small Town Energy Program (STEP) Final Report revised

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Charles T.

    2014-01-02

    University Park, Maryland (“UP”) is a small town of 2,540 residents, 919 homes, 2 churches, 1 school, 1 town hall, and 1 breakthrough community energy efficiency initiative: the Small Town Energy Program (“STEP”). STEP was developed with a mission to “create a model community energy transformation program that serves as a roadmap for other small towns across the U.S.” STEP first launched in January 2011 in UP and expanded in July 2012 to the neighboring communities of Hyattsville, Riverdale Park, and College Heights Estates, MD. STEP, which concluded in July 2013, was generously supported by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The STEP model was designed for replication in other resource-constrained small towns similar to University Park - a sector largely neglected to date in federal and state energy efficiency programs. STEP provided a full suite of activities for replication, including: energy audits and retrofits for residential buildings, financial incentives, a community-based social marketing backbone and local community delivery partners. STEP also included the highly innovative use of an “Energy Coach” who worked one-on-one with clients throughout the program. Please see www.smalltownenergy.org for more information. In less than three years, STEP achieved the following results in University Park: • 30% of community households participated voluntarily in STEP; • 25% of homes received a Home Performance with ENERGY STAR assessment; • 16% of households made energy efficiency improvements to their home; • 64% of households proceeded with an upgrade after their assessment; • 9 Full Time Equivalent jobs were created or retained, and 39 contractors worked on STEP over the course of the project. Estimated Energy Savings - Program Totals kWh Electricity 204,407 Therms Natural Gas 24,800 Gallons of Oil 2,581 Total Estimated MMBTU Saved (Source Energy) 5,474 Total Estimated Annual Energy Cost Savings $61,343 STEP clients who

  17. Tuberculosis in Cape Town: an age-structured transmission model

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Nello; Zahnd, Cindy; Hermans, Sabine; Salazar-Vizcaya, Luisa; Estill, Janne; Morrow, Carl; Egger, Matthias; Keiser, Olivia; Wood, Robin

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in South Africa. The burden of disease varies by age, with peaks in TB notification rates in the HIV-negative population at ages 0-5, 20-24 and 45-49 years. There is little variation between age groups in the rates in the HIV-positive population. The drivers of this age pattern remain unknown. Methods We developed an age-structured simulation model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission in Cape Town, South Africa. We considered five states of TB progression: susceptible, infected (latent TB), active TB, treated TB and treatment default. Latently infected individuals could be re-infected; a previous Mtb infection slowed progression to active disease. We further considered three states of HIV progression: HIV negative, HIV positive, on antiretroviral therapy. To parameterize the model, we analysed treatment outcomes from the Cape Town electronic TB register, social mixing patterns from a Cape Town community and literature estimates for other parameters. To investigate the main drivers behind the age patterns, we conducted sensitivity analyses on all parameters related to the age structure. Results The model replicated the age patterns in HIV-negative TB notification rates of Cape Town in 2009. Simulated TB notification rate in HIV-negative patients was 1,000/100,000 person-years (pyrs) in children aged < 5 years and decreased to 51/100,000 in children 5-15 years. The peak in early adulthood occurred at 25-29 years (463/100,000 pyrs). After a subsequent decline, simulated TB notification rates gradually increased from the age of 30 years. Sensitivity analyses showed that the dip after the early adult peak was due to the protective effect of latent TB and that retreatment TB was mainly responsible for the rise in TB notification rates from the age of 30 years. Conclusion The protective effect of a first latent infection on subsequent infections and the faster progression in previously treated patients

  18. Generating sustainable towns from Chinese villages: a system modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Levine, Richard S; Hughes, Michael T; Ryan Mather, Casey; Yanarella, Ernest J

    2008-04-01

    The great majority of China's developing towns will be extensions of already existing villages. With the prospect of hundreds of millions of Chinese farmers projected to leave their villages to become industrial workers in new and expanded towns within the next few years, new challenges will be faced. As expansion and modernization progress, this development moves from the traditional village model that operates not far from resource sustainability to increasingly unsustainable patterns of commerce, urban development, and modern life. With such an unprecedented mass migration and transformation, how can Chinese culture survive? What is to become of the existing million plus agricultural villages? How can these massively unsustainable new industrial towns survive? In the European Commission sponsored research program SUCCESS, researchers worked from the scale of the Chinese village to find viable answers to these questions. To address these issues, the Center for Sustainable Cities, one of the SUCCESS teams, studied the metabolism of several small villages. In these studies, system dynamics models of a village's metabolism were created and then modified so that inherently unsustainable means were eliminated from the model (fossil fuels, harmful agricultural chemicals, etc.) and replaced by sustainability-oriented means. Small Chinese farming villages are unlikely to survive in anything like their present form or scale, not least because they are too small to provide the range of life opportunities to which the young generation of educated Chinese aspires. As a response to this realization as well as to the many other threats to the Chinese village and its rural way of life, it was proposed that one viable path into the future would be to enlarge the villages to become full service towns with sufficient diversity of opportunity to be able to attract and keep many of the best and brightest young people who are now migrating to the larger cities. Starting with the

  19. Cape Town, South Africa, Anaglyph, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear on the left (west) of this anaglyph view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located between Table Bay (upper left) and Table Mountain (just to the south), a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark.

    Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there (visible in this anaglyph when viewed at full resolution). Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen well inland (upper right) at the Theewaterskloof Dam.

    False Bay is the large bay to the southeast (lower right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (lower right) of this scene.

    This anaglyph was created by draping a Landsat visible light image over an SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard

  20. From Biloxi to Cape Town: curricular integration of service learning.

    PubMed

    Richards, Elizabeth A Libby; Novak, Julie Cowan

    2010-01-01

    Team Reach Out started as a student-initiated service-learning project with the goal of providing on-going assistance to the victims of Hurricane Katrina. Four years after Hurricane Katrina, Team Reach Out refocused efforts to Cape Town, South Africa, where 4 senior nursing students and 1 science student integrated their leadership skills with the application of public health knowledge, compassion, and concern to work in partnership with several international health agencies. This article reviews the service-learning framework, course planning, and implementation of a recent service-learning project.

  1. Sobering thoughts: town Hall meetings on fetal alcohol spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Doreen Major; Bonnett, Doreen M; Gass, Callie B

    2006-12-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities. During the past 30 years, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), including fetal alcohol syndrome, have gradually begun to attract attention. However, awareness and understanding of the disorders remain low, and people who are affected are seriously underserved. The FASD Center for Excellence held a series of town hall meetings in 2002 and 2003 to gauge the issues surrounding FASD nationwide. On the basis of its findings, the center proposed a series of recommendations to begin to remedy some of the deficiencies that were identified.

  2. Sobering Thoughts: Town Hall Meetings on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Doreen Major; Bonnett, Doreen M.; Gass, Callie B.

    2006-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to alcohol is one of the leading causes of preventable birth defects and developmental disabilities. During the past 30 years, fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD), including fetal alcohol syndrome, have gradually begun to attract attention. However, awareness and understanding of the disorders remain low, and people who are affected are seriously underserved. The FASD Center for Excellence held a series of town hall meetings in 2002 and 2003 to gauge the issues surrounding FASD nationwide. On the basis of its findings, the center proposed a series of recommendations to begin to remedy some of the deficiencies that were identified. PMID:17077397

  3. Fifty years of porphyria at the University of Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Meissner, Peter N; Corrigall, Anne V; Hift, Richard J

    2012-03-02

    The porphyrias are a group of disorders resulting from defective haem biosynthesis. One form, variegate porphyria, is common in South Africa as a result of a founder effect. Over the past 50 years, the University of Cape Town Faculty of Health Sciences has built and maintained an international reputation for excellence in the field of porphyria. The porphyria group is respected for its research and for its accumulated experience in the management of these disorders. Equally important has been the comprehensive and holistic care offered to patients with porphyria, and to their families.

  4. Recovery of compacted soils in Mojave Desert ghost towns.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Webb, R.H.; Steiger, J.W.; Wilshire, H.G.

    1986-01-01

    Residual compaction of soils was measured at seven sites in five Mojave Desert ghost towns. Soils in these Death Valley National Monument townsites were compacted by vehicles, animals, and human trampling, and the townsites had been completely abandoned and the buildings removed for 64 to 75 yr. Recovery times extrapolated using a linear recovery model ranged from 80 to 140 yr and averaged 100 yr. The recovery times were related to elevation, suggesting freeze-thaw loosening as an important factor in ameliorating soil compaction in the Mojave Desert. -from Authors

  5. The magnitude and risk factors of intestinal parasitic infection in relation to Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection and immune status, at ALERT Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Taye, Biruhalem; Desta, Kassu; Ejigu, Selamawit; Dori, Geme Urge

    2014-06-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and intestinal parasitic infections are among the main health problems in developing countries like Ethiopia. Particularly, co-infections of these diseases would worsen the progression of HIV to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude and risk factors for intestinal parasites in relation to HIV infection and immune status. The study was conducted in (1) HIV positive on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and (2) ART naïve HIV positive patients, and (3) HIV-negative individuals, at All African Leprosy and Tuberculosis (TB) Eradication and Rehabilitation Training Center (ALERT) hospital in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study participants were interviewed using structured questionnaires to obtain socio-demographic characteristics and assess risk factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection. Intestinal parasites were identified from fecal samples by direct wet mount, formol ether concentration, and modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining techniques. The immune status was assessed by measuring whole blood CD4 T-cell count. The overall magnitude of intestinal parasite was 35.08%. This proportion was different among study groups with 39.2% (69/176), 38.83% (40/103) and 27.14% (38/140) in ART naïve HIV positives patients, in HIV negatives, and in HIV positive on ART patients respectively. HIV positive patients on ART had significantly lower magnitude of intestinal parasitic infection compared to HIV negative individuals. Intestinal helminths were significantly lower in HIV positive on ART and ART naïve patients than HIV negatives. Low monthly income, and being married, divorced or widowed were among the socio-demographic characteristics associated with intestinal parasitic infection. No association was observed between the magnitude of intestinal parasites and CD4 T-cell count. However, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Isospora belli were exclusively identified in individuals with CD4 T

  6. The transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld, a major South African industrial area, may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from the Cape Town air-quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from a regional climate model (RegCM) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric conditions, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events in Cape Town are associated with the lower level (surface - 850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclone over South Africa and a lower-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclone induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town. The col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. the Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  7. The Primary Care Physician Workforce in Massachusetts: Implications for the Workforce in Rural, Small Town America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenger, Joseph; Cashman, Suzanne B.; Savageau, Judith A.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Small towns across the United States struggle to maintain an adequate primary care workforce. Purpose: To examine factors contributing to physician satisfaction and retention in largely rural areas in Massachusetts, a state with rural pockets and small towns. Methods: A survey mailed in 2004-2005 to primary care physicians, practicing in…

  8. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: New Town Builders, Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2013-09-01

    All homes in the Stapleton community must be ENERGY STAR certified; New Town Builders has announced that it will build 250–300 new homes over the next 7–10 years, all of which will be Challenge Homes. New Town received a 2013 Housing Innovation Award in the production builder category.

  9. Industrial and urban symbiosis in Japan: analysis of the Eco-Town Program 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Van Berkel, Rene; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Hashimoto, Shizuka; Geng, Yong

    2009-03-01

    Japan's Eco-Town Program spearheaded in Japan the integration of Industrial Symbiosis and Urban Symbiosis, seeking to maximise the economic and environmental benefit from close geographic proximity of industrial and urban areas, through the use of previously discarded commercial, municipal and industrial waste materials in industrial applications. The program established 26 Eco-Towns around Japan. Approximately 1.65 billion USD was invested in 61 innovative recycling projects, with an average government subsidy of 36%. In addition at least 107 other recycling facilities have been constructed without government subsidy. 14 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving industry's productivity, whilst 10 Eco-Towns primarily contributed to improving environmental amenity. In 16 Eco-Towns the private sector was the most important actor supporting local government in the realisation of the Eco-Town, whilst in 9 Eco-Towns this was civil society. The availability of investment subsidies, the coming into force of ambitious recycling legislation with quantified, product-specific targets, access to the significant technological resources of the private sector, and widespread recognition of the urgency to act on environmental issues, all contributed to the success of the Eco-Town Program.

  10. Building Sense of Community in Rural North Dakota Towns: Opportunities for Community Education Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flage, Lynette Jo

    2010-01-01

    Many rural North Dakota communities struggle with the loss of services, schools, and population due to a changing landscape, but does a strong sense of community help anchor residents to their town? The purpose of this study was to describe sense of community and its relationship to actions promoting social capital in rural North Dakota towns.…

  11. Effective Skills for Child-Care Workers: A Training Manual from Boys Town.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, Tom; And Others

    Boys Town, founded in 1917 by Father Edward Flanagan, attempts to respond to the challenges faced by today's children and youth with its own child care model, called the Boys Town Family Home Program. This model is based on family-style nurturing, behavioral-based instruction, and a "systems" approach to staff training and development.…

  12. The Attractiveness of Regional Towns: Inferring Quality of Life from Higher Education Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Aaron; Palmer, Matthew A.; Halsey, R. John

    2013-01-01

    We examined whether the presence of higher education facilities made regional towns more attractive as potential residences. Metropolitan undergraduate students reported that they were more willing to live in a regional town with (vs. without) a university. Importantly, this applied regardless of whether they intended to work or study at the…

  13. The Other Half Speaks: Reminiscences of Coal Town Women, 1900-1950, Athens County, Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Helen, Ed.; Good, Roger, Ed.

    These materials are intended to accompany a videotape, that incorporates stories from 15 women who lived in the coal producing towns of Athens County, Ohio during the first half of the 20th century. Discussion questions, a list of resource volunteers, and background information on mining and Athens County coal towns are included. (DB)

  14. Video Watching and Its Societal Functions for Small-Town Adolescents in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneller, Rafael

    1988-01-01

    Analysis of the video watching behavior of 1,996 Israeli adolescents reveals that small town youth spend much more time watching videos than central city youth. Screen watching has taken the place of real socialization as almost the sole leisure activity of small town adolescents. The social-psychological implications of this are discussed. (BJV)

  15. Imagining the Postwar Small Town: Gender and the Politics of Landscape in "It's a Wonderful Life."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuka, Robert

    2000-01-01

    Examines how Frank Capra's 1946 film, "It's a Wonderful Life," expresses a profound trepidation over the future of the small-town landscape (both physical and social) in the postwar era. Looks at the image of Bedford Falls and inventing the small town; at gender and landscape, and women's roles in the film; and at masculinity and the "new" small…

  16. Ethnic Competition for Control of Schools in Two South Texas Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Donald Eugene

    The study examined the competition for control of schools between Anglos and Mexican Americans in 2 South Texas towns. The study's major objective was to describe the history of, and conceptually account for, the development of this new ethnic power struggle in which the control of schools played a primary role. Both towns, situated in a region…

  17. Homogenisation processes and local effects on avifaunal composition in Italian towns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorace, Alberto; Gustin, Marco

    2008-01-01

    We tested whether urbanization homogenizes breeding bird communities. We compared the similarity of breeding bird communities among different urban sectors: town centres, inner periphery, outer periphery and scarcely built areas, at regional and local scale in 26 Italian towns. If urbanization causes homogenisation, the similarity of bird communities between different towns should be higher in the more urbanised sectors. We obtained data on presence of bird species in each square of the grid of urban atlases. We used the frequency of each species in each urban sector to calculate a similarity index. The similarity of the avifauna between towns was lowest in scarcely built areas and highest in the inner periphery. For each urban sector, the similarity indices between towns were negatively correlated with differences in both latitude and altitude between towns. The values of regression coefficient increased from the centre to the less urbanised sectors although the scarcely built area did not show the highest values. The frequency of a specialist group, the Mediterranean species, was negatively correlated with latitude only in the least urbanised sector. These results indicate that urbanization promotes homogenisation of biological communities. However, the similarity of avifauna between sectors in each town was higher than the similarity between different towns for the same sector. These and other findings suggest that local factors play an important role for the composition of urban bird communities.

  18. Characteristics of Students Receiving Counselling Services at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; De Beer, Jeremy P.; Bokhorst, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document the correlates of receiving counseling services at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Results reveal that non-English speakers, humanities students, undergraduates, first-year students, students who were eligible to receive financial assistance, and students from outside Cape Town were significantly…

  19. 78 FR 68052 - Town of Telluride, Colorado; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Telluride, Colorado; Notice of Preliminary Determination of a Qualifying Conduit Hydropower Facility and Soliciting Comments and Motions To Intervene On October 28, 2013, the Town of Telluride, Colorado, filed...

  20. Trends and Characteristics of Rural and Small Town Canada. Working Paper No. 15.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biggs, Brian; And Others

    This report summarizes demographic, economic, and social statistics on Canada's rural and small towns through 1989. Rural and small towns include areas with populations of less than 10,000 persons or a population density of less than 400 per square kilometer. The first section examines rural-urban differences in population trends and age…

  1. Sustainability and cities: a proposal for implementation of a sustainable town.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, L B de M

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a literature review on the concept of sustainability applied to cities and a proposal for transforming a town in the south of Brazil into a sustainable town. Improvements in energy, sanitation, waste and water conditions, as well as food, clothing, education and jobs generation were considered to enhance the citizen's quality of life and environmental protection.

  2. Impact of Birth Order on Procrastination among College Students in Eldoret Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, Chege Kimani

    2015-01-01

    The study sought to investigate the impact of birth order on procrastination among college students in Eldoret town. The study sought to achieve the following objectives: (1) to find out the prevalence of procrastination among college students in Eldoret town, (2) to find out the relationship between birth order on procrastination among college…

  3. The Practice of School Counseling in Rural and Small Town Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, John M., Jr.; Pearson, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Examines the role and practice of school counseling in rural and small town schools. Results of survey revealed commonalities regarding the permeability of the school/community boundary; the characteristics of rural/small town culture; and the limitations and opportunities of the small social context. (Contains 30 references.) (GCP)

  4. Blue-Collar Affluence in a Remote Mining Town: Challenging the Modernist Myth of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsey, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Based on research in Karratha, a remote resource town in Western Australia, this paper explores the ways in which blue-collar affluence disturbs the meritocratic mythology of formal education. In the opening decade of the twenty-first century Karratha was one of Australia's most affluent towns, yet its adult population was characterised by a level…

  5. Says Who?: Students Apply Their Critical-Analysis Skills to Fight Town Hall

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trimarchi, Ruth

    2002-01-01

    For some time the author looked for a tool to let students apply what they are learning about critical analysis in the science classroom to a relevant life experience. The opportunity occurred when a proposal to use environmentally friendly cleaning products in town buildings appeared on the local town meeting agenda. Using a copy of the proposal…

  6. Perceived Indices of Truancy among Selected Adolescents in Oyo Town: Implications for Behavioural Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adika, Lawrence Olagoke

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated perceived indices of truancy behaviour among selected adolescents in Oyo town. The descriptive survey study had 200 randomly selected adolescents from five secondary schools in Oyo town. A self-designed instrument tagged Adolescent Truancy Scale (ATS) was employed in collecting data for the study and the data was subjected…

  7. Isotopic and microbial indicators of sewage pollution from Stone Town, Zanzibar, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Molly A; Baker, David M; Mmochi, Aviti J

    2012-07-01

    In Stone Town, Zanzibar, sewage treatment is minimal, with a biological oxygen demand reduction to 60% and no removal of bacteria or nutrients. Here, Stone Town's sewage pollution was studied by measuring Enterococci and NH(4)(+) concentrations in seawater and δ(15)N of benthic organisms; samples were collected along the Stone Town shoreline and from offshore coral reefs. Public perceptions of sewage pollution were investigated via interviews. Enterococci from the Stone Town shoreline exceeded USEPA guidelines for recreational use. Benthic organisms from two of the four reefs were relatively enriched (δ(15)N>10 ‰), indicative of sewage derived N. δ(15)N values of organisms from Stone Town exceeded 16 ‰. A strong correlation was found between Enterococci and δ(15)N across sites, while step-wise regression indicated rainfall and tidal stage as important predictors for bacterial concentrations. These data provide an important impact assessment from which the efficacy of future policy and management change can be assessed.

  8. A medical geography of perinatal mortality in Metropolitan Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Rip, M R; Keen, C S; Kibel, M A

    1986-09-27

    An infant's weight at birth as well as its socio-economic environment are recognized as constituting two of the major risk factors associated with perinatal mortality. Spatial analyses of birth weight, socio-economic status and perinatal mortality in Metropolitan Cape Town for the year 1982 are presented in an attempt to assess the relationship between these variables at the suburb (or community) level. Variations in perinatal mortality for each suburb were found to be highly correlated with variations in the distribution of low birth weights. Overall, it would appear that the geography of the interrelationship between low birth weight and perinatal mortality tends, in part, to mirror long-standing gradients in socio-economic status--particularly for those coloured communities which show high perinatal death rates. To what extent these variations are associated with available antenatal and infant health care services can only be postulated. Points for possible community intervention are suggested.

  9. International interest in space assets under the Cape Town Convention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ametova, Lutfiie

    2013-12-01

    Private human access to outer space is impossible without space equipment. Nowadays space equipment is increasingly being financed by private sector. Private sector financiers, naturally, seek to secure their interest in space equipment. At the same time, increasing international cooperation in space industry leads to some problems of legal character. Thus, space equipment involved in international cooperation programs crosses national borders and is subject to a certain jurisdiction in a given period of time. The problem is that when an interest is created in one jurisdiction, it may not necessarily be recognised in another one. In order to provide a unified approach to interests vested in space equipment an international legal instrument is necessary. The Cape Town Convention represents an international instrument designed to provide a unified approach to interests vested in mobile equipment, including space assets.

  10. Hand washing practices in a college town environment.

    PubMed

    Borchgrevink, Carl P; Cha, JaeMin; Kim, SeungHyun

    2013-04-01

    Many people do not wash their hands when the behavior in which they engage would warrant it. Most research of hand washing practices to date has taken place in high-traffic environments such as airports and public attraction venues. These studies have established a persistent shortcoming and a gender difference in hand washing compliance. Using field observations of 3,749 people in a college town environment, the research described in this article replicates and extends earlier work while identifying potential environmental and demographic predictors of hand washing compliance. Additionally, the authors' research suggests that proper hand washing practices, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, are not being practiced. Finally, the authors' research raises a question as to the accuracy of earlier measurements of "proper" hand washing practices, suggesting that compliance rates are inflated. The results can help increase hand washing rates for the general public and thus decrease the risk of transmitting disease.

  11. Anaesthesia - what has the University of Cape Town contributed?

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jennifer M; Reed, Anthony R; Reed, Anthony R; Gordon, Peter C; Gordon, Peter C; Dyer, Robert A; Dyer, Robert A; James, Michael F; James, Michael F

    2012-03-23

    From humble beginnings, the University of Cape Town's Department of Anaesthesia has played a major role in the development of anaesthesia as a speciality, in South Africa and internationally. We highlight these contributions in clinical service, teaching and research, with particular emphasis on the department's leading role in the evolution of anaesthetic safety in adults and children: from the development of the treatment of malignant hyperthermia, to unique studies in mortality associated with anaesthesia, and modern contributions to improved drug safety. Innovations in anaesthetic techniques have contributed to significant surgical developments, including the first heart transplant. Furthermore, our research has contributed to major advances in obstetric and endocrine anaesthesia, and training in the department is recognised as being among the best in the world.

  12. Gas chromatographic determination of sulphur compounds in town gas.

    PubMed

    Hoshika, Y; Iida, Y

    1977-04-11

    The gas chromatographic (GC) determination of the sulphur compounds in town gas (in the Nagoya area) was studied by using a flame-photometric detector (FPD) and the cold-trap method with liquid oxygen. The column packings used were 25% TCEP on Shimalite (AW, DMCS), 25% TCP on Shimalite (AW, DMCS), 10% PPE on Shimalite TPA, Porapak Q and silica gel. The major components identified were carbonyl sulphide, hydrogen sulphide, carbon disulphide, thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT). The identities of thiophene and THT were also confirmed by GC combined with the use of a quadrupole mass spectrometer. The average concentrations and standard deviations of thiophene and THT were 8.8 +/- 1.8and 124 +/- 35 ng per 0.051, respectively. The latter value corresponds to 0.7 ppm, which is relatively high for the concentration of an odorant.

  13. Turning Skyscrapers into Town Houses: Insights into Barrett's Esophagus.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Theresa D; Lutz, Lisa; Lassmann, Silke; Werner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as metaplasia of the esophageal squamous epithelium with multiple cell layers into a single layer of intestinal columnar epithelial cells - or, in other words, skyscrapers are turned into town houses. The underlying pathomechanism(s) and the cell of origin of BE lesions have not been defined yet. However, four potential hypotheses for BE development have been suggested. The morphological changes during BE development are associated with rather well-described aberrant gene/protein expression patterns. However, the potential key regulators of this conversion process are still unclear. The process of metaplastic conversion is difficult to monitor in a spatiotemporal manner in vitro, and robust models are lacking. There is therefore a need for novel experimental systems. This review focuses on potential key regulators, microenvironmental influences, epigenetic alterations and experimental research systems related to BE.

  14. Space Colony from a Commercial Asteroid Mining Company Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Thomas C.; Grandl, Werner; Pinni, Martina; Benaroya, Haym

    2008-01-01

    Commercial mining towns on Earth become cities. Company towns need commerce to drive the growth and economy of early space colonies. Water is an early resource for camp consumables plus propellant export sales from asteroid mining operations at proposed burned out comets with water methane ice cores for sustainable growth over 50 years, financed from profits and capable with affordable logistics to support resource recovery. One co-author's perspective includes remote resource recovery sites on Earth. Other co-authors' experiences include architecture, lunar habitation, and architectural space colony concepts. This paper combines these experiences to propose commercial opportunities possible as mankind moves beyond one planet. Alaska's North Slope commercial history indicates that different multiple logistics transportation systems are required to reduce the risk to humans and families moved in before the oil flowed. Commercial enterprises have risked $20 billion and spent hundreds of billions in private money after profits were created. The lessons learned are applied to a burned out comet designated Wilson-Harrington (1979) and explores the architecture for early living within the burned out comet disk created from ice recovery and later sealed with an expected methane ice interior. Considered is the recovery of the resources, the transport of water back to Earth orbit or L-1, plus later the development of more comfortable space colony living. Commercial markets produce cities on Earth and the same can happen on Space Colonies. The key is an ``in place'' affordable commercial logistics system that can service, stimulate and sustain a 50-year commercial propellant market.

  15. 75 FR 10505 - Office of Apprenticeship, Notice of Town Hall Meeting on Federal Regulations for Equal Employment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Office of Apprenticeship, Notice of Town Hall Meeting on Federal... Administration, Labor. ACTION: Notice of town hall meetings. SUMMARY: The Employment and Training Administration... town hall meetings and one on-line webinar to allow interested individuals an opportunity to...

  16. Sanitary policing and the local state, 1873-1874: a statistical study of English and Welsh towns.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Christopher

    2005-04-01

    This article examines local sanitary policing in extra-metropolitan English and Welsh towns and cities in the period 1873-4. It combines two parliamentary returns, one focusing on the appointments by towns of sanitary officers (inspectors of nuisances and medical officers), the other listing the number of nuisance cases and modes of resolutions. The article uses these databases to examine the identification of nuisances in terms of region, town type, mode of government, population, and salary of inspector. It considers also the effects of tenure and job security on nuisances identification, the effects of town wealth, and differences in the resolution of nuisance allegations by town type and region. The article shows a remarkable and perhaps unexpected sanitary activism, but also a considerable variability by region, town size, and town type.

