Science.gov

Sample records for addition anomaly maps

  1. MAGSAT anomaly map and continental drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemouel, J. L. (Principal Investigator); Galdeano, A.; Ducruix, J.

    1981-01-01

    Anomaly maps of high quality are needed to display unambiguously the so called long wave length anomalies. The anomalies were analyzed in terms of continental drift and the nature of their sources is discussed. The map presented confirms the thinness of the oceanic magnetized layer. Continental magnetic anomalies are characterized by elongated structures generally of east-west trend. Paleomagnetic reconstruction shows that the anomalies found in India, Australia, and Antarctic exhibit a fair consistency with the African anomalies. It is also shown that anomalies are locked under the continents and have a fixed geometry.

  2. Preliminary aeromagnetic anomaly map of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Jachens, Rober C.

    1999-01-01

    The magnetization in crustal rocks is the vector sum of induced in minerals by the Earth’s present main field and the remanent magnetization of minerals susceptible to magnetization (chiefly magnetite) (Blakely, 1995). The direction of remanent magnetization acquired during the rock’s history can be highly variable. Crystalline rocks generally contain sufficient magnetic minerals to cause variations in the Earth’s magnetic field that can be mapped by aeromagnetic surveys. Sedimentary rocks are generally weakly magnetized and consequently have a small effect on the magnetic field: thus a magnetic anomaly map can be used to “see through” the sedimentary rock cover and can convey information on lithologic contrasts and structural trends related to the underlying crystalline basement (see Nettleton,1971; Blakely, 1995). The magnetic anomaly map (fig. 2) provides a synoptic view of major anomalies and contributes to our understanding of the tectonic development of California. Reference fields, that approximate the Earth’s main (core) field, have been subtracted from the recorded magnetic data. The resulting map of the total magnetic anomalies exhibits anomaly patterns related to the distribution of magnetized crustal rocks at depths shallower than the Curie point isotherm (the surface within the Earth beneath which temperatures are so high that rocks lose their magnetic properties). The magnetic anomaly map has been compiled from existing digital data. Data obtained from aeromagnetic surveys that were made at different times, spacings and elevations, were merged by analytical continuation of each set onto a common surface 305 m (1000 ft) above terrain. Digital data in this compatible form allows application of analytical techniques (Blakley, 1995) that can be used to enhance anomaly characteristics (e.g., wavelength and trends) and provide new interpretive information.

  3. Method of Mapping Anomalies in Homogenous Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electrical conductor and antenna are positioned in a fixed relationship to one another. Relative lateral movement is generated between the electrical conductor and a homogenous material while maintaining the electrical conductor at a fixed distance from the homogenous material. The antenna supplies a time-varying magnetic field that causes the electrical conductor to resonate and generate harmonic electric and magnetic field responses. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this lateral movement are indicative of a lateral location of a subsurface anomaly. Next, relative out-of-plane movement is generated between the electrical conductor and the homogenous material in the vicinity of the anomaly's lateral location. Disruptions in at least one of the electric and magnetic field responses during this out-of-plane movement are indicative of a depth location of the subsurface anomaly. A recording of the disruptions provides a mapping of the anomaly.

  4. The next generation Antarctic digital magnetic anomaly map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    von Frese, R.R.B; Golynsky, A.V.; Kim, H.R.; Gaya-Piqué, L.; Thébault, E.; Chiappinii, M.; Ghidella, M.; Grunow, A.; ,

    2007-01-01

    S (Golynsky et al., 2001). This map synthesized over 7.1 million line-kms of survey data available up through 1999 from marine, airborne and Magsat satellite observations. Since the production of the initial map, a large number of new marine and airborne surveys and improved magnetic observations from the Ørsted and CHAMP satellite missions have become available. In addition, an improved core field model for the Antarctic has been developed to better isolate crustal anomalies in these data. The next generation compilation also will likely represent the magnetic survey observations of the region in terms of a high-resolution spherical cap harmonic model. In this paper, we review the progress and problems of developing an improved magnetic anomaly map to facilitate studies of the Antarctic crustal magnetic field

  5. A global magnetic anomaly map. [obtained from POGO satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Regan, R. D.; Davis, W. M.; Cain, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    A subset of POGO satellite magnetometer data has been formed that is suitable for analysis of crustal magnetic anomalies. Using a thirteenth order field model, fit to these data, magnetic residuals have been calculated over the world to latitude limits of plus 50 deg. These residuals averaged over one degree latitude-longitude blocks represent a detailed global magnetic anomaly map derived solely from satellite data. Preliminary analysis of the map indicates that the anomalies are real and of geological origin.

  6. Anomalies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on anomalies includes Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, and additional resources for elementary and junior high school students. Pertinent activities are suggested, and sidebars discuss UFOs, animal anomalies, and anomalies from nature; and resources covering unexplained phenonmenas like crop circles, Easter Island,…

  7. Anomaly Detection In Additively Manufactured Parts Using Laser Doppler Vibrometery

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-09-29

    Additively manufactured parts are susceptible to non-uniform structure caused by the unique manufacturing process. This can lead to structural weakness or catastrophic failure. Using laser Doppler vibrometry and frequency response analysis, non-contact detection of anomalies in additively manufactured parts may be possible. Preliminary tests show promise for small scale detection, but more future work is necessary.

  8. Complete Bouguer gravity anomaly map of the state of Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abrams, Gerda A.

    1993-01-01

    The Bouguer gravity anomaly map is part of a folio of maps of Colorado cosponsored by the National Mineral Resources Assessment Program (NAMRAP) and the National Geologic Mapping Program (COGEOMAP) and was produced to assist in studies of the mineral resource potential and tectonic setting of the State. Previous compilations of about 12,000 gravity stations by Behrendt and Bajwa (1974a,b) are updated by this map. The data was reduced at a 2.67 g/cm3 and the grid contoured at 3 mGal intervals. This map will aid in the mineral resource assessment by indicating buried intrusive complexes, volcanic fields, major faults and shear zones, and sedimentary basins; helping to identify concealed geologic units; and identifying localities that might be hydrothermically altered or mineralized.

  9. Worldwide complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2011-12-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface "free air", Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). The free air and Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, submitted). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial Intelligence Agency (NGA) (Pavlis

  10. Comparison between the recent U.S. composite magnetic anomaly map and Magsat anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.; Taylor, P. T.; Langel, R. A.; Hinze, W. J.; Phillips, J. D.

    1985-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with a comparison of Magsat data with a Composite Magnetic Anomaly Map (CMAM) of the conterminous U.S. reported by Zietz (1982). The investigation was initiated to test the validity of the satellite measurements, and to provide insights into error or problems in either data set. It is found that upward continuation of the digital CMAM data is not in qualitative agreement with the Magsat map. However, if a least squares fit polynomial surface is taken out prior to upward continuation, there is improved quantitative agreement between a residual CMAM and Magsat. Causes for the remaining differences between the residual, upward continued CMAM and the Magsat map are also considered.

  11. Separation of Bouguer anomaly map using cellular neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albora, A. Muhittin; Ucan, Osman N.; Ozmen, Atilla; Ozkan, Tulay

    2001-02-01

    In this paper, a modern image-processing technique, the Cellular Neural Network (CNN) has been firstly applied to Bouguer anomaly map of synthetic examples and then to data from the Sivas-Divrigi Akdag region. CNN is an analog parallel computing paradigm defined in space and characterized by the locality of connections between processing neurons. The behaviour of the CNN is defined by two template matrices and a template vector. We have optimised the weight coefficients of these templates using the Recurrent Perceptron Learning Algorithm (RPLA). After testing CNN performance on synthetic examples, the CNN approach has been applied to the Bouguer anomaly of Sivas-Divrigi Akdag region and the results match drilling logs done by Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA).

  12. Scalar magnetic anomaly maps of Earth derived from POGO and Magsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Jafar; Langel, Robert A.; Purucker, Mike

    1994-01-01

    A new Polar Orbit Geophysical Observatory (POGO) scalar magnetic anomaly map at 400 km altitude is presented which consists of spherical harmonics of degree 15-60. On the basis of the common features of this map with two new Magsat anomaly maps, dawn and dusk, two scalar magnetic anomaly maps of the Earth are presented using two selection criteria with different levels of stringency. These selection criteria suppress the noncrustal components of the original maps by different amounts. The more stringent selection criteria seek to eliminate as much contamination as possible, at the expense of suppressing some anomaly signal. This map is represented by spherical harmonics of degree 15-60. The less stringent selection criteria seek to retain as much crustal signal as possible, at the expense of also retaining some contaminating fields. This map is represented by spherical harmonics of degree 15-65. The resulting two maps are highly correlated with degree correlation coefficients greater than 0.8.

  13. World Gravity Map: a set of global complete spherical Bouguer and isostatic anomaly maps and grids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonvalot, S.; Balmino, G.; Briais, A.; Kuhn, M.; Peyrefitte, A.; Vales, N.; Biancale, R.; Gabalda, G.; Reinquin, F.

    2012-04-01

    We present here a set of digital maps of the Earth's gravity anomalies (surface free air, Bouguer and isostatic), computed at Bureau Gravimetric International (BGI) as a contribution to the Global Geodetic Observing Systems (GGOS) and to the global geophysical maps published by the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) with support of UNESCO and other institutions. The Bouguer anomaly concept is extensively used in geophysical interpretation to investigate the density distributions in the Earth's interior. Complete Bouguer anomalies (including terrain effects) are usually computed at regional scales by integrating the gravity attraction of topography elements over and beyond a given area (under planar or spherical approximations). Here, we developed and applied a worldwide spherical approach aimed to provide a set of homogeneous and high resolution gravity anomaly maps and grids computed at the Earth's surface, taking into account a realistic Earth model and reconciling geophysical and geodetic definitions of gravity anomalies. This first version (1.0) has been computed by spherical harmonics analysis / synthesis of the Earth's topography-bathymetry up to degree 10800. The detailed theory of the spherical harmonics approach is given in Balmino et al., (Journal of Geodesy, 2011). The Bouguer and terrain corrections have thus been computed in spherical geometry at 1'x1' resolution using the ETOPO1 topography/bathymetry, ice surface and bedrock models from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) and taking into account precise characteristics (boundaries and densities) of major lakes, inner seas, polar caps and of land areas below sea level. Isostatic corrections have been computed according to the Airy-Heiskanen model in spherical geometry for a constant depth of compensation of 30km. The gravity information given here is provided by the Earth Geopotential Model (EGM2008), developed at degree 2160 by the National Geospatial

  14. Surface mapping of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly field: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunakawa, H.; Takahashi, F.; Shimizu, H.; Shibuya, H.; Matsushima, M.

    2010-12-01

    Mapping of the lunar magnetic anomaly gives a crucial constraint on the crustal magnetization structure of the Moon. High spatial resolution of the magnetic anomaly map requires low altitude mapping. We have developed a new method for mapping three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly field on the lunar surface using magnetic field observations by a satellite magnetometer. This surface mapping method was applied to the datasets of several lunar magnetic anomaly regions observed by Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. We will report their preliminary results. The radial component of the crustal magnetic field (Br) on the surface can be obtained from the satellite observations at various altitudes through the inversion of a boundary value problem (Tsunakawa et al., in press). In our method, surface Br values are mapped at almost equal interval points, called generalized spiral points. Two horizontal components are calculated at each point from Br values at the adjacent points. Thus we can map the surface values of three components and total intensity of the lunar magnetic anomaly field (Tsunakawa et al., in prep.). We have applied the method to several strong anomaly regions (e.g. Reiner Gamma) observed by Lunar Prospector and Kaguya. Since the observation altitudes are mostly 15-45 km, spatial resolutions are estimated to be 0.5-1 degree. Preliminary results show strong magnetic anomaly fields with intensity peaks of more than 500 nT on the lunar surface.

  15. Geomagnetic anomaly maps of Central Victoria Land (East Antarctica) from ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozzo, E.; Meloni, A.

    1992-10-01

    The results of an extensive ground geomagnetic survey over the Central Victoria Land (East Antarctica) between the Transantarctic Mountains and the Ross Sea are used to plot the residual field map of the area under consideration. The data indicate that intense positive anomalies occur along two corridors, one near Mt. Nansen and the other near Mt. Melbourne. Further elaboration of our measurements has produced three other geomagnetic maps: (1) a high-pass filter (cut-off wavelength of 20 km) map; (2) a low-pass filter (cut-off wavelength of 80 km) map; and (3) an upward continuation of the geomagnetic field up to 12000 ft (3660 m) map. The residual field map and the high-pass filter geomagnetic map indicate that all the intense anomalies (both positive and negative) are of shallow origin. The low pass filter map and the upward continuation map show that the land mass of the Central Victoria Land is characterized-by a weak, negative geomagnetic anomaly whereas the near-shore area, close to Terra Nova Bay, displays a weak positive anomaly. Our measurements indicate that all rock types characterized by high susceptibility produce geomagnetic anomalies, even if their outcrop is not extensive. These rocks belong to the Mt. Melbourne volcanics, Jurassic dolerites and Granite Harbour plutons. None of the formations of the metamorphic complex are responsible for intense magnetic signals.

  16. Regional Mapping of the Lunar Crustal Magnetic Field: Correlation of Strong Anomalies with Curvilinear Albedo Markings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Yingst, A.; Zakharian, A.; Lin, R. P.; Mitchell, D. L.; Halekas, J.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A. B.

    2000-01-01

    Using high-resolution regional Lunar Prospector magnetometer magnetic field maps, we report here a close correlation of the strongest individual crustal anomalies with unusual curvilinear albedo markings of the Reiner Gamma class.

  17. Detecting anomalies in CMB maps: a new method

    SciTech Connect

    Neelakanta, Jayanth T.

    2015-10-01

    Ever since WMAP announced its first results, different analyses have shown that there is weak evidence for several large-scale anomalies in the CMB data. While the evidence for each anomaly appears to be weak, the fact that there are multiple seemingly unrelated anomalies makes it difficult to account for them via a single statistical fluke. So, one is led to considering a combination of these anomalies. But, if we ''hand-pick'' the anomalies (test statistics) to consider, we are making an a posteriori choice. In this article, we propose two statistics that do not suffer from this problem. The statistics are linear and quadratic combinations of the a{sub ℓ m}'s with random co-efficients, and they test the null hypothesis that the a{sub ℓ m}'s are independent, normally-distributed, zero-mean random variables with an m-independent variance. The motivation for considering multiple modes is this: because most physical models that lead to large-scale anomalies result in coupling multiple ℓ and m modes, the ''coherence'' of this coupling should get enhanced if a combination of different modes is considered. In this sense, the statistics are thus much more generic than those that have been hitherto considered in literature. Using fiducial data, we demonstrate that the method works and discuss how it can be used with actual CMB data to make quite general statements about the incompatibility of the data with the null hypothesis.

  18. Chapter 3: Circum-Arctic mapping project: New magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of the Arctic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaina, C.; Werner, S.C.; Saltus, R.; Maus, S.; Aaro, S.; Damaske, D.; Forsberg, R.; Glebovsky, V.; Johnson, K.; Jonberger, J.; Koren, T.; Korhonen, J.; Litvinova, T.; Oakey, G.; Olesen, O.; Petrov, O.; Pilkington, M.; Rasmussen, T.; Schreckenberger, B.; Smelror, M.

    2011-01-01

    New Circum-Arctic maps of magnetic and gravity anomalies have been produced by merging regional gridded data. Satellite magnetic and gravity data were used for quality control of the long wavelengths of the new compilations. The new Circum-Arctic digital compilations of magnetic, gravity and some of their derivatives have been analyzed together with other freely available regional and global data and models in order to provide a consistent view of the tectonically complex Arctic basins and surrounding continents. Sharp, linear contrasts between deeply buried basement blocks with different magnetic properties and densities that can be identified on these maps can be used, together with other geological and geophysical information, to refine the tectonic boundaries of the Arctic domain. ?? 2011 The Geological Society of London.

  19. Origin of Strong Lunar Magnetic Anomalies: More Detailed Mapping in Regions Antipodal to Young Large Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.; Richmond, N.; Spudis, P.

    2012-12-01

    Previous work has found evidence that the largest concentrations of strong lunar crustal magnetic fields are in regions antipodal to four young large lunar basins: Orientale, Imbrium, Crisium, and Serenitatis (Mitchell et al., Icarus, 2008; and references therein). A preliminary model for the production of lunar basin antipodal magnetic signatures has been developed (Hood and Artemieva, Icarus, 2008; Gattacceca et al., EPSL, 2010). The model involves shock magnetization of crustal materials in the presence of a transient magnetic field amplified by the expanding ionized vapor-melt cloud as it converges in the antipodal region. The model does not exclude a core dynamo; any ambient magnetic field (external solar wind or internal core dynamo) can be amplified in the antipodal zone. In this paper, we report further efforts to map in more detail Lunar Prospector magnetometer data in regions antipodal to young lunar basins. In addition to the four basins identified above, we also consider the polar Schrodinger basin, which is one of the three youngest lunar basins and which has not been previously considered in this context. We apply a direct mapping method (see Hood, Icarus, 2011 for details) to produce more complete maps of lunar magnetic anomalies at low altitudes over the central far side and over the north polar region. We also consider geologic data and spacecraft imagery to identify unusual modified terrain, which may be indicative of shock modification in the same basin antipodal zones. Previous work indicates the existence of such terrain antipodal to Imbrium, Orientale, and Serenitatis, as well as antipodal to the Caloris basin on Mercury. Results first confirm the concentrations of anomalies antipodal to Orientale, Imbrium, Crisium, and Orientale, and the occurrence of modified terrain in three of the four basin antipode zones (see, e.g., Richmond et al., JGR, 2005). In addition, we report here evidence for a large concentration of anomalies that is centered

  20. Identification of mineral resources in Afghanistan-Detecting and mapping resource anomalies in prioritized areas using geophysical and remote sensing (ASTER and HyMap) data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    : King, Trude V. V.; Johnson, Michaela R.; Hubbard, Bernard E.; Drenth, Benjamin J.

    2011-01-01

    During the independent analysis of the geophysical, ASTER, and imaging spectrometer (HyMap) data by USGS scientists, previously unrecognized targets of potential mineralization were identified using evaluation criteria most suitable to the individual dataset. These anomalous zones offer targets of opportunity that warrant additional field verification. This report describes the standards used to define the anomalies, summarizes the results of the evaluations for each type of data, and discusses the importance and implications of regions of anomaly overlap between two or three of the datasets.

  1. New magnetic anomaly map of East Antarctica and surrounding regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golynsky, A.; Blankenship, D.; Chiappini, M.; Damaske, D.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Golynsky, D.; Goncharov, A.; Ishihara, T.; Ivanov, S.; Jokat, W.; Kim, H.R.; König, M.; Masolov, V.; Nogi, Y.; Sand, M.; Studing, M.; ,

    2007-01-01

    community over East Antarctica and surrounding regions, significantly upgrade the Antarctic Digital Magnetic Anomaly Project (ADMAP) compilation and lead to substantial improvements in magnetic anomaly pattern recognition. New data have been matched in one inverse operation by minimizing the data differences for the areas of overlap. The aeromagnetic data show many previously unknown magnetic patterns, lineaments and trends, defining the spatial extent of Ferrar volcanics and plutonic Granite Harbour Intrusives in the Transantarctic Mountains and previously unknown tectonic trends of the East Antarctic craton. Regional aeromagnetic investigations have successfully delineated Early Paleozoic inherited crustal features along the flanks of the West Antarctic Rift System and the southern boundary of the Archean Ruker Terrane in the Prince Charles Mountains. Magnetic records along the East Antarctic continental margin provide new constraints on the breakup of Gondwana.

  2. Surface vector mapping of magnetic anomalies over the Moon using Kaguya and Lunar Prospector observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsunakawa, Hideo; Takahashi, Futoshi; Shimizu, Hisayoshi; Shibuya, Hidetoshi; Matsushima, Masaki

    2015-06-01

    We have provided preliminary global maps of three components of the lunar magnetic anomaly on the surface applying the surface vector mapping (SVM) method. The data used in the present study consist of about 5 million observations of the lunar magnetic field at 10-45 km altitudes by Kaguya and Lunar Prospector. The lunar magnetic anomalies were mapped at 0.2° equi-distance points on the surface by the SVM method, showing the highest intensity of 718 nT in the Crisium antipodal region. Overall features on the SVM maps indicate that elongating magnetic anomalies are likely to be dominant on the Moon except for the young large basins with the impact demagnetization. Remarkable demagnetization features suggested by previous studies are also recognized at Hertzsprung and Kolorev craters on the farside. These features indicate that demagnetized areas extend to about 1-2 radii of the basins/craters. There are well-isolated central magnetic anomalies at four craters: Leibnitz, Aitken, Jules Verne, and Grimaldi craters. Their magnetic poles through the dipole source approximation suggest occurrence of the polar wander prior to 3.3-3.5 Ga. When compared with high-albedo markings at several magnetic anomalies such as the Reiner Gamma anomalies, three-dimensional structures of the magnetic field on/near the surface are well correlated with high-albedo areas. These results indicate that the global SVM maps are useful for the study of the lunar magnetic anomalies in comparison with various geological and geophysical data.

  3. Energetic Proton Maps for the South Atlantic Anomaly

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Laboratory, Hanscom AFB, MA 01731 USA (email: the Monte-Carlo MCNPX computer code which simulates the gregory.ginet@hanscomafmil). passage of particles...analytical model of a two element telescope. The agreement Maps of integral energy flux above the threshold energies between the two different calculations ...empirical calculations using range-energy tables and the described above. Figure I(a-d) displays maps for the > 38 known geometry of the telescope shielding

  4. De Wijk gas field: Reservoir mapping with amplitude anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bruijn, B. )

    1993-09-01

    De Wijk field, discovered in 1949, is located in the northeastern part of Netherlands. The main gas accumulation is contained in cretaceous and Triassic sandstone reservoirs trapped in a broad salt-induced structure of around 80 km[sup 2] areal extent. The field contains gas in the tertiary, Chalk, Zechstein 2 Carbonate, and Carboniferous reservoirs as well. De Wijk field is unique in the Netherlands as most gas-producing reservoirs in the Cretaceous/Triassic are of no commercial interest. Post-depositional leaching has positively affected the reservoir properties of the Triassic formations subcropping below the Cretaceous unconformity. Optimum, interpretation of 3-D seismic data acquired in 1989 resulted in spectacular displays highlighting the uniqueness of the field. Most gas-bearing reservoirs are expressed on seismic by amplitude anomalies. Various attribute-measurement techniques show the effect of gas fill, leaching, and sand distribution in the various reservoirs.

  5. Initial Mapping of Mercury's Crustal Magnetic Anomalies: Relationship to the Caloris Impact Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    78 low-altitude orbit passes of MESSENGER calibrated magnetometer data from August and September of 2014 have been applied to produce approximate maps of the crustal magnetic field covering latitudes of 50-80N and longitudes of 160-320E. Only anomalies with wavelengths < 215 km were mapped and amplitudes were adjusted for differences in spacecraft altitude using an equivalent source dipole technique. Maps of the radial field component show that the strongest large-scale anomalies are located in the western part of the mapped region just north and northeast of the 1550-km diameter Caloris impact basin centered at 164E, 30N. When adjusted to a common altitude of ~ 40 km, the strongest single anomaly (~170E, 60N; > 6 nT) lies over a smooth plains unit that extends north-northeastward from Caloris. A second anomaly (185E, 53N, > 5 nT) lies on the Odin Formation, interpreted as Caloris ejecta (e.g., Guest and Greeley, USGS, 1983). As previously reported by Johnson et al. (Science, 2015), a third anomaly (~ 212E, 61N, > 5 nT) also lies over a smooth plains unit, Suisse Planitia. Most smooth plains units on Mercury may have a volcanic origin (Denevi et al., JGR, 2013). However, as discussed by the latter authors, a subset of the smooth plains occur in an annulus around Caloris and could have an impact-related origin, involving fluidized basin ejecta deposition (Wilhelms, Icarus, 1976). A similar origin is widely accepted for the lunar Cayley smooth plains, which dominate the geology near the Apollo 16 landing site where the strongest surface magnetic fields were measured and which correlate best with orbital anomalies on the lunar near side (Halekas et al., JGR, 2001). Two of the remaining three anomalies (220E, 68N, > 4 nT; 234E, 77N, > 5 nT) lie over an older intermediate plains unit with an uncertain interpretation, possibly consisting of impact basin and crater ejecta as well as volcanic materials (Grolier and Boyce, USGS, 1984). In view of the proximity of the

  6. Scoliosis and vertebral anomalies: additional abnormal phenotypes associated with chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangement.

    PubMed

    Al-Kateb, Hussam; Khanna, Geetika; Filges, Isabel; Hauser, Natalie; Grange, Dorothy K; Shen, Joseph; Smyser, Christopher D; Kulkarni, Shashikant; Shinawi, Marwan

    2014-05-01

    The typical chromosome 16p11.2 rearrangements are estimated to occur at a frequency of approximately 0.6% of all samples tested clinically and have been identified as a major cause of autism spectrum disorders, developmental delay, behavioral abnormalities, and seizures. Careful examination of patients with these rearrangements revealed association with abnormal head size, obesity, dysmorphism, and congenital abnormalities. In this report, we extend this list of phenotypic abnormalities to include scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. We present detailed characterization of phenotypic and radiological data of 10 new patients, nine with the 16p11.2 deletion and one with the duplication within the coordinates chr16:29,366,195 and 30,306,956 (hg19) with a minimal size of 555 kb. We discuss the phenotypical and radiological findings in our patients and review 5 previously reported patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement and similar skeletal abnormalities. Our data suggest that patients with the recurrent 16p11.2 rearrangement have increased incidence of scoliosis and vertebral anomalies. However, additional studies are required to confirm this observation and to establish the incidence of these anomalies. We discuss the potential implications of our findings on the diagnosis, surveillance and genetic counseling of patients with 16p11.2 rearrangement.

  7. Release of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map version 2 (WDMAM v2) scheduled

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyment, Jérôme; Lesur, Vincent; Choi, Yujin; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Thébault, Erwan; Catalan, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is an international initiative carried out under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). A first version of the map has been published and distributed eight years ago (WDMAM v1; Korhonen et al., 2007). After a call for an improved second version of the map in 2011, the slow process of data compilation, map preparation, evaluation and finalization is near completion, and the WDMAM v2 will be released at the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy (IUGG) meeting to be held in Prag in June-July 2015. In this presentation we display several shortcomings of the WDMAM v1, both on continental and oceanic areas, that are hopefully alleviated in the WDMAM v2, and discuss the process leading to the new map. We reiterate a long-standing call for aeromagnetic and marine magnetic data contribution, and explore future directions to pursue the effort toward a more complete, higher resolution magnetic anomaly map of the World.

  8. A batch sliding window method for local singularity mapping and its application for geochemical anomaly identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Fan; Chen, Zhijun; Chen, Jianguo; Zhou, Yongzhang

    2016-05-01

    In this study, a novel batch sliding window (BSW) based singularity mapping approach was proposed. Compared to the traditional sliding window (SW) technique with disadvantages of the empirical predetermination of a fixed maximum window size and outliers sensitivity of least-squares (LS) linear regression method, the BSW based singularity mapping approach can automatically determine the optimal size of the largest window for each estimated position, and utilizes robust linear regression (RLR) which is insensitive to outlier values. In the case study, tin geochemical data in Gejiu, Yunnan, have been processed by BSW based singularity mapping approach. The results show that the BSW approach can improve the accuracy of the calculation of singularity exponent values due to the determination of the optimal maximum window size. The utilization of RLR method in the BSW approach can smoothen the distribution of singularity index values with few or even without much high fluctuate values looking like noise points that usually make a singularity map much roughly and discontinuously. Furthermore, the student's t-statistic diagram indicates a strong spatial correlation between high geochemical anomaly and known tin polymetallic deposits. The target areas within high tin geochemical anomaly could probably have much higher potential for the exploration of new tin polymetallic deposits than other areas, particularly for the areas that show strong tin geochemical anomalies whereas no tin polymetallic deposits have been found in them.

  9. Preparation of magnetic anomaly profile and contour maps from DOE-NURE aerial survey data. Volume I. Processing procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Tinnel, E.P.; Hinze, W.J.

    1981-09-01

    Total intensity magnetic anomaly data acquired as a supplement to radiometric data in the DOE National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) Program are useful in preparing regional profile and contour maps. Survey-contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data are subjected to a multiprocess, computer-based procedure which prepares these data for presentation. This procedure is used to produce the following machine plotted maps of National Topographic Map Series quadrangle units at a 1:250,000 scale: (1) profile map of contractor-supplied magnetic anomaly data, (2) profile map of high-cut filtered data with contour levels of each profile marked and annotated on the associated flight track, (3) profile map of critical-point data with contour levels indicated, and (4) contour map of filtered and selected data. These quadrangle maps are supplemented with a range of statistical measures of the data which are useful in quality evaluation.

  10. Magnetic anomalies concentrated near and within Mercury's impact basins: Early mapping and interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, L. L.

    2016-06-01

    Ninety-five low-altitude passes of MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging magnetometer data from February, March, and April of 2015 have been applied to produce an approximate map of the crustal magnetic field at a constant altitude of 40 km covering latitudes of 35°-75°N and longitudes of 90°-270°E. Anomalies are concentrated near and within the Caloris impact basin. A smaller concentration occurs over and around Sobkou Planitia and an associated older large impact basin. The strongest anomalies are found within Caloris and are distributed in a semicircular arc that is roughly concentric with the basin rim. They imply the existence of a core dynamo at the time when Caloris formed (˜3.9 Gyr ago). Anomalies over high-reflectance volcanic plains are relatively weak while anomalies over low-reflectance material that has been reworked by impact processes are relatively strong. The latter characteristics are qualitatively consistent with the ejecta deposit model for anomaly sources.

  11. Magnetic anomaly map of North America south of 50 degrees north from Pogo data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A.

    1976-01-01

    A magnetic anomaly map produced from Pogo data for North America and adjacent ocean areas is presented. At satellite elevations anomalies have wavelengths measured in hundreds of kilometers, and reflect regional structures on a large scale. Prominent features of the map are: (1) a large east-west high through the mid-continent, breached at the Mississippi Embayment; (2) a broad low over the Gulf of Mexico; (3) a strong gradient separating these features, which follows the Southern Appalachian-Ouachita curvature; and (4) a high over the Antilles-Bahamas Platform which extends to northern Florida. A possible relationship between the high of the mid-continent and the 38th parallel lineament is noted.

  12. An updated Bouguer anomaly map of south-central West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hastings, David A.

    1983-01-01

    A new Bouguer gravity anomaly map compiled for western Africa adds data for Ghana, Guinea, and Liberia.The new data add detail to a key part of the Eburnean shield and assist in the development of a model of rifting at the time of the Eburnean orogeny, 2000 million years ago. This model includes a framework for the deposition of the region's mineral deposits. The model and existing field data can be used to guide future minerals exploration in the region.

  13. World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map version 2 (WDMAM v.2) - released for research and education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CHOI-Dyment, Y.; Lesur, V.; Dyment, J.; Hamoudi, M.; Thebault, E.; Catalan, M.

    2015-12-01

    The World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map is an international initiative carried out under the auspices of the International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA) and the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW). A first version of the map has been published and distributed eight years ago (WDMAM v1; Korhonen et al., 2007). We have produced a candidate which has been accepted as the second version of this map (WDMAM v2) at the International Union of Geophysics and Geodesy in Prag, in June 2015. On land, we adopted an alternative approach avoiding any unnecessary processing on existing aeromagnetic compilations. When available, we used the original aeromagnetic data. As a result the final compilation remains an acceptable representation of the national and international data grids. Over oceanic areas the marine data have been extended. In areas of insufficient data coverage, a model has been computed based on a modified digital grid of the oceanic lithosphere age, considering plate motions in the determination of magnetization vector directions. This model has been further adjusted to the available data, resulting in a better representation of the anomalies. The final grid will be periodically upgraded. Version 2.0 has been released and is available at wdmam.org to support both research and education projects. Colleagues willing to contribute data for future releases (and become a co-author of the map) should contact any of the authors or Jerome Dyment (chair of the WDMAM Task Force) at jdy@ipgp.fr .

  14. Joint Interpretation of Bathymetric and Gravity Anomaly Maps Using Cross and Dot-Products.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jilinski, Pavel; Fontes, Sergio Luiz

    2010-05-01

    0.1 Summary We present the results of joint map interpretation technique based on cross and dot-products applied to bathymetric and gravity anomaly gradients maps. According to the theory (Gallardo, Meju, 2004) joint interpretation of different gradient characteristics help to localize and empathize patterns unseen on one image interpretation and gives information about the correlation of different spatial data. Values of angles between gradients and their cross and dot-product were used. This technique helps to map unseen relations between bathymetric and gravity anomaly maps if they are analyzed separately. According to the method applied for the southern segment of Eastern-Brazilian coast bathymetrical and gravity anomaly gradients indicates a strong source-effect relation between them. The details of the method and the obtained results are discussed. 0.2 Introduction We applied this method to investigate the correlation between bathymetric and gravity anomalies at the southern segment of the Eastern-Brazilian coast. Gridded satellite global marine gravity data and bathymetrical data were used. The studied area is located at the Eastern- Brazilian coast between the 20° W and 30° W meridians and 15° S and 25° S parallels. The volcanic events responsible for the uncommon width of the continental shelf at the Abrolhos bank also were responsible for the formation of the Abrolhos islands and seamounts including the major Vitoria-Trindade chain. According to the literature this volcanic structures are expected to have a corresponding gravity anomaly (McKenzie, 1976, Zembruscki, S.G. 1979). The main objective of this study is to develop and test joint image interpretation method to compare spatial data and analyze its relations. 0.3 Theory and Method 0.3.1 Data sources The bathymetrical satellite data were derived bathymetry 2-minute grid of the ETOPO2v2 obtained from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov). The satellite marine gravity 1

  15. A simple Bouguer gravity anomaly map of southwestern Saudi Arabia and an initial interpretation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gettings, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 2,200 gravity stations on a 10-km2 grid were used to construct a simple Bouguer gravity anomaly map at 1:2,000,000 scale along a 150-km-wide by 850-km-long strip of the Arabian Peninsula from Sanam, southwest of Ar Riyad, through the Farasan Islands and including offshore islands, the coastal plain, and the Hijaz-Asir escarpment from Jiddah to the Yemen border. On the Precambrian Arabian Shield, local positive gravity anomalies are associated with greenstone belts, gneiss domes, and the Najd fault zones. Local negative gravity anomalies correlate with granitic plutonic rocks. A steep gravity gradient of as much as 4 mgal-km-1 marks the continental margin on the coastal plain near the southwestern end of the strip. Bouguer gravity anomaly values range from -10 to +40 mgal southwest of this gradient and from -170 to -100 mgal in a 300-km-wide gravity minimum northeast of the gradient. Farther northeast, the minimum is terminated by a regional gradient of about 0.1 mgal-km-1 that increases toward the Arabian Gulf. The regional gravity anomaly pattern has been modeled by using seismic refraction and Raleigh wave studies, heat-flow measurements, and isostatic considerations as constraints. The model is consistent with the hypothesis of upwelling of hot mantle material beneath the Red Sea and lateral mantle flow beneath the Arabian plate. The model yields best-fitting average crustal densities of 2.80 g-cm-3 (0-20 km depth) and 3.00 g-cm-3 (20-40 km depth) southwest of the Nabitah suture zone and 2.74 g-cm-3 (0-20 km depth) and 2.94 g-cm-3 (20-40 km depth) northeast of the suture zone. The gravity model requires that the crust be about 20 km thick at the continental margin and that the lower crust between the margin and Bishah (lat 20? N., long 42.5? E.) be somewhat denser than the lower crust to the northeast. Detailed correlations between 1:250,000- and 1:500,000-scale geologic maps and the gravity anomaly map suggest that the greenstone belts associated

  16. Tularosa Basin Play Fairway Analysis: Weights of Evidence; Mineralogy, and Temperature Anomaly Maps

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This submission has two shapefiles and a tiff image. The weights of evidence analysis was applied to data representing heat of the earth and fracture permeability using training sites around the Southwest; this is shown in the tiff image. A shapefile of surface temperature anomalies was derived from the statistical analysis of Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) thermal infrared data which had been converted to surface temperatures; these anomalies have not been field checked. The second shapefile shows outcrop mineralogy which originally mapped by the New Mexico Bureau of Geology and Mineral Resources, and supplemented with mineralogic information related to rock fracability risk for EGS. Further metadata can be found within each file.

  17. An attempt to obtain a detailed declination chart from the United States magnetic anomaly map

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1989-01-01

    Modern declination charts of the United States show almost no details. It was hoped that declination details could be derived from the information contained in the existing magnetic anomaly map of the United States. This could be realized only if all of the survey data were corrected to a common epoch, at which time a main-field vector model was known, before the anomaly values were computed. Because this was not done, accurate declination values cannot be determined. In spite of this conclusion, declination values were computed using a common main-field model for the entire United States to see how well they compared with observed values. The computed detailed declination values were found to compare less favourably with observed values of declination than declination values computed from the IGRF 1985 model itself. -from Author

  18. High resolution aeromagnetic anomaly map of Mount Etna volcano, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Ajello Caracciolo, F.; Nicolosi, I.; Carluccio, R.; Chiappini, S.; De Ritis, R.; Giuntini, A.; Materni, V.; Messina, A.; Chiappini, M.

    2014-05-01

    A high resolution aeromagnetic survey of Mount Etna Volcano was carried out by the Airborne Geophysics Science Team of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV), aimed at producing the most detailed magnetic anomaly map existing so far for this area. Two datasets of the total intensity of the Earth's Magnetic Field were collected at different altitudes to take into account the huge topographic variations of Etna volcano, that reaches elevations above 3300 m asl. One level was flown at the altitude of 2200 m whereas a second one over the central part, at about 3500 m of altitude. Since the region is characterized by a large presence of strongly magnetized volcanic products, the survey was carried out acquiring profile lines only, in order to optimize the resources. From the residual magnetic anomaly analysis we inferred two main trending lineaments (- 35°N and 0°N) that are related to regional tectonic stress field and we interpret the main magnetic anomaly as the effect of thickness variation of magnetized volcanic products due to the complex pre-volcanic basement morphology of Etna.

  19. Curie isotherm map of Scotia Arc from near surface magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel

    2016-04-01

    The opening of the Drake Passage, situated between South America and Antarctica, represents the final stage of the fragmentation of Gondwana supercontinent. It led to the Scotia Arc formation, bordering the Scotia Sea, which is surrounded by fragments of the former continental connection. It is currently composed of Scotia and Sandwich Plates. Shackleton Fracture Zone constitutes its sinistral transpressive western boundary and it is a key structure that accommodates former Phoenix and Scotia Plates' differential movement. The formation of the Drake Passage and the Scotia Sea is considered of great importance to ocean circulation, as it allows the establishment of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current that isolated the Antarctic continent, with strong implications for climate and global changes. Thermal structure of the Earth's crust is one of the main parameters controlling geodynamic processes. There is few information regarding heat flow values on Scotia arc. These values are mainly located in its westernmost, southern and easternmost part, which are not enough to extract conclusions regarding lithospheric thickness variations and asthenospheric flow. Taking advantage of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map Project's compilation we have extracted magnetic anomaly data which fall inside the Scotia Arc and surrounding areas. This magnetic anomaly picture provides the best representation of magnetic properties to date. We propose to use spectral methods on this regional magnetic compilation to obtain depth to the bottom of magnetic sources as a proxy to infer Curie depth and heat flow distribution in the Scotia Sea.

  20. Interaction between Solar Wind and Lunar Magnetic Anomalies observed by Kaguya MAP-PACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Asamura, Kazushi; Nishino, Masaki; Yamamoto, Tadateru; Uemura, Kota; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    2010-05-01

    It is known that Moon has neither global intrinsic magnetic field nor thick atmosphere. Different from the Earth's case where the intrinsic global magnetic field prevents the solar wind from penetrating into the magnetosphere, solar wind directly impacts the lunar surface. Since the discovery of the lunar crustal magnetic field in 1960s, several papers have been published concerning the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies. MAG/ER on Lunar Prospector found heating of the solar wind electrons presumably due to the interaction between the solar wind and the lunar magnetic anomalies and the existence of the mini-magnetosphere was suggested. However, the detailed mechanism of the interaction has been unclear mainly due to the lack of the in-situ observed data of low energy ions. MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment - Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment (MAP-PACE) on Kaguya (SELENE) completed its ˜1.5-year observation of the low energy charged particles around the Moon on 10 June, 2009. Kaguya was launched on 14 September 2007 by H2A launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. Kaguya was inserted into a circular lunar polar orbit of 100km altitude and continued observation for nearly 1.5 years till it impacted the Moon on 10 June 2009. During the last 5 months, the orbit was lowered to ˜50km-altitude between January 2009 and April 2009, and some orbits had further lower perilune altitude of ˜10km after April 2009. MAP-PACE consisted of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). All the sensors performed quite well as expected from the laboratory experiment carried out before launch. Since each sensor had hemispherical field of view, two electron sensors and two ion sensors that were installed on the spacecraft panels opposite to each other could cover full 3-dimensional phase space of low energy electrons and ions. One of the ion sensors IMA was

  1. 15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. MAP OF ALAMEDA SHIPYARD SHOWING PROPOSED ADDITIONAL FACILITIES. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. A site map with all existing structures keyed to an identification legend. Also shows proposed new structures. No architect noted. Drawn by "J.B.H." (John Hudspeth?). Sheet 2. Plan no. 10,528. Scale one inch to 100 feet. November 12, 1943, last revised 1/18/44. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  2. Detection, identification and mapping of iron anomalies in brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Mikhaylova, A.; Davidson, M.; Toastmann, H.; Channell, J.E.T.; Guyodo, Y.; Batich, C.; Dobson, J.

    2008-06-16

    This work describes a novel method for the detection, identification and mapping of anomalous iron compounds in mammalian brain tissue using X-ray absorption spectroscopy. We have located and identified individual iron anomalies in an avian tissue model associated with ferritin, biogenic magnetite and haemoglobin with a pixel resolution of less than 5 {micro}m. This technique represents a breakthrough in the study of both intra- and extra-cellular iron compounds in brain tissue. The potential for high-resolution iron mapping using microfocused X-ray beams has direct application to investigations of the location and structural form of iron compounds associated with human neurodegenerative disorders - a problem which has vexed researchers for 50 years.

  3. Application of diffusion maps to identify human factors of self-reported anomalies in aviation.

    PubMed

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Mikusinski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    A study investigating what factors are present leading to pilots submitting voluntary anomaly reports regarding their flight performance was conducted. Diffusion Maps (DM) were selected as the method of choice for performing dimensionality reduction on text records for this study. Diffusion Maps have seen successful use in other domains such as image classification and pattern recognition. High-dimensionality data in the form of narrative text reports from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) were clustered and categorized by way of dimensionality reduction. Supervised analyses were performed to create a baseline document clustering system. Dimensionality reduction techniques identified concepts or keywords within records, and allowed the creation of a framework for an unsupervised document classification system. Results from the unsupervised clustering algorithm performed similarly to the supervised methods outlined in the study. The dimensionality reduction was performed on 100 of the most commonly occurring words within 126,000 text records describing commercial aviation incidents. This study demonstrates that unsupervised machine clustering and organization of incident reports is possible based on unbiased inputs. Findings from this study reinforced traditional views on what factors contribute to civil aviation anomalies, however, new associations between previously unrelated factors and conditions were also found.

  4. Precambrian basement geologic map of Montana; an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; O'Neill, J. M.; Bankey, Viki; Anderson, E.

    2004-01-01

    Newly compiled aeromagnetic anomaly data of Montana, in conjunction with the known geologic framework of basement rocks, have been combined to produce a new interpretive geologic basement map of Montana. Crystalline basement rocks compose the basement, but are exposed only in the cores of mountain ranges in southwestern Montana. Principal features deduced from the map are: (1) A prominent northeast-trending, 200-km-wide zone of spaced negative anomalies, which extends more than 700 km from southwestern Montana's Beaverhead Mountains to the Canadian border and reflects suturing of the Archean Mexican Hat Block against the Archean Wyoming Province along the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Montana Orogen (new name) at about 1.9-1.8 Ga; (2) North-northwest-trending magnetic lows in northeastern Montana, which reflect the 1.9-1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen and truncate the older Trans-Montana Zone; and (3) Subtle northwest- and west-trending negative anomalies in central and western Montana, which represent the northernmost segment of brittle-ductile transcurrent faults of the newly recognized Mesoproterozoic Trans-Rocky Mountain fault system. Structures developed in the Proterozoic provided zones of crustal weakness reactivated during younger Proterozoic and Phanerozoic igneous and tectonic activity. For example, the Trans-Montana Zone guided basement involved thrust faulting in southwestern Montana during the Sevier Orogeny. The Boulder Batholith and associated ore deposits and the linear belt of alkaline intrusions to the northeast were localized along a zone of weakness between the Missouri River suture and the Dillon shear zone of the Trans-Montana Orogen. The northwest-trending faults of Trans-Rocky Mountain system outline depocenters for sedimentary rocks in the Belt Basin. This fault system provided zones of weakness that guided Laramide uplifts during basement crustal shortening. Northwest-trending zones have been locally reactivated during Neogene basin-range extension.

  5. Analyzing the Broken Ridge area of the Indian Ocean using magnetic and gravity anomaly maps and geoid undulation and bathymetry data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lazarewicz, A. R.; Sailor, R. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    A higher resolution anomaly map of the Broken Ridge area (2 degree dipole spacing) was produced and reduced to the pole using quiet time data for this area. The map was compared with equally scaled maps of gravity anomaly, geoid undulation, and bathymetry. The ESMAP results were compared with a NASA MAGSAT map derived by averaging data in two-degree bins. A survey simulation was developed to model the accuracy of MAGSAT anomaly maps as a function of satellite altitude, instrument noise level, external noise model, and crustal anomaly field model. A preliminary analysis of the geophysical structure of Broken Ridge is presented and unresolved questions are listed.

  6. Interaction between solar wind and lunar magnetic anomalies observed by MAP-PACE on Kaguya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshifumi; Yokota, Shoichiro; Tanaka, Takaaki; Asamura, Kazushi; Nishino, Masaki N.; Yamamoto, Tadateru I.; Tsunakawa, Hideo

    It is well known that the Moon has neither global intrinsic magnetic field nor thick atmosphere. Different from the Earth's case where the intrinsic global magnetic field prevents the solar wind from penetrating into the magnetosphere, solar wind directly impacts the lunar surface. MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment -Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment (MAP-PACE) on Kaguya (SELENE) completed its 1.5-year observation of the low energy charged particles around the Moon on 10 June 2009. Kaguya was launched on 14 September 2007 by H2A launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center in Japan. Kaguya was inserted into a circular lunar polar orbit of 100km altitude and continued observation for nearly 1.5 years till it impacted the Moon on 10 June 2009. During the last 5 months, the orbit was lowered to 50km-altitude between January 2009 and April 2009, and some orbits had further lower perilune altitude of 10km after April 2009. MAP-PACE consisted of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). Since each sensor had hemispherical field of view, two electron sensors and two ion sensors that were installed on the spacecraft panels opposite to each other could cover full 3-dimensional phase space of low energy electrons and ions. One of the ion sensors IMA was an energy mass spectrometer. IMA measured mass identified ion energy spectra that had never been obtained at 100km altitude polar orbit around the Moon. When Kaguya flew over South Pole Aitken region, where strong magnetic anomalies exist, solar wind ions reflected by magnetic anomalies were observed. These ions had much higher flux than the solar wind protons scattered at the lunar surface. The magnetically reflected ions had nearly the same energy as the incident solar wind ions while the solar wind protons scattered at the lunar surface had slightly lower energy than the incident solar wind ions. At 100km altitude, when the reflected ions

  7. Building the second version of the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map (WDMAM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, Vincent; Hamoudi, Mohamed; Choi, Yujin; Dyment, Jérôme; Thébault, Erwan

    2016-02-01

    The World Digital Anomaly Map (WDMAM) is a worldwide compilation of near-surface magnetic data. We present here a candidate for the second version of the WDMAM and its characteristics. This candidate has been evaluated by a group of independent reviewers and has been adopted as the official second version of the WDMAM during the 26th general assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geomagnetism (IUGG). The way this compilation has been built is described with some details. A global magnetic field model of the lithosphere contribution, parameterised by spherical harmonics, has been derived up to degree and order 800. The model information content has been evaluated by computing local spectra. Further, the compatibility of the anomaly field displayed by the WDMAM with a pure induced magnetisation is tested by comparison with the main field strength. These studies allowed an analysis of the compilation in terms of strength and wavelength content. They confirm the extremely smooth and weak contribution of the magnetic field generated in the lithosphere over Western Europe. This apparent weakness possibly extends to the Northern African continent. However, a global analysis remains difficult to achieve given the sparseness of good quality data over very large area of oceans and continents. The WDMAM and related information can be downloaded at http://www.wdmam.org/.

  8. Mapping temperature and radiant geothermal heat flux anomalies in the Yellowstone geothermal system using ASTER thermal infrared data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, R. Greg; Lowenstern, Jacob B.; Keszthelyi, Laszlo P.; Jaworowski, Cheryl; Heasler, Henry

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to use satellite-based thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data to measure, map, and monitor geothermal activity within the Yellowstone geothermal area to help meet the missions of both the U.S. Geological Survey Yellowstone Volcano Observatory and the Yellowstone National Park Geology Program. Specifically, the goals were to: 1) address the challenges of remotely characterizing the spatially and temporally dynamic thermal features in Yellowstone by using nighttime TIR data from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) and 2) estimate the temperature, geothermal radiant emittance, and radiant geothermal heat flux (GHF) for Yellowstone’s thermal areas (both Park wide and for individual thermal areas). ASTER TIR data (90-m pixels) acquired at night during January and February, 2010, were used to estimate surface temperature, radiant emittance, and radiant GHF from all of Yellowstone’s thermal features, produce thermal anomaly maps, and update field-based maps of thermal areas. A background subtraction technique was used to isolate the geothermal component of TIR radiance from thermal radiance due to insolation. A lower limit for the Yellowstone’s total radiant GHF was established at ~2.0 GW, which is ~30-45% of the heat flux estimated through geochemical (Cl-flux) methods. Additionally, about 5 km2 was added to the geodatabase of mapped thermal areas. This work provides a framework for future satellite-based thermal monitoring at Yellowstone as well as exploration of other volcanic / geothermal systems on a global scale.

  9. Beyond Trisomy 21: Additional Chromosomal Anomalies Detected through Routine Aneuploidy Screening

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Amy; Hippman, Catriona; Pastuck, Melanie; Johnson, Jo-Ann

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal screening is often misconstrued by patients as screening for trisomy 21 alone; however, other chromosomal anomalies are often detected. This study aimed to systematically review the literature and use diagnostic meta-analysis to derive pooled detection and false positive rates for aneuploidies other than trisomy 21 with different prenatal screening tests. Non-invasive prenatal testing had the highest detection (DR) and lowest false positive (FPR) rates for trisomy 13 (DR: 90.3%; FPR: 0.2%), trisomy 18 (DR: 98.1%; FPR: 0.2%), and 45,X (DR: 92.2%; FPR: 0.1%); however, most estimates came from high-risk samples. The first trimester combined test also had high DRs for all conditions studied (trisomy 13 DR: 83.1%; FPR: 4.4%; trisomy 18 DR: 91.9%; FPR: 3.5%; 45,X DR: 70.1%; FPR: 5.4%; triploidy DR: 100%; FPR: 6.3%). Second trimester triple screening had the lowest DRs and highest FPRs for all conditions (trisomy 13 DR: 43.9%; FPR: 8.1%; trisomy 18 DR: 70.5%; FPR: 3.3%; 45,X DR: 77.2%; FPR: 9.3%). Prenatal screening tests differ in their ability to accurately detect chromosomal anomalies. Patients should be counseled about the ability of prenatal screening to detect anomalies other than trisomy 21 prior to undergoing screening. PMID:26237381

  10. Precambrian crystalline basement map of Idaho-an interpretation of aeromagnetic anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sims, P.K.; Lund, Karen; Anderson, E.