  17. A university, community coalition, and town partnership to promote walking.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sarah F; Williams, Joel E; Hickman, Powell; Kirchner, Amber; Spitler, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Less than half of all US adults report meeting physical activity recommendations of 30 minutes or more of moderate to vigorous physical activity on at least 5 days per week. Thus, community-wide ecological initiatives are needed to create environments that support incorporating physical activity into residents' daily lives. In this article we describe an ongoing collaborative service-learning partnership between Clemson University, a community coalition, and a neighboring small rural town to address local social and physical environment supports for walking. Years 1 to 3 of this collaborative initiative were evaluated using a mixed-method approach to assess physical environment changes, social environment changes, community perceptions of support for walking, community perceptions of collaborating with university students, and students' skill development. Results revealed several key environmental changes such as mapping and marking 3 walking trails in the community, development of broad marketing efforts linked to the trails that promote community health and heritage, and annual community events to promote walking and the newly developed walking trails. Interview data with community leaders identified several key themes critical to facilitating and enhancing our university and community collaboration. Lastly, students developed skills in developing partnerships, mapping, advocacy, event planning, critical reflection, and qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis. Through this process community members and students learn evidence-based public health skills for using data and planning frameworks to guide local initiatives, engage community members in decision making, and conducting evaluations.

  18. Urban infrastructure and natural resource flows: evidence from Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Hyman, Katherine

    2013-09-01

    The current economic development trajectory is fundamentally unsustainable. However, decoupling economic growth from excessive natural resource consumption can be adopted as a means to deviate from this current trajectory. Decoupling enables economic growth and human development through non-material growth, without the environmental and social casualties of the incumbent model. Cities are the current and future context for socio development as well as a significant part of the cause and solution to sustainability challenges. Cities account for the majority of production and consumption activities leading to environmental degradation, and they are also the primary location for economic, institutional, and human capital. Innovative responses to global challenges generally emerge during the interaction between these kinds of capital. This paper presents the case of three of Cape Town's resource flows namely; electricity, water and solid waste, as mediated by networked urban infrastructure, to demonstrate the possibility of urban scale decoupling. Conclusions indicate that while decoupling can occur at the city scale, it is unlikely to be sufficient for the realization of sustainable urban development. Purposive interventions are therefore critical for successful, sustainable urban transitions.

  19. Ionic vibration induced transparency and Autler–Townes splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Wenjun; Wang, Fei; Feng, Xun-Li; Oh, C. H.

    2017-04-01

    In this work, the absorption spectrum of a two-level ion in a linear Paul trap is investigated, the ion is supposed to be driven by two orthogonal laser beams, the one along the axial of the trap acts as the control light beam, the other as probe beam. When the frequency of the control laser is tuned to the first red sideband of the ionic transition, the coupling between the internal states of the ion and vibrational mode turns out to be a Jaynes–Cummings (JC) Hamiltonian, which together with the coupling between the probe beam and the two-level ion constructs a Λ -type three-level structure. In this case the transparency window may appear in the absorption spectrum of the probe light, which is induced by the ionic vibration and is very similar to the cavity induced transparency (Rice and Brecha 1996 Opt. Commun. 126 230–5). On the other hand, when the frequency of the control laser is tuned to the first blue sideband of the ionic transition, the two-level ion and vibrational mode are governed by an anti-Jaynes–Cummings (anti-JC) Hamiltonian, the total system including the probe beam forms a V-type three-level structure. And the Autler–Townes splitting in the absorption spectrum is found.

  20. Town of Edinburg landfill reclamation demonstration project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-15

    Landfill reclamation is the process of excavating a solid waste landfill to recover materials, reduce environmental impacts, restore the land resource, and, in some cases, extend landfill life. Using conventional surface mining techniques and specialized separation equipment, a landfill may be separated into recyclable material, combustible material, a soil/compost fraction and residual waste. A landfill reclamation demonstration project was hosted at the Town of Edinburg municipal landfill in northwest Saratoga County. The report examines various separation techniques employed at the site and appropriate uses for reclaimed materials. Specifications regarding engineered work plans, health and safety monitoring, and contingency preparedness are discussed. Major potential applications and benefits of using landfill reclamation technology at existing landfills are identified and discussed. The research and development aspect of the report also examines optimal screening technologies, site selection protocol and the results of a test burn of reclaimed waste at a waste-to-energy facility. Landfill reclamation costs are developed, and economic comparisons are made between reclamation costs and conventional landfill closure costs, with key criteria identified. The results indicate that, although dependent on site-specific conditions and economic factors, landfill reclamation can be a technically and economically feasible alternative or companion to conventional landfill closure under a range of favorable conditions. Feasibility can be determined only after an investigation of the variety of landfill conditions and reclamation options.

  1. AIDS conspiracy beliefs and unsafe sex in Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard; Nattrass, Nicoli

    2012-04-01

    This paper uses multivariate logistic regressions to explore: (1) potential socio-economic, cultural, psychological and political determinants of AIDS conspiracy beliefs among young adults in Cape Town; and (2) whether these beliefs matter for unsafe sex. Membership of a religious organisation reduced the odds of believing AIDS origin conspiracy theories by more than a third, whereas serious psychological distress more than doubled it and belief in witchcraft tripled the odds among Africans. Political factors mattered, but in ways that differed by gender. Tertiary education and relatively high household income reduced the odds of believing AIDS conspiracies for African women (but not men) and trust in President Mbeki's health minister (relative to her successor) increased the odds sevenfold for African men (but not women). Never having heard of the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), the pro-science activist group that opposed Mbeki on AIDS, tripled the odds of believing AIDS conspiracies for African women (but not men). Controlling for demographic, attitudinal and relationship variables, the odds of using a condom were halved amongst female African AIDS conspiracy believers, whereas for African men, never having heard of TAC and holding AIDS denialist beliefs were the key determinants of unsafe sex.

  2. Generalized sub-Schawlow-Townes laser linewidths via material dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillay, Jason Cornelius; Natsume, Yuki; Stone, A. Douglas; Chong, Y. D.

    2014-03-01

    A recent S-matrix-based theory of the quantum-limited linewidth, which is applicable to general lasers, including spatially nonuniform laser cavities operating above threshold, is analyzed in various limits. For broadband gain, a simple interpretation of the Petermann and bad-cavity factors is presented in terms of geometric relations between the zeros and poles of the S matrix. When there is substantial dispersion, on the frequency scale of the cavity lifetime, the theory yields a generalization of the bad-cavity factor, which was previously derived for spatially uniform one-dimensional lasers. This effect can lead to sub-Schawlow-Townes linewidths in lasers with very narrow gain widths. We derive a formula for the linewidth in terms of the lasing mode functions, which has accuracy comparable to the previous formula involving the residue of the lasing pole. These results for the quantum-limited linewidth are valid even in the regime of strong line pulling and spatial hole burning, where the linewidth cannot be factorized into independent Petermann and bad-cavity factors.

  3. Inherited anaemias in the Greek community of Cape Town.

    PubMed Central

    Bonafede, R P; Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Cape Town has a Greek community of about 5000, of whom approximately 75% originate from the island of Lesbos. In a survey of inherited haematological conditions in this population, 250 unrelated volunteers were investigated. The prevalence of heterozygous beta-thalassaemia was found to be 6.4%, with a gene frequency of 0.033. G6PD deficiency was detected in 10 males and it can be estimated that the prevalence in the male members of this population is 6.7%, with a gene frequency of 0.067. Hereditary spherocytosis was found in three respondents and this represents a prevalence of 1.2%, with a gene frequency of 0.006. One subject was heterozygous for the sickle cell trait (HbS) and another volunteer had haemoglobin Lepore, which had already been diagnosed in Greece. Our findings with respect to beta-thalassaemia and G6PD deficiency are similar to those reported from regions in Greece where malaria is not highly endemic. PMID:469897

  4. Autler-Townes spectroscopy with interaction-induced dephasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Linjie; Wang, Limei; Bao, Shanxia; Zhao, Jianming; Jia, Suotang; Raithel, Georg

    2014-10-01

    We study the effects of Rydberg-atom interactions on Autler-Townes (AT) spectra in a dense gas of ultracold cesium atoms. The 6 S1 /2 and 6 P3 /2 levels of cesium are strongly coupled (Rabi frequency Ωc), and the resultant AT spectra are probed via excitation into a Rydberg level. Van der Waals interactions between the atoms in the probe Rydberg level give rise to a dephasing rate (γ3). The interaction-induced dephasing is found to cause characteristic changes in the AT spectra, including a reduction or elimination of the AT splitting, an increase in the critical Ωc above which AT splitting occurs, and an increase in the width of the AT spectral lines. Rydberg-atom interactions are controlled by varying the principal quantum number n of the probe Rydberg level; larger values of n correspond to higher dephasing rates γ3. Results of numerical calculations are in good agreement with the experiments.

  5. 76 FR 21741 - Twenty-First Century Communications and Video Programming Accessibility Act; Announcement of Town...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... distribution program, and TRS contributions by VoIP providers, were deemed oral ex parte presentations in the... that the Commission has taken to obtain public feedback as it implements the Act. The Town Hall...

  6. Town of Chino Valley Municipal Water System Improvement Project FONSI and EA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) describing the potential environmental impacts associated with, and the alternatives to, the proposed Water System Improvement Project in the town of China Valley, Arizona. This Finding of No Signi

  7. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. AveryBartholomew Patent Railroad Iron Bridge, Town ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Avery-Bartholomew Patent Railroad Iron Bridge, Town park south of Route 222, west of Owasco Inlet (moved from Elm Street Extension spanning Fall Creek, Nubia, NY), Groton, Tompkins County, NY

  8. NORTH ABUTMENT DETAIL. AveryBartholomew Patent Railroad Iron Bridge, Town ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH ABUTMENT DETAIL. - Avery-Bartholomew Patent Railroad Iron Bridge, Town park south of Route 222, west of Owasco Inlet (moved from Elm Street Extension spanning Fall Creek, Nubia, NY), Groton, Tompkins County, NY

  9. 77 FR 30518 - Town of Springfield, Vermont and Siemens Westinghouse Technical Services, Inc., One Hundred River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Springfield, Vermont and Siemens Westinghouse Technical Services... Springfield, Vermont and Siemens Westinghouse Technical Services, Inc. (transferors) and One Hundred...

  10. Participatory research to enhance vision sharing for Healthy Town initiatives in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takano, Takehito; Nakamura, Keiko

    2004-09-01

    This paper presents the results of a participatory research project conducted by the Tokyo Citizens' Council for Health Promotion (Citizens' Council) to enhance vision sharing, thereby aiding the implementation of Healthy Town initiatives. The Citizens' Council conducted a survey to elucidate citizen interests and expectations regarding Healthy Towns. The project had three stages: (i) a survey; (ii) dissemination of the results; and (iii) evaluation of the impact of the survey's findings. The survey was conducted among ordinary citizens, community group members, health promotion practitioners and members of the Citizens' Council. Responses from 476 ordinary citizens, 400 community group members, 316 health promotion practitioners and 387 members of the Citizens' Council were received and analyzed. Major criteria that respondents required of a Healthy Town were: adequate sports facilities and walking/jogging trails (44.5%); easy access for senior citizens, small children and people with disabilities (42.2%); and parks, clean rivers and other natural features (33.1%). Prioritized criteria given by specific respondent groups were (i) a town with little crime and few traffic accidents (ordinary citizens: 37.2%) and (ii) a town where people help each other (health promotion practitioners: 36.7%; members of the Citizens' Council: 31.5%). Factor analysis revealed that the structure of citizen views on criteria for a Healthy Town had the following three dimensions: (i) health conducive physical living environment; (ii) social networks and mutual help; and (iii) societal discipline/rules and good access to services. The research results were disseminated to the general public, community groups and members of the Citizens' Council. The results substantiated citizen views, which were then incorporated into plans towards realizing Healthy Towns initiatives. This research effort generated a vision of the creation of Healthy Towns by the participation of citizens in a megacity.

  11. The 1928 eruption of Mount Etna volcano, Sicily, and the destruction of the town of Mascali.

    PubMed

    Duncan, A M; Dibben, C; Chester, D K; Guest, J E

    1996-03-01

    In November 1928 there was an eruption of Mount Etna, Sicily, which led to lava largely destroying the town of Mascali, situated low on the eastern flank of the volcano. Destruction of the town took just over a day but there was an orderly evacuation of its inhabitants and, with help from the military, families were able to remove furniture and fittings from their houses. Evacuees were relocated to nearby towns staying with relatives, friends or in hired apartments. Rebuilding Mascali provided an opportunity for the fascist government of the time to demonstrate efficient centralised planning. A completely new town was built on a grid-iron plan with many of the buildings reflecting the 'fascist architecture' of the time. The town was complete by 1937 and housing condztzons were very advanced in comparison with other towns in the region. The 1928 eruption is important as it was the most destructive on Etna since 1669 when the city of Catania was overwhelmed. In terms of hazard and risk assessment the 1928 eruption demonstrates that lava can reach the lower flanks of the volcano within a short period after the onset of an eruption.

  12. Effectiveness and equity impacts of town-wide cycling initiatives in England: a longitudinal, controlled natural experimental study.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Anna; Panter, Jenna; Sharp, Stephen J; Ogilvie, David

    2013-11-01

    Cycling confers health and environmental benefits, but few robust studies have evaluated large-scale programmes to promote cycling. In England, recent years have seen substantial, town-wide cycling initiatives in six Cycling Demonstration Towns (funded 2005-2011) and 12 Cycling Cities and Towns (funded 2008-2011). The initiatives involved mixtures of capital investment (e.g. cycle lanes) and revenue investment (e.g. cycle training), tailored to each town. This controlled before-after natural experimental study used English census data to examine impacts on the prevalence of travelling to work by bicycle and other modes, comparing changes in the intervention towns with changes in three comparison groups (matched towns, unfunded towns and a national comparison group). We also compared effects between more and less deprived areas, and used random-effects meta-analysis to compare intervention effects between towns. Among 1.3 million commuters in 18 intervention towns, we found that the prevalence of cycling to work rose from 5.8% in 2001 to 6.8% in 2011. This represented a significant increase relative to all three comparison groups (e.g. +0.69 (95% CI 0.60,0.77) percentage points for intervention vs. matched towns). Walking to work also increased significantly compared with comparison towns, while driving to work decreased and public transport use was unchanged. These effects were observed across all fifths of area deprivation, with larger relative changes in deprived areas. There was substantial variation in effect sizes between towns, however, and the average town-level effect on cycling was non-significant (+0.29 (-0.26,0.84) percentage points for intervention vs. matched towns). We conclude that to date, cycling to work has increased (and driving to work decreased) in the intervention towns, in a relatively equitable manner. The variation in effects between towns indicates uncertainty regarding the likely impact of comparable investment in future towns

  13. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p < .001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p < .001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z = 3.16; p < .001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  14. A Fog Climatology for Cape Town International Airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Schalkwyk, L.; Dyson, L. L.

    2010-07-01

    Cape Town International Airport (CTIA) is situated off the cold Benguela current on the extreme southern side of the west coast of South Africa and experiences fog more frequently than any other international airport in South Africa. The aim of this research is ultimately to improve fog forecasts and to determine the characteristics of fog at CTIA by means of a comprehensive fog climatology. A fog climatology is derived making use of 06:00Z observations over a period of 31 years (1978-2008). The fog season for CTIA is observed to start in March and persists till August, while May is found to be the month with the highest frequency of fog events. Analysis of advection and radiation fog events shows that the occurrence of advection fog events dominate during the earlier part of the fog season, whilst radiation fog occurrences increase towards the latter part. Advection fog events at CTIA have been shown to occur frequently from a northwesterly and a southerly wind direction, but monthly wind roses for CTIA at 06:00Z show that a northeasterly wind (land breeze) is dominant during advection events in July and August. This suggests a third type of fog event, namely advected radiation fog, which accounts for fog that forms due to radiative processes to the east and northeast of the aerodrome, where after it is advected towards the airport when the land breeze is at its strongest prior to sunrise. The climatology is supplemented by an analysis of hourly data which are available for the limited period of 2004-2007. With the aid of hourly data, more accurate estimations of the average time of onset and dissipation of fog are determined as well as duration time: information critical to the aviation forecaster.

  15. Intimate Partner Violence among Adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K.; Jewkes, Rachel K.; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2013-01-01

    GOAL To describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. METHOD Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in 9 public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. RESULTS The majority of students (78.5%) had had a partner in the past three months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10% of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39% of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI =.966; RMSEA=.051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p<.001), whereas the frequency of using negative conflict resolution styles (e.g., walking off angrily, sending angry text messages, or refusing to talk to them) predicted high IPV risk (p<.001) and mediated the impact of heavy alcohol drinking on IPV (Sobel test, z=3.16; p<.001). The model fit both girls and boys, but heavy drinking influenced negative styles of resolving conflict more strongly among girls than boys. CONCLUSIONS Findings suggest that interventions to reduce IPV among South African adolescents should challenge attitudes supportive of male superiority and violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls. PMID:23743796

  16. ComputerTown: A Do-It-Yourself Community Computer Project. [Computer Town, USA and Other Microcomputer Based Alternatives to Traditional Learning Environments].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zamora, Ramon M.

    Alternative learning environments offering computer-related instruction are developing around the world. Storefront learning centers, museum-based computer facilities, and special theme parks are some of the new concepts. ComputerTown, USA! is a public access computer literacy project begun in 1979 to serve both adults and children in Menlo Park…

  17. The Viability of Rural Towns: A Critical Appraisal of the Role of Public and Private Sectors in Sustainable Rural Town Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Philippa

    This paper addresses the need to sustain rural towns in Australia through private and public investments. Rural and remote areas of Australia have provided the national economy with crucial export earnings and provided governments with royalties and taxes collected on regional resources. However, government funding for upgrading infrastructures…

  18. Trends in population growth in China's towns during the eighties, and town population in-migration and its decisive factors: a historic convergence of two types of demographic change.

    PubMed

    Wei, J

    1990-01-01

    Relying on socioeconomic and population statistics, as well as population censuses, the author examines the growth of China's towns in the 1980s due to in-migration, and considers the economic causes and impact of the growth of towns. Prior to 1984, China's urbanization had been slow and uneven. But in the 4 years from 1984-87, China's urban population grew 3.8 times faster than the period before 1984. and unlike the previous pattern of urbanization, slightly over half of the urban growth occurred in small cities and towns. The rapid growth of towns was due to an unprecedented level of in-migration into towns from agricultural villages. This population transformed itself into a nonagricultural population. The author attributes the increase in urbanization and its changing patterns to a historic convergence: the shift in industry for the agricultural population and a regional shift for the village population--realized through a form of village-to-town population migration. The author goes on to examine the development of small-town enterprises, facilitated after the rural reform of 1984. The author notes that since that year, small-town industries have flourished, a development that has had a number of beneficial effects on both the provincial areas and the nation as a whole. Finally, the author considers the factors that have fueled town population in-migration: 1) in most provinces, higher incomes in towns have attracted people from the villages; and 2) in provinces with little discrepancy in income between town and village, a combination of the regions' relative isolation and government policy preventing migration to cities have spurred the growth of towns.

  19. Assessment of arsenic concentrations in domestic well water, by town, in Maine 2005-09

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, M.G.; Lombard, P.J.; Schalk, L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Prior studies have established that approximately 10 percent of domestic wells in Maine have arsenic levels greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant limit (10 micrograms per liter (ug/L)). Of even greater concern are multiple discoveries of wells with very high arsenic levels (> 500 ug/L) in several areas of the State. A study was initiated to assist the Maine Center for Disease Control and Prevention (ME-CDC) in developing a better understanding of the statewide spatial occurrence of wells with elevated arsenic levels at the individual town level, identify areas of the State that should be targeted for increased efforts to promote well-water testing, and generate data for potential use in predicting areas of the State likely to have very high levels of arsenic. The State's Health and Environmental and Testing Laboratory (HETL) annually analyzes samples from thousands of domestic wells for arsenic. Results of arsenic analyses of domestic well water submitted to the HETL from 2005 to 2009 were screened and organized, by town, in order to summarize the results for all towns with samples submitted to the HETL. In order to preserve the privacy of well owners, the screening and organization of samples was conducted in the offices of the ME-CDC, following applicable Maine and United States laws, rules, and privacy policies. After screening, the database contained samples from 531 towns in Maine and from 11,111 individual wells. Of those towns, 385 had samples from 5 or more individual wells, 174 towns had samples from 20 or more individual wells, and 49 towns had samples from 60 or more wells. These samples, because they were submitted by homeowners and were not part of a random sample, may not be representative of all wells in a given area. The minimum, maximum, and median arsenic values for the towns with five or more samples were calculated, and the maximum and median values were mapped for the State. The percentages of samples

  20. Disappearance rate of praziquantel-containing bait around villages and small towns in southern Bavaria, Germany.

    PubMed

    Janko, Christof; König, Andreas

    2011-04-01

    In recent years, the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) has increasingly occupied urban areas in central Europe. Meanwhile, prevalence of infection in foxes with the small fox tapeworm (Echinococcus multilocularis) has increased, thereby increasing the human risk of infection with the parasite, which causes alveolar echinococcosis. Baiting strategies to counteract E. multilocularis have been implemented in cities and the open countryside, but there are few data on the situation in villages and small towns (<10,000 inhabitants). We recorded disappearance rates of praziquantel-containing bait within villages and small towns and on settlement edges for 7 days after distribution. Disappearance rates were 89.2% in villages, 88.8% in small towns, and 91.8% in settlement edges. More than 75% of the bait was consistently taken within the first three nights. There were no significant differences in disappearance rates between years or among seasons (Cox proportional hazard model). The survival time of the bait in small towns (P=0.021) and villages (P=0.026) depended on the zone (zone 1, first row of houses bordering on open countryside; zone 2, second to fourth rows, zone 3; beyond the fifth row) in which bait was distributed. In villages, the probability of bait being eaten in zone 1 was 119% higher than it was in zone 3 (P=0.007). In small towns, the probability was 60% higher (P=0.006).

  1. Building America Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center, Denver, Colorado (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a 'Power of Zero Energy Center' linked to its model home in the Stapleton community of Denver. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. The case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  2. Results of Education Program of “Training of Designers for Town Renovation”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Yasutsugu; Inoi, Hiroto

    The paper introduces the outline and results of the education program of “Training of designers for town renovation”, which has been done for two years in Osaka University, sponsored by the Ministry of education, culture, sports, science and technology. The program has three main aims as follows ; to understand three factors of town planning, “Shape”, “System” and “Mind” and master the design skills for realizing three factors, to master the design skills integrating three factors which are “Environment”, “Social” and “Economic”, and to perceive various people living, improve the ability of communicating and enhance the desire of participating town planning process.

  3. [A town-physician in the 18th century: Johann Friedrich Glaser].

    PubMed

    Schilling, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    Johann Friedrich Glaser rose from an executioner's family to the position of a town physician in Suhl. The contribution concentrates on the importance of this position for Glaser. It first looks at the position of town physicians in Suhl. They possessed due to certain historical circumstances several duties and rights. They enjoyed a remarkably high standing in the town society which made the position especially attractive for Glaser as a road to social acceptance. His interaction with the medical administration in Dresden (Suhl belonged to the jurisdiction of Electoral Saxony) further enhanced his possibilities to interact with local and territorial spheres. Altogether, Glaser's official functions gained importance over his role as a (medical) scientist, because they offered him the best way to gain social and cultural prestige.

  4. Towns with extremely low mortality due to ischemic heart disease in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cause of coronary disease inframortality in Spain is unknown. The aim of this study is to identify Spanish towns with very low ischemic heart disease mortality, describe their health and social characteristics, and analyze the relationship with a series of contextual factors. Methods We obtained the number of deaths registered for each of 8,122 Spanish towns in the periods 1989-1998 and 1999-2003. Expected deaths, standardized mortality ratio (SMR), smoothed Relative Risk (RR), and Posterior Probability (PP) of RR > 1 were calculated using Bayesian hierarchical models. Inframortality was defined as any town that displayed an RR below the 10th percentile, an SMR of under 1 for both sexes, and a PP of RR > 1 less than or equal to 0.002 for male and 0.005 for female mortality, during the two periods covered. All the remaining towns, except for those with high mortality classified as "tourist towns", were selected as controls. The association among socioeconomic, health, dietary, lifestyle and vascular risk factors was analyzed using sequential mixed logistic regression models, with province as the random-effects variable. Results We identified 32 towns in which ischemic heart disease mortality was half the national rate and four times lower than the European Union rate, situated in lightly populated provinces spread across the northern half of Spain, and revealed a surprising pattern of geographic aggegation for 23 of the 32 towns. Variables related with inframortality were: a less aged population (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.99); a contextual dietary pattern marked by a high fish content (OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.38-3.28) and wine consumption (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.08-2.07); and a low prevalence of obesity (OR 0.47, 95% CI 0.22-1.01); and, in the case of towns of over 1000 inhabitants, a higher physician-population ratio (OR 3.80, 95% CI 1.17-12.3). Conclusions Results indicate that dietary and health care factors have an influence on inframortality. The geographical

  5. Optical Autler-Townes spectroscopy in a heteronuclear mixture of laser-cooled atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruni, C.; Münchow, F.; Görlitz, A.

    2017-01-01

    We report on optical Autler-Townes spectroscopy in a heteronuclear mixture of {}^{87}Rb and {}^{176}Yb in a continuously loaded double-species magneto-optical trap. An excited vibrational level of Rb*Yb which is energetically close to the 5^2P_{1/2} state of Rb is coupled by a strong laser field to a vibrational level in the ground state of RbYb and probed by a weak probe laser field. The induced Autler-Townes splittings in the photoassociation spectra allow us to determine relative Franck-Condon factors of molecular transitions in RbYb.

  6. An Analysis of Wind Power Development in the Town of Hull, MA

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Christopher

    2013-06-30

    Over the past three decades the Town of Hull, MA has solidified its place in U.S. wind energy history through its leadership in community-based generation. This is illustrated by its commissioning of the first commercial-scale wind turbine on the Atlantic coastline, the first suburban-sited turbine in the continental United States, pursuit of community-based offshore wind, and its push toward creating an energy independent community. The town's history and demographics are briefly outlined, followed by experience in projects to provide wind power, including pre-construction and feasibility efforts, financial aspects, and market/industry factors.

  7. [Schooling conditions and children's morbidity at schools of small towns of the Krasnoyarsk Territory].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, I Iu; Klimatskaia, L G

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives a brief analysis of the prevalence and trends of childhood morbidity in small towns of the Krasnoyarsk Territory. Morbidity in small towns is shown to be greater than the average territorial rate. The increase in overall morbidity in children is affected by the schooling environment where a child stay 6-8 hours daily and that ensures no conditions for keeping and promoting the child's health at school at the present stage. Monitoring of material resources yields a special territorial program whose major task is to increase the sanitary-and-epidemiological well-being at general educational establishments.

  8. 75 FR 40844 - Town Hall Discussion With the Director of the Center for Devices and Radiological Health and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Town Hall Discussion With the Director of the Center for... announcing a public meeting entitled: ``Town Hall Discussion With the Director of the Center for Devices...

  9. A Decrease in Suicide Rates in Japanese Rural Towns after Community-Based Intervention by the Health Promotion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Motohashi, Yutaka; Kaneko, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Hisanaga

    2007-01-01

    A community-based intervention study for suicide prevention was conducted in six towns (total population 43,964) in Akita Prefecture of Japan according to a quasi-experimental design to reduce suicide rates in rural towns. Public awareness raising activities using a health promotion approach emphasizing the empowerment of residents and civic…

  10. 76 FR 58523 - National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town Hall Meeting on the Future of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Town... Health and Human Services (DHHS), will convene a public information session (Town Hall meeting) and... activities and accomplishments, outline preliminary plans for the evolution of the Program, and...