    2005-01-01

    Idaho lies within the northern sector of the U.S. Cordillera astride the boundary between the Proterozoic continent (Laurentia) to the east and the Permian to Jurassic accreted terranes to the west. The continental basement is mostly covered by relatively undeformed Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks and intruded or covered by Phanerozoic igneous rocks; accordingly, knowledge of the basement geology is poorly constrained. Incremental knowledge gained since the pioneering studies by W. Lindgren, C.P. Ross, A.L. Anderson, A. Hietanen, and others during the early- and mid-1900's has greatly advanced our understanding of the general geology of Idaho. However, knowledge of the basement geology remains relatively poor, partly because of the remoteness of much of the region plus the lack of a stimulus to decipher the complex assemblage of high-grade gneisses and migmatite of central Idaho. The availability of an updated aeromagnetic anomaly map of Idaho (North American Magnetic Anomaly Group, 2002) provides a means to determine the regional Precambrian geologic framework of the State. The combined geologic and aeromagnetic data permit identification of previously unrecognized crystalline basement terranes, assigned to Archean and Paleoproterozoic ages, and the delineation of major shear zones, which are expressed in the aeromagnetic data as linear negative anomalies (Finn and Sims, 2004). Limited geochronologic data on exposed crystalline basement aided by isotopic studies of zircon inheritance, particularly Bickford and others (1981) and Mueller and others (1995), provide much of the geologic background for our interpretation of the basement geology. In northwestern United States, inhomogeneities in the basement inherited from Precambrian tectogenesis controlled many large-scale tectonic features that developed during the Phanerozoic. Two basement structures, in particular, provided zones of weakness that were repeatedly rejuvenated: (1) northeast-trending ductile

  11. Linkage mapping of the primary disease locus for collie eye anomaly.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jennifer K; Kukekova, Anna V; Kirkness, Ewen F; Langlois, Mariela C; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2003-07-01

    Collie eye anomaly (cea) is a hereditary ocular disorder affecting development of the choroid and sclera segregating in several breeds of dog, including rough, smooth, and Border collies and Australian shepherds. The disease is reminiscent of the choroidal hypoplasia phenotype observed in humans in conjunction with craniofacial or renal abnormalities. In dogs, however, the clinical phenotype can vary significantly; many dogs exhibit no obvious clinical consequences and retain apparently normal vision throughout life, while severely affected animals develop secondary retinal detachment, intraocular hemorrhage, and blindness. We report genetic studies establishing that the primary cea phenotype, choroidal hypoplasia, segregates as an autosomal recessive trait with nearly 100% penetrance. We further report linkage mapping of the primary cea locus to a 3.9-cM region of canine chromosome 37 (LOD = 22.17 at theta = 0.076), in a region corresponding to human chromosome 2q35. These results suggest the presence of a developmental regulatory gene important in ocular embryogenesis, with potential implications for other disorders of ocular vascularization.

  12. Identifying fault heterogeneity through mapping spatial anomalies in acoustic emission statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T. H. W.; Becker, T. W.; Schorlemmer, D.; Stanchits, S.; Sammis, C.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G.

    2012-03-01

    Seismicity clusters within fault zones can be connected to the structure, geometric complexity and size of asperities which perturb and intensify the stress field in their periphery. To gain further insight into fault mechanical processes, we study stick-slip sequences in an analog, laboratory setting. Analysis of small scale fracture processes expressed by acoustic emissions (AEs) provide the possibility to investigate how microseismicity is linked to fault heterogeneities and the occurrence of dynamic slip events. The present work connects X-ray computer tomography (CT) scans of faulted rock samples with spatial maps of b values (slope of the frequency-magnitude distribution), seismic moments and event densities. Our current experimental setup facilitates the creation of a series of stick-slips on one fault plane thus allowing us to document how individual stick-slips can change the characteristics of AE event populations in connection to the evolution of the fault structure. We found that geometric asperities identified in CT scan images were connected to regions of low b values, increased event densities and moment release over multiple stick-slip cycles. Our experiments underline several parallels between laboratory findings and studies of crustal seismicity, for example, that asperity regions in lab and field are connected to spatial b value anomalies. These regions appear to play an important role in controlling the nucleation spots of dynamic slip events and crustal earthquakes.

  13. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  14. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional information on mine map. 75.1200-1... SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Maps § 75.1200-1 Additional information on mine map. Additional information required to be shown on mine maps under § 75.1200...

  15. Identifying fault heterogeneity through mapping spatial anomalies in acoustic emission statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Becker, T. W.; Schorlemmer, D.; Stanchits, S.; Sammis, C. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.

    2011-12-01

    asperities we combined fault structural information from post-experimental CT-scans with AE statistics. Asperities were connected seismically to low b-value regions, high moment release and increased AE event density and structurally to anomalous thin fault parts and point contacts of the host rock walls. The regions of spatial AE anomalies show the same characteristics over several stick-slip sequences, indicating the persistence of fault plane heterogeneity over extended periods. Variations in AE distributions indicated a fault smoothening process after several stick-slips as a result of the failure of large asperities which probably let to a broader distribution of stress on many load bearing asperities. We found several similarities between microseismicity connected to stick-slips and natural seismicity. Asperity regions in the lab and field appear connected to spatial b-value anomalies. These regions may play an important role in controlling the nucleation spots of dynamic slip events and crustal earthquakes. High resolution mapping of b-values, moment release, event density and areas with large contrasts in seismic activity could be used to further improve asperity identification based on microseismicity data.

  16. Bouguer gravity anomaly and isostatic residual gravity maps of the Tonopah 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plouff, Donald

    1992-01-01

    A residual isostatic gravity map (sheet 2) was prepared so that the regional effect of isostatic compensation present on the Bouguer gravity anomaly map (sheet 1) would be minimized. Isostatic corrections based on the Airy-Heiskanen system (Heiskanen and Vening Meinesz, 1958, p. 135-137) were estimated by using 3-minute topographic digitization and applying the method of Jachens and Roberts (1981). Parameters selected for the isostatic model were 25 km for the normal crustal thickness at sea level, 2.67 g/cm3 for the density of the crust, and 0.4 g/cm3 for the contrast in density between the crust and the upper mantle. These parameters were selected so that the isostatic residual gravity map would be consistent with isostatic residual gravity maps of the adjacent Walker Lake quadrangle (Plouff, 1987) and the state of Nevada (Saltus, 1988c).

  17. Bangui Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Bangui anomaly is the name given to one of the Earth s largest crustal magnetic anomalies and the largest over the African continent. It covers two-thirds of the Central African Republic and therefore the name derives from the capitol city-Bangui that is also near the center of this feature. From surface magnetic survey data Godivier and Le Donche (1962) were the first to describe this anomaly. Subsequently high-altitude world magnetic surveying by the U.S. Naval Oceanographic Office (Project Magnet) recorded a greater than 1000 nT dipolar, peak-to-trough anomaly with the major portion being negative (figure 1). Satellite observations (Cosmos 49) were first reported in 1964, these revealed a 40nT anomaly at 350 km altitude. Subsequently the higher altitude (417-499km) POGO (Polar Orbiting Geomagnetic Observatory) satellite data recorded peak-to-trough anomalies of 20 nT these data were added to Cosmos 49 measurements by Regan et al. (1975) for a regional satellite altitude map. In October 1979, with the launch of Magsat, a satellite designed to measure crustal magnetic anomalies, a more uniform satellite altitude magnetic map was obtained. These data, computed at 375 km altitude recorded a -22 nT anomaly (figure 2). This elliptically shaped anomaly is approximately 760 by 1000 km and is centered at 6%, 18%. The Bangui anomaly is composed of three segments; there are two positive anomalies lobes north and south of a large central negative field. This displays the classic pattern of a magnetic anomalous body being magnetized by induction in a zero inclination field. This is not surprising since the magnetic equator passes near the center of this body.

  18. Astronomy in the Cloud: Using MapReduce for Image Co-Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, K.; Connolly, A.; Gardner, J.; Krughoff, S.; Balazinska, M.; Howe, B.; Kwon, Y.; Bu, Y.

    2011-03-01

    In the coming decade, astronomical surveys of the sky will generate tens of terabytes of images and detect hundreds of millions of sources every night. The study of these sources will involve computation challenges such as anomaly detection and classification and moving-object tracking. Since such studies benefit from the highest-quality data, methods such as image co-addition, i.e., astrometric registration followed by per-pixel summation, will be a critical preprocessing step prior to scientific investigation. With a requirement that these images be analyzed on a nightly basis to identify moving sources such as potentially hazardous asteroids or transient objects such as supernovae, these data streams present many computational challenges. Given the quantity of data involved, the computational load of these problems can only be addressed by distributing the workload over a large number of nodes. However, the high data throughput demanded by these applications may present scalability challenges for certain storage architectures. One scalable data-processing method that has emerged in recent years is MapReduce, and in this article we focus on its popular open-source implementation called Hadoop. In the Hadoop framework, the data are partitioned among storage attached directly to worker nodes, and the processing workload is scheduled in parallel on the nodes that contain the required input data. A further motivation for using Hadoop is that it allows us to exploit cloud computing resources: i.e., platforms where Hadoop is offered as a service. We report on our experience of implementing a scalable image-processing pipeline for the SDSS imaging database using Hadoop. This multiterabyte imaging data set provides a good testbed for algorithm development, since its scope and structure approximate future surveys. First, we describe MapReduce and how we adapted image co-addition to the MapReduce framework. Then we describe a number of optimizations to our basic approach

  19. Mapping mantle-melting anomalies in Baja California: a combined helium-seismology approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrete-Aranda, R.; Spelz, R. M.; Hilton, D. R.; Tellez, M.; González-Yahimovich, O.

    2015-12-01

    In active tectonic settings, the presence of helium in aqueous fluids with 3He/4He ratios greater than in-situ production values (~0.05 RA where RA = air He or 1.4 x 10-6) indicates the contribution of mantle-derived volatiles to the total volatile inventory. This is an indicative of the presence of mantle-derived melts, which act to transfer volatiles from the solid Earth towards the surface. Thus, He has the potential to map regions of the underlying mantle which are undergoing partial melting - a phenomenon which should also be evident in the seismic record. Reports of high 3He/4He in hot springs in Baja California (BC) has prompted us to initiate a survey of the region to assess relationship(s) between He isotopes and geophysical images of the underlying mantle. Previous studies report 3He/4He ratios of 0.54 RA for submarine hot springs (Punta Banda 108oC; Vidal, 1982) and 1.3 RA for spring waters (81oC) at Bahia Concepcion (Forrest et al.,2005). Our new survey of hot springs in northern BC has revealed that all 6 localities sampled to date, show the presence of mantle He with the highest ratio being 1.74RA (21% mantle-derived) at Puertecitos on the Gulf coast. He ratios are generally lower on the Pacific coast with the minimum mantle He contribution being 5% at Sierra Juárez (0.11RA). Thus, preliminary trends are of a west-to-east increase in the mantle He signal across the peninsula. He results presented in this study correlate well with high resolution Rayleigh wave tomography images by Forsythe et al. (2007). Shear velocity variations in the BC crust and upper mantle have been interpreted as low velocity anomalies associated with dynamic upwelling and active melt production. More extensive sampling throughout BC coupled with analysis of other geochemical indicators of mantle degassing (e.g. CO2) will allow more detailed characterization of the extent and distribution of mantle melts in the region, facilitating assessment of the region's geothermal

  20. MODELING THE ANOMALY OF SURFACE NUMBER DENSITIES OF GALAXIES ON THE GALACTIC EXTINCTION MAP DUE TO THEIR FIR EMISSION CONTAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, Toshiya; Suto, Yasushi; Taruya, Atsushi; Yahata, Kazuhiro; Kayo, Issha; Nishimichi, Takahiro

    2015-02-01

    The most widely used Galactic extinction map is constructed assuming that the observed far-infrared (FIR) fluxes come entirely from Galactic dust. According to the earlier suggestion by Yahata et al., we consider how FIR emission of galaxies affects the SFD map. We first compute the surface number density of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 galaxies as a function of the r-band extinction, A {sub r,} {sub SFD}. We confirm that the surface densities of those galaxies positively correlate with A {sub r,} {sub SFD} for A {sub r,} {sub SFD} < 0.1, as first discovered by Yahata et al. for SDSS DR4 galaxies. Next we construct an analytical model to compute the surface density of galaxies, taking into account the contamination of their FIR emission. We adopt a log-normal probability distribution for the ratio of 100 μm and r-band luminosities of each galaxy, y ≡ (νL){sub 100} {sub μm}/(νL) {sub r}. Then we search for the mean and rms values of y that fit the observed anomaly, using the analytical model. The required values to reproduce the anomaly are roughly consistent with those measured from the stacking analysis of SDSS galaxies. Due to the limitation of our statistical modeling, we are not yet able to remove the FIR contamination of galaxies from the extinction map. Nevertheless, the agreement with the model prediction suggests that the FIR emission of galaxies is mainly responsible for the observed anomaly. Whereas the corresponding systematic error in the Galactic extinction map is 0.1-1 mmag, it is directly correlated with galaxy clustering and thus needs to be carefully examined in precision cosmology.

  1. Testable radiative neutrino mass model without additional symmetries and explanation for the b →s ℓ+ℓ- anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Kingman; Nomura, Takaaki; Okada, Hiroshi

    2016-12-01

    We propose a one-loop radiative Majorana-type neutrino-mass matrix without any kind of additional symmetries by introducing two leptoquark-like bosons only. In this scenario, we show that the anomaly appearing in the process b →s ℓℓ ¯ can be explained without any conflicts against various constraints such as lepton-flavor violations, flavor-changing neutral currents, oblique parameters Δ S , Δ T , and the Drell-Yan process. We make the predictions for the flavor-violating lepton-pair production (e μ , e τ , and μ τ ) at the LHC, as well as the cross sections for pair production of these leptoquark-like bosons.

  2. Recalculation of regional and detailed gravity database from Slovak Republic and qualitative interpretation of new generation Bouguer anomaly map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteka, Roman; Zahorec, Pavol; Mikuska, Jan; Szalaiova, Viktoria; Papco, Juraj; Krajnak, Martin; Kusnirak, David; Panisova, Jaroslava; Vajda, Peter; Bielik, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    In this contribution results of the running project "Bouguer anomalies of new generation and the gravimetrical model of Western Carpathians (APVV-0194-10)" are presented. The existing homogenized regional database (212478 points) was enlarged by approximately 107 500 archive detailed gravity measurements. These added gravity values were measured since the year 1976 to the present, therefore they need to be unified and reprocessed. The improved positions of more than 8500 measured points were acquired by digitizing of archive maps (we recognized some local errors within particular data sets). Besides the local errors (due to the wrong positions, heights or gravity of measured points) we have found some areas of systematic errors probably due to the gravity measurement or processing errors. Some of them were confirmed and consequently corrected by field measurements within the frame of current project. Special attention is paid to the recalculation of the terrain corrections - we have used a new developed software as well as the latest version of digital terrain model of Slovakia DMR-3. Main improvement of the new terrain corrections evaluation algorithm is the possibility to calculate it in the real gravimeter position and involving of 3D polyhedral bodies approximation (accepting the spherical approximation of Earth's curvature). We have realized several tests by means of the introduction of non-standard distant relief effects introduction. A new complete Bouguer anomalies map was constructed and transformed by means of higher derivatives operators (tilt derivatives, TDX, theta-derivatives and the new TDXAS transformation), using the regularization approach. A new interesting regional lineament of probably neotectonic character was recognized in the new map of complete Bouguer anomalies and it was confirmed also by realized in-situ field measurements.

  3. The prediction and mapping of geoidal undulations from GEOS-3 altimetry. [gravity anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kearsley, W.

    1978-01-01

    From the adjusted altimeter data an approximation to the geoid height in ocean areas is obtained. Methods are developed to produce geoid maps in these areas. Geoid heights are obtained for grid points in the region to be mapped, and two of the parameters critical to the production of an accurate map are investigated. These are the spacing of the grid, which must be related to the half-wavelength of the altimeter signal whose amplitude is the desired accuracy of the contour; and the method adopted to predict the grid values. Least squares collocation was used to find geoid undulations on a 1 deg grid in the mapping area. Twenty maps, with their associated precisions, were produced and are included. These maps cover the Indian Ocean, Southwestern and Northeastern portions of the Pacific Ocean, and Southwest Atlantic and the U.S. Calibration Area.

  4. Considerations of variations in ionospheric field effects in mapping equatorial lithospheric Magsat magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, D.; Hinze, W. J.

    1993-01-01

    The longitudinal, seasonal, and altitude-dependent variability of the magnetic field in equatorial latitudes is investigated to determine the effect of these variabilities on the isolation of lithospheric Magsat magnetic anomalies. It was found that the amplitudes of the dawn dip-latitude averages were small compared to the dusk averages, and that they were of the opposite sign. The longitudinal variation in the equatorial amplitudes of the dawn dip-latitude averages was not entirely consistent with the present knowledge of the electrojet field. Based on the results, a procedure is implemented for reducing the equatorial ionospheric effects from the Magsat data on the lithospheric component.

  5. Processing the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and the surrounding area by the cellular neural network: application to the southwestern Marmara region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydogan, D.

    2007-04-01

    An image processing technique called the cellular neural network (CNN) approach is used in this study to locate geological features giving rise to gravity anomalies such as faults or the boundary of two geologic zones. CNN is a stochastic image processing technique based on template optimization using the neighborhood relationships of cells. These cells can be characterized by a functional block diagram that is typical of neural network theory. The functionality of CNN is described in its entirety by a number of small matrices (A, B and I) called the cloning template. CNN can also be considered to be a nonlinear convolution of these matrices. This template describes the strength of the nearest neighbor interconnections in the network. The recurrent perceptron learning algorithm (RPLA) is used in optimization of cloning template. The CNN and standard Canny algorithms were first tested on two sets of synthetic gravity data with the aim of checking the reliability of the proposed approach. The CNN method was compared with classical derivative techniques by applying the cross-correlation method (CC) to the same anomaly map as this latter approach can detect some features that are difficult to identify on the Bouguer anomaly maps. This approach was then applied to the Bouguer anomaly map of Biga and its surrounding area, in Turkey. Structural features in the area between Bandirma, Biga, Yenice and Gonen in the southwest Marmara region are investigated by applying the CNN and CC to the Bouguer anomaly map. Faults identified by these algorithms are generally in accordance with previously mapped surface faults. These examples show that the geologic boundaries can be detected from Bouguer anomaly maps using the cloning template approach. A visual evaluation of the outputs of the CNN and CC approaches is carried out, and the results are compared with each other. This approach provides quantitative solutions based on just a few assumptions, which makes the method more

  6. Familial glaucoma iridogoniodysplasia maps to a 6p25 region implicated in primary congenital glaucoma and iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, T; Ebenezer, N; Manners, R; McGill, J; Bhattacharya, S

    1997-01-01

    Familial glaucoma iridogoniodysplasia (FGI) is a form of open-angle glaucoma in which developmental anomalies of the iris and irido-corneal angle are associated with a juvenile-onset glaucoma transmitted as an autosomal dominant trait. A single large family with this disorder was examined for genetic linkage to microsatellite markers. A peak LOD score of 11.63 at a recombination fraction of 0 was obtained with marker D6S967 mapping to chromosome 6p25. Haplotype analysis places the disease gene in a 6.4-cM interval between the markers D6S1713 and D6S1600. Two novel clinical appearances extend the phenotypic range and provide evidence of variable expressivity. The chromosome 6p25 region is now implicated in FGI, primary congenital glaucoma, and iridogoniodysgenesis anomaly. This may indicate the presence of a common causative gene or, alternatively, a cluster of genes involved in eye development/function. Images Figure 2 PMID:9382099

  7. Mapping Transitions in Interpersonal Learning for Students with Additional Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles-Janess, Bernadette; Griffin, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the development of an interpersonal measure for students with additional learning needs. A questionnaire and learning continuum were constructed using a methodology devised by Griffin (2007a) for creating criterion-referenced frameworks. Teachers reported on 1619 students, ranging in age from 3 to 18 years. Analysis of the…

  8. Location, structure, and seismicity of the Seattle fault zone, Washington: Evidence from aeromagnetic anomalies, geologic mapping, and seismic-reflection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blakely, R.J.; Wells, R.E.; Weaver, C.S.; Johnson, S.Y.

    2002-01-01

    A high-resolution aeromagnetic survey of the Puget Lowland shows details of the Seattle fault zone, an active but largely concealed east-trending zone of reverse faulting at the southern margin of the Seattle basin. Three elongate, east-trending magnetic anomalies are associated with north-dipping Tertiary strata exposed in the hanging wall; the magnetic anomalies indicate where these strata continue beneath glacial deposits. The northernmost anomaly, a narrow, elongate magnetic high, precisely correlates with magnetic Miocene volcanic conglomerate. The middle anomaly, a broad magnetic low, correlates with thick, nonmagnetic Eocene and Oligocene marine and fluvial strata. The southern anomaly, a broad, complex magnetic high, correlates with Eocene volcanic and sedimentary rocks. This tripartite package of anomalies is especially clear over Bainbridge Island west of Seattle and over the region east of Lake Washington. Although attenuated in the intervening region, the pattern can be correlated with the mapped strike of beds following a northwest-striking anticline beneath Seattle. The aeromagnetic and geologic data define three main strands of the Seattle fault zone identified in marine seismic-reflection profiles to be subparallel to mapped bedrock trends over a distance of >50 km. The locus of faulting coincides with a diffuse zone of shallow crustal seismicity and the region of uplift produced by the M 7 Seattle earthquake of A.D. 900-930.

  9. Lightweight aerial vehicles for monitoring, assessment and mapping of radiation anomalies.

    PubMed

    MacFarlane, J W; Payton, O D; Keatley, A C; Scott, G P T; Pullin, H; Crane, R A; Smilion, M; Popescu, I; Curlea, V; Scott, T B

    2014-10-01

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP) incident released a significant mass of radioactive material into the atmosphere. An estimated 22% of this material fell out over land following the incident. Immediately following the disaster, there was a severe lack of information not only pertaining to the identity of the radioactive material released, but also its distribution as fallout in the surrounding regions. Indeed, emergency aid groups including the UN did not have sufficient location specific radiation data to accurately assign exclusion and evacuation zones surrounding the plant in the days and weeks following the incident. A newly developed instrument to provide rapid and high spatial resolution assessment of radionuclide contamination in the environment is presented. The device consists of a low cost, lightweight, unmanned aerial platform with a microcontroller and integrated gamma spectrometer, GPS and LIDAR. We demonstrate that with this instrument it is possible to rapidly and remotely detect ground-based radiation anomalies with a high spatial resolution (<1 m). Critically, as the device is remotely operated, the user is removed from any unnecessary or unforeseen exposure to elevated levels of radiation.

  10. A new syndrome, congenital extraocular muscle fibrosis with ulnar hand anomalies, maps to chromosome 21qter

    PubMed Central

    Tukel, T; Uzumcu, A; Gezer, A; Kayserili, H; Yuksel-Apak, M; Uyguner, O; Gultekin, S; Hennies, H; Nurnberg, P; Desnick, R; Wollnik, B

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To describe a new autosomal recessive syndrome of CFEOM and ulnar hand abnormalities, and localise the disease causing gene. Methods: Clinical evaluation of the affected members and positional mapping. Results: Six affected patients with CFEOM/U (aged 2 to 29 years) from a large consanguineous Turkish family were studied. Ophthalmological involvement was characterised by non-progressive restrictive ophthalmoplegia with blepharoptosis of the right eye. The postaxial oligodactyly/oligosyndactyly of the hands was more severe on the right side. A genome-wide scan established linkage of this new autosomal recessive syndrome to a locus on chromosome 21qter. The multipoint LOD score was 4.53 at microsatellite marker D21S1259, and fine mapping defined a ∼1.5 Mb critical region between microsatellite marker D21S1897 and the telomere of the long arm. Conclusions: CFEOM/U maps to a 1.5 Mb region at chromosome 21qter. Future identification of the disease causing gene may provide insights into the development of the extraocular muscles and brain stem α motor neurones, as well as anteroposterior limb development. PMID:15863670

  11. Preliminary isostatic residual gravity anomaly map of Paso Robles 30 x 60 minute quadrangle, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPhee, D.K.; Langenheim, V.E.; Watt, J.T.

    2011-01-01

    This isostatic residual gravity map is part of an effort to map the three-dimensional distribution of rocks in the central California Coast Ranges and will serve as a basis for modeling the shape of basins and for determining the location and geometry of faults within the Paso Robles quadrangle. Local spatial variations in the Earth\\'s gravity field, after accounting for variations caused by elevation, terrain, and deep crustal structure reflect the distribution of densities in the mid- to upper crust. Densities often can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in density commonly mark lithological or structural boundaries. High-density rocks exposed within the central Coast Ranges include Mesozoic granitic rocks (exposed northwest of Paso Robles), Jurassic to Cretaceous marine strata of the Great Valley Sequence (exposed primarily northeast of the San Andreas fault), and Mesozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Franciscan Complex [exposed in the Santa Lucia Range and northeast of the San Andreas fault (SAF) near Parkfield, California]. Alluvial sediments and Tertiary sedimentary rocks are characterized by low densities; however, with increasing depth of burial and age, the densities of these rocks may become indistinguishable from those of older basement rocks.

  12. Mapping Stratigraphy and Anomalies in Iron-Rich Volcanoclastics Using Ground-Penetrating Radar: Potential for Subsurface Exploration on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heggy, E.; Clifford, S.; Khan, S.; Fernandez, J.; Wiggs, E.; Gonzalez, S. L.; Wyrick, D.; Grimm, R.; Dinwiddie, C.; Pommerol, A.

    2004-12-01

    Ground-penetrating radar (GPR) studies conducted in iron-rich volcanoclastics can yield valuable information for interpreting the subsurface stratigraphy resulting from lava flows and intervening unconsolidated volcanic and sedimentary deposits with different compositions and ages. GPR is also valuable for mapping subsurface anomalies and structures, such as rifts and lava tubes. We performed a geophysical field survey in Craters of the Moon National Park to evaluate the potential for using GPR to map local areas of the Martian subsurface for evidence of subsurface water. Craters of the Moon is located in the South Central portion of Idaho, and lies within the Eastern Snake River Plain; it is a composite of more than forty different lava flows, erupted from approximately twenty-five cinder cones and eruptive fissures over eight distinct eruptive periods ranging in age from Late Pleistocene to Holocene. We used a GPR operating at 16 and 100 MHz to perform structural mapping at several different locations. Radar studies were combined with transient electromagnetic soundings and infrared spectroscopy to assess the effect of soil conductivity and geochemistry on identification of subsurface structures. Our results show that, even with a relatively high amount of irons oxides (~14 %), GPR penetration depths of 50 m were achieved with the 100 MHz antenna and penetration depths of 150 m were achieved with the 16 MHz antenna. These depths of investigation may be attributable to the high porosity of the soil at the studied areas, which lowered the electrical losses, thus favoring a relatively deep penetration of the radar wave.

  13. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  14. Regional and residual anomaly separation in microgravity maps for cave detection: The case study of Gruta de las Maravillas (SW Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Moreno, F. J.; Galindo-Zaldívar, J.; Pedrera, A.; Teixidó, T.; Peña, J. A.; González-Castillo, L.

    2015-03-01

    Gravity can be considered an optimal geophysical method for cave detection, given the high density contrast between an empty cavity and the surrounding materials. A number of methods can be used for regional and residual gravity anomaly separation, although they have not been tested in natural scenarios. With the purpose of comparing the different methods, we calculate the residual anomalies associated with the karst system of Gruta de las Maravillas whose cave morphology and dimensions are well-known. A total of 1857 field measurements, mostly distributed in a regular grid of 10 × 10 m, cover the studied area. The microgravity data were acquired using a Scintrex CG5 gravimeter and topography control was carried out with a differential GPS. Regional anomaly maps were calculated by means of several algorithms to generate the corresponding residual gravimetric maps: polynomial first-order fitting, fast Fourier transformation with an upward continuation filter, moving average, minimum curvature and kriging methods. Results are analysed and discussed in terms of resolution, implying the capacity to detect shallow voids. We propose that polynomial fitting is the best technique when microgravity data are used to obtain the residual anomaly maps for cave detection.

  15. Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Current limitations in the quantitative interpretation of satellite-elevation geopotential field data and magnetic anomaly data were investigated along with techniques to overcome them. A major result was the preparation of an improved scalar magnetic anomaly map of South America and adjacent marine areas directly from the original MAGSAT data. In addition, comparisons of South American and Euro-African data show a strong correlation of anomalies along the Atlantic rifted margins of the continents.

  16. Crustal structure of the Churchill-Superior boundary zone between 80 and 98 deg W longitude from Magsat anomaly maps and stacked passes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. H.; Millar, T. W.; Noble, I. A.

    1985-01-01

    A modeling technique using spherical shell elements and equivalent dipole sources has been applied to Magsat signatures at the Churchill-Superior boundary in Manitoba, Ontario, and Ungava. A large satellite magnetic anomaly (12 nT amplitude) on POGO and Magsat maps near the Churchill-Superior boundary was found to be related to the Richmond Gulf aulacogen. The averaged crustal magnetization in the source region is 5.2 A/m. Stacking of the magnetic traces from Magsat passes reveals a magnetic signature (10 nT amplitude) at the Churchill-Superior boundary in an area studied between 80 deg W and 98 deg W. Modeling suggests a steplike thickening of the crust on the Churchill side of the boundary in a layer with a magnetization of 5 A/m. Signatures on aeromagnetic maps are also found in the source areas for both of these satellite anomalies.

  17. Analysis of spacecraft anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomquist, C. E.; Graham, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    The anomalies from 316 spacecraft covering the entire U.S. space program were analyzed to determine if there were any experimental or technological programs which could be implemented to remove the anomalies from future space activity. Thirty specific categories of anomalies were found to cover nearly 85 percent of all observed anomalies. Thirteen experiments were defined to deal with 17 of these categories; nine additional experiments were identified to deal with other classes of observed and anticipated anomalies. Preliminary analyses indicate that all 22 experimental programs are both technically feasible and economically viable.

  18. Magnetic anomalies. [Magsat studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.

    1983-01-01

    The implications and accuracy of anomaly maps produced using Magsat data on the scalar and vector magnetic field of the earth are discussed. Comparisons have been made between the satellite maps and aeromagnetic survey maps, showing smoother data from the satellite maps and larger anomalies in the aircraft data. The maps are being applied to characterize the structure and tectonics of the underlying regions. Investigations are still needed regarding the directions of magnetization within the crust and to generate further correlations between anomaly features and large scale geological structures. Furthermore, an increased data base is recommended for the Pacific Ocean basin in order to develop a better starting model for Pacific tectonic movements. The Pacific basin was large farther backwards in time and subduction zones surround the basin, thereby causing difficulties for describing the complex break-up scenario for Gondwanaland.

  19. Continental and oceanic magnetic anomalies: Enhancement through GRM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.

    1985-01-01

    In contrast to the POGO and MAGSAT satellites, the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) satellite system will orbit at a minimum elevation to provide significantly better resolved lithospheric magnetic anomalies for more detailed and improved geologic analysis. In addition, GRM will measure corresponding gravity anomalies to enhance our understanding of the gravity field for vast regions of the Earth which are largely inaccessible to more conventional surface mapping. Crustal studies will greatly benefit from the dual data sets as modeling has shown that lithospheric sources of long wavelength magnetic anomalies frequently involve density variations which may produce detectable gravity anomalies at satellite elevations. Furthermore, GRM will provide an important replication of lithospheric magnetic anomalies as an aid to identifying and extracting these anomalies from satellite magnetic measurements. The potential benefits to the study of the origin and characterization of the continents and oceans, that may result from the increased GRM resolution are examined.

  20. Additions to Magnetic Trackline Archive For Improvements to Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) and Improvements to Data Dissemination at NGDC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, B.; Jencks, J.; Barckhausen, U.; Ishihara, T.; Campagnoli, J.

    2014-12-01

    The National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is the primary archive of marine geophysical data worldwide. However, it has been challenging for scientist to discover and access data due to variable data formats, non-digital data holdings, and transitioning data discovery portals. In 2014, NGDC made a concerted effort to identify, ingest, and archive all publicly available magnetic trackline data for access via a new Trackline Geophysical Data web-based interface. Non-digital data were digitized and added to the Global Geophysical Database and are now available for download in a common MGD77 format. All ancillary and analog data are accessible via the same interface, without having to navigate through multiple directories or prompts. The result is over 16.5 million miles of magnetic trackline data are now available, both through NGDC's improved user interface and as a web service for incorporation into other portals. This allows the geoscience community unprecedented access to global geophysical magnetic trackline data from a secure long-term archive. The addition of 6.5 million miles of magnetic trackline data to the database, since the previous release of the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2), will give NGDC the ability to improve the model coverage, especially in areas of low coverage, such as around the Eltanin Fracture Zone in the South Pacific. This poster will focus on some key data additions and how they will help us validate the accuracy of the ocean age model/directional gridding algorithm and improve the Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid going forward.

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Topsoil organic carbon content of Europe, a new map based on a generalised additive model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Brogniez, Delphine; Ballabio, Cristiano; Stevens, Antoine; Jones, Robert J. A.; Montanarella, Luca; van Wesemael, Bas

    2014-05-01

    There is an increasing demand for up-to-date spatially continuous organic carbon (OC) data for global environment and climatic modeling. Whilst the current map of topsoil organic carbon content for Europe (Jones et al., 2005) was produced by applying expert-knowledge based pedo-transfer rules on large soil mapping units, the aim of this study was to replace it by applying digital soil mapping techniques on the first European harmonised geo-referenced topsoil (0-20 cm) database, which arises from the LUCAS (land use/cover area frame statistical survey) survey. A generalized additive model (GAM) was calibrated on 85% of the dataset (ca. 17 000 soil samples) and a backward stepwise approach selected slope, land cover, temperature, net primary productivity, latitude and longitude as environmental covariates (500 m resolution). The validation of the model (applied on 15% of the dataset), gave an R2 of 0.27. We observed that most organic soils were under-predicted by the model and that soils of Scandinavia were also poorly predicted. The model showed an RMSE of 42 g kg-1 for mineral soils and of 287 g kg-1 for organic soils. The map of predicted OC content showed the lowest values in Mediterranean countries and in croplands across Europe, whereas highest OC content were predicted in wetlands, woodlands and in mountainous areas. The map of standard error of the OC model predictions showed high values in northern latitudes, wetlands, moors and heathlands, whereas low uncertainty was mostly found in croplands. A comparison of our results with the map of Jones et al. (2005) showed a general agreement on the prediction of mineral soils' OC content, most probably because the models use some common covariates, namely land cover and temperature. Our model however failed to predict values of OC content greater than 200 g kg-1, which we explain by the imposed unimodal distribution of our model, whose mean is tilted towards the majority of soils, which are mineral. Finally, average

  3. XYY chromosome anomaly and schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rajagopalan, M; MacBeth, R; Varma, S L

    1998-02-07

    Sex chromosome anomalies have been associated with psychoses, and most of the evidence is linked to the presence of an additional X chromosome. We report a patient with XYY chromosome anomaly who developed schizophrenia.

  4. Using a three dimensional Ionospheric Data Assimilation and Analysis System (IDAAS) to study the slant-to-vertical deviation in two dimensional TEC mapping over ionosphere equatorial anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, T.

    2013-12-01

    By using International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model as a background ionosphere and applying the Kalman filter to update the state with observations, we develop an Ionosphere Data Assimilation Analysis System (IDAAS) to reconstruct a 3-dimensional ionosphere with the GPS slant TEC and ionosonde data in China. The preliminary results with GPS data collected over east-south Asia on June 30 2005 show that inversed slant TEC has very good correlation with the observations both for the GPS sites being and not being involved in reconstruction. The inversed NmF2 and vertical TEC both demonstrate great improvement of agreement with those observed from ionosondes and TOPEX satellite independently. Based on IDAAS, simulations are carried out to investigate the deviation relative to slant-to-vertical conversion (STV) TEC by using the slant TEC derived from Nequick model as a replacement of measurement data. It is shown that the relative deviation induced by slant-to-vertical conversion may be significant in some cases, and it varies from 0% to 40% when elevation decreasing from 90° to 15°, while relative deviation of IDAAS is much smaller and varies from -5% to 15% without elevation dependence. Comparing with the ';true TEC' map derived from the empirical model, there are big differences in STV TEC map, but no obvious discrepancy in IDAAS map. Generally, IDAAS TEC map is much closer to the 'true TEC' map than the 2-D TEC map does. It is suggested that 3-dimensional inversion techniques are necessary when using GPS observation with low elevation rays at equatorial anomaly region, where the high horizontal gradient of electron density could lead to a significant slant-to-vertical deviation by 2-dimensional inversion method.

  5. Fine Mapping of Two Additive Effect Genes for Awn Development in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jinjie; Yao, Guoxin; Pan, Huiqiao; Hu, Guanglong; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Zichao

    2016-01-01

    Awns, important domestication and agronomic traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.), are conferred by polygenes and the environment. Near isogenic line (NIL) pairs BM33 and BM38 were constructed from crosses between awnless japonica cv Nipponbare as recurrent parent, and lines SLG or Funingxiaohongmang (awned japonica accessions), respectively, as donors. In order to study the genetic and molecular mechanism of awning, two unknown, independent genes with additive effects were identified in a cross between the NILs. To map and clone the two genes, a BC4F4 population of 8,103 individuals and a BC4F6 population of 11,206 individuals were constructed. Awn3-1 was fine mapped to a 101.13 kb genomic region between Indel marker In316 and SNP marker S9-1 on chromosome 3. Nine predicted genes in the interval were annotated in the Rice Annotation Project Database (RAP-DB), and Os03g0418600 was identified as the most likely candidate for Awn3-1 through sequence comparisons and RT-PCR assays. Awn4-2 was fine mapped to a 62.4 kb genomic region flanked by simple sequence repeat (SSR) marker M1126 and Indel maker In73 on chromosome 4L. This region contained the previously reported gene An-1 that regulates awn development. Thus, An-1 may be the candidate gene of Awn4-2. These results will facilitate cloning of the awn genes and thereby provide an understanding of the molecular basis of awn development. PMID:27494628

  6. Holonomy anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Bagger, J.; Nemeschansky, D.; Yankielowicz, S.

    1985-05-01

    A new type of anomaly is discussed that afflicts certain non-linear sigma models with fermions. This anomaly is similar to the ordinary gauge and gravitational anomalies since it reflects a topological obstruction to the reparametrization invariance of the quantum effective action. Nonlinear sigma models are constructed based on homogeneous spaces G/H. Anomalies arising when the fermions are chiral are shown to be cancelled sometimes by Chern-Simons terms. Nonlinear sigma models are considered based on general Riemannian manifolds. 9 refs. (LEW)

  7. Breed relationships facilitate fine-mapping studies: a 7.8-kb deletion cosegregates with Collie eye anomaly across multiple dog breeds.

    PubMed

    Parker, Heidi G; Kukekova, Anna V; Akey, Dayna T; Goldstein, Orly; Kirkness, Ewen F; Baysac, Kathleen C; Mosher, Dana S; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Acland, Gregory M; Ostrander, Elaine A

    2007-11-01

    The features of modern dog breeds that increase the ease of mapping common diseases, such as reduced heterogeneity and extensive linkage disequilibrium, may also increase the difficulty associated with fine mapping and identifying causative mutations. One way to address this problem is by combining data from multiple breeds segregating the same trait after initial linkage has been determined. The multibreed approach increases the number of potentially informative recombination events and reduces the size of the critical haplotype by taking advantage of shortened linkage disequilibrium distances found across breeds. In order to identify breeds that likely share a trait inherited from the same ancestral source, we have used cluster analysis to divide 132 breeds of dog into five primary breed groups. We then use the multibreed approach to fine-map Collie eye anomaly (cea), a complex disorder of ocular development that was initially mapped to a 3.9-cM region on canine chromosome 37. Combined genotypes from affected individuals from four breeds of a single breed group significantly narrowed the candidate gene region to a 103-kb interval spanning only four genes. Sequence analysis revealed that all affected dogs share a homozygous deletion of 7.8 kb in the NHEJ1 gene. This intronic deletion spans a highly conserved binding domain to which several developmentally important proteins bind. This work both establishes that the primary cea mutation arose as a single disease allele in a common ancestor of herding breeds as well as highlights the value of comparative population analysis for refining regions of linkage.

  8. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions. PMID:26104396

  9. Multiple Linkage Disequilibrium Mapping Methods to Validate Additive Quantitative Trait Loci in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo).

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Kim, Jong-Joo

    2015-07-01

    The efficiency of genome-wide association analysis (GWAS) depends on power of detection for quantitative trait loci (QTL) and precision for QTL mapping. In this study, three different strategies for GWAS were applied to detect QTL for carcass quality traits in the Korean cattle, Hanwoo; a linkage disequilibrium single locus regression method (LDRM), a combined linkage and linkage disequilibrium analysis (LDLA) and a BayesCπ approach. The phenotypes of 486 steers were collected for weaning weight (WWT), yearling weight (YWT), carcass weight (CWT), backfat thickness (BFT), longissimus dorsi muscle area, and marbling score (Marb). Also the genotype data for the steers and their sires were scored with the Illumina bovine 50K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chips. For the two former GWAS methods, threshold values were set at false discovery rate <0.01 on a chromosome-wide level, while a cut-off threshold value was set in the latter model, such that the top five windows, each of which comprised 10 adjacent SNPs, were chosen with significant variation for the phenotype. Four major additive QTL from these three methods had high concordance found in 64.1 to 64.9Mb for Bos taurus autosome (BTA) 7 for WWT, 24.3 to 25.4Mb for BTA14 for CWT, 0.5 to 1.5Mb for BTA6 for BFT and 26.3 to 33.4Mb for BTA29 for BFT. Several candidate genes (i.e. glutamate receptor, ionotropic, ampa 1 [GRIA1], family with sequence similarity 110, member B [FAM110B], and thymocyte selection-associated high mobility group box [TOX]) may be identified close to these QTL. Our result suggests that the use of different linkage disequilibrium mapping approaches can provide more reliable chromosome regions to further pinpoint DNA makers or causative genes in these regions.

  10. Improved determination of vector lithospheric magnetic anomalies from MAGSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, Dhananjay

    1993-01-01

    Scientific contributions made in developing new methods to isolate and map vector magnetic anomalies from measurements made by Magsat are described. In addition to the objective of the proposal, the isolation and mapping of equatorial vector lithospheric Magsat anomalies, isolation of polar ionospheric fields during the period were also studied. Significant progress was also made in isolation of polar delta(Z) component and scalar anomalies as well as integration and synthesis of various techniques of removing equatorial and polar ionospheric effects. The significant contributions of this research are: (1) development of empirical/analytical techniques in modeling ionospheric fields in Magsat data and their removal from uncorrected anomalies to obtain better estimates of lithospheric anomalies (this task was accomplished for equatorial delta(X), delta(Z), and delta(B) component and polar delta(Z) and delta(B) component measurements; (2) integration of important processing techniques developed during the last decade with the newly developed technologies of ionospheric field modeling into an optimum processing scheme; and (3) implementation of the above processing scheme to map the most robust magnetic anomalies of the lithosphere (components as well as scalar).

  11. Update of the South-Atlantic Anomaly corrective model for JASON-1 DORIS data using the maps of energetic particles from the CARMEN dosimeter onboard JASON-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capdeville, Hugues; Lemoine, Jean-Michel

    2015-04-01

    The sensitivity of the ultra stable oscillator (USO) of DORIS/Jason-1 to the high energy protons trapped in the Van Allen belts is now well known. This sensitivity causes a fluctuation of the frequency when the satellite crosses the area of the South-Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The principal consequence is the impossibility of using the measurements of the DORIS beacons located in the SAA area for cm-precision positioning since the real frequency of the on-board oscillator is varying rapidly in that area. Moreover, these DORIS measurements do not contribute (or little) to the determination of the orbit of Jason-1 because they are eliminated during the pre-processing on residuals criteria. To correct for this sensitivity to the effects of solar radiation, a model of the frequency evolution of the USO was designed and validated by Lemoine and Capdeville in 2006. This model allows a significant improvement in the orbit adjustment. It takes into account the geographical characteristics of the SAA region (1x1 degree SAA grid) as well as the parameters of the USO's response to this external stimulation: an amplitude, a relaxation time-constant and a memory effect of the SAA disturbance. In the framework of the IDS contribution to the new realization of ITRF, the Jason-1 DORIS data from the end of TOPEX' life (November 2004) to the launch of Jason-2 (July 2008) have been used, corrected by this model. The corrected DORIS data have been provided to the data center for the use of the IDS Analysis Centers. The Jason-2 satellite carries a dosimeter instrument (CARMEN). The purpose here is to take the advantage of this instrument to improve our SAA corrective model by using the maps of energetic particles provided by CARMEN. First, a correlation study between the SAA DORIS grid and the CARMEN maps has been done to determine the dosimeter map which has the best agreement. Then, this map is used to calculate the others parameters of the model. The new model will be used to correct

  12. Fine-mapping identifies two additional breast cancer susceptibility loci at 9q31.2.

    PubMed

    Orr, Nick; Dudbridge, Frank; Dryden, Nicola; Maguire, Sarah; Novo, Daniela; Perrakis, Eleni; Johnson, Nichola; Ghoussaini, Maya; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J; Hogervorst, Frans B; Fasching, Peter A; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B; Beckmann, Matthias W; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Warren, Helen; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Chistof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Sanchez, Marie; Bojesen, Stig E; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Hamann, Ute; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Floris, Guiseppe; Beuselinck, Benoit; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J; Olson, Janet E; Slettedahl, Seth; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G; Milne, Roger L; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian E; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L; Knight, Julia A; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robertus A E M; Seynaeve, Caroline M; Van Asperen, Christi J; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Klevebring, Daniel; Hooning, Maartje J; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van Deurzen, Carolien H M; Kriege, Mieke; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Reed, Malcolm W R; Pharoah, Paul D P; Dunning, Alison M; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidema; Iwata, Hiroji; Ishiguro, Junko; Wu, Anna H; Tseng, Chiu-Chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, Peter; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Lee, Soo Chin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Chen-Yang; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Signorello, Lisa B; Luccarini, Craig; Bayes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hunter, David J; Lindstrom, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K; Easton, Douglas F; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian

    2015-05-15

    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88-0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10(-25)). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ∼14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08-1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10(-09)) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06-1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10(-11)). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06-1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10(-05)). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-α, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis.

  13. Quaternary layer anomalies around the Carlsberg Fault zone mapped with high-resolution shear-wave seismics south of Copenhagen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammann, Janina; Hübscher, Christian; Nielsen, Lars; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2015-04-01

    The Carlsberg Fault zone is located in the N-S striking Höllviken Graben and traverses the city of Copenhagen. The fault zone is a NNW-SSE striking structure in direct vicinity to the transition zone of the Danish Basin and the Baltic Shield. Recent small earthquakes indicate activity in the area, although none of the mapped earthquakes appear to have occurred on the Carlsberg Fault. We examined the fault evolution by a combination of very high resolution onshore shear-wave seismic data, one conventional onshore seismic profile and marine reflection seismic profiles. The chalk stratigraphy and the localization of the fault zone at depth was inferred from previous studies by other authors. We extrapolated the Jurassic and Triassic stratigraphy from the Pomeranian Bay to the area of investigation. The fault zone shows a flower structure in the Triassic as well as in Cretaceous sediments. The faulting geometry indicates strong influence of Triassic processes when subsidence and rifting prevailed in the Central European Basin System. Growth strata within the surrounding Höllviken Graben reveal syntectonic sedimentation in the lower Triassic, indicating the opening to be a result of Triassic rifting. In the Upper Cretaceous growth faulting documents continued rifting. This finding contrasts the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene inversion tectonics in neighbouring structures, as the Tornquist Zone. The high-resolution shear-wave seismic method was used to image structures in Quaternary layers in the Carlsberg Fault zone. The portable compact vibrator source ElViS III S8 was used to acquire a 1150 m long seismic section on the island Amager, south of Copenhagen. The shallow subsurface in the investigation area is dominated by Quaternary glacial till deposits in the upper 5-11 m and Danian limestone below. In the shear-wave profile, we imaged the 30 m of the upward continuation of the Carlsberg Fault zone. In our area of investigation, the fault zone appears to comprise

  14. Fine-mapping identifies two additional breast cancer susceptibility loci at 9q31.2

    PubMed Central

    Orr, Nick; Dudbridge, Frank; Dryden, Nicola; Maguire, Sarah; Novo, Daniela; Perrakis, Eleni; Johnson, Nichola; Ghoussaini, Maya; Hopper, John L.; Southey, Melissa C.; Apicella, Carmel; Stone, Jennifer; Schmidt, Marjanka K.; Broeks, Annegien; Van't Veer, Laura J.; Hogervorst, Frans B.; Fasching, Peter A.; Haeberle, Lothar; Ekici, Arif B.; Beckmann, Matthias W.; Gibson, Lorna; Aitken, Zoe; Warren, Helen; Sawyer, Elinor; Tomlinson, Ian; Kerin, Michael J.; Miller, Nicola; Burwinkel, Barbara; Marme, Frederik; Schneeweiss, Andreas; Sohn, Chistof; Guénel, Pascal; Truong, Thérèse; Cordina-Duverger, Emilie; Sanchez, Marie; Bojesen, Stig E.; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Flyger, Henrik; Benitez, Javier; Zamora, Maria Pilar; Arias Perez, Jose Ignacio; Menéndez, Primitiva; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Neuhausen, Susan L.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Arndt, Volker; Stegmaier, Christa; Hamann, Ute; Brauch, Hiltrud; Justenhoven, Christina; Brüning, Thomas; Ko, Yon-Dschun; Nevanlinna, Heli; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Khan, Sofia; Bogdanova, Natalia; Dörk, Thilo; Lindblom, Annika; Margolin, Sara; Mannermaa, Arto; Kataja, Vesa; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Hartikainen, Jaana M.; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Beesley, Jonathan; Lambrechts, Diether; Moisse, Matthieu; Floris, Guiseppe; Beuselinck, Benoit; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Rudolph, Anja; Seibold, Petra; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Radice, Paolo; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peissel, Bernard; Pensotti, Valeria; Couch, Fergus J.; Olson, Janet E.; Slettedahl, Seth; Vachon, Celine; Giles, Graham G.; Milne, Roger L.; McLean, Catriona; Haiman, Christopher A.; Henderson, Brian E.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Le Marchand, Loic; Simard, Jacques; Goldberg, Mark S.; Labrèche, France; Dumont, Martine; Kristensen, Vessela; Alnæs, Grethe Grenaker; Nord, Silje; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Zheng, Wei; Deming-Halverson, Sandra; Shrubsole, Martha; Long, Jirong; Winqvist, Robert; Pylkäs, Katri; Jukkola-Vuorinen, Arja; Grip, Mervi; Andrulis, Irene L.; Knight, Julia A.; Glendon, Gord; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Devilee, Peter; Tollenaar, Robertus A. E. M.; Seynaeve, Caroline M.; Van Asperen, Christi J.; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Figueroa, Jonine; Chanock, Stephen J.; Lissowska, Jolanta; Czene, Kamila; Darabi, Hatef; Eriksson, Mikael; Klevebring, Daniel; Hooning, Maartje J.; Hollestelle, Antoinette; van Deurzen, Carolien H. M.; Kriege, Mieke; Hall, Per; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Jianjun; Humphreys, Keith; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S.; Reed, Malcolm W. R.; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Dunning, Alison M.; Shah, Mitul; Perkins, Barbara J.; Jakubowska, Anna; Lubinski, Jan; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Durda, Katarzyna; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Jones, Michael; Schoemaker, Minouk J.; Meindl, Alfons; Schmutzler, Rita K.; Olswold, Curtis; Slager, Susan; Toland, Amanda E.; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Muir, Kenneth; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Stewart-Brown, Sarah; Siriwanarangsan, Pornthep; Matsuo, Keitaro; Ito, Hidema; Iwata, Hiroji; Ishiguro, Junko; Wu, Anna H.; Tseng, Chiu-chen; Van Den Berg, David; Stram, Daniel O.; Teo, Soo Hwang; Yip, Cheng Har; Kang, Peter; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Cai, Hui; Kang, Daehee; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Park, Sue K.; Noh, Dong-Young; Hartman, Mikael; Miao, Hui; Lim, Wei Yen; Lee, Soo Chin; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Gaborieau, Valerie; Brennan, Paul; Mckay, James; Wu, Pei-Ei; Hou, Ming-Feng; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Shen, Chen-Yang; Blot, William; Cai, Qiuyin; Signorello, Lisa B.; Luccarini, Craig; Bayes, Caroline; Ahmed, Shahana; Maranian, Mel; Healey, Catherine S.; González-Neira, Anna; Pita, Guillermo; Alonso, M. Rosario; Álvarez, Nuria; Herrero, Daniel; Tessier, Daniel C.; Vincent, Daniel; Bacot, Francois; Hunter, David J.; Lindstrom, Sara; Dennis, Joe; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Bolla, Manjeet K.; Easton, Douglas F.; dos Santos Silva, Isabel; Fletcher, Olivia; Peto, Julian

    2015-01-01

    We recently identified a novel susceptibility variant, rs865686, for estrogen-receptor positive breast cancer at 9q31.2. Here, we report a fine-mapping analysis of the 9q31.2 susceptibility locus using 43 160 cases and 42 600 controls of European ancestry ascertained from 52 studies and a further 5795 cases and 6624 controls of Asian ancestry from nine studies. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs676256 was most strongly associated with risk in Europeans (odds ratios [OR] = 0.90 [0.88–0.92]; P-value = 1.58 × 10−25). This SNP is one of a cluster of highly correlated variants, including rs865686, that spans ∼14.5 kb. We identified two additional independent association signals demarcated by SNPs rs10816625 (OR = 1.12 [1.08–1.17]; P-value = 7.89 × 10−09) and rs13294895 (OR = 1.09 [1.06–1.12]; P-value = 2.97 × 10−11). SNP rs10816625, but not rs13294895, was also associated with risk of breast cancer in Asian individuals (OR = 1.12 [1.06–1.18]; P-value = 2.77 × 10−05). Functional genomic annotation using data derived from breast cancer cell-line models indicates that these SNPs localise to putative enhancer elements that bind known drivers of hormone-dependent breast cancer, including ER-α, FOXA1 and GATA-3. In vitro analyses indicate that rs10816625 and rs13294895 have allele-specific effects on enhancer activity and suggest chromatin interactions with the KLF4 gene locus. These results demonstrate the power of dense genotyping in large studies to identify independent susceptibility variants. Analysis of associations using subjects with different ancestry, combined with bioinformatic and genomic characterisation, can provide strong evidence for the likely causative alleles and their functional basis. PMID:25652398

  15. DOWN'S ANOMALY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PENROSE, L.S.; SMITH, G.F.

    BOTH CLINICAL AND PATHOLOGICAL ASPECTS AND MATHEMATICAL ELABORATIONS OF DOWN'S ANOMALY, KNOWN ALSO AS MONGOLISM, ARE PRESENTED IN THIS REFERENCE MANUAL FOR PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL. INFORMATION PROVIDED CONCERNS (1) HISTORICAL STUDIES, (2) PHYSICAL SIGNS, (3) BONES AND MUSCLES, (4) MENTAL DEVELOPMENT, (5) DERMATOGLYPHS, (6) HEMATOLOGY, (7)…

  16. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... attached to the mine maps used to show contour lines as provided under paragraph (m) of this section; (j... elevation of any body of water dammed in the mine or held back in any portion of the mine; and, (m) Contour... shall not exceed 10-foot elevation levels, except that a broader spacing of contour lines may...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1200-1 - Additional information on mine map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... attached to the mine maps used to show contour lines as provided under paragraph (m) of this section; (j... elevation of any body of water dammed in the mine or held back in any portion of the mine; and, (m) Contour... shall not exceed 10-foot elevation levels, except that a broader spacing of contour lines may...

  18. Gene of a new X-linked syndrome with multiple congenital anomalies and severe mental retardation maps in Xp22-pter

    SciTech Connect

    Wittwer, B.; Kircheisen, R.; Leutelt, J.

    1994-09-01

    We report on a family with 3 males presenting with a not yet described new X-chromosomal syndrome of multiple congenital anomalies and severe mental retardation. Two sisters have (with 3 different partners) 3 severely handicapped sons. In each case, oligohydramnios and intrauterine growth retardation were observed. Delivery was in the 34th, 31st, and 38th gestational week, respectively. Two of the patients had microcephaly (head circumference of the third case at birth is unknown). On physical examination, high and broad forehead, frontal bossing, downslanting palpebral fissures, long philtrum, thin upper lip, high arched palate, and deeply set anteverted ears were seen. One of the boys has microphthalmos and sclerocornea, while his cousin shows atrophy of the optic nerve. All three patients show a severe statomotor and mental retardation, they are most likely deaf and blind, have pathologic EEG, and seizures. Important additional findings are hydronephrosis, renal duplication, vesicorenal reflux, and agenesis of corpus callosum. The karyotype is normal (46,XY). We performed a segregation analysis in the family using more than 20 DNA polymorphisms distributed over the X chromosome. Linkage without recombination was found to KAL, DXS278, and DXS16 in Xp22. Analysis of multiple informative meioses suggested a location of the disease locus distal to DXS207. Recombinants were identified with all other marker loci from Xp22-Xpter.

  19. Identification of trace additives in polymer materials by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared mapping coupled with multivariate curve resolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Qian; Tang, Yongjiao; Yan, Zhiwei; Zhang, Pudun

    2017-03-07

    Although multivariate curve resolution (MCR) has been applied to the analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) imaging, it is still problematic to determine the number of components. The reported methods at present tend to cause the components of low concentration missed. In this paper a new idea was proposed to resolve this problem. First, MCR calculation was repeated by increasing the number of components sequentially, then each retrieved pure spectrum of as-resulted MCR component was directly compared with a real-world pixel spectrum of the local high concentration in the corresponding MCR map. One component was affirmed only if the characteristic bands of the MCR component had been included in its pixel spectrum. This idea was applied to attenuated total reflection (ATR)/FTIR mapping for identifying the trace additives in blind polymer materials and satisfactory results were acquired. The successful demonstration of this novel approach opens up new possibilities for analyzing additives in polymer materials.

  20. Congenital anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Kunisaki, Shaun M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past decade, amniotic fluid-derived stem cells have emerged as a novel, experimental approach for the treatment of a wide variety of congenital anomalies diagnosed either in utero or postnatally. There are a number of unique properties of amniotic fluid stem cells that have allowed it to become a major research focus. These include the relative ease of accessing amniotic fluid cells in a minimally invasive fashion by amniocentesis as well as the relatively rich population of progenitor cells obtained from a small aliquot of fluid. Mesenchymal stem cells, c-kit positive stem cells, as well as induced pluripotent stem cells have all been derived from human amniotic fluid in recent years. This article gives a pediatric surgeon’s perspective on amniotic fluid stem cell therapy for the management of congenital anomalies. The current status in the use of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells, particularly as they relate as substrates in tissue engineering-based applications, is described in various animal models. A roadmap for further study and eventual clinical application is also proposed. PMID:22986340

  1. Self-Organization with Additional Learning Based on Category Mapping and Its Application to Dynamic News Clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyota, Tetsuya; Nobuhara, Hajime

    The Internet news are texts which involve from various fields, therefore, when a text data that will show a rapid increase of the number of dimensions of feature vectors of Self-Organizing Map (SOM) is added, these results cannot be reflected to learning. Furthermore, it is difficult for users to recognize the learning results because SOM can not produce any label information by each cluster. In order to solve these problems, we propose SOM with additional learning and dimensional by category mapping which is based on the category structure of Wikipedia. In this method, input vector is generated from each text and the corresponding Wikipedia categories extracted from Wikipedia articles. Input vectors are formed in the common category taking the hierarchical structure of Wikipedia category into consideration. By using the proposed method, the problem of reconfiguration of vector elements caused by dynamic changes in the text can be solved. Moreover, information loss in newly obtained index term can be prevented.

  2. Gauge anomalies, gravitational anomalies, and superstrings

    SciTech Connect

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1985-08-01

    The structure of gauge and gravitational anomalies will be reviewed. The impact of these anomalies on the construction, consistency, and application of the new superstring theories will be discussed. 25 refs.

  3. The elliptic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janin, G.; Bond, V. R.

    1980-01-01

    An independent variable different from the time for elliptic orbit integration is used. Such a time transformation provides an analytical step-size regulation along the orbit. An intermediate anomaly (an anomaly intermediate between the eccentric and the true anomaly) is suggested for optimum performances. A particular case of an intermediate anomaly (the elliptic anomaly) is defined, and its relation with the other anomalies is developed.

  4. Ebstein Anomaly in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rusdi, Lusiani; Azizi, Syahrir; Suwita, Christopher; Karina, Astrid; Nasution, Sally A

    2016-10-01

    A 27-year-old primiparous woman with 28 weeks gestational age was admitted to our hospital with worsening shortness of breath. She was diagnosed with Ebstein's anomaly three years ago, but preferred to be left untreated. The patient was not cyanotic and her vital signs were stable. Her ECG showed incomplete RBBB and prolonged PR-interval. Blood tests revealed mild anemia. Observation of two-dimensional echo with color flow Doppler study showed Ebstein's anomaly with PFO as additional defects, EF of 57%, LV and LA dilatation, RV atrialization, severe TR, and moderate PH with RVSP of 44.3 mmHg. The patient then underwent elective sectio caesaria at 30 weeks of gestational age; both the mother and her baby were alive and were in good conditions.

  5. Chiral anomalies and differential geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Zumino, B.

    1983-10-01

    Some properties of chiral anomalies are described from a geometric point of view. Topics include chiral anomalies and differential forms, transformation properties of the anomalies, identification and use of the anomalies, and normalization of the anomalies. 22 references. (WHK)

  6. Mapping localised freshwater anomalies in the brackish paleo-lake sediments of the Machile-Zambezi Basin with transient electromagnetic sounding, geoelectrical imaging and induced polarisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chongo, Mkhuzo; Christiansen, Anders Vest; Fiandaca, Gianluca; Nyambe, Imasiku A.; Larsen, Flemming; Bauer-Gottwein, Peter

    2015-12-01

    A recent airborne TEM survey in the Machile-Zambezi Basin of south western Zambia revealed high electrical resistivity anomalies (around 100 Ωm) in a low electrical resistivity (below 13 Ωm) background. The near surface (0-40 m depth range) electrical resistivity distribution of these anomalies appeared to be coincident with superficial features related to surface water such as alluvial fans and flood plains. This paper describes the application of transient electromagnetic soundings (TEM) and continuous vertical electrical sounding (CVES) using geo-electrics and time domain induced polarisation to evaluate a freshwater lens across a flood plain on the northern bank of the Zambezi River at Kasaya in south western Zambia. Coincident TEM and CVES measurements were conducted across the Simalaha Plain from the edge of the Zambezi River up to 6.6 km inland. The resulting TEM, direct current and induced polarisation data sets were inverted using a new mutually and laterally constrained joint inversion scheme. The resulting inverse model sections depict a freshwater lens sitting on top of a regional saline aquifer. The fresh water lens is about 60 m thick at the boundary with the Zambezi River and gradually thins out and deteriorates in water quality further inland. It is postulated that the freshwater lens originated as a result of interaction between the Zambezi River and the salty aquifer in a setting in which evapotranspiration is the net climatic stress. Similar high electrical resistivity bodies were also associated with other surface water features located in the airborne surveyed area.

  7. ISHM Anomaly Lexicon for Rocket Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzel, John L.; Buchanan, Aubri; Hensarling, Paula L.; Morris, Jonathan; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Jorge F.

    2007-01-01

    Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) is a comprehensive capability. An ISHM system must detect anomalies, identify causes of such anomalies, predict future anomalies, help identify consequences of anomalies for example, suggested mitigation steps. The system should also provide users with appropriate navigation tools to facilitate the flow of information into and out of the ISHM system. Central to the ability of the ISHM to detect anomalies is a clearly defined catalog of anomalies. Further, this lexicon of anomalies must be organized in ways that make it accessible to a suite of tools used to manage the data, information and knowledge (DIaK) associated with a system. In particular, it is critical to ensure that there is optimal mapping between target anomalies and the algorithms associated with their detection. During the early development of our ISHM architecture and approach, it became clear that a lexicon of anomalies would be important to the development of critical anomaly detection algorithms. In our work in the rocket engine test environment at John C. Stennis Space Center, we have access to a repository of discrepancy reports (DRs) that are generated in response to squawks identified during post-test data analysis. The DR is the tool used to document anomalies and the methods used to resolve the issue. These DRs have been generated for many different tests and for all test stands. The result is that they represent a comprehensive summary of the anomalies associated with rocket engine testing. Fig. 1 illustrates some of the data that can be extracted from a DR. Such information includes affected transducer channels, narrative description of the observed anomaly, and the steps used to correct the problem. The primary goal of the anomaly lexicon development efforts we have undertaken is to create a lexicon that could be used in support of an associated health assessment database system (HADS) co-development effort. There are a number of significant

  8. Altered orientation and flight paths of pigeons reared on gravity anomalies: a GPS tracking study.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I; Meskenaite, Virginia; Kanevskyi, Valerii A; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The "gravity vector" theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates.

  9. Altered Orientation and Flight Paths of Pigeons Reared on Gravity Anomalies: A GPS Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Blaser, Nicole; Guskov, Sergei I.; Meskenaite, Virginia; Kanevskyi, Valerii A.; Lipp, Hans-Peter

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of pigeon homing are still not understood, in particular how they determine their position at unfamiliar locations. The “gravity vector” theory holds that pigeons memorize the gravity vector at their home loft and deduct home direction and distance from the angular difference between memorized and actual gravity vector. However, the gravity vector is tilted by different densities in the earth crust leading to gravity anomalies. We predicted that pigeons reared on different gravity anomalies would show different initial orientation and also show changes in their flight path when crossing a gravity anomaly. We reared one group of pigeons in a strong gravity anomaly with a north-to-south gravity gradient, and the other group of pigeons in a normal area but on a spot with a strong local anomaly with a west-to-east gravity gradient. After training over shorter distances, pigeons were released from a gravitationally and geomagnetically normal site 50 km north in the same direction for both home lofts. As expected by the theory, the two groups of pigeons showed divergent initial orientation. In addition, some of the GPS-tracked pigeons also showed changes in their flight paths when crossing gravity anomalies. We conclude that even small local gravity anomalies at the birth place of pigeons may have the potential to bias the map sense of pigeons, while reactivity to gravity gradients during flight was variable and appeared to depend on individual navigational strategies and frequency of position updates. PMID:24194860

  10. Radionuclide imaging of rare congenital renal fusion anomalies.

    PubMed

    Volkan, Bilge; Ceylan, Emel; Kiratli, Pinar Ozgen

    2003-03-01

    Demonstration of a congenital renal anomaly plays an important role in the treatment of patients with renal infection. These patients are prone to infections because of coexisting urinary tract anomalies such as duplicated ureter, ureter opening anomalies, and urinary stasis. Assessment of renal parenchymal damage resulting from acute or chronic renal infection is the primary indication for radionuclide imaging with Tc-99m DMSA. In addition, this technique allows congenital anomalies to be identified. The authors review congenital renal fusion anomalies identified in children through Tc-99m DMSA imaging. They conclude that Tc-99m DMSA imaging can reveal important diagnostic information about various congenital anomalies, including fusion anomalies.

  11. Contour maps of lunar remanent magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, L. L.; Russell, C. T.; Coleman, P. J., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The 2605 usable orbits of Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellite magnetometer data have been reexamined for intervals suitable for analysis of crustal magnetic anomalies. To minimize plasma-related disturbances, segments from 274 of these orbits were selected from times when the moon was either in a lobe of the geomagnetic tail or in the solar wind with the subsatellites in the lunar wake. External field contributions which remained in the selected intervals were minimized by (1) quadratic detrending of individual orbit segments with lengths much greater than anomaly wavelengths and (2) two-dimensional filtering with minimum passed wavelengths less than or equal to anomaly wavelengths. Improvements in coverage, accuracy, and resolution of previously published anomaly maps produced from these data are obtained. In addition to improved maps of the Reiner Gamma and Van de Graaff-Aitken anomalies studied previously, a third region of relatively high-amplitude anomalies centered near the crater Gerasimovich on the southeastern far side has been mapped. Both the Van de Graaff-Aitken region and the Gerasimovich region are marked by the general occurrence of extensive groups of Reiner Gamma-type swirls.

  12. Lymphatic Anomalies Registry

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-26

    Lymphatic Malformation; Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly (GLA); Central Conducting Lymphatic Anomaly; CLOVES Syndrome; Gorham-Stout Disease ("Disappearing Bone Disease"); Blue Rubber Bleb Nevus Syndrome; Kaposiform Lymphangiomatosis; Kaposiform Hemangioendothelioma/Tufted Angioma; Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome; Lymphangiomatosis

  13. Magnetic and gravity anomalies in the Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The cleaning and magnetic tape storage of spherical Earth processing programs are reported. These programs include: NVERTSM which inverts total or vector magnetic anomaly data on a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; SMFLD which utilizes output from NVERTSM to compute total or vector magnetic anomaly fields for a distribution of point dipoles in spherical coordinates; NVERTG; and GFLD. Abstracts are presented for papers dealing with the mapping and modeling of magnetic and gravity anomalies, and with the verification of crustal components in satellite data.

  14. Ebstein anomaly: a review.

    PubMed

    Galea, Joseph; Ellul, Sarah; Schembri, Aaron; Schembri-Wismayer, Pierre; Calleja-Agius, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac congenital abnormalities are a leading cause in neonatal mortality occurring in up to 1 in 200 of live births. Ebstein anomaly, also known as Kassamali anomaly, accounts for 1 percent of all congenital cardiac anomalies. This congenital abnormality involves malformation of the tricuspid valve and of the right ventricle. In this review, the causes of the anomaly are outlined and the pathophysiology is discussed, with a focus on the symptoms, management, and treatments available to date.

  15. Turbulence computations with 3-D small-scale additive turbulent decomposition and data-fitting using chaotic map combinations

    SciTech Connect

    Mukerji, Sudip

    1997-01-01

    Although the equations governing turbulent fluid flow, the Navier-Stokes (N.S.) equations, have been known for well over a century and there is a clear technological necessity in obtaining solutions to these equations, turbulence remains one of the principal unsolved problems in physics today. It is still not possible to make accurate quantitative predictions about turbulent flows without relying heavily on empirical data. In principle, it is possible to obtain turbulent solutions from a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the N.-S. equations. The author first provides a brief introduction to the dynamics of turbulent flows. The N.-S. equations which govern fluid flow, are described thereafter. Then he gives a brief overview of DNS calculations and where they stand at present. He next introduces the two most popular approaches for doing turbulent computations currently in use, namely, the Reynolds averaging of the N.-S. equations (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES). Approximations, often ad hoc ones, are present in these methods because use is made of heuristic models for turbulence quantities (the Reynolds stresses) which are otherwise unknown. They then introduce a new computational method called additive turbulent decomposition (ATD), the small-scale version of which is the topic of this research. The rest of the thesis is organized as follows. In Chapter 2 he describes the ATD procedure in greater detail; how dependent variables are split and the decomposition into large- and small-scale sets of equations. In Chapter 3 the spectral projection of the small-scale momentum equations are derived in detail. In Chapter 4 results of the computations with the small-scale ATD equations are presented. In Chapter 5 he describes the data-fitting procedure which can be used to directly specify the parameters of a chaotic-map turbulence model.

  16. Computing Critical Properties with Yang-Yang Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orkoulas, Gerassimos; Cerdeirina, Claudio; Fisher, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Computation of the thermodynamics of fluids in the critical region is a challenging task owing to divergence of the correlation length and lack of particle-hole symmetries found in Ising or lattice-gas models. In addition, analysis of experiments and simulations reveals a Yang-Yang (YY) anomaly which entails sharing of the specific heat singularity between the pressure and the chemical potential. The size of the YY anomaly is measured by the YY ratio Rμ =C μ /CV of the amplitudes of C μ = - T d2 μ /dT2 and of the total specific heat CV. A ``complete scaling'' theory, in which the pressure mixes into the scaling fields, accounts for the YY anomaly. In Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 040601 (2016), compressible cell gas (CCG) models which exhibit YY and singular diameter anomalies, have been advanced for near-critical fluids. In such models, the individual cell volumes are allowed to fluctuate. The thermodynamics of CCGs can be computed through mapping onto the Ising model via the seldom-used great grand canonical ensemble. The computations indicate that local free volume fluctuations are the origins of the YY effects. Furthermore, local energy-volume coupling (to model water) is another crucial factor underlying the phenomena.

  17. Spacecraft Environmental Anomalies Handbook

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    engineering solutions for mitigating the effects of environmental anomalies have been developed. Among the causes o, spacecraft anomalies are surface...have been discovered after years of investig!:tion, and engineering solutions for mitigating the effccts of environmental anomalies have been developed...23 * 6.4.3 Fauth Tolerant Solutions .............................................................................. 23 6.4.4. Methods

  18. South Atlantic Anomaly

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-19

    article title:  The South Atlantic Anomaly     View larger GIF image The South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) . Even before the cover opened, the Multi-angle Imaging ... Atlantic Anomaly location:  Atlantic Ocean Global Images First Light Images region:  Before the ...

  19. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    Experimental and analytical data on magnetic mineralogy was provided as an aid to the interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps. An integrated program, ranging from the chemistry of materials from 100 or more km depth within the Earth, to an examination of the MAGSAT anomaly maps at about 400 km above the Earth's surface, was undertaken. Within this framework, a detailed picture of the pertinent mineralogical and magnetic relationships for the region of West Africa was provided. Efforts were directed toward: (1) examining the geochemistry, mineralogy, magnetic properties, and phases relations of magnetic oxides and metal alloys in rocks demonstrated to have originated in the lower crust of upper mantle, (2) examining the assumption that these rocks portray the nature of their source regions; and (3) examining the regional geology, tectonics, gravity field and the MAGSAT anomaly maps for West Africa.

  20. Sources of Near Side Lunar Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richmond, Nicola C.; Hood, Lon L.; Halekas, J. S.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Binder, A.B.

    2002-01-01

    Lunar Prospector magnetometer data has been used to identify a number of nearside magnetic anomalies. Some of the features identified appear to correlate with impact ejecta, supporting a basin ejecta origin to the nearside anomalies. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Synchrotron-based FTIR microspectroscopy for the mapping of photo-oxidation and additives in acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene model samples and historical objects.

    PubMed

    Saviello, Daniela; Pouyet, Emeline; Toniolo, Lucia; Cotte, Marine; Nevin, Austin

    2014-09-16

    Synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (SR-μFTIR) was used to map photo-oxidative degradation of acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and to investigate the presence and the migration of additives in historical samples from important Italian design objects. High resolution (3×3 μm(2)) molecular maps were obtained by FTIR microspectroscopy in transmission mode, using a new method for the preparation of polymer thin sections. The depth of photo-oxidation in samples was evaluated and accompanied by the formation of ketones, aldehydes, esters, and unsaturated carbonyl compounds. This study demonstrates selective surface oxidation and a probable passivation of material against further degradation. In polymer fragments from design objects made of ABS from the 1960s, UV-stabilizers were detected and mapped, and microscopic inclusions of proteinaceous material were identified and mapped for the first time.

  2. Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Patrick T.; Frawley, James J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor s magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed four North and 3 South poles with two at approximately 60 degrees north latitude. These results suggest that during the existence of the Martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals.

  3. Paleo-Pole Positions from Martian Magnetic Anomaly Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frawley, James J.; Taylor, Patrick T.

    2004-01-01

    Magnetic component anomaly maps were made from five mapping cycles of the Mars Global Surveyor's magnetometer data. Our goal was to find and isolate positive and negative anomaly pairs which would indicate magnetization of a single source body. From these anomalies we could compute the direction of the magnetizing vector and subsequently the location of the magnetic pole existing at the time of magnetization. We found nine suitable anomaly pairs and from these we computed paleo-poles that were nearly equally divided between north, south and mid-latitudes. These results suggest that during the existence of the martian main magnetic field it experienced several reversals and excursions.

  4. Estimating Antarctic Near-Surface Magnetic Anomalies from Oersted and CHAMP Satellite Magnetometer Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Golynsky, Alexander V.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2004-01-01

    Significant improvement in predicting near-surface magnetic anomalies can result from the highly accurate magnetic observations of the CHAMP satellite that is orbiting at about 400 km altitude. In general, regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations due to wavelength coupling in the spherical harmonic representation and thus are difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. However, efforts to isolate the regional lithospheric from core field components can exploit the correlations between the CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations. In addition, we can use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric field components from the dynamic external field effects. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic conservations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Oersted and noisier Magsat observations, CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intra-crustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic. Moreover, these results greatly facilitate predicting magnetic anomalies in the regional coverage gaps of the ADMAP compilation of Antarctic magnetic anomalies from shipborne, airborne and ground surveys. Our analysis suggests that considerable new insights on the magnetic properties of the lithosphere may be revealed by a further order-of-magnitude improvement in the accuracy of the magnetometer.

  5. The North West African Margin Magnetic Anomaly revisited : implications for the initial evolution of the Central Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahabi, M.; Olivet, J.-L.; Aslanian, D.; Patriat, M.; Géli, L.; Matias, L.; Réhault, J.-P.; Malod, J.; Bouabdelli, M.

    2003-04-01

    Due to the lack of data from the North West African margin, the Mesozïc evolution of the Central Atlantic is still controversial. Existing plate kinematics (Le Pichon et al, 1977), Wissmann and Roger (1982), Olivet et al, 1984, Klitgord and Schouten, 1986) reconstructions do not explain the characteristics of the S1 Magnetic Anomaly, nor the the presence and geometry of salt basins on the margins off NW Marocco and off Mauritania. We present a new magnetic compilation detailing the correspondance between the different conjugated magnetic anomalies that exist on each side of the Central Atlantic : the East Coast (ECMA), Brunswick (BMA) and Blake Spur (BSMA) Magnetic Anomalies on the American side, and the S1 and West African Coast (WACMA) magnetic anomalies on the African side. In addition, using all available, academic, seismic data, we mapped the ocenawards extension of the salt province of the 200 Ma old Seine Abyssal Plain basin, off Marocco, which is considered as autochtonous.

  6. Antibodies against Proinsulin and Homologous MAP Epitopes Are Detectable in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Sardinian Patients, an Additional Link of Association.

    PubMed

    Niegowska, Magdalena; Paccagnini, Daniela; Burrai, Carlo; Palermo, Mario; Sechi, Leonardo A

    2015-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) is the prevailing organ-specific autoimmune disease in Sardinia, often complicated with other autoimmune disorders, most commonly type 1 diabetes (T1D). While numerous studies describe levels of anty-thyroid antibodies (Abs) in T1D patients, few papers evaluate the status of anti-islet autoimmunity in subjects affected by HT. Previously, we portrayed Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) as an environmental factor strongly associated with both diseases. In this study, we analyzed plasma of Sardinian HT patients (n=177) and healthy controls (HCs; n=175) for the presence of Abs against proinsulin and MAP-derived homologous epitopes: MAP1,4αgbp157-173/PI64-80 were recognized by 5,08% and 18,64% of HT vs 0,57% and 7,43% of HCs (AUC=0,6 for both; p<0,0003 and 0,002, respectively), whereas the prevalence of Abs against MAP2404c70-85/PI46-61 peptides was higher but not significant in patients when compared to HCs. In women (n=152), Abs against MAP1,4αgbp157-173 were detected in 12,50% of HT vs 2,75% of HCs (AUC=0,63; p<0,0002), while positivity to its human homolog PI64-80 was observed in 16,42% of HT vs 6,42% of HCs (AUC=0,61; p<0,001). In men (n=25), a significant anti-PI46-61 Abs levels were detected in 4% of HT vs none of the HCs (AUC=0,7; p<0,003). Age-related analyses revealed the highest prevalence between 31-40 years old (45,83%) in the total study population and among males (33,33%); in contrast, women had a higher seroreactivity between 51-60 years (42,11%). A further follow-up and determination of anti-islet Abs levels is needed to evaluate the association of immune responses directed against the MAP/PI homologous peptides with progression to overt diabetes in HT subjects.

  7. Pure duplication of the distal long arm of chromosome 15 with ebstein anomaly and clavicular anomaly.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Rachel; Al-Murrani, Amel; Aftimos, Salim; Asquith, Philip; Mazzaschi, Roberto; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; George, Alice M; Love, Donald R

    2011-01-01

    This report is of a patient with pure trisomy of 15q24-qter who presents with the rare Ebstein anomaly and a previously unreported skeletal anomaly. Chromosome microarray analysis allowed high-resolution identification of the extent of the trisomy and provided a means of achieving higher-resolution breakpoint data. The phenotypic expression of unbalanced chromosomal regions is a complex phenomenon, and fine mapping of the involved region, as described here, is only a first step on the path to its full understanding. Overexpression of the LINGO-1 and CSPG4 genes has been implicated in developmental delay seen in other patients with trisomy of 15q24-qter, but our patient is currently too young to ascertain developmental progress. The genetic underpinning of Ebstein anomaly and the skeletal anomaly reported here is unclear based on our high-resolution dosage mapping.

  8. Reduction of satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slud, E. V.; Smith, P. J.; Langel, R. A.

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of global magnetic anomaly maps derived from satellite data is facilitated by inversion to the equivalent magnetization in a constant thickness magnetic crust or, equivalently, by reduction to the pole. Previous inversions have proven unstable near the geomagnetic equator. The instability results from magnetic moment distributions which are admissible in the inversion solution but which make only small contribution to the computed values of anomaly field. Their admissibility in the solution could result from noisy or incomplete data or from small poorly resolved anomalies. The resulting magnetic moments are unrealistically large and oscillatory. Application of the method of principal components (e.g. eigenvalue decomposition and selective elimination of less significant eigenvectors) is proposed as a way of overcoming the instability and the method is demonstrated by applying it to the region around the Bangui anomaly in Central Africa.

  9. Taussig-Bing Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Konstantinov, Igor E.

    2009-01-01

    Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation that was first described in 1949 by Helen B. Taussig (1898–1986) and Richard J. Bing (1909–). Although substantial improvement has since been achieved in surgical results of the repair of the anomaly, management of the Taussig-Bing anomaly remains challenging. A history of the original description of the anomaly, the life stories of the individuals who first described it, and the current outcomes of its surgical management are reviewed herein. PMID:20069085

  10. Nolen-Schiffer anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Pieper, S.C.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1995-08-01

    The Argonne v{sub 18} potential contains a detailed treatment of the pp, pn and nn electromagnetic potential, including Coulomb, vacuum polarization, Darwin Foldy and magnetic moment terms, all with suitable form factors and was fit to pp and pn data using the appropriate nuclear masses. In addition, it contains a nuclear charge-symmetry breaking (CSB) term adjusted to reproduce the difference in the experimental pp and nn scattering lengths. We have used these potential terms to compute differences in the binding energies of mirror isospin-1/2 nuclei (Nolen-Schiffer [NS] anomaly). Variational Monte Carlo calculations for the {sup 3}He-{sup 3}H system and cluster variational Monte Carlo for the {sup 15}O-{sup 15}N and {sup 17}F-{sup 17}O systems were made. In the first case, the best variational wave function for the A = 3 nuclei was used. However, because our {sup 16}O wave function does not reproduce accurately the {sup 16}O rms radius, to which the NS anomaly is very sensitive, we adjusted the A = 15 and A = 17 wave functions to reproduce the experimental density profiles. Our computed energy differences for these three systems are 0.757 {plus_minus} .001, 3.544 {plus_minus} .018 and 3.458 {plus_minus} .040 MeV respectively, which are to be compared with the experimental differences of 0.764, 3.537, and 3.544 MeV. Most of the theoretical uncertainties are due to uncertainties in the experimental rms radii. The nuclear CSB potential contributes 0.066, 0.188, and 0.090 MeV to these totals. We also attempted calculations for A = 39 and A = 41. However, in these cases, the experimental uncertainties in the rms radius make it impossible to extract useful information about the contribution of the nuclear CSB potential.

  11. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  12. Pictorial review of coronary anomalies in Tetralogy of Fallot.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Sangita; Aeron, Gunjan; Vojta, Christopher N

    2015-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) classically consists of four characteristic features-right ventricular outflow obstruction, right ventricular hypertrophy, ventricular septal defect and an overriding aorta. In addition there are multiple other associated cardiac anomalies, including coronary artery anomalies. In this review, the role of CT angiography and the spectrum of coronary anomalies will be discussed along with importance of such anomalies in the context of surgery.

  13. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-01-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed. PMID:27499184

  14. Competing Orders and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-01

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation “laws” could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the ’t Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  15. Competing Orders and Anomalies.

    PubMed

    Moon, Eun-Gook

    2016-08-08

    A conservation law is one of the most fundamental properties in nature, but a certain class of conservation "laws" could be spoiled by intrinsic quantum mechanical effects, so-called quantum anomalies. Profound properties of the anomalies have deepened our understanding in quantum many body systems. Here, we investigate quantum anomaly effects in quantum phase transitions between competing orders and striking consequences of their presence. We explicitly calculate topological nature of anomalies of non-linear sigma models (NLSMs) with the Wess-Zumino-Witten (WZW) terms. The non-perturbative nature is directly related with the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition: anomalies are conserved in renormalization group flow. By applying the matching condition, we show massless excitations are enforced by the anomalies in a whole phase diagram in sharp contrast to the case of the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson theory which only has massive excitations in symmetric phases. Furthermore, we find non-perturbative criteria to characterize quantum phase transitions between competing orders. For example, in 4D, we show the two competing order parameter theories, CP(1) and the NLSM with WZW, describe different universality class. Physical realizations and experimental implication of the anomalies are also discussed.

  16. Summer Temperature Anomalies for the Northern Hemisphere, 1955-2011

    NASA Video Gallery

    This visualization shows a flat map of the Earth with summertime temperature anomalies for the Northern Hemisphere. This analysis compares observed seasonal mean temperatures (June-July-August) to ...

  17. Investigating tectonic and bathymetric features of the Indian Ocean using MAGSAT magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V.; Lazarewicz, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    An equivalent source anomaly map and a map of the relative magnetization for the investigation region were produced. Gravimetry, bathymetry, and MAGSAT anomaly maps were contoured in pseudocolor displays. Finally, an autoregressive spectrum estimation technique was verified with synthetic data and shown to be capable of resolving exponential power spectra using small samples of data. Interpretations were made regarding the relationship between MAGSAT data spectra and crustal anomaly spectra.

  18. Investigation of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies over Cyprus area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, Andreas; Akçit, Nuhcan

    2016-08-01

    The temperature of the sea surface has been identified as an important parameter of the natural environment, governing processes that occur in the upper ocean. This paper focuses on the analysis of the Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies at the greater area of Cyprus. For that, SST data derived from MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument on board both Aqua and Terra sun synchronous satellites were used. A four year period was chosen as a first approach to address and describe this phenomenon. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) has been used as an integrated platform of analysis and presentation in addition of the support of MATLAB®. The methodology consists of five steps: (i) Collection of MODIS SST imagery, (ii) Development of the digital geo-database; (iii) Model and run the methodology in GIS as a script; (iv) Calculation of SST anomalies; and (v) Visualization of the results. The SST anomaly values have presented a symmetric distribution over the study area with an increase trend through the years of analysis. The calculated monthly and annual average SST anomalies (ASST) make more obvious this trend, with negative and positive SST changes to be distributed over the study area. In terms of seasons, the same increase trend presented during spring, summer, autumn and winter with 2013 to be the year with maximum ASST observed values. Innovative aspects comprise of straightforward integration and modeling of available tools, providing a versatile platform of analysis and semi-automation of the operation. In addition, the fine resolution maps that extracted from the analysis with a wide spatial coverage, allows the detail representation of SST and ASST respectively in the region.

  19. Vascular anomalies in children.

    PubMed

    Weibel, L

    2011-11-01

    Vascular anomalies are divided in two major categories: tumours (such as infantile hemangiomas) and malformations. Hemangiomas are common benign neoplasms that undergo a proliferative phase followed by stabilization and eventual spontaneous involution, whereas vascular malformations are rare structural anomalies representing morphogenetic errors of developing blood vessels and lymphatics. It is important to properly diagnose vascular anomalies early in childhood because of their distinct differences in morbidity, prognosis and need for a multidisciplinary management. We discuss a number of characteristic clinical features as clues for early diagnosis and identification of associated syndromes.

  20. Four Decades of Hyperfine Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gustavsson, Martin G. H.; Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie

    Isotopic differences in the distribution of nuclear charge and magnetization give rise to "hyperfine structure anomalies" which were observed already in the 1950s. More recently, the distribution of nuclear magnetization has been found to complicate the interpretation of the measured hyperfine splittings in highly charged hydrogen-like ions. In this paper, results of numerical calculations for a few hydrogen-like systems (133Cs, 165Ho, 185,187Re and 209Bi) of current experimental interest are presented in terms of moments of the nuclear charge and magnetization distribution, thereby displaying directly the sensitivity and emphasizing the need for a better understanding of nuclear wavefunctions. In addition, we also present results of many-body perturbation theory calculations for Cs hyperfine anomalies, in connection with experiments planned at ISOLDE.

  1. Dual diaphragmatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Arjun; Thomas, Abin Varghese

    2016-01-01

    Although diaphragmatic anomalies such as an eventration and hiatus hernia are commonly encountered in incidental chest X-ray imaging, the presence of concomitant multiple anomalies is extremely rare. This is all the more true in adults. Herein, we present the case of a 75-year-old female, while undergoing a routine chest X-ray imaging, was found to have eventration of right hemidiaphragm along with a hiatus hernia as well. PMID:27625457

  2. Day-to-day variability of the global post-sunset equatorial ionization anomaly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coker, Clayton; Dymond, Kenneth; Budzien, Scott; Chua, Damien

    We report global observations of the daily variability of the post-sunset Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA). Multiple Tiny Ionospheric Photometer (TIP) sensors on the Constellation Ob-serving System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) constellation are used to produce high resolution maps the global pattern of the post-sunset equatorial anomaly for indi-vidual days. TIP is a compact, nadir directed, ultraviolet photometer operating at the 135.6-nm wavelength. TIP measures the horizontal structure of the ionosphere with 15-30 km resolution and high sensitivity. For the near solar minimum condition and equinox period of Septem-ber 2006, evidence of tidal influences is observed in the equatorial anomaly. The day-to-day persistence of the 4-cell pattern produced by the diurnal eastward zonal wavenumber-3 (DE3) tide is remarkable. The daily 4-cell patterns display more dramatic variation in the equatorial anomaly than indicated by earlier studies using multi-day averages. In some longitude sectors the anomaly disappears completely on some days. The crest width is also much narrower than indicated by multi-day averages of the 4-cell pattern. Additionally, daily variations in magni-tude of individual cells are observed and appear to occur on hemispheric scales, suggesting a large scale day-to-day variability in the global neutral wind pattern. Finally, the impact of this daily variability on low latitude irregularity development and scintillation is examined.

  3. Congenital basis of posterior fossa anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Cotes, Claudia; Bonfante, Eliana; Lazor, Jillian; Jadhav, Siddharth; Caldas, Maria; Swischuk, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    The classification of posterior fossa congenital anomalies has been a controversial topic. Advances in genetics and imaging have allowed a better understanding of the embryologic development of these abnormalities. A new classification schema correlates the embryologic, morphologic, and genetic bases of these anomalies in order to better distinguish and describe them. Although they provide a better understanding of the clinical aspects and genetics of these disorders, it is crucial for the radiologist to be able to diagnose the congenital posterior fossa anomalies based on their morphology, since neuroimaging is usually the initial step when these disorders are suspected. We divide the most common posterior fossa congenital anomalies into two groups: 1) hindbrain malformations, including diseases with cerebellar or vermian agenesis, aplasia or hypoplasia and cystic posterior fossa anomalies; and 2) cranial vault malformations. In addition, we will review the embryologic development of the posterior fossa and, from the perspective of embryonic development, will describe the imaging appearance of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. Knowledge of the developmental bases of these malformations facilitates detection of the morphological changes identified on imaging, allowing accurate differentiation and diagnosis of congenital posterior fossa anomalies. PMID:26246090

  4. A large-scale anomaly in Enceladus' microwave emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Paul A.; Janssen, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The Cassini spacecraft flew by Enceladus on 6 November 2011, configured to acquire synthetic aperture RADAR imaging of most of the surface with the RADAR instrument. The pass also recorded microwave thermal emission from most of the surface. We report on global patterns of thermal emission at 2.17 cm based on this data set in the context of additional unresolved data both from the ground and from Cassini. The observed thermal emission is consistent with dielectric constants of pure water or methane ice, but cannot discriminate between the two. The emissivity is similar to those of other icy satellites (≈ 0.7), consistent with volume scattering. The most intriguing result, however, is an anomaly in the thermal emission of Enceladus' leading hemisphere. Evidence presented here suggests the anomaly is buried at depths on the order of a few meters. This anomaly is located in similar geographic location to anomalies previously detected with the CIRS and ISS instruments on Mimas, Tethys, and Dione (Howett, C.J.A. et al. [2011]. Icarus 216, 221-226; Howett, C.J.A. et al. [2012]. Icarus 221, 1084-1088; Howett, C.J.A. et al. [2014]. Icarus 241, 239-247; Schenk, P. et al. [2011]. Icarus 211, 740-757), but also corresponds with a geological feature on Enceladus' leading terrain (Crow-Willard, E., Pappalardo, R.T. [2011]. Global geological mapping of Enceladus. In: EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011. p. 635). Simple models show that the Crow-Willard and Pappalardo (Crow-Willard, E., Pappalardo, R.T. [2011]. Global geological mapping of Enceladus. In: EPSC-DPS Joint Meeting 2011. p. 635) model is a better fit to the data. Our best-supported hypothesis is that the leading hemisphere smooth terrain is young enough (<75-200 Myr old) that the micrometeorite impact gardening depth is shallower than the electromagnetic skin depth of the observations (≈ 3-5 m), a picture consistent with ground and space radar measurements, which show no variation at 2 cm, but an increase in albedo in the

  5. Continental magnetic anomaly constraints on continental reconstruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies mapped by the MAGSAT satellite for North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica and adjacent marine areas were adjusted to a common elevation of 400 km and differentially reduced to the radial pole of intensity 60,000 nT. These radially polarized anomalies are normalized for differential inclination, declination and intensity effects of the geomagnetic field, so that in principle they directly reflected the geometric and magnetic polarization attributes of sources which include regional petrologic variations of the crust and upper mantle, and crustal thickness and thermal perturbations. Continental anomalies demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. Accordingly, they suggest further fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution of the continents and their reconstructions.

  6. Congenital anomalies associated with congenital hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Alembik, Y; Koehl, C

    1999-01-01

    The French national neonatal screening program for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was initiated in 1978. The purpose of this study was to ascertain the incidence of congenital extrathyroid anomalies (ETAs) among the infants with congenital hypothyroidism (CH) and to compare it with the Northeastern France Birth Defect Monitoring System data from 1979 to 1996. Among 129 CH infants on whom adequate data were available, 20 infants (15.5%) had associated congenital anomalies. Eight out of 76 infants with persistent CH had ETAs (10.5%) whereas 12 out of 53 children with transient hypothyroidism had ETAs (22.6%, p < 0.05). Some additional anomalies were considerably more common than in the general population. Nine infants had congenital cardiac anomalies (6.9%). This rises the question if teratogenic effects active during organogenesis may affect simultaneously many organs, including the developing thyroid, causing a relatively high percentage of CH infants with congenital ETAs.

  7. A priori performance prediction in pharmaceutical wet granulation: testing the applicability of the nucleation regime map to a formulation with a broad size distribution and dry binder addition.

    PubMed

    Kayrak-Talay, Defne; Litster, James D

    2011-10-14

    In this study, Hapgood's nucleation regime map (Hapgood et al., 2003) was tested for a formulation that consists of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) of broad size distribution and a fine dry binder. Gabapentin was used as the API and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) as the dry binder with deionized water as the liquid binder. The formulation was granulated in a 6l Diosna high shear granulator. The effect of liquid addition method (spray, dripping), liquid addition rate (29-245 g/min), total liquid content (2, 4 and 10%), and impeller speed (250 and 500 rpm) on the granule size distribution and lump formation were investigated. Standard methods were successfully used to characterize the process parameters (spray drop size, spray geometry and powder surface velocity) for calculating the dimensionless spray flux. However, the addition of dry binder had a very strong effect on drop penetration time that could not be predicted from simple capillary flow considerations. This is most likely due to preferential liquid penetration into the fine pores related to the dry binder particles and subsequent partial softening and dissolution of the binder. For systems containing a dry binder or other amorphous powders, it is recommended that drop penetration time be measured directly for the blended formulation and then scaled to the drop size during spraying. Using these approaches to characterize the key dimensionless groups (dimensionless spray flux and drop penetration time), Hapgood's nucleation regime map was successfully used to predict a priori the effect of process conditions on the quality of the granule size distribution as measured by lump formation and the span of the size distribution, both before and after wet massing for range of conditions studied. Wider granule size distributions and higher amount of lumps were obtained moving from intermediate to mechanical dispersion regime. Addition of the liquid in the dripping mode gave the broadest size distribution

  8. Aeromagnetic map and selected aeroradiometric data for the Ellicott Rock Wilderness and additions, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luce, Robert W.; Daniels, David L.

    1985-01-01

    The aeromagnetic and aeroradiometric data presented herin for the Ellicott Rock Wilderness and additions are taken from an airborne survey that covered a larger area in Georgia, North Carolina and South Carolina, and that was flown in December 1980 and January 1981 under contract to the U.S. Geological Survey. The flight lines were oriented northwest-southeast, approximately perpendicular to the general strike of the geology, at 0.5-mi (0.8-km) separation and at a nominal altitude of 500 ft (150 m) above mean terrain. A small amount of areomagnetic data from previous survey (Riggle and others, 1980) along the southeast edge of the study area is based on east-west flight lines spaced 1 mi (1.6 km) apart. Because of the rugged topography in the region, holding the airplane at a constant elevation abive the terrain was not possible. Actual ground clearance over short distances ranged between about 200 and 1200 ft. The International Geomagnetic Reference Field (IGRF) has been removed from the magnetic data (Barraclough and Fabiano, 1975) and 5000 gammas were added to make all values positive. 

  9. QTL mapping for growth and carcass traits in an Iberian by Landrace pig intercross: additive, dominant and epistatic effects.

    PubMed

    Varona, L; Ovilo, C; Clop, A; Noguera, J L; Pérez-Enciso, M; Coll, A; Folch, J M; Barragán, C; Toro, M A; Babot, D; Sánchez, A

    2002-10-01

    Results from a QTL experiment on growth and carcass traits in an experimental F2 cross between Iberian and Landrace pigs are reported. Phenotypic data for growth, length of carcass and muscle mass, fat deposition and carcass composition traits from 321 individuals corresponding to 58 families were recorded. Animals were genotyped for 92 markers covering the 18 porcine autosomes (SSC). The results from the genomic scan show genomewide significant QTL in SSC2 (longissimus muscle area and backfat thickness), SSC4 (length of carcass, backfat thickness, loin, shoulder and belly bacon weights) and SSC6 (longissimus muscle area, backfat thickness, loin, shoulder and belly bacon weights). Suggestive QTL were also found on SSC1, SSC5, SSC7, SSC8, SSC9, SSC13, SCC14, SSC16 and SSC17. A bidimensional genomic scan every 10 cM was performed to detect interaction between QTL. The joint action of two suggestive QTL in SSC2 and SSC17 led to a genome-wide significant effect in live weight. The results of the bidimensional genomic scan showed that the genetic architecture was mainly additive or the experimental set-up did not have enough power to detect epistatic interactions.

  10. Spontaneous Potential Anomalies on Active Volcanoes: New Time and Spatial Series from Masaya, Telica, and Cerro Negro, Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehto, H.; Pearson, S.; Connor, C.; Sanford, W.; Saballos, A.

    2006-12-01

    Considerable effort worldwide has gone into monitoring heat and mass transfer at active volcanoes because such information may provide clues about changes in volcanic activity and impending eruptions. Here we present new time and spatial series of spontaneous potential (SP) anomalies from Masaya and Telica volcanoes, and spatial series collected at Cerro Negro volcano. Our primary purpose is to investigate correlations between more easily and cheaply monitored SP and CO2 gas flux, measured by an infrared CO2 analysis system. SP data were collected using nonpolarizing Pb-PbCL2 electrodes that we constructed following the approach of Petiau. Mapping at both Masaya, and Cerro Negro reveals broad correlations between SP anomalies and CO2 flux through soils. In addition, we monitored temperature, barometric pressure, and rainfall at one minute intervals from May-August, 2006 at Masaya and Telica volcanoes. During this period it is clear that SP responds to changes in volcanic activity, with transient anomalies of 75 mV as well as atmospheric forcing due to rainfall, producing anomalies of 56 mV and related phenomena. Preliminary lab experiments provide further details of the electrokinetic origin of these SP anomalies. Our preliminary work supports the idea that large and inexpensive networks of electrodes might track changes in SP anomalies associated with changes in mass flow at active volcanoes.

  11. Lunar magnetic anomalies detected by the Apollo substatellite magnetometers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hood, L.L.; Coleman, P.J.; Russell, C.T.; Wilhelms, D.E.

    1979-01-01

    Properties of lunar crustal magnetization thus far deduced from Apollo subsatellite magnetometer data are reviewed using two of the most accurate presently available magnetic anomaly maps - one covering a portion of the lunar near side and the other a part of the far side. The largest single anomaly found within the region of coverage on the near-side map correlates exactly with a conspicuous, light-colored marking in western Oceanus Procellarum called Reiner Gamma. This feature is interpreted as an unusual deposit of ejecta from secondary craters of the large nearby primary impact crater Cavalerius. An age for Cavalerius (and, by implication, for Reiner Gamma) of 3.2 ?? 0.2 ?? 109 y is estimated. The main (30 ?? 60 km) Reiner Gamma deposit is nearly uniformly magnetized in a single direction, with a minimum mean magnetization intensity of ???7 ?? 10-2 G cm3/g (assuming a density of 3 g/cm3), or about 700 times the stable magnetization component of the most magnetic returned samples. Additional medium-amplitude anomalies exist over the Fra Mauro Formation (Imbrium basin ejecta emplaced ???3.9 ?? 109 y ago) where it has not been flooded by mare basalt flows, but are nearly absent over the maria and over the craters Copernicus, Kepler, and Reiner and their encircling ejecta mantles. The mean altitude of the far-side anomaly gap is much higher than that of the near-side map and the surface geology is more complex, so individual anomaly sources have not yet been identified. However, it is clear that a concentration of especially strong sources exists in the vicinity of the craters Van de Graaff and Aitken. Numerical modeling of the associated fields reveals that the source locations do not correspond with the larger primary impact craters of the region and, by analogy with Reiner Gamma, may be less conspicuous secondary crater ejecta deposits. The reason for a special concentration of strong sources in the Van de Graaff-Aitken region is unknown, but may be indirectly

  12. Astrometric solar system anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Nieto, Michael Martin; Anderson, John D

    2009-01-01

    There are at least four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it often experiences a change in total orbital energy per unit mass. next, a secular change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm yr{sup -1}. The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions. Some astronomers and physicists are convinced this effect is of concern, but many others are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported unexplained increase that is significant at the three-sigma level. It is produent to suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations, or that one or more anomalies are a result of systematic error. Yet they might eventually be explained by new physics. For example, a slightly modified theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation for the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  13. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection in Urban Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rejas Ayuga, J. G.; Martínez Marín, R.; Marchamalo Sacristán, M.; Bonatti, J.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    We have studied the spectral features of reflectance and emissivity in the pattern recognition of urban materials in several single hyperspectral scenes through a comparative analysis of anomaly detection methods and their relationship with city surfaces with the aim to improve information extraction processes. Spectral ranges of the visible-near infrared (VNIR), shortwave infrared (SWIR) and thermal infrared (TIR) from hyperspectral data cubes of AHS sensor and HyMAP and MASTER of two cities, Alcalá de Henares (Spain) and San José (Costa Rica) respectively, have been used. In this research it is assumed no prior knowledge of the targets, thus, the pixels are automatically separated according to their spectral information, significantly differentiated with respect to a background, either globally for the full scene, or locally by image segmentation. Several experiments on urban scenarios and semi-urban have been designed, analyzing the behaviour of the standard RX anomaly detector and different methods based on subspace, image projection and segmentation-based anomaly detection methods. A new technique for anomaly detection in hyperspectral data called DATB (Detector of Anomalies from Thermal Background) based on dimensionality reduction by projecting targets with unknown spectral signatures to a background calculated from thermal spectrum wavelengths is presented. First results and their consequences in non-supervised classification and extraction information processes are discussed.