  11. 75 FR 10241 - Town of Dexter; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ...] Town of Dexter; Notice of Declaration of Intention and Soliciting Comments, Protests, and/or Motions To...: DI10-7-000. c. Date Filed: February 16, 2010. d. Applicant: Town of Dexter. e. Name of Project: Dexter Hydroelectric Project. f. Location: The proposed Dexter Hydroelectric Project will be located on the East...

  12. Discovery of the genus Meggoleus Townes, 1971 (Hymenoptera, Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) in Peru, with the description of two new species.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Mabel

    2012-01-01

    The genus Meggoleus Townes, 1971 (Ichneumonidae, Tersilochinae) currently comprises two species, one from Brazil and one from Gabon. The genus is recorded from Peru for the first time, with a range extension of the type species, Meggoleus spirator Townes, 1971, and the discovery of two new species - Meggoleus fuscatussp. n. and Meggoleus pampahermosensissp. n. A key to the world's species is provided.

  13. Investigating Town Design and Social Organization at Port Tobacco, Maryland Through the Use of Archaeology and Geophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quantock, Peter C.

    This thesis examines the connection between town planning and social organization at the small town site of Port Tobacco in south-central Charles County, Maryland from the beginning of the 18th century through to the end of the 19th century. By employing a methodology of both geophysical techniques and archaeological excavations, I was able to locate and map numerous structures and features associated with town planning and examine how these spaces were used. This data was used to show how social order, power, and wealth transformed the town layout from a linear settlement along the river into a grid-like pattern. Specifically, I was able to show that these changes in town layout were dominated by the power of the local elite landowners and tobacco merchants.

  14. Revenues and Spending of Michigan's Urban, Suburban, Town and Rural School Districts, 2004-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Beek, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In the passionate debates over providing equal educational opportunity for all children, it's frequently argued that large financial inequities create challenges for many public schools, particularly those in lower-income urban areas. This study compares the revenues and operating expenditures of Michigan's urban, suburban, town and rural school…

  15. Town Stems Major Water Losses With New Lines and Storage Tank

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    With the help of EPA funding, the Town of Chapmanville in Logan County, WV, has a new drinking water storage tank and distribution lines to replace a system built in the late 1940s that was “leaking like a sieve” and posed a risk to public health.

  16. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  17. [Spatiotemporal differentiation of construction land expansion in a typical town of south Jiangsu Province].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Li, Yue-hui; Hu, Yuan-man; Su, Hai-long; Wang, Jin-nian

    2011-03-01

    Choosing Xinzhuang Town in south Jiangsu Province as study area, and by using 1980, 1991, 2001, and 2009 high-resolution remote sensing images and GIS spatial analysis technology, an integrated expansion degree index model was established based on the existing indicators of construction land expansion, and the general and spatiotemporal differentiation characteristics of construction land expansion in the Town in three time periods of 1980-2009 were quantitatively analyzed. In 1980-2009, with the acceleration of rural urbanization and industrialization, the area of construction land in the Town increased significantly by 19.24 km2, and especially in 2001-2009, the expanded area, expanded contribution rate, and expansion intensity reached the maximum. The construction land expansion had an obvious spatial differentiation characteristic. In 1980-1991, the newly increased construction land mainly concentrated in town area. After 1991, the focus of construction land gradually spread to the villages with developed industries. Most of the increased construction lands were converted from paddy field and dry land, accounting for 88.1% of the total increased area, while the contribution from other land types was relatively small.

  18. Tromso as a "Sami Town"?--Language Ideologies, Attitudes, and Debates Surrounding Bilingual Language Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiss, Florian

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on local people's expressions of attitudes and ideologies in the light of proposed Sami-Norwegian bilingual policies in their Northern Norwegian hometown. The local politicians' plan to introduce the bilingual regulations of an "administrative area for the Sami language" in the town of Tromso encountered conflicting…

  19. Negotiated Communities: A Stakeholder Approach to Understanding Town-Gown Relations during Periods of Campus Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence-Hughes, Dorine Lynelle

    2014-01-01

    More colleges and universities are expanding to attract more students, to increase their academic standing and to generate revenue. Recent court decisions and negative publicity concerning large university real estate development projects, coupled with the entrenched ambivalence and even distrust that may characterize town-gown relationships,…

  20. The Human Services Planning Associations Meet Social Service Needs in Growing Small Towns and Rural Counties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sills, Mark R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planning Alliance for Community Empowerment, a public-private organization, was formed to address the need for coordinated, efficiently managed social services programs in rapidly growing Henderson County, North Carolina. For small rural towns and counties, planning organizations lead to greater availability of services and efficient…

  1. Language Policy as a Sociocultural Tool: Insights from the University of Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karjalainen, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This theoretically oriented article draws on the author's previous research, which examined language policy and planning (LPP) of the University of Cape Town within the context of post-apartheid transformation driven by need to redress inequalities of the past, and demands of globalization. Drawing on critical linguistics, but indicating…

  2. 77 FR 73648 - Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... [Federal Register Volume 77, Number 238 (Tuesday, December 11, 2012)] [Notices] [Page 73648] [FR Doc No: 2012-29846] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 2696-033-NY] Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Final...

  3. An "Autopsy" Approach to Frontier Press History: The Ghost Town Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burd, Gene

    An assessment of newspapers from ghost towns in the United States is proposed in this paper as a means of improving the definitions of frontier journalism beyond national time periods, expansion over geographical space, and primitive policy and practices. It is suggested that an evaluation be made by measurement and appraisal of those newspapers'…

  4. From Peones to Politicos: Ethnic Relations in a South Texas Town, 1900 to 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Douglas E.; And Others

    Focusing on how "North Town" Anglos and Mexicanos have related to each other and have dealt with the proplems of economic inequality and racial discrimination, the study characterized the ethnic relations into three major historical periods: the "Rancho" Era (1900-30), the "Colonia" Era (1930-60), and the Contemporary…

  5. "Us" and "Them": The Discursive Construction of "the Other" in Greenmarket Square, Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyers, Charlyn; Wankah, Foncha John

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on research done on intercultural communication at Greenmarket Square in the heart of Cape Town, South Africa. The Square is well known as a market for informal traders (mainly from other parts of Africa), local people and tourists from all over the world. Using originally collected discursive evidence from market traders, the…

  6. 75 FR 35122 - Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport, Town of Buckeye, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Buckeye Municipal Airport... Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility program submitted by the Town of Buckeye under the provisions of 49 U.S.C. 47501 et seq. (formerly the Aviation Safety and...

  7. A Taxonomy of Well-Being for Small-Town Elderly: A Case for Rural Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheidt, Rick J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of a taxonomy of social and psychological well-being for 900 elderly small town residents. Compares the four largest groups (partially engaged, fully engaged, disengaged, and frail) in terms of mental and physical health, contact with others, and activity. (JAC)

  8. Existentialism at Home, Determinism Abroad: A Small-Town Mexican American Kid Goes Global

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Joe Robert

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Joe Robert Gonzalez describes the process of his own growth as a Mexican American from Brownsville, Texas, who attended Villanova University. Coming from a majority-minority town, Gonzalez identifies the importance of safe spaces for Mexican American youth, many of whom doubt their own potential to thrive within university settings.…

  9. Teaching Medieval Towns: Group Exercises, Individual Presentations and Self-Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Andrew; Gunn, Vicky

    2002-01-01

    Examines the use of innovative collaborative small group activities in a Medieval History undergraduate honors course. Discusses student evaluations and feedback from a focus group to investigate the use of group exercises that involve the construction of three-dimensional models of medieval towns and the use of self-assessment. (Author/LRW)

  10. Individual Grassroots Multilingualism in Africa Town in Guangzhou: The Role of States in Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Huamei

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the first phase of a larger sociolinguistic ethnography, this article explores how individual migrants of African and Chinese backgrounds expand their multilingual repertoires in Africa Town in Guangzhou, China. Focusing on two cases, I demonstrate how they maintain and develop transnational and translocal connections simultaneously…

  11. Small Town Population Change in Ohio, 1960-1970 and 1970-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Donald W.

    This study of population change in Ohio during the 1960s and 1970s analyzed change by size of place and found sharp contrasts between the two decades. Places in metropolitan core counties which had the highest growth rate in the 1960s showed that lowest growth rate in the 1970s. Small towns in fringe metropolitan areas and nonmetropolitan counties…

  12. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  13. The respiratory health and lung function of Anglo-American children in a smelter town

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, R.

    1983-02-01

    Cooper smelters are large, usually isolated, sources of air pollution. Arizona has several such plants on the periphery of small communities. The smelters emit predominantly sulfur oxides and particulates, and the residents of these communities intermittently are exposed to high concentrations (24-h sulfur dioxide (SO2) . 250 to 500 micrograms/m3) of smelter smoke but little other pollution. This study compared the respiratory health of Anglo-American school children who lived in one smelter community with children living in another small community in Arizona that was free of smelter air pollution. The prevalence of cough, as determined by questionnaire, was 25.6% in the smelter town children and 14.3% in the nonsmelter town children (p less than 0.05). Pulmonary function at the study onset was equal in the two groups. Over the course of the 4 yr of study, lung function growth (measured as actual forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) after 4 yr of study minus predicted FEV1) was also equal in the smelter town and nonsmelter town children. These results suggest that children in smelter communities have slightly more cough when compared with children living in other communities, but no differences in initial lung function or lung function at yearly testing over the period of the study.

  14. Secondary Work Force Movement into Energy Industry Employment in Areas Affected by "Boom Town" Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.

    A labor market study of implications of rapid energy development in the West examined the dimensions of work force movement from secondary occupations to primary energy occupations in areas affected by "boom town" growth. (Secondary occupations were defined as those in all industries not categorized as primary energy industries.) Focus…

  15. The Cape Town Statement on Characteristic Elements of a Lifelong Learning Higher Education Institution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Journal of Lifelong Education, 2001

    2001-01-01

    This statement from the Conference on Lifelong Learning, Higher Education, and Active Citizenship (Cape Town, South Africa, October 2000) outlines six elements necessary to support lifelong learning in higher education institutions: (1) overarching regulatory, financial, and sociocultural frameworks; (2) strategic partners; (3) research; (4)…

  16. 75 FR 78247 - Medicare Program; Town Hall Meeting on Physician Quality Reporting System

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ... Quality Reporting System AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: This notice announces a Town Hall Meeting to discuss the Physician Quality Reporting System (previously known as the Physician Quality Reporting Initiative (PQRI)). The purpose of the...

  17. Experimental distinction of Autler-Townes splitting from electromagnetically induced transparency using coupled mechanical oscillators system

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jingliang; Yang, Hujiang; Wang, Chuan; Xu, Kun; Xiao, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Here we experimentally demonstrated the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Autler-Townes splitting (ATS) effects in mechanical coupled pendulums. The analogue of EIT and ATS has been studied in mechanical systems and the intrinsic physics between these two phenomena are also been discussed. Exploiting the Akaike Information Criterion, we discern the ATS effect from EIT effect in our experimental results. PMID:26751738

  18. When is the Grass Greener? Divergent Perceptions of Community in Three Small Colorado Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deseran, Forrest A.

    Adolescent and adult evaluative reactions to their community situation were examined in 3 small Colorado towns. Empirical focus was upon delineating specific community aspects which evoke differential perceptions between subgroups within and across community settings. Del Norte, Aspen, and Craig, Colorado were selected as the research sites…

  19. [A modification factor of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations in miner's towns and settlements].

    PubMed

    Volkov, A V; Golovina, T A; Minina, V I; Mokrushina, N V; Druzhinin, V G; Glushkov, A N; Shabaldin, A V

    2006-01-01

    The level and qualitative spectrum of spontaneous chromosomal aberrations (CA) were comparatively analyzed in the lymphocytes of 655 children and adolescents from the Kemerovo Region. The presented sample was divided into 3 groups according to the type of an inhabited locality: 1) small miner's towns; 2) large industrial towns; and 3) rural localities. The maximum frequency of CA (3.77 +/- 0.22%) was noted in a group of dwellers in the miner's towns; its minimum frequency (2.68 +/- 0.17%) among the rural inhabitants. The significant clastogenic effects (including the markers of radiation exposure) were detected in the miner's towns located in the southern part of the region, which represented mountain and submountain areas. At the same time, in the northern and western parts of the Kemerovo Region, the average frequencies of CA in children and adolescents did not exceed the control background values. Thus, the residence in the inhabited localities specializing in mining is not a factor of absolute toxicogenetic risk.

  20. Risk of Cancer Mortality in Spanish Towns Lying in the Vicinity of Pollutant Industries

    PubMed Central

    Ramis, Rebeca; Fernandez-Navarro, Pablo; Garcia-Perez, Javier; Boldo, Elena; Gomez-Barroso, Diana; Lopez-Abente, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Spatial aggregation of different industrial facilities leads to simultaneous release of pollutant emissions. Our objective is to study cancer mortality risk associated with residence in the vicinity of pollutant factories. We used data on industries for year 2007 (3458 facilities). For the 8,098 Spanish towns, we defined a factor with 4 levels based on the number of factories in a radius of 2.5 km from the centroid of each town (industrial factor). We also used data of land cover use to approximate the percentage of municipal land used for industrial activities in each Spanish town (land-used variable). For both variables we fitted Poisson models with random terms to account for spatial variation. We estimated risk trends related with increasing number of factories or percentage of land used for industrial activities. We studied 33 cancer causes. For the industrial factor, 11 causes showed trend associated with increasing factor level. For the land use variable, 8 causes showed statistically significant risks. Almost all tumours related to the digestive system and the respiratory system showed increased risks. Thus mortality by these tumours could be associated to residence in towns nearby industrial areas with positive trend linked to increasing levels of industrial activity. PMID:23193486

  1. An Islamic University in Cape Town Grows from Roots in East Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindow, Megan

    2007-01-01

    This article features the International Peace University South Africa in Cape Town. The university, which was established in 2004, resulted from the merger of two local "madrassas", or religious colleges, yet seeks to prepare its students for success in the secular world. Its Islamic roots are not in the Middle East, but in East Asia.…

  2. Anonymous Examination Marking at University of Cape Town: The Quest for an "Agonising-Free Zone"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shay, S.; Jones, B.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003 the University of Cape Town introduced an anonymous examination policy. This article reports on a study of the impact of the implementation of this policy on student performance. Comparisons of student results pre- and post policy implementation showed no evidence of negative or positive discrimination of students in the examination…

  3. Understanding Campus and Community Relationships through Marriage and Family Metaphors: A Town-Gown Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Fox, Michael; Martin, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In this article we argue that the scholarship on marriages and families provides invaluable insights into town-gown relationships. Marital typologies are used to generate insights into what happens between campus and community relationships over time, and a line of family scholarship provides some additional illumination about the ways in which…

  4. A Principal's Perspective of School Integration: The First School To Integrate in Cape Town, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents the historical context of Cape Town, South Africa, and its struggles against apartheid and apartheid education. It offers a case study of Allen Powell, a white teacher and administrator who worked to integrate Plumstead High School, an act that defied South African commonplace and the views of most white South Africans. Analyzes Powell's…

  5. Azanian: Zandi Zwane Talks about Being Black, Lesbian, and Activist in Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaught, Sabina

    2006-01-01

    Zandi Zwane is a media activist and educator living and working in Cape Town, South Africa. She identifies herself as Black, Nguni, lesbian, female--and "Azanian: a term that was created in pre-colonial times by the members of the Black Consciousness Movement in resistance to colonialism." In this interview, Zwane explores the…

  6. Child Abuse Services at a Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argent, Andrew C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    All child abuse-related patients (n=503) seen at 1 Cape Town (South Africa) hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. Abuse was confirmed in 389 cases (160 physical abuse and 229 sexual abuse). Most (81 percent) of the young children were seen by residents with minimal pediatric training. Lack of staff speaking Xhosa (spoken by 134 of the…

  7. Disrespecting Teacher: The Decline in Social Standing of Teachers in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the declining levels of respect for teachers in two communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Education has been identified as a key area of reform and redress, but a critical skills shortage and under-resourced schools are hindering progress. Data from current and former teachers illustrate how the social and institutional…

  8. Discourse, Differentiation, and Agency: Muslim Community Schools in Postapartheid Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fataar, Aslam

    2005-01-01

    This article explores the establishment of schools set up by Muslim communities in Cape Town, South Africa, after 1994. Twelve schools have been set up across the city: four primary schools, three high schools, four schools that have grades 1-12, and one school that has grades 1-3 and 8-10. They are registered with the Western Cape Education…

  9. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  10. Rural Community and Rural Resilience: What Is Important to Farmers in Keeping Their Country Towns Alive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McManus, Phil; Walmsley, Jim; Argent, Neil; Baum, Scott; Bourke, Lisa; Martin, John; Pritchard, Bill; Sorensen, Tony

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have highlighted the phenomenon of rural decline in parts of the developed world, summarised as a loss in agricultural employment leading to a decline in the number and size of rural settlements. This study of small towns in part of Australia's inland rural "heartland" employs the concepts of interactional rural community of…

  11. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Westside Ditch and Town Canal Fish Screening Facilities, Spring 1990.

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzel, Duane A.; Abernethy, C. Scott; Hartenson, Gregg A.

    1990-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) evaluated the effectiveness of new fish screening facilities in the Westside Ditch and Town Canal, near Ellensburg, in south-central Washington State. At the Town Canal, we estimated that 0.3% of steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss smolts released during tests were significantly descaled. The time required for 50% of the fish in the two steelhead test groups to exit from the Town Screens forebay ranged from 12 h to >85 h. Integrity tests at the Town Screens indicated that none of the rainbow trout fry released in front of the rotary drum screens passed through the screens, although 8.5% of the native zero-age chinook salmon fry diverted from the river into the screening facility were lost through the screens. At the Westside Screens, 16.8% of native zero-age chinook salmon fry passed through the screens. Most of the chinook salmon lost through the screens were small, <36 mm long. The methods used in 1990 were first used at the Sunnyside Screens in 1985. These methods were used again in subsequent years in tests at the Richland, Toppenish/Satus, Wapato, and Toppenish Creek screens. The methods used from 1985 through 1989 have been reviewed by the Washington State Department of Fisheries, US Fish and Wildlife Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, Northwest Power Planning Council, and Yakima Indian Nation. 14 refs., 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Risk Factors for Drug Abuse among Nepalese Samples Selected from a Town of Eastern Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niraula, Surya Raj; Chhetry, Devendra Bahadur; Singh, Girish Kumar; Nagesh, S.; Shyangwa, Pramod Mohan

    2009-01-01

    The study focuses on the serious issue related to the adolescents' and adults' behavior and health. It aims to identify the risk factors for drug abuse from samples taken from a town of Eastern Nepal. This is a matched case-control study. The conditional logistic regression method was adopted for data analysis. The diagnosis cut off was determined…

  13. Development Opportunities: The Effect of UMES on the Town of Princess Anne, Maryland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sann, David; Tervala, Victor K.

    A study was done of the potential economic effect of the University of Maryland Eastern Shore (UMES) campus on the nearby town of Princess Anne, a small rural community. The study used estimates made by a UMES faculty member which projected that UMES students in 1990 spent over $7 million on goods and services unrelated to educational expenses.…

  14. Cargo Cult in a Western Town: A Cultural Approach to Episodic Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Allen F.

    1978-01-01

    A social, cultural, and often religious movement directed at improving community spiritual and material life, the cargo cult is discussed as a principle of community organization effecting positive change. This article reviews the cargo cults of Oceania and applies the concept to a small western town (Wilcox, Arizona). (JC)

  15. Defying Monolingual Education: Alternative Bilingual Discourse Practices in Selected Coloured Schools in Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banda, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores how bilingual learners and teachers challenge the monolingual discourses prescribed in language education policy and models in pursuit of voice and agency in classroom interaction. Through an examination of observation, interview and classroom interaction data in selected coloured primary and secondary schools in Cape Town, the…

  16. The Spiral Gallery: Non-Market Creativity and Belonging in an Australian Country Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waitt, Gordon; Gibson, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore creative practice in an Australian country town, and in so doing, to unsettle market-orientated interpretations of creativity that privilege the urban. Instead of focusing on creative practice as a means to develop industries, we focus on how creativity is a means to establish a cooperative gallery space that helps to…

  17. The Effects of Community Violence on Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to community violence (neighborhood, school, police, and gang violence) and psychological distress in a sample of children living in the Cape Town, South Africa area. Another objective was to identify variables that moderate and mediate the…

  18. Introductory Astronomy Course at the University of Cape Town: Probing Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…

  19. Small Towns and Small Computers: Can a Match Be Made? A Public Policy Seminar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Towns and Townships, Washington, DC.

    A public policy seminar discussed how to match small towns and small computers. James K. Coyne, Special Assistant to the President and Director of the White House Office of Private Sector Initiatives, offered opening remarks and described a database system developed by his office to link organizations and communities with small computers to…

  20. International Female Students' Experiences of Navigating the Canadian Health Care System in a Small Town Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, K.; McKenzie, W.; Fehr, F.

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study explored the international female (IF) students' (n = 17) lived experiences of health care accessibility while studying in a small town in Canada. Analysis guided by a phenomenological method resulted in three major themes--(1) after arriving to attend university, IF students experienced challenges in staying healthy, such as…

  1. Young People, Social Exclusion and Inter-Generational Tension in a Rural Somerset Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Rosie

    2008-01-01

    This article seeks to explore how the myth of the "rural idyll" can be detrimental to those who currently experience some of the greatest social exclusion in rural areas--children and young people. The research explores the views and experiences of the young residents of a small town in the south-west of England (n = 157, ages 12-18…

  2. Franklin Towne Charter High School: A Clear Vision and Concrete Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal Leadership, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Franklin Towne Charter High School opened in 2000 and is one of 71 public charter schools in Philadelphia. It sits within the aging, historic Frankford Arsenal grounds, and one of its campus buildings dates back to the War of 1812. The school's transformation from one of the lowest-performing schools in the city to one of the highest-achieving…

  3. I Am from a Very Small Town: Social Reconstructionism and Multicultural Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Marguerite W.

    2006-01-01

    "I am from a very small town in which almost the entire population is made up of White middle class society." This statement is a reoccurring theme of final Multicultural Education (MCE) papers by preservice teachers at the University of Wisconsin Oshkosh (UW Oshkosh). Although this sounds like an innocuous statement, over the past 12…

  4. Planning Communities: Citizens in Two Border Towns Learn To Plan Their Own Initiatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henkel, David

    1998-01-01

    The University of New Mexico's Community and Regional Planning Program worked with two border towns that share water resources--Columbus (New Mexico) and Puerto Palomas (Chihuahua, Mexico)--to help them prepare a community comprehensive plan needed for water-project funding. The program conducted action research involving local schools and people…

  5. A sediment budget for Town Creek watershed: Suspended sediment transport analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Town Creek watershed is located in the Southeastern Plains Ecoregion in Mississippi. Its total area covers 1,769 km2 and represents approximately 50% of the upper Tombigbee River basin area contributing to the Aberdeen Pool on the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The sediment yield from the watersh...

  6. Out of Sight, Out of Mind: Homeless Children and Families in Small-Town America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissing, Yvonne M.

    Homelessness in small towns and rural areas is on the rise, and a substantial portion of the rural homeless consists of families with children. This book draws on interviews and case studies of over 300 homeless children and their families, primarily in New Hampshire, and on supporting statistics to provide individual and sociological perspectives…

  7. [Talk of the Town. Designs for Learning: Building Schools for the 21st Century].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Presents excerpts from a satellite town meeting where participants discussed issues common to the nation's schools. Topics include federal legislation for school construction, the planning of one school for future technology, ways school design influences learning, and community involvement in school redesign. (GR)

  8. ComputerTown. A Do-It-Yourself Community Computer Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loop, Liza; And Others

    This manual based on Menlo Park's experiences in participating in a nationwide experimental computer literacy project provides guidelines for the development and management of a ComputerTown. This project, which was begun in September 1981 in the Menlo Park Public Library, concentrates on providing public access to microcomputers through hands-on…

  9. The Future of Teaching and Learning: Challenging Standards and High Expectations. Satellite Town Meeting #73. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Washington, DC.

    This 60-minute VHS videotape of a U.S. Department of Education Satellite Town Meeting focuses on the future of learning in U.S. schools and what it will take to create challenging, exciting, high performing schools. It explains that there cannot be excellent learning without excellent teaching. The 1985 National Teacher of the Year co-hosts this…

  10. Age of First Use of Cigarettes among Rural and Small Town Elementary School Children in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarvela, Paul D.; Monge, Eduardo A.; Shannon, Dan V.; Nawrot, Robynn

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the age at first cigarette use among rural and small town elementary students. Age-appropriate surveys of kindergarten through sixth-grade students indicated no significant difference in smoking between students in grades K-5, but smoking increased significantly in sixth grade. The strongest predictor variables were having tried…

  11. Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark. Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souders, Bronwen

    Waterford, Virginia, preserves the ambiance and many of the structures that characterized it during its heyday as a flour milling town in the 19th century. The village has changed so little in shape and size that founder Amos Janney would find it recognizable. He could stroll from his 1733 home to the area of his original mill and then on to the…

  12. The Town Hall Meeting: Imagining a Self through Public-Sphere Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiencicki, Jill; Fosen, Chris; Burton, Sofie; Gonder, Justin; Wolf, Thia

    2011-01-01

    What lasting impact could a required general education writing course have on students' well-being? The authors examined this question in the context of the California State University- Chico Town Hall Meeting, a campus event sponsored jointly by the Academic Writing Program and the First-Year Experience Program from 2006 to 2009. In the Town…

  13. Historical and Genealogical Gold Mine: An Index Project for a Small-Town Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Thomas F.; Fennell, Janice C.

    1982-01-01

    Describes project initiated at Georgia College to provide access to the information in small-town newspapers by developing an index-abstract for the Milledgeville, Georgia, "Southern Recorder" and its successors (1820-present). The nature of the index project, subject terms, funding, and the use of computers are discussed. Seven…

  14. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental…

  15. A Rural New Town for the West Side of the San Joaquin Valley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Edward M.; And Others

    There are three major phases in the process of community development projected for the San Joaquin Valley's west side. The first phase involves agricultural experiments using different kinds of crops, agricultural techniques, and ownership arrangements. Beginning when enough people have returned to the land to create a demand for an expanded town,…

  16. Partners for Excellence: Families, Businesses and Communities Working Together for Schools. Satellite Town Meeting #74. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    Highlighting the impact of family and community involvement on student achievement, this videotape presents a satellite town meeting hosted by Secretary of Education, Richard Riley. The 60-minute video first notes the consensus in support of education, specifically higher standards, reasonable assessment, well-trained teachers, parent involvement,…

  17. To Grow or Not to Grow: Questions about Economic Development. Small Town Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coppedge, Robert O.

    Part of the Small Town Strategy series, this publication is designed to help communities decide whether further local economic growth is possible and desirable. The publication provides a discussion outline to be used to study the costs and benefits of growing or not growing. Questions are listed which should be raised by the community when…

  18. Common Sense Parenting of Toddlers and Preschoolers. A Girls and Boys Town Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Bridget A.; York, Steven M.

    Based on the view that parents need to balance nurturing behaviors that demonstrate love and affection with the discipline that children need in order to learn and thrive, this book presents the Common Sense Parenting program from Girls and Boys Town as adapted for parents of toddlers and preschoolers. Offering logical techniques and foundations…

  19. Where Has Class Gone? The Pervasiveness of Class in Girls' Physical Activity in a Rural Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smyth, John; Mooney, Amanda; Casey, Meghan

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to animate discussion around how social class operates with adolescent girls from low socio-economic status backgrounds to shape and inform their decisions about participation in physical activity (PA) inside and outside of school. Examining the instance of girls in a single secondary school in an Australian regional town, the…

  20. The Tangled Web: Investigating Academics' Views of Plagiarism at the University of Cape Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Jager, Karin; Brown, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problematic question of student plagiarism, its causes and manifestations, and how it is addressed in academic environments. A literature survey was conducted to establish how higher education institutions approach these issues, and a twofold investigation was conducted at the University of Cape Town. Data was gathered…

  1. Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

    2010-01-01

    Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

  2. Land sliding in the area of the town of Ocna Mures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Land sliding in the area of the town of Ocna Mures Situated near the center of Romania, the town of Ocna Mures, Alba county, once was considered a health resort. Positioned on the left bank of the river Mures, it has a most important natural asset - that is salt. This town began its growth around the year 1896 when the Sodium Product Plant came into being. From the salt extracted as brine they obtained different chlorine-sodium products. On the morning of December 22, 2010, a landslide occurred in the area close to the center of the town, causing a release of a great deal of salty water that soon formed a lake. During that day the big supermarket that was situated on the back of the sliding area collapsed into the crater of the newly formed salty lake. Due to this sliding the main road began to present huge cracks and it sank into the ground around 3 meters, along a length of 100 meters. Thus the asphalt wrinkled as a result of the landslide and one can no longer use the road. Together with my students I went to that area in order to study the alterations that were produced in the ground and to observe the efforts of the specialized workers trying to avoid a catastrophe. Thus we learned that a variety of corrections were needed: - The design and the installation of a barrier around that area in order to prevent more plain water to enter; - Stopping excavations of pebbles from the river Mures over an area of 5 kilometers up- and down-river of the town area; - The removal of the other salty lakes from the town area; - The new design of the sewer system of the town using resistant materials; - Increased capacity of the sewer system for industrial water and drainage from the abundant rains; - The planting of trees in the area in order to fix the ground and prevent new landslides; In order to establish the safety coefficient to protect the salt reserve due to its ubiquity they have to consult seismology specialists. Therefore they have to do all the necessary efforts in

  3. Geospatial Water Quality Analysis of Dilla Town, Gadeo Zone, Ethiopia - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhale, G. K.; Wakeyo, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    Dilla is a socio-economically important town in Ethiopia, established on the international highway joining capital cities of Ethiopia and Kenya. It serves as an administrative center of the Gedeo Zone in SNNPR region of Ethiopia accommodating around 65000 inhabitants and also as an important trade centre for coffee. Due to the recent developments and urbanization in town and surrounding area, waste and sewage discharge has been raised significantly into the water resources. Also frequent rainfall in the region worsens the problem of water quality. In this view, present study aims to analyze water quality profile of Dilla town using 12 physico-chemical parameters. 15 Sampling stations are identified amongst the open wells, bore wells and from surface water, which are being extensively used for drinking and other domestic purposes. Spectrophotometer is used to analyze data and Gaussian process regression is used to interpolate the same in GIS environment to represent spatial distribution of parameters. Based on observed and desirable values of parameters, water quality index (WQI); an indicator of weighted estimate of the quantities of various parameters ranging from 1 to 100, is developed in GIS. Higher value of WQI indicates better while low value indicates poor water quality. This geospatial analysis is carried out before and after rainfall to understand temporal variation with reference to rainfall which facilitates in identifying the potential zones of drinking water. WQI indicated that 8 out of 15 locations come under acceptable category indicating the suitability of water for human use, however remaining locations are unfit. For example: the water sample at main_campus_ustream_1 (site name) site has very low WQI after rainfall, making it unfit for human usage. This suggests undertaking of certain measures in town to enhance the water quality. These results are useful for town authorities to take corrective measures and ameliorate the water quality for human

  4. [A case of town-gas intoxication occurring to a family].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Y; Moriya, F; Miyaishi, S; Ishizu, H

    1990-12-01

    A peculiar case of town-gas intoxication occurring to a family is reported. The victims were a 56-year-old man, his 52-year-old wife and his 20-year-old daughter. They were found in the room at third floor of an apartment house made of reinforced concrete. Although the man has already died, his wife and daughter were comatose. From the autopsy findings, the postmortem interval of the corpse was presumably 3-4 days and CO-Hb concentrations in left and right ventricular blood were 60.7 and 62.2%, respectively. The typical components of town-gas, methane, ethylene and ethane, were detected in air of lung and in several organs. The cause of death of man was CO intoxication due to town-gas. After a short duration of recovery of consciousness by general emergency treatment, his wife relapsed into a coma. The bilateral necroses in globus pallidus and nucleus caudatus of his daughter were confirmed by MRI and CT. Although she could recover from a coma by emergency treatment, amnesia and intelligence disorder have remained. Decubital ulcers were recognized on the backs of bodies of wife and daughter, but not on that of the corpse. The leak volume of town-gas from the gas-cooker was 0.430-0.434 m3 an hour, which was nearly equal to 0.0258-0.0260 m3 of CO volume an hour. CO concentration in the room can increase at the rate of 0.03% an hour in the condition of uniform diffusion of town-gas.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Community Effects on Teacher Involvement in School Development Activity: A Study of Teachers in Cities, Smaller Towns and Rural Areas in Norway.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Midthassel, Unni Vere; Manger, Terje; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2002-01-01

    Examined the effects of community type on teacher involvement in school development activity (SDA). Data on urban, small town, and rural teachers indicated that teachers in smaller towns were more involved in SDA than those in rural areas, while the differences between cities and smaller towns were not statistically significant. The impact of…

  6. "Coming to town": the impact of urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and network norms on the smoking attitudes of black women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Williams, Chyvette T; Grier, Sonya A; Marks, Amy Seidel

    2008-07-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effect of urban living on smoking attitudes among black African women in South Africa. We examine how urbanicity affects attitudes toward smoking and how it moderates the relationship between both advertising exposure and network norms on black women's smoking attitudes. Respondents were 975 black women currently living in Cape Town townships, some of which were raised in rural villages or small towns. Respondents completed a cross-sectional survey, which included data on smoking attitudes, norms, and exposure to cigarette advertising. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed with smoking attitudes as the response variable, and urbanicity, cigarette advertising exposure, and network smoking norms as primary explanatory variables. Interactions were tested to determine whether urbanicity modified the effect of advertising exposure and network norms on smoking attitudes. Independent effects of urbanicity, exposure to cigarette advertising, and greater smoking prevalence within women's networks were associated with more favorable smoking attitudes. In addition, urbanicity moderated the relationship between network smoking norms and smoking attitudes, but not cigarette advertising exposure and smoking attitudes. Urbanicity, cigarette advertising, and networks play important roles in women's attitudes toward smoking, and potentially, smoking behavior. Overall, our results suggest that strong and creative anti-smoking efforts are needed to combat the potential for a smoking epidemic among an increasingly urbanized population of black women in South Africa and similar emerging markets. Additional research is warranted.

  7. Indicators of substance abuse treatment demand in Cape Town, South Africa (1997-2001).

    PubMed

    Myers, B; Parry, C D H; Plüddemann, M A

    2004-05-01

    Few studies have investigated the demand for substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This article uses data collected from specialist substance abuse treatment centres to describe substance abuse treatment demand and patterns of service utilisation in Cape Town for the period January 1997 to December 2001. Findings suggest that although treatment demand for alcohol-related problems remains high, treatment demand for substances other than alcohol has increased over time. Patterns of treatment service utilisation suggest that women and black South Africans remain underserved. The need for comprehensive and accessible substance abuse treatment services in Cape Town is highlighted and recommendations are made for improving access to treatment services, and undertaking comprehensive evaluations of existing treatment facilities.

  8. Millimeter wave detection via Autler-Townes splitting in rubidium Rydberg atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, Joshua A. Holloway, Christopher L.; Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, Dave A.; Miller, Stephanie; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg

    2014-07-14

    In this paper, we demonstrate the detection of millimeter waves via Autler-Townes splitting in {sup 85}Rb Rydberg atoms. This method may provide an independent, atom-based, SI-traceable method for measuring mm-wave electric fields, which addresses a gap in current calibration techniques in the mm-wave regime. The electric-field amplitude within a rubidium vapor cell in the WR-10 wave guide band is measured for frequencies of 93.71 GHz and 104.77 GHz. Relevant aspects of Autler-Townes splitting originating from a four-level electromagnetically induced transparency scheme are discussed. We measured the E-field generated by an open-ended waveguide using this technique. Experimental results are compared to a full-wave finite element simulation.

  9. The influence of older classmates on adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia J; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the influence of exposure to older within-grade peers on sexual behavior among students in urban South Africa. Data are drawn from the Cape Area Panel Study, a longitudinal survey of young people conducted in metropolitan Cape Town from 2002 to 2006. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of many in their cohort interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates who are at least two years older and show that such exposure is statistically significantly associated with early sexual initiation among adolescent girls. This exposure also increases the age difference between these girls and their first sexual partner, and helps explain a significant proportion of the earlier sexual debut of African girls, compared with colored and white girls in Cape Town.

  10. Drosophila spalt/spalt-related mutants exhibit Townes-Brocks' syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Dong, P. D. Si; Todi, Sokol V.; Eberl, Daniel F.; Boekhoff-Falk, Grace

    2003-01-01

    Mutations in SALL1, the human homolog of the Drosophila spalt gene, result in Townes-Brocks' syndrome, which is characterized by hand/foot, anogenital, renal, and ear anomalies, including sensorineural deafness. spalt genes encode zinc finger transcription factors that are found in animals as diverse as worms, insects, and vertebrates. Here, we examine the effect of losing both of the spalt genes, spalt and spalt-related, in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, and report defects similar to those in humans with Townes-Brocks' syndrome. Loss of both spalt and spalt-related function in flies yields morphological defects in the testes, genitalia, and the antenna. Furthermore, spalt/spalt-related mutant antennae show severe reductions in Johnston's organ, the major auditory organ in Drosophila. Electrophysiological analyses confirm that spalt/spalt-related mutant flies are deaf. These commonalities suggest that there is functional conservation for spalt genes between vertebrates and insects. PMID:12925729

  11. Managing landscape connectivity for a fragmented area using spatial analysis model at town scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiliang; Dong, Yuhong; Fu, Wei; Zhang, Zhaoling

    2009-10-01

    Urban growth has great effect on land uses of its suburbs. The habitat loss and fragmentation in those areas are a main threat to conservation of biodiversity. Enhancing landscape functional connectivity is usually an effective way to maintain high biodiversity level in disturbed area. Taking a small town in Beijing as an example, we designed potential landscape corridors based on identification of landscape element quality and "least-cost" path analysis. We described a general approach to establish the corridor network in such fragmented area at town scale. The results showed that landscape elements position has various effects on landscape suitability. Small forest patches and other green lands such as meadow, shrub, even farmland could be a potential stepping-stone or corridor for animal movements. Also, the analysis reveals that critical areas should be managed to facilitate the movement of dispersers among habitat patches.

  12. Stress, Substance Use and Sexual Risk Behaviors among Primary Care Patients in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Lyndsay Ammon; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Ward, Catherine L.; Flisher, Alan J.; Bresick, Graham F.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the relationship between stress, substance use and sexual risk behaviors in a primary care population in Cape Town, South Africa. A random sample of participants (and over-sampled 18–24 year olds) from 14 of the 49 clinics in Cape Town's public health sector using stratified random sampling (N=2,618), was selected. We evaluated current hazardous drug and alcohol use and three domains of stressors (Personal Threats, Lacking Basic Needs, and Interpersonal Problems). Several personal threat stressors and an interpersonal problem stressor were related to sexual risk behaviors. With stressors included in the model, hazardous alcohol use, but not hazardous drug use, was related to higher rates of sexual risk behaviors. Our findings suggest a positive screening for hazardous alcohol use should alert providers about possible sexual risk behaviors and vice versa. Additionally, it is important to address a broad scope of social problems and incorporate stress and substance use in HIV prevention campaigns. PMID:19205865

  13. [Problems of the health status of the youth from a student town].

    PubMed

    Iotova, E; Mineva, T; Popivanova, Ts; Georgiev, V

    1990-01-01

    Studies are carried out on the health status and morbidity of students from the territory of the student town and health-hygienic undertakings are recommended for improving the health of the students and formation of health habits. For 8000 students were traced the following data: prophylactic examinations, acute morbidity, morbidity according to medical registrations studied from the statistical cards, the follow-up care of patients with chronic diseases. A scientific statistical method for studying the medical documentation is used for examining the acute and chronic morbidity. The basic moments in the structure of the students pathology are described, stimulated by the new moments of life in the conditions of the students town and the peculiarities in the health status of the students as special age group of the population. Conclusions are made concerning the carrying out of directed hygiene-preventive undertakings.

  14. A comparison of three bacterial strains for the remediation of town gas soils

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, N.E.; Akkineni, D.K.; Cutright, T.J.

    1995-12-31

    The contamination of soils from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is widespread. Although PAH contamination still occurs from current industrial processes, accidental spills, and leaking underground storage tanks, the main source of contamination is from abandoned town gas sites. To date there is a conservative estimate of 2500 town gas sites that require remediation. The most cost effective in-situ treatment for these sites is that of bioremediation. Experiments were conducted to compare the efficiencies of three bacterial strains for the remediation of an industrially PAH contaminated soil. Specifically, the efficiencies of Achromobacter sp., Mycobacterium sp., and Nocardia paraffinae were investigated. This paper will address the chemical specificity of each bacterial strains for the PAHs present.

  15. An assessment of the building sector efficiency resource for the Town of Handlova

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Purpose of this assessment for this town in the Slovak Republic is to develop information on the building sector energy efficiency and improvement potential for use by town management to support decisions on providing energy services to Handlova citizens. Objectives were to characterize baseline space and water heat energy use and efficiency improvement potential in the residential and nonresidential building sectors. Intention was to identify major areas of efficiency improvement potential and cost-effectiveness. Four levels of energy and fuel prices were used. A significant efficiency resource exists in the space and water heating end uses in these building sectors; it amounts to 42% of the total building sector space and water heat energy consumption.

  16. Plow, town, and gown: the politics of family practice in 1960s America.

    PubMed

    Tobbell, Dominique

    2013-01-01

    In the 1960s, general practitioners organized themselves into a state-based nationwide political movement that lobbied state legislators and state-funded medical schools to create departments of family practice. They framed their calls in the context of the national shortages of primary care physicians by arguing that those medical schools that received state funding had an obligation to the state to train sufficient numbers of primary care physicians to ensure the health care needs of the state's residents would be met. As this article reveals, two defining features of this activism were rural politics and the politics of town and gown. The history of family practice thus introduces a new dimension to the familiar dyad of town and gown relations: the plow-rural physicians who brought to the medical politics of the post-World War II United States a distinctive and powerful set of political, social, and economic interests.

  17. Identification and impacts of earthquakes on the Roman Town of Patras- Archaeological evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stamati, Alexandra-Venetia; Stiros, Stathis

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we examine the interactions between earthquakes and inhabitation history of the town of Patras (NW Peloponnese, Greece), flourishing during the Roman period. Instrumental seismicity data and the seismic history of the last two centuries indicate that the wider area is among the most seismically active parts of Europe. But surprisingly, for older periods no historical evidence of ancient earthquakes exists. If this absence of evidence of ancient earthquakes is indicative of a real absence of earthquakes, this may be important for different disciplines. For Seismology, it may perhaps indicate clusters of seismicity separated by intervals of quiescence, each at least several thousand years long. It may also indicate that the inhabitation history of Patras town was not interrupted by major natural catastrophic events, and some destruction observed in ancient remains can be assigned to anthropogenic effects. In order to contribute in the solution of this problem, we made a systematic Archaeoseismological investigation of Patras and examined for the first time several hundreds of reports of archaeological excavations that have been made during period of reconstruction of the city (1972-2004). Among these, about 100 reports provide evidence of destruction layers, some of which satisfy the criteria for identification of earthquakes from archaeological data. A further correlation of this evidence in space and time was made, and permitted to identify with certainty a few major seismic events which marked the history of Roman Patras (1st-6th century AD). In spite of their catastrophic effects, these earthquakes have not led to the abandonment of the ancient town (inhabitation hiatus), but have certainly left their marks in the urban and perhaps social and economic history of this Roman town. Some certain uniformity in the frequency of earthquakes in Patras was also inferred.

  18. Substance Use and Psychosocial Predictors of High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flisher, Alan J.; Townsend, Loraine; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl F.; King, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs predicts dropout among secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa. A self-report instrument was administered to 1,470 Grade 8 students. The proportion of students that dropped out of school between the onset of the study and 4 years later was 54.9%.…

  19. Radon and radioactivity at a town overlying Uranium ores in northern Greece.

    PubMed

    Kourtidis, K; Georgoulias, A K; Vlahopoulou, M; Tsirliganis, N; Kastelis, N; Ouzounis, K; Kazakis, N

    2015-12-01

    Extensive measurements of (222)Rn in the town of Xanthi in N Greece show that the part of the town overlying granite deposits and the outcrop of a uranium ore has exceptionally high indoor radon levels, with monthly means up to 1500 Bq m(-3). A large number of houses (40%) in this part of the town exhibit radon levels above 200 Bq m(-3) while 11% of the houses had radon levels above 400 Bq m(-3). Substantial interannual variability as well as the highest in Europe winter/summer ratios (up to 12) were observed in this part of the town, which consist of traditional stone masonry buildings of the late 19th-early 20th century. Measurements of (238)U and (232)Th content of building materials from these houses as well as radionuclide measurements in different floors show that the high levels of indoor radon measured in these buildings are not due to high radon emanation rates from the building materials themselves but rather due to high radon flux from the soil because of the underlying geology, high radon penetration rates into the buildings from underground due to the lack of solid concrete foundations in these buildings, or a combination thereof. From the meteorological variables studied, highest correlation with indoor (222)Rn was found with temperature (r(2) = 0.65). An indoor radon prognostic regression model using temperature, pressure and precipitation as input was developed, that reproduced indoor radon with r(2) = 0.69. Hence, meteorology is the main driving factor of indoor radon, with temperature being the most important determinant. Preliminary flux measurements indicate that the soil-atmosphere (222)Rn flux should be in the range 150-250 Bq m(-2) h(-1), which is in the upper 10% of flux values for Europe.

  20. The carbon monoxide levels in automobile exhaust. A case study in Chidambaram town.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, N; Thirumarran, M

    2001-10-01

    The exhaust gases from automobiles constitute about 75% of air pollution. Among the various pollutants emitted from vehicles, CO is the primary pollutant and very toxic one. The CO monitor method was used to measure the CO level in Chidambaram town. From the study, it is evident that the CO level is closely related to the density of motor vehicles plying on the roads. With increase in number of motor vehicles CO level also increases, which pollutes the roadside environment severely in future.

  1. Radon and radioactivity at a town overlying Uranium ores in northern Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kourtidis, Konstantinos; Georgoulias, Aristeidis; Tsirliganis, Nestor

    2016-04-01

    Extensive measurements of Rn-222 in the town of Xanthi in N Greece show that the part of the town overlying granite deposits and the outcrop of a uranium ore has exceptionally high indoor radon levels, with monthly means up to 1500 Bq m-3. A large number of houses (40%) in this part of the town exhibit radon levels above 200 Bq m-3 while 11% of the houses had radon levels above 400 Bq/m3. Substantial interannual variability as well as the highest in Europe winter/summer ratios (up to 12) were observed in this part of the town, which consist of traditional stone masonry buildings of the late 19th- early 20th century. Measurements of U-238 and Th-232 content of building materials from these houses as well as radionuclide measurements in different floors show that the high levels of indoor radon measured in these buildings are not due to high radon emanation rates from the building materials themselves but rather due to high radon flux from the soil because of the underlying geology, high radon penetration rates into the buildings from underground due to the lack of solid concrete foundations in these buildings, or a combination thereof. From the meteorological variables studied, highest correlation with indoor Rn-222 was found with temperature (r2=0.65). An indoor radon prognostic regression model using temperature, pressure and precipitation as input was developed, that reproduced indoor radon with r2=0.69. Hence, meteorology is the main driving factor of indoor radon, with temperature being the most important determinant. Preliminary flux measurements indicate that the soil-atmosphere Rn-222 flux should be in the range 150-250 Bq m-2 hr-1, which is in the upper 10% of flux values for Europe.

  2. Sub-optimal adherence to combination anti-retroviral therapy and its associated factors according to self-report, clinician-recorded and pharmacy-refill assessment methods among HIV-infected adults in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Legese A; Prins, Jan M; Yalew, Alemayehu W; Sprangers, Mirjam A G; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is generally high in most resource-limited settings. However, sub-optimal adherence occurs in a sizable proportion of patients, and is independently predictive of detectable viremia. We investigated sub-optimal adherence according to self-report, clinician-recorded, and pharmacy-refill assessment methods, and their associated factors among HIV-infected adults receiving cART in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Eight-hundred seventy patients who initiated cART between May 2009 and April 2012 were randomly selected, and 664 patients who were alive, had remained in clinical care and were receiving cART for at least six-months were included. Sub-optimal adherence was defined as patients' response of less than "all-of the time" to the self-report adherence question, or any clinician-recorded poor adherence during the six most recent clinic visits, or a pharmacy-refill of <95% medication possession ratio (MPR). Logistic regression models were fitted to identify factors associated with sub-optimal adherence. The average adherence level to cART, expressed as MPR, was nearly 97%. However, sub-optimal adherence occurred in 12%, 4%, and 27% of patients according to self-report, clinician-recorded, and pharmacy-refill measures, respectively. More satisfaction with social support was significantly associated with less sub-optimal adherence according to self-report and clinician-record. Younger age, lower educational level, and lower CD4 cell count at cART initiation were significantly associated with sub-optimal refill-based adherence. Findings from our large multi-center study suggest that sub-optimal adherence was present in up to a quarter of the patients, despite a high degree of average adherence to cART. Interventions aimed at preventing sub-optimal adherence should focus on improving social support, on younger patients, on patients with lower educational level, and on those who started cART at a lower CD4 cell count.

  3. Predictors of HIV-test utilization in PMTCT among antenatal care attendees in government health centers: institution-based cross-sectional study using health belief model in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Workagegn, Fikremariam; Kiros, Getachew; Abebe, Lakew

    2015-01-01

    Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is the most dramatic epidemic of the century that has claimed over two decades more than 3 million deaths. Sub-Saharan Africa is heavily affected and accounts for nearly 70% of all cases. Mother-to-child transmission of HIV is responsible for 20% of all HIV transmissions. With no preventive interventions, 50% of HIV infections are transmitted from HIV-positive mothers to newborns. HIV-testing is central to prevent vertical transmission. Despite, awareness campaigns, prevention measures, and more recently, promotion of antiviral regimens, the prevalence of cases and deaths is still rising and the prevalence of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) voluntary counseling test (VCT) use remains low. This study identifies predictors and possible barriers of HIV-testing among antenatal care attendees based on the health belief model (HBM) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods The study was an institution-based cross-sectional survey conducted from September 1 to September 30, 2013. A total of 308 individuals were interviewed using structured questionnaires adopted and modified from similar studies. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews. A logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with HIV-test use. Results In spite of satisfactory knowledge on HIV/AIDS transmission, participants are still at high risk of contracting the infection, wherein only 51.8% tested for HIV; among the married, only 84.1% and among the gestational age of third trimester, 34.1% mothers tested for HIV. Based on the HBM, failure to use PMTCT-HIV-test was related to its perceived lack of net benefit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =0.34, confidence interval [CI] [0.19–0.58], P<0.001), but interviewees with high perceived self-efficacy were 1.9 times more likely to use HIV-test (AOR =1.90, CI [1.09–3.33], P<0.05). Conclusion and recommendation This study identifies perceived

  4. Taxonomy and ecology of the Cape Town Spider Crab, Macropodia falcifera (Stimpson, 1858) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Inachidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Richer De Forges, Bertrand; Jones, Georgina

    2013-01-01

    The nomenclature and taxonomy of the Cape Town Spider Crab, Macropodia falcifera Stimpson, 1858, is treated. The species is rediagnosed and figured, and its ecology discussed. A key is also provided of the Indo-West Pacific species of Macropodia.

  5. Report: American Recovery and Reinvestment Act Site Inspection of Sewer Pump Station Rehabilitation and Improvements, Town of Ball, Louisiana

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #11-R-0014, November 9, 2010. Based upon our site inspection, nothing came to our attention that would require action from the town, the State of Louisiana, or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  6. Spatial distribution and temporal trends of VOCs in a highly industrialized town in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Naciye; Ergenekon, Pınar; Seçkin, Gaye Özdemir; Bayır, Sümeyra

    2015-05-01

    An extensive monitoring study of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was conducted at sites across the highly industrialized town of Dilovasi, northern Turkey to determine temporal and spatial trends in pollutant concentrations and relate to the effects of source locations, meteorology, and topography. Two-week passive samplers (Tenax tubes) were deployed at twelve sites from February to December 2012 and analysed using thermal desorption and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (TD-GC-MS). Sampled total VOC (TVOC) levels were highest in the July through October period and were highest at low-altitude sites near industry facilities and vehicle traffic sources (148.3 µg/m(3) at site 11, 154.1 µg/m(3) at site 10) and lowest at high-altitude sites located furthest upwind from industry and traffic sources (78.4 µg/m(3) at site 5 and 78.5 µg/m(3) at site 6). Analysis of "T/B" ratios suggested that contributions to ambient VOC in Dilovasi are dominated by the town's industrial sources. Meteorological conditions and the town's basin topography were also found to significantly influence the city's air quality, with strong winds from the NE observed to correlate with periods of higher sampled TVOC. Compared with other industrialized urban centers, the study revealed that there is significant toluene pollution in Dilovasi and recommended enhanced continuous monitoring at the city's industrial and residential zones.

  7. Developing Small Cities by Promoting Village to Town and Its Effects on Quality of Life for the Local Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezvani, Mohamad Reza; Mansourian, Hossain

    2013-01-01

    In the past few years, developing small cities, by promoting villages to towns for instance, has been considered as one of the main policies for improving the Quality of Life(QoL) in the rural regions of Iran and with this aim in the last few decades, a large number of rural centers have been promoted to towns. The purpose of this research is to…

  8. Simulating the conversion of rural settlements to town land based on multi-agent systems and cellular automata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans.

  9. Simulating the Conversion of Rural Settlements to Town Land Based on Multi-Agent Systems and Cellular Automata

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yaolin; Kong, Xuesong; Liu, Yanfang; Chen, Yiyun

    2013-01-01

    Rapid urbanization in China has triggered the conversion of land from rural to urban use, particularly the conversion of rural settlements to town land. This conversion is the result of the joint effects of the geographic environment and agents involving the government, investors, and farmers. To understand the dynamic interaction dominated by agents and to predict the future landscape of town expansion, a small town land-planning model is proposed based on the integration of multi-agent systems (MAS) and cellular automata (CA). The MAS-CA model links the decision-making behaviors of agents with the neighbor effect of CA. The interaction rules are projected by analyzing the preference conflicts among agents. To better illustrate the effects of the geographic environment, neighborhood, and agent behavior, a comparative analysis between the CA and MAS-CA models in three different towns is presented, revealing interesting patterns in terms of quantity, spatial characteristics, and the coordinating process. The simulation of rural settlements conversion to town land through modeling agent decision and human-environment interaction is very useful for understanding the mechanisms of rural-urban land-use change in developing countries. This process can assist town planners in formulating appropriate development plans. PMID:24244472

  10. [Dynamics of regional ecological frangibility under natural hazard stress: a case study in Qingping Town of Sichuan Province, Southwest China].