  14. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Korte, Monika

    2016-07-01

    Maps of both gravity and magnetic field anomalies offer crucial information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, required in understanding geological settings and tectonic structures. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Two regions are considered: southern Africa (encompassing South Africa, Namibia and Botswana) and Germany. This twofold choice is motivated firstly by the fact that these regions represent rather diverse geological and geophysical conditions (old Archean crust with strong magnetic anomalies in southern Africa, and much younger, weakly magnetized crust in central Europe) and secondly by our intimate knowledge of the magnetic vector ground data from these two regions. We take also advantage of the recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of some 200 km resolution. Comparing short and long wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement over the southern African region than the German territory. This probably indicates a stronger concordance between near-surface and deeper structures in the former area, which can be perceived to agree with a thicker lithosphere.

  15. Magnetic Anomalies Within Lunar Impact Basins: Constraints on the History of the Lunar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.

    2011-12-01

    Previous work has shown that lunar crustal magnetization has a combination of origins including shock remanent magnetization in transient magnetic fields and thermoremanent magnetization in a steady core dynamo magnetic field (e.g., Hood and Artemieva, Icarus, 2008; Richmond and Hood, JGR, 2008; Garrick-Bethell et al., Science, 2009; Hood, Icarus, 2011). In particular, magnetic anomalies within the interiors of lunar impact basins and large craters provide a potentially valuable means of constraining the history of the former dynamo (Halekas et al., MAPS, 2003; Hood, 2011). These anomalies likely have a thermoremanent origin owing to high subsurface temperatures reached at the time of impact and therefore require a long-lived, steady magnetic field to explain their magnetization. Central anomalies have previously been confirmed to be present using Lunar Prospector magnetometer (LP MAG) data within several Nectarian-aged basins (Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Crisium, and Humboldtianum), implying that a dynamo existed during this lunar epoch (Hood, 2011). Here, we further analyze low altitude LP MAG data for several additional basins, ranging in age from Nectarian to Imbrian. Results indicate that magnetic anomalies with a probable basin-related origin are present within at least two additional Nectarian-aged basins (Serenitatis and Humorum) and one Imbrian-aged basin (Schrodinger). No discernible anomalies are present within the largest Imbrian-aged basins, Imbrium and Orientale. While there is uncertainty regarding the age of the Schrodinger basin, it has been reported to be slightly more recent than Imbrium (Wilhelms, 1984). Our initial interpretation is therefore that a dynamo likely existed during the Imbrian epoch. The absence of anomalies within Imbrium and Orientale can be explained by insufficient conditions for acquisition of strong magnetization (e.g., inadequate concentrations of efficient remanence carriers) following these relatively large impacts.

  16. [Rare renal anomalies in childhood].

    PubMed

    Arambasić, Jadranka; Puseljić, Silvija; Angebrandt, Snjezana; Puseljić, Ivo

    2003-01-01

    Three patients with megacalycosis, a rare ren anomaly which includes dilatation of all ren calices, are presented. The symptoms of acute uroinfection were present in all three patients. The patients underwent clinical observation, laboratory testing, and renal ultrasound. Ultrasound revealed unilateral hydronephrosis in all three patients. Additional examinations included static and dynamic renal scintigraphy, voiding cystourethrography, and intravenous urography which pointed to unilateral megacalycosis. The symptoms of acute uroinfection were probably triggered by urinary stasis in dilated calices. Surgical intervention is not indicated in megacalycosis. The increasing incidence of uroinfection, urolithiasis and hematuria imposed the need of continuous follow-up in these patients.

  17. Large-Angle Anomalies in the CMB

    DOE PAGES

    Copi, Craig J.; Huterer, Dragan; Schwarz, Dominik J.; ...

    2010-01-01

    We review the recently found large-scale anomalies in the maps of temperature anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. These include alignments of the largest modes of CMB anisotropy with each other and with geometry and direction of motion of the solar ssystem, and the unusually low power at these largest scales. We discuss these findings in relation to expectation from standard inflationary cosmology, their statistical significance, the tools to study them, and the various attempts to explain them.

  18. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Progress in the correlation of MAGSAT anomaly maps with geological and geophysical data sets is reported. An excerpt from Bouguer gravity map of the U.S. was filtered to retain wavelengths of 250 km, thus being physically somewhat analogous to MAGSAT data at 400 km height. Residual anomalies were extracted to compare with the satellite magnetics.

  19. Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    Progress has been made using both EUVE (Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer) and ASCA (Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics) data and a new postdoctoral scientist has now been hired. Stars studied to date include YY Gem (dMe binary), xi Boo A (intermediate activity G8 V), xi UMa (more active G quadruple system) HR1099 (K1 IV + G5 V) RS CVn-like, AU Mic (dMe). In addition to a paper that concentrated on abundancies in HR1099, a paper was recently submitted on the coronal abundances of AR(tilde)Lac that revealed an interesting pattern of overabundances of very low FIP elements (Al and Ca) compared to the low FIP elements Si, Mg and Fe. Two papers are nearing completion on methods of analysis and on the abundances in the corona of AU(tilde)Mic. Additionally, two invited conference proceedings papers are being published on this work. The main conclusion of the study to date is that our existing ideas of coronal abundance anomalies need complete revision. The solar-like FIP effect is replaced by a pattern than appears to enhance high FIP elements rather than low FIP elements in very active stars. The archival studies we are undertaking now are revealing some key details of these patterns, and are beginning to map out the anomalies as a function of spectral type, a key goal of this study.

  20. Cross-linguistic variation in the neurophysiological response to semantic processing: evidence from anomalies at the borderline of awareness.

    PubMed

    Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L; Sanford, Anthony J; Bohan, Jason; Sassenhagen, Jona; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-04-01

    The N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) has played a major role in the examination of how the human brain processes meaning. For current theories of the N400, classes of semantic inconsistencies which do not elicit N400 effects have proven particularly influential. Semantic anomalies that are difficult to detect are a case in point ("borderline anomalies", e.g. "After an air crash, where should the survivors be buried?"), engendering a late positive ERP response but no N400 effect in English (Sanford, Leuthold, Bohan, & Sanford, 2011). In three auditory ERP experiments, we demonstrate that this result is subject to cross-linguistic variation. In a German version of Sanford and colleagues' experiment (Experiment 1), detected borderline anomalies elicited both N400 and late positivity effects compared to control stimuli or to missed borderline anomalies. Classic easy-to-detect semantic (non-borderline) anomalies showed the same pattern as in English (N400 plus late positivity). The cross-linguistic difference in the response to borderline anomalies was replicated in two additional studies with a slightly modified task (Experiment 2a: German; Experiment 2b: English), with a reliable LANGUAGE×ANOMALY interaction for the borderline anomalies confirming that the N400 effect is subject to systematic cross-linguistic variation. We argue that this variation results from differences in the language-specific default weighting of top-down and bottom-up information, concluding that N400 amplitude reflects the interaction between the two information sources in the form-to-meaning mapping.

  1. Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albouy, J.; Godivier, R. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Gravimetric maps of the Central African Republic are described including a map of Bouguer anomalies at 1/1,000,000 in two sections (eastern sheet, western sheet) and a map, in color, of Bouguer anomalies at 1/2,000,000. Instrumentation, data acquisition, calibration, and data correction procedures are discussed.

  2. Whole exome sequence analysis of Peters anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Weh, Eric; Reis, Linda M.; Happ, Hannah C.; Levin, Alex V.; Wheeler, Patricia G.; David, Karen L.; Carney, Erin; Angle, Brad; Hauser, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Peters anomaly is a rare form of anterior segment ocular dysgenesis, which can also be associated with additional systemic defects. At this time, the majority of cases of Peters anomaly lack a genetic diagnosis. We performed whole exome sequencing of 27 patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly to search for pathogenic mutations in currently known ocular genes. Among the eight previously recognized Peters anomaly genes, we identified a de novo missense mutation in PAX6, c.155G>A, p.(Cys52Tyr), in one patient. Analysis of 691 additional genes currently associated with a different ocular phenotype identified a heterozygous splicing mutation c.1025+2T>A in TFAP2A, a de novo heterozygous nonsense mutation c.715C>T, p.(Gln239*) in HCCS, a hemizygous mutation c.385G>A, p.(Glu129Lys) in NDP, a hemizygous mutation c.3446C>T, p.(Pro1149Leu) in FLNA, and compound heterozygous mutations c.1422T>A, p.(Tyr474*) and c.2544G>A, p.(Met848Ile) in SLC4A11; all mutations, except for the FLNA and SLC4A11 c.2544G>A alleles, are novel. This is the frst study to use whole exome sequencing to discern the genetic etiology of a large cohort of patients with syndromic or isolated Peters anomaly. We report five new genes associated with this condition and suggest screening of TFAP2A and FLNA in patients with Peters anomaly and relevant syndromic features and HCCS, NDP and SLC4A11 in patients with isolated Peters anomaly. PMID:25182519

  3. Study of gravity and magnetic anomalies using MAGSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The results of modeling satellite-elevation magnetic and gravity data using the constraints imposed by near surface data and seismic evidence shows that the magnetic minimum can be accounted for by either an intracrustal lithologic variation or by an upwarp of the Curie point isotherm. The long wavelength anomalies of the NOO's-vector magnetic survey of the conterminous U.S. were contoured and processed by various frequency filters to enhance particular characteristics. A preliminary inversion of the data was completed and the anomaly field calculated at 450 km from the equivalent magnet sources to compare with the POGO satellite data. Considerable progress was made in studing the satellite magnetic data of South America and adjacent marine areas. Preliminary versions of the 1 deg free-air gravity anomaly map (20 m gal contour interval) and the high cut (lambda approximately 8 deg) filtered anomaly maps are included.

  4. Spherical harmonic expansions of the Earth's gravitational potential to degree 360 using 30' mean anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, Richard H.; Cruz, Jaime Y.

    1986-01-01

    Two potential coefficient fields that are complete to degree and order 360 have been computed. One field (OSU86E) excludes geophysically predicted anomalies while the other (OSU86F) includes such anomalies. These fields were computed using a set of 30' mean gravity anomalies derived from satellite altimetry in the ocean areas and from land measurements in North America, Europe, Australia, Japan and a few other areas. Where no 30' data existed, 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomaly estimates were used if available. No rigorous combination of satellite and terrestrial data was carried out. Instead advantage was taken of the adjusted anomalies and potential coefficients from a rigorous combination of the GEML2' potential coefficient set and 1 deg x 1 deg mean gravity anomalies. The two new fields were computed using a quadrature procedure with de-smoothing factors. The spectra of the new fields agree well with the spectra of the fields with 1 deg x 1 deg data out to degree 180. Above degree 180 the new fields have more power. The fields have been tested through comparison of Doppler station geoid undulations with undulations from various geopotential models. The agreement between the two types of undulations is approximately + or - 1.6 m. The use of a 360 field over a 180 field does not significantly improve the comparison. Instead it allows the comparison to be done at some stations where high frequency effects are important. In addition maps made in areas of high frequency information (such as trench areas) clearly reveal the signal in the new fields from degree 181 to 360.

  5. A major geothermal anomaly in the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawver, L.A.; Williams, D.L.; Von Herzen, R. P.

    1975-01-01

    We have mapped a 3-km wide, high heat flow anomaly with a maximum value of 30 ??calorie cm -2 s-1 within a zone of seafloor extension in the central Gulf of California. From seismic reflection data and thermal modelling we suggest that the anomaly is caused by a 1-km wide basaltic intrusion which is roughly 100 m deep and less than 18,000 yr old. ?? 1975 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Absolute Positioning Using The Earth’s Magnetic Anomaly Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    systems do not have. Furthermore, the magnetic anomaly signal is available at all times of the day and under all weather conditions. The general...space weather effects, most magnetic surveys take steps to avoid man- made sources corrupting the measurements, and temporal variations are recorded at a...temporal variations caused by space and ionospheric weather conditions. From 54 Figure 27. World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map [43] 55 a practical standpoint

  7. Hawking radiation and covariant anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Rabin; Kulkarni, Shailesh

    2008-01-15

    Generalizing the method of Wilczek and collaborators we provide a derivation of Hawking radiation from charged black holes using only covariant gauge and gravitational anomalies. The reliability and universality of the anomaly cancellation approach to Hawking radiation is also discussed.

  8. Creating chiral anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradlyn, Barry; Cano, Jennifer; Wang, Zhijun; Hirschberger, Max; Ong, N. Phuan; Bernevig, B. Andrei

    Materials with intrinsic Weyl points should present exotic magnetotransport phenomena due to spectral flow between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality - the so-called ``chiral anomaly''. However, to date, the most definitive transport data showing the presence of a chiral anomaly comes from Dirac (not Weyl) materials. These semimetals develop Weyl fermions only in the presence of an externally applied magnetic field, when the four-fold degeneracy is lifted. In this talk we examine Berry phase effects on transport due to the emergence of these field-induced Weyl point and (in some cases) line nodes. We pay particular attention to the differences between intrinsic and field-induced Weyl fermions, from the point of view of kinetic theory. Finally, we apply our analysis to a particular material relevant to current experiments performed at Princeton.

  9. Spectral Methods for Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, R. L.; Gee, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Spectral methods, that is, those based in the Fourier transform, have long been employed in the analysis of magnetic anomalies. For example, Schouten and MaCamy's Earth filter is used extensively to map patterns to the pole, and Parker's Fourier transform series facilitates forward modeling and provides an efficient algorithm for inversion of profiles and surveys. From a different, and perhaps less familiar perspective, magnetic anomalies can be represented as the realization of a stationary stochastic process and then statistical theory can be brought to bear. It is vital to incorporate the full 2-D power spectrum, even when discussing profile data. For example, early analysis of long profiles failed to discover the small-wavenumber peak in the power spectrum predicted by one-dimensional theory. The long-wavelength excess is the result of spatial aliasing, when energy leaks into the along-track spectrum from the cross-track components of the 2-D spectrum. Spectral techniques may be used to improve interpolation and downward continuation of survey data. They can also evaluate the reliability of sub-track magnetization models both across and and along strike. Along-strike profiles turn out to be surprisingly good indicators of the magnetization directly under them; there is high coherence between the magnetic anomaly and the magnetization over a wide band. In contrast, coherence is weak at long wavelengths on across-strike lines, which is naturally the favored orientation for most studies. When vector (or multiple level) measurements are available, cross-spectral analysis can reveal the wavenumber interval where the geophysical signal resides, and where noise dominates. One powerful diagnostic is that the phase spectrum between the vertical and along-path components of the field must be constant 90 degrees. To illustrate, it was found that on some very long Project Magnetic lines, only the lowest 10% of the wavenumber band contain useful geophysical signal. In this

  10. Pathogenesis of Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Boon, Laurence M.; Ballieux, Fanny; Vikkula, Miikka

    2010-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are localized defects of vascular development. Most of them occur sporadically, i.e. there is no familial history of lesions, yet in a few cases clear inheritance is observed. These inherited forms are often characterized by multifocal lesions that are mainly small in size and increase in number with patient’s age. On the basis of these inherited forms, molecular genetic studies have unraveled a number of inherited mutations giving direct insight into the pathophysiological cause and the molecular pathways that are implicated. Genetic defects have been identified for hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT), inherited cutaneomucosal venous malformation (VMCM), glomuvenous malformation (GVM), capillary malformation - arteriovenous malformation (CM-AVM), cerebral cavernous malformation (CCM) and some isolated and syndromic forms of primary lymphedema. We focus on these disorders, the implicated mutated genes and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. We also call attention to the concept of Knudson’s double-hit mechanism to explain incomplete penetrance and the large clinical variation in expressivity of inherited vascular anomalies. This variability renders the making of correct diagnosis of the rare inherited forms difficult. Yet, the identification of the pathophysiological causes and pathways involved in them has had an unprecedented impact on our thinking of their etiopathogenesis, and has opened the doors towards a more refined classification of vascular anomalies. It has also made it possible to develop animal models that can be tested for specific molecular therapies, aimed at alleviating the dysfunctions caused by the aberrant genes and proteins. PMID:21095468

  11. Z_{2} and Chiral Anomalies in Topological Dirac Semimetals.

    PubMed

    Burkov, Anton A; Kim, Yong Baek

    2016-09-23

    We demonstrate that topological Dirac semimetals, which possess two Dirac nodes, separated in momentum space along a rotation axis and protected by rotational symmetry, exhibit an additional quantum anomaly, distinct from the chiral anomaly. This anomaly, which we call the Z_{2} anomaly, is a consequence of the fact that the Dirac nodes in topological Dirac semimetals carry a Z_{2} topological charge. The Z_{2} anomaly refers to nonconservation of this charge in the presence of external fields due to quantum effects and has observable consequences due to its interplay with the chiral anomaly. We discuss possible implications of this for the interpretation of magnetotransport experiments on topological Dirac semimetals. We also provide a possible explanation for the magnetic field dependent angular narrowing of the negative longitudinal magnetoresistance, observed in a recent experiment on Na_{3}Bi.

  12. An isolated single L-II type coronary artery anomaly: A rare coronary anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Ermis, Emrah; Demirelli, Selami; Korkmaz, Ali Fuat; Sahin, Bingul Dilekci; Kantarci, Abdulmecit

    2015-01-01

    Summary The incidence of congenital artery anomalies is 0.2–1.4%, and most are benign. Single coronary artery (SCA) anomalies are very rare. The right coronary artery (RCA) originating from the left coronary system is one such SCA anomaly, and the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) increases if it courses between the pulmonary artery and aorta and coexists with other congenital heart diseases. Additionally, coursing of the RCA between the great vessels increases the risk of atherosclerosis. We herein present the case of a 57 year-old man who was admitted to our cardiology outpatient clinic and diagnosed with an SCA anomaly in which the RCA arose from the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and coursed between the pulmonary artery and aorta. However a critical stenosis was not detected in imaging techniques, and myocardial perfusion scintigraphic evidence of ischaemia was found in a small area. Therefore, he was managed with conservative medical therapy. PMID:26668781

  13. A microdeletion encompassing PHF21A in an individual with global developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Jonathan D J; Vogt, Julie; Reali, Lisa; Kong, Il-Keun; Layman, Lawrence C; Kim, Hyung-Goo

    2015-12-01

    In Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS), the full phenotypic spectrum is manifested when deletions are at least 2.1 Mb in size at 11p11.2. The PSS-associated genes EXT2 and ALX4, together with PHF21A, all map to this region flanked by markers D11S1393 and D11S1319. Being proximal to EXT2 and ALX4, a 1.1 Mb region containing 12 annotated genes had been identified by deletion mapping to explain PSS phenotypes except multiple exostoses and parietal foramina. Here, we report a male patient with partial PSS phenotypes including global developmental delay, craniofacial anomalies, minor limb anomalies, and micropenis. Using microarray, qPCR, RT-qPCR, and Western blot analyses, we refined the candidate gene region, which harbors five genes, by excluding two genes, SLC35C1 and CRY2, which resulted in a corroborating role of PHF21A in developmental delay and craniofacial anomalies. This microdeletion contains the least number of genes at 11p11.2 reported to date. Additionally, we also discuss the phenotypes observed in our patient with respect to those of published cases of microdeletions across the Potocki-Shaffer interval.

  14. A High-Order Statistical Tensor Based Algorithm for Anomaly Detection in Hyperspectral Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiurui; Sun, Kang; Ji, Luyan; Zhao, Yongchao

    2014-01-01

    Recently, high-order statistics have received more and more interest in the field of hyperspectral anomaly detection. However, most of the existing high-order statistics based anomaly detection methods require stepwise iterations since they are the direct applications of blind source separation. Moreover, these methods usually produce multiple detection maps rather than a single anomaly distribution image. In this study, we exploit the concept of coskewness tensor and propose a new anomaly detection method, which is called COSD (coskewness detector). COSD does not need iteration and can produce single detection map. The experiments based on both simulated and real hyperspectral data sets verify the effectiveness of our algorithm. PMID:25366706

  15. Cross-linguistic variation in the neurophysiological response to semantic processing: Evidence from anomalies at the borderline of awareness

    PubMed Central

    Tune, Sarah; Schlesewsky, Matthias; Small, Steven L.; Sanford, Anthony J.; Bohan, Jason; Sassenhagen, Jona; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina

    2014-01-01

    The N400 event-related brain potential (ERP) has played a major role in the examination of how the human brain processes meaning. For current theories of the N400, classes of semantic inconsistencies which do not elicit N400 effects have proven particularly influential. Semantic anomalies that are difficult to detect are a case in point (“borderline anomalies”, e.g. “After an air crash, where should the survivors be buried?”), engendering a late positive ERP response but no N400 effect in English (Sanford, Leuthold, Bohan, & Sanford, 2011). In three auditory ERP experiments, we demonstrate that this result is subject to cross-linguistic variation. In a German version of Sanford and colleagues' experiment (Experiment 1), detected borderline anomalies elicited both N400 and late positivity effects compared to control stimuli or to missed borderline anomalies. Classic easy-to-detect semantic (non-borderline) anomalies showed the same pattern as in English (N400 plus late positivity). The cross-linguistic difference in the response to borderline anomalies was replicated in two additional studies with a slightly modified task (Experiment 2a: German; Experiment 2b: English), with a reliable LANGUAGE × ANOMALY interaction for the borderline anomalies confirming that the N400 effect is subject to systematic cross-linguistic variation. We argue that this variation results from differences in the language-specific default weighting of top-down and bottom-up information, concluding that N400 amplitude reflects the interaction between the two information sources in the form-to-meaning mapping. PMID:24447768

  16. Congenital anomalies surveillance in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lowry, R Brian

    2008-01-01

    Congenital anomalies (CA) are present in approximately 3% of all newborn babies and account for about 12% of paediatric hospital admissions. They represent an important public health problem. Surveillance is especially important so that preventive measures such as folic acid fortification can be properly assessed without resorting to a series of ad hoc studies. Canada's surveillance of CAs is weak, with only Alberta and British Columbia having established sytems. Most provinces have perinatal systems but their CA data are incomplete and they do not capture terminations of pregnancy. The same is true of the Public Health Agency of Canada's system. A new system, the Fetal Alert Network, has been proposed for Ontario, which represents a start but will require additional sources of ascertainment if it is to be a truly population-based system for Ontario.

  17. Physicochemical isotope anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Esat, T.M.

    1988-06-01

    Isotopic composition of refractory elements can be modified, by physical processes such as distillation and sputtering, in unexpected patterns. Distillation enriches the heavy isotopes in the residue and the light isotopes in the vapor. However, current models appear to be inadequate to describe the detailed mass dependence, in particular for large fractionations. Coarse- and fine-grained inclusions from the Allende meteorite exhibit correlated isotope effects in Mg both as mass-dependent fractionation and residual anomalies. This isotope pattern can be duplicated by high temperature distillation in the laboratory. A ubiquitous property of meteoritic inclusions for Mg as well as for most of the other elements, where measurements exist, is mass-dependent fractionation. In contrast, terrestrial materials such as microtektites, tektite buttons as well as lunar orange and green glass spheres have normal Mg isotopic composition. A subset of interplanetary dust particles labelled as chondritic aggregates exhibit excesses in {sup 26}Mg and deuterium anomalies. Sputtering is expected to be a dominant mechanism in the destruction of grains within interstellar dust clouds. An active proto-sun as well as the present solar-wind and solar-flare flux are of sufficient intensity to sputter significant amounts of material. Laboratory experiments in Mg show widespread isotope effects including residual {sup 26}Mg excesses and mass dependent fractionation. It is possible that the {sup 26}Mg excesses in interplanetary dust is related to sputtering by energetic solar-wind particles. The implication if the laboratory distillation and sputtering effects are discussed and contrasted with the anomalies in meteoritic inclusions the other extraterrestrial materials the authors have access to.

  18. Detecting Patterns of Anomalies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    ct)P (bt|ct) , where A,B and C are mutually exclusive subsets of attributes with at most k elements . This ratio is similar to the previous formula , but...AND SUBTITLE Detecting Patterns of Anomalies 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...to be dependent if, µ(A,B) ≥ βµ (2.1) where, βµ is a threshold parameter, set to a low value of 0.1 ( empirically ) in our experi- ments. Thus, for a

  19. The Origin of the Rodrigues Depth Anomaly: New constraints from integrated gravity inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minakov, Alexander; Gaina, Carmen; Faleide, Jan Inge

    2016-04-01

    This study is focused on the Western Indian Ocean including the Central Indian Ridge. The Rodrigues Ridge is a bathymetric feature (500 km -long and 20 km -wide) situated east of the Mascarene Plateau and Mauritius, with an oblique trend with respect to the underlying seafloor spreading fabric. The trend is also different from the fracture zone and hotspot tracks in this area. The region where the Rodrigues Ridge intersects the Central Indian Ridge is characterized by broad area being shallower than it should be according to standard age-depth relations for oceanic basement. With this contribution we aim to determine key factors controlling the formation of the Rodrigues Ridge and the development of the depth anomaly through time. In order to better constrain the nature and extent of the depth anomaly underlying the Rodrigues Ridge and surrounding region, we have carried out a 3D gravity and bathymetry data analysis. This analysis included an iterative gravity inversion approach linked to the computation of residual topography through the temperature and density model of the crust and upper mantle. We use a refined plate kinematic model of the study area for the time period ca. 30 Ma to the present. The refined kinematic model is an important element for temperature modelling at the ridge-transform intersection. Existing seismological data provide additional constraints for the gravity inversion. The results of the 3D gravity and bathymetry data analysis support the model of enhanced production of crust at the Central Indian Ridge adjacent to the Rodrigues Ridge. The depth anomaly is composed of abrupt Rodrigues Ridge edifice sitting on top a relatively smooth and broad anomaly characterized by crustal thickness between 8 and 13 km. These values are significantly higher than those typical for the crustal thickness generated by slow seafloor spreading at the Central Indian Ridge and other slow spreading ridges. This gives rise to a large negative residual mantle

  20. Satellite magnetic anomalies over subduction zones - The Aleutian Arc anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S. C.; Frey, H.; Thomas, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Positive magnetic anomalies seen in MAGSAT average scalar anomaly data overlying some subduction zones can be explained in terms of the magnetization contrast between the cold subducted oceanic slab and the surrounding hotter, nonmagnetic mantle. Three-dimensional modeling studies show that peak anomaly amplitude and location depend on slab length and dip. A model for the Aleutian Arc anomaly matches the general trend of the observed MAGSAT anomaly if a slab thickness of 7 km and a relatively high (induced plus viscous) magnetization contrast of 4 A/m are used. A second source body along the present day continental margin is required to match the observed anomaly in detail, and may be modeled as a relic slab from subduction prior to 60 m.y. ago.

  1. Einstein, Entropy and Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirtes, Daniel; Oberheim, Eric

    2006-11-01

    This paper strengthens and defends the pluralistic implications of Einstein's successful, quantitative predictions of Brownian motion for a philosophical dispute about the nature of scientific advance that began between two prominent philosophers of science in the second half of the twentieth century (Thomas Kuhn and Paul Feyerabend). Kuhn promoted a monistic phase-model of scientific advance, according to which a paradigm driven `normal science' gives rise to its own anomalies, which then lead to a crisis and eventually a scientific revolution. Feyerabend stressed the importance of pluralism for scientific progress. He rejected Kuhn's model arguing that it fails to recognize the role that alternative theories can play in identifying exactly which phenomena are anomalous in the first place. On Feyerabend's account, Einstein's predictions allow for a crucial experiment between two incommensurable theories, and are an example of an anomaly that could refute the reigning paradigm only after the development of a competitor. Using Kuhn's specification of a disciplinary matrix to illustrate the incommensurability between the two paradigms, we examine the different research strategies available in this peculiar case. On the basis of our reconstruction, we conclude by rebutting some critics of Feyerabend's argument.

  2. The XXXXY Chromosome Anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Zaleski, Witold A.; Houston, C. Stuart; Pozsonyi, J.; Ying, K. L.

    1966-01-01

    The majority of abnormal sex chromosome complexes in the male have been considered to be variants of Klinefelter's syndrome but an exception should probably be made in the case of the XXXXY individual who has distinctive phenotypic features. Clinical, radiological and cytological data on three new cases of XXXXY syndrome are presented and 30 cases from the literature are reviewed. In many cases the published clinical and radiological data were supplemented and re-evaluated. Mental retardation, usually severe, was present in all cases. Typical facies was observed in many; clinodactyly of the fifth finger was seen in nearly all. Radiological examination revealed abnormalities in the elbows and wrists in all the 19 personally evaluated cases, and other skeletal anomalies were very frequent. Cryptorchism is very common and absence of Leydig's cells may differentiate the XXXXY chromosome anomaly from polysomic variants of Klinefelter's syndrome. The relationship of this syndrome to Klinefelter's syndrome and to Down's syndrome is discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15 PMID:4222822

  3. Clinical features and associated abnormalities in children and adolescents with corpus callosal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Uhk; Park, Eun Sook; Jung, Soojin; Suh, Miri; Choi, Hyo Seon; Rha, Dong-Wook

    2014-02-01

    Callosal anomalies are frequently associated with other central nervous system (CNS) and/or somatic anomalies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of corpus callosal agenesis/hypoplasia accompanying other CNS and/or somatic anomalies. We reviewed the imaging and clinical information of patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital, between 2005 and 2012. Callosal anomalies were isolated in 13 patients, accompanied by other CNS anomalies in 10 patients, associated with only non-CNS somatic anomalies in four patients, and with both CNS and non-CNS abnormalities in four patients. Out of 31 patients, four developed normally, without impairments in motor or cognitive functions. Five of nine patients with cerebral palsy were accompanied by other CNS and/or somatic anomalies, and showed worse Gross Motor Function Classification System scores, compared with the other four patients with isolated callosal anomaly. In addition, patients with other CNS anomalies also had a higher seizure risk.

  4. Implications for the South Atlantic early breakup and seafloor spreading from joint interpretation of magnetic anomaly maps and seaward-dipping reflector sequences (SDRS) visible in conjugated reflection seismic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberger, Bernd; Koopmann, Hannes; Franke, Dieter; Schnabel, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The late history of the South Atlantic passive margin evolution is investigated in the view of interlaced magnetic anomalies related to seafloor spreading lineations and anomalies caused by seaward-dipping reflector sequences (SDRS). Our identification of previously unknown pre-M5n lineations in marine magnetic data offshore Argentina now makes the lineation pattern more complete and most importantly comparable and nearly symmetrical to the conjugated area offshore South Africa. Therefore, we can now compare several sets of published South Atlantic reconstruction poles to our new pre-M5n lineations off Argentina and their equivalents off South Africa. The analysis of the symmetry of SDRS and particularly of their along-margin extension further constrains the choice of possible reconstruction poles for the earliest opening phases. The interpretation of pre-M5n lineations also defines the exact time (M9r) of the termination of excess breakup related volcanic activity and the transition to "normal" seafloor spreading. This is compared to absolute radiometric ages from Parana/Etendeka flood basalts. The volcanic activity related to the southernmost volcanic margin segments falls approximately into the same time window as the continental flood basalt activity. Unfortunately, more detailed conclusions suffer seriously from an ongoing discussion about the absolute ages of the pre-M0r lineations in different versions of polarity timescales. New models for the magnetic response of SDRS reveal a high variability within the wedges on either side of the Atlantic and between the conjugated margins. Former identifications of anomaly M11r off Cape Town have already been questioned and can now be shown to be caused by structural or magnetization variations within SDRS.

  5. Addition of four-hundred fifty-five microsatellite marker loci to the high density Gossypium hirsutum TM-1 x G. barbadense 3-79 genetic map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A high density genetic linkage map plays important roles in understanding genome structure of tetraploid cotton, dissecting economically important traits, identifying molecular markers associated with a trait, and cloning a gene of interest through map-based cloning strategy. Four hundred fifty f...

  6. Cerium anomaly at microscale in fossils.

    PubMed

    Gueriau, Pierre; Mocuta, Cristian; Bertrand, Loïc

    2015-09-01

    Patterns in rare earth element (REE) concentrations are essential instruments to assess geochemical processes in Earth and environmental sciences. Excursions in the "cerium anomaly" are widely used to inform on past redox conditions in sediments. This proxy resources to the specificity of cerium to adopt both the +III and +IV oxidation states, while most rare earths are purely trivalent and share very similar reactivity and transport properties. In practical terms, the level of cerium anomaly is established through elemental point quantification and profiling. All these models rely on a supposed homogeneity of the cerium oxidation state within the samples. However, this has never been demonstrated, whereas the cerium concentration can significantly vary within a sample, as shown for fossils, which would vastly complicate interpretation of REE patterns. Here, we report direct micrometric mapping of Ce speciation through synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy and production of local rare earth patterns in paleontological fossil tissues through X-ray fluorescence mapping. The sensitivity of the approach is demonstrated on well-preserved fishes and crustaceans from the Late Cretaceous (ca. 95 million years (Myr) old). The presence of Ce under the +IV form within the fossil tissues is attributed to slightly oxidative local conditions of burial and agrees well with the limited negative cerium anomaly observed in REE patterns. The [Ce(IV)]/[Ce(tot)] ratio appears remarkably stable at the microscale within each fossil and is similar between fossils from the locality. Speciation maps were obtained from an original combination of synchrotron microbeam X-ray fluorescence, absorption spectroscopy, and diffraction, together with light and electron microscopy. This work also highlights the need for more systematic studies of cerium geochemistry at the microscale in paleontological contexts, in particular across fossil histologies.

  7. The Weddell sea anomaly observed with the Topex satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvath, I.; Essex, E. A.

    2003-04-01

    This paper introduces the complete image of the Weddell Sea Anomaly, observed with the over-the-ocean ionospheric total electron content (TEC) values obtained from the TOPEX satellite data with an almost unlimited coverage over the oceans, the first time according to the literature; and investigates its development. With a series of TOPEX TEC maps, this paper demonstrates the diurnal variations of both the night-time and the day-time Weddell Sea Anomaly, which appeared as a night-time TEC enhancement and as a day-time TEC depletion, during the near sunspot maximum period of 1998 and 1999 investigated. Several TOPEX passes, plotted in geomagnetic latitudes, are also presented to demonstrate the longitudinal variations of the Weddell Sea Anomaly, and also to show other ionospheric features appearing such as the southern-hemisphere mid-latitude day-time and night-time trough, the northern-hemisphere mid-latitude night-time trough and the equatorial anomaly. This paper demonstrates how large the anomaly is in reality situated west of the Faraday ionosonde station over the Bellinghausen Sea and not over the Weddell Sea that is east of Faraday. Thus the correct name should be Bellinghausen Sea Anomaly. Based upon the review paper of Dudeney and Piggott (1978), the development of the Weddell Sea Anomaly is explained with the combined effects of solar ultraviolet radiation and thermospheric neutral winds.

  8. Statistical analysis of the lithospheric magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon-Carrasco, Fco Javier; de Santis, Angelo; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Catalán, Manuel; Ishihara, Takemi

    2013-04-01

    Different analyses carried out on the lithospheric magnetic anomaly data from GEODAS DVD v5.0.10 database (World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map, WDMAM) show that the data distribution is not Gaussian, but Laplacian. Although this behaviour has been formerly pointed out in other works (e.g., Walker and Jackson, Geophys. J. Int, 143, 799-808, 2000), they have not given any explanation about this statistical property of the magnetic anomalies. In this work, we perform different statistical tests to confirm that the lithospheric magnetic anomaly data follow indeed a Laplacian distribution and we also give a possible interpretation of this behavior providing a model of magnetization which depends on the variation of the geomagnetic field and both induced and remanent magnetizations in the terrestrial lithosphere.

  9. Remote detection of geobotanical anomalies associated with hydrocarbon microseepage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the continuing study of the Lost River, West Virginia NASA/Geosat Test Case Site, an extensive soil gas survey of the site was conducted during the summer of 1983. This soil gas survey has identified an order of magnitude methane, ethane, propane, and butane anomaly that is precisely coincident with the linear maple anomaly reported previously. This and other maple anomalies were previously suggested to be indicative of anaerobic soil conditions associated with hydrocarbon microseepage. In vitro studies support the view that anomalous distributions of native tree species tolerant of anaerobic soil conditions may be useful indicators of methane microseepage in heavily vegetated areas of the United States characterized by deciduous forest cover. Remote sensing systems which allow discrimination and mapping of native tree species and/or species associations will provide the exploration community with a means of identifying vegetation distributional anomalies indicative of microseepage.

  10. The south-central United States magnetic anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Braile, L. W. (Principal Investigator); Starich, P. J.

    1984-01-01

    The South-Central United States Magnetic Anomaly is the most prominent positive feature in the MAGSAT scalar magnetic field over North America. The anomaly correlates with increased crustal thickness, above average crustal velocity, negative free air gravity anomalies and an extensive zone of Middle Proterozoic anorogenic felsic basement rocks. Spherical dipole source inversion of the MAGSAT scalar data and subsequent calculation of reduced to pole and derivative maps provide constraints for a crustal magnetic model which corresponds geographically to the extensive Middle Proterozoic felsic rocks trending northeasterly across the United States. These felsic rocks contain insufficient magnetization or volume to produce the anomaly, but are rather indicative of a crustal zone which was disturbed during a Middle Proterozoic thermal event which enriched magnetic material deep in the crust.

  11. Correlations Between Magnetic Anomalies and Surface Geology Antipodal to Lunar Impact Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richmond, N. C.; Hood, L. L.

    2004-12-01

    Previous work has shown that the strongest concentrations of lunar crustal magnetic anomalies are located antipodal to four large, similarly aged impact basins (Orientale, Serenitatis, Imbrium and Crisium). Here, we report results of a correlation study between magnetic anomaly clusters and geology in areas antipodal to Imbrium and Orientale. Only these areas have been selected due to a) limited Lunar Prospector magnetometer data coverage of the area antipodal to Serenitatis, and b) the location of the Crisium antipode, which is dominated by ejecta deposits from the more recent Orientale impact. Unusual geologic terranes have been mapped antipodal to both Orientale (furrowed and pitted terrane) and Imbrium (material of grooves and mounds). These units have been interpreted to be of seismic or ejecta origin associated with the basin forming impacts. Both regions have many high albedo swirl markings, which have been shown to correlate closely with regions of high crustal magnetisation at other locations. Results indicate a strong correlation between the swirl markings and regions of high magnetisation for both the Imbrium and Orientale antipodes. In addition, the furrowed and pitted terrane, material of grooves and mounds and Mare Ingenii (antipodal to Imbrium) show a correlation with high magnitude crustal magnetic anomalies. Mare Ingenii is on the south west edge of the material of grooves and mounds and may overlay that unit, with the anomaly sources beneath the mare materials. This is supported by an observed lack of demagnetisation associated with the 61 km Copernican-aged O'Day crater at the edge of Mare Ingenii, which suggests a deep source for the anomalies. Possible source materials and the origin of the magnetisation will be discussed at the conference.

  12. Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) 1998-2000 tropical ozone climatology 1. Comparison with Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.; McPeters, Richard D.; Oltmans, Samuel J.; Schmidlin, Francis J.; Logan, Jennifer A.; Fujiwara, Masatomo; Kirchhoff, Volker W. J. H.; Posny, FrançOise; Coetzee, Gert J. R.; Hoegger, Bruno; Kawakami, Shuji; Ogawa, Toshihiro; Johnson, Bryan J.; VöMel, Holger; Labow, Gordon

    2003-01-01

    A network of 10 southern hemisphere tropical and subtropical stations, designated the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ) project and established from operational sites, provided over 1000 ozone profiles during the period 1998-2000. Balloon-borne electrochemical concentration cell (ECC) ozonesondes, combined with standard radiosondes for pressure, temperature, and relative humidity measurements, collected profiles in the troposphere and lower to midstratosphere at: Ascension Island; Nairobi, Kenya; Irene, South Africa; Réunion Island; Watukosek, Java; Fiji; Tahiti; American Samoa; San Cristóbal, Galapagos; and Natal, Brazil. The archived data are available at: . In this paper, uncertainties and accuracies within the SHADOZ ozone data set are evaluated by analyzing: (1) imprecisions in profiles and in methods of extrapolating ozone above balloon burst; (2) comparisons of column-integrated total ozone from sondes with total ozone from the Earth-Probe/Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) satellite and ground-based instruments; and (3) possible biases from station to station due to variations in ozonesonde characteristics. The key results are the following: (1) Ozonesonde precision is 5%. (2) Integrated total ozone column amounts from the sondes are usually to within 5% of independent measurements from ground-based instruments at five SHADOZ sites and overpass measurements from the TOMS satellite (version 7 data). (3) Systematic variations in TOMS-sonde offsets and in ground-based-sonde offsets from station to station reflect biases in sonde technique as well as in satellite retrieval. Discrepancies are present in both stratospheric and tropospheric ozone. (4) There is evidence for a zonal wave-one pattern in total and tropospheric ozone, but not in stratospheric ozone.

  13. Total electron content anomalies associated with global VEI4 + volcanic eruptions during 2002-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wang; Guo, Jinyun; Yue, Jianping; Shen, Yi; Yang, Yang

    2016-10-01

    In previous studies, little attention has been paid to the total electron content (TEC) anomalies preceding the volcanic eruption. We analyze the coupling relationship between volcanic eruption and TEC anomalies, and discuss the spatial distribution of TEC anomalies associated with volcanic geographical location. We utilize the global ionosphere map (GIM) data from the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) to analyze TEC variations before the global volcanic eruptions indicated by VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index) 4 + from 2002 to 2015 with the sliding interquartile range method. The results indicate the occurrence rate of TEC anomalies before great volcanic eruptions is related with the volcanic type and geographical position. The occurrence rate of TEC anomalies before stratovolcano and caldera eruptions is higher than that before shield and pyroclastic shield eruptions, and the occurrence rate of TEC anomalies has a descending trend from low latitudes to high latitudes. The TEC anomalies before the volcanic eruptions in low-mid latitudes are within the volcanic affected areas, but do not coincide with the volcanic foci. The corresponding TEC anomalies could be observed in the conjugated region, and all the TEC anomalies in the volcanic affected areas are usually close to bounds of equatorial anomaly zones. However, the TEC anomalies preceding these eruptions in high latitudes usually surround the volcano, and no TEC anomalies appear in the conjugated region. These conclusions have potential applications to the prediction of great volcanic eruptions in the future.

  14. Genetics of lymphatic anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Brouillard, Pascal; Boon, Laurence; Vikkula, Miikka

    2014-01-01

    Lymphatic anomalies include a variety of developmental and/or functional defects affecting the lymphatic vessels: sporadic and familial forms of primary lymphedema, secondary lymphedema, chylothorax and chylous ascites, lymphatic malformations, and overgrowth syndromes with a lymphatic component. Germline mutations have been identified in at least 20 genes that encode proteins acting around VEGFR-3 signaling but also downstream of other tyrosine kinase receptors. These mutations exert their effects via the RAS/MAPK and the PI3K/AKT pathways and explain more than a quarter of the incidence of primary lymphedema, mostly of inherited forms. More common forms may also result from multigenic effects or post-zygotic mutations. Most of the corresponding murine knockouts are homozygous lethal, while heterozygotes are healthy, which suggests differences in human and murine physiology and the influence of other factors. PMID:24590274

  15. Upgraded gravity anomaly base of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, Gordon R.; Hildenbrand, T.G.; Kucks, R.; Roman, D.; Hittelman, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    A concerted effort to compile an upgraded gravity anomaly database, grid, and map for the United States by the end of 2002 is under way. This effort can be considered as the first step in building a data system for gravity measurements, and it builds on existing collaborative efforts. This paper outlines the strategy for assembling the individual map and digital products related to the United States gravity database.

  16. CHAMP Magnetic Anomalies of the Antarctic Crust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Hyung Rae; Gaya-Pique, Luis R.; vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Taylor, Patrick T.; Kim, Jeong Woo

    2003-01-01

    Regional magnetic signals of the crust are strongly masked by the core field and its secular variations components and hence difficult to isolate in the satellite measurements. In particular, the un-modeled effects of the strong auroral external fields and the complicated- behavior of the core field near the geomagnetic poles conspire to greatly reduce the crustal magnetic signal-to-noise ratio in the polar regions relative to the rest of the Earth. We can, however, use spectral correlation theory to filter the static lithospheric and core field components from the dynamic external field effects. To help isolate regional lithospheric from core field components, the correlations between CHAMP magnetic anomalies and the pseudo magnetic effects inferred from gravity-derived crustal thickness variations can also be exploited.. Employing these procedures, we processed the CHAMP magnetic observations for an improved magnetic anomaly map of the Antarctic crust. Relative to the much higher altitude Orsted and noisier Magsat observations, the CHAMP magnetic anomalies at 400 km altitude reveal new details on the effects of intracrustal magnetic features and crustal thickness variations of the Antarctic.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Oscar M

    2016-05-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging can be used in the management of pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies for diagnosing and assessing extent of lesions and for evaluating response to therapy. MR imaging studies often involve a combination of T1- and T2-weighted images in addition to MR angiography and fat-suppressed post-contrast sequences. The MR imaging features of these vascular anomalies when combined with clinical findings can aid in diagnosis. In cases of complex vascular malformations and syndromes associated with vascular anomalies, MR imaging can be used to evaluate accompanying soft-tissue and bone anomalies. This article reviews the MR imaging protocols and appearances of the most common pediatric soft-tissue vascular anomalies.

  18. MAGSAT anomaly field data of the crustal properties of Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Progress is reported in producing maps of Australia showing; crustal magnetic anomalies at constant elevation; bulk surface magnetization; and the geomagnetic field intensity, inclination and declination for the Australian region from global models of the geomagnetic field derived from MAGSAT data. The development of a data base management system is also considered.

  19. New digital magnetic anomaly database for North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finn, C.A.; Pilkington, M.; Cuevas, A.; Hernandez, I.; Urrutia, J.

    2001-01-01

    The Geological Survey of Canada (GSC), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), and Consejo de Recursos Minerales of Mexico (CRM) are compiling an upgraded digital magnetic anomaly database and map for North America. This trinational project is expected to be completed by late 2002.

  20. Hyperspectral anomaly detection using enhanced global factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciencia, Todd J.; Bauer, Kenneth W.

    2016-05-01

    Dimension reduction techniques have become one popular unsupervised approach used towards detecting anomalies in hyperspectral imagery. Although demonstrating promising results in the literature on specific images, these methods can become difficult to directly interpret and often require tuning of their parameters to achieve high performance on a specific set of images. This lack of generality is also compounded by the need to remove noise and atmospheric absorption spectral bands from the image prior to detection. Without a process for this band selection and to make the methods adaptable to different image compositions, performance becomes difficult to maintain across a wider variety of images. Here, we present a framework that uses factor analysis to provide a robust band selection and more meaningful dimension reduction with which to detect anomalies in the imagery. Measurable characteristics of the image are used to create an automated decision process that allows the algorithm to adjust to a particular image, while maintaining high detection performance. The framework and its algorithms are detailed, and results are shown for forest, desert, sea, rural, urban, anomaly-sparse, and anomaly-dense imagery types from different sensors. Additionally, the method is compared to current state-of-the-art methods and is shown to be computationally efficient.

  1. Hyperspectral Anomaly Detection by Graph Pixel Selection.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Ma, Dandan; Wang, Qi

    2016-12-01

    Hyperspectral anomaly detection (AD) is an important problem in remote sensing field. It can make full use of the spectral differences to discover certain potential interesting regions without any target priors. Traditional Mahalanobis-distance-based anomaly detectors assume the background spectrum distribution conforms to a Gaussian distribution. However, this and other similar distributions may not be satisfied for the real hyperspectral images. Moreover, the background statistics are susceptible to contamination of anomaly targets which will lead to a high false-positive rate. To address these intrinsic problems, this paper proposes a novel AD method based on the graph theory. We first construct a vertex- and edge-weighted graph and then utilize a pixel selection process to locate the anomaly targets. Two contributions are claimed in this paper: 1) no background distributions are required which makes the method more adaptive and 2) both the vertex and edge weights are considered which enables a more accurate detection performance and better robustness to noise. Intensive experiments on the simulated and real hyperspectral images demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms other benchmark competitors. In addition, the robustness of the proposed method has been validated by using various window sizes. This experimental result also demonstrates the valuable characteristic of less computational complexity and less parameter tuning for real applications.

  2. Seismic data fusion anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrity, Kyle; Blasch, Erik; Alford, Mark; Ezekiel, Soundararajan; Ferris, David

    2014-06-01

    Detecting anomalies in non-stationary signals has valuable applications in many fields including medicine and meteorology. These include uses such as identifying possible heart conditions from an Electrocardiography (ECG) signals or predicting earthquakes via seismographic data. Over the many choices of anomaly detection algorithms, it is important to compare possible methods. In this paper, we examine and compare two approaches to anomaly detection and see how data fusion methods may improve performance. The first approach involves using an artificial neural network (ANN) to detect anomalies in a wavelet de-noised signal. The other method uses a perspective neural network (PNN) to analyze an arbitrary number of "perspectives" or transformations of the observed signal for anomalies. Possible perspectives may include wavelet de-noising, Fourier transform, peak-filtering, etc.. In order to evaluate these techniques via signal fusion metrics, we must apply signal preprocessing techniques such as de-noising methods to the original signal and then use a neural network to find anomalies in the generated signal. From this secondary result it is possible to use data fusion techniques that can be evaluated via existing data fusion metrics for single and multiple perspectives. The result will show which anomaly detection method, according to the metrics, is better suited overall for anomaly detection applications. The method used in this study could be applied to compare other signal processing algorithms.