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin-Tao; Tao, He-Ping; Liu, Shao-Quan; Yu, Hui; Kong, Bo

    2012-01-01

    By using the aerial remote sensing images after May 12, 2008 (the date of catastrophic Wenchuan Earthquake) and the unmanned aircraft vehicle remote sensing images after August 13, 2010 (the date of extraordinary debris flow), and in combining with the land use map (1:10000), topographic map (1:50000), and collected field investigation data of Qingping Town, Mianzhu City of Sichuan Province in 2006, this paper analyzed and evaluated the ecological frangibility of the Town. In the Town, the slightly, lightly, moderately, heavily, and extremely fragile ecological zones after the extraordinary debris flow occupied 1.9%, 7.9%, 18.7%, 23.0%, and 48.5%, respectively, with the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones accounting for 71.5% of the total, being 238.45 km2, i. e., the ecological environment was overall very fragile. Under the impact of the two natural hazards, the ecological frangibility degree of the Town increased obviously. As compared with that before the Earthquake, the area of heavily and extremely fragile ecological zones after the Earthquake increased by 12.4%, and the area of extremely fragile ecological zone was 1.67 times larger. The dynamic evolution of the ecological frangibility of the Town was mainly manifested in the conversion of heavily fragile ecological zone into extremely fragile ecological zone. Complex terrain was the key factor of the ecological frangibility of the Town.

  11. Late Holocene Environmental Change at Amara West: A New Kingdom Town on the Desert Nile in Northern Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, Neal; Woodward, Jamie; Macklin, Mark; Dalton, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Amara West is a well-preserved town of the late New Kingdom downstream of Sai Island in Northern Sudan. The town has being identified as the seat of the pharaonic administration of Kush (Upper Nubia) in the Ramesside Period (c. 1306-1070 BC). This region fell under Egyptian control after about 1500 BC. The modern Nile (flowing eastwards in this reach) lies to the south of the town and a well preserved palaeochannel lies immediately to the north. Following the Egypt Exploration Society excavations of 1938-39 and 1947-48, it was argued that the ancient town was once located upon an island in the Nile. Renewed archaeological excavations allied to geomorphological work on the ancient river environment are attempting to establish the nature of the local and regional landscape before, during, and after the occupation of the town. This paper presents new OSL and radiocarbon dates on the sedimentary fill from the palaeochannel system to establish when the channel system ceased to flow on a permanent basis. Micromorphological work on the sedimentary records within the town provide additional insights into the nature of the local environment during the period of occupation. We discuss the implications of the new palaeoenvironmental data for our understanding of Amara West and we set out the wider significance of these new geoarchaeological data.

  12. Application of Geographic Information System and Remotesensing in effective solid waste disposal sites selection in Wukro town, Tigray, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammedshum, A. A.; Gebresilassie, M. A.; Rulinda, C. M.; Kahsay, G. H.; Tesfay, M. S.

    2014-11-01

    Identifying solid waste disposal sites and appropriately managing them is a challenging task to many developing countries. This is a critical problem too in Ethiopia in general and in Wukro town in particular. The existing site for Wukro town is not sufficient in its capacity and it is damaging the environment due to its location, and the type of waste dumped, while the surrounding area is being irrigated. Due to the swift expansion and urbanization developments in Wukro town, it badly needs to develop controlled solid waste dumping site to prevent several contamination problems. This study was conducted first, to assess the existing waste management strategies in Wukro town; and second, to find out the potential waste disposal sites for the town, using GIS and Remote Sensing techniques. The study exploited the Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE) methods to combine necessary factors considered for dumping site selection. The selected method also uses various geographical data including remote sensing data, with GIS spatial analysis tools. Accordingly, site suitability maps for each of the factors were developed in a GIS environment. Results indicate that 12 dumping sites were appropriate and they were further ranked against their suitability in terms of wind direction, proximity to settlement area and distance from the center of the town. Finally, two sites are the best suitable for dumping site. This study indicated that the application of Geographic Information System and Remote Sensing techniques are efficient and low cost tools to study and select appropriate dumping site so as to facilitate decision making processes.

  13. Influence of new town development on the urban heat island-the case of the Bundang area.

    PubMed

    Song, Young-Bae

    2005-01-01

    Five new towns have been developed around the Seoul metropolitan area since 1996. However, these new towns generate lots of traffic and related problems in the areas including those new towns and Seoul as a result of increases in population and a lack of ecological-self-sufficiency. Currently, construction of another new town is under deliberation, and what should be a major consider is the notion that the new town be located within a wide, green zone. Many studies have revealed that green space can play an important role in improving urban eco-meteorological capability and air quality. In order to analyze the urban heat island which will be created by the new urban development, and to investigate the local thermal environment and its negative effects caused by a change of land use type and urbanization, Landsat TM images were used for extraction of urban surface temperature according to changes of land use over the last 15 years. These data are analyzed together with digital land use and topographic information. As a study result, it was found the urban heat island of the study area from 1985 to 1999 rapidly developed which showed a difference of mean temperature above + 2.0. Before the Bundang new town construction the temperature of the residential area was the same as a forest, but during the new town construction in 1991 analysis revealed the creation of an urban heat island. The temperature of a forest whose size is over 50% of the investigation area was lowest, and thus the presence of a forest is believed to have a direct cooling effect on the urban environment and its surroundings. The mean temperature of the residential and commercial areas in the study was found to be + 4.5 higher than the forest, and therefore this part of land use is believed to be the main factor causing the temperature increase of the urban heat island.

  14. Cape Town, South Africa, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear in the foreground of this perspective view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located at Table Bay (at the lower left), adjacent to Table Mountain, a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark.

    Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there. Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen here far inland (mid-distance left) at the Theewaterskloof Dam.

    False Bay is the large bay to the south (right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (upper right) of this scene.

    This Landsat and SRTM perspective view uses a 2-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The back edges of the data sets form a false horizon and a false sky was added. Colors of the scene were enhanced by image processing but are the natural color band combination from the Landsat satellite.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar

  15. Our Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Connie

    2010-01-01

    This article describes how the author teaches a fourth- and fifth-grade unit on architecture called the Art and Science of Planning Buildings. Rockville, Indiana has fine examples of architecture ranging from log cabins, classic Greek columns, Victorian houses, a mission-style theater, and Frank Lloyd Wright prairie-style homes. After reading…

  16. Elevated Blood Lead Levels of Children in Guiyu, an Electronic Waste Recycling Town in China

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xia; Peng, Lin; Xu, Xijin; Zheng, Liangkai; Qiu, Bo; Qi, Zongli; Zhang, Bao; Han, Dai; Piao, Zhongxian

    2007-01-01

    Background Electronic waste (e-waste) recycling has remained primitive in Guiyu, China, and thus may contribute to the elevation of blood lead levels (BLLs) in children living in the local environment. Objectives We compared the BLLs in children living in the e-waste recycling town of Guiyu with those living in the neighboring town of Chendian. Methods We observed the processing of e-waste recycling in Guiyu and studied BLLs in a cluster sample of 226 children < 6 years of age who lived in Guiyu and Chendian. BLLs were determined with atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Hemoglobin (Hgb) and physical indexes (height and weight, head and chest circumferences) were also measured. Results BLLs in 165 children of Guiyu ranged from 4.40 to 32.67 μg/dL with a mean of 15.3 μg/dL, whereas BLLs in 61 children of Chendian were from 4.09 to 23.10 μg/dL with a mean of 9.94 μg/dL. Statistical analyses showed that children living in Guiyu had significantly higher BLLs compared with those living in Chendian (p < 0.01). Of children in Guiyu, 81.8% (135 of 165) had BLLs > 10 μg/dL, compared with 37.7% of children (23 of 61) in Chendian (p < 0.01). In addition, we observed a significant increasing trend in BLLs with increasing age in Guiyu (p < 0.01). It appeared that there was correlation between the BLLs in children and numbers of e-waste workshops. However, no significant difference in Hgb level or physical indexes was found between the two towns. Conclusions The primitive e-waste recycling activities may contribute to the elevated BLLs in children living in Guiyu. PMID:17637931

  17. Barbers' knowledge and practice about occupational biological hazards was low in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Several health hazards including communicable diseases and skin conditions are associated with Barbers’ profession to which their visitors are exposed. Thus, knowledge and practice of Barbers would play a vital part in prevention and control of these health hazards. So, the aim of this study is to assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. Methods To assess knowledge and practice, and associated factors among barbers about biological hazards associated with their profession in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia, A work place based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 28 to April 6, 2012. The total numbers of Barbers in the town were 960 of which 400 Barbers were participated in the study. Sample size was determined using the formula for single population proportion by considering, 51% proportion, knowledgeable Barbers from Jimma, Ethiopia, 95% level of confidence, 5% margin of error and 15% none response rate. The numbers of barbers included in the study were selected by using systematic random sampling. Data was collected by face to face interview using a structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with knowledge and practice of barbers. Results Of 400 barbers, only 72 (18%) had good knowledge about biological hazards associated to their profession, While only 61 (15.3%) were practicing safely during barbering. Knowledge of the barbers was associated significantly with educational level, owner of the business, working hour and work experience, while practice was associated only with availability of UV sterilizers in the room and working hour. Conclusion Barbers’ practice and knowledge to prevent biological hazards associated with their profession is very poor. Thus, giving training for the Barbers is required toward prevention of

  18. Prevalence, Causes and Socio-Economic Determinants of Vision Loss in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Cockburn, Nicky; Steven, David; Lecuona, Karin; Joubert, Francois; Rogers, Graeme; Cook, Colin; Polack, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the prevalence and causes of blindness and visual impairment in Cape Town, South Africa and to explore socio-economic and demographic predictors of vision loss in this setting. Methods A cross sectional population-based survey was conducted in Cape Town. Eighty-two clusters were selected using probability proportionate to size sampling. Within each cluster 35 or 40 people aged 50 years and above were selected using compact segment sampling. Visual acuity of participants was assessed and eyes with a visual acuity less than 6/18 were examined by an ophthalmologist to determine the cause of vision loss. Demographic data (age, gender and education) were collected and a socio-economic status (SES) index was created using principal components analysis. Results Out of 3100 eligible people, 2750 (89%) were examined. The sample prevalence of bilateral blindness (presenting visual acuity <3/60) was 1.4% (95% CI 0.9–1.8). Posterior segment diseases accounted for 65% of blindness and cataract was responsible for 27%. The prevalence of vision loss was highest among people over 80 years (odds ratio (OR) 6.9 95% CI 4.6–10.6), those in the poorest SES group (OR 3.9 95% CI 2.2–6.7) and people with no formal education (OR 5.4 95% CI 1.7–16.6). Cataract surgical coverage was 68% in the poorest SES tertile (68%) compared to 93% in the medium and 100% in the highest tertile. Conclusions The prevalence of blindness among people ≥50 years in Cape Town was lower than expected and the contribution of posterior segment diseases higher than previously reported in South Africa and Sub Saharan Africa. There were clear socio-economic disparities in prevalence of vision loss and cataract surgical coverage in this setting which need to be addressed in blindness prevention programs. PMID:22363476

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the Greek population of Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Bonafede, R P; Botha, M C; Beighton, P

    1984-04-07

    A sample of 250 unrelated members of the Greek community of Cape Town was studied in order to establish the prevalence of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD) deficiency in the community. A gene frequency of 0,067 in males and a prevalence of 6,7% are estimated for this group. It is recommended that persons with G-6-PD deficiency should have access to a list of medicinal agents which have the potential for precipitating acute haemolytic crises and that they should wear Medic-Alert discs bearing information concerning the disorder.

  20. [An archaelogical contribution to hygienical principles in the Roman town-planning].

    PubMed

    Quilici Gigli, S

    1995-01-01

    Greek and Roman ancient medical writers suggest hygienical rules which are strictly dependent on the orientation of towns, the direction of winds and the quality of waters. According to Vitruvius, architects and builders should have some medical knowledge, together with a strong new interest towards the improvement of enviromental conditions. Norba, a little city never built up again after the Sillan distruction in 81 B.C., and Civitas Artena, quitted in the first century B.C., have been studied as significant exemples of this architectural behaviour. The construction of Villae - big country houses nearby the city - was conditioned by economics, easily available water, sunshine light and proximity to fruitful soils.

  1. The meaning of racism when the 'field" is the other side of town.

    PubMed

    Abrums, M

    2000-01-01

    When a researcher who belongs to the dominant white western society engages in research with members of a nondominant racial group, she often experiences a profound transition into understanding the meaning of personal and societal racism. What happens when the fieldwork is on the other side of town and the researcher must move back and forth between a middle class white world and a poor black neighborhood? As the researcher becomes more involved with her research group, the meaning of "home" becomes lost as the researcher inevitably struggles with the significance of white privilege and the consequences of the racism this privilege serves to perpetuate.

  2. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Vera; Stern, Ruth; Sanders, David; Reagon, Gavin; Mathews, Verona

    2008-01-01

    Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation provision. Results The studies both

  3. The Life and Death of a Mycenaean Port Town: Kalamianos on the Saronic Gulf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pullen, Daniel

    2013-12-01

    In the late fourteenth century bc of the Aegean Late Bronze Age (LBA), a large walled settlement was established at Korphos: Kalamianos, on the Saronic Gulf coast of the Corinthia, Greece. Archaeological and geological work by the Saronic harbors Archaeological Research Project has succeeded in reconstructing the LBA coastline and likely harbor basins, as well as documenting the well-preserved plan of an entire Late Helladic town. Kalamianos was a short-lived maritime outpost, purposely founded as a component of state expansion in a climate of intense peer-polity competition in LBA (fifteenth-thirteenth centuries bc) Greece.

  4. Oceanographic, atmospheric and water-quality measurements Sandwich Town Neck Beach, Massachusetts, 2016

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.; Montgomery, Ellyn; Suttles, Steven; Brosnahan, Sandra M.

    2016-01-01

    This web page provides access to oceanographic, atmospheric, and water quality observations near Sandwich Town Neck Beach, Massachusetts. These measurements were made in conjunction with two U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) projects; the Coastal Model Applications and Measurements Project, and the Barrier Island Evolution Research project, both supported by the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program. These measurements provide information about waves, tides, and overwash during a winter storm in January 2016; about waves, tides, currents, and water properties between February and May, 2016; and about waves and tides between May and June 2016, during a period that overlaps with offshore bathymetric surveys.

  5. The Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP) Town Hall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruane, Alex; Rosenzweig, Cynthia; Kyle, Page; Basso, Bruno; Winter, Jonathan; Asseng, Senthold

    2015-01-01

    AgMIP (www.agmip.org) is an international community of climate, crop, livestock, economics, and IT experts working to further the development and application of multi-model, multi-scale, multi-disciplinary agricultural models that can inform policy and decision makers around the world. This meeting will engage the AGU community by providing a brief overview of AgMIP, in particular its new plans for a Coordinated Global and Regional Assessment of climate change impacts on agriculture and food security for AR6. This Town Hall will help identify opportunities for participants to become involved in AgMIP and its 30+ activities.

  6. The UNESCO biosphere reserve concept as a tool for urban sustainability: the CUBES Cape Town case study.

    PubMed

    Stanvliet, R; Jackson, J; Davis, G; De Swardt, C; Mokhoele, J; Thom, Q; Lane, B D

    2004-06-01

    The Cape Town Case Study (CTCS) was a multi-institutional collaborative project initiated by CUBES, a knowledge networking initiative of UNESCO's Ecological Sciences Division and the Earth Institute at Columbia University. Cape Town was selected as a CUBES site on the basis of its high biological and cultural significance, together with its demonstrated leadership in promoting urban sustainability. The CTCS was conducted by the Cape Town Urban Biosphere Group, a cross-disciplinary group of specialists drawn from national, provincial, municipal, and civil society institutions, mandated to examine the potential value of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve concept as a tool for environmental management, social inclusion, and poverty alleviation in Cape Town. This article provides a contextualization of the CTCS and its collaborative process. It also reviews the biosphere reserve concept relative to urban sustainability objectives and proposes a more functional application of that concept in an urban context. A detailed analysis of key initiatives at the interface of conservation and poverty alleviation is provided in table format. Drawing on an examination of successful sustainability initiatives in Cape Town, specific recommendations are made for future application of the biosphere reserve concept in an urban context, as well as a model by which urban areas might affiliate with the UNESCO World Network of Biosphere Reserves, and criteria for such affiliation.

  7. Variation in access to sugar-sweetened beverages in vending machines across rural, town and urban high schools

    PubMed Central

    Adachi-Mejia, A.M.; Longacre, M.R.; Skatrud-Mickelson, M.; Li, Z.; Purvis, L.A.; Titus, L.J.; Beach, M.L.; Dalton, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Objectives The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans include reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Among the many possible routes of access for youth, school vending machines provide ready availability of sugar-sweetened beverages. The purpose of this study was to determine variation in high school student access to sugar-sweetened beverages through vending machines by geographic location – urban, town or rural – and to offer an approach for analysing school vending machine content. Study design Cross-sectional observational study. Methods Between October 2007 and May 2008, trained coders recorded beverage vending machine content and machine-front advertising in 113 machines across 26 schools in New Hampshire and Vermont, USA. Results Compared with town schools, urban schools were significantly less likely to offer sugar-sweetened beverages (P=0.002). Rural schools also offered more sugar-sweetened beverages than urban schools, but this difference was not significant. Advertisements for sugar-sweetened beverages were highly prevalent in town schools. Conclusions High school students have ready access to sugar-sweetened beverages through their school vending machines. Town schools offer the highest risk of exposure; school vending machines located in towns offer up to twice as much access to sugar-sweetened beverages in both content and advertising compared with urban locations. Variation by geographic region suggests that healthier environments are possible and some schools can lead as inspirational role models. PMID:23498924

  8. [History Of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar].

    PubMed

    Habek, Dubravko

    2013-09-01

    This review analyses historical sources on the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system in the town of Bjelovar over the past two centuries. The development of these two professional fields in the context of public health was regulated through a number of bylaws, such as Normativum Sanitatum from the time of the Habsburg Monarchy. Coroner examinations were performed by physicians, surgeons, and laymen using special instructions such as the famous booklet by nobleman and county medical officer Vilim Peičić from 1914. Forensic autopsy was performed by surgeons, primary or secondary hospital physicians in case of sudden or suspicious in-hospital deaths, whereas outpatient forensic autopsies were performed by county or town medical officers and district physicians at the request of investigating authorities (police, court, or general attorney's office). This historical review should serve as the basis for further historical research into this field in Croatia so as to obtain deeper insight into the development of forensic medicine and the coroner system, two professions that have always been a vital factor in public health.

  9. Solid waste characterization in Ketao, a rural town in Togo, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Møller, Jacob; Christensen, Thomas H

    2012-07-01

    In Africa the majority of solid waste data is for big cities. Small and rural towns are generally neglected and waste data from these areas are often unavailable, which makes planning a proper solid waste management difficult. This paper presents the results from two waste characterization projects conducted in Kétao, a rural town in Togo during the rainy season and the dry season in 2010. The seasonal variation has a significant impact on the waste stream. The household waste generation rate was estimated at 0.22 kg person(-1) day(-1) in the dry season and 0.42 in the rainy season. Likewise, the waste moisture content was 4% in the dry season while it was 33-63% in the rainy season. The waste consisted mainly of soil and dirt characterized as 'other' (41%), vegetables and putrescibles (38%) and plastic (11%). In addition to these fractions, considerable amounts of material are either recycled or reused locally and do not enter the waste stream. The study suggests that additional recycling is not feasible, but further examination of the degradability of the organic fraction is needed in order to assess whether the residual waste should be composed or landfilled.

  10. Sustaining active-living communities over the decades: lessons from a 1930s Greenbelt town.

    PubMed

    Ahrentzen, Sherry

    2008-06-01

    Greendale, Wisconsin, was intentionally created with many of the design and planning principles that active-living advocates promote today. This case study examines the processes behind sustaining these particular planning and design principles over time in light of economic and regional challenges that have faced not just Greendale but most town centers over the last fifty years. Despite these challenges, the walkable nature of Greendale's center remains strong today, in terms of both activity and community identity. While many circumstances are specific to this particular town, useful lessons can be drawn for those new urbanist (NU) communities being developed in greenfields and suburbs today, many of which are strikingly similar to Greendale - relatively small, low density, and located within metropolitan areas. Greendale's success resulted from (1) attending to the retail/commercial product mix; (2) attracting nonresidents to use the community's retail and public space; and (3) capitalizing on community investment not simply from residents' organizing efforts but, more important in this case, from corporate community involvement by a Greendale business firm whose interests and values coincided with those of the community.

  11. Accidental contamination of a German town's drinking water with sodium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Lendowski, Luba; Färber, Harald; Holy, Andreas; Darius, Anke; Ehrich, Bernd; Wippermann, Christine; Küfner, Bernd; Exner, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Case report of a very serious drinking water incident putting up to 50,000 inhabitants of a town near Bonn in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany at risk. A concentrated solution of highly alkaline water by sodium hydroxide was accidentally washed into the town's drinking water at a pumping station and increased the pH-value of the water to 12. Residents who came into contact with the contaminated water immediately had a toxic reaction. The incident was detected by complaints from customers and after that was stopped within several hours. The pipes were flushed and the customers were warned not to use the water till the all clear. After this immediate management there was an investigation and the cause of the incident was detected as an accidental release of accumulated sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. The lack of a network alarm system and the automatic cut-off mechanisms as deficiencies in the design of the station were rectified by the water company immediately after the incident.

  12. Analysis of air pollution from industrial plants by lichen indication on example of small town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlova, K. N.; Pietkova, I. R.; Borovikov, I. F.

    2015-09-01

    According to the research the species of lichens such as Parmelia sulcata, Parmeliopsis ambigua, Phiscia stellaris, Xanthoria parietina are founded on example of small town. Values of clear air index correlated with the average content of sulphur dioxide in the air. These measurement points correspond to residential areas and regions of the objects of food industry. Two zones zero projective coverage are selected. These most polluted zones corresponded to the location of the metallurgical industry and heat electropower station. The roof production and abrasive industry do not show a significant increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide in the contiguous territory. By method lichen indication on example of small city two zones lichen deserts (sulfur dioxide concentration greater than 0.3 mg/m3) and one area of critical pollution (sulfur dioxide concentration of 0.1 -0.3 mg/m3) were founded. The largest area of air pollution allegedly linked to the activities of plants. Thus metallurgical industry and heat electropower station can be called major air pollutants in small towns.

  13. Research on solid waste management system: To improve existing situation in Corlu Town of Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Tinmaz, Esra . E-mail: idemir@itu.edu.tr

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decades, uncontrolled population growth and rapid urbanization and industrialization have resulted in environmental problems in Corlu Town, Turkey. One of the most important problems is solid waste due to inadequate management practices. Nowadays, increasing public awareness of the environment compels local authorities to define and to adopt new solutions for waste management. This paper presents a general overview of current solid waste management practices in Corlu Town and principles of the recommended municipal solid waste (MSW) management system. In Corlu, 170 tonnes of municipal solid waste are generated each day, or 1.150 kg per capita per day. Approximately one-half of the municipal solid waste generated is organic material and 30% of the MSW consists of recyclable materials. The recommended system deals with maximizing recycling and minimizing landfilling of municipal solid waste, and consists of separation at source, collection, sorting, recycling, composting and sanitary landfilling. This study also analyzed the recommended system with respect to feasibility and economics. To evaluate whether the suggested system is cost effective or not, the operating cost of the recommended system and market prices of recyclable materials were compared, and the results show that the recommended system will reduce required landfill volume up to 27% of compared to the present situation. The profit of the recommended system is estimated to be about 80 million US dollars.

  14. Providing health services during a civil war: the experience of a garrison town in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Kevlihan, Rob

    2013-10-01

    The impact of conflict, particularly conflict arising during civil wars, on the provision of healthcare is a subject that has not been widely considered in conflict-related research. Combatants often target health services to weaken or to defeat the enemy, while attempts to maintain or improve health systems also can comprise part of counter-insurgency 'hearts-and-minds' strategies. This paper describes the dynamics associated with the provision of health services in Malakal, an important garrison town in South Sudan, during the second Sudanese civil war (1983-2005). Drawing on the concepts of opportunity hoarding and exploitation, it explores the social and political dynamics of service provision in and around the town during the war. These concepts provide a useful lens with which to understand better how health services are affected by conflict, while the empirical case study presented in the paper illustrates dynamics that may be repeated in other contexts. The concepts and case study set out in this paper should prove useful to healthcare providers working in conflict zones, including humanitarian aid agencies and their employees, increasing their understanding of the social and political dynamics that they are likely to face during future conflict-related complex emergencies.

  15. Community Perception towards Mental Illness among Residents of Gimbi Town, Western Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Benti, Misael; Ebrahim, Jemal; Awoke, Tadesse; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the increased burden of mental health problem, little is known about knowledge and perception of the public towards mental health problems in Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among selected 845 Gimbi town residents from May 28 to June 28, 2014. Results. Out of the total study participants, 304 (37.3%) were found to have poor perception (a score below mean five semantic differential scales for positive questions and above mean for negative questions) of mental illness. Being above 28 years of age (AOR = 0.48 CI (0.23, 0.78)), private workers (AOR = 0.41 CI (0.19, 0.87)), and lack of mental health information were found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.133 CI (0.09, 0.20)). Absence of family history of mental illness was also found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.37 CI (0.21, 0.66)). Conclusions. Significant proportions of the community in Gimbi town were found to have poor perception of mental illness. Poor perception is common among old aged, less educated, private workers, those unable to access mental health information, and those with no family history of mental illness. Mental health education on possible causes, treatment options, and possible outcome of treatment to the community is required.

  16. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Smith, Riley

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa.

  17. Community Perception towards Mental Illness among Residents of Gimbi Town, Western Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Benti, Misael; Yohannis, Zegeye; Bedaso, Asres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Despite the increased burden of mental health problem, little is known about knowledge and perception of the public towards mental health problems in Ethiopia. Methods. Community based cross-sectional study was conducted among selected 845 Gimbi town residents from May 28 to June 28, 2014. Results. Out of the total study participants, 304 (37.3%) were found to have poor perception (a score below mean five semantic differential scales for positive questions and above mean for negative questions) of mental illness. Being above 28 years of age (AOR = 0.48 CI (0.23, 0.78)), private workers (AOR = 0.41 CI (0.19, 0.87)), and lack of mental health information were found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.133 CI (0.09, 0.20)). Absence of family history of mental illness was also found to be associated with poor perception of mental illness (AOR = 0.37 CI (0.21, 0.66)). Conclusions. Significant proportions of the community in Gimbi town were found to have poor perception of mental illness. Poor perception is common among old aged, less educated, private workers, those unable to access mental health information, and those with no family history of mental illness. Mental health education on possible causes, treatment options, and possible outcome of treatment to the community is required. PMID:27840817

  18. Severe aromatic hydrocarbon pollution in the Arctic town of Longyearbyen (Svalbard) caused by snowmobile emissions.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Stefan; Kallenborn, Roland; Schmidbauer, Norbert

    2009-07-01

    The aromatic hydrocarbons benzene, toluene and C2-benzenes (ethyl benzene and m,p,o-xylene) (BTEX) were measured during a 2-month monitoring campaign in 2007 in the Arctic town of Longyearbyen (Spitsbergen, Svalbard). Reflecting the remoteness of the location, very low mixing ratios were observed during night and in windy conditions. In late spring (April-May), however, the high frequency of guided snowmobile tours resulted in "rush-hour" maximum values of more than 10 ppb of BTEX. These concentration levels are comparable to those in European towns and are caused predominately by the outdated 2-stroke engines, which are still used by approximately 30% of the snowmobiles in Longyearbyen. During summer, peak events were about a factor of 100 lower compared to those during the snowmobile season. Emissions in summer were mainly caused by diesel-fueled heavy duty vehicles (HDVs), permanently used for coal transport from the adjacent coal mines. The documented high BTEX mixing ratios from snowmobiles in the Arctic provide an obvious incentive to change the regulation practice to a cleaner engine technology.

  19. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections. PMID:27340653

  20. Environmental evaluation of waste treatment scenarios for the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut, Russia.

    PubMed

    Kaazke, Julia; Meneses, Montse; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Rotter, Vera Susanne

    2013-03-01

    Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Ugra in Siberia has recently started to play a major role in the Russian economy because key oil and gas extraction sites are located in this region. As a result, the extensions of infrastructure and higher incomes have been leading to an accelerated population growth and consequent increase in the generation of solid household waste. The current methods of waste disposal have now reached their limits, especially in the towns Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. The key objectives of this study were to identify the influence of waste composition and transport routes on the life cycle assessment (LCA) results and to assess the current waste treatment option for solid household waste and to compare it with proposed scenarios. Furthermore, recommendations for an optimal use of LCA within a decision-making process for a waste management plan are presented. LCA methodology was used to evaluate different waste management scenarios such as landfilling and incineration. One result was that the options 'incineration with recycling' and 'anaerobic mechanical-biological treatment with recycling' demonstrated lower environmental impact in both Khanty-Mansiysk and Surgut. Another finding was that there were hardly any differences in the ranking of the scenarios for Surgut and Khanty-Mansiysk. However, the special socio-cultural circumstances and location of each town have to be considered seriously in the development of a sustainable waste management plan.

  1. Experiences of violence and association with decreased drug abstinence among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women's HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women's drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting.

  2. Cockroaches as a Source of High Bacterial Pathogens with Multidrug Resistant Strains in Gondar Town, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Moges, Feleke; Eshetie, Setegn; Endris, Mengistu; Huruy, Kahsay; Muluye, Dagnachew; Feleke, Tigist; G/Silassie, Fisha; Ayalew, Getenet; Nagappan, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Background. Cockroaches are source of bacterial infections and this study was aimed to assess bacterial isolates and their antimicrobial profiles from cockroaches in Gondar town, Ethiopia. Methods. A total of 60 cockroaches were collected from March 1 to May 30, 2014, in Gondar town. Bacterial species were isolated from external and internal parts of cockroaches. Disk diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Data were entered and analyzed by using SPSS version 20; P values <0.005 were considered as statistically significant. Results. Of 181 identified bacteria species, 110 (60.8%) and 71 (39.2%) were identified from external and internal parts of cockroaches, respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae 32 (17.7%), Escherichia coli 29 (16%), and Citrobacter spp. 27 (15%) were the predominant isolates. High resistance rate was observed to cotrimoxazole, 60 (33.1%), and least resistance rate was noted to ciprofloxacin, 2 (1.1%). Additionally, 116 (64.1%) of the isolates were MDR strains; Salmonella spp. were the leading MDR isolates (100%) followed by Enterobacter (90.5%) and Shigella spp. (76.9%). Conclusion. Cockroaches are the potential source of bacteria pathogens with multidrug resistant strains and hence effective preventive and control measures are required to minimize cockroach related infections.

  3. Rydberg Blockade Effects on Autler-Townes Spectra in a Dense Gas of 84Sr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.

    2015-05-01

    We study two-photon spectroscopy of the 5s2 1S0 - 5 s 5p3P1 - ns3S1 transition for n = 24 in the Autler-Townes regime in an ultracold gas of 84Sr. These studies are performed on thermal samples (~1012 cm-3) and on a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) (~ 5 ×1013 cm-3). Both cases exhibit spectra that are significantly modified from the usual Autler-Townes picture. In the case of thermal atoms, we observe a broadening and shift of the two loss features consistent with Rydberg-Rydberg interactions. However in the case of a BEC, a third feature develops between the two peaks due to light scatter from the 5s2 1S0 - 5 s 5p3P1 transition for heavily blockaded atoms. Implications of these effects for the creation of Rydberg dressed BEC will be discussed. This research was supported by the AFOSR under grant no. FA9550-12-1-0267, the NSF under grants nos. 1301773 and 1205946, and the Robert A. Welch Foundation under grants nos. C-0734 and C-1844.

  4. Town Lake bottom sediments : a chronicle of water quality changes in Austin, Texas, 1960-98

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Mahler, B.J.

    1999-01-01

    Town Lake, the last in the chain of Highland Lakes on the Colorado River, runs through the center of Austin, Texas. On any given day, grebes and coots dot the water, rowers skim alongside, and the sparkle of the sun on the water can be admired from the adjacent hike and bike path and from the windows of nearby office buildings. During the summer months, crowds gather along the shores of Town Lake to watch as many as 1 million Mexican Free-Tail bats emerge from under the Congress Avenue bridge. But below the lazily moving azure water lies a bed of sediment about 1 meter (m) thick?sediment that has been deposited gradually since the reservoir was formed in 1959 and that has been recording changes in water quality since that time. What can this sediment tell us about the history of water quality in the Colorado River? And what does it say about the effects of the rapid urbanization of Austin and the future health of our environment?

  5. Application and Comparison of Tsunami Vulnerability and Damage Models for the Town of Siracusa, Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnoni, Gianluca; Tinti, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    Siracusa is one of the most important cities of the eastern coast of Sicily, which according to historical records and to the present knowledge of the tectonic setting, is exposed to tsunamis generated by landslides on the Malta escarpment and by local and remote (e.g., Eastern Hellenic Arc) earthquakes. For this reason, the area of Siracusa has been selected as one of the test sites to conduct specific studies within the European FP7 project ASTARTE. In this frame, this work focuses on the assessment of tsunami vulnerability of (and damage to) the building stock of the town. The analysis is carried out following two different models, namely the SCHEMA and the Papathoma Tsunami Vulnerability Assessment (PTVA-3) methods. Topographic and building stock data in the potentially flooded areas are taken from detailed digital databases produced by the region of Sicily, integrated with satellite and photographic imagery from Google Earth and further validated by field surveys. We have explored three inundation scenarios corresponding to a constant-level tsunami flooding with assumed sea level rise of 1, 3 and 5 m, and evaluated the damage to the town buildings using both methods that make use of a 5-degree scale. The main result is that the level of damage of both models is not consistent, and that consistency may be improved if one changes from a 5- to a 3-degree damage scale.

  6. Development of a workshop program to introduce town watching and map making by using a geographic information system.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hiroki

    2011-12-01

    Workshops were conducted as part of community planning projects by developing a workshop program to reduce the working time taken by preparations for town watching and map making, and to concentrate on community planning discussions. The workshop program allowed participants to introduce town watching and map making by using a geographic information system (GIS). We showed that a group using a GIS would take less time for map making. As a result, more time would be available for community planning discussion. However, there were some conflicts in the memories of the participants about the places discovered during town watching. Producing a map using a GIS resulted in more comprehensive and informative maps. The extra time available for community planning discussions allows a greater number of specific factors to be considered.

  7. New Whole-House Solutions Case Study: New Town Builders' Power of Zero Energy Center - Denver, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    2014-10-01

    New Town Builders, a builder of energy efficient homes in Denver, Colorado, offers a zero energy option for all the homes it builds. To attract a wide range of potential homebuyers to its energy efficient homes, New Town Builders created a "Power of Zero Energy Center" linked to its model home in the Stapleton community. This case study presents New Town Builders' marketing approach, which is targeted to appeal to homebuyers' emotions rather than overwhelming homebuyers with scientific details about the technology. The exhibits in the Power of Zero Energy Center focus on reduced energy expenses for the homeowner, improved occupant comfort, the reputation of the builder, and the lack of sacrificing the homebuyers' desired design features to achieve zero net energy in the home. This case study also contains customer and realtor testimonials related to the effectiveness of the Center in influencing homebuyers to purchase a zero energy home.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Clinical Practices for Patients With Dementia Among Mental Health Providers in China: City and Town Differences.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hsin-Yi; Liu, Zhaorui; Xu, Ling; Huang, Yueqin; Chi, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Mental health providers are the major resource families rely on when experiencing the effects of dementia. However, mental health resources and manpower are inadequate and unevenly distributed between cities and towns in China. This study was conducted to examine similarities and differences in knowledge, attitudes, and clinical practices concerning dementia and working with family caregivers from mental health providers' perspectives in city versus town settings. Data were collected during focus group discussions with 40 mental health providers in the Xicheng (city) and Daxing (town) districts in Beijing, China in 2011. Regional disparities between providers' knowledge of early diagnosis of dementia and related counseling skills were identified. Regional similarities included training needs, dementia-related stigma, and low awareness of dementia among family caregivers. Culturally sensitive education specific to dementia for mental health providers and a specialized dementia care model for people with dementia and their family caregivers are urgently needed. Implications for geriatric practitioners and educators are discussed.

  9. Thickness of unconsolidated deposits in the towns of Solon and Taylor, Cortland County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.

    1999-01-01

    IntroductionSiting of waste-disposal facilities in Cortland County poses a potential threat to local ground-water resources. An especially sensitive waste-disposal siting issue arose in 1988, when the New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission (NYSLLWSC) identified 15 sites in six towns (Towns of Solon, Taylor, Freetown, Cincinnatus, Marathon, and Willet) in the eastern part of the county for possible disposal of low-level radioactive waste (New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission, 1988). Eventually, two sites in the Town of Taylor became finalist sites; one was selected from the list of 15 potential sites, and the other was offered by a private landowner. Little information was available on geohydrologic conditions in eastern Cortland County, such as the extent of aquifers and the thickness of unconsolidated deposits of low permeability (such as clay and till), even though these two criteria were among those used by NYSLLWSC for selection of potential disposal sites. The source of information on thickness of drift over bedrock was the surficial geologic map of New York (Muller and Cadwell, 1986). The siting effort was terminated before a final selection was made, but the issue had made county managers aware that detailed information on the extent and thickness of unconsolidated deposits (particularly till, which typically has low permeability and can limit the migration of contaminants) is needed before sound decisions on waste-disposal siting can be made.Glaciers deposited till nearly everywhere over bedrock in the uplands of central New York, but the thickness of the till varies greatly from place to place. An analysis by Coates (1966) of 400 drillers' logs of wells in a 2,000-mi2 area in the uplands of south-central New York (south of the Cortland County) indicated that (1) till is thin or absent on hilltops and is thickest on the lower parts of hills, (2) overall till thickness averages 60 ft, and (3) till thickness on

  10. Thickness of unconsolidated deposits in the towns of Solon and Taylor, Cortland County, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Todd S.

    1998-01-01

    Siting of waste-disposal facilities in Cortland County poses a potential threat to local ground-water resources. An especially sensitive waste-disposal siting issue arose in 1988, when the New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission (NYSLLWSC) identified 15 sites in six towns (Towns of Solon, Taylor, Freetown, Cincinnatus, Marathon, and Willet) in the eastern part of the county for possible disposal of low-level radioactive waste (New York State Low-Level Radioactive Waste Siting Commission, 1988). Eventually, two sites in the Town of Taylor became finalist sites; one was selected from the list of 15 potential sites, and the other was offered by a private landowner. Little information was available on geohydrologic conditions in eastern Cortland County, such as the extent of aquifers and the thickness of unconsolidated deposits of low permeability (such as clay and till), even though these two criteria were among those used by NYSLLWSC for selection of potential disposal sites. The source of information on thickness of drift over bedrock was the surficial geologic map of New York (Muller and Cadwell, 1986). The siting effort was terminated before a final selection was made, but the issue had made county managers aware that detailed information on the extent and thickness of unconsolidated deposits (particularly till, which typically has low permeability and can limit the migration of contaminants) is needed before sound decisions on waste-disposal siting can be made. Glaciers deposited till nearly everywhere over bedrock in the uplands of central New York, but the thickness of the till varies greatly from place to place. An analysis by Coates (1966) of 400 drillers' logs of wells in a 2,000-mi2 area in the uplands of south-central New York (south of the Cortland County) indicated that (1) till is thin or absent on hilltops and is thickest on the lower parts of hills, (2) overall till thickness averages 60 ft, and (3) till thickness on the south

  11. Sexual networks in Uganda: mixing patterns between a trading town, its rural hinterland and a nearby fishing village.

    PubMed

    Pickering, H; Okongo, M; Ojwiya, A; Yirrell, D; Whitworth, J

    1997-08-01

    The study was based in south-west Uganda where significant differences in HIV prevalence have been found between urban and rural areas. Longitudinal data collected in a diary format was used to determine the extent to which high-risk men and women living in a truck stop/trading town had sexual contact with people from surrounding rural areas and a nearby fishing village. Study participants were 143 men, 75 of whom were resident in the town, 40 in a fishing village and 28 in rural areas, and 81 women, of whom 47 were resident in the town, 25 in the fishing village and 9 in a rural area. During 1687 man weeks the 143 men made 3149 trips and had 5189 sexual contacts. Ninety-two per cent of these sexual contacts occurred in the man's current place of residence and 21% were with a new partner. The 81 women participated for 1280 women weeks during which they recorded 6378 sexual contacts. Women who lived in the fishing village and the rural area had around 90% of their contacts with local men while those who lived in the town fell into 3 categories: women who charged a relatively high price for commercial sex had only 11% of contacts with men living in the town, while those who charged a tenth of the price had 71% of contacts with town men. The small number of women who fell into an intermediate category, in terms of price, had sexual contact with a wide variety of men. These findings show that there is little scope for HIV infection to spread between different residential or occupational groups. This may help to explain how large differences in HIV seropositivity between neighbouring localities can be maintained for long periods, despite considerable social and economic mixing between groups and high levels of sexual partner change within groups.

  12. Phases of QCD: Summary of the Rutgers Long Range Plan Town Meeting, January 12-14, 2007

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, Peter; Kharzeev, Dmitri; Muller, Berndt; Nagle, Jamie; Rajagopal, Krishna; Vigdor, Steve

    2007-05-14

    This White Paper summarizes the outcome of the Town Meeting on Phases of QCD that took place January 12-14, 2007 at Rutgers University, as part of the NSAC 2007 Long Range Planning process. The meeting was held in conjunction with the Town Meeting on Hadron Structure, including a full day of joint plenary sessions of the two meetings. Appendix A.1 contains the meeting agenda. This Executive Summary presents the prioritized recommendations that were determined at the meeting. Subsequent chapters present the essential background to the recommendations. While this White Paper is not a scholarly article and contains few references, it is intended to provide the non-expert reader

  13. Superfund record of decision (EPA Region 1): Town Garage Radio Beacon, Londonderry, NH. (First remedial action), September 1992. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-30

    The Town Garage Radio Beacon, NH, site includes the Holton Circle residential development of 23 homes, a town garage area, and an undeveloped hillslope and wetlands area in Londonderry, New Hampshire. From 1940 to 1968, the area was owned by the Department of Defense (DOD), who reportedly used it as a radio beacon facility from 1940 to 1947. The ROD provides a final remedy for the contaminated onsite ground water. No further remedial actions are anticipated for the site. The primary contaminants affecting the ground water are VOCs; and metals, including chromium.

  14. The Industrialization of Southern Rural Areas. A Study of Industry and Federal Assistance in Small Towns with Recommendations for Future Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abt Associates, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    Incorporating field studies and literature reviews, 2 cities and 2 towns in Mississippi and South Carolina were investigated to determine the socioeconomic impact of Southern rural industrialization and to aid the Economic Development Administration (EDA) in developing policy relative to allocation of funds. Visiting each town/city 3 times and…

  15. Level II scour analysis for Bridge 10 (NORWTH00120010) Town Highway 012 Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayotte, Joseph D.

    1996-01-01

    This report provides the results of a detailed Level II analysis of scour potential at structure NORWTH00120010 on town highway 12 crossing Bloody Brook, Norwich, Vermont (figures 1–8). A Level II study is a basic engineering analysis of the site, including a quantitative analysis of stream stability and scour (U.S. Department of Transportation, 1993). A Level I study is included in Appendix E of this report. A Level I study provides a qualitative geomorphic characterization of the study site. Information on the bridge, available from VTAOT files, was compiled prior to conducting the Level I and Level II analyses and can be found in Appendix D. The site is in the New England Upland physiographic province in east-central Vermont. The 8.98-mi2 drainage area is in a predominantly rural and forested basin. In the vicinity of the study site, the left bank upstream and the left and right banks downstream are forested. The immediate right bank upstream is covered by shrub and brush with pasture on the overbank. Town Highway 12 runs along the valley of Bloody Brook; however, at structure NORWTH00120010 the road crosses Bloody Brook at a 90-degree angle. In the study area, Bloody Brook has a sinuous channel with a slope of approximately 0.014 ft/ft, an average channel top width of 41 ft and an average channel depth of 3 ft. The predominant channel bed materials are gravel and cobble (D50 is 51.0 mm or 0.167 ft). The geomorphic assessment at the time of the Level I site visit on October 31, 1994, indicated that the reach was unstable. The town highway 12 crossing of Bloody Brook is a 34-ft-long, two-lane bridge consisting of one 30-foot clear span (Vermont Agency of Transportation, written commun., July 29, 1994). The bridge is supported by vertical, concrete abutments with wingwalls. The right abutment is protected by sparse type-2 stone fill (less than 24 inches diameter). The channel is skewed 0 degrees to the opening and the opening-skew-to-roadway is 0 degrees

  16. Elemental analysis of soils and Salix polaris in the town of Pyramiden and its surroundings (Svalbard).

    PubMed

    Krajcarová, Lucie; Novotný, Karel; Chattová, Barbora; Elster, Josef

    2016-05-01

    The contents of elements in the top soil (upper 5 cm) and deeper soil (5 to 10 cm) layers and in Salix polaris (leaves and stem) from the former Soviet mining town of Pyramiden and its close vicinity on the Svalbard archipelago were determined. The analyses covered major and trace elements, including heavy metals, in order to describe anthropogenic impacts related to the management of the mining town. Soil samples and plant tissues were analysed from 13 localities across and close to town vicinity. The plant ground cover of all sampling points was determined, and plant tissues (leaves and stem) were collected. Higher contents of Cd (3-11 mg kg(-1)) and Mo (11-33 mg kg(-1)) were detected in the soils. With relation to the world average concentration of metals in soils, the geo-accumulation indexes (Igeo) and the level of pollution of the analysed soils were classified into seven pollution grades. The soils of the studied localities were usually unpolluted (grade 1) when analysed for metals, with the soil pollution grades 4-6 identified only for Cd and Mo (moderately to strongly polluted). In Salix polaris, excessive amounts of Fe (60-1520 mg kg(-1)), Zn (80-1050 mg kg(-1)), Cd (0.2-5.5 mg kg(-1)) and Cr (0-3.6 mg kg(-1)) were observed. The Igeo of these elements, compared with values considered sufficient for plants, showed pollution grades from 2 to 6. The pollution load index (PLI) ranged between 0.49 and 1.01. Only one locality could be considered polluted having a PLI higher than 1. Plant/soil transfer factors (TF) for trace metals decreased in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cd > Mn > Ni > As > Mo > Pb > Co > Al > Cr > Fe. The principal contribution of this study consists in the assessment of the contamination of soils and plants by toxic heavy metals in an otherwise pristine environment of the Svalbard archipelago related to urban/industrial activities.

  17. Effects of Doppler broadening on Autler-Townes splitting in six-wave mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Niu Jinyan; Pei Liya; Lu Xiaogang; Wang Ruquan; Wu Lingan; Fu Panming

    2011-09-15

    The effects of Doppler broadening on Autler-Townes (AT) splitting in six-wave mixing (SWM) are investigated by the dressed-state model. We analyze the velocities at which the atoms are in resonance with the dressed states through Doppler frequency shifting and find that, depending on the wave-number ratio, there may be two resonant velocities which can originate from resonance with one of the dressed states or from resonance with two different dressed states. Based on this model, we discuss a novel type of AT doublet in the SWM spectrum, where macroscopic effects play an important role. Specifically, the existence of resonant peaks requires polarization interference between atoms of different velocities in addition to a change in the number of resonant atoms involved. Our model can also be employed to analyze electromagnetically induced transparency resonance and other types of Doppler-free high-resolution AT spectroscopy.

  18. Brief report #3: building a rural community caregiver network: student learning in small town America.

    PubMed

    Kaye, Lenard W; Crittenden, Jennifer A; Kelly, Nancy; Boylan, Deirdre

    2014-01-01

    The Rural Caregiver Network Project in Eastern Maine is a prime example of indigenous coalition-building in a region struggling to ensure that vulnerable older adults can age-in-place and manage with scarce resources. Through this innovative initiative, a range of elder caregiver interventions were mobilized, coordinated, and sustained in a rural two-county region in Maine, including navigator services, adult day care, information and referral, caregiver support groups, a caregiver resource center, and caregiver skills-building workshops. The endorsement of participatory research, evaluation, and programming principles enabled undergraduate and graduate social work students to assume major roles in all aspects of project planning, implementation, and assessment while remaining grounded in the realities of rural life. Competence in such a generalist gerontological social work practice perspective is critical in small towns and nonmetropolitan communities.

  19. Making unhealthy places: The built environment and non-communicable diseases in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Smit, Warren; de Lannoy, Ariane; Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V; Levitt, Naomi; Watson, Vanessa

    2015-06-29

    In this paper, we examine how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs in Khayelitsha (a predominantly low income area in Cape Town, South Africa) through their shaping of the built environment. The paper draws on literature reviews and ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Khayelitsha. The three main pathways through which the built environment of the area impacts on NCDs are through a complex food environment in which it is difficult to achieve food security, an environment that is not conducive to safe physical activity, and high levels of depression and stress (linked to, amongst other factors, poverty, crime and fear of crime). All of these factors are at least partially linked to the isolated, segregated and monofunctional nature of Khayelitsha. The paper highlights that in order to effectively address urban health challenges, we need to understand how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs through the way they shape built environments.

  20. Building a virtual community for nursing education: the town of Mirror Lake.

    PubMed

    Curran, Christine R; Elfrink, Victoria; Mays, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    RNs take pride in delivering high-quality individualized care to their patients. However, how do nursing students learn the principles of professional nursing or develop the competencies necessary to individualize patient care? At the Ohio State University College of Nursing, we embarked on deploying a virtual community of patients to enhance our students' learning experience. Our community, the town of Mirror Lake, contains 165 people and 62 households, with an apartment complex, a medical center, and a retirement center with assisted and skilled nursing care. This community serves as the main source of patients for Mirror Lake Medical Center, our virtual hospital. We think we can teach many key principles of sound nursing care using this virtual community of patients. This article presents the rationale behind the decision to take on this endeavor, as well as the processes used for development of our community.

  1. Making unhealthy places: The built environment and non-communicable diseases in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

    PubMed

    Smit, Warren; de Lannoy, Ariane; Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V; Levitt, Naomi; Watson, Vanessa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we examine how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs in Khayelitsha (a predominantly low income area in Cape Town, South Africa) through their shaping of the built environment. The paper draws on literature reviews and ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Khayelitsha. The three main pathways through which the built environment of the area impacts on NCDs are through a complex food environment in which it is difficult to achieve food security, an environment that is not conducive to safe physical activity, and high levels of depression and stress (linked to, amongst other factors, poverty, crime and fear of crime). All of these factors are at least partially linked to the isolated, segregated and monofunctional nature of Khayelitsha. The paper highlights that in order to effectively address urban health challenges, we need to understand how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs through the way they shape built environments.

  2. Understanding Suicide in Socially Vulnerable Contexts: Psychological Autopsy in a Small Town in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Hernández, Ana-María; Macías-García, Luis-Fernando

    2016-02-01

    In Mexico, suicides are increasing in certain latitudes where local rates have grown to levels of alert; suicide is also the second most common cause of death for the group aged 15 to 19. The psychological autopsy method was utilized to uncover and analyze common factors in all of the registered suicides within 2011 and 2012 in a small town of the state of Guanajuato, located in the center of Mexico. A total of nine decedents were analyzed, and 22 interviews were conducted. The most salient factors were as follows: poverty, financial stress, substance abuse, low levels of education, conflictive relationships, and a poor handling of emotions. The concepts of social exclusion and vulnerability were employed to analyze suicides as symptoms of a much deeper problem of this country, suggesting that anomie and social malady are nowadays important suicidal factors, mostly for children and young people.

  3. Poverty and psychological health among AIDS-orphaned children in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2009-06-01

    This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.

  4. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa1

    PubMed Central

    Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2014-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children. PMID:26052156

  5. Violence exposure and mental health of adolescents in small towns: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lai, D W

    1999-01-01

    This study explores the impact of violence exposure on the mental health of the adolescents in a rural small town. A structured questionnaire was used to survey 347 adolescents. Violence experienced and witnessed by the adolescents at school, in the neighbourhood, and at home was measured. Mental health was represented by the psychiatric symptoms, depression level, and self-esteem. The level of violence perpetrated by the adolescents was also explored. Results of the multiple regression analysis show that adolescents who have been exposed to more violence, either as a victim or as a witness, report more psychiatric symptoms, higher levels of depression, and more problems of self-esteem. Being a witness of violence also contributes significantly to the variance of violence committed by the adolescents. The implications of the findings to violence prevention are discussed in the conclusion.

  6. Introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: Probing student perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-12-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and posttests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in the future be used to identify students requiring special teaching intervention.

  7. Stories of Change: e/merge @ the University of Cape Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Tony

    The Center for Educational Technology (CET) is located at the University of Cape Town, which is a leading South African research and teaching university. This implies great opportunities and challenges since we are poised between the experience of and conditions faced by colleagues in other parts of Africa and those of the colleagues in first-world countries. We have access to the intellectual and professional networks of the first world and our university features on global rankings, yet our resourcing, while generous in terms of most other universities in our continent, is a fraction of that enjoyed by first-world universities of similar size and scope. Both globalization and developmental imperatives require us to rapidly extend the effective use of educational technology in our university for teaching and learning. The received models of e-Learning integration developed mostly in first-world countries need to be adapted for contexts with scarce resources.

  8. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E; Doherty, Irene A; Kline, Tracy L; Key, Mary E; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group.

  9. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children.

  10. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E.; Doherty, Irene A.; Kline, Tracy L.; Key, Mary E.; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M.

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group. PMID:27087804

  11. Spatial Kerr solitons in optical fibres of finite size cross section: beyond the Townes soliton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouart, F.; Renversez, G.; Nicolet, A.; Geuzaine, C.

    2008-12-01

    We propose a new and efficient numerical method to find spatial solitons in optical fibres with a nonlinear Kerr effect including microstructured ones. A nonlinear non-paraxial scalar model of the electric field in the fibre is used (nonlinear Helmholtz equation) and an iterative algorithm is proposed to obtain the nonlinear solutions using the finite element method. The field is supposed to be harmonic in time and along the direction of invariance of the fibre but inhomogeneous in the cross section. In our approach, we solve a nonlinear eigenvalue problem in which the propagation constant is the eigenvalue. Several examples dealing with step-index fibres and microstructured optical fibres with a finite size cross section are described. In each geometry, a single self-coherent nonlinear solution is obtained. This solution, which also depends on the size of the structure, is different from the Townes soliton—but converges towards it at small wavelengths.