  3. Turtle Carapace Anomalies: The Roles of Genetic Diversity and Environment

    PubMed Central

    Velo-Antón, Guillermo; Becker, C. Guilherme; Cordero-Rivera, Adolfo

    2011-01-01

    Background Phenotypic anomalies are common in wild populations and multiple genetic, biotic and abiotic factors might contribute to their formation. Turtles are excellent models for the study of developmental instability because anomalies are easily detected in the form of malformations, additions, or reductions in the number of scutes or scales. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, we integrated field observations, manipulative experiments, and climatic and genetic approaches to investigate the origin of carapace scute anomalies across Iberian populations of the European pond turtle, Emys orbicularis. The proportion of anomalous individuals varied from 3% to 69% in local populations, with increasing frequency of anomalies in northern regions. We found no significant effect of climatic and soil moisture, or climatic temperature on the occurrence of anomalies. However, lower genetic diversity and inbreeding were good predictors of the prevalence of scute anomalies among populations. Both decreasing genetic diversity and increasing proportion of anomalous individuals in northern parts of the Iberian distribution may be linked to recolonization events from the Southern Pleistocene refugium. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results suggest that developmental instability in turtle carapace formation might be caused, at least in part, by genetic factors, although the influence of environmental factors affecting the developmental stability of turtle carapace cannot be ruled out. Further studies of the effects of environmental factors, pollutants and heritability of anomalies would be useful to better understand the complex origin of anomalies in natural populations. PMID:21533278

  4. Determining the COB location along the Iberian margin and Galicia Bank from gravity anomaly inversion, residual depth anomaly and subsidence analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Leanne; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto

    2015-11-01

    Knowledge and understanding of the ocean-continent transition (OCT) structure, continent-ocean boundary (COB) location and crustal type are of critical importance in evaluating rifted continental margin formation and evolution. OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type also have important implications for the understanding of the geodynamics of continental breakup and in the evaluation of petroleum systems in deep-water frontier oil and gas exploration at rifted continental margins. Mapping the distribution of thinned continental crust and lithosphere, its distal extent and the start of unequivocal oceanic crust and hence determining the OCT structure and COB location at rifted continental margins is therefore a generic global problem. In order to assist in the determination of the OCT structure and COB location, we present methodologies using gravity anomaly inversion, residual depth anomaly (RDA) analysis and subsidence analysis, which we apply to the west Iberian rifted continental margin. The west Iberian margin has one of the most complete data sets available for deep magma-poor rifted margins, so there is abundant data to which the results can be calibrated. Gravity anomaly inversion has been used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning; subsidence analysis has been used to determine the distribution of continental lithosphere thinning; and RDAs have been used to investigate the OCT bathymetric anomalies with respect to expected oceanic bathymetries at rifted continental margins. These quantitative analytical techniques have been applied to the west Iberian rifted continental margin along profiles IAM9, Lusigal 12 (with the TGS-extension) and ISE-01. Our predictions of OCT structure, COB location and magmatic type (i.e. the volume of magmatic addition, whether the margin is `normal' magmatic, magma-starved or magma-rich) have been tested and validated using ODP wells (Legs 103, 149 and 173), which provide

  5. Chiral anomaly, bosonization, and fractional charge

    SciTech Connect

    Mignaco, J.A.; Monteiro, M.A.R.

    1985-06-15

    We present a method to evaluate the Jacobian of chiral rotations, regulating determinants through the proper-time method and using Seeley's asymptotic expansion. With this method we compute easily the chiral anomaly for ..nu.. = 4,6 dimensions, discuss bosonization of some massless two-dimensional models, and handle the problem of charge fractionization. In addition, we comment on the general validity of Fujikawa's approach to regulate the Jacobian of chiral rotations with non-Hermitian operators.

  6. System for closure of a physical anomaly

    DOEpatents

    Bearinger, Jane P; Maitland, Duncan J; Schumann, Daniel L; Wilson, Thomas S

    2014-11-11

    Systems for closure of a physical anomaly. Closure is accomplished by a closure body with an exterior surface. The exterior surface contacts the opening of the anomaly and closes the anomaly. The closure body has a primary shape for closing the anomaly and a secondary shape for being positioned in the physical anomaly. The closure body preferably comprises a shape memory polymer.

  7. Barium and neodymium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcculloch, M. T.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1978-01-01

    The discovery of Ba and Nd isotopic anomalies in two inclusions from the Allende meteorite is reported. The inclusions are Ca-Al-rich objects typical of the type considered as high-temperature condensation products in the solar nebula and contain distinctive Mg and O isotopic anomalies of the FUN (mass Fractionation, Unknown Nuclear processes) type. Mass-spectrometry results are discussed which show that inclusion C1 has anomalies in Ba at masses 134 and 136, while inclusion EK1-4-1 exhibits large marked negative anomalies at 130, 132, 134, and 136, as well as a positive anomaly at 137. It is also found that inclusion EK1-4-1 shows marked negative anomalies in Nd at masses 142, 146, 148, and 150, in addition to a positive anomaly at 145. These isotopic shifts are attributed to addition of r-process nuclei rather than mass fractionation. It is suggested that an onion-shell supernova explosion followed by injection into the solar nebula is the most likely generic model that may explain the observations.

  8. Euro-African MAGSAT anomaly-tectonic observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1985-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  9. Euro-african MAGSAT Anomaly-tectonic Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, W. J.; Vonfrese, R. R. B. (Principal Investigator); Olivier, R.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary satellite (MAGSAT) scalar magnetic anomaly data are compiled and differentially reduced to radial polarization by equivalent point source inversion for comparison with tectonic data of Africa, Europe and adjacent marine areas. A number of associations are evident to constrain analyses of the tectonic features and history of the region. The Precambrian shields of Africa and Europe exhibit varied magnetic signatures. All shields are not magnetic highs and, in fact, the Baltic shield is a marked minimum. The reduced-to-the-pole magnetic map shows a marked tendency for northeasterly striking anomalies in the eastern Atlantic and adjacent Africa, which is coincident to the track of several hot spots for the past 100 million years. However, there is little consistency in the sign of the magnetic anomalies and the track of the hot spots. Comparison of the radially polarized anomalies of Africa and Europe with other reduced-to-the-pole magnetic satellite anomaly maps of the Western Hemisphere support the reconstruction of the continents prior to the origin of the present-day Atlantic Ocean in the Mesozoic Era.

  10. Three-dimensional inverse modelling of magnetic anomaly sources based on a genetic algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montesinos, Fuensanta G.; Blanco-Montenegro, Isabel; Arnoso, José

    2016-04-01

    We present a modelling method to estimate the 3-D geometry and location of homogeneously magnetized sources from magnetic anomaly data. As input information, the procedure needs the parameters defining the magnetization vector (intensity, inclination and declination) and the Earth's magnetic field direction. When these two vectors are expected to be different in direction, we propose to estimate the magnetization direction from the magnetic map. Then, using this information, we apply an inversion approach based on a genetic algorithm which finds the geometry of the sources by seeking the optimum solution from an initial population of models in successive iterations through an evolutionary process. The evolution consists of three genetic operators (selection, crossover and mutation), which act on each generation, and a smoothing operator, which looks for the best fit to the observed data and a solution consisting of plausible compact sources. The method allows the use of non-gridded, non-planar and inaccurate anomaly data and non-regular subsurface partitions. In addition, neither constraints for the depth to the top of the sources nor an initial model are necessary, although previous models can be incorporated into the process. We show the results of a test using two complex synthetic anomalies to demonstrate the efficiency of our inversion method. The application to real data is illustrated with aeromagnetic data of the volcanic island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

  11. Reliability of CHAMP Anomaly Continuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonFrese, Ralph R. B.; Kim, Hyung Rae; Taylor, Patrick T.; Asgharzadeh, Mohammad F.

    2003-01-01

    CHAMP is recording state-of-the-art magnetic and gravity field observations at altitudes ranging over roughly 300 - 550 km. However, anomaly continuation is severely limited by the non-uniqueness of the process and satellite anomaly errors. Indeed, our numerical anomaly simulations from satellite to airborne altitudes show that effective downward continuations of the CHAMP data are restricted to within approximately 50 km of the observation altitudes while upward continuations can be effective over a somewhat larger altitude range. The great unreliability of downward continuation requires that the satellite geopotential observations must be analyzed at satellite altitudes if the anomaly details are to be exploited most fully. Given current anomaly error levels, joint inversion of satellite and near- surface anomalies is the best approach for implementing satellite geopotential observations for subsurface studies. We demonstrate the power of this approach using a crustal model constrained by joint inversions of near-surface and satellite magnetic and gravity observations for Maude Rise, Antarctica, in the southwestern Indian Ocean. Our modeling suggests that the dominant satellite altitude magnetic anomalies are produced by crustal thickness variations and remanent magnetization of the normal polarity Cretaceous Quiet Zone.

  12. Recognition of geochemical anomalies using a deep autoencoder network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yihui; Zuo, Renguang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we train an autoencoder network to encode and reconstruct a geochemical sample population with unknown complex multivariate probability distributions. During the training, small probability samples contribute little to the autoencoder network. These samples can be recognized by the trained model as anomalous samples due to their comparatively higher reconstructed errors. The southwestern Fujian district (China) is chosen as a case study area. A variety of learning rates, iterations, and the size of each hidden layer are constructing and training the deep autoencoder networks on all the geochemical samples. The reconstruction error (or, anomaly score) of each training sample is used to recognize multivariate geochemical anomalies associated with Fe polymetallic mineralization. By comparing the results obtained with a continuous restricted Boltzmann machine, we conclude that the autoencoder network can be trained to recognize multivariate geochemical anomalies. Most of the known skarn-type Fe deposits are located in areas with high reconstruction errors or anomaly scores in the anomaly map, indicating that these anomalies may be related to Fe mineralization.

  13. Anomalies and graded coisotropic branes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi

    2006-03-01

    We compute the anomaly of the axial U(1) current in the A-model on a Calabi-Yau manifold, in the presence of coisotropic branes discovered by Kapustin and Orlov. Our results relate the anomaly-free condition to a recently proposed definition of graded coisotropic branes in Calabi-Yau manifolds. More specifically, we find that a coisotropic brane is anomaly-free if and only if it is gradable. We also comment on a different grading for coisotropic submanifolds introduced recently by Oh.

  14. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This report contains the outcome of the NESC Assessment.

  15. Algorithm development for hyperspectral anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosario, Dalton S.

    2008-10-01

    This dissertation proposes and evaluates a novel anomaly detection algorithm suite for ground-to-ground, or air-to-ground, applications requiring automatic target detection using hyperspectral (HS) data. Targets are manmade objects in natural background clutter under unknown illumination and atmospheric conditions. The use of statistical models herein is purely for motivation of particular formulas for calculating anomaly output surfaces. In particular, formulas from semiparametrics are utilized to obtain novel forms for output surfaces, and alternative scoring algorithms are proposed to calculate output surfaces that are comparable to those of semiparametrics. Evaluation uses both simulated data and real HS data from a joint data collection effort between the Army Research Laboratory and the Army Armament Research Development & Engineering Center. A data transformation method is presented for use by the two-sample data structure univariate semiparametric and nonparametric scoring algorithms, such that, the two-sample data are mapped from their original multivariate space to an univariate domain, where the statistical power of the univariate scoring algorithms is shown to be improved relative to existing multivariate scoring algorithms testing the same two-sample data. An exhaustive simulation experimental study is conducted to assess the performance of different HS anomaly detection techniques, where the null and alternative hypotheses are completely specified, including all parameters, using multivariate normal and mixtures of multivariate normal distributions. Finally, for ground-to-ground anomaly detection applications, where the unknown scales of targets add to the problem complexity, a novel global anomaly detection algorithm suite is introduced, featuring autonomous partial random sampling (PRS) of the data cube. The PRS method is proposed to automatically sample the unknown background clutter in the test HS imagery, and by repeating multiple times this

  16. Genetics Home Reference: Peters anomaly

    MedlinePlus

    ... the anterior segment is abnormal, leading to incomplete separation of the cornea from the iris or the ... anomaly type I is characterized by an incomplete separation of the cornea and iris and mild to ...

  17. Classifying sex biased congenital anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Lubinsky, M.S.

    1997-03-31

    The reasons for sex biases in congenital anomalies that arise before structural or hormonal dimorphisms are established has long been unclear. A review of such disorders shows that patterning and tissue anomalies are female biased, and structural findings are more common in males. This suggests different gender dependent susceptibilities to developmental disturbances, with female vulnerabilities focused on early blastogenesis/determination, while males are more likely to involve later organogenesis/morphogenesis. A dual origin for some anomalies explains paradoxical reductions of sex biases with greater severity (i.e., multiple rather than single malformations), presumably as more severe events increase the involvement of an otherwise minor process with opposite biases to those of the primary mechanism. The cause for these sex differences is unknown, but early dimorphisms, such as differences in growth or presence of H-Y antigen, may be responsible. This model provides a useful rationale for understanding and classifying sex-biased congenital anomalies. 42 refs., 7 tabs.

  18. Spinal anomalies in Pfeiffer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moore, M H; Lodge, M L; Clark, B E

    1995-05-01

    Review of the spinal radiographs of a consecutive series of 11 patients with Pfeiffer syndrome presenting to the Australian Craniofacial Unit was performed. The prevalence of cervical spine fusions was high, and the pattern of fusion complex. Isolated anomalies were evident at lower levels, including two cases of sacrococcygeal eversion. Spinal anomalies occur more frequently in the more severely involved cases of Pfeiffer syndrome emphasizing the generalized dysostotic nature of this condition.

  19. Anomaly detection on cup anemometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Enrique; Pindado, Santiago; Martínez, Alejandro; Meseguer, Encarnación; García, Luis

    2014-12-01

    The performances of two rotor-damaged commercial anemometers (Vector Instruments A100 LK) were studied. The calibration results (i.e. the transfer function) were very linear, the aerodynamic behavior being more efficient than the one shown by both anemometers equipped with undamaged rotors. No detection of the anomaly (the rotors’ damage) was possible based on the calibration results. However, the Fourier analysis clearly revealed this anomaly.

  20. Hierarchical Kohonenen net for anomaly detection in network security.

    PubMed

    Sarasamma, Suseela T; Zhu, Qiuming A; Huff, Julie

    2005-04-01

    A novel multilevel hierarchical Kohonen Net (K-Map) for an intrusion detection system is presented. Each level of the hierarchical map is modeled as a simple winner-take-all K-Map. One significant advantage of this multilevel hierarchical K-Map is its computational efficiency. Unlike other statistical anomaly detection methods such as nearest neighbor approach, K-means clustering or probabilistic analysis that employ distance computation in the feature space to identify the outliers, our approach does not involve costly point-to-point computation in organizing the data into clusters. Another advantage is the reduced network size. We use the classification capability of the K-Map on selected dimensions of data set in detecting anomalies. Randomly selected subsets that contain both attacks and normal records from the KDD Cup 1999 benchmark data are used to train the hierarchical net. We use a confidence measure to label the clusters. Then we use the test set from the same KDD Cup 1999 benchmark to test the hierarchical net. We show that a hierarchical K-Map in which each layer operates on a small subset of the feature space is superior to a single-layer K-Map operating on the whole feature space in detecting a variety of attacks in terms of detection rate as well as false positive rate.

  1. Aeromagnetic anomalies over faulted strata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grauch, V.J.S.; Hudson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution aeromagnetic surveys are now an industry standard and they commonly detect anomalies that are attributed to faults within sedimentary basins. However, detailed studies identifying geologic sources of magnetic anomalies in sedimentary environments are rare in the literature. Opportunities to study these sources have come from well-exposed sedimentary basins of the Rio Grande rift in New Mexico and Colorado. High-resolution aeromagnetic data from these areas reveal numerous, curvilinear, low-amplitude (2–15 nT at 100-m terrain clearance) anomalies that consistently correspond to intrasedimentary normal faults (Figure 1). Detailed geophysical and rock-property studies provide evidence for the magnetic sources at several exposures of these faults in the central Rio Grande rift (summarized in Grauch and Hudson, 2007, and Hudson et al., 2008). A key result is that the aeromagnetic anomalies arise from the juxtaposition of magnetically differing strata at the faults as opposed to chemical processes acting at the fault zone. The studies also provide (1) guidelines for understanding and estimating the geophysical parameters controlling aeromagnetic anomalies at faulted strata (Grauch and Hudson), and (2) observations on key geologic factors that are favorable for developing similar sedimentary sources of aeromagnetic anomalies elsewhere (Hudson et al.).

  2. Can residuals of the solar system foreground explain low multipole anomalies of the CMB?

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, M.; Kim, J.; Frejsel, A.M.; Ramazanov, S.; Naselsky, P.; Zhao, W.; Burigana, C. E-mail: jkim@nbi.dk E-mail: sabir_ra@nbi.dk E-mail: wzhao7@nbi.ku.dk

    2012-10-01

    The low multipole anomalies of the Cosmic Microwave Background has received much attention during the last few years. It is still not ascertained whether these anomalies are indeed primordial or the result of systematics or foregrounds. An example of a foreground, which could generate some non-Gaussian and statistically anisotropic features at low multipole range, is the very symmetric Kuiper Belt in the outer solar system. In this paper, expanding upon the methods presented in [1], we investigate the contributions from the Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) to the WMAP ILC 7 map, whereby we can minimize the contrast in power between even and odd multipoles in the CMB, discussed in [2,3]. We submit our KBO de-correlated CMB signal to several tests, to analyze its validity, and find that incorporation of the KBO emission can decrease the quadrupole-octupole alignment and parity asymmetry problems, provided that the KBO signals has a non-cosmological dipole modulation, associated with the statistical anisotropy of the ILC 7 map. Additionally, we show that the amplitude of the dipole modulation, within a 2σ interval, is in agreement with the corresponding amplitudes, discussed in [4].

  3. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features - two case studies: southern Africa and Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara

    2016-05-01

    Maps of magnetic and gravity field anomalies provide information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, helpful in understanding geological conditions and tectonic structures. Depending on data availability, whether from the ground, airborne, or from satellites, potential field anomaly maps contain information on different ranges of spatial wavelengths, roughly corresponding to sources at different depths. Focussing on magnetic data, we compare amplitudes and characteristics of anomalies from maps based on various available data and as measured at geomagnetic repeat stations. Two cases are investigated: southern Africa, characterized by geologically old cratons and strong magnetic anomalies, and the smaller region of Germany with much younger crust and weaker anomalies. Estimating lithospheric magnetic anomaly values from the ground stations' time series (repeat station crustal biases) reveals magnetospheric field contributions causing time-varying offsets of several nT in the results. Similar influences might be one source of discrepancy when merging anomaly maps from different epochs. Moreover, we take advantage of recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of ˜ 200 km resolution. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Comparing short- and long-wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large-scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement in the southern African region than the German region. This probably indicates stronger concordance between near-surface (down to at most a few km) and deeper (several kilometres down to Curie depth) structures in the former area, which can be seen to agree with a thicker lithosphere and a lower heat flux reported in the literature for the southern

  4. The Hatu gold anomaly, Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region, China - testing the hypothesis of aeolian transport of gold

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.B.; Theobald, P.K.; Shiquan, S.; Tianxiang, R.; Zhihui, H.

    1993-01-01

    In 1987, a cooperative project between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration was initiated to evaluate the origin of the Hatu gold anomaly. The anomaly is located in the Hatu mining district in the northwest corner of Xinjiang-Uygur Autonomous Region in northwest China. The climate is semiarid to arid and wind erosion predominates. A regional soil survey of the Hatu district, based on samples collected on a 200 by 500 m grid and composited prior to chemical analysis to a density of one sample per square km, delineated a series of south-southeast-trending Au anomalies. Anomalous Au values range from 5 ppb to more than 700 ppb. The Hatu anomaly, the most prominent of these anomalies, is more than 30 km long and about 5 km wide. The mining town of Hatu and the economic gold deposits of Qiqu 1 and Qiqu 2 are at the northern end of this anomaly. The axis of the Hatu anomaly cuts across mapped structure and stratigraphy in the district, but is parallel to the prevailing wind direction. This observation led to the hypothesis that the Hatu anomaly is the result of acolian dispersion of gold from the vicinity of Qiqu 1 and Qiqu 2. The alternative interpretation, that the anomalies reflected additional primary gold occurrences, was not consistent with existing information on the known occurrences and the geology. The investigation led to the identification of three types of gold in heavy-mineral concentrates derived from stream sediments that were collected along the axis of the Hatu anomaly: (1) free gold, (2) gold in pyrite, and (3) gold included in quartz. Gold in quartz was only observed within 2 km of Qiqu 1. The size of the gold particles and the number of gold particles in these samples did not decrease with distance from Qiqu 1 as would be expected from aeolian or fluvial dispersion from a point source. Instead, both the size and amount of gold increased significantly at a distance of 3.5 km from Qiqu 1 and this

  5. A healthcare utilization analysis framework for hot spotting and contextual anomaly detection.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei; Sun, Jimeng; Sorrentino, Robert; Ebadollahi, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Patient medical records today contain vast amount of information regarding patient conditions along with treatment and procedure records. Systematic healthcare resource utilization analysis leveraging such observational data can provide critical insights to guide resource planning and improve the quality of care delivery while reducing cost. Of particular interest to providers are hot spotting: the ability to identify in a timely manner heavy users of the systems and their patterns of utilization so that targeted intervention programs can be instituted, and anomaly detection: the ability to identify anomalous utilization cases where the patients incurred levels of utilization that are unexpected given their clinical characteristics which may require corrective actions. Past work on medical utilization pattern analysis has focused on disease specific studies. We present a framework for utilization analysis that can be easily applied to any patient population. The framework includes two main components: utilization profiling and hot spotting, where we use a vector space model to represent patient utilization profiles, and apply clustering techniques to identify utilization groups within a given population and isolate high utilizers of different types; and contextual anomaly detection for utilization, where models that map patient's clinical characteristics to the utilization level are built in order to quantify the deviation between the expected and actual utilization levels and identify anomalies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework using claims data collected from a population of 7667 diabetes patients. Our analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approaches in identifying clinically meaningful instances for both hot spotting and anomaly detection. In future work we plan to incorporate additional sources of observational data including EMRs and disease registries, and develop analytics models to leverage temporal relationships among

  6. A Healthcare Utilization Analysis Framework for Hot Spotting and Contextual Anomaly Detection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Jianying; Wang, Fei; Sun, Jimeng; Sorrentino, Robert; Ebadollahi, Shahram

    2012-01-01

    Patient medical records today contain vast amount of information regarding patient conditions along with treatment and procedure records. Systematic healthcare resource utilization analysis leveraging such observational data can provide critical insights to guide resource planning and improve the quality of care delivery while reducing cost. Of particular interest to providers are hot spotting: the ability to identify in a timely manner heavy users of the systems and their patterns of utilization so that targeted intervention programs can be instituted, and anomaly detection: the ability to identify anomalous utilization cases where the patients incurred levels of utilization that are unexpected given their clinical characteristics which may require corrective actions. Past work on medical utilization pattern analysis has focused on disease specific studies. We present a framework for utilization analysis that can be easily applied to any patient population. The framework includes two main components: utilization profiling and hot spotting, where we use a vector space model to represent patient utilization profiles, and apply clustering techniques to identify utilization groups within a given population and isolate high utilizers of different types; and contextual anomaly detection for utilization, where models that map patient’s clinical characteristics to the utilization level are built in order to quantify the deviation between the expected and actual utilization levels and identify anomalies. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework using claims data collected from a population of 7667 diabetes patients. Our analysis demonstrates the usefulness of the proposed approaches in identifying clinically meaningful instances for both hot spotting and anomaly detection. In future work we plan to incorporate additional sources of observational data including EMRs and disease registries, and develop analytics models to leverage temporal relationships among

  7. Use of Magsat anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Magnetic profiles on individual satellites tracks were examined to identify bad (nonterrestrially-based) data points r profiles. Anomaly profiles for the same satellite track, but at different passes were compared for parallel tracks and for tracks that cross. The selected and processed data were plotted and contoured to develop a preliminary magnetic anomaly map. The map is similar in general morphology to NASA's Magsat global scalar anomaly map, but has more detail which is related to crustal properties. Efforts have begun to interpret the satellite magnetic anomalies in terms of crustal character. The correlation of magnetics with crustal petrology may have a much larger tectonic implication. Th possibility of there being an ultramafic lower crust along one zone as a consequence of a continental collision/subduction which helped form the midcontinent craton in Precambrian times is being investigated.

  8. Some key issues in isotopic anomalies - Astrophysical history and aggregation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1982-01-01

    Astrophysical history, particularly that period extending from stellar nucleosynthesis events to the formation of meteorites, is discussed as the key element for the understanding of isotopic anomalies in meteorites. The bulk homogeneity of the interstellar medium is considered, and it is argued that, despite the presence of spatial inhomogeneities due to different nucleosynthesis rates in different parts of the galaxy and supernova ejecta, a cosmic chemical memory of nucleosynthesis patterns, rather than an inhomogeneous injection, is the source of isotopic anomalies. According to this view, volatility patterns and some isotopic patterns are mapped onto a grain-size spectrum, and the FUN systematics may be explained by interstellar sputtering. Furthermore, meteoritic He and Ne abundances are inferred to be presolar, and the ubiquitous titanium isotopic anomalies are explained by processes of chemical fixation and condensation in varying environments.

  9. Thermal expansion anomaly regulated by entropy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

    2014-11-13

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions.

  10. Thermal Expansion Anomaly Regulated by Entropy

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zi-Kui; Wang, Yi; Shang, ShunLi

    2014-01-01

    Thermal expansion, defined as the temperature dependence of volume under constant pressure, is a common phenomenon in nature and originates from anharmonic lattice dynamics. However, it has been poorly understood how thermal expansion can show anomalies such as colossal positive, zero, or negative thermal expansion (CPTE, ZTE, or NTE), especially in quantitative terms. Here we show that changes in configurational entropy due to metastable micro(scopic)states can lead to quantitative prediction of these anomalies. We integrate the Maxwell relation, statistic mechanics, and first-principles calculations to demonstrate that when the entropy is increased by pressure, NTE occurs such as in Invar alloy (Fe3Pt, for example), silicon, ice, and water, and when the entropy is decreased dramatically by pressure, CPTE is expected such as in anti-Invar cerium, ice and water. Our findings provide a theoretic framework to understand and predict a broad range of anomalies in nature in addition to thermal expansion, which may include gigantic electrocaloric and electromechanical responses, anomalously reduced thermal conductivity, and spin distributions. PMID:25391631

  11. Light dark matter anomalies after LUX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gresham, Moira I.; Zurek, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    We examine the consistency of light dark matter (DM) elastic scattering in CoGeNT, DAMA, and CDMS-silicon in light of constraints from XENON, CDMS, LUX, PICASSO and COUPP. We consider a variety of operators that have been employed to reconcile anomalies with constraints, including anapole, magnetic dipole, momentum-dependent, and isospin-violating DM. We find that elastic scattering through these alternative operators does not substantially reduce the tension between the signals and the null constraints for operators where at least two of the three purported signals map onto a common space in the DM mass-scattering cross-section plane. Taking a choice of the scintillation efficiency that lies at the -1σ region of the Manzur et al. measurement relieves tension between signals and the LUX constraint—in particular for a magnetic dipole interaction and a xenophobic interaction (though for the latter the signal regions do not substantially overlap). We also find that modest changes in the halo model do not alter this result. We conclude that, even relaxing the assumption about the type of elastic scattering interaction and taking a conservative choice for the scintillation efficiency, LUX and the results from other null experiments remain in tension with a light DM elastic scattering explanation of direct detection anomalies.

  12. Relationship Between Seismic Velocity Anomalies and Rheological Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karato, S.

    2001-05-01

    One of the ultimate goals of high-resolution Earth models is to reveal anomalies (lateral variations) in thermal and rheological structures. Although such a relationship has been well known at a qualitative level, no quantitative relationship has been established to allow estimate of anomalies in viscosity from seismological data. In this presentation, I formulate such a relationship for Earth's upper mantle, based on the latest mineral physics observations. The key in doing this is the quantitative analysis of the effects of water on seismic wave velocities. Earlier analysis indicated the importance of water on seismic wave velocities through enhanced attenuation (Karato, 1995). I have quantified this notion by combining laboratory observations on attenuation at limited conditions (Jackson et al., 1992) with the recent quantitative data on the effects of water on rheology at wider conditions (Karato and Jung, 2001). I show that both seismic wave velocities and rheology (viscosity) of Earth materials are controlled by "rheologically effective temperature (Teff)" that depends on temperature as well as water content. Such an analysis allows us to define the relationships between velocity anomalies and anomalies in Teff and hence anomalies in viscosity. The present formulation has been applied to the upper mantle beneath northeastern Japan where the high-resolution tomographic images are available. The results show that anomalies in effective temperatures of ~+400 K occur in these regions indicating that viscosity there could be lower than the average values by a factor of ~10 to ~1000. References Jackson, I. et al. (1992), Geophys. J. Int., 108: 517-534. Karato, S. (1995), Proc. Japan Academy, B71: 61-66. Karato, S. and Jung, H. (2001), submitted to Philos. Mag.

  13. A study of associated congenital anomalies with biliary atresia

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Lucky; Bhatnagar, Veereshwar

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose: This study aims to analyze the incidence and type of various associated anomalies among infants with extrahepatic biliary atresia (EHBA), compare their frequency with those quoted in the existing literature and assess their role in the overall management. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was performed on 137 infants who underwent the Kasai procedure for EHBA during the past 12 years. The medical records were reviewed for the incidence and type of associated anomalies in addition to the details of the management of the EHBA. Results: Of the137 infants, 40 (29.2%) were diagnosed as having 58 anomalies. The majority of patients had presented in the 3rd month of life; mean age was 81 ± 33 days (range = 20-150 days). There were 32 males and 8 females; boys with EHBA had a higher incidence of associated anomalies. Of these 40 patients, 22 (37.9%) had vascular anomalies, 13 patients (22.4%) had hernias (umbilical-10, inguinal-3), 7 patients (12.1%) had intestinal malrotation, 4 patients (6.8%) had choledochal cyst, 1 patient (1.7%) had Meckel's diverticulum, 3 patients (5%) had undergone prior treatment for jejunoileal atresias (jejunal-2, ileal-1), 2 patients (3.4%) had undergone prior treatment for esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula, 2 patients (3.4%) had spleniculi, and 2 patients (3.4%) were diagnosed as having situs inversus. Conclusions: The most common associated anomalies in our study were related to the vascular variation at the porta hepatis and the digestive system. The existence of anomalies in distantly developing anatomic regions in patients with EHBA supports the possibility of a “generalized” insult during embryogenesis rather than a “localized” defect. In addition, male infants were observed to have significantly more associated anomalies as compared with the female infants in contrast to earlier reports. PMID:26862288

  14. MAGSAT anomaly field inversion and interpretation for the US

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayhew, M. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Long wavelength anomalies in the total magnetic field measured by MAGSAT over the United States and adjacent areas are inverted to an equivalent layer crustal magnetization distribution. The model is based on an equal area dipole grid at the Earth's surface. Model resolution, defined as the closest dipole spacing giving a solution having physical significance, is about 220 km for MAGSAT data in the elevation range 300-500 km. The magnetization contours correlate well with large scale tectonic provinces. A higher resolution (200 km) model based on relatively noise free synthetic "pseudodata" is also presented. Magnetic anomaly component data measured by MAGSAT is compared with synthetic anomaly component fields arising from an equivalent source dipole array at the Earth's surface generated from total field anomaly data alone. An excellent inverse correlation between apparent magnetization and heat flow in the western U.S. is demonstrated. A regional heat flow map which is presented and compared with published maps, predicts high heat flow in Nebraska and the Dakotas, suggesting the presence of a "blind" geothermal area of regional extent.

  15. Shortening anomalies in supersymmetric theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomis, Jaume; Komargodski, Zohar; Ooguri, Hirosi; Seiberg, Nathan; Wang, Yifan

    2017-01-01

    We present new anomalies in two-dimensional N=(2,2) superconformal theories. They obstruct the shortening conditions of chiral and twisted chiral multiplets at coincident points. This implies that marginal couplings cannot be promoted to background superfields in short representations. Therefore, standard results that follow from N=(2,2) spurion analysis are invalidated. These anomalies appear only if supersymmetry is enhanced beyond N=(2,2) . These anomalies explain why the conformal manifolds of the K3 and T 4 sigma models are not Kähler and do not factorize into chiral and twisted chiral moduli spaces and why there are no N=(2,2) gauged linear sigma models that cover these conformal manifolds. We also present these results from the point of view of the Riemann curvature of conformal manifolds.

  16. Graph anomalies in cyber communications

    SciTech Connect

    Vander Wiel, Scott A; Storlie, Curtis B; Sandine, Gary; Hagberg, Aric A; Fisk, Michael

    2011-01-11

    Enterprises monitor cyber traffic for viruses, intruders and stolen information. Detection methods look for known signatures of malicious traffic or search for anomalies with respect to a nominal reference model. Traditional anomaly detection focuses on aggregate traffic at central nodes or on user-level monitoring. More recently, however, traffic is being viewed more holistically as a dynamic communication graph. Attention to the graph nature of the traffic has expanded the types of anomalies that are being sought. We give an overview of several cyber data streams collected at Los Alamos National Laboratory and discuss current work in modeling the graph dynamics of traffic over the network. We consider global properties and local properties within the communication graph. A method for monitoring relative entropy on multiple correlated properties is discussed in detail.

  17. Spacecraft environmental anomalies expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koons, H. C.; Gorney, D. J.

    1988-01-01

    A microcomputer-based expert system is being developed at the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory to assist in the diagnosis of satellite anomalies caused by the space environment. The expert system is designed to address anomalies caused by surface charging, bulk charging, single event effects and total radiation dose. These effects depend on the orbit of the satellite, the local environment (which is highly variable), the satellite exposure time and the hardness of the circuits and components of the satellite. The expert system is a rule-based system that uses the Texas Instruments Personal Consultant Plus expert system shell. The completed expert system knowledge base will include 150 to 200 rules, as well as a spacecraft attributes database, an historical spacecraft anomalies database, and a space environment database which is updated in near real-time. Currently, the expert system is undergoing development and testing within the Aerospace Corporation Space Sciences Laboratory.

  18. Using airborne magnetic data to map folding and faulting in sedimentary layers: implications for seismic hazard (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Jachens, R. C.; Phelps, G. A.; Simpson, R. W.

    2010-12-01

    broken”. The dips of the magnetic layers can be estimated from modeling of reduced-to-pole anomalies. A vertical tabular body or symmetrical anticline produces a symmetric magnetic anomaly high centered over the body, with adjacent lows on that are the same shape and amplitude. If the tabular body or fold axis is not vertical, the low on the side toward the dip direction will be diminished relative to the low on the opposite side. The discrepancy becomes more pronounced as the dip shallows. Many of the magnetic bodies trend northwest and dip to the northeast, as expected for interleaving of tectonic blocks within the Franciscan Complex. Seismicity suggests that some of these features may be reactivated. Thus aeromagnetic data map structures that may be accommodating strain between the San Andreas and Maacama faults and that may warrant additional study.

  19. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    While the preliminary magnetic anomaly map for the centra midcontinent is only in the hand-drawn stage, it agrees in broad aspects with the preliminary global MAGSAT map provided by NASA. Because of data evaluation and finer scale averaging, there are more detailed features which hold promise for eventual geological/crustal interpretation. Some current analysis is directed at examining whether a map data feature such as an elongated anomaly or trend, which seems parallel to satellite data tracks, is likely of crustal origin or is an artifact of the data set.

  20. Teleconnection of the 1997 El Nino Observed by Spaceborne Sensors and the Dacadal Anomalies in the Northeast Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W.; Hu, H.; Xie, X.

    1999-01-01

    Liu et al.[1998] (hereafter referred as LTH), superimposed wind velocity anomalies observed by the NASA Scatterometer (NSCAT) on the map of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the Pacific at the end of May 1997, and illustrated that the three regions of anomalous warming in the North Pacific Ocean are related to wind anomalies through different mechanisms.

  1. Maps showing mines, quarries, oil and gas activity, and sample localities in and near the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Mory, P.C.; Behum, P.T.; Ross, R.B. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents the results of a mineral survey of the Sipsey Wilderness and additions, William B. Bankhead National Forest, Lawrence and Winston Counties, Alabama. The survey includes: limestone quarrying, coal mining, and oil and gas activity. 7 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Teachers' Awareness and Use of Scales to Map the Progress of Children Who Speak English as an Additional Language or Dialect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Courcy, Michele; Adoniou, Misty; Ngoc, Doan Ba

    2014-01-01

    With the development of the English as an Additional Language or Dialect (EAL/D) Teacher Resource, the educational needs and outcomes of refugee and immigrant children have been placed on the national mainstream teaching agenda. This new national resource sits alongside a plethora of other resources, known as scales and standards, which have been…

  3. Thermal anomalies in stressed Teflon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. H.; Wulff, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    In the course of testing polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon) as a calorimetric gasketing material, serendipity revealed a thermal anomaly in stressed film that occurs concomitantly with the well-documented 25 C transition. The magnitude of the excess energy absorption - about 35 cal/g - is suggested to be related to the restricted thermal expansion of the film.

  4. Numerical anomalies mimicking physical effects

    SciTech Connect

    Menikoff, R.

    1995-09-01

    Numerical simulations of flows with shock waves typically use finite-difference shock-capturing algorithms. These algorithms give a shock a numerical width in order to generate the entropy increase that must occur across a shock wave. For algorithms in conservation form, steady-state shock waves are insensitive to the numerical dissipation because of the Hugoniot jump conditions. However, localized numerical errors occur when shock waves interact. Examples are the ``excess wall heating`` in the Noh problem (shock reflected from rigid wall), errors when a shock impacts a material interface or an abrupt change in mesh spacing, and the start-up error from initializing a shock as a discontinuity. This class of anomalies can be explained by the entropy generation that occurs in the transient flow when a shock profile is formed or changed. The entropy error is localized spatially but under mesh refinement does not decrease in magnitude. Similar effects have been observed in shock tube experiments with partly dispersed shock waves. In this case, the shock has a physical width due to a relaxation process. An entropy anomaly from a transient shock interaction is inherent in the structure of the conservation equations for fluid flow. The anomaly can be expected to occur whenever heat conduction can be neglected and a shock wave has a non-zero width, whether the width is physical or numerical. Thus, the numerical anomaly from an artificial shock width mimics a real physical effect.

  5. Global gravitational anomalies and transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Subham Dutta; David, Justin R.

    2016-12-01

    We investigate the constraints imposed by global gravitational anomalies on parity odd induced transport coefficients in even dimensions for theories with chiral fermions, gravitinos and self dual tensors. The η-invariant for the large diffeomorphism corresponding to the T transformation on a torus constraints the coefficients in the thermal effective action up to mod 2. We show that the result obtained for the parity odd transport for gravitinos using global anomaly matching is consistent with the direct perturbative calculation. In d = 6 we see that the second Pontryagin class in the anomaly polynomial does not contribute to the η-invariant which provides a topological explanation of this observation in the `replacement rule'. We then perform a direct perturbative calculation for the contribution of the self dual tensor in d = 6 to the parity odd transport coefficient using the Feynman rules proposed by Gaumé and Witten. The result for the transport coefficient agrees with that obtained using matching of global anomalies.

  6. Coral can have growth anomalies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coral growth anomalies (GAs) are changes in the coral cells that deposit the calcium carbonate skeleton. They usually appear as raised areas of the skeleton and tissue that are different from the surrounding normal areas on the same colony. The features include abnormal shape a...

  7. Bony anomaly of Meckel's cave.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Salter, E George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the seemingly rare occurrence of bone formation within the proximal superior aspect of Meckel's cave thus forming a bony foramen for the proximal trigeminal nerve to traverse. The anatomy of Meckel's cave is reviewed and the clinical potential for nerve compression from this bony anomaly discussed.

  8. Gold anomalies and magnetometer profile data, Ester Dome area, Fairbanks district, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, D.L.; Forbes, Robert B.; Hawkins, D.B.

    1969-01-01

    Gold analysis of grab and auger samples of bedrock taken along the new Ester Dome Road reveals that this road cuts several mineralized zones characterized by anomalous concentrations of gold. The results of a magnetometer traverse along this road indicate that the negative magnetic anomalies along the traverse may be correlative with the gold anomalies. The presence of previously unreported gold anomalies indicates that additional prospecting may be warranted.

  9. Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome associated with severe maxillofacial and skeletal anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokcen; Oren, Nisa Cem; Ozgonul, Cem

    2015-01-01

    This article reports an unusual case of Axenfeld-Rieger Syndrome (ARS) associated with severe maxillofacial and skeletal anomalies. A 55-year-old man with ARS revealed interesting and unexpected radiological findings. Severe maxillofacial and skeletal anomalies, in addition to the well-recognized extraocular findings, that occurs in patients with ARS is reported and our case highlights this possible rare association between ARS and maxillofacial and skeletal anomalies. PMID:26097324

  10. The effect of scale on the interpretation of geochemical anomalies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Theobald, P.K.; Eppinger, R.G.; Turner, R.L.; Shiquan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of geochemical surveys changes with scale. Regional surveys identify areas where mineral deposits are most likely to occur, whereas intermediate surveys identify and prioritize specific targets. At detailed scales specific deposit models may be applied and deposits delineated. The interpretation of regional geochemical surveys must take into account scale-dependent difference in the nature and objectives of this type of survey. Overinterpretation of regional data should be resisted, as should recommendations to restrict intermediate or detailed follow-up surveys to the search for specific deposit types or to a too limited suite of elements. Regional surveys identify metallogenic provinces within which a variety of deposit types and metals are most likely to be found. At intermediate scale, these regional provinces often dissipate into discrete clusters of anomalous areas. At detailed scale, individual anomalous areas reflect local conditions of mineralization and may seem unrelated to each other. Four examples from arid environments illustrate the dramatic change in patterns of anomalies between regional and more detailed surveys. On the Arabian Shield, a broad regional anomaly reflects the distribution of highly differentiated anorogenic granites. A particularly prominent part of the regional anomaly includes, in addition to the usual elements related to the granites, the assemblage of Mo, W and Sn. Initial interpretation suggested potential for granite-related, stockwork Mo deposits. Detailed work identified three separate sources for the anomaly: a metal-rich granite, a silicified and stockwork-veined area with scheelite and molybdenite, and scheelite/powellite concentrations in skarn deposits adjacent to a ring-dike complex. Regional geochemical, geophysical and remote-sensing data in the Sonoran Desert, Mexico, define a series of linear features interpreted to reflect fundamental, northeast-trending fractures in the crust that served as the prime

  11. Remanent magnetization and three-dimensional density model of the Kentucky anomaly region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Existing software was modified to handle 3-D density and magnetization models of the Kentucky body and is being tested. Gravity and magnetic anomaly data sets are ready for use. A preliminary block model is under construction using the 1:1,000,000 maps. An x-y grid to overlay the 1:2,500,000 Albers maps and keyed to the 1:1,000,000 scale block models was created. Software was developed to generate a smoothed MAGSAT data set over this grid; this is to be input to an inversion program for generating the regional magnetization map. The regional scale 1:2,500,000 map mosaic is being digitized using previous magnetization models, the U.S. magnetic anomaly map, and regional tectonic maps as a guide.

  12. Ionospheric anomalies observed over South Korea preceding the Great Tohoku earthquake of 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, B. K.; Park, J. U.; Lee, S. J.

    2012-08-01

    We investigated the ionospheric anomalies observed before the Tohoku earthquake, which occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan on 11 March, 2011. Based on data from a ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) network on the Korean Peninsula, ionospheric anomalies were detected in the total electron content (TEC) during the daytime a few days before earthquake. Ionospheric TEC anomalies appeared on 5, 8 and 11 March. In particular, the ionospheric disturbances on 8 March evidenced a remarkable increase in TEC. The GPS TEC variation associated with the Tohoku earthquake was an increase of approximately 20 total electron content units (TECU), observed simultaneously in local and global TEC measurements. To investigate these pre-earthquake ionospheric anomalies, space weather conditions such as the solar activity index (F10.7) and geomagnetic activity indices (the Kp and Dst indices) were examined. We also created two-dimensional TEC maps to visual the spatial variations in the ionospheric anomalies preceding the earthquake.

  13. Gravity anomaly and geoid undulation results in local areas from GEOS-3 altimeter data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rapp, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The adjusted GEOS-3 altimeter data, taken as averages within a data frame, have been used to construct free air anomaly and geoid undulation profiles and maps in areas of geophysical interest. Profiles were constructed across the Philippine Trench (at a latitude of 6 deg) and across the Bonin Trench (at a latitude of 28 deg). In the latter case an anomaly variation of 443 mgals in 143 km was derived from the altimeter data. These variations agreed reasonably with terrestrial estimates, considering the predicted point accuracy was about + or - 27 mgals. An area over the Patton Sea mounts was also investigated with the altimeter anomaly field agreeing well with the terrestrial data except for the point directly over the top of the sea mount. It is concluded that the GEOS-3 altimeter data is valuable not only for determining 5 deg and 1 deg x 1 deg mean anomalies, but also can be used to describe more local anomaly variations.

  14. Aeromagnetic survey map of Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Three aeromagnetic surveys were flown to improve understanding of the geology and structure in the Sacramento Valley. The resulting data serve as a basis for geophysical interpretations, and support geological mapping, water and mineral resource investigations, and other topical studies. Local spatial variations in the Earth's magnetic field (evident as anomalies on aeromagnetic maps) reflect the distribution of magnetic minerals, primarily magnetite, in the underlying rocks. In many cases the volume content of magnetic minerals can be related to rock type, and abrupt spatial changes in the amount of magnetic minerals commonly mark lithologic or structural boundaries. Bodies of serpentinite and other mafic and ultramafic rocks tend to produce the most intense positive magnetic anomalies (for example, in the northwest part of the map). These rock types are the inferred sources, concealed beneath weakly magnetic, valley-fill deposits, of the most prominent magnetic features in the map area, the magnetic highs that extend along the valley axis. Cenozoic volcanic rocks are also an important source of magnetic anomalies and coincide with short-wavelength anomalies that can be either positive (strong central positive anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude negative anomalies) or negative (strong central negative anomaly flanked by lower-amplitude positive anomalies), reflecting the contribution of remanent magnetization. Rocks with more felsic compositions or even some sedimentary units also can cause measurable magnetic anomalies. For example, the long, linear, narrow north-trending anomalies (with amplitudes of <50 nanoteslas [nT]) along the western margin of the valley coincide with exposures of the Mesozoic Great Valley sequence. Note that isolated, short-wavelength anomalies, such as those in the city of Sacramento and along some of the major roads, are caused by manmade features.

  15. 3D Inversion of Gravity Anomalies for the Interpretation of Sedimentary Basins using Variable Density Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Ertekin, Can

    2015-04-01

    Concern about sedimentary basins is generally related to their genetic and economic significance. Analysis of sedimentary basins requires the acquisition of data through outcrop studies and subsurface investigations that encompass drilling and geophysics. These data are commonly analysed by computer-assisted techniques. One of these methods is based on analysing gravity anomalies to compute the depth of sedimentary basin-basement rock interface. Sedimentary basins produce negative gravity anomalies, because they have mostly lower densities than that of the surrounding basement rocks. Density variations in a sedimentary fill increase rapidly at shallower depths then gradually reach the density of surrounding basement rocks due to the geostatic pressure i.e. compaction. The decrease of the density contrast can be easily estimated by a quadratic function. Hence, if the densities are chosen properly and the regional background is removed correctly, the topographical relief of the sedimentary basin-basement rock interface might be estimated by the inversion of the gravity data using an exponential density-depth relation. Three dimensional forward modelling procedure can be carried out by introducing a Cartesian coordinate system, and placing vertical prisms just below observation points on the grid plane. Depth to the basement, namely depths to the bottom of the vertical prisms are adjusted in an iterative manner by minimizing the differences between measured and calculated residual gravity anomalies. In this study, we present a MATLAB-based inversion code for the interpretation of sedimentary basins by approximating the topographical relief of sedimentary basin-basement rock interfaces. For a given gridded residual gravity anomaly map, the procedure estimates the bottom depths of vertical prisms by considering some published formulas and assumptions. The utility of the developed inversion code was successfully tested on theoretically produced gridded gravity data set

  16. Planck CMB anomalies: astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects and the curse of masking

    SciTech Connect

    Rassat, A.; Starck, J.-L.; Paykari, P.; Sureau, F.; Bobin, J. E-mail: jstarck@cea.fr E-mail: florent.sureau@cea.fr

    2014-08-01

    Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes will be made available for download here http://www.cosmostat.org/anomaliesCMB.html.

  17. Surveying the South Pole-Aitken basin magnetic anomaly for remnant impactor metallic iron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cahill, Joshua T.S.; Hagerty, Justin J.; Lawrence, David M.; Klima, Rachel L.; Blewett, David T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon has areas of magnetized crust ("magnetic anomalies"), the origins of which are poorly constrained. A magnetic anomaly near the northern rim of South Pole-Aitken (SPA) basin was recently postulated to originate from remnant metallic iron emplaced by the SPA basin-forming impactor. Here, we remotely examine the regolith of this SPA magnetic anomaly with a combination of Clementine and Lunar Prospector derived iron maps for any evidence of enhanced metallic iron content. We find that these data sets do not definitively detect the hypothesized remnant metallic iron within the upper tens of centimeters of the lunar regolith.

  18. Cognitive Achievement and Motivation in Hands-on and Teacher-Centred Science Classes: Does an additional hands-on consolidation phase (concept mapping) optimise cognitive learning at work stations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerstner, Sabine; Bogner, Franz X.

    2010-05-01

    Our study monitored the cognitive and motivational effects within different educational instruction schemes: On the one hand, teacher-centred versus hands-on instruction; on the other hand, hands-on instruction with and without a knowledge consolidation phase (concept mapping). All the instructions dealt with the same content. For all participants, the hands-on approach as well as the concept mapping adaptation were totally new. Our hands-on approach followed instruction based on "learning at work stations". A total of 397 high-achieving fifth graders participated in our study. We used a pre-test, post-test, retention test design both to detect students' short-term learning success and long-term learning success, and to document their decrease rates of newly acquired knowledge. Additionally, we monitored intrinsic motivation. Although the teacher-centred approach provided higher short-term learning success, hands-on instruction resulted in relatively lower decrease rates. However, after six weeks, all students reached similar levels of newly acquired knowledge. Nevertheless, concept mapping as a knowledge consolidation phase positively affected short-term increase in knowledge. Regularly placed in instruction, it might increase long-term retention rates. Scores of interest, perceived competence and perceived choice were very high in all the instructional schemes.

  19. Major congenital anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome: a EUROCAT population-based registry study.

    PubMed

    Morris, Joan K; Garne, Ester; Wellesley, Diana; Addor, Marie-Claude; Arriola, Larraitz; Barisic, Ingeborg; Beres, Judit; Bianchi, Fabrizio; Budd, Judith; Dias, Carlos Matias; Gatt, Miriam; Klungsoyr, Kari; Khoshnood, Babak; Latos-Bielenska, Anna; Mullaney, Carmel; Nelen, Vera; Neville, Amanda J; O'Mahony, Mary; Queisser-Luft, Annette; Randrianaivo, Hanitra; Rankin, Judith; Rissmann, Anke; Rounding, Cath; Sipek, Antonin; Stoianova, Sylvia; Tucker, David; de Walle, Hermien; Yevtushok, Lyubov; Loane, Maria; Dolk, Helen

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that over 40% of babies with Down syndrome have a major cardiac anomaly and are more likely to have other major congenital anomalies. Since 2000, many countries in Europe have introduced national antenatal screening programs for Down syndrome. This study aimed to determine if the introduction of these screening programs and the subsequent termination of prenatally detected pregnancies were associated with any decline in the prevalence of additional anomalies in babies born with Down syndrome. The study sample consisted of 7,044 live births and fetal deaths with Down syndrome registered in 28 European population-based congenital anomaly registries covering seven million births during 2000-2010. Overall, 43.6% (95% CI: 42.4-44.7%) of births with Down syndrome had a cardiac anomaly and 15.0% (14.2-15.8%) had a non-cardiac anomaly. Female babies with Down syndrome were significantly more likely to have a cardiac anomaly compared to male babies (47.6% compared with 40.4%, P < 0.001) and significantly less likely to have a non-cardiac anomaly (12.9% compared with 16.7%, P < 0.001). The prevalence of cardiac and non-cardiac congenital anomalies in babies with Down syndrome has remained constant, suggesting that population screening for Down syndrome and subsequent terminations has not influenced the prevalence of specific congenital anomalies in these babies.