  12. Townes Group Activities from 1983-2000: Personal Recollections of William Danchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2015-01-01

    I arrived in Berkeley in October 1983 as a post-doc, and my appointment was at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). During that time the group was very large, with multiple activities led by Charlie himself and also by Senior Fellows such as John Lacy, Dan Jaffe, and Al Betz at the top of the hill at Space Sciences. Another significant contingent of the Townes group was housed in Birge Hall on campus, led by Reinhard Genzel when he was an Assistant Professor in the Physics Department. Although the group encompassed two separate locations, it functioned as one large group. Either we rode with Charlie up and down the hill, or (if we were concerned about our safety!) we took the bus.

  13. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    PubMed

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  14. Secular trends in the relationship between surnames in a population: Study of a border town.

    PubMed

    Román-Busto, J; Fuster, V

    2015-04-01

    The study of surnames in a territory over time is an opportunity to obtain knowledge of the evolution of allelic frequencies. Geographic and cultural factors influence the renovation of surnames and reflect accelerations or delays in the gene flow. Political borders may also condition the genetic structure of a population. Using isonymy, this paper studies the evolution (from 1750 to 2006) of the frequencies of surnames and the components of inbreeding in Olivenza, a border town whose sovereignty was transferred from Portugal to Spain in 1801. After the change in dominion the number of Portuguese surnames fell sharply and the expected values for a population so close to Portugal recovered only after a long period of time. The results indicate that although the border has made population movement more difficult, and has therefore had an impact on the rate of gene exchange, a certain gene flow with Portugal persisted.

  15. Exposure and health risk assessment of lead in communities of Jimma town, southwestern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Getaneh, Zerihun; Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw

    2014-08-01

    Human beings could be exposed to lead arising from different environmental sources, such as air, water and soil. Tap water, air and soil samples were collected from four quadrants of Jimma town in southwestern Ethiopia. Eighty samples from each environmental source: water, air and soil samples were collected and analyzed for lead concentration. Prediction of the blood lead level and risk characterization was made using integrated exposure uptake biokinetic model and lead risk was calculated using USEPA guideline. Average concentration of lead in water, air and soils were 24.55 ± 10.01, 1.01 ± 0.41 µg/m(3), and 220.08 ± 135.95 µg/g respectively. Uptake of lead by children is significantly higher than the adults. The total risk value was 1.41 for children and 0.37 for adults. The finding revealed that children are more at risk than adults.

  16. Changes in ambient dose equivalent rates around roads at Kawamata town after the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Kinase, Sakae; Sato, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Ryuichi; Yamamoto, Hideaki; Saito, Kimiaki

    2015-11-01

    Changes in ambient dose equivalent rates noted through vehicle-borne surveys have elucidated ecological half-lives of radioactive caesium in the environment. To confirm that the ecological half-lives are appropriate for predicting ambient dose equivalent rates within living areas, it is important to ascertain ambient dose equivalent rates on/around roads. In this study, radiation monitoring on/around roads at Kawamata town, located about 37 km northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, was performed using monitoring vehicles and survey meters. It was found that the ambient dose equivalent rates around roads were higher than those on roads as of October 2012. And withal the ecological half-lives on roads were essentially consistent with those around roads. With dose predictions using ecological half-lives on roads, it is necessary to make corrections to ambient dose equivalent rates through the vehicle-borne surveys against those within living areas.

  17. Rydberg-blockade effects in Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeSalvo, B. J.; Aman, J. A.; Gaul, C.; Pohl, T.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.; Hazzard, K. R. A.; Dunning, F. B.; Killian, T. C.

    2016-02-01

    We present a combined experimental and theoretical study of the effects of Rydberg interactions on Autler-Townes spectra of ultracold gases of atomic strontium. Realizing two-photon Rydberg excitation via a long-lived triplet state allows us to probe the regime where Rydberg state decay presents the dominant decoherence mechanism. The effects of Rydberg interactions are observed in shifts, asymmetries, and broadening of the measured atom-loss spectra. The experiment is analyzed within a one-body density-matrix approach, accounting for interaction-induced level shifts and dephasing through nonlinear terms that approximately incorporate correlations due to the Rydberg blockade. This description yields good agreement with our experimental observations for short excitation times. For longer excitation times, the loss spectrum is altered qualitatively, suggesting additional dephasing mechanisms beyond the standard blockade mechanism based on pure van der Waals interactions.

  18. Levels of iron, silver, zinc, and lead in oranges and avocados from two gold-rich towns compared with levels in an adjacent gold-deficient town

    SciTech Connect

    Golow, A.A.; Laryea, J.N. )

    1994-09-01

    Fruits such as oranges and avocados are important sources of drinks and food in the Ghanaian Society. If such fruits contain various types of metals they may augument the types and amounts of them in the human body. The metals in fruits may depend on what is in the soils from which they are grown. If the soils contain toxic metals like lead, mercury and cadmium then the consumers may be poisoned as happened in the [open quotes]Ouchi - ouchi[close quotes], disease in Japan and similar episodes. In the area under study, the Geological Survey indicates the presence of 2.5 ppm of lead, 10 - 20 ppm of copper and less than 15 ppm of nickel. Silver, not reported in commercial amounts, is a byproduct of gold productions at Obuasi. Since copper and nickel are presented in the area traces of silver will certainly occur. In the same manner zinc is usually associated with lead as sulphide of zinc blend trace amounts of it are likely to occur in the area. Of the four metals measured, iron and zinc essential for citrus. The extractable iron and zinc in the area of study were 90 and 1.8 mg/kg, levels on the low side for the healthy growth of crops. The investigation reported here is the comparison of the levels of some metals in oranges and avocados from farms in Obuasi and Konongo with those from farms in Kumasi City. This is a part of a project aimed at finding out differences in the metal contents of various food crops grown in various regions of the country. Konongo and Obuasi have soils which are rich in gold but Kumasi city, which is not too distant from these towns, does not have gold in its soil. 18 refs., 1 tab.

  19. HIV stigma and associated factors among antiretroviral treatment clients in Jimma town, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Nikus Fido, Neno; Aman, Mamusha; Brihnu, Zewdie

    2016-01-01

    Background HIV stigma has an important role in the spread of the AIDS epidemic. It profoundly affects the lives of individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Fear of being identified as having HIV may discourage a person from getting tested, accessing medical services, and obtaining medications. Thus, this study was aimed at assessing HIV-related stigma and associated factors among antiretroviral treatment (ART) clients in Jimma town, Oromia region, Southwest Ethiopia. Methods A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted from March 11 to April 26, 2015, in ART clinics in Jimma town. Consecutively identified sample was obtained from ART clients who voluntarily participated in the survey after signing written consent. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Multiple linear regressions were conducted to assess the factors associated with various stigma domains. Results Out of 349 clients requested, 318 (91.1%) respondents voluntarily participated in the study; among them, 204 (64.2%) respondents were females and the mean age of the respondents was 32.9 years. The mean score (and possible range) of experienced HIV stigma was 41.5±12.6 (20.0–86.7), internalized stigma was 50.5±16.4 (20–96.5), and perceived stigma was 56.2±19.2 (20–100). Conclusion The study revealed that duration of ART use and provider-initiated and forced HIV testing were significantly associated with the three HIV stigma domains. Despite the lower experienced HIV stigma, there were higher internalized and perceived stigmas. Therefore, HIV counseling services should be strengthened for new ART beginners, including pretest counseling. PMID:27920581

  20. Dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Boafo, Isaac M; Dagbanu, Emmanuel A; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2014-06-01

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. The study is based on analyses of data from a school-based health education programme targeting sexual and reproductive health issues.The study involved 3,655 school-going adolescents aged between 12 and 17 in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire composed of 153 items on sexual and reproductive health, dating violence as well as sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that males showed a higher percentage of both dating violence victimization and perpetration, as compared to females. It was also found that adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds were more likely to be the victims of dating violence as compared to those from a higher socio-economic background. Female learners showed higher levels of self-efficacy for delayed sex than their male counterparts. Although the result revealed that there was a significant association between self-efficacy for delayed sex and socio-economic status, this link decreased with age. It is concluded that educational programmes aimed solely at improving self-efficacy for delayed sex is insufficient. Such programmes must also aim at preventing dating violence and equipping adolescents with the skills to negotiate their way out of dating violence.

  1. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  2. Epidemiological investigation of an outbreak of typhoid fever in Jorhat town of Assam, India

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jashbeer Singh; Saikia, Lahari; Medhi, Mithu; Tassa, Dipak

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: Typhoid fever is a global health problem and is also endemic in India. An outbreak of fever occurred in January 2014 in Jorhat Town in Assam, India. Here we report the results of an investigation done to find out the aetiology and source of the outbreak. Methods: The affected areas were visited on January 23, 2014 by a team of Jorhat district Integrated Disease Surveillance Project personnel. A total of 13 blood samples from patients with fever as first symptom and six water samples were collected from the affected areas. The blood samples were cultured and isolates were identified using standard biochemical tests. Isolates were also tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. Widal test was performed on 10 of the 13 blood samples collected. Sanitary survey was carried out to find any leakage in the water supply and also the sewage system of the Jorhat town. Results: Blood culture yielded Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi in six (46.15%) patients whereas Widal test was positive in 10 (76.9%) of 13 patients. Water culture showed presumptive coliform count of >180/100 ml in two out of the six samples tested. Salmonella Typhi was also isolated from water culture of these two samples. Sanitary survey carried out in the affected places showed that the water supply pipes of urban water supply were in close proximity to the sewage drainage system and there were few leakages. Interpretation & conclusions: The outbreak occurred due to S. Typhi contaminating the water supply. Sanitation and immunization are the two most important components to be stressed to prevent such outbreaks. PMID:28256469

  3. Public Stigma against People with Mental Illness in Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Stigma towards people with mental illness (PWMI) can result in low self-esteem and isolation and threaten employment. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the magnitude of public stigma against PWMI and factors associated with it among Jimma town residents. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in adult residents of Jimma town. Data were collected among 820 randomly selected residents with the interviewer-administered Community Attitudes toward the Mentally Ill (CAMI) scale. Linear regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of stigma against PWMI. Result A total of 444 (54%) of the 820 respondents were females, and the mean (SD) age was 35 (8.5) years. The minimum and maximum possible values on each CAMI subscale were 10 and 50, respectively. The respondents had high scores for a stigmatizing attitude towards PWMI across all the subscales, as indicated by the mean (SD) scores: authoritarianism, 27.17 (4.96); social restrictiveness, 32.41 (4.20); benevolence, 35.34 (4.42); and community-based mental health ideology, 33.95 (5.82). Compared to housewives, private organization employees showed more autocratic and socially restrictive views (std. β = 1.12, P<0.01). Single people had a lower social restrictiveness stigma score than married people (std. β = -0.20, P<0.001), and participants’ academic levels correlated inversely with the stigma score (std. β = -0.12, P<0.001). A higher benevolence stigma score was observed among participants with no relationship with PWMI than among those with PWMI in their neighborhood (std. β = 0.08, P< 0.046). Conclusion The study revealed that a negative attitude towards PWMI is widespread. Therefore, there is a need to develop strategies to fight the stigma attached to PWMI at the community level. PMID:27893745

  4. Frequency and determinants of Hepatitis B and C virus in general population of Farash Town, Islamabad

    PubMed Central

    Asad, Munazza; Ahmed, Farah; Zafar, Humaira; Farman, Sabir

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Both Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections are rapidly spreading in the developing countries. Both of them are blood borne and are transmitted through un-screened blood transfusion, inadequately sterilized needles and equipment. According to WHO’s criteria of endemicity, Pakistan has high disease burden of Hepatitis B and C. The present study was planned to determine the frequency and to identify the risk factors of hepatitis B and C virus in the general community of Farash town. Methods: This descriptive study was carried out in Al Nafees Medical Hospital Lab, from January 2013 to December 2013. Both the genders and all age groups were included in the study. All the patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria had given a written consent. Data was collected through questionnaire and was analyzed on Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21. Results: Three-hundred and forty five patients were studied. Among these 92 (27%) were males and 253(73%) were female, 33% of them had hepatitis C, 9% had hepatitis B. History of injections was reported in all of the patients. Visit to community barbers was present in 58.6% and 41% cases of hepatitis B and C. History of dental procedures was obtained in 7(24%) and 15(13%) patients of hepatitis B and C. Conclusion: Major contributors for Hepatitis B and C in Farash town are use of unsterilized therapeutic injections and visit to community barbers. Education of the barbers regarding sterilization may help in reducing the burden of infection in this community. PMID:26870103

  5. Lead exposure from soil in Peruvian mining towns: a national assessment supported by two contrasting examples

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Carolina; Gil, Vladimir; Sherpa, Shaky; Jack, Darby

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the population of Peru living in the vicinity of active or former mining operations that could be exposed to lead from contaminated soil. Methods Geographic coordinates were compiled for 113 active mines, 138 ore processing plants and 3 smelters, as well as 7743 former mining sites. The population living within 5 km of these sites was calculated from census data for 2000. In addition, the lead content of soil in the historic mining town of Cerro de Pasco and around a recent mine and ore processing plant near the city of Huaral was mapped in 2009 using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence analyser. Findings Spatial analysis indicated that 1.6 million people in Peru could be living within 5 km of an active or former mining operation. Two thirds of the population potentially exposed was accounted for by 29 clusters of mining operations, each with a population of over 10 000 each. These clusters included 112 active and 3438 former mining operations. Soil lead levels exceeded 1200 mg/kg, a reference standard for residential soil, in 35 of 74 sites tested in Cerro de Pasco but in only 4 of 47 sites tested around the newer operations near Huaral. Conclusion Soil contamination with lead is likely to be extensive in Peruvian mining towns but the level of contamination is spatially far from uniform. Childhood exposure by soil ingestion could be substantially reduced by mapping soil lead levels, making this information public and encouraging local communities to isolate contaminated areas from children. PMID:23284193

  6. Tick pests and vectors (Acari: Ixodoidea) in European towns: Introduction, persistence and management.

    PubMed

    Uspensky, Igor

    2014-02-01

    Ticks have always been a part of fauna in and around human settlements, and their significance changed concurrently with the enlargement of settlements and their transformation into towns. The increased rate of urbanization during the last decades has created a new reality for tick existence. Two groups of ticks are of major concern for modern towns: those living under natural conditions of urban surroundings and those well-adapted to urban conditions. During the process of urbanization, encroachment into forested and uncultivated areas as well as protection of existing green spaces create opportunities for ticks living in nature to also exist under urban and suburban conditions. Conditions of modern urban and especially suburban environment in developed European countries adequately meet tick requirements. Tick species having an advantage in urban areas are those that can use one and the same host at all parasitic stages, can starve for a prolonged time, can use either urban pests or domesticated animals as hosts, and can live in man-made buildings. The ticks of the Argas reflexus group (Argasidae) and the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Ixodidae) comply with practically all conditions necessary for successful survival in urban areas. The ability of ticks to transmit numerous human and animal pathogens and the presence of many reservoir hosts in urban and suburban areas create persistent danger for human populations and domestic animals. Impact on urban ticks should be directed against the two major requirements of tick existence: reducing populations of potential tick hosts (feral pigeons, stray dogs and cats, and urban rodents), and changing other environmental conditions to make them less suitable for ticks. It is especially important that urban inhabitants be properly informed about the danger posed by ticks, the sites of possible tick attacks, and basic self-protection techniques.

  7. Tracing Variations within "Rural Habitus": An Explanation of Why Young Men Stay or Leave Isolated Rural Towns in Southwest Queensland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funnell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    An explanation is presented about what keeps young men in isolated rural areas. The purpose is to contribute a concrete analysis of habitus as used in educational research. Inadequacies in application of the term are demonstrated in research conducted on school and work by the author in a rural town. An analysis of changes from labour-intensive…

  8. 77 FR 60418 - Town of Stuyvesant, New York and Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Town of Stuyvesant, New York and Albany Engineering Corporation; Notice of Availability of Draft Environmental Assessment In accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act of...

  9. 76 FR 38383 - Albany Engineering Corporation, Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Albany Engineering Corporation, Town of Stuyvesant, NY; Notice of Site Visit and Technical Meeting On July 12, 2011, Office of Energy Projects staff will participate in a...

  10. Youth Employment, Psychosocial Health and the Importance of Person/Environment Fit: A Case Study of Two Scottish Rural Towns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavis, Stephen; Platt, Stephen; Hubbard, Gill

    2002-01-01

    Reports on the employment experiences of young people from two small rural Scottish towns. The majority of available employment was repetitive, and involved poor working conditions and limited opportunity for skill development or promotion. Most respondents recognized that in the longer term such work was detrimental to their quality of life and…

  11. Telemedicine for the delivery of professional development for health, education and welfare professionals in two remote mining towns.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J G; Robinson, P J; McEvoy, M; Gates, J

    2001-01-01

    Over a two-year period, telemedicine was used to deliver training and development services for health, education and welfare staff in two remote towns in South Australia - Roxby Downs and Coober Pedy. Both are mining towns but they have different profiles in terms of the community's mental health needs. The services were provided by the Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) from the Women's and Children's Hospital in Adelaide, South Australia. The media used were videoconferencing, telephone, video-tapes, the Internet and printed material. During 1998-9, professional staff in the two locations participated in structured videoconferencing seminars that addressed important mental health topics, chosen in response to surveys of the needs of the participants. The videoconferencing sessions were sometimes used to discuss specific patient cases. Each remote town was also supported via videoconferencing by a nominated office of the CAMHS: Roxby Downs by the suburban office at Port Adelaide and Coober Pedy by the office in the industrial town of Port Pirie. This customized support was an important factor in the success of the professional development network.

  12. Living Together in Commercial Harmony: Research as a Catalyst for Cooperative "Town-Gown" Relations. Research Report 17-89.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balenger, Victoria J.; And Others

    In some communities, commercial activity by the local university is perceived as a threat to the reciprocity of the "town-gown" exchange relationship. This study was designed to provide an information base from which negotiations in this area could proceed. Students (N=200) and faculty/staff (N=100) at the University of Maryland, College…

  13. Ready To Read: Laying the Foundation for School Success. Satellite Town Meeting #77: March 20, 2001. Spanish Language Version. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This interactive teleconference (in VHS format, Spanish language version) presents renowned national experts, local educators, and community leaders who share ideas on how to improve schools and reach the National Educational Goals. The 60-minute Satellite Town Meeting focuses on laying the foundation for school success through readiness to read.…

  14. Ready To Read: Laying the Foundation for School Success. Satellite Town Meeting #77 (March 20, 2001). [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC.

    This videotape (in either VHS of 3/4 inch format) presents an interactive teleconference where renowned national experts, local educators, and community leaders share ideas on how to improve schools and reach the National Educational Goals. This 60-minute Satellite Town Meeting focuses on laying the foundation for school success through readiness…

  15. A Tale of Three Cities: Piloting a Measure of Effort and Comfort Levels within Town-Gown Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavazzi, Stephen M.; Fox, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This article extends the argument that scholarship on marriages and families provides invaluable insights into town-gown relationships. First, a four-square matrix constructed from the twin dimensions of effort and comfort levels is used to describe a typology of campus and community associations. Next the construction of the Optimal College Town…

  16. A Comparison of the Effects of Witnessing Community Violence and Direct Victimization among Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of children from the Cape Town area in South Africa. The study compares the effects of witnessing school or neighborhood violence compared with being victimized in each context on psychological distress. The findings suggest that in the context of the school, victimization has a somewhat stronger effect on distress…

  17. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  18. "Learning Service" in International Contexts: Partnership-Based Service-Learning and Research in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Janice; Stanton, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore an approach to developing and implementing service-learning and community-based research in a study-abroad program in Cape Town, South Africa. Drawing on a notion of partnerships reflecting the values of accompaniment and transparency, and influenced by the importance of learning service, we outline an intentional, engaged…

  19. The "Affective Place-Making" Practices of Girls at a High School in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinquest, Elzahn; Fataar, Aslam

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the "affective place-making" practices of girls at a private high school on the outskirts of Cape Town. The article responds to the question: How do high school girls' affects and social bodies contribute to their place-making practices and to the type of place they make of their school? Our focus is on…

  20. Partnering for Economic Development: How Town-Gown Relations Impact Local Economic Development in Small and Medium Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massey, Jennifer; Field, Sean; Chan, Yolande

    2014-01-01

    Universities play an increasingly prominent role in shaping regional, social, and economic development. In Canada, however, spatial, economic, and social differences between universities and their host communities continue to challenge positive town--gown relationships and undermine the benefits associated with high concentrations of prospective…

  1. Uncertainty in a College-Town Housing Market: The Case of the University of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadayuki, Taisuke

    2015-01-01

    This paper empirically investigates the costs that arise from uncertainty in the college-town housing market in the Urbana-Champaign metropolitan area, the home of the University of Illinois. This research resulted in two principal findings. First, the rental price of housing owned by property owners having more than 10 claims filed against them…

  2. Interest of Grade Ten Students toward Physics among Other Science Subjects, Case of Wolaita Soddo Town Governmental Secondary Schools, Ethiopia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelo, Shewangzaw

    2016-01-01

    This paper has proposed to investigate the interest in students towards physics among other science subjects. The investigation was carried out with 490 samples of grade ten students in Wolaita Soddo town governmental schools. Thus, overall result indicates that the interest in students towards physics is low and students hate to learn physics in…

  3. 75 FR 58411 - Medicare Program; Town Hall Meeting on the Physician Compare Web Site, October 27, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-24

    ... Physician Compare Web Site, October 27, 2010 AGENCY: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), HHS... 2010, ``Public Reporting of Performance Information'' requires CMS to establish a Physician Compare Web site by January 1, 2011. This notice announces a Town Hall meeting to discuss the Physician Compare...

  4. Exploring the Old Town School of Folk Music's Beck "Song Reader" Ensemble: An Interview with Nathaniel Braddock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Matthew D.

    2014-01-01

    This column presents an interview with Nathaniel Braddock, who created and teaches an ensemble devoted to Beck's "Song Reader" at the Old Town School of Folk Music in Chicago, Illinois. "Song Reader" is a collection of 20 compositions published as sheet music for musicians to record and release, with over 17,000 versions…

  5. K-12 Students Flock To ToxTown In San Diego: Results of an SOT K-12 Education Outreach Workshop

    EPA Science Inventory

    Just prior to the start of the 2015 Annual Meeting in San Diego, hundreds of K-12 students, teachers, and science enthusiasts visited the ToxTown booth at the annual San Diego Festival of Science and Engineering grand finale event, EXPO Day. Over 20,000 attendees participated in ...

  6. 76 FR 6807 - Notice of Meeting; NIAID Town Hall Meeting on the New National Institute of Allergy and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Network on Infectious Diseases Other than HIV Notice is hereby given that the National Institute of... Leadership Group for a Clinical Research Network on Infectious Diseases other than HIV. The establishment of this new program was first announced at the October 26, 2010 NIAID Town Hall Meeting on NIAID's...

  7. The Elizabeth Towns Incident: An Inquiry-Based Approach to Learning Anatomy Developed through High School-University Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marx, Joseph G.; Honeycutt, Kimberly A.; Clayton, Sonia Rahmati; Moreno, Nancy P.

    2006-01-01

    The Elizabeth Towns Incident (ETI), a set of inquiry lessons on human anatomy, was developed as part of a partnership between the Houston Independent School District (HISD) and Baylor College of Medicine. This collaboration was funded by the National Science Foundation's program, Graduate Teaching Fellowship in K-12 Education. The Houston-based…

  8. 75 FR 38501 - The Release of the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Town of Nags Head Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... identified as having beach quality material in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Wilmington District's EIS... 1899, from the Town of Nags Head to dredge up to 4.6 million cubic yards of beach-quality sediment from an offshore borrow source, and deposit the material along approximately 10 miles of ocean...

  9. Generalized Anxiety and Major Depressive syndrome measured by the SCL-90-R in Two Manganese (Mn) Exposed Ohio Towns

    EPA Science Inventory

    Objective: Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause generalized anxiety (GA) and major depression (MD) in residents living in Mn-exposed areas. Marietta and East Liverpool are two Ohio towns identified as having elevated levels of Mn. The objective was to determine if l...

  10. 77 FR 70163 - Medicare Program; Town Hall Meeting on FY 2014 Applications for New Medical Services and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Town Hall Meeting will be held in the main Auditorium in the central building of the Centers for... treatment because of the use of the device. ++ Decreased pain, bleeding or other quantifiable symptoms... first floor levels in the Central Building. Seating capacity is limited to the first 250...

  11. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  12. Indians in Town and Country: The Nisenan Indians' Changing Economy and Society as Shown in John A. Sutter's 1856 Correspondence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurtado, Albert L.

    1988-01-01

    Uses John Sutter's letters to illustrate the complex local forces affecting Nisenan Indians in post Gold Rush California: tribal disintegration, the lure of wage labor in town, racism, Sutter's designs to keep Indians as peons, and a compliant Indian superintendent who agreed to remove "troublesome" Indians. Contains 50 references. (SV)

  13. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town

    PubMed Central

    Green, Deirdre R.; Anthony, T. Renée

    2016-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69–90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures, where noise

  14. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Wim; Meng, Fei; Beauclair, Roxanne; Deprez, Nele; Temmerman, Marleen; Welte, Alex; Hens, Niel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3), and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively). Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent condom use, our

  15. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Sahar; langer, Ines; Cubasch, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the microclimate results shows, that with vegetation the microclimate in street canopies will be change: • 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K • relative humidity increase by about 10 % • soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K • wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which

  16. Impacts of Vegetation and Urban planning on micro climate in Hashtgerd new Town

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, S.; Langer, I.; Cubasch, U.

    2012-12-01

    One of the objectives of climatological part of project Young Cities 'Developing Energy-Efficient Urban Fabric in the Tehran-Karaj Region' is to simulate the micro climate (with 1m resolution) in 35ha of new town Hashtgerd, which is located 65 km far from mega city Tehran. The Project aims are developing, implementing and evaluating building and planning schemes and technologies which allow to plan and build sustainable, energy-efficient and climate sensible form mass housing settlements in arid and semi-arid regions ("energy-efficient fabric"). Climate sensitive form also means designing and planning for climate change and its related effects for Hashtgerd New Town. By configuration of buildings and open spaces according to solar radiation, wind and vegetation, climate sensitive urban form can create outdoor thermal comfort. To simulate the climate on small spatial scales, the micro climate model Envi-met has been used to simulate the micro climate in 35 ha. The Eulerian model ENVI-met is a micro-scale climate model which gives information about the influence of architecture and buildings as well as vegetation and green area on the micro climate up to 1 m resolution. Envi-met has been run with information from topography, downscaled climate data with neuro-fuzzy method, meteorological measurements, building height and different vegetation variants (low and high number of trees) Through the optimal Urban Design and Planning for the 35ha area the micro climate results shows, that with vegetation the micro climate in street canopies will be change: - 2 m temperature is decreased by about 2 K - relative humidity increase by about 10 % - soil temperature is decreased by about 3 K - wind speed is decreased by about 60% The style of buildings allows free movement of air, which is of high importance for fresh air supply. The increase of inbuilt areas in 35 ha reduces the heat island effect through cooling caused by vegetation and increase of air humidity which caused by

  17. Occupational Noise Exposure of Employees at Locally-Owned Restaurants in a College Town.

    PubMed

    Green, Deirdre R; Anthony, T Renée

    2015-01-01

    While many restaurant employees work in loud environments, in both dining and food preparation areas, little is known about worker exposures to noise. The risk of hearing loss to millions of food service workers around the country is unknown. This study evaluated full-shift noise exposure to workers at six locally-owned restaurants to examine risk factors associated with noise exposures during the day shift. Participants included cooks, counter attendants, bartenders, and waiters at full-service restaurants with bar service and at limited-service restaurants that provided counter service only. Assessments were made on weekdays and weekends, both during the summer and the fall (with a local university in session) to examine whether the time of week or year affects noise exposures to this population in a college town. In addition, the relationships between noise exposures and the type of restaurant and job classification were assessed. One-hundred eighty full-shift time-weighted average (TWA) exposures were assessed, using both Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) criteria. No TWA measurements exceeded the 90 dBA OSHA 8 hr permissible exposure limit, although six projected TWAs exceeded the 85 dBA OSHA hearing conservation action limit. Using NIOSH criteria, TWAs ranged from 69-90 dBA with a mean of 80 dBA (SD = 4 dBA). Nearly 8% (14) of the exposures exceeded the NIOSH 8-hr 85 dBA. Full-shift exposures were larger for all workers in full-service restaurants (p < 0.001) and for cooks (p = 0.003), regardless of restaurant type. The fall semester (p = 0.003) and weekend (p = 0.048) exposures were louder than summer and weekdays. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the combination of restaurant type, job classification, and season had a significant effect on restaurant worker noise exposures (p < 0.001) in this college town. While evening/night shift exposures

  18. Autler-Townes effect in a sodium molecular-ladder scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Fernandez, Ruth; Ekers, Aigars; Klavins, Janis; Yatsenko, Leonid P.; Bezuglov, Nikolai N.; Shore, Bruce W.; Bergmann, Klaas

    2005-02-01

    We report results from studies of the Autler-Townes (AT) effect observed in sodium molecules from a molecular beam. A relatively weak laser field P couples an initially populated rovibronic level g in the electronic ground state (here X {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +},v{sup ''}=0, J{sup ''}=7) to a selected excited rovibronic level e (here A {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +},v{sup '}=10, J{sup '}=8), which in turn is coupled by a relatively strong laser field S to a more highly excited level f (here 5 {sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +},v=10, J=9), a scheme we idealize as a three-state ladder. The AT effect is seen by scanning the frequency of the P field while recording fluorescence from both the e and f levels in separate detection channels. We present qualitative theoretical considerations showing that, when the P field is weak, the ratio of doublet component areas in the excitation spectrum from level f can be used to determine the lifetime of this level. We obtain a value of 17{+-}3 ns. When the P field is stronger, such that its Rabi frequency is larger than the decay rate of level e, the fraction of f-level population that decays to the intermediate electronic state A {sup 1}{sigma}{sub u}{sup +} can be deduced from the AT spectrum. When supplemented with values of Franck-Condon and Hoenl-London factors, our measurements give a value for the branching ratio (the fraction returning to level e) of r{sub e}=0.145 with a statistical error of {+-}0.004. The use of a strong P field on the g-e transition and a weak S field as a probe on the e-f transition results in complex line shapes in the excitation spectrum of level f, not showing the familiar Autler-Townes doublet structure.

  19. Evaluating tsunami risk perception and preparedness of people and institutions in the town of Siracusa, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaniboni, Filippo; Tinti, Stefano; Grancher, Delphine; Goeldner-Gianella, Lydie; Lavigne, Franck; Evans, Manon; Brunstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The eastern coast of Sicily is characterized by high population density, with three main cities (Messina, Catania and Siracusa) and many other touristic and industrial poles. At the same time, many possible sources of hazard exist in the area, from the highest volcano in Europe (Mt. Etna) to the several faults existing both inland and offshore in the Ionian Sea, and to the Hyblaean-Malta Escarpment running parallel to the coast close to the shoreline, incised by several scars and canyons. Seismic and tsunami catalogues account for such an intense activity, with some major events causing several damages and casualties, the main of which being the 1693 (Augusta) and 1908 (Messina) earthquakes and consequent tsunami. For such reasons the area of Siracusa and its surroundings was chosen as one of the test sites of the EU Project ASTARTE - Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe (Grant 603839, 7th FP, ENV.2013.6.4-3), investigating many aspects of tsunami hazard, vulnerability and risk along the coasts of Europe. One of the main aims of the project is to assess the perception and preparedness of people and local authorities to natural hazards, with particular attention to tsunamis, in the test sites. This task was performed by realizing a questionnaire, subdivided into some sections, each one estimating a particular aspect: from the relation of the interviewed person with the site, to his/her perception of the risk and reaction in case of alert, to the knowledge of warning systems and evacuation procedures. The questions were submitted to local people and tourists in the town center of Siracusa, and also provided to delegates of local authorities, such as municipality and Civil Protection Department. The questionnaire results show a very low level of awareness of the risk connected to tsunamis, which is surprising if one considers the relatively recent catastrophic event of Messina, involving the whole eastern coast of Sicily. On the other hand

  20. [Prediction method of rural landscape pattern evolution based on life cycle: a case study of Jinjing Town, Hunan Province, China].

    PubMed

    Ji, Xiang; Liu, Li-Ming; Li, Hong-Qing

    2014-11-01

    Taking Jinjing Town in Dongting Lake area as a case, this paper analyzed the evolution of rural landscape patterns by means of life cycle theory, simulated the evolution cycle curve, and calculated its evolution period, then combining CA-Markov model, a complete prediction model was built based on the rule of rural landscape change. The results showed that rural settlement and paddy landscapes of Jinjing Town would change most in 2020, with the rural settlement landscape increased to 1194.01 hm2 and paddy landscape greatly reduced to 3090.24 hm2. The quantitative and spatial prediction accuracies of the model were up to 99.3% and 96.4%, respectively, being more explicit than single CA-Markov model. The prediction model of rural landscape patterns change proposed in this paper would be helpful for rural landscape planning in future.

  1. An entomological study on the dengue vectors during outbreak of dengue in Tiruppur town and its surroundings, Tamil Nadu, India.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, N; Venkatesh, S; Lal, Shiv

    2006-03-01

    Tiruppur town and its surroundings of Tamil Nadu state had reported the rise in dengue cases and some deaths during July, 2005. A team from NICD branch, Coonoor investigated the outbreak of dengue during August, 2005. Due to acute scarcity of water, people in Tiruppur town and surrounding rural areas store water in cement tanks and other containers which facilitated the prolific breeding of the dengue vector mosquitoes. The Aedes aegypti adult and larval survey conducted in randomly selected areas and the larval breeding indices and adult mosquito density were found to be above the critical levels. The state health and municipal authorities had initiated the control measures in urban areas. However in rural areas, these measures needed to be sustained and surveillance for dengue cases to be strengthened for timely control and prevention of the future outbreaks of this disease.

  2. "This villa life": town planning, suburbs and the "new social order" in early twentieth-century Sydney.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    In Australia, social reformers approached the new century and post-First World War reconstruction with the hope of establishing a "new social order" based on national efficiency and class harmony. This was to be delivered through the new science of town planning. The would-be reformers posited themselves as an intellectual vanguard which would provide leadership and assist in establishing an enlightened bureaucracy of professional public servants who would also lead the way to social betterment. Their project, however, had collapsed by the end of the war. Lacking collective political clout, the nascent planning professionals' influence declined as the political environment became more conservative in the 1920s. Reformist and radical features of town planning were stripped from suburban agendas. Suburbs, once held up as the cradle of the 'new social order', were to become places for quarantining class and reinvigorating liberalism.

  3. [The association between self-rated living environment and excess weight in a small Brazilian town].

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Marília Augusta Sousa; Zucolotto, Daniela Cristina Candela; Sartorelli, Daniela Saes

    2015-01-01

    This population-based cross-sectional study examined the relationship between self-rated living environment and excess body weight in a sample of 216 adults from Itirapuã, São Paulo State, Brazil. Logistic regression adjusted for gender and age showed that people living far from outdoor areas for physical exercise [OR = 2.05 (95%CI: 1.15; 3.66)] and primary schools [OR = 1.99 (95%CI: 1.13; 3.47)] had higher odds of excess weight. Satisfaction with the quality of available supermarkets [OR = 0.14 (95%CI: 0.03; 0.69) p = 0.02], adequate street lighting [OR = 0.37 (95%CI: 0.14; 0.96) p = 0.02], and pedestrians walking on sidewalks within one's line-of-sight [OR = 0.41 (95%CI: 0.18; 0.94) p = 0.03] were inversely associated with excess weight. The results suggest that small-town individuals' negative perceptions of their living environment are associated with excess weight.

  4. [Application of molecular genetic methods during Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma].

    PubMed

    Iatsyshina, S B; Astakhova, T S; Romanenko, V V; Platonov, A E; Zhukova, Iu V; Braslavskaia, S I; Tartakovskiĭ, I S; Shipulin, G A

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the study was to perform molecular genetic analysis based on multi-locus sequence typing in order to identify source of Legionnaires' disease outbreak in town Verkhnyaya Pyshma in July 2007 and genetic profile of the causative agent. Sequence-based typing protocol recommended by European Working Group on Legionella infection (EWGLI) was used. It was not possible to obtain satisfactory results of Fla gene sequencing for all samples. Obtained allelic profiles of other genes were typical for L. pneumophila. Allelic profiles of L. pneumophila isolated from patients were identical and matched with L. pneumophila DNA detected in water from hot water supply of domestic building, but differed from cooling tower's isolates and isolates from showerhead in apartment of one patient. Identity of 5 genes of L. pneumophila isolated from autopsy samples and from hot water of central hot water supply of domestic building confirms aspiration route of infection through hot water contaminated by the microorganism. L. pneumophila detected in water from cooling tower, showerhead in apartment of one patient, and from drainage canal of hot water supply station belonged to other allelic variants and, therefore, are not related with the outbreak.

  5. Molecular analysis of SALL1 mutations in Townes-Brocks syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kohlhase, J; Taschner, P E; Burfeind, P; Pasche, B; Newman, B; Blanck, C; Breuning, M H; ten Kate, L P; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P; Mitulla, B; Seidel, J; Kirkpatrick, S J; Pauli, R M; Wargowski, D S; Devriendt, K; Proesmans, W; Gabrielli, O; Coppa, G V; Wesby-van Swaay, E; Trembath, R C; Schinzel, A A; Reardon, W; Seemanova, E; Engel, W

    1999-01-01

    Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited malformation syndrome characterized by anal, renal, limb, and ear anomalies. Recently, we showed that mutations in the putative zinc finger transcription factor gene SALL1 cause TBS. To determine the spectrum of SALL1 mutations and to investigate the genotype-phenotype correlations in TBS, we examined 23 additional families with TBS or similar phenotypes for SALL1 mutations. In 9 of these families mutations were identified. None of the mutations has previously been described. Two of these mutations are nonsense mutations, one of which occurred in three unrelated families. Five of the mutations are short deletions. All of the mutations are located 5' of the first double zinc finger (DZF) encoding region and are therefore predicted to result in putative prematurely terminated proteins lacking all DZF domains. This suggests that only SALL1 mutations that remove the DZF domains result in TBS. We also present evidence that in rare cases SALL1 mutations can lead to phenotypes similar to Goldenhar syndrome. However, phenotypic differences in TBS do not seem to depend on the site of mutation. PMID:9973281

  6. A cross-sectional study on bovine tuberculosis in Hawassa town and its surroundings, Southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Regassa, Alemayehu; Tassew, Asmelash; Amenu, Kebede; Megersa, Bekele; Abunna, Fufa; Mekibib, Berhanu; Marcotty, Tanguy; Macrotty, Tanguy; Ameni, Gobena

    2010-06-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Hawassa town and its surroundings from October 2007 to May 2008 to estimate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) based on comparative interadermal tuberculin test (CIDT) and abattoir survey. Accordingly, 39 herds comprising 413 cattle were subjected to CIDT, and the herd and individual animal prevalence were 48.7% (19/39) and 11.6% (48/413), respectively. One of the 16 milk samples collected from tuberculin-positive cows was culture positive. The prevalence significantly differed among the age group (P = 0.001) and management system (P = 0.001). Thus, age group over four (OR = 7.9) and animal with poor management system (OR = 4.1) had a higher odds for tuberculin reactivity compared to those with age group under four and cattle with good management system, respectively. Of the total 1,023 cattle subjected to postmortem examination, 11 (1.1%) were found to be positive for gross tuberculous lesions. Larger proportion (50%) of TB lesion was recorded in the respiratory pathway followed by digestive system (28.6%) and prescapular lymph nodes (21.4%). Of 14 tissue specimens collected from the gross lesions, four (28.6%) were positive for histopathological TB lesions. In conclusion, this study revealed the importance of BTB in the study area in particular and the region in general.

  7. [Obesity in adults: a population based study in a small town in South of Brazil, 2005].

    PubMed

    Sarturi, Juliana Barbosa; das Neves, Janaina; Peres, Karen Glazer

    2010-01-01

    Changes in nutritional pattern in Brazilian population have been observed mainly in relation to obesity increase. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of obesity and associated factors in adult population in Santo Angelo, Rio Grande do Sul State, 2005. A cross sectional study was carried out involving adult subjects from 20 to 59 years old (n=434), of both sexes. People with Body Mass Index equal to or higher than 30 kg/m(2) were considered obese. A questionnaire was applied to collect data related to socioeconomic, demographic, and behavioral conditions. The multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the associated factors. The response rate was 95.0% and the prevalence of obesity was equal to 16.6% (CI 95% 13.120.1). Presence of obesity was positively associated with lack of physical activity, none feeding habits care, and some individuals that mentioned current health problems regardless of sex. The prevalence of obesity found was similar to other Brazilian population based studies. The results may support planning and implementing prevention actions as well as obesity control in adult population taking into account the relevant details of a small size town.

  8. Assessing the State of Contamination in a Historic Mining Town Using Sediment Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Mélida; Wu, Shuo-Sheng; Rodriguez, Jameelah R; Jones, Ashton D; Lockwood, Benjamin E

    2016-05-01

    The United States town of Aurora, Missouri, USA, stockpiled lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) mining wastes from the early to mid-1900s in the form of chat piles. Clean-up actions were undertaken at intervals in subsequent years including land leveling and removal of chat. This study assessed the current state of contamination by identifying areas where metals are present at toxic levels. For this purpose, stream sediment samples (N = 100) were collected over a 9 × 12 km area in and around Aurora. Their content of cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn were measured, and concentration maps were generated using ArcGIS to categorize affected areas. Metal concentrations varied over a wide range of values with the overall highest values observed in the north-northeast part of Aurora where abundant chat piles had been present. Comparison between observed concentrations and sediment-quality guidelines put the contaminated areas mentioned are above-toxic levels for Cd, Pb and Zn. In contrast, levels in rural areas and the southern part of Aurora were at background levels, thus posing no threat to aquatic habitats. The fact that contamination is constrained to a relatively small area can be advantageously used to implement further remediation and, by doing so, to help protect the underlying karst aquifer.

  9. Are elderly pedestrians allowed enough time at pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa?

    PubMed

    Amosun, S L; Burgess, T; Groeneveldt, L; Hodgson, T

    2007-01-01

    A descriptive, cross-sectional analytical study was conducted to determine whether the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1) would allow elderly pedestrians to safely clear pedestrian crossings in Cape Town, South Africa. Male and female volunteers (n = 47), aged 65-93 years and resident in four homes for older persons, were recruited. Pedestrian clearance intervals at 40 traffic lights within 5-km radius of the selected homes were measured. The mean walking speed required at these traffic lights was 0.86 +/- 0.32 ms(1). The maximal walking speed over 12 m was measured without carrying any load and when carrying a predetermined weight of an average shopping bag. Participants' emotions associated with pedestrian road safety were also assessed through an interview. The mean maximal unloaded and loaded walking speeds were 1.36 +/- 0.31 ms(-1) (0.73-2.03 ms(-1)), and 1.36 +/- 0.33 ms(-1) (0.58-2.12 ms(-1)), respectively. Over 30% of the participants walked slower than the recommended walking speed of 1.2 ms(-1). Participants felt that traffic lights did not allow for sufficient time to cross roads (51.1%) and reported emotions of apprehension (44.7%), anxiety (17.0%), and fear (10.6%) when crossing. A review of traffic planning and public policy is recommended to ensure older pedestrians safely clear pedestrian crossings.

  10. Immigration and earnings inequality in America's new small-town destinations.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Allen; Pais, Jeremy; Wallace, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Research on the relationship between immigrant population concentration and earnings inequality is divided between two perspectives. Supply-side arguments maintain that areas attracting large numbers of immigrants experience minimal wage growth at the bottom of the earnings distribution, which increases local levels of earnings inequality. Demand-side arguments contend that industrial restructuring reduces the pay of manual labor regardless of, and even prior to, the arrival of foreign-born workers. Adjudicating between these two perspectives is hindered by issues of potential endogeneity, which confound attempts to independently assess the effects of immigration on inequality or vice versa using OLS regression. We consider a third perspective called the reciprocal effects hypothesis which contends that immigrant concentration and earnings inequality emerge together through a mutually reinforcing feedback process. We explore this question in America's "new small-town destinations" using data from U.S. micropolitan statistical areas. We use three-stage least squares estimation to address the endogeneity problem and to test these three hypotheses. While we find support for both the supply- and demand-side perspectives, the results are best explained by the reciprocal effects hypothesis.

  11. The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Naranjo, A; Castellano, D; Kraaijvanger, H; Meulman, B; Mels, A; Zeeman, G

    2010-01-01

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to improve the basic sanitation services provided in informal settlements through the implementation of the MobiSan approach. The approach consists of a communal Urine-Diversion and Dehydration Toilet (UDDT) built in a former sea shipping container. The system is independent of water, electricity or sewerage connection and it is maintained by full-time community caretakers who also act as hygiene promoters. The project seeks to link sanitation services with hygiene promotion in informal settlements while enhancing user satisfaction and reducing costs in providing basic sanitation services. This paper describes the preliminary experiences and lessons learnt during the implementation and evaluation of the MobiSan prototype and discusses its potential for replication. The MobiSan has proved to be an appropriate option by means of dealing successfully with shallow groundwater table, land availability and high settlement densities. In addition it has been demonstrated to be cost-competitive in terms of operating cost compared to chemical toilets.

  12. Social and cultural contexts of concurrency in a township in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mah, Timothy L; Maughan-Brown, Brendan

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the social and cultural context in which concurrent sexual partnerships exist is important, given recent interventions to reduce their prevalence. This qualitative study seeks to improve the understanding of concurrent partnerships and perceptions of the link between concurrency and HIV risk in a South African township in Cape Town. Small-group discussion and focus-group participants reported that concurrency was a common phenomenon in their township. The most commonly cited reasons for participating in concurrent partnerships were material and financial exchange or gain and sexual dissatisfaction with partners. Although participants believed that being in a concurrent relationship increases the risk of acquiring HIV, they did not believe this discourages many people from engaging in these behaviours. This study highlights that concurrency in this context may be a social norm that is resistant to change. The efficacy of current programmes aimed at reducing concurrency needs to be examined in this context. Our findings suggest that improving economic independence at the individual level and improving sexual satisfaction within partnerships may have some leverage for concurrency reduction. An alternative approach to strengthen combination HIV-prevention strategies could be to increase condom use with the additional/side partners, whose predominant role is often perceived in terms of sex, with messages centred on the notion that sex with additional partner(s) should not endanger the main partner.

  13. High mercury levels in hair samples from residents of Taiji, a Japanese whaling town.

    PubMed

    Endo, Tetsuya; Haraguchi, Koichi

    2010-05-01

    We investigated the mercury concentrations in red meat from pilot whales consumed by some residents of the Japanese whaling town, Taiji, and in hair samples from 50 residents for their maker of mercury burden. The methyl mercury (M-Hg) level in the red meat was 5.9 microg/wet g, markedly higher than the US FDA action level and Cordex Alimentarius guideline level for predatory fish (1.0 microg/wet g). The average level of total mercury (T-Hg) in the hair from residents who ate whale meat more than once a month was 24.6 microg/g, whereas the average from the residents who did not consume any whale meat was 4.3 microg/g. The T-Hg concentrations in the hair from three donors exceeded 50 microg/g, the level for NOAEL set by WHO. The T-Hg level found in the Taiji whale meat consumers was markedly higher than that observed in the Japanese population overall (about 2 microg/g).

  14. Quality of storm-water runoff, Mililani Town, Oahu, Hawaii, 1980-84

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamane, Cheryl M.; Lum, Marty G.

    1985-01-01

    Storm water runoff and rainfall data were collected at two urban sites in Mililani Town, Oahu, Hawaii between September 1980 and August 1984. The data included results from analyses of 300 samples of storm water runoff. Turbidity, suspended solids, Kjeldahl nitrogen, and phosphorus concentrations exceeded the State of Hawaii Department of Health 's streamwater standards in more than 50% of the samples. Mercury, lead, and fecal coliform bacteria levels exceeded the U.S. EPA 's recommended criteria for either freshwater aquatic life or shellfish harvesting waters in more than half the samples. Other constituents exceeding State or federal standards in at least one sample included pH, cadmium, nitrate plus nitrite, iron, alkalinity, manganese, chromium, copper, zinc, and the pesticides heptachlor , lindane, and melathion. Runoff correlated well with rainfall in both basins. Antecedent rainfall conditions and rainfall intensity had little effect on the quality of runoff. No statistically significant relationships were found between quantity of runoff and concentration of water quality constituents. A ' first flush ' effect was observed for chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, lead, nitrate plus nitrite, fecal coliform bacteria, dissolved solids, and mercury. There were significant (alpha = 0.05) differences between the two basins for values of discharge, turbidity, specific conductance, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids, nitrate plus nitrite, phosphorus, lead, dissolved solids, and mercury. The larger basin had higher median and maximum values, and wider ranges of values. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Enhanced Schawlow-Townes linewidth in lasers with nonorthogonal transverse eigenmodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mussche, Paul L.; Siegman, Anthony E.

    1991-03-01

    A recent reformulation of the laser field equations using the true modes of the laser cavity and including a noise polarization term to account for spontaneous emission shows that conventional understanding of amplifier noise figure oscillator linewidth and oscillator build-up time needs to be modified for laser amplifiers or oscillators with nonorthogonal transverse eigenmodes. Gain-guided lasers and unstable-resonator lasers in particular have nonorthogonal transverse modes and hence exhibit unconventional noise behavior. One important consequence of this theory is the appearance of an excess spontaneous emission factor (the " Petermann factor" ) which multiplies the well-known Schawlow-Townes formula for the laser linewidth. This factor can be substantially greater than unity for unstable resonators with large magnification or Fresnel number. We discuss our investigations of the consequences of the nonorthogonality of the transverse eigenmodes especially on laser linewidth in unstable-resonator lasers. We believe that the results of these investigations are important where the temporal coherence properties of the laser are of interest namely in coherent optical communications spectroscopy optical wavelength standards and also in the injection seeding of pulsed high-power unstable resonator lasers. Extensive calculations of the excess noise factor in real hard-edged unstable resonators have been carried out using a virtual-source approach to calculate the exact unstable-resonator eigenmodes. An experiment is also being carried out to demonstrate the linewidth enhancement in a small diode-pumped geometrically unstable laser oscillator.

  16. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women.

  17. Family Ties and Young Fathers’ Engagement in Cape Town, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Shelley; Cotton, Cassandra; Marteleto, Leticia J.

    2015-01-01

    Young South African fathers are often engaged in their children’s lives even if they do not live together. Using longitudinal data on children (n = 1,209) from the Cape Town area, the authors show that although only 26% of young fathers live with their children, 66% of nonresidential fathers maintain regular contact, and 61% provide financial support. The father–child relationship, however, is embedded in broader family ties. The type of father–mother relationship is strongly associated with whether fathers coreside with their children, but not with fathers’ contact with nonresidential children. Close mother and maternal grandmother bonds reduce the likelihood that fathers live with their children, whereas close ties between fathers and paternal grandmothers increase the chance that fathers visit nonresidential children. Family ties do not affect fathers’ financial contributions, which are driven by men’s current economic situation. These findings illustrate that father–child relationships are best understood in the context of interacting family systems. PMID:25774066

  18. Changing causes of death in the West African town of Banjul, 1942-97.

    PubMed Central

    van der Sande, M. A.; Inskip, H. M.; Jaiteh, K. O.; Maine, N. P.; Walraven, G. E.; Hall, A. J.; McAdam, K. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine trends in the causes of death in a West African town. Mortality caused by infectious diseases is reported to be declining while degenerative and man-made mortality factors are increasingly significant. Most mortality analyses for sub-Saharan Africa have involved extrapolation and have not been derived from community-based data. METHODS: Historical data on causes of death coded by physicians were analysed for the urban population of Banjul for the period 1942-97. As the calculation of rates is not possible in the absence of a reliable population denominator, age-standardized proportional mortality ratios (PMRs) for men and women by major groups of causes of death were calculated, using the 1942-49 data for reference purposes. FINDINGS: Most deaths were attributable to communicable diseases. There was a shift in proportional mortality over the study period: the contribution of communicable diseases declined and that of noncommunicable diseases and injuries increased. These trends were more marked among men than women. CONCLUSION: The data illustrate that while noncommunicable diseases and injuries are emerging as important contributors to mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, communicable diseases remain significant causes of mortality and should not be neglected. PMID:11242820

  19. Association of soil cadmium contamination with ceramic industry: a case study in a Chinese town.

    PubMed

    Liao, Q Lin; Liu, Cong; Wu, H Yun; Jin, Yang; Hua, Ming; Zhu, B Wan; Chen, Kai; Huang, Lei

    2015-05-01

    Soil cadmium (Cd) contamination is attributable to many sources, among which the ceramic industry is probably an important contributor whose relationship will be explored in this study. Upon studying a town in southeastern China that is quite famous for its ceramics, we observed that the soil Cd distribution agreed with the local ceramic industry's distribution in space and time from 2004 to 2014. Ceramic and pigment samples from a typical factory were selected in a case study, and a sediment core from a nearby river was collected. First, an application of the geo-accumulation index suggested that the sediment was very strongly polluted by Cd (mean 1874 mg/kg). Second, sediment dating indicated that the Cd concentration surge and the establishment of the factory were proximate in time (2002-2004). Third, principal component analysis showed high loading of Cd (0.947) solely, suggesting that the factory was most likely responsible for the Cd pollution found in the sediments of a nearby river. Finally, we infer that the soil cadmium pollution in the whole area may be related to the region's prosperous ceramic industry. Local government should reinforce controls of the ceramic industry and implement effective countermeasures.

  20. Rice Grain Quality and Consumer Preferences: A Case Study of Two Rural Towns in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Cuevas, Rosa Paula; Pede, Valerien O; McKinley, Justin; Velarde, Orlee; Demont, Matty

    2016-01-01

    Hedonic pricing analysis is conducted to determine the implicit values of various attributes in the market value of a good. In this study, hedonic pricing analysis was applied to measure the contribution of grain quality search and experience attributes to the price of rice in two rural towns in the Philippines. Rice samples from respondents underwent quantitative routine assessments of grain quality. In particular, gelatinization temperature and chalkiness, two parameters that are normally assessed through visual scores, were evaluated by purely quantitative means (differential scanning calorimetry and by digital image analysis). Results indicate that rice consumed by respondents had mainly similar physical and chemical grain quality attributes. The respondents' revealed preferences were typical of what has been previously reported for Filipino rice consumers. Hedonic regression analyses showed that grain quality characteristics that affected price varied by income class. Some of the traits or socioeconomic factors that affected price were percent broken grains, gel consistency, and household per capita rice consumption. There is an income effect on rice price and the characteristics that affect price vary between income classes.