  20. Echocardiographic assessment of Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Booker, Oscar J; Nanda, Navin C

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a complex congenital lesion which primarily involves the tricuspid valve. The tricuspid leaflets are tethered to varying degrees to the right ventricular free wall and the ventricular septum often resulting in significant tricuspid regurgitation and a small functioning right ventricular chamber. Although the septal leaflet originates normally at the right atrioventricular junction, the proximal portion is often completely tethered to the ventricular septum resulting in a misconception and erroneous statements in many publications that its attachment is apically displaced. Although two-dimensional echocardiography represents the primary modality for the diagnosis of this anomaly, three-dimensional echocardiography provides incremental value in characterizing the extent and severity of tethering of individual tricuspid valve leaflets. This information is useful in surgical decision making whether to repair or replace the tricuspid valve.

  1. [Ectopia cordis and cardiac anomalies].

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Alberto; Rodrigo, David; Luis, María Teresa; Pastor, Esteban; Galdeano, José Miguel; Esteban, Susana

    2002-11-01

    Ectopia cordis is a rare disease that occurs in 5.5 to 7.9 per million live births. Only 267 cases had been reported as of 2001, most (95%) associated with other cardiac anomalies. We studied the cardiac malformations associated in 6 patients with ectopia cordis. Depending on where the defect was located, the cases of ectopia were classified into four groups: cervical, thoracic, thoraco-abdominal, and abdominal. All 6 patients died before the third day of life, 4 during delivery. Three of the patients were included in the thoracic group, whereas the other 3 belonged to the thoraco-abdominal group. All the patients had associated ventricular septal defects, 3 double-outlet right ventricle (50%) and the rest (50%) tetralogy of Fallot-pulmonary atresia. Two patients with double-outlet right ventricle presented mitral-valve pathology, a parachute valve and an atresic mitral valve. None of these cardiac anomalies have been reported to date.

  2. Survey of Anomaly Detection Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, B

    2006-10-12

    This survey defines the problem of anomaly detection and provides an overview of existing methods. The methods are categorized into two general classes: generative and discriminative. A generative approach involves building a model that represents the joint distribution of the input features and the output labels of system behavior (e.g., normal or anomalous) then applies the model to formulate a decision rule for detecting anomalies. On the other hand, a discriminative approach aims directly to find the decision rule, with the smallest error rate, that distinguishes between normal and anomalous behavior. For each approach, we will give an overview of popular techniques and provide references to state-of-the-art applications.

  3. Congenital pancreatic anomalies, variants, and conditions.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Lauren F

    2012-05-01

    Understanding pancreatic development and the congenital anomalies and variants that result from alterations in normal development allows for better recognition of these anomalies at diagnostic imaging. This article reviews normal pancreatic embryology and anatomy, and the appearance of the more common developmental anomalies and ductal variants, with emphasis on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Common mimics of masses are also covered.

  4. Syndromes and anomalies associated with cleft

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesh, R.

    2009-01-01

    Orofacial clefts are one of the commonest birth defects, and may be associated with other congenital anomalies. The majority of these orofacial clefts are nonsyndromic. A significant percentage of these clefts both syndromic and non-syndromic may have associated anomalies. Apart from reviewing other studies, this article also analyses a study of associated anomalies from a tertiary cleft centre in India. PMID:19884681

  5. Fast Anomaly Discovery Given Duplicates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    skipping the computations for duplicate points in SN(ui) that have ci larger than k, the runtime complexity is enhanced significantly. That is, in...Fast anomaly discovery given duplicates Jay-Yoon Lee, U Kang, Danai Koutra, Christos Faloutsos Dec 2012 CMU-CS-12-146 School of Computer Science...ES) Carnegie Mellon University,School of Computer Science,Pittsburgh,PA,15213 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING

  6. Isotopic anomalies in extraterrestrial grains.

    PubMed

    Ireland, T R

    1996-03-01

    Isotopic compositions are referred to as anomalous if the isotopic ratios measured cannot be related to the terrestrial (solar) composition of a given element. While small effects close to the resolution of mass spectrometric techniques can have ambiguous origins, the discovery of large isotopic anomalies in inclusions and grains from primitive meteorites suggests that material from distinct sites of stellar nucleosynthesis has been preserved. Refractory inclusions, which are predominantly composed of the refractory oxides of Al, Ca, Ti, and Mg, in chondritic meteorites commonly have excesses in the heaviest isotopes of Ca, Ti, and Cr which are inferred to have been produced in a supernova. Refractory inclusions also contain excess 26Mg from short lived 26Al decay. However, despite the isotopic anomalies indicating the preservation of distinct nucleosynthetic sites, refractory inclusions have been processed in the solar system and are not interstellar grains. Carbon (graphite and diamond) and silicon carbide grains from the same meteorites also have large isotopic anomalies but these phases are not stable in the oxidized solar nebula which suggests that they are presolar and formed in the circumstellar atmospheres of carbon-rich stars. Diamond has a characteristic signature enriched in the lightest and heaviest isotopes of Xe, and graphite shows a wide range in C isotopic compositions. SiC commonly has C and N isotopic signatures which are characteristic of H-burning in the C-N-O cycle in low-mass stars. Heavier elements such as Si, Ti, Xe, Ba, and Nd, carry an isotopic signature of the s-process. A minor population of SiC (known as Grains X, ca. 1%) are distinct in having decay products of short lived isotopes 26Al (now 26Mg), 44Ti (now 44Ca), and 49V (now 49Ti), as well as 28Si excesses which are characteristic of supernova nucleosynthesis. The preservation of these isotopic anomalies allows the examination of detailed nucleosynthetic pathways in stars.

  7. Astrometric Solar-System Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, John D.

    2009-05-01

    There are four unexplained anomalies connected with astrometric data. Perhaps the most disturbing is the fact that when a spacecraft on a flyby trajectory approaches the Earth within 2000 km or less, it experiences a gain in total orbital energy per unit mass (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 091102). This amounts to a net velocity increase of 13.5 mm/s for the NEAR spacecraft at a closest approach of 539 km, 3.9 mm/s for the Galileo spacecraft at 960 km, and 1.8 mm/s for the Rosetta spacecraft at 1956 km. Next, I suggest the change in the astronomical unit AU is definitely a concern. It is increasing by about 15 cm/yr (Krasinsky and Brumberg, Celes. Mech. & Dynam. Astron. 90, 267). The other two anomalies are perhaps less disturbing because of known sources of nongravitational acceleration. The first is an apparent slowing of the two Pioneer spacecraft as they exit the solar system in opposite directions (Anderson et al., Phys. Rev. D 65, 082004). Some, including me, are convinced this effect is of concern, but many are convinced it is produced by a nearly identical thermal emission from both spacecraft, in a direction away from the Sun, thereby producing acceleration toward the Sun. The fourth anomaly is a measured increase in the eccentricity of the Moon's orbit. Here again, an increase is expected from tidal friction in both the Earth and Moon. However, there is a reported increase that is about three times larger than expected (J. G. Williams, DDA/AAS Brouwer Award Lecture, Halifax, Nova Scotia 2006). We suspect that all four anomalies have mundane explanations. However, the possibility that they will be explained by a new theory of gravitation is not ruled out, perhaps analogous to Einstein's 1916 explanation of the excess precession of Mercury's perihelion.

  8. New analytic solutions for modeling vertical gravity gradient anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Seung-Sep; Wessel, Paul

    2016-05-01

    Modern processing of satellite altimetry for use in marine gravimetry involves computing the along-track slopes of observed sea-surface heights, projecting them into east-west and north-south deflection of the vertical grids, and using Laplace's equation to algebraically obtain a grid of the vertical gravity gradient (VGG). The VGG grid is then integrated via overlapping, flat Earth Fourier transforms to yield a free-air anomaly grid. Because of this integration and associated edge effects, the VGG grid retains more short-wavelength information (e.g., fracture zone and seamount signatures) that is of particular importance for plate tectonic investigations. While modeling of gravity anomalies over arbitrary bodies has long been a standard undertaking, similar modeling of VGG anomalies over oceanic features is not commonplace yet. Here we derive analytic solutions for VGG anomalies over simple bodies and arbitrary 2-D and 3-D sources. We demonstrate their usability in determining mass excess and deficiency across the Mendocino fracture zone (a 2-D feature) and find the best bulk density estimate for Jasper seamount (a 3-D feature). The methodologies used herein are implemented in the Generic Mapping Tools, available from gmt.soest.hawaii.edu.

  9. Columbus Payloads Flow Rate Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quaranta, Albino; Bufano, Gaetana; DePalo, Savino; Holt, James M.; Szigetvari, Zoltan; Palumberi, Sergio; Hinderer, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Columbus Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) is the main thermal bus for the pressurized racks working inside the European laboratory. One of the ATCS goals is to provide proper water flow rate to each payload (P/L) by controlling actively the pressure drop across the common plenum distribution piping. Overall flow measurement performed by the Water Pump Assembly (WPA) is the only flow rate monitor available at system level and is not part of the feedback control system. At rack activation the flow rate provided by the system is derived on ground by computing the WPA flow increase. With this approach, several anomalies were raised during these 3 years on-orbit, with the indication of low flow rate conditions on the European racks FSL, BioLab, EDR and EPM. This paper reviews the system and P/Ls calibration approach, the anomalies occurred, the engineering evaluation on the measurement approach and the accuracy improvements proposed, the on-orbit test under evaluation with NASA and finally discusses possible short and long term solutions in case of anomaly confirmation.

  10. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    DOE PAGES

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; ...

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads tomore » new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.« less

  11. Anomalies, conformal manifolds, and spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Gomis, Jaume; Hsin, Po-Shen; Komargodski, Zohar; Schwimmer, Adam; Seiberg, Nathan; Theisen, Stefan

    2016-03-04

    The two-point function of exactly marginal operators leads to a universal contribution to the trace anomaly in even dimensions. We study aspects of this trace anomaly, emphasizing its interpretation as a sigma model, whose target space $M$ is the space of conformal field theories (a.k.a. the conformal manifold). When the underlying quantum field theory is supersymmetric, this sigma model has to be appropriately supersymmetrized. As examples, we consider in some detail $N$ = (2; 2) and $N$ = (0; 2) supersymmetric theories in d = 2 and $N$ = 2 supersymmetric theories in d = 4. This reasoning leads to new information about the conformal manifolds of these theories, for example, we show that the manifold is K ahler-Hodge and we further argue that it has vanishing K ahler class. For $N$ = (2; 2) theories in d = 2 and N = 2 theories in d = 4 we also show that the relation between the sphere partition function and the K ahler potential of $M$ follows immediately from the appropriate sigma models that we construct. Ultimately, along the way we find several examples of potential trace anomalies that obey the Wess-Zumino consistency conditions, but can be ruled out by a more detailed analysis.

  12. Entanglement entropy and anomaly inflow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Taylor L.; Leigh, Robert G.; Parrikar, Onkar; Ramamurthy, Srinidhi T.

    2016-03-01

    We study entanglement entropy for parity-violating (time-reversal breaking) quantum field theories on R1 ,2 in the presence of a domain wall between two distinct parity-odd phases. The domain wall hosts a 1 +1 -dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) with nontrivial chiral central charge. Such a CFT possesses gravitational anomalies. It has been shown recently that, as a consequence, its intrinsic entanglement entropy is sensitive to Lorentz boosts around the entangling surface. Here, we show using various methods that the entanglement entropy of the three-dimensional bulk theory is also sensitive to such boosts owing to parity-violating effects, and that the bulk response to a Lorentz boost precisely cancels the contribution coming from the domain wall CFT. We argue that this can naturally be interpreted as entanglement inflow (i.e., inflow of entanglement entropy analogous to the familiar Callan-Harvey effect) between the bulk and the domain-wall, mediated by the low-lying states in the entanglement spectrum. These results can be generally applied to 2 +1 -d topological phases of matter that have edge theories with gravitational anomalies, and provide a precise connection between the gravitational anomaly of the physical edge theory and the low-lying spectrum of the entanglement Hamiltonian.

  13. Surgical treatment of cloacal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Krstic, Z D; Lukac, M; Lukac, R; Smoljanic, Z; Vukadinovic, V; Varinac, D

    2001-05-01

    From 1989-1998 14 patients were treated with cloacal anomalies: 5 typical cloacas (PC), 5 posterior cloacas, and 4 cloacal exstrophies (CE); 12 underwent surgery. Four typical cloacas were resolved with posterior sagittal anorectovagino-urethroplasty (PSARVUP), whereas in the 5th total urogenital mobilization (TUM) was used. Three PCs were managed with transanorectal TUM and 2 with anterior TUM without opening the anal canal and rectum (without a protective colostomy). Two CEs were treated with atypical procedures. Two patients with CE died without surgery and 2 died after surgery due to complex associated anomalies. During postoperative follow-up of 1-8 years, 5 children had voluntary bowel movements and no soiling while the others had soiling with or without enemas; 1 had stress incontinence; 3 were on clean intermittent catheterization due to neurogenic bladder and were dry. PSARVUP provides a satisfactory result if there is no sacral anomaly. TUM makes this operation easier to perform. In patients with a PC it is sometimes possible using TUM to separate the urinary from the genital tract and remove the accessory urethra without opening the anus and rectum.

  14. Italy - Adriatic Sea - Barbara - A giant gas field marked by seismic velocity anomaly - A subtle trap

    SciTech Connect

    Ianniello, A.; Bolelli, W.; Di Scala, L. )

    1990-09-01

    Barbara gas field, discovered in 1971, is located in the northern sector of the Adriatic offshore. The field is a gentle anticline involving Quaternary clastic sediments and shaped by carbonate Mesozoic morphology. The presence of shallow gas pockets at the crest of the structure distort the seismic signal to such an extent that structural reconstruction using seismic data is not possible. Moreover, time delays and ray-path anomalies do not allow the use of staking velocities for the depth conversion. Seismic attribute analysis, instead of velocities, and time delays on the isochrone maps are providing a key to the understanding of seismic anomalies and are an indirect tool for reconstructing the real structural configuration of the field. The appraisal story of the field illustrates how the previously mentioned complications influenced its delineation and how an understanding of these complications helped in upgrading the reserves from an initial value of 10 billion ECM of gas to 40 billion ECM. Additional data acquired with the development wells tend to increase the estimate. Therefore, Barbara field is the most important Italian gas field of the decade. The producing formation is composed of very thin-bedded sandstone and shale intercalations, representing the peculiarity of this reservoir. Development of the field is being achieved with six production platforms and 72 wells.

  15. Congenital anomalies of the urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Hans G; Belman, A Barry

    2014-01-01

    The upper urinary tract forms as a consequence of the reciprocal inductive signals between the metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud. A clue to the timing of events leading to an abnormality of the upper urinary tract can be the presence also of associated anomalies of internal genitalia since separation of these systems occurs at about the 10th week of gestation. Prenatal sonography has facilitated the detection of urological abnormalities presenting with hydronephrosis. Hydronephrosis suggests obstruction, but by itself cannot be equated with it. Instead, further radiographic imaging is required to delineate anatomy and function. Now, moreover, non-surgical management of CAKUT should be considered whenever possible. Despite the widespread use of prenatal screening sonography that usually identifies the majority of congenital anomalies of the urinary tract, many children still present with febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). Regardless of the etiology for the presentation, the goal of management is preservation of renal function through mitigation of the risk for recurrent UTI and/or obstruction. In the past many children underwent surgical repair aimed at normalization of the appearance of the urinary tract. Today, management has evolved such that in most cases surgical reconstruction is performed only after a period of observation - with or without urinary prophylaxis. The opinions presented in this section are not espoused by all pediatric urologists but represent instead the practice that has evolved at Children's National Medical Center (Washington DC) based significantly on information obtained by nuclear renography, in addition to sonography and contrast cystography.

  16. Magnetic Anomaly Lineations in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Y.; Nakanishi, M.; Tamaki, K.; Fujimoto, H.; Huchon, P.; Leroy, S.; Styles, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present the magnetic anomaly lineations in the Gulf of Aden to expose the seafloor spreading history. The Gulf of Aden is a young ocean basin formed by the rifting of Arabia Plate away from Somalia Plate. The Arabian plate moves away from Somalia Plate in an NE direction, at a rate of about 2 cm/yr. The rifting started from Oligocene (Bosworth et al., 2005). Seafloor spreading started at about 20 Ma in the eastern part of the Gulf of Aden (Fournier et al., 2010) and propagated westward into the Arabia-Africa continent (Manighetti et al., 1997). It reached the Afar hotspot area about 10 Ma (Audin et al., 2001). The spreading system continues to interact with the hotspot up to the present. Tamsett and Searle (1988) exposed that strike of segmentations of the spreading centers in the Gulf of Aden is NW-SE, although the trend of the spreading system is ENE. We examined magnetic anomaly data collected in the cruises by R/V L'Atalante in 1995 and R/V Hakuho-maru from 2000 to 2001 as well as those collected in other cruises. Elongated negative magnetic anomalies, which amplitude are more than 500 nT, are observed over the spreading centers. Most of the elongated anomalies are parallel with the spreading centers. The elongated magnetic anomalies west of 46 30'E have an E-W trend around the spreading centers. Several discontinuities in the magnetic anomaly contour map illustrate the position of the fracture zones concealed by sediments. Most of magnetic anomaly lineations east of 46 30'E have an N60-65 W strike. Our identification of magnetic anomaly lineations indicates a symmetric seafloor spreading with a spreading rate of about 1.0 cm/yr, although Leroy et al. (2004) showed an asymmetric seafloor spreading of the Sheba Ridge, east of our study area. The kinematics of the Arabia plate changed about 5 Ma, but our results did not show any coeval change in spreading rates of the spreading system in the Gulf of Aden.

  17. Magnetic Anomalies in the South of Corad Rise, the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Y.; Ikehara, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kameo, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kita, S.

    2008-12-01

    Seafloor age estimated from magnetic anomalies in the Southern Indian Ocean are vital to understanding the fragmentation process of the Gondwana, but the seafloor age still remain less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. To understand the seafloor spreading history related to the Gondwana breakup, total intensity and vector geomagnetic field measurements as well as swath bathymetry mapping were conducted during the R/V Hakuho-maru cruise KH-07-4 Leg3 in the Southern Indian Ocean between Cape Town, South Africa, and off Lützow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Magnetic anomaly data have been collected along WNW-ESE trending structures of unknown origin inferred from satellite gravity anomalies just to the south of Conrad Rise. We have also collected magnetic anomaly data along NNE-SSW trending lineaments from satellite gravity anomaly data between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lützow-Holm Bay. Magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 500 nT, originating from normal and reversed magnetization of oceanic crust, are detected along the WNW-ESE trending structures just to the south of Conrad Rise. These magnetic anomalies possibly belong to Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence and this shows the part of the oceanic crust just to the south of the Conrad Rise formed before the long Cretaceous normal polarity superchron although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. Magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 300 nT are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lützow-Holm Bay, and most likely indicate Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence. These suggest the extinct spreading axes in the south of Conrad Rise and complicated seafloor spreading history in this area.

  18. Vertebral and Intraspinal Anomalies in Indian Population with Congenital Scoliosis: A Study of 119 Consecutive Patients

    PubMed Central

    S, Rajasekaran; G, Balamurali; Shetty, Ajoy

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective case study by clinical and radiological data analysis. Purpose To analyze different types of vertebral anomalies and the incidence of associated intraspinal anomalies in the Indian population. Overview of Literature This is the largest study of congenital scoliosis and associated intraspinal anomalies in Indian population. Incidence of intraspinal anomaly in this series is 47% which is higher than previous literature. Hemivertebra was the most common anomaly as seen in previous studies. Methods A total of 119 patients with congenital scoliosis who underwent surgery between December 2006 and December 2012 were studied. Data was reviewed with medical records, plain radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans. Results Thoracolumbar curve was most common, seen in 43.6% of patients. In addition to scoliotic deformity, kyphosis was seen in 26% of patients. Failure of formation, the most common vertebral anomaly, was seen in 51.2% of patients, failure of segmentation was seen in 19.3% of patients, and there were 29.4% patients having both formation and segmentation anomalies. Hemivertebra was the most common vertebral anomaly seen in 66.3% of patients and for whom 63.2% were in thoracic spine. Intraspinal anomalies were associated with 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis. Tethered cord was the most common intraspinal abnormality and was found in 48.2% patients with intraspinal anomalies. The patients with failure of segmentation and mixed deformities were found to have a significantly higher incidence of intraspinal anomalies (65% and 57%, respectively) than those with failure of formation (34%). Out of 31 patients with kyphotic deformity 29% had intraspinal anomalies, and amongst them tethered cord was the most common anomaly seen in 66% patients. Out of 12 patients with neurocutaneous markers, 83% patients had intraspinal anomaly. Conclusions Intraspinal anomalies were seen in 47% of patients with congenital scoliosis in the

  19. Magnetic Anomaly Caused By Lightning On Archaeological Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verrier, V.; Mathe, P. E.; Rochette, P.; Jones, G.

    Recent developments in archeological surveying have seen the emergence of mag- netic methods, commonly involving near surface measurements of low field magnetic susceptibility. However, these technics remain inefficient to detect either deep buried features or material which susceptibility constrast with the enclosing material is too low. An alternate way to assess site location and archeological features in these cases is provided by the mapping of total magnetic field or field gradient anomalies, due to the induced or remanent magnetizations of the material. REFERENCES : Verrier, V., Rochette, P., Richard, P. and Lojou, J.Y., Paleomagnetic expertise of ground lightning impacts, in 25th Int. Conf. Lightning Protection, Rhodos, p. 166-169, 2000. When remanence dominate, the archeological signal may be complicated by the su- perimposition of an anomaly due to lightning. Locally, the electric discharge generates a strong pulse of magnetic field. The materials around an impact acquired a lightning induced remanent magnetization (LIRM) which endures as long as the materials are not removed. In order to characterize the LIRM signature, some studies were realised on struck sites where the impact point is known. In each case, the LIRM hypothesis was tested on discrete samples collected around the impact, on which the lightning magnetic field intensity was determined (Verrier, 2000). The typical LIRM anomaly was also mapped with the G-858 MagMapper. It consists in a relatively strong dipole associated with maxima that are usually not aligned SN, clearly distinguishable from the archeological signature.

  20. GPR anomaly detection with robust principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masarik, Matthew P.; Burns, Joseph; Thelen, Brian T.; Kelly, Jack; Havens, Timothy C.

    2015-05-01

    This paper investigates the application of Robust Principal Component Analysis (RPCA) to ground penetrating radar as a means to improve GPR anomaly detection. The method consists of a preprocessing routine to smoothly align the ground and remove the ground response (haircut), followed by mapping to the frequency domain, applying RPCA, and then mapping the sparse component of the RPCA decomposition back to the time domain. A prescreener is then applied to the time-domain sparse component to perform anomaly detection. The emphasis of the RPCA algorithm on sparsity has the effect of significantly increasing the apparent signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR) as compared to the original data, thereby enabling improved anomaly detection. This method is compared to detrending (spatial-mean removal) and classical principal component analysis (PCA), and the RPCA-based processing is seen to provide substantial improvements in the apparent SCR over both of these alternative processing schemes. In particular, the algorithm has been applied to both field collected impulse GPR data and has shown significant improvement in terms of the ROC curve relative to detrending and PCA.

  1. Attention focusing and anomaly detection in systems monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing. The technique involves reasoning about the distance between two frequency distributions, and is used to detect both anomalous system parameters and 'broken' causal dependencies. These two forms of information together isolate the locus of anomalous behavior in the system being monitored.

  2. Yield stress anomaly in B2 FeAl

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshimi, K.; Hanada, S.; Yoo, M.H.

    1996-12-31

    The studies on yield stress anomaly of B2 FeAl single crystals are reviewed in this paper. A positive temperature dependence of yield stress, so-called yield stress anomaly, is observed in B2 FeAl in which excess vacancies are fully annealed out. Associated with the anomaly, characteristic asymmetry is found between tension and compression. While the strain-rate sensitivity is almost zero in the temperature range of the yield stress anomaly, the stress relaxation becomes significant with increasing temperature, indicating that a recovery process is thermally activated. It is ascertained by the two-surface trace analysis that slip transition from <111> direction at intermediate temperature to <100> at high temperature occurs around the peak temperature. Even at the peak temperature, in addition, operative slip vector for yielding is confirmed to be predominantly <111> by TEM. Also, it is observed that <111>-type superdislocations are frequently climb-dissociated in the temperature range of the anomaly. APB formation on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is energetically favorable, which is in agreement with the Flinn`s calculation for the B2 superlattice that APB energy on {l_brace}111{r_brace} plane is lower than that on {l_brace}110{r_brace} plane. Such an anisotropy of APB energy would offer specific driving force for the climb dissociation on <111> superdislocations. On the basis of the observed results, the anomalous strengthening behavior of B2 FeAl single crystals is discussed.

  3. Frontonasal dysplasia, macroblepharon, eyelid colobomas, ear anomalies, macrostomia, mental retardation and CNS structural anomalies: defining the phenotype.

    PubMed

    Guion-Almeida, M L; Richieri-Costa, A

    2001-04-01

    We report a Brazilian boy, born to normal and nonconsanguineous parents showing, among other signs, brachycephaly, a wide forehead, a widow's peak, hypertelorism, wide palpebral fissures with multiple eyelid colobomas, a broad nasal root, a long philtrum, macrostomia, prominent lips, a high arched palate, a midline alveolar cleft, a small and grooved chin, ear anomalies, structural anomaly of the corpus callosum, and mental retardation. To our knowledge this additional patient defines a particular clinical condition previously reported [Guion-Almeida M.L. Richieri-Costa A. (1999) Clinical Dysmorphol 8;1-4; Masuno M. et al. (2000) Clin Dysmorphol 9:59-60].

  4. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  5. Satellite GN and C Anomaly Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Brent; Stoneking, Eric

    2003-01-01

    On-orbit anomaly records for satellites launched from 1990 through 2001 are reviewed to determine recent trends of un-manned space mission critical failures. Anomalies categorized by subsystems show that Guidance, Navigation and Control (GN&C) subsystems have a high number of anomalies that result in a mission critical failure when compared to other subsystems. A mission critical failure is defined as a premature loss of a satellite or loss of its ability to perform its primary mission during its design life. The majority of anomalies are shown to occur early in the mission, usually within one year from launch. GN&C anomalies are categorized by cause and equipment type involved. A statistical analysis of the data is presented for all anomalies compared with the GN&C anomalies for various mission types, orbits and time periods. Conclusions and recommendations are presented for improving mission success and reliability.

  6. Ebstein Anomaly: An Overview for Nursing.

    PubMed

    Johnstad, Christine M; Hecker-Fernandes, Jill Renee; Fernandes, Regis

    2015-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare congenital heart defect. Many nurses have probably never encountered this anomaly, with very few able to accurately depict the pathological anatomy of the condition. As technology further develops, providers are better equipped to recognize and manage Ebstein anomaly. There are important considerations for nurses when caring for an individual with Ebstein anomaly. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the condition exploring the pathophysiology, how patients typically present, and how to effectively care for a patient with Ebstein anomaly regarding medical and surgical courses of treatment. It is important for nurses to have a resource to reference on Ebstein anomaly, and the majority of current literature is solely based for medical providers. Furthermore, Ebstein patients may be seen on a variety of units in the hospital beyond cardiology (i.e., pregnant patient with a diagnosis of Ebstein anomaly).

  7. On global gravity anomalies and two-scale mantle convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, B. D.; Marsh, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    The two-scale model of mantle convection developed by Richter and Parsons (1975) predicts that if the depth of the convective layer is about 600 km, then for a plate moving at 10 cm/yr, longitudinal convective rolls will be produced in about 50 million years, and the strike of these rolls indicates the direction of motion of the plate relative to the upper mantle. The paper tests these predictions by examining a new global free air gravity model complete to the 30th degree and order. The free air gravity map developed shows a series of linear positive and negative anomalies (with transverse wavelengths of about 2000 km) spanning the Pacific Ocean, crossing the Pacific rise and striking parallel to the Hawaiian seamounts. It is suggested that the pattern of these anomalies may indicate the presence of longitudinal convective rolls beneath the Pacific plates, a result which tends to support the predictions of Richter and Parsons.

  8. Origin of the Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly (NW Spain). Implications for the Origin of Magnetic Anomalies in the Central Iberian Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayarza, P.; Martinez-Catalan, J. R.; Villalain, J. J.; Alvarez Lobato, F.; Martin Paramio, M.; Rodriguez Gómez, S.; Sanz López, M.

    2015-12-01

    The aeromagnetic map of Iberia features outstanding anomalies that have been key to define the Central Iberian Arc, a late-orogenic orocline in the western part of the Variscan belt. The most studied of them is the EGMA (Eastern Galicia Magnetic Anomaly), which follows the Lugo-Sanabria extensional dome and is probably associated with it. Among the existing models of this anomaly, those relating it with magnetite-rich inhomogeneous granites and migmatites formed during late-Variscan extension seem to be more plausible ones. However, this and other interpretations involving deep-seated mafic/ultramafic bodies lack resolution as they are based on the aeromagnetic dataset. New ground magnetic data have been acquired in the northern part of the Xistral Tectonic Window, at the core of the Lugo dome where its deepest rocks crop out. The resulting maps show that the anomaly ranges ~1000 nT (vs. 190 nT on the aeromagnetic map) and that the most important maxima lie on top of extensional detachments located on high-grade metasediments or inhomogeneous granites. 2D forward modeling indicates that the magnetization is carried by upper Neoproterozoic and early Cambrian metasediments, partially melted during late-Variscan high-T and low-P metamorphic event linked to the extensional collapse. Furthermore, the anomaly maxima are spatially related with detachments, where the metasediments were strongly sheared. Therefore, the P-T, redox and fluid pressure conditions necessary for the formation of magnetite seem related with the extensional process and the dynamics of its structures. Many magnetic anomalies of the Central Iberian Arc lie on top of Variscan extensional domes and accordingly may have a similar origin. Special attention is paid to the Gredos Magnetic Anomaly, coincident with the batholith of the same name. Preliminary magnetic mapping and modeling indicate that the anomaly is previous to the intrusion of the Jurassic Alentejo-Plasencia dyke and to the tardi

  9. Anomaly induced effects in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Boyarsky, Alexey; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2008-04-01

    We consider a modification of electrodynamics by an additional light massive vector field, interacting with the photon via Chern-Simons-like coupling. This theory predicts observable effects for the experiments studying the propagation of light in an external magnetic field, very similar to those, predicted by theories of axion and axion-like particles. We discuss a possible microscopic origin of this theory from a theory with non-trivial gauge anomaly cancellation between massive and light particles (including, for example, millicharged fermions). Due to the conservation of the gauge current, the production of the new vector field is suppressed at high energies. As a result, this theory can avoid both stellar bounds (which exist for axions) and the bounds from CMB considered recently, allowing for positive results in experiments like ALPS, LIPPS, OSQAR, PVLAS-2, BMV, Q&A, etc.

  10. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    Progress is reported in developing predictive abilities to evaluate the potential stabilities of magnetic minerals in the Earth crust and mantle by: (1) computing oxidation state profiling as a function of temperature and pressure; (2) compiling data on basalts to establish validity of the oxidation state profiles; (3) determining Fe-Ni alloys in association with magnetitie as a function of temperature and oxidation state; and (4) acquiring large chemical data banks on the mineral ilmenite which decomposes to mineral spinel in the presence of high sulfur or carbonate environments in the lower crust upper mantle. In addition to acquiring these data which are related to constraining Curie isotherm depths, an excellent correlation was found between MAGSAT anomaly data and the geology of West Africa.

  11. Five important power line component anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strmiska, Richard G.

    2000-03-01

    During routine infrared surveys of switchyard, substation, distribution components and underground cable installations, several important anomalies have been identified. Five are reported on in this paper: (1) Moisture intrusion into high voltage polymer insulators; (2) Improper installation of a three phase service transformer set; (3) Improper tightening of a bushing connection; (4) Current transformer polyurethane coating encasement failure; (5) Underground cable and fuse enclosure insulator failure. In the first case the extremes of Florida weather, heat, humidity and moisture, contributed to the failure. In all cases, either improved manufacturing design or installation procedures could have prevented these problems. In addition to using infrared thermography as a survey tool, it is highly recommended to be used as a design and installation, baseline-checking tool.

  12. Comparison of liquid-state anomalies in Stillinger-Weber models of water, silicon, and germanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhabal, Debdas; Chakravarty, Charusita; Molinero, Valeria; Kashyap, Hemant K.

    2016-12-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to compare and contrast the liquid-state anomalies in the Stillinger-Weber models of monatomic water (mW), silicon (Si), and germanium (Ge) over a fairly wide range of temperatures and densities. The relationships between structure, entropy, and mobility, as well as the extent of the regions of anomalous behavior, are discussed as a function of the degree of tetrahedrality. We map out the cascade of density, structural, pair entropy, excess entropy, viscosity, and diffusivity anomalies for these three liquids. Among the three liquids studied here, only mW displays anomalies in the thermal conductivity, and this anomaly is evident only at very low temperatures. Diffusivity and viscosity, on the other hand, show pronounced anomalous regions for the three liquids. The temperature of maximum density of the three liquids shows re-entrant behavior consistent with either singularity-free or liquid-liquid critical point scenarios proposed to explain thermodynamic anomalies. The order-map, which shows the evolution of translational versus tetrahedral order in liquids, is different for Ge than for Si and mW. We find that although the monatomic water reproduces several thermodynamic and dynamic properties of rigid-body water models (e.g., SPC/E, TIP4P/2005), its sequence of anomalies follows, the same as Si and Ge, the silica-like hierarchy: the region of dynamic (diffusivity and viscosity) anomalies encloses the region of structural anomalies, which in turn encloses the region of density anomaly. The hierarchy of the anomalies based on excess entropy and Rosenfeld scaling, on the other hand, reverses the order of the structural and dynamic anomalies, i.e., predicts that the three Stillinger-Weber liquids follow a water-like hierarchy of anomalies. We investigate the scaling of diffusivity, viscosity, and thermal conductivity with the excess entropy of the liquid and find that for dynamical properties that present anomalies there is no

  13. Statistical analysis of ionospheric TEC anomalies before global M w ≥ 7.0 earthquakes using data of CODE GIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wenjing; Xu, Liang

    2016-12-01

    Based on Center of Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) global ionospheric map (GIM) data, a statistical analysis of local total electron content (TEC) anomalies before 121 low-depth (D ≤ 100 km) strong (M w ≥ 7.0) earthquakes has been made using the sliding median differential calculation method combining with a new approach of image processing technique. The results show that significant local TEC anomalies could be observed 0-6 days before 80 earthquakes, about 66.1% out of the total. The positive anomalies occur more often than negative ones. For 26 cases, both positive and negative anomalies are observed before the shock. The pre-earthquake TEC anomalies show local time recurrence for 38 earthquakes, which occur around the same local time on different days. The local time distribution of the pre-earthquake TEC anomalies mainly concentrates between 19 and 06 LT, roughly from the sunset to sunrise. Most of the pre-earthquake TEC anomalies do not locate above the epicenter but shift to the south. The pre-earthquake TEC anomalies could be extracted near the magnetic conjugate point of the epicenter for 40 events, which is 50% out of the total 80 cases with significant local TEC anomalies. In general, the signs of the anomalies around epicenter and its conjugate point are the same, but the abnormal magnitude and lasting time are not.

  14. Hot Flow Anomalies at Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collinson, G. A.; Sibeck, David Gary; Boardsen, Scott A.; Moore, Tom; Barabash, S.; Masters, A.; Shane, N.; Slavin, J.A.; Coates, A.J.; Zhang, T. L.; Sarantos, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a multi-instrument study of a hot flow anomaly (HFA) observed by the Venus Express spacecraft in the Venusian foreshock, on 22 March 2008, incorporating both Venus Express Magnetometer and Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms (ASPERA) plasma observations. Centered on an interplanetary magnetic field discontinuity with inward convective motional electric fields on both sides, with a decreased core field strength, ion observations consistent with a flow deflection, and bounded by compressive heated edges, the properties of this event are consistent with those of HFAs observed at other planets within the solar system.

  15. Interpretation of Local Gravity Anomalies in Northern New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revetta, F. A.

    2004-05-01

    About 10,000 new gravity measurements at a station spacing of 1 to 2 Km were made in the Adirondack Mountains, Lake Champlain Valley, St. Lawrence River Valley and Tug Hill Plateau. These closely spaced gravity measurements were compiled to construct computer contoured gravity maps of the survey areas. The gravity measurements reveal local anomalies related to seismicity, faults, mineral resources and gas fields that are not seen in the regional gravity mapping. In northern New York gravity and seismicity maps indicate epicenters are concentrated in areas of the most pronounced gravity anomalies along steep gravity gradients. Zones of weakness along the contacts of these lithologies of different density could possibly account for the earthquakes in this high stress area. Also, a computer contoured gravity map of the 5.3 magnitude Au Sable Forks earthquake of April 20, 2002 indicates the epicenter lies along a north-south trending gravity gradient produced by a high angle fault structure separating a gravity low in the west from high gravity in the east. In the St. Lawrence Valley, the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone, a major northeast trending structural boundary between the Adirondack Highlands and Northwest Lowlands, is represented as a steep gravity gradient extending into the eastern shore of Lake Ontario. At Russell, New York near the CCMZ, a small circular shaped gravity high coincides with a cluster of earthquakes. The coincidence of the epicenters over the high may indicate stress amplification at the boundary of a gabbro pluton. The Morristown fault located in the Morristown Quadrangle in St. Lawrence County produces both gravity and magnetic anomalies due to Precambrian Basement faulting. This faulting indicates control of the Morristown fault in the overlying Paleozoics by the Precambrian faults. Gravity and magnetic anomalies also occur over proposed extensions of the Gloucester and Winchester Springs faults into northern New York. Gravity and magnetic

  16. Geophysical investigations on the gravity and aeromagnetic anomalies of the region between Sapanca and Duzce, along the North Anatolian Fault, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tigli, Cigdem Sendur; Ates, Abdullah; Aydemir, Attila

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, it is aimed to model subsurface structures to the east of the Gulf of Izmit through Duzce by using the gravity and aeromagnetic anomaly data. 1/500.000 scaled gravity anomaly map of the area was taken from the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA) and it was digitized. The aeromagnetic anomaly data were obtained in the digital form. 3D and 2D models were constructed to reveal the subsurface structure in two different inset regions in the study area including most important negative and positive gravity anomalies. Seismic velocities obtained from the deep seismic recordings were converted to densities. In addition, density information from a previous research was also taken. These densities were used for construction of 3D and 2D gravity models where it was shown that there are narrow and long sedimentary basins and depressions with 0.5-3 km depths. These sedimentary basins with the shape of negative flower structures indicating pull-apart basins are controlled by the active fault segments of the North Anatolian Fault (NAF). Earthquake epicenter data were also correlated with the constructed models from the gravity anomalies. Positive gravity anomalies are also caused by very shallow (about 2 km) masses that are accepted as the crustal origin intrusions into the fractures of the NAF and, ophiolites and gabbro outcropping on the surface of the studied regions. These intrusives and remnants of the Tethys Ocean are located between the fault segments where the fault bifurcates and they also constitute barriers for straight extension of the NAF. Analytic signal method was applied to the aeromagnetic anomaly data to determine the locations and boundaries of the causative bodies. Those bodies are observed around Duzce, and to the E-SE of it, to the NW of Golyaka and a large mass between Adapazari and Sapanca. Shallow settlement of these magmatics was confirmed by the second vertical derivative of the aeromagnetic data. An anti

  17. Indoor waypoint navigation via magnetic anomalies.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Timothy H; Anderson, Shane M; Lichter, Patrick A; Condon, John P; Sheikh, Suneel I; Hedin, Daniel S

    2011-01-01

    A wide assortment of technologies have been proposed to construct indoor navigation services for the blind and vision impaired. Proximity-based systems and multilateration systems have been successfully demonstrated and employed. Despite the technical success of these technologies, broad adoption has been limited due to their significant infrastructure and maintenance costs. An alternative approach utilizing the indoor magnetic signatures inherent to steel-frame buildings solves the infrastructure cost problem; in effect the existing building is the location system infrastructure. Although magnetic indoor navigation does not require the installation of dedicated hardware, the dedication of resources to produce precise survey maps of magnetic anomalies represents a further barrier to adoption. In the present work an alternative leader-follower form of waypoint-navigation system has been developed that works without surveyed magnetic maps of a site. Instead the wayfarer's magnetometer readings are compared to a pre-recorded magnetic "leader" trace containing magnetic data collected along a route and annotated with waypoint information. The goal of the navigation system is to correlate the follower's magnetometer data with the leader's to trigger audio cues at precise points along the route, thus providing location-based guidance to the user. The system should also provide early indications of off-route conditions. As part of the research effort a smartphone based application was created to record and annotate leader traces with audio and numeric data at waypoints of interest, and algorithms were developed to determine (1) when the follower reaches a waypoint and (2) when the follower goes off-route. A navigation system utilizing this technology would enable a low-cost indoor navigation system capable of replaying audio annotations at precise locations along pre-recorded routes.

  18. Planck CMB Anomalies: Astrophysical and Cosmological Secondary Effects and the Curse of Masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rassat, Anais

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale anomalies have been reported in CMB data with both WMAP and Planck data. These could be due to foreground residuals and or systematic effects, though their confirmation with Planck data suggests they are not due to a problem in the WMAP or Planck pipelines. If these anomalies are in fact primordial, then understanding their origin is fundamental to either validate the standard model of cosmology or to explore new physics. We investigate three other possible issues: 1) the trade-off between minimising systematics due to foreground contamination (with a conservative mask) and minimising systematics due to masking, 2) astrophysical secondary effects (the kinetic Doppler quadrupole and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect), and 3) secondary cosmological signals (the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect). We address the masking issue by considering new procedures that use both WMAP and Planck to produce higher quality full-sky maps using the sparsity methodology (LGMCA maps). We show the impact of masking is dominant over that of residual foregrounds, and the LGMCA full-sky maps can be used without further processing to study anomalies. We consider four official Planck PR1 and two LGMCA CMB maps. Analysis of the observed CMB maps shows that only the low quadrupole and quadrupole-octopole alignment seem significant, but that the planar octopole, Axis of Evil, mirror parity and cold spot are not significant in nearly all maps considered. After subtraction of astrophysical and cosmological secondary effects, only the low quadrupole may still be considered anomalous, meaning the significance of only one anomaly is affected by secondary effect subtraction out of six anomalies considered. In the spirit of reproducible research all reconstructed maps and codes are available online.

  19. May-Hegglin anomaly in a dog.

    PubMed

    Flatland, Bente; Fry, Michael M; Baek, Seung J; Bahn, Jae H; LeBlanc, Casey J; Dunlap, John R; Carroll, Roger C; Kosiba, Deborah J; Millsaps, Doris J; Schleis, Stephanie E

    2011-06-01

    An 8-year-old female spayed Pug dog was presented for evaluation of cutaneous lesions occurring secondary to immunosuppressive treatment of presumed immune-mediated thrombocytopenia. Abnormal hematologic findings included persistent thrombocytopenia, macrothrombocytes, and variably shaped, often fusiform, blue cytoplasmic inclusions in neutrophils. May-Hegglin anomaly (MHA) was suspected based on the morphologic appearance of platelets and neutrophils. Examination of cells by transmission electron microscopy revealed normal platelet ultrastructure; neutrophil inclusions had features similar to those reported for inclusions in human MHA. Neutrophil function was within normal limits based on flow cytometric analysis. Thrombelastography indicated a prolonged clotting time (r), and PlateletMapping showed a lack of response to 2 μM ADP compared with a moderate response in the control dog. Immunocytochemical staining of blood smears using 2 commercially available antibodies against MYH9 protein (nonmuscle myosin heavy chain II) yielded negative results. However, genomic DNA sequencing analysis of the dog's MYH9 gene identified a single point mutation, resulting in substitution of lysine for glutamine at the 1841 amino acid position; this mutation is identical to one identified in people with MHA. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an MYH9 mutation in the dog. MHA-associated macrothrombocytopenia may be mistaken for immune-mediated thrombocytopenia.

  20. Magnetic Anomaly Lineations in the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, Y.; Nakanishi, M.; Tamaki, K.; Fujimoto, H.; Huchon, P.; Leroy, S. D.; Styles, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present the magnetic anomaly lineations in the Gulf of Aden. The Gulf of Aden has slow spreading ridges between the Arabia Plate and Somalia Plate. The Arabian plate moves away from Somalia Plate in an NE direction, at a rate of about 2 cm/yr. Previous works indicates that seafloor spreading started about 20 Ma in the eastern part of the Gulf of Aden and propagated westward. The spreading axis has a E-W trend west of 46 E and that east of 46 E has a N60 W trend. We examined magnetic data acquired in the cruises by R/V L'Atalante in 1995, R/V Hakuho-maru from 2000 to 2001, R/V Maurice Ewing in 2001, and Shackleton in 1975 and 1979. We also used data obtained from National Geophysical Data Center, NOAA. We calculated magnetic anomalies using the latest Internation Geomagnetic Reference Field. Elongated negative magnetic anomalies, which amplitude are more than 500 nT, observed over the spreading centers. Most of the elongated anomalies are parallel with the spreading centers. The elongated magnetic anomalies west of 46 30'E have an E-W trend around the spreading centers. Several discontinuities in the magnetic anomaly contour map illustrate the position of the fracture zones concealed by sediments. We identified magnetic lineations from 43 E to 52 E. Most of magnetic lineations west and east of 46 30'E have N-E and N60-65 W strikes, respectively. The oldest lineations are C3r (5.48~5.74 Ma) between 43 10'E and 44 E and C5Ar (12.4~12.7 Ma) east of 44 E. Our identification of magnetic anomaly lineations indicates a symmetric seafloor spreading with a spreading rate of about 1.0 cm/yr, although Leroy et al. (2004) showed an asymmetric seafloor spreading of the Sheba Ridge, east of our study area. The kinematics of the Arabia plate changed about 5 Ma, but our results did not show any coeval change in spreading rates of the spreading system in the Gulf of Aden.

  1. Conductivity Anomalies in Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neska, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper is a review of studies which, by applying the magnetotelluric, geomagnetic deep sounding, and magnetovariational sounding methods (the latter refers to usage of the horizontal magnetic tensor), investigate Central Europe for zones of enhanced electrical conductivity. The study areas comprise the region of the Trans-European Suture Zone (i.e. the south Baltic region and Poland), the North German Basin, the German and Czech Variscides, the Pannonian Basin (Hungary), and the Polish, Slovakian, Ukrainian, and Romanian Carpathians. This part of the world is well investigated in terms of data coverage and of the density of published studies, whereas the certainty that the results lead to comprehensive interpretations varies within the reviewed literature. A comparison of spatially coincident or adjacent studies reveals the important role that the data coverage of a distinct conductivity anomaly plays for the consistency of results. The encountered conductivity anomalies are understood as linked to basin sediments, asthenospheric upwelling, large differences in lithospheric age, and—this concerns most of them, which all concentrate in the middle crust—tectonic boundaries that developed during all mountain building phases that have taken place on the continent.

  2. Surgical management of Ebstein's anomaly.

    PubMed

    Stulak, John M; Dearani, Joseph A; Danielson, Gordon K

    2007-01-01

    Ebstein's malformation is a congenital anomaly of the tricuspid valve and right ventricle. Surgical repair of Ebstein's anomaly improves functional class and exercise tolerance, eliminates right-to-left intracardiac shunting (if present), and reduces the incidence of supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. As a result, quality of life and survival are improved. Because of the variable degree of malformation present, repair is predicated on favorable anatomic factors, most importantly the arrangement of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve. When anatomic derangements threaten a durable tricuspid valve repair, valve replacement with protection of the conduction tissue and right coronary artery should be performed. The vast majority of patients can undergo a biventricular repair. The application of the bidirectional cavopulmonary anastomosis is reserved for patients with poor right ventricular function. Freedom from reoperation after tricuspid valve repair is similar when compared with valve replacement. In the current era, overall early mortality after surgical repair in children and adults has fallen to less than 3% in experienced centers. Surgical treatment of the symptomatic neonate remains a significant challenge, with approaches that include either a biventricular or single ventricle algorithm.

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Minor congenital anomalies and ataxic cerebral palsy.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, G

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of minor congenital anomalies was examined in 36 patients with ataxic cerebral palsy, in unaffected family members, and in 100 unrelated control subjects. None of the control subjects or family members had more than four anomalies, and 25 of 36 (69%) of the patients had more than four. The distribution of anomalies differed considerably, with 60% of the index cases having seven or more, and 94% of the controls having three or less. The number occurring in the patients was significantly more than in their relatives. Of the 25 patients with more than four anomalies, 16 (64%) had undergone potentially adverse perinatal or early postnatal events. Thus minor congenital anomalies were considerably more frequent in those with ataxic cerebral palsy than in related or unrelated control subjects. These anomalies may be markers of early prenatal factors that contributed to the adverse outcome either directly or by predisposing to perinatal difficulties. PMID:2751330

  5. Bouguer Gravity Anomalies Associated with Lunar Craters: Initial Results from the GRAIL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, R. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Smith, D. E.; Konopliv, A. S.; Park, R. S.; Wieczorek, M. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Neumann, G. A.; Melosh, H. J.; Thomason, C. J.; Egan, A. F.

    2012-12-01

    During its primary mapping phase, the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) mission has mapped the gravity field of the Moon to unprecedented resolution, providing a spherical harmonic model of degree and order 420 and quantitatively useful results to a spatial resolution of at least 20 km. Anomalies associated with impact craters, from large mascon basins down to crater diameters less than 30 km, are the dominant features of a GRAIL degree (l) 420 free-air gravity map of the Moon. Here we focus on the Bouguer gravity anomalies associated with intermediate-sized craters, in the diameter range of ~30-230 km. Results from Apollo-era gravity and topography data analyses suggested that the behavior of crater Bouguer anomalies is age-dependent, but the crater database used then was extremely sparse (12 craters). With the GRAIL gravity field we have a vastly larger set of craters to work with and to date have examined ~200 craters. We calculate a finite-amplitude Bouguer correction with a semi-analytical spatial Green's function sampling a spherical harmonic representation of the lunar shape matched to the gravity bandwidth used (l = 2-300). The resulting crater Bouguer anomalies, averaged over the inner part of each crater, fall in a range of approximately -40 to +40 mGal. We compare Bouguer anomalies against lunar age, crater diameter, regional elevation, geographical locale, and geological setting. Results are interpreted in terms of processes that have operated in the lunar crust and upper mantle.

  6. Digital Aeromagnetic Map of the Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Lincoln, and Clark Counties, Nevada, and Inyo County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ponce, David A.

    2000-01-01

    An aeromagnetic map of the Nevada Test Site area was prepared from publicly available aeromagnetic data described by McCafferty and Grauch (1997). Magnetic surveys were processed using standard techniques. Southwest Nevada is characterized by magnetic anomalies that reflect the distribution of thick sequences of volcanic rocks, magnetic sedimentary rocks, and the occurrence of granitic rocks. In addition, aeromagnetic data reveal the presence of linear features that reflect faulting at both regional and local scales.

  7. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed

    David, T J

    1982-06-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated.

  8. Debendox does not cause the Poland anomaly.

    PubMed Central

    David, T J

    1982-01-01

    The suggestion that Debendox may cause the Poland anomaly is refuted by a study of the antenatal drug exposure in 46 cases of the Poland anomaly and 32 cases of isolated absence of the pectoralis major. Debendox had been prescribed in one case of the Poland anomaly and in one case of isolated pectoralis absence, but in neither was the compound given during organogenesis. In none of the 78 cases could Debendox be causally implicated. PMID:7092316

  9. Experimental Investigation into the Radar Anomalies on the Surface of Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohler, E.; Gavin, P.; Chevrier, V.; Johnson, Natasha M.

    2012-01-01

    Radar mapping of thc surface of Venus shows areas of high reflectivity (low emissivity) in the Venusian highlands at altitudes between 2.5-4.75 kilometers. The origin of the radar anomalies found in the Venusian highlands remains unclear. Most explanations of the potential causes for these radar anomalies come from theoretical work. Previous studies suggest increased surface roughness or materials with higher dielectric constants as well as surface atmospheric interactions. Several possible candidates of high-dielectric materials are tellurium) ferroelectric materials, and lead or bismuth sulfides. While previous studies have been influential in determining possible sources for the Venus anomalies, only a very few hypotheses have been verified via experimentation. This work intends to experimentally constrain the source of the radar anomalies on Venus. This study proposes to investigate four possible materials that could potentially cause the high reflectivities on the surface of Venus and tests their behavior under simulated Venusian conditions.

  10. Calculating the Marine Gravity Anomaly of the South China Sea based on the Inverse Stokes Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liang; Jiang, Xiaoguang; Liu, Shanwei; Zheng, Lei; Zang, Jinxia; Zhang, Xuehua; Liu, Longfei

    2016-11-01

    Marine gravity field information has a great significance for the resource, environment and military affairs. As a new way to get marine gravity data, the satellite altimetry technique makes up for what ship measuring means lack. The paper carries out the researches on how altimeter data applied for calculating marine gravity anomaly based on inverse Stokes formula. In the article, the editing of 14-track Jason-1 data over South China Sea for 7 years is for collinear processing and cross-point adjustment. The inverse Stokes formula and fast Flourier transform technique are applied to calculate marine gravity anomaly of the region (0°∼23°N, 103°∼120°E), and to draw gravity anomaly map. Compared with the gravity anomaly by ship observation, RMS is 12.6mGal, and single altimetry satellite has a good precision.

  11. Engima of a thermal anomaly - A TM/AVHRR study of the volcanic Arabian highlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Andre, C. G.; Masuoka, P. M.

    1987-01-01

    Discovery of a large thermal anomaly in the western Arabian highlands on Landsat TM imagery is reported. The anomaly, 15 C warmer than surroundings, forms a 2-km-wide arc around the southern flank of Jebel Chada, a volcano active in 1256 AD. It is recorded by AVHRR imagery as well, despite the 1.1-km spatial resolution of this sensor. Air photos and geologic maps show no bedrock unit that corresponds to the anomaly. Digital techniques were applied to the TM and AVHRR data, including contrast enhancement, density slicing, principal components analysis, and construction of multiband composite images. It is concluded that the anomaly results from a thin cover of volcanic ash or cinder that is optically indistinguishable from underlying basalt, rather than from internal (volcanic or hydrologic) heat sources.

  12. Clutter and anomaly removal for enhanced target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basener, William F.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of anomaly detection to identify pixels to be removed prior to covariance computation. The resulting covariance matrix provides a better model of the image background and is less likely to be tainted by target spectra. In our tests, this method results in robust improvement in target detection performance for quadratic detection algorithms. Tests are conducted using imagery and targets freely available online. The imagery was acquired over Cooke City, Montana, a small town near Yellowstone Park, using the HyMap V/NIR/SWIR sensor with 126 spectral bands. There are three vehicle and four fabric targets located in the town and surrounding area.

  13. Galilean anomalies and their effect on hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash

    2016-03-01

    We study flavor and gravitational anomalies in Galilean theories coupled to torsional Newton-Cartan backgrounds. We establish that the relativistic anomaly inflow mechanism with an appropriately modified anomaly polynomial can be used to generate these anomalies. Similar to the relativistic case, we find that Galilean anomalies also survive only in even dimensions. Further, these anomalies only effect the flavor and rotational symmetries of a Galilean theory; in particular, the Milne boost symmetry remains nonanomalous. We also extend the transgression machinery used in relativistic fluids to Galilean fluids, and use it to determine how these anomalies affect the constitutive relations of a Galilean fluid. Unrelated to the Galilean fluids, we propose an analogue of the off-shell second law of thermodynamics for relativistic fluids, to include torsion and a conserved spin current in the vielbein formalism. Interestingly, we find that even in the absence of spin current and torsion the entropy currents in the two formalisms are different: while the usual entropy current gets a contribution from the gravitational anomaly, the entropy current in the vielbein formalism does not have any anomaly-induced part.

  14. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  15. The magnetic anomaly of the Ivreazone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albert, G.

    1979-01-01

    A magnetic field survey was made in the Ivreazone in 1969/70. The results were: significant anomaly of the vertical intensity is found. It follows the basic main part of the Ivrea-Verbano zone and continues to the south. The width of the anomaly is about 10 km, the maximum measures about +800 gamma. The model interpretation shows that possibly the anomaly belongs to an amphibolitic body, which in connection with the Ivrea-body was found by deep seismic sounding. Therefore, the magnetic anomaly provides further evidence for the conception that the Ivrea-body has to be regarded as a chip of earthmantle material pushed upward by tectonic processes.

  16. Anisotropic Solar Wind Sputtering of the Lunar Surface Induced by Crustal Magnetic Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppe, A. R.; Sarantos, M.; Halekas, J. S.; Delory, G. T.; Saito, Y.; Nishino, M.

    2014-01-01

    The lunar exosphere is generated by several processes each of which generates neutral distributions with different spatial and temporal variability. Solar wind sputtering of the lunar surface is a major process for many regolith-derived species and typically generates neutral distributions with a cosine dependence on solar zenith angle. Complicating this picture are remanent crustal magnetic anomalies on the lunar surface, which decelerate and partially reflect the solar wind before it strikes the surface. We use Kaguya maps of solar wind reflection efficiencies, Lunar Prospector maps of crustal field strengths, and published neutral sputtering yields to calculate anisotropic solar wind sputtering maps. We feed these maps to a Monte Carlo neutral exospheric model to explore three-dimensional exospheric anisotropies and find that significant anisotropies should be present in the neutral exosphere depending on selenographic location and solar wind conditions. Better understanding of solar wind/crustal anomaly interactions could potentially improve our results.

  17. Classical anomalies for spinning particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamboa, Jorge; Plyushchay, Mikhail

    1998-02-01

    We discuss the phenomenon of classical anomaly. It is observed for 3D Berezin-Marinov (BM), Barducci-Casalbuoni-Lusanna (BCL) and Cortés-Plyushchay-Velázquez (CPV) pseudoclassical spin particle models. We show that quantum mechanically these different models correspond to the same P, T-invariant system of planar fermions, but the quantum system has global symmetries being not reproducible classically in full in any of the models. We demonstrate that the specific U(1) gauge symmetry characterized by the opposite coupling constants of spin s = + {1}/{2} and s = - {1}/{2} states has a natural classical analog in the CPV model but can be reproduced in the BM and BCL models in an obscure and rather artificial form. We also show that the BM and BCL models quantum mechanically are equivalent in any odd-dimensional space-time, but describe different quantum systems in even space-time dimensions.

  18. Statistical Analysis of Resistivity Anomalies Caused by Underground Caves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frid, V.; Averbach, A.; Frid, M.; Dudkinski, D.; Liskevich, G.

    2017-03-01

    Geophysical prospecting of underground caves being performed on a construction site is often still a challenging procedure. Estimation of a likelihood level of an anomaly found is frequently a mandatory requirement of a project principal due to necessity of risk/safety assessment. However, the methodology of such estimation is not hitherto developed. Aiming to put forward such a methodology the present study (being performed as a part of an underground caves mapping prior to the land development on the site area) consisted of application of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) together with statistical analysis utilized for the likelihood assessment of underground anomalies located. The methodology was first verified via a synthetic modeling technique and applied to the in situ collected ERT data and then crossed referenced with intrusive investigations (excavation and drilling) for the data verification. The drilling/excavation results showed that the proper discovering of underground caves can be done if anomaly probability level is not lower than 90 %. Such a probability value was shown to be consistent with the modeling results. More than 30 underground cavities were discovered on the site utilizing the methodology.

  19. Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Drake, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    New atomic data for tackling some of our spectra have been investigated by co-I Laming (NRL), including the effects of recombination on spectral line fluxes that are not included in, for example, the CHIANTI database models. Promising new progress has been made with modelling some of the recent abundance anomaly results in terms of Alven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. The problems that existing models have is that they cannot simultaneously explain the low-FIP enhanced solar-like coronae and the high-FIP rich active coronae of RS CVn-like stars. The Alven wave model shows promise with both of these scenarios, with the fractionation or suppression of low-FIP ions depending on the characteristics of the chromosphere. This work is currently in the writing up stage. In summary, the work to-date is making good progress in mapping abundance anomalies as a function of spectral type and activity level. We are also making good progress with modelling that we will be able to test with our observational results. With one more year of effort, we'anticipate that the bulk of the work described above can be published, together with outstanding key studies on anomalies among the different active binaries.

  20. Late-term abortion for fetal anomaly: Vietnamese women's experiences.

    PubMed

    Gammeltoft, Tine; Tran, Minh Hang; Nguyen, Thi Hiep; Nguyen, Thi Thúy Hanh

    2008-05-01

    Screening for fetal anomalies in the second trimester of pregnancy is increasingly becoming a part of antenatal care. As a consequence, more pregnant women are learning that the child they are expecting has an anomaly. This article derives from anthropological research in a hospital in Hanoi, Viet Nam, from 2003-2006 that investigated 30 women's experiences after a fetal anomaly was detected. We followed the women from the ultrasound scan through the process of deciding whether to continue their pregnancy or have an abortion. This article focuses on the 17 women who had an abortion and the support they received from health care providers. Their loss of a wanted pregnancy led to feelings of guilt, pain and sadness and fear and uncertainty about being able to have a healthy baby in the future. Two years after the abortion, most of the women had come to terms with the loss, especially those who had had a healthy child since. We recommend that the Vietnamese health care system seeks to ensure that women receive counselling and support that answers their questions about what happened and why. To do this, health care staff need additional training in fetal medicine and counselling skills and sensitisation to the social and emotional challenges that detection of fetal anomalies and second trimester abortion bring to antenatal care.

  1. Mesozoic Sequence Magnetic Anomalies in the South of Corad Rise, the Southern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogi, Y.; Ikehara, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kameo, K.; Katsuki, K.; Kawamura, S.; Kita, S.

    2009-04-01

    The Southern Indian Ocean is key area for understanding the fragmentation process of the Gondwana. However, tectonic history in the Southern Indian Ocean still remains less well-defined because of the sparse observations in this area. The R/V Hakuho-maru cruise KH-07-4 Leg3 were conducted to understand the tectonic history related to the Gondwana breakup in the Southern Indian Ocean between Cape Town, South Africa, and off Lutzow-Holm Bay, Antarctica. Total intensity and vector geomagnetic field measurements as well as swath bathymetry mapping were collected during the cruise. Magnetic anomaly data have been collected along WNW-ESE trending inferred from satellite gravity anomalies just to the south of Conrad Rise. We have also collected magnetic anomaly data along NNE-SSW trending lineaments from satellite gravity anomaly data between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lutzow-Holm Bay. Magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 500 nT, originating from normal and reversed magnetization of oceanic crust are detected along the WNW-ESE trending structures just to the south of Conrad Rise. Those magnetic anomalies most likely indicate Mesozoic magnetic anomaly sequence, Mesozoic sequence magnetic anomalies with amplitude of about 300 nT are also observed along the NNE-SSW trending lineaments between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lutzow-Holm Bay. Oceanic crusts formed during Cretaceous normal polarity superchron are found in both profiles, although magnetic anomaly C34 has been identified just to the north of the Conrad Rise. These suggest the extinct spreading axes in the south of Conrad Rise and the two different seafloor spreading systems were active around Cretaceous normal polarity superchron between the south of the Conrad Rise and off Lutzow-Holm Bay. These provide new constraints for the fragmentation process of the Gondwana.

  2. Uhl's anomaly: a difficult prenatal diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Vaujois, Laurence; van Doesburg, Nicolaas; Raboisson, Marie-Josée

    2015-03-01

    Uhl's anomaly is an evolutive disease leading to terminal right ventricular failure. The most difficult differential diagnosis at presentation is the Ebstein disease. We describe the evolution of a foetus with Uhl's anomaly from 21 to 30 weeks of gestation, with progressive reduction in the right ventricular anterior myocardium suggestive of apoptosis, leading to foetal demise.

  3. Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality, Revision 6

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton, E. D.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Durst, Bonita E.; Erickson, David; Puigh, Raymond J.

    2010-02-19

    This report is revision 6 of the Anomalies of Nuclear Criticality. This report is required reading for the training of criticality professionals in many organizations both nationally and internationally. This report describes many different classes of nuclear criticality anomalies that are different than expected.

  4. Magnitude Anomalies and Propagation of Local Phases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-31

    statistically significant variation of magnitude anomalies versus one of this above parameters. A contrario, we observed a significant dependance between...enough to demand a more detailed analysis. III - Local dependance of magnitude anomalies. A smoothing of our data on all quakes originating in the same

  5. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  6. Regional magnetic anomaly constraints on continental rifting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonfrese, R. R. B.; Hinze, W. J.; Olivier, R.; Bentley, C. R.

    1985-01-01

    Radially polarized MAGSAT anomalies of North and South America, Europe, Africa, India, Australia and Antarctica demonstrate remarkably detailed correlation of regional magnetic lithospheric sources across rifted margins when plotted on a reconstruction of Pangea. These major magnetic features apparently preserve their integrity until a superimposed metamorphoric event alters the magnitude and pattern of the anomalies. The longevity of continental scale magnetic anomalies contrasts markedly with that of regional gravity anomalies which tend to reflect predominantly isostatic adjustments associated with neo-tectonism. First observed as a result of NASA's magnetic satellite programs, these anomalies provide new and fundamental constraints on the geologic evolution and dynamics of the continents and oceans. Accordingly, satellite magnetic observations provide a further tool for investigating continental drift to compliment other lines of evidence in paleoclimatology, paleontology, paleomagnetism, and studies of the radiometric ages and geometric fit of the continents.

  7. Genotype–Phenotype Correlation of Congenital Anomalies in Multiple Congenital Anomalies Hypotonia Seizures Syndrome (MCAHS1)/ PIGN-Related Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Leah; Lemmon, Monica; Beck, Natalie; Johnson, Maria; Mu, Weiyi; Murdock, David; Bodurtha, Joann; Hoover-Fong, Julie; Cohn, Ronald; Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Barañano, Kristin; Hamosh, Ada

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in PIGN, resulting in multiple congenital anomalies-hypotonia-seizures syndrome, a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor deficiency, have been published in four families to date. We report four patients from three unrelated families with epilepsy and hypotonia in whom whole exome sequencing yielded compound heterozygous variants in PIGN. As with previous reports Patients 1 and 2 (full siblings) have severe global developmental delay, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and minor dysmorphic features, including high palate, bitemporal narrowing, depressed nasal bridge, and micrognathia; Patient 3 had early global developmental delay with later progressive spastic quadriparesis, intellectual disability, and intractable generalized epilepsy; Patient 4 had bilateral narrowing as well but differed by the presence of hypertelorism, markedly narrow palpebral fissures, and long philtrum, had small distal phalanges of fingers 2, 3, and 4, absent distal phalanx of finger 5 and similar toe anomalies, underdeveloped nails, unusual brain anomalies, and a more severe early clinical course. These patients expand the known clinical spectrum of the disease. The severity of the presentations in conjunction with the patients’ mutations suggest a genotype–phenotype correlation in which congenital anomalies are only seen in patients with biallelic loss-of-function. In addition, PIGN mutations appear to be panethnic and may be an underappreciated cause of epilepsy. PMID:26394714

  8. Aeromagnetic and aeromagnetic-based geologic maps of the Coastal Belt, Franciscan Complex, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langenheim, V.E.; Jachens, R.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex represents a Late Cretaceous to Miocene accretionary prism and overlying slope deposits. Its equivalents may extend from the offshore outer borderland of southern California to north of the Mendocino Triple Junction under the Eel River Basin and in the offshore of Cascadia. The Coastal belt is exposed on land in northern California, yet its structure and stratigraphy are incompletely known because of discontinuous exposure, structural disruption, and lithologically non-distinctive clastic rocks. The intent of this report is to make available, in map form, aeromagnetic data covering the Coastal belt that provide a new dataset to aid in mapping, understanding, and interpreting the incompletely understood geology and structure in northern California. The newly merged aeromagnetic data over the Coastal belt of the Franciscan Complex reveal long, linear anomalies that indicate remarkably coherent structure within a terrane where mapping at the surface indicates complex deformation and that has been described as "broken formation" and, even locally as "melange". The anomalies in the Coastal belt are primarily sourced by volcanic-rich graywackes and exotic blocks of basalt. Some anomalies along the contact of the Coastal belt with the Central belt are likely caused by local interleaving of components of the Coast Ranges ophiolite. These data can be used to map additional exotic blocks within the Coastal belt and to distinguish lithologically indistinct graywackes within the Coastal terrane. Using anomaly asymmetry allows projection of these "layers" into the subsurface. This analysis indicates predominant northeast dips consistent with tectonic interleaving of blocks within a subduction zone.

  9. Mafic and ultramafic rocks of the northwestern Brooks Range of Alaska produce nearly symmetric gravity anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, R.L. )

    1993-04-01

    An arc of mafic and ultramafic rocks is mapped from Asik Mountain to Siniktanneyak Mountain in the northwestern Brooks Range of Alaska. Gravity data, although not very detailed, have been collected over the region and show some very conspicuous circular or oval gravity highs over portions of the mapped mafic-ultramafic bodies. Bodies which have large associated gravity anomalies are Asik Mountain (80 mGal), Avon Hills (20 mGal), Misheguk Mountain (30 mGal), and Siniktanneyak Mountain (20 mGal). Gabbros of the Siniktanneyak Mountain complex, where the gravity coverage is best, have densities of about 3.0 g/cm[sup 3] while the densities of the surrounding sedimentary rocks are about 2.6 g/cm[sup 3]. Volcanic rocks in the area have average densities of about 2.7 g/cm[sup 3]. Three-dimensional modeling indicates that the largest anomaly, on the southwestern part of the complex, could be caused by a polygonal prism of gabbro with vertical sides, about 6 km across and about 4.5 km deep. A smaller lobe of the anomaly on the northeast of the complex could be caused by another oblong polygonal prism about 4 km long and 2 km wide trending northeast and about 1.5 km deep. Modeling this anomaly with densities lower than gabbro would require greater thicknesses to produce the same anomaly. Modeling each anomaly along this arc in 2 1/2-dimensions shows many possible solutions using different body shapes and different density contrasts. There are several other gravity anomalies in this vicinity which could represent unexposed high density rocks. One such anomaly is in the Maiyumerak Mountains northeast of Asik Mountain (30 mGal). Another anomaly is to the northwest of Asik Mountain (20 mGal). There is also an anomaly at Uchugrak (20 mGal) east of Avan Hills. Although many of the anomalies in this region are poorly controlled, an attempt has been made to interpret the data to show possible solutions.

  10. Congenital renal anomalies detected in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Muttarak, M; Sriburi, T

    2012-01-01

    Objective To document the types of congenital renal anomalies detected in adulthood, the clinical presentation and complications of these renal anomalies, and the most useful imaging modality in detecting a renal anomaly. Materials and methods This study was approved by the institutional review board and informed consent was waived. Between January 2007 and January 2011, the clinical data and imaging studies of 28 patients older than 18 years diagnosed with renal anomaly at the authors’ institution were retrospectively reviewed. Renal anomalies in this study included only those with abnormality in position and in form. Results Of these 28 patients, 22 underwent imaging studies and their results constituted the material of this study. Of the 22 patients, 14 had horseshoe kidneys (HSK), four had crossed renal ectopia and four had malrotation. Sixteen patients were men and six were women. The patients ranged in age from 19 to 74 years (mean age 51.1 years). Clinical presentations were abdominal pain (13), fever (13), haematuria (4), palpable mass (2), asymptomatic (2), polyuria (1) dysuria (1), blurred vision (1), and headache with weakness of left extremities (1). Imaging studies included abdominal radiograph (15), intravenous pyelography (IVP) (8), retrograde pyelography (RP) (4), ultrasonography (US) (7), and computed tomography (CT) (9). Associated complications included urinary tract stones (17), urinary tract infection (16), hydronephrosis (12), and tumours (2). Abdominal radiograph suggested renal anomalies in nine out of 15 studies. IVP, RP, US and CT suggested anomalies in all patients who had these studies performed. However, CT was the best imaging modality to evaluate anatomy, function and complications of patients with renal anomalies. Conclusion HSK was the most common renal anomaly, with abdominal pain and fever being the most common presentations. UTI and stones were the most common complications. IVP, RP, US and CT can be used to diagnose renal

  11. Anomaly Detection in Dynamic Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Turcotte, Melissa

    2014-10-14

    Anomaly detection in dynamic communication networks has many important security applications. These networks can be extremely large and so detecting any changes in their structure can be computationally challenging; hence, computationally fast, parallelisable methods for monitoring the network are paramount. For this reason the methods presented here use independent node and edge based models to detect locally anomalous substructures within communication networks. As a first stage, the aim is to detect changes in the data streams arising from node or edge communications. Throughout the thesis simple, conjugate Bayesian models for counting processes are used to model these data streams. A second stage of analysis can then be performed on a much reduced subset of the network comprising nodes and edges which have been identified as potentially anomalous in the first stage. The first method assumes communications in a network arise from an inhomogeneous Poisson process with piecewise constant intensity. Anomaly detection is then treated as a changepoint problem on the intensities. The changepoint model is extended to incorporate seasonal behavior inherent in communication networks. This seasonal behavior is also viewed as a changepoint problem acting on a piecewise constant Poisson process. In a static time frame, inference is made on this extended model via a Gibbs sampling strategy. In a sequential time frame, where the data arrive as a stream, a novel, fast Sequential Monte Carlo (SMC) algorithm is introduced to sample from the sequence of posterior distributions of the change points over time. A second method is considered for monitoring communications in a large scale computer network. The usage patterns in these types of networks are very bursty in nature and don’t fit a Poisson process model. For tractable inference, discrete time models are considered, where the data are aggregated into discrete time periods and probability models are fitted to the

  12. A magnetic anomaly of possible economic significance in southeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zietz, Isidore

    1964-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey in southeastern Minnesota by the U. S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the State of Minnesota has revealed a high-amplitude, linear, and narrow magnetic feature that suggests a possible source of Precambrian iron-formation of economic value. For the past few years the U. S. Geological Survey has been conducting detailed geophysical studies of the midcontinent gravity anomaly--a broad, high-amplitude feature that extends from Lake Superior through the States of Minnesota, Iowa, Nebraska, and part of Kansas. As part of this study an aeromagnetic survey of the southern part of the State was made in cooperation with the State of Minnesota during the summer of 1963, in which a linear high-amplitude anomaly of the order of 4,000 gammas was discovered. Because of the high amplitude, the linearity, and the narrowness of the magnetic feature, it is believed the source may be Precambrian iron-formation of possible economic value. The anomalous area is in Fillmore County, approximately between the towns of Lanesboro and Peterson in the extreme southeastern part of the State. (See figures 1 and 2.) At the site of the anomaly, Cambrian sedimentary rocks occur in the valley of the Root River, and Ordovician rocks (nearly flat lying) mantle the upland areas. The uplands are largely covered by glacial deposits, which are relatively thin (Paul K. Sims, written communication, 1964). Depths to the Precambrian are estimated to range from 500 feet to 1,000 feet below the surface. The aeromagnetic map shown in figure 2 was compiled from continuous magnetic profiles made along east-west flight lines 1,000 feet above ground, and spaced approximately 1 mile apart. Contour intervals of 20, 100, and 500 gammas were used depending on the intensity. The instrument for the survey was a flux-gate type magnetometer (AN/ASQ-3A) which measures total-field variations. The contour map displays variations in magnetic pattern which are typical of shallow Precambrian rocks

  13. Airborne gamma-ray and magnetic anomaly signatures of serpentinite in relation to soil geochemistry, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCafferty, A.E.; Van Gosen, B. S.

    2009-01-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks and associated soils in northern California are characterized by high concentrations of Cr and Ni, low levels of radioelements (K, Th, and U) and high amounts of ferrimagnetic minerals (primarily magnetite). Geophysical attributes over ultramafic rocks, which include airborne gamma-ray and magnetic anomaly data, are quantified and provide indirect measurements on the relative abundance of radioelements and magnetic minerals, respectively. Attributes are defined through a statistical modeling approach and the results are portrayed as probabilities in chart and map form. Two predictive models are presented, including one derived from the aeromagnetic anomaly data and one from a combination of the airborne K, Th and U gamma-ray data. Both models distinguish preferential values within the aerogeophysical data that coincide with mapped and potentially unmapped ultramafic rocks. The magnetic predictive model shows positive probabilities associated with magnetic anomaly highs and, to a lesser degree, anomaly lows, which accurately locate many known ultramafic outcrops, but more interestingly, locate potentially unmapped ultramafic rocks, possible extensions of ultramafic bodies that dip into the shallow subsurface, as well as prospective buried ultramafic rocks. The airborne radiometric model shows positive probabilities in association with anomalously low gamma radiation measurements over ultramafic rock, which is similar to that produced by gabbro, metavolcanic rock, and water bodies. All of these features share the characteristic of being depleted in K, Th and U. Gabbro is the only rock type in the study area that shares similar magnetic properties with the ultramafic rock. The aerogeophysical model results are compared to the distribution of ultramafic outcrops and to Cr, Ni, K, Th and U concentrations and magnetic susceptibility measurements from soil samples. Analysis of the soil data indicates high positive correlation between

  14. Magnetic Anomalies and Rock Magnetic Properties Related to Deep Crustal Rocks of the Athabasca Granulite Terrane, Northern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. L.; Williams, M. L.

    2010-12-01

    The Athabasca granulite terrane in northernmost Saskatchewan, Canada is an exceptional exposure of lower crustal rocks having experienced several high temperature events (ca 800C) during a prolonged period of deep-crustal residence (ca 1.0 GPa) followed by uplift and exhumation. With little alteration since 1.8 Ga these rocks allow us to study ancient lower crustal lithologies. Aeromagnetic anomalies over this region are distinct and complex, and along with other geophysical measurements, define the Snowbird Tectonic zone, stretching NE-SW across northwestern Canada, separating the Churchill province into the Hearne (mid-crustal rocks, amphibolite facies) from the Rae (lower crust rocks, granulite facies). Distinct magnetic highs and lows appear to relate roughly to specific rock units, and are cut by mapped shear zones. Over fifty samples from this region, collected from the major rock types, mafic granulites, felsic granulites, granites, and dike swarms, as well as from regions of both high and low magnetic anomalies, are being used to investigate magnetic properties. The intention is to investigate what is magnetic in the lower crust and how it produces the anomalies observed from satellite measurements. The samples studied reveal a wide range of magnetic properties with natural remanent magnetization ranging from an isolated high of 38 A/m to lows of 1 mA/m. Susceptibilities also range over several orders of magnitude, from 1 to 1 x10-4 SI. Magnetite is identified in nearly all samples using both low and high temperature measurements, but concentrations are generally very low. Hysteresis properties on 41 samples reveal nearly equal numbers of samples represented by PSD and MD grains, with a few samples (N=6) plotting in or close to the SD region. Low temperature measurements indicate that most samples contain magnetite, showing a marked Verway transition around 120K. Also identified in nearly half of the samples is pyrrhotite, noted by low temperature

  15. Model parameter estimations from residual gravity anomalies due to simple-shaped sources using Differential Evolution Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekinci, Yunus Levent; Balkaya, Çağlayan; Göktürkler, Gökhan; Turan, Seçil

    2016-06-01

    An efficient approach to estimate model parameters from residual gravity data based on differential evolution (DE), a stochastic vector-based metaheuristic algorithm, has been presented. We have showed the applicability and effectiveness of this algorithm on both synthetic and field anomalies. According to our knowledge, this is a first attempt of applying DE for the parameter estimations of residual gravity anomalies due to isolated causative sources embedded in the subsurface. The model parameters dealt with here are the amplitude coefficient (A), the depth and exact origin of causative source (zo and xo, respectively) and the shape factors (q and ƞ). The error energy maps generated for some parameter pairs have successfully revealed the nature of the parameter estimation problem under consideration. Noise-free and noisy synthetic single gravity anomalies have been evaluated with success via DE/best/1/bin, which is a widely used strategy in DE. Additionally some complicated gravity anomalies caused by multiple source bodies have been considered, and the results obtained have showed the efficiency of the algorithm. Then using the strategy applied in synthetic examples some field anomalies observed for various mineral explorations such as a chromite deposit (Camaguey district, Cuba), a manganese deposit (Nagpur, India) and a base metal sulphide deposit (Quebec, Canada) have been considered to estimate the model parameters of the ore bodies. Applications have exhibited that the obtained results such as the depths and shapes of the ore bodies are quite consistent with those published in the literature. Uncertainty in the solutions obtained from DE algorithm has been also investigated by Metropolis-Hastings (M-H) sampling algorithm based on simulated annealing without cooling schedule. Based on the resulting histogram reconstructions of both synthetic and field data examples the algorithm has provided reliable parameter estimations being within the sampling limits of

  16. Data Mining for Anomaly Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biswas, Gautam; Mack, Daniel; Mylaraswamy, Dinkar; Bharadwaj, Raj

    2013-01-01

    The Vehicle Integrated Prognostics Reasoner (VIPR) program describes methods for enhanced diagnostics as well as a prognostic extension to current state of art Aircraft Diagnostic and Maintenance System (ADMS). VIPR introduced a new anomaly detection function for discovering previously undetected and undocumented situations, where there are clear deviations from nominal behavior. Once a baseline (nominal model of operations) is established, the detection and analysis is split between on-aircraft outlier generation and off-aircraft expert analysis to characterize and classify events that may not have been anticipated by individual system providers. Offline expert analysis is supported by data curation and data mining algorithms that can be applied in the contexts of supervised learning methods and unsupervised learning. In this report, we discuss efficient methods to implement the Kolmogorov complexity measure using compression algorithms, and run a systematic empirical analysis to determine the best compression measure. Our experiments established that the combination of the DZIP compression algorithm and CiDM distance measure provides the best results for capturing relevant properties of time series data encountered in aircraft operations. This combination was used as the basis for developing an unsupervised learning algorithm to define "nominal" flight segments using historical flight segments.

  17. Collie Eye Anomaly in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Walser-Reinhardt, L; Hässig, M; Spiess, B

    2009-12-01

    In this retrospective study, the results of 3'527 eye examinations in 6 different breeds affected with Collie Eye Anomaly (CEA) over a period of 8 years (1999 - 2007) are described. CEA was divided into three main ophthalmoscopic features, a) choroidal hypoplasia (CRH), b) CRH and coloboma and c) coloboma alone. Of the 101 Smooth Collies 8.9 % showed signs of CRH, whereas 36.9 % of Rough Collies were affected with CRH, 2.8 % with CRH and coloboma and 0.38 % with coloboma alone. Choroidal hypoplasia was present in 13.1 %, CRH and coloboma in 1.8 % and coloboma alone in 0.2 % of the Shetland Sheepdogs. Only one Australian Shepherd dog had CRH, while 0.7 % of the Border Collies were affected with CRH. None of the Nova Scotia Duck Tolling Retrievers were affected with CEA. There were no statistically significant differences in the occurrence of CEA between males and females, nor was there any relation between coat colors. Significant differences could be shown between dogs younger or older than 8 weeks at first examination. CEA was more often diagnosed in dogs younger than 8 weeks within the Rough Collie and Shetland Sheepdog.

  18. Analysis of Solar Irradiation Anomalies in Long Term Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, M.; Polo, J.; Martin, L.; Navarro, A.; Serra, I.

    2012-04-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of global hemispheric irradiation measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of solar irradiation in India using anomalies techniques and trends in ten places over India. Most of the places have exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. This observation is also consequent with

  19. Global Horizontal Irradiance Anomalies in Long Term Series Over India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cony, Marco; Liria, Juan; Weisenberg, Ralf; Serrano, Enrique

    2014-05-01

    India has a high potential for solar energy applications due to its geographic position within the Sun Belt and the large number of cloudless days in many regions of the country. However, certain regions of India, particularly those largely populated, can exhibit large aerosol loading in the atmosphere as a consequence of anthropogenic emissions that could have a negative feedback in the solar resource potential. This effect, named as solar dimming, has already been observed in India, and in some other regions in the world, by some authors using ground data from the last two decades. The recent interest in the promotion of solar energy applications in India highlights the need of extending and improving the knowledge of the solar radiation resources in this country, since most of the long term measurements available correspond to global horizontal radiation (GHI) and most of them are also located big cities or highly populated areas. In addition, accurate knowledge on the aerosol column quantification and on its dynamical behavior with high spatial resolution is particularly important in the case of India, due to their impact on direct normal irradiation. Long term studies of solar irradiation over India can be performed using monthly means of GHI measurements from the Indian Meteorological Department. Ground data are available from 1964 till today through the World Radiation Data Centre that publish these values in the web. This work shows a long term analysis of GHI using anomalies techniques over ten different sites over India. Besides, techniques of linear trends have been applied for to show the evolution over this period. The analysis of anomalies has also found two periods of different behavior. From 1964 till 1988 the anomalies observed were positive and the last 20 years seems to be a period of negative anomalies. The results exhibit a decreasing trend and negative anomalies confirming thus the darkening effect already reported by solar dimming studies

  20. The 2014-2015 warming anomaly in the Southern California Current System observed by underwater gliders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaba, Katherine D.; Rudnick, Daniel L.

    2016-02-01

    Large-scale patterns of positive temperature anomalies persisted throughout the surface waters of the North Pacific Ocean during 2014-2015. In the Southern California Current System, measurements by our sustained network of underwater gliders reveal the coastal effects of the recent warming. Regional upper ocean temperature anomalies were greatest since the initiation of the glider network in 2006. Additional observed physical anomalies included a depressed thermocline, high stratification, and freshening; induced biological consequences included changes in the vertical distribution of chlorophyll fluorescence. Contemporaneous surface heat flux and wind strength perturbations suggest that local anomalous atmospheric forcing caused the unusual oceanic conditions.

  1. Thermal infrared anomalies of several strong earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Congxin; Zhang, Yuansheng; Guo, Xiao; Hui, Shaoxing; Qin, Manzhong; Zhang, Ying

    2013-01-01

    In the history of earthquake thermal infrared research, it is undeniable that before and after strong earthquakes there are significant thermal infrared anomalies which have been interpreted as preseismic precursor in earthquake prediction and forecasting. In this paper, we studied the characteristics of thermal radiation observed before and after the 8 great earthquakes with magnitude up to Ms7.0 by using the satellite infrared remote sensing information. We used new types of data and method to extract the useful anomaly information. Based on the analyses of 8 earthquakes, we got the results as follows. (1) There are significant thermal radiation anomalies before and after earthquakes for all cases. The overall performance of anomalies includes two main stages: expanding first and narrowing later. We easily extracted and identified such seismic anomalies by method of "time-frequency relative power spectrum." (2) There exist evident and different characteristic periods and magnitudes of thermal abnormal radiation for each case. (3) Thermal radiation anomalies are closely related to the geological structure. (4) Thermal radiation has obvious characteristics in abnormal duration, range, and morphology. In summary, we should be sure that earthquake thermal infrared anomalies as useful earthquake precursor can be used in earthquake prediction and forecasting.

  2. Congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abulezz, Tarek; Talaat, Mohamed; Elsani, Asem; Allam, Karam

    2016-01-01

    Background: Congenital hand anomalies are numerous and markedly variant. Their significance is attributed to the frequent occurrence and their serious social, psychological and functional impacts on patient's life. Patients and Methods: This is a follow-up study of 64 patients with hand anomalies of variable severity. All patients were presented to Plastic Surgery Department of Sohag University Hospital in a period of 24 months. Results: This study revealed that failure of differentiation and duplication deformities were the most frequent, with polydactyly was the most common anomaly encountered. The mean age of presentation was 6 years and female to male ratio was 1.46:1. Hand anomalies were either isolated, associated with other anomalies or part of a syndrome. Conclusion: Incidence of congenital hand anomalies in Upper Egypt is difficult to be estimated due to social and cultural concepts, lack of education, poor registration and deficient medical survey. Management of hand anomalies should be individualised, carefully planned and started as early as possible to achieve the best outcome. PMID:27833283

  3. Whether the gravitational anomalies of the lunar farside can be traces of ancient mantle plumes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrova, A.; Gusev, A.; Petrova, N.

    Global topographic and gravitational field models derived from data collected by the Clementine spacecraft reveal a new picture of the shape and internal structure of the Moon. The discovery of gravitational signatures ("mascons") at continental part of Lunar far side (and not only at mare basins) raises the question about its origin. It is interesting to verify a hypothesis of an origin of these anomalies connected with a motion of convection plumes, which took place in an early stage of evolution of the Moon. In this case the convection plumes could be preserved in the top crust of the Moon as positive gravitational anomalies. The behavior of a lunar surface in a vicinity of such anomalies will have the certain characteristics: increasing of a thermal flow in region of the plume; in a tectonosphere of continental crust the plume produces positive gravitational anomalies; topographic features in the form of arched lineament; the pluton-like intrusions (''mascons''); the crust becomes more thin due to Moho boundary uplifts. We have carried out a visual analysis of topographical and gravitational maps, which were obtained by Clementine, in zones of gravitational anomalies of a different origin. The analysis was directed on search for topographical features describing plume manifestation and for correlation of gravitational anomalies with a topographic relief.

  4. Genetic Mapping

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fact Sheets Fact Sheets En Español: Mapeo Genético Genetic Mapping What is genetic mapping? How do researchers ... genetic map? What are genetic markers? What is genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human ...

  5. Sensitivity of Asian Summer Monsoon precipitation to tropical sea surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lei; Shin, Sang-Ik; Liu, Zhengyu; Liu, Qinyu

    2016-10-01

    Sensitivity of Asian Summer Monsoon (ASM) precipitation to tropical sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies was estimated from ensemble simulations of two atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) with an array of idealized SST anomaly patch prescriptions. Consistent sensitivity patterns were obtained in both models. Sensitivity of Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) precipitation to cooling in the East Pacific was much weaker than to that of the same magnitude in the local Indian-western Pacific, over which a meridional pattern of warm north and cold south was most instrumental in increasing ISM precipitation. This indicates that the strength of the ENSO-ISM relationship is due to the large-amplitude East Pacific SST anomaly rather than its sensitivity value. Sensitivity of the East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM), represented by the Yangtze-Huai River Valley (YHRV, also known as the meiyu-baiu front) precipitation, is non-uniform across the Indian Ocean basin. YHRV precipitation was most sensitive to warm SST anomalies over the northern Indian Ocean and the South China Sea, whereas the southern Indian Ocean had the opposite effect. This implies that the strengthened EASM in the post-Niño year is attributable mainly to warming of the northern Indian Ocean. The corresponding physical links between these SST anomaly patterns and ASM precipitation were also discussed. The relevance of sensitivity maps was justified by the high correlation between sensitivity-map-based reconstructed time series using observed SST anomaly patterns and actual precipitation series derived from ensemble-mean atmospheric GCM runs with time-varying global SST prescriptions during the same period. The correlation results indicated that sensitivity maps derived from patch experiments were far superior to those based on regression methods.

  6. Correlation of lineaments with soil gas anomalies in the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Wyatt, D.E. |; Richers, D.

    1994-08-23

    Results from a soil gas survey, performed in the Atlantic Coastal Plain and centered on the US Department of Energy Savannah River Site discovered areas of anomalous (greater than one standard deviation above the mean) methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen and carbon dioxide. A lineament study was performed to investigate whether these anomalies may be associated with fractures or faults and therefore be sourced in basement rocks. The lineament study used a regional aeromagnetic map, various scale topographic maps and a Landsat image. The results of the study suggest the following: (1) correcting for barometric pumping effects, the soil gas anomalies have a strong coincidence with lineations, (2) comparing linear features discernible on a variety of sources mapped at different scales allows for a combined data set to be formed that may define a lineation zone, and (3) linear trends compare favorably with suspected structural trends for the coastal plain.

  7. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US Midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The analysis and preliminary interpretation of investigator-B MAGSAT data are addressed. The data processing included: (1) removal of spurious data points; (2) statistical smoothing along individual data tracks, to reduce the effect of geomagnetic transient disturbances; (3) comparison of data profiles spatially coincident in track location but acquired at different times; (4) reduction of data by weighted averaging to a grid with 1 deg xl deg latitude/longitude spacing, and with elevations interpolated and weighted to a common datum of 400 km; (5) wavelength filtering; and (6) reduction of the anomaly map to the magnetic pole. Agreement was found between a magnitude data anomaly map and a reduce-to-the-pole map supporting the general assumption that, on a large scale (long wavelength), it is induced crustal magnetization which is responsible for major anamalies. Anomalous features are identified and explanations are suggested with regard to crustal structure, petrologic characteristics, and Curie temperature isotherms.

  8. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  9. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. Chromium isotopic anomalies in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.

    1986-01-01

    Abundances of the chromium isotopes in terrestrial and bulk meteorite samples are identical to 0.01 percent. However, Ca-Al-rich inclusions from the Allende meteorite show endemic isotopic anomalies in chromium which require at least three nucleosynthetic components. Large anomalies at Cr-54 in a special class of inclusions are correlated with large anomalies at Ca-48 and Ti-50 and provide strong support for a component reflecting neutron-rich nucleosynthesis at nuclear statistical equilibrium. This correlation suggests that materials from very near the core of an exploding massive star may be injected into the interstellar medium.

  11. Recent Advances in Ionospheric Anomalies detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Anton; Vyacheslav, Khattatov

    2016-07-01

    The variability of the parameters of the ionosphere and ionospheric anomalies are the subject of intensive research. It is widely known and studied in the literature ionospheric disturbances caused by solar activity, the passage of the terminator, artificial heating of high-latitude ionosphere, as well as seismic events. Each of the above types of anomalies is the subject of study and analysis. Analysis of these anomalies will provide an opportunity to improve our understanding of the mechanisms of ionospheric disturbances. To solve this problem are encouraged to develop a method of modeling the ionosphere, based on the assimilation of large amounts of observational data.

  12. Non-standard symmetries and quantum anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Visinescu, Anca; Visinescu, Mihai

    2008-08-31

    Quantum anomalies are investigated on curved spacetimes. The intimate relation between Killing-Yano tensors and non-standard symmetries is pointed out. The gravitational anomalies are absent if the hidden symmetry is associated to a Killing-Yano tensor. The axial anomaly in a background gravitational field is directly related with the index of the Dirac operator. In the Dirac theory on curved spaces, Killing-Yano tensors generate Dirac-type operators involved in interesting algebraic structures. The general results are applied to the 4-dimensional Euclidean Taub-NUT space.

  13. Recent Development in Hot Flow Anomaly Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, S.; Zong, Q.

    2013-05-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are events observed near the bow shock that are characterized by greatly heated solar wind plasmas and substantial flow deflection from the Sun-Earth direction, with duration of a few minutes and scale size of the order of a few Re. HFAs are thought to be produced by the interaction of some very special interplanetary current sheets that satisfy several strict conditions with planetary bow shocks. When the current sheet (discontinuity) is connected to the bow shock and the motional electric fields point towards the discontinuity, ions reflected from the bow shock are trapped in the current sheet. The relative streaming energy of the original solar wind beam and the reflected beam is converted to the thermal energy. However, we found recently that HFAs can be generated spontaneously (in the absence of any current sheets) at quasi-parallel bow shocks where the interplanetary magnetic field lies nearly parallel to the shock normal. Statistical studies show that 60% of the HFAs are not associated with clear discontinuities. In addition, there are 13% of the HFAs with the motional electric fields on neither leading nor trailing edge pointing towards the discontinuity. These new results indicate that this phenomenon is still not well understood although it was discovered almost 30 years ago.

  14. Recent Development in Hot Flow Anomaly Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Wang, S.; Zong, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Hot flow anomalies (HFAs) are events observed near the bow shock that are characterized by greatly heated solar wind plasmas and substantial flow deflection from the Sun-Earth direction, with duration of a few minutes and scale size of the order of a few RE. HFAs are thought to be produced by the interaction of some very special interplanetary current sheets that satisfy several strict conditions with planetary bow shocks. When the current sheet (discontinuity) is connected to the bow shock and the motional electric fields point towards the discontinuity, ions reflected from the bow shock are trapped in the current sheet. The relative streaming energy of the original solar wind beam and the reflected beam is converted to the thermal energy. However, we found recently that HFAs can be generated spontaneously (in the absence of any current sheets) at quasi-parallel bow shocks where the interplanetary magnetic field lies nearly parallel to the shock normal. Statistical studies show that 60% of the HFAs are not associated with clear discontinuities. In addition, there are 13% of the HFAs with the motional electric fields on neither leading nor trailing edge pointing towards the discontinuity. These new results indicate that this phenomenon is still not well understood although it was discovered almost 30 years ago.

  15. Congenital anomalies of the inner ear: introducing a new classification of labyrinthine anomalies.

    PubMed

    Suehiro, S; Sando, I

    1979-01-01

    In a literature review of 108 articles a special effort was made to find and classify inner ear anomalies and diseases associated with inner ear anomalies. This study showed the following. Most of the diseases associated with inner ear anomalies are also associated with anomalies in other parts of the body. Hereditary characteristics comprise the most common etiological factor among the diseases associated with inner ear anomalies. Among anomalies observed in the cochlea, the vestibule, and the semicircular canals, anomalies in the cochlea are most frequently associated with various diseases and were observed in 30 of 40 diseases. Anomalies of the vestibule were observed in 25 diseases, and those of the semicircular canals in 18 diseases. Anomalies in both the osseous and the membranous labyrinth were most frequently associated with the diseases studied, as they were observed to occur with 10 of the 43 diseases. In this paper a new classification system for labyrinthine anomalies is introduced, based on this study of the literature.

  16. Improving the geological interpretation of magnetic and gravity satellite anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinze, William J.; Braile, Lawrence W.; Vonfrese, Ralph R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of the geologic component of observed satellite magnetic and gravity fields requires accurate isolation of the geologic component of the observations, theoretically sound and viable inversion techniques, and integration of collateral, constraining geologic and geophysical data. A number of significant contributions were made which make quantitative analysis more accurate. These include procedures for: screening and processing orbital data for lithospheric signals based on signal repeatability and wavelength analysis; producing accurate gridded anomaly values at constant elevations from the orbital data by three-dimensional least squares collocation; increasing the stability of equivalent point source inversion and criteria for the selection of the optimum damping parameter; enhancing inversion techniques through an iterative procedure based on the superposition theorem of potential fields; and modeling efficiently regional-scale lithospheric sources of satellite magnetic anomalies. In addition, these techniques were utilized to investigate regional anomaly sources of North and South America and India and to provide constraints to continental reconstruction. Since the inception of this research study, eleven papers were presented with associated published abstracts, three theses were completed, four papers were published or accepted for publication, and an additional manuscript was submitted for publication.

  17. MAGSAT investigation of crustal magnetic anomalies in the eastern Indian Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sailor, R. V.; Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1983-01-01

    Crustal magnetic anomalies in a region of the eastern Indian Ocean were studied using data from NASA's MAGSAT mission. The investigation region (0 deg to 50 deg South, 75 to 125 deg East) contains several important tectonic features, including the Broken Ridge, Java Trench, Ninetyeast Ridge, and Southeast Indian Ridge. A large positive magnetic anomaly is associated with the Broken Ridge and smaller positive anomalies correlate with the Ninetyeast Ridge and western Australia. Individual profiles of scalar data (computed from vector components) were considered to determine the overall data quality and resolution capability. A set of MAGSAT ""Quiet-Time'' data was used to compute an equivalent source crustal magnetic anomaly map of the study region. Maps of crustal magnetization and magnetic susceptibility were computed from the equivalent source dipoles. Gravity data were used to help interpretation, and a map of the ratio of magnetization to density contrasts was computed using Poisson's relation. The results are consistent with the hypothesis of induced magnetization of a crustal layer having varying thickness and composition.

  18. EMAG2: A 2-arc min resolution Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid compiled from satellite, airborne, and marine magnetic measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maus, S.; Barckhausen, U.; Berkenbosch, H.; Bournas, N.; Brozena, J.; Childers, V.; Dostaler, F.; Fairhead, J.D.; Finn, C.; von Frese, R.R.B; Gaina, C.; Golynsky, S.; Kucks, R.; Lu, Hai; Milligan, P.; Mogren, S.; Muller, R.D.; Olesen, O.; Pilkington, M.; Saltus, R.; Schreckenberger, B.; Thebault, E.; Tontini, F.C.

    2009-01-01

    A global Earth Magnetic Anomaly Grid (EMAG2) has been compiled from satellite, ship, and airborne magnetic measurements. EMAG2 is a significant update of our previous candidate grid for the World Digital Magnetic Anomaly Map. The resolution has been improved from 3 arc min to 2 arc min, and the altitude has been reduced from 5 km to 4 km above the geoid. Additional grid and track line data have been included, both over land and the oceans. Wherever available, the original shipborne and airborne data were used instead of precompiled oceanic magnetic grids. Interpolation between sparse track lines in the oceans was improved by directional gridding and extrapolation, based on an oceanic crustal age model. The longest wavelengths (>330 km) were replaced with the latest CHAMP satellite magnetic field model MF6. EMAG2 is available at http://geomag.org/models/EMAG2 and for permanent archive at http://earthref.org/ cgi-bin/er.cgi?s=erda.cgi?n=970. ?? 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Interpretation of Magnetic Anomalies in Salihli (Turkey) Geothermal Area Using 3-D Inversion and Edge Detection Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timur, Emre

    2016-04-01

    There are numerous geophysical methods used to investigate geothermal areas. The major purpose of this magnetic survey is to locate the boudaries of active hydrothermal system in the South of Gediz Graben in Salihli (Manisa/Turkey). The presence of the hydrothermal system had already been inferred from surface evidence of hydrothermal activity and drillings. Firstly, 3-D prismatic models were theoretically investigated and edge detection methods were utilized with an iterative inversion method to define the boundaries and the parameters of the structure. In the first step of the application, it was necessary to convert the total field anomaly into a pseudo-gravity anomaly map. Then the geometric boudaries of the structures were determined by applying a MATLAB based software with 3 different edge detection algorithms. The exact location of the structures were obtained by using these boundary coordinates as initial geometric parameters in the inversion process. In addition to these methods, reduction to pole and horizontal gradient methods were applied to the data to achieve more information about the location and shape of the possible reservoir. As a result, the edge detection methods were found to be successful, both in the field and as theoretical data sets for delineating the boundaries of the possible geothermal reservoir structure. The depth of the geothermal reservoir was determined as 2,4 km from 3-D inversion and 2,1 km from power spectrum methods.

  20. Magnetic Field Anomalies Above Large Martian Impact Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, B.; Ostanciaux; Thébault, E.

    2008-12-01

    The Mars Global Surveyor NASA mission revealed the complex nature of the lithospheric magnetic field of Mars. Intense anomalies are located above the southern cratered highlands, while the giant impact basins (Hellas, Argyre, Utopia) and the northern smoothed lowlands do not show significant anomalies. Here we study the magnetic signal above large impact craters, with diameters ranging between 100 and 2000 km. Magnetic measurements are carefully screened and selected to avoid non static features. Then the mean magnetic field is evaluated both inside each crater rim and in its immediate vicinity, within one crater radius. The ratio of these two quantities helps to determine which craters modified the magnetic properties of the pre-impact lithosphere. In addition, this technique allows the impacts located in the strongly magnetized Terra Sirenum and Terra Cimmeria to be studied. Results of this study, as well as comparison of the magnetic measurements to predicted ones for different pre-impact magnetization directions will be presented.

  1. Hawking radiation from dilatonic black holes via anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang Qingquan; Cai Xu; Wu Shuangqing

    2007-03-15

    Recently, Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild-type black hole via a gravitational anomaly at the horizon has been derived by Robinson and Wilczek. Their result shows that, in order to demand general coordinate covariance at the quantum level to hold in the effective theory, the flux of the energy-momentum tensor required to cancel the gravitational anomaly at the horizon of the black hole is exactly equal to that of (1+1)-dimensional blackbody radiation at the Hawking temperature. In this paper, we attempt to apply the analysis to derive Hawking radiation from the event horizons of static, spherically symmetric dilatonic black holes with arbitrary coupling constant {alpha}, and that from the rotating Kaluza-Klein ({alpha}={radical}(3)) as well as the Kerr-Sen ({alpha}=1) black holes via an anomalous point of view. Our results support Robinson and Wilczek's opinion. In addition, the properties of the obtained physical quantities near the extreme limit are qualitatively discussed.

  2. A Constellation of Cardiac Anomalies: Beyond Shone's Complex

    PubMed Central

    Ganju, Neeraj K.; Kandoria, Arvind; Thakur, Suresh; Ganju, Sunite A.

    2016-01-01

    Shone's anomaly is a very rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by four serial obstructive lesions of the left side of the heart (i) Supravalvular mitral membrane (ii) parachute mitral valve (iii) muscular or membranous subaortic stenosis and (iv) coarctation of aorta. We report a unique presentation of Shone's complex in a 14-year-old adolescent male. In addition to the four characteristic lesions the patient had bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of sinus of valsalva, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, persistent left superior vena cava opening into coronary sinus and severe pulmonary artery hypertension. This case report highlights the importance of a strong clinical suspicion of the coexistence of multiple congenital cardiac anomalies in Shone's complex and the significance of a careful comprehensive echocardiography. PMID:27293526

  3. A Constellation of Cardiac Anomalies: Beyond Shone's Complex.

    PubMed

    Ganju, Neeraj K; Kandoria, Arvind; Thakur, Suresh; Ganju, Sunite A

    2016-01-01

    Shone's anomaly is a very rare congenital cardiac malformation characterized by four serial obstructive lesions of the left side of the heart (i) Supravalvular mitral membrane (ii) parachute mitral valve (iii) muscular or membranous subaortic stenosis and (iv) coarctation of aorta. We report a unique presentation of Shone's complex in a 14-year-old adolescent male. In addition to the four characteristic lesions the patient had bicuspid aortic valve, aneurysm of sinus of valsalva, patent ductus arteriosus, ventricular septal defect, persistent left superior vena cava opening into coronary sinus and severe pulmonary artery hypertension. This case report highlights the importance of a strong clinical suspicion of the coexistence of multiple congenital cardiac anomalies in Shone's complex and the significance of a careful comprehensive echocardiography.

  4. International Space Station (ISS) Anomalies Trending Study. Volume II; Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beil, Robert J.; Brady, Timothy K.; Foster, Delmar C.; Graber, Robert R.; Malin, Jane T.; Thornesbery, Carroll G.; Throop, David R.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) set out to utilize data mining and trending techniques to review the anomaly history of the International Space Station (ISS) and provide tools for discipline experts not involved with the ISS Program to search anomaly data to aid in identification of areas that may warrant further investigation. Additionally, the assessment team aimed to develop an approach and skillset for integrating data sets, with the intent of providing an enriched data set for discipline experts to investigate that is easier to navigate, particularly in light of ISS aging and the plan to extend its life into the late 2020s. This document contains the Appendices to the Volume I report.

  5. 18 CFR 154.106 - Map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Map. 154.106 Section....106 Map. (a) The map must show the general geographic location of the company's principal pipeline... on a single map. In addition, a separate map should be provided for each zone. (b) (c) The map...

  6. 18 CFR 154.106 - Map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Map. 154.106 Section....106 Map. (a) The map must show the general geographic location of the company's principal pipeline... on a single map. In addition, a separate map should be provided for each zone. (b) (c) The map...

  7. 18 CFR 154.106 - Map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Map. 154.106 Section....106 Map. (a) The map must show the general geographic location of the company's principal pipeline... on a single map. In addition, a separate map should be provided for each zone. (b) (c) The map...

  8. 18 CFR 154.106 - Map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Map. 154.106 Section....106 Map. (a) The map must show the general geographic location of the company's principal pipeline... on a single map. In addition, a separate map should be provided for each zone. (b) (c) The map...

  9. 18 CFR 154.106 - Map.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Map. 154.106 Section....106 Map. (a) The map must show the general geographic location of the company's principal pipeline... on a single map. In addition, a separate map should be provided for each zone. (b) (c) The map...

  10. Elementary maps on nest algebras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengtong

    2006-08-01

    Let , be algebras and let , be maps. An elementary map of is an ordered pair (M,M*) such that for all , . In this paper, the general form of surjective elementary maps on standard subalgebras of nest algebras is described. In particular, such maps are automatically additive.

  11. Flyby Anomaly Test Integrating Multiple Approaches (FATIMA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levit, Creon; Jaroux, Belgacem Amar

    2014-01-01

    FATIMA is a mission concept for a small satellite to investigate the flyby anomaly - a possible velocity increase that has been observed in some earlier satellites when they have performed gravitational swingy maneuvers of the earth.

  12. Understanding Magnetic Anomalies and Their Significance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, James H.

    1988-01-01

    Describes a laboratory exercise testing the Vine-Matthews-Morley hypothesis of plate tectonics. Includes 14 questions with explanations using graphs and charts. Provides a historical account of the current plate tectonic and magnetic anomaly theory. (MVL)

  13. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  14. Cervicobrachialgia with congenital vertebral anomalies and diastematomyelia.

    PubMed

    Roosen, N; De Moor, J

    1984-05-01

    A case of diastematomyelia in an adult female patient is reported. The relationship of the cervicobrachialgia, which was the presenting sign, to the diastematomyelia and the congenital vertebral anomalies is discussed.

  15. PHACE Syndrome: Persistent Fetal Vascular Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Prochazka, V.; Hrbac, T.; Chmelova, J.; Skoloudik, D.; Prochazka, M.

    2005-01-01

    Summary PHACE(S) syndrome is an acronym for neurocutaneous disease encompassing the expression of (P) posterior cranial fossa malformations, (H) facial haemangiomas, (A) arterial anomalies, (C) aortic coarctaion and other cardiac defects, (E) eye abnormalities and (S) for sternal malformation or stenotic arterial diseases. We report on a case of PHACE syndrome complete expression with persistent fetal vascular anomalies unusually in a 55-year-old women with large bilateral facial and neck haemangioma and posterior fossa circulation insufficiency. PMID:20584448

  16. Anaesthesia management in craniovertebral junctional anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Mascarenhas, Oswald

    2016-01-01

    Craniovertebral Junctional (CVJ) anomalies are developmental disorders that affect the skeleton and enclosed neuraxis at the junction of cranium and cervical spine. The high prevalence of airway obstruction and restrictive pulmonary disease in combination with cardiovascular manifestations poses a high anaesthetic risk to these patients. This article provides a discussion of management of anaesthesia in patients with craniovertebral anomalies, the evaluation of risk factors in these patients and their management, including emergency airway issues. PMID:27891026

  17. On the topological interpretation of gravitational anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrot, Denis

    2001-07-01

    We consider the mixed gravitational Yang-Mills anomaly as the coupling between the K-theory and K-homology of a C ∗-algebra crossed product. The index theorem of Connes-Moscovici allows to compute the Chern character of the K-cycle by local formulae involving connections and curvatures. It gives a topological interpretation to the anomaly, in the sense of noncommutative algebras.

  18. [Mild type of the Ebstein anomaly].

    PubMed

    Jedliński, Ireneusz; Jamrozek-Jedlińska, Maria; Bugajski, Paweł; Waśniewski, Michał; Poprawski, Kajetan; Słomczyński, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a congenital malformation of the heart that is characterised by apical displacement of the septal and posterior tricuspid valve leaflets, leading to atrialisation of the right ventricle with a variable degree of malformation and displacement of the anterior leaflet. We present a case of a mild type Ebstein anomaly leading to moderate tricuspid valve regurgitation and some degree of right ventricular dysfunction.

  19. Gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Tiago R. S.; Sobreiro, Rodrigo F.

    2016-12-01

    In this work we study the issue of gauge anomalies in Lorentz-violating QED. To do so, we opt to use the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin formalism within the algebraic renormalization approach, reducing our study to a cohomology problem. Since this approach is independent of the renormalization scheme, the results obtained here are expected to be general. We find that the Lorentz-violating QED is free of gauge anomalies to all orders in perturbation theory.

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of Unsupervised Anomaly Detection Algorithms for Multivariate Data

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Markus; Uchida, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Anomaly detection is the process of identifying unexpected items or events in datasets, which differ from the norm. In contrast to standard classification tasks, anomaly detection is often applied on unlabeled data, taking only the internal structure of the dataset into account. This challenge is known as unsupervised anomaly detection and is addressed in many practical applications, for example in network intrusion detection, fraud detection as well as in the life science and medical domain. Dozens of algorithms have been proposed in this area, but unfortunately the research community still lacks a comparative universal evaluation as well as common publicly available datasets. These shortcomings are addressed in this study, where 19 different unsupervised anomaly detection algorithms are evaluated on 10 different datasets from multiple application domains. By publishing the source code and the datasets, this paper aims to be a new well-funded basis for unsupervised anomaly detection research. Additionally, this evaluation reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different approaches for the first time. Besides the anomaly detection performance, computational effort, the impact of parameter settings as well as the global/local anomaly detection behavior is outlined. As a conclusion, we give an advise on algorithm selection for typical real-world tasks. PMID:27093601

  1. Epidemiology of Ebstein anomaly: prevalence and patterns in Texas, 1999-2005.

    PubMed

    Lupo, Philip J; Langlois, Peter H; Mitchell, Laura E

    2011-05-01

    Ebstein anomaly is a rare but serious cardiac defect, however, little is known about the etiology of this condition. The goal of this study was to expand our limited understanding of the epidemiology of Ebstein anomaly. Data for cases with Ebstein anomaly, as well as all live births, were obtained from the Texas Birth Defects Registry (TBDR) and Center for Health Statistics for the period 1999-2005. Descriptive analyses and estimates of birth prevalence and crude prevalence ratios were used to characterize this defect in Texas during the study period. There were 188 definite cases of Ebstein anomaly identified in the TBDR. The overall prevalence was 0.72 per 10,000 live births. Variables associated with an increased prevalence of non-syndromic Ebstein anomaly included: maternal age >39 years (compared to those 20-24 years), maternal residence along the Texas-Mexico border (compared to non-border residence), and conception in fall or winter (compared to summer). In addition, infants with Ebstein anomaly were at a greater risk of preterm birth and being small for gestational age. These findings help to define subgroups of women at increased risk of having offspring affected by Ebstein anomaly. Furthermore, our findings add to the limited body of literature on this rare but serious malformation.

  2. Acoustic Wood anomaly in transmitted diffraction field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jingfei; Declercq, Nico F.

    2017-03-01

    In acoustics, the term Wood anomaly, in analogy to the Wood anomaly in optics, has so far referred to the anomalies observed in the specular reflection spectra of acoustic waves perpendicularly incident on periodic surfaces. Inspired by the pioneering work of Jungman et al. on the study of the transmission field of a solid-fluid periodic interface, this work attempts to provide a complete experimental investigation of the transmission fields of a broadband sound pulse transmitted through a periodic liquid-solid interface as well as a periodic solid-liquid interface. At different frequencies, two types of anomalies are observed: a spectral tip and a spectral dip, which correspond, respectively, to the brighter band and the darker band in optical Wood anomalies. The search for their physical origin suggests that the type and location of the observed spectral anomalies are strongly related to the generation and the diffraction of pseudosurface waves on the interface having superimposed periodic corrugations and time-domain windowing in spectral analysis. To compare with the surface waves on a plane surface, the properties of the pseudosurface waves are also investigated through examining their phase and by comparing their amplitudes.

  3. IDENTIFYING ANOMALIES IN GRAVITATIONAL LENS TIME DELAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, Arthur B.; Keeton, Charles R.; Nordgren, C. Erik E-mail: keeton@physics.rutgers.ed

    2010-02-01

    We examine the ability of gravitational lens time delays to reveal complex structure in lens potentials. In a previous paper, we predicted how the time delay between the bright pair of images in a 'fold' lens scales with the image separation, for smooth lens potentials. Here we show that the proportionality constant increases with the quadrupole moment of the lens potential, and depends only weakly on the position of the source along the caustic. We use Monte Carlo simulations to determine the range of time delays that can be produced by realistic smooth lens models consisting of isothermal ellipsoid galaxies with tidal shear. We can then identify outliers as 'time delay anomalies'. We find evidence for anomalies in close image pairs in the cusp lenses RX J1131 - 1231 and B1422+231. The anomalies in RX J1131 - 1231 provide strong evidence for substructure in the lens potential, while at this point the apparent anomalies in B1422+231 mainly indicate that the time delay measurements need to be improved. We also find evidence for time delay anomalies in larger-separation image pairs in the fold lenses, B1608+656 and WFI 2033 - 4723, and the cusp lens RX J0911+0551. We suggest that these anomalies are caused by some combination of substructure and a complex lens environment. Finally, to assist future monitoring campaigns we use our smooth models with shear to predict the time delays for all known four-image lenses.

  4. MAGSAT correlations with geoid anomalies. [magnetic anomalies in the western Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowin, C. O. (Principal Investigator)

    1984-01-01

    A digital data library of MAGSAT data is described and its applications and capabilities are reviewed. Polynomial trends were removed from each half-orbit in order to estimate and remove ring current effects from the data. The MAGSAT data in the Gulf of Mexico region was analyzed to define better the possible relation of the negative MAGSAT anomaly there to the negative residual geoid anomaly in the western Gulf of Mexico. Since the shape and location of the negative magnetic anomaly are variable depending upon the particular polynomial surface and curve orders used, no definitive conclusion as to the degree of correspondance between the residual geoid and MAGSAT lithosphere anomalies is offered.

  5. Clustering and Recurring Anomaly Identification: Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McIntosh, Dawn

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Recurring Anomaly Detection System (ReADS). The Recurring Anomaly Detection System is a tool to analyze text reports, such as aviation reports and maintenance records: (1) Text clustering algorithms group large quantities of reports and documents; Reduces human error and fatigue (2) Identifies interconnected reports; Automates the discovery of possible recurring anomalies; (3) Provides a visualization of the clusters and recurring anomalies We have illustrated our techniques on data from Shuttle and ISS discrepancy reports, as well as ASRS data. ReADS has been integrated with a secure online search

  6. Cloud Radiative Forcing Anomalies Associated with and Their Effects on the Atmospheric Response to Equatorial Pacific SST Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghang

    The NCAR CCM2 has been used in this study to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific SST anomalies, and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), which means cloud height and cloud radiative properties, such as emissivity and reflectivity, are well simulated by the model. The CRF anomalies, however, are underestimated in the CCM2. This underestimate of the CRF anomalies is due to the insufficient high cloud amount anomaly in the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation, both the positive sea level pressure (SLP) anomaly in the Indonesia-Australia region and the negative SLP anomaly in the central and eastern Pacific, and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the NH extratropical circulation anomaly, the PNA pattern. The LWCRF anomaly has a large contribution to the three action centers of the PNA pattern at all levels. This large contribution results from the direct thermal effect of the tropical LWCRF anomaly and its strong positive interaction with tropical deep convection. As a consequence of the complex interaction between the forced wave train, orographic forcing and other factors, the contribution rates of the LWCRF anomaly to the three PNA action centers are different.

  7. Midlatitude atmospheric responses to Arctic sensible heat flux anomalies in Community Climate Model, Version 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, Catrin M.; Cassano, John J.; Cassano, Elizabeth N.

    2016-12-01

    Possible linkages between Arctic sea ice loss and midlatitude weather are strongly debated in the literature. We analyze a coupled model simulation to assess the possibility of Arctic ice variability forcing a midlatitude response, ensuring consistency between atmosphere, ocean, and ice components. We work with weekly running mean daily sensible heat fluxes with the self-organizing map technique to identify Arctic sensible heat flux anomaly patterns and the associated atmospheric response, without the need of metrics to define the Arctic forcing or measure the midlatitude response. We find that low-level warm anomalies during autumn can build planetary wave patterns that propagate downstream into the midlatitudes, creating robust surface cold anomalies in the eastern United States.

  8. Association of Copy Number Variants With Specific Ultrasonographically Detected Fetal Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Donnelly, Jennifer C; Platt, Lawrence D; Rebarber, Andrei; Zachary, Julia; Grobman, William A; Wapner, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of other-than-common benign copy number variants with specific fetal abnormalities detected by ultrasonogram. Methods Fetuses with structural anomalies were compared to fetuses without detected abnormalities for the frequency of other-than-common benign copy number variants. This is a secondary analysis from the previously published National Institute of Child Health and Human Development microarray trial. Ultrasound reports were reviewed and details of structural anomalies were entered into a nonhierarchical web-based database. The frequency of other-than-common benign copy number variants (ie, either pathogenic or variants of uncertain significance) not detected by karyotype was calculated for each anomaly in isolation and in the presence of other anomalies and compared to the frequency in fetuses without detected abnormalities. Results Of 1,082 fetuses with anomalies detected on ultrasound, 752 had a normal karyotype. Other-than-common benign copy number variants were present in 61 (8.1%) of these euploid fetuses. Fetuses with anomalies in more than one system had a 13.0% frequency of other-than-common benign copy number variants, which was significantly higher (p<0.001) than the frequency (3.6%) in fetuses without anomalies (n = 1966). Specific organ systems in which isolated anomalies were nominally significantly associated with other-than-common benign copy number variants were the renal (p= 0.036) and cardiac systems (p=0.012) but did not meet the adjustment for multiple comparisons. Conclusions When a fetal anomaly is detected on ultrasonogram, chromosomal microarray offers additional information over karyotype, the degree of which depends on the organ system involved. PMID:24901266

  9. Planetary maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1992-01-01

    An important goal of the USGS planetary mapping program is to systematically map the geology of the Moon, Mars, Venus, and Mercury, and the satellites of the outer planets. These geologic maps are published in the USGS Miscellaneous Investigations (I) Series. Planetary maps on sale at the USGS include shaded-relief maps, topographic maps, geologic maps, and controlled photomosaics. Controlled photomosaics are assembled from two or more photographs or images using a network of points of known latitude and longitude. The images used for most of these planetary maps are electronic images, obtained from orbiting television cameras, various optical-mechanical systems. Photographic film was only used to map Earth's Moon.

  10. Texture-Based Automated Lithological Classification Using Aeromagenetic Anomaly Images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shankar, Vivek

    2009-01-01

    This report consists of a thesis submitted to the faculty of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science, Graduate College, The University of Arizona, 2004 Aeromagnetic anomaly images are geophysical prospecting tools frequently used in the exploration of metalliferous minerals and hydrocarbons. The amplitude and texture content of these images provide a wealth of information to geophysicists who attempt to delineate the nature of the Earth's upper crust. These images prove to be extremely useful in remote areas and locations where the minerals of interest are concealed by basin fill. Typically, geophysicists compile a suite of aeromagnetic anomaly images, derived from amplitude and texture measurement operations, in order to obtain a qualitative interpretation of the lithological (rock) structure. Texture measures have proven to be especially capable of capturing the magnetic anomaly signature of unique lithological units. We performed a quantitative study to explore the possibility of using texture measures as input to a machine vision system in order to achieve automated classification of lithological units. This work demonstrated a significant improvement in classification accuracy over random guessing based on a priori probabilities. Additionally, a quantitative comparison between the performances of five classes of texture measures in their ability to discriminate lithological units was achieved.

  11. The trace anomaly and dynamical vacuum energy in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Mottola, Emil

    2010-04-30

    The trace anomaly of conformal matter implies the existence of massless scalar poles in physical amplitudes involving the stress-energy tensor. These poles may be described by a local effective action with massless scalar fields, which couple to classical sources, contribute to gravitational scattering processes, and can have long range gravitational effects at macroscopic scales. In an effective field theory approach, the effective action of the anomaly is an infrared relevant term that should be added to the Einstein-Hilbert action of classical General Relativity to take account of macroscopic quantum effects. The additional scalar degrees of freedom contained in this effective action may be understood as responsible for both the Casimir effect in flat spacetime and large quantum backreaction effects at the horizon scale of cosmological spacetimes. These effects of the trace anomaly imply that the cosmological vacuum energy is dynamical, and its value depends on macroscopic boundary conditions at the cosmological horizon scale, rather than sensitivity to the extreme ultraviolet Planck scale.

  12. Insights on the Cuprate High Energy Anomaly Observed in ARPES

    SciTech Connect

    Moritz, Brian

    2011-08-16

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). The anomaly is present for both hole- and electron-doped cuprates as well as the half-filled parent insulators with different energy scales arising on either side of the phase diagram. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. creating a 'waterfall'-like appearance, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram. We find that the anomaly demarcates a transition, or cross-over, from a quasiparticle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character.

  13. Claycap anomaly detection using hyperspectral remote sensing and lidargrammetric techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Quijano, Maria Jose

    Clay capped waste sites are a common method to dispose of the more than 40 million tons of hazardous waste produced in the United States every year (EPA, 2003). Due to the potential threat that hazardous waste poses, it is essential to monitor closely the performance of these facilities. Development of a monitoring system that exploits spectral and topographic changes over hazardous waste sites is presented. Spectral anomaly detection is based upon the observed changes in absolute reflectance and spectral derivatives in centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiuroides) under different irrigation levels. The spectral features that provide the best separability among irrigation levels were identified using Stepwise Discriminant Analyses. The Red Edge Position was selected as a suitable discriminant variable to compare the performance of a global and a local anomaly detection algorithm using a DAIS 3715 hyperspectral image. Topographical anomaly detection is assessed by evaluating the vertical accuracy of two LIDAR datasets acquired from two different altitudes (700 m and 1,200 m AGL) over a clay-capped hazardous site at the Savannah River National Laboratory, SC using the same Optech ALTM 2050 and Cessna 337 platform. Additionally, a quantitative comparison is performed to determine the effect that decreasing platform altitude and increasing posting density have on the vertical accuracy of the LIDAR data collected.

  14. Frozen-anomaly transformation for the elliptic rendezvous problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roa, Javier; Peláez, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    A new solution to relative motion on elliptical orbits is presented, based on a novel transformation from the reference state vector to the relative state vector. The relative orbit is constructed assuming that the anomaly, and not the time, is the invariant element throughout the transformation. This concept arises naturally from the variational form of anomaly-explicit formulations. In particular, this paper explores the capabilities of a formulation developed by Peláez et al. (Celest Mech Dyn Astron. 97, 131-150, 2007), called Dromo. This formulation exploits the advantages of the ideal reference frames and quaternionic descriptions of the orbital plane. The linear variational form of the equations of motion in Dromo is developed herein, and the resulting transformation matrix is presented. When applied to the reference state vector, this linear transformation provides the relative state vector at any step. The invariance in the anomaly implies a certain time delay in the results. Physical times for leader and follower do not coincide after the transformation. To recover the sense of the solution an additional correction is applied a posteriori to cancel this intrinsic time delay. The performance of the new transformation is compared against previous solutions to the problem through a set of numerical examples. Important error reductions in determining the relative orbit are observed in these tests.

  15. Anomaly Detection in Multiple Scale for Insider Threat Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoohwan; Sheldon, Frederick T; Hively, Lee M

    2012-01-01

    We propose a method to quantify malicious insider activity with statistical and graph-based analysis aided with semantic scoring rules. Different types of personal activities or interactions are monitored to form a set of directed weighted graphs. The semantic scoring rules assign higher scores for the events more significant and suspicious. Then we build personal activity profiles in the form of score tables. Profiles are created in multiple scales where the low level profiles are aggregated toward more stable higherlevel profiles within the subject or object hierarchy. Further, the profiles are created in different time scales such as day, week, or month. During operation, the insider s current activity profile is compared to the historical profiles to produce an anomaly score. For each subject with a high anomaly score, a subgraph of connected subjects is extracted to look for any related score movement. Finally the subjects are ranked by their anomaly scores to help the analysts focus on high-scored subjects. The threat-ranking component supports the interaction between the User Dashboard and the Insider Threat Knowledge Base portal. The portal includes a repository for historical results, i.e., adjudicated cases containing all of the information first presented to the user and including any additional insights to help the analysts. In this paper we show the framework of the proposed system and the operational algorithms.

  16. Lunar plasma measurement by MAP-PACE onboard KAGUYA(SELENE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Y.; Yokota, S.; Tanaka, T.; Asamura, K.; Nishino, M. N.; Yamamoto, T.; Tsunakawa, H.; Shibuya, H.; Shimizu, H.; Takahashi, F.; Matsushima, M.

    2008-12-01

    Low energy charged particles around the Moon were observed by Moon orbiting satellites and plasma instrumentation placed on the lunar surface in 1960s and 1970s. Though there were some satellites that explored the Moon afterwards, most of them were dedicated to the global mapping of the lunar surface. There has been almost no new information about the low energy charged particles around the Moon except the low energy electron measurement by Lunar Prospector, the lunar wake plasma data obtained by WIND during its Moon fly-by, and reports on remote detection of the lunar ions, lunar electrons and ULF waves generated by electron beams around the lunar wake. MAP (MAgnetic field and Plasma experiment) was developed for the comprehensive measurement of the magnetic field and three-dimensional plasma around the Moon. MAP consists of MAP-LMAG (Lunar MAGnetometer) and MAP-PACE (Plasma energy Angle and Composition Experiment). MAP-PACE consists of 4 sensors: ESA (Electron Spectrum Analyzer)-S1, ESA-S2, IMA (Ion Mass Analyzer), and IEA (Ion Energy Analyzer). PACE ion sensors discovered new features of low energy ions around the Moon since MAP started continuous observation last December. The in-situ measurement of low energy ions around the Moon is realized almost three decades after the Apollo period. In addition, nobody has ever measured mass identified low energy ions around the Moon at 100km altitude. PACE-IMA has succeeded in the in-situ measurements of the lunar tenuous ionized atmosphere and has discovered the existence of alkali ions that are originated from the lunar surface or lunar atmosphere. PACE- IMA has also discovered low energy ions that might be related to a meteor shower. PACE ion sensors have found solar wind reflection on the lunar surface. Instead of being absorbed by the lunar surface, quite a large amount of solar wind ions are reflected back from the Moon. The reflected ions are accelerated above solar wind energy picked up by the solar wind motional

  17. Oregon Magnetic and Gravity Maps and Data: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roberts, Carter W.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    This web site gives the results of a USGS project to acquire the best available, public-domain, aeromagnetic and gravity data in the United States and merge these data into uniform, composite grids for each State. The results for the State of Oregon are presented here on this site. Files of aeromagnetic and gravity grids and images are available for these States for downloading. In Oregon, 49 magnetic surveys have been knit together to form a single digital grid and map. Also, a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly grid and map was generated from 40,665 gravity station measurements in and adjacent to Oregon. In addition, a map shows the location of the aeromagnetic surveys, color-coded to the survey flight-line spacing. This project was supported by the Mineral Resource Program of the USGS.

  18. Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio Magnetic and Gravity Maps and Data: A Website for Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, David L.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.

    2008-01-01

    This web site gives the results of a USGS project to acquire the best available, public-domain, aeromagnetic and gravity data in the United States and merge these data into uniform, composite grids for each state. The results for the three states, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio are presented here in one site. Files of aeromagnetic and gravity grids and images are available for these states for downloading. In Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio, 19 magnetic surveys have been knit together to form a single digital grid and map. And, a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly grid and map was generated from 128,227 gravity station measurements in and adjacent to Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio. In addition, a map shows the location of the aeromagnetic surveys, color-coded to the survey flight-line spacing. This project was supported by the Mineral Resource Program of the USGS.

  19. Michigan Magnetic and Gravity Maps and Data: A Website for the Distribution of Data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Daniels, David L.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Snyder, Stephen L.

    2009-01-01

    This web site provides the best available, public-domain, aeromagnetic and gravity data in the State of Michigan and merges these data into composite grids that are available for downloading. The magnetic grid is compiled from 25 separate magnetic surveys that have been knit together to form a single composite digital grid and map. The magnetic survey grids have been continued to 305 meters (1,000 feet) above ground and merged together to form the State compilation. A separate map shows the location of the aeromagnetic surveys, color-coded to the survey flight-line spacing. In addition, a complete Bouguer gravity anomaly grid and map were generated from more than 20,000 gravity station measurements from 33 surveys. A table provides the facts about each gravity survey where known.

  20. A Somatic MAP3K3 Mutation Is Associated with Verrucous Venous Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Couto, Javier A.; Vivero, Matthew P.; Kozakewich, Harry P.W.; Taghinia, Amir H.; Mulliken, John B.; Warman, Matthew L.; Greene, Arin K.

    2015-01-01

    Verrucous venous malformation (VVM), also called “verrucous hemangioma,” is a non-hereditary, congenital, vascular anomaly comprised of aberrant clusters of malformed dermal venule-like channels underlying hyperkeratotic skin. We tested the hypothesis that VVM lesions arise as a consequence of a somatic mutation. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on VVM tissue from six unrelated individuals and looked for somatic mutations affecting the same gene in specimens from multiple persons. We observed mosaicism for a missense mutation (NM_002401.3, c.1323C>G; NP_002392, p.Iso441Met) in mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 3 (MAP3K3) in three of six individuals. We confirmed the presence of this mutation via droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in the three subjects and found the mutation in three additional specimens from another four participants. Mutant allele frequencies ranged from 6% to 19% in affected tissue. We did not observe this mutant allele in unaffected tissue or in affected tissue from individuals with other types of vascular anomalies. Studies using global and conditional Map3k3 knockout mice have previously implicated MAP3K3 in vascular development. MAP3K3 dysfunction probably causes VVM in humans. PMID:25728774

  1. South China Sea crustal thickness and lithosphere thinning from satellite gravity inversion incorporating a lithospheric thermal gravity anomaly correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusznir, Nick; Gozzard, Simon; Alvey, Andy

    2016-04-01

    The distribution of ocean crust and lithosphere within the South China Sea (SCS) are controversial. Sea-floor spreading re-orientation and ridge jumps during the Oligocene-Miocene formation of the South China Sea led to the present complex distribution of oceanic crust, thinned continental crust, micro-continents and volcanic ridges. We determine Moho depth, crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning (1- 1/beta) for the South China Sea using a gravity inversion method which incorporates a lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly correction (Chappell & Kusznir, 2008). The gravity inversion method provides a prediction of ocean-continent transition structure and continent-ocean boundary location which is independent of ocean isochron information. A correction is required for the lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly in order to determine Moho depth accurately from gravity inversion; the elevated lithosphere geotherm of the young oceanic and rifted continental margin lithosphere of the South China Sea produces a large lithosphere thermal gravity anomaly which in places exceeds -150 mGal. The gravity anomaly inversion is carried out in the 3D spectral domain (using Parker 1972) to determine 3D Moho geometry and invokes Smith's uniqueness theorem. The gravity anomaly contribution from sediments assumes a compaction controlled sediment density increase with depth. The gravity inversion includes a parameterization of the decompression melting model of White & McKenzie (1999) to predict volcanic addition generated during continental breakup lithosphere thinning and seafloor spreading. Public domain free air gravity anomaly, bathymetry and sediment thickness data are used in this gravity inversion. Using crustal thickness and continental lithosphere thinning factor maps with superimposed shaded-relief free-air gravity anomaly, we improve the determination of pre-breakup rifted margin conjugacy, rift orientation and sea-floor spreading trajectory. SCS conjugate margins

  2. A Distance Measure for Attention Focusing and Anomaly Detection in Systems Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, R.

    1994-01-01

    Any attempt to introduce automation into the monitoring of complex physical systems must start from a robust anomaly detection capability. This task is far from straightforward, for a single definition of what constitutes an anomaly is difficult to come by. In addition, to make the monitoring process efficient, and to avoid the potential for information overload on human operators, attention focusing must also be addressed. When an anomaly occurs, more often than not several sensors are affected, and the partially redundant information they provide can be confusing, particularly in a crisis situation where a response is needed quickly. Previous results on extending traditional anomaly detection techniques are summarized. The focus of this paper is a new technique for attention focusing.

  3. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arup; Qin, Shiming; Lee, Jooyeoun

    2016-01-01

    Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT) that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively. PMID:27974882

  4. PLAT: An Automated Fault and Behavioural Anomaly Detection Tool for PLC Controlled Manufacturing Systems.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arup; Qin, Shiming; Lee, Jooyeoun; Wang, Gi-Nam

    2016-01-01

    Operational faults and behavioural anomalies associated with PLC control processes take place often in a manufacturing system. Real time identification of these operational faults and behavioural anomalies is necessary in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, we present an automated tool, called PLC Log-Data Analysis Tool (PLAT) that can detect them by using log-data records of the PLC signals. PLAT automatically creates a nominal model of the PLC control process and employs a novel hash table based indexing and searching scheme to satisfy those purposes. Our experiments show that PLAT is significantly fast, provides real time identification of operational faults and behavioural anomalies, and can execute within a small memory footprint. In addition, PLAT can easily handle a large manufacturing system with a reasonable computing configuration and can be installed in parallel to the data logging system to identify operational faults and behavioural anomalies effectively.

  5. Electron Phase Shift at the Zero-Bias Anomaly of Quantum Point Contacts.

    PubMed

    Brun, B; Martins, F; Faniel, S; Hackens, B; Cavanna, A; Ulysse, C; Ouerghi, A; Gennser, U; Mailly, D; Simon, P; Huant, S; Bayot, V; Sanquer, M; Sellier, H

    2016-04-01

    The Kondo effect is the many-body screening of a local spin by a cloud of electrons at very low temperature. It has been proposed as an explanation of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum point contacts where interactions drive a spontaneous charge localization. However, the Kondo origin of this anomaly remains under debate, and additional experimental evidence is necessary. Here we report on the first phase-sensitive measurement of the zero-bias anomaly in quantum point contacts using a scanning gate microscope to create an electronic interferometer. We observe an abrupt shift of the interference fringes by half a period in the bias range of the zero-bias anomaly, a behavior which cannot be reproduced by single-particle models. We instead relate it to the phase shift experienced by electrons scattering off a Kondo system. Our experiment therefore provides new evidence of this many-body effect in quantum point contacts.

  6. Mapping methane from marine and terrestrial hydrocarbon seepage using AVIRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Bradley, E. S.; Funk, C.; Roberts, D. A.; Leifer, I.; Dennison, P. E.; Margolis, J.

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric methane (CH4), a greenhouse gas at least 20 times more potent per molecule than carbon dioxide (CO2), have more than doubled in the last two centuries. Due to a lack of direct measurements of sources and sinks, the global methane budget is poorly constrained and emissions of this important greenhouse gas are often underestimated in climate models. The Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) recently mapped methane emissions from the Coal Oil Point (COP) marine seep fields, a concentrated geologic methane source (0.015 Tg yr-1 from ~3 km2) located offshore from Santa Barbara, CA using a residual-based approach (Roberts et al. 2010) and short-wave infrared band ratios (Bradley et al. submitted). In this study, an additional cluster-tuned matched filter technique adapted from Funk et al. 2001 detected methane anomalies for COP that closely matched previous results and were in agreement with sonar-based seep surveys and flux buoy data. This technique was also applied to AVIRIS data acquired over the La Brea Tar Pits in Los Angeles, CA, a region known for natural oil and methane seepage. Significant anomalies were identified for known methane sources close to the tar pits where pipes have been established to prevent dangerous methane buildup. Therefore, imaging spectrometry using sensors like AVIRIS and planned satellite sensors like HyspIRI has the potential to greatly improve high spatial resolution mapping of methane emissions, thereby better constraining regional methane sources.

  7. [Sciatica due to unusual causes: Tarlov cysts and nerve roots anomalies].

    PubMed

    Younes, M; Korbaa, W; Zrour, S; Bejia, I; Touzi, M; Bergaoui, N

    2009-03-01

    Tarlov cysts and nerve roots anomalies usually involve lumbosacral roots and are often asymptomatic. MRI has enabled recognition of many conditions that used to be missed by CT or myelography investigations performed for back and leg pain. However, even without additional compressive impingement (disc hernia, spondylolisthesis or lumbar canal stenosis) these anomalies can be responsible for sciatica, motor deficit and bladder sphincter dysfunction. Tarlov cysts are perinervous dilatations of the dorsal root ganglion. CT and especially MRI can reveal these cysts and their precise relations with the neighboring structures. Delayed filling of the cysts can be visualized on the myelogram. MRI is more sensitive than CT myelography for a positive diagnosis of nerve root anomalies, a differential diagnosis with disc hernia and classification of these anomalies. Surgical treatment is indicated for symptomatic Tarlov cysts and nerve root anomalies resistant to conservative treatment. Better outcome is observed in patients with an additional compressive impingement component. We report two cases of sciatica: one caused by Tarlov cysts diagnosed by MRI and the other by nerve root anomalies diagnosed by CT myelography. In both cases, conservative treatment was undertaken. The clinical, radiological and therapeutic aspects of these disorders are discussed.

  8. Assessment of the 1997-1998 Asian Monsoon Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K.-M.; Wu, H.-T.

    1999-01-01

    Using State-of-the-art satellite-gauge monthly rainfall estimate and optimally interpolated sea surface temperature (SST) data, we have assessed the 1997-98 Asian monsoon anomalies in terms of three basic causal factors: basin-scale SST, regional coupling, and internal variability. Singular Value Decomposition analysis of rainfall and SST are carried out globally over the entire tropics and regionally over the Asian monsoon domain. Contributions to monsoon rainfall predictability by various factors are evaluated from cumulative anomaly correlation with dominant regional SVD modes. Results reveal a dominant, large-scale monsoon-El Nino coupled mode with well-defined centers of action in the near-equatorial monsoon regions. it is noted that some subcontinental regions such as all-India, or arbitrarily chosen land regions over East Asia, while important socio-economically, are not near the centers of influence from El Nino, hence are not necessarily representative of the response of the entire monsoon region to El Nino. The observed 1997-98 Asian monsoon anomalies are found to be very complex with approximately 34% of the anomalies attributable to basin- scale SST influence associated with El Nino. Regional coupled processes contribute an additional 19%, leaving about 47% due to internal dynamics. Also noted is that the highest monsoon predictability is not necessary associated with major El Nino events (e.g. 1997, 1982) but rather in non-El Nino years (e.g. 1980, 1988) when contributions from the regional coupled modes far exceed those from the basin-scale SST. The results suggest that in order to improve monsoon seasonal-to-interannual predictability, there is a need to exploit not only monsoon-El Nino relationship, but also monsoon regional coupled processes and their modulation by long-term climate change.

  9. Congenital anomalies of the uterus, and ultrasound diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Miseljic, Nenad; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Mehmedbasic, Senad; Miseljic, Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Sonographic detection and evaluation of congenital anomalies of the uterus represent an important segment in the additional therapeutic procedure, that is, treatment of patients with congenital anomalies of the uterus. Besides the primary reason that is manifested in the total cure of the patients, the secondary reason represents the decrease of costs of treatment of congenital anomalies of the uterus. Both descriptive and analytical methods were used in this paper. In 1997 Kurjak and Kupesic compared the sensitivity and specificity of transvaginal ultra sound, color Doppler, hysterosonography and three-dimensional ultrasound during diagnosis of the uterus septum. Representation of pathological findings in our paper in comparison to the examined group is: uterus subseptus = 15.38%, double horned uterus = 10.25%. The examined group includes intrauterine abnormalities of the uterus, analyzing, in that process, individual, pathological entities of intrauterine abnormalities. The research is a prospective, target, clinical study. In the examined group, due to the clinical suspicion of intrauterine abnormalities, 78 patients were examined in the following manner: two-dimensional transabdominal and transvaginal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations were made and then three-dimensional transabdominal black-and-white and color Doppler ultrasound examinations. This means that in the detection of congenital anomalies of the uterus, the same sonographic techniques were first applied on the conventional and then also on the multidimensional base. Our research showed that three-dimensional technique is a more reliable diagnostic tool than two-dimensional technique. Sensitivity and specificity rate as well as positive predictive value show that this technique is an extraordinary one for assessing the volume, and position of congenital abnormalities.

  10. Anomaly Detection for Next-Generation Space Launch Ground Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Iverson, David L.; Hall, David R.; Taylor, William M.; Patterson-Hine, Ann; Brown, Barbara; Ferrell, Bob A.; Waterman, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing new capabilities that will enable future human exploration missions while reducing mission risk and cost. The Fault Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) project aims to demonstrate the utility of integrated vehicle health management (IVHM) tools in the domain of ground support equipment (GSE) to be used for the next generation launch vehicles. In addition to demonstrating the utility of IVHM tools for GSE, FDIR aims to mature promising tools for use on future missions and document the level of effort - and hence cost - required to implement an application with each selected tool. One of the FDIR capabilities is anomaly detection, i.e., detecting off-nominal behavior. The tool we selected for this task uses a data-driven approach. Unlike rule-based and model-based systems that require manual extraction of system knowledge, data-driven systems take a radically different approach to reasoning. At the basic level, they start with data that represent nominal functioning of the system and automatically learn expected system behavior. The behavior is encoded in a knowledge base that represents "in-family" system operations. During real-time system monitoring or during post-flight analysis, incoming data is compared to that nominal system operating behavior knowledge base; a distance representing deviation from nominal is computed, providing a measure of how far "out of family" current behavior is. We describe the selected tool for FDIR anomaly detection - Inductive Monitoring System (IMS), how it fits into the FDIR architecture, the operations concept for the GSE anomaly monitoring, and some preliminary results of applying IMS to a Space Shuttle GSE anomaly.

  11. Thermodynamic, diffusional, and structural anomalies in rigid-body water models.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Manish; Alam, Mohammad Parvez; Chakravarty, Charusita

    2011-06-02

    Structural, density, entropy, and diffusivity anomalies of the TIP4P/2005 model of water are mapped out over a wide range of densities and temperatures. The locus of temperatures of maximum density (TMD) for this model is very close to the experimental TMD locus for temperatures between 250 and 275 K. Four different water models (mTIP3P, TIP4P, TIP5P, and SPC/E) are compared with the TIP4P/2005 model in terms of their anomalous behavior. For all the water models, the density regimes for anomalous behavior are bounded by a low-density limit at around 0.85-0.90 g cm(-3) and a high-density limit at about 1.10-1.15 g cm(-3). The onset temperatures of the density anomaly in the various models show a much greater variation, ranging from 202 K for mTIP3P to 289 K for TIP5P. The order maps for the various water models are qualitatively very similar with the structurally anomalous regions almost superimposable in the q(tet)-τ plane. Comparison of the phase diagrams of water models with the region of liquid-state anomalies shows that the crystalline phases are much more sensitive to the choice of water models than the liquid state anomalies; for example, SPC/E and TIP4P/2005 show qualitatively similar liquid state anomalies but very different phase diagrams. The anomalies in the liquid in all the models occur at much lower pressures than those at which the melting line changes from negative to positive slope. The results in this study demonstrate several aspects of structure-entropy-diffusivity relationships of water models that can be compared with experiment and used to develop better atomistic and coarse-grained models for water.

  12. Anomalies of neutron field of the Earth.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotnikova, Natalia

    anomalies coincide with the coordinates of the subequatorial and subtropical climatic zones. This anomalous increase Fn happens above, with an increase in phytoplankton biomass, the value of Fn is growing. Abnormal outbreak of Fn in biocenoses and over fields of phytoplankton can be associated with a well-known effect of «neutron trap» in heterogeneous environments, and the thermalization of the epithermal neutrons. Presence of the biological answer to weak streams thermal neutrons allow to assume, that these corpuscular streams are one of the "intermediaries" allowing alive organisms to feel a lot of astrogeophysical events, in addition to known climatic factors. In addition, the thermal neutron flux density is the integral characteristic,which allows to make a"neutron portrait " of the resort or the countryside. Thus, speaking about the anomalies of the natural radioactive background , special attention should be paid to the level Fn and its variations, and the potential impact on biological objects and human. The data obtained interaction of neutron flux and biological objects may be important for their adaptation to extreme environmental conditions. Our data suggest that even in the lower layers of troposphere value thermal neutron flux (Fn) can be quite high, confirm the need for further studies to human security at the high altitude and transcontinental air flights.

  13. Software Tool Support to Specify and Verify Scientific Sensor Data Properties to Improve Anomaly Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallegos, I.; Gates, A. Q.; Tweedie, C.; Cybershare

    2010-12-01

    Advancements in scientific sensor data acquisition technologies, such as wireless sensor networks and robotic trams equipped with sensors, are increasing the amount of data being collected at field sites . This elevates the challenges of verifying the quality of streamed data and monitoring the correct operation of the instrumentation. Without the ability to evaluate the data collection process at near real-time, scientists can lose valuable time and data. In addition, scientists have to rely on their knowledge and experience in the field to evaluate data quality. Such knowledge is rarely shared or reused by other scientists mostly because of the lack of a well-defined methodology and tool support. Numerous scientific projects address anomaly detection, mostly as part of the verification system’s source code; however, anomaly detection properties, which often are embedded or hard-coded in the source code, are difficult to refine. In addition, a software developer is required to modify the source code every time a new anomaly detection property or a modification to an existing property is needed. This poster describes the tool support that has been developed, based on software engineering techniques, to address these challenges. The overall tool support allows scientists to specify and reuse anomaly detection properties generated using the specification tool and to use the specified properties to conduct automated anomaly detection at near-real time. The anomaly-detection mechanism is independent of the system used to collect the sensor data. With guidance provided by a classification and categorization of anomaly-detection properties, the user specifies properties on scientific sensor data. The properties, which can be associated with particular field sites or instrumentation, document knowledge about data anomalies that otherwise would have limited availability to the scientific community.

  14. Dynamic aspects of the ozone anomalies formation in the Antarctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapo, Palina; Svetashev, Alexander; Krasouski, Alexander; Barodka, Siarhei

    2013-04-01

    The ozone layer is a unique shield protecting all living creatures on our planet. However, it has become subject of active research only after the first ozone hole was discovered over Antarctica. Ozone layer depletion over Antarctica is an even more acute problem, since Antarctica is the only continent having a very endemic, rich nature with least human impact. It has been shown that extreme temperature conditions in polar stratosphere and polar stratospheric clouds formation in addition to photochemical reactions involving ozone and ozone-depleting substances act as a primary cause of ozone-layer depletion. In the present study we review the dynamic aspects of ozone anomalies formation in the Antarctic region by numerical simulation. For that purpose we consider the ozone hole which formed over Antarctica in the period of September-October 2011. Using the WRF modelling system and its PolarWRF modification, we simulate meteorological situation over Antarctica in the time periods of ozone hole formation and destruction, and also in the time period when the ozone hole is absent. Based on the modelling results, we argue that a cold air mass (anticyclone) formed over the territory of Antarctica during the formation of the ozone hole. Absence of solar irradiation and strong cooling of the atmosphere contribute to formation of such meteorological conditions during the Antarctic winter. In the stratosphere there is a region of low atmospheric pressure, which is clearly visible on a pressure topography map. Under the effect of the tropospheric and the stratospheric vortices, air patches movement leads to ozone concentration decrease and formation of the ozone anomalies. From the WRF system modelling results we calculate several basic meteorological characteristics and analyze surface maps and aerological (skew-T) diagrams for atmospheric variables with the NCL scripting language. We conclude that atmospheric dynamics has an impact on ozone depression. Also, we evaluate the

  15. Hyperbolic Orbits and the Planetary Flylby Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, T.L.; Blome, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Space probes in the Solar System have experienced unexpected changes in velocity known as the flyby anomaly [1], as well as shifts in acceleration referred to as the Pioneer anomaly [2-4]. In the case of Earth flybys, ESA s Rosetta spacecraft experienced the flyby effect and NASA s Galileo and NEAR satellites did the same, although MESSENGER did not possibly due to a latitudinal property of gravity assists. Measurements indicate that both anomalies exist, and explanations have varied from the unconventional to suggestions that new physics in the form of dark matter might be the cause of both [5]. Although dark matter has been studied for over 30 years, there is as yet no strong experimental evidence supporting it [6]. The existence of dark matter will certainly have a significant impact upon ideas regarding the origin of the Solar System. Hence, the subject is very relevant to planetary science. We will point out here that one of the fundamental problems in science, including planetary physics, is consistency. Using the well-known virial theorem in astrophysics, it will be shown that present-day concepts of orbital mechanics and cosmology are not consistent for reasons having to do with the flyby anomaly. Therefore, the basic solution regarding the anomalies should begin with addressing the inconsistencies first before introducing new physics.

  16. Does Terrestrial Drought Explain Global CO2 Flux Anomalies Induced by El Nino?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwalm. C. R.; Williams, C. A.; Schaefer, K.; Baker, I.; Collatz, G. J.; Roedenbeck, C.

    2011-01-01

    The El Nino Southern Oscillation is the dominant year-to-year mode of global climate variability. El Nino effects on terrestrial carbon cycling are mediated by associated climate anomalies, primarily drought, influencing fire emissions and biotic net ecosystem exchange (NEE). Here we evaluate whether El Nino produces a consistent response from the global carbon cycle. We apply a novel bottom-up approach to estimating global NEE anomalies based on FLUXNET data using land cover maps and weather reanalysis. We analyze 13 years (1997-2009) of globally gridded observational NEE anomalies derived from eddy covariance flux data, remotely-sensed fire emissions at the monthly time step, and NEE estimated from an atmospheric transport inversion. We evaluate the overall consistency of biospheric response to El Nino and, more generally, the link between global CO2 flux anomalies and El Nino-induced drought. Our findings, which are robust relative to uncertainty in both methods and time-lags in response, indicate that each event has a different spatial signature with only limited spatial coherence in Amazonia, Australia and southern Africa. For most regions, the sign of response changed across El Nino events. Biotic NEE anomalies, across 5 El Nino events, ranged from -1.34 to +0.98 Pg Cyr(exp -1, whereas fire emissions anomalies were generally smaller in magnitude (ranging from -0.49 to +0.53 Pg C yr(exp -1). Overall drought does not appear to impose consistent terrestrial CO2 flux anomalies during El Ninos, finding large variation in globally integrated responses from 11.15 to +0.49 Pg Cyr(exp -1). Despite the significant correlation between the CO2 flux and El Nino indices, we find that El Nino events have, when globally integrated, both enhanced and weakened terrestrial sink strength, with no consistent response across events

  17. Revised Compilation of the M-anomaly Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale and its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2006-12-01

    . Further investigation of the M-sequence GPTS will be carried out with additional anomaly sequences from other ocean basins, such as the Argo Abyssal Plain in northwestern Australia and off Morocco Basin in the Atlantic Ocean. This compilation represents a wider analysis of anomalies, which presumably shows global changes in the Earth's geomagnetic field and therefore may be more reliable as a time scale for geological dating applications.

  18. Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.

  19. Towards spatial localisation of harmful algal blooms; statistics-based spatial anomaly detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shutler, J. D.; Grant, M. G.; Miller, P. I.

    2005-10-01

    Harmful algal blooms are believed to be increasing in occurrence and their toxins can be concentrated by filter-feeding shellfish and cause amnesia or paralysis when ingested. As a result fisheries and beaches in the vicinity of blooms may need to be closed and the local population informed. For this avoidance planning timely information on the existence of a bloom, its species and an accurate map of its extent would be prudent. Current research to detect these blooms from space has mainly concentrated on spectral approaches towards determining species. We present a novel statistics-based background-subtraction technique that produces improved descriptions of an anomaly's extent from remotely-sensed ocean colour data. This is achieved by extracting bulk information from a background model; this is complemented by a computer vision ramp filtering technique to specifically detect the perimeter of the anomaly. The complete extraction technique uses temporal-variance estimates which control the subtraction of the scene of interest from the time-weighted background estimate, producing confidence maps of anomaly extent. Through the variance estimates the method learns the associated noise present in the data sequence, providing robustness, and allowing generic application. Further, the use of the median for the background model reduces the effects of anomalies that appear within the time sequence used to generate it, allowing seasonal variations in the background levels to be closely followed. To illustrate the detection algorithm's application, it has been applied to two spectrally different oceanic regions.

  20. Bilateral first and second arch anomalies: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Amit Pal; Kumar, Virad; Narula, Vineet; Meher, Ravi; Raj, Anoop

    2012-04-01

    Branchial sinuses are one of the most common congenital anomalies present. They are usually unilateral; bilateral cases are present but are rare. The presentation of bilateral branchial sinus anomalies along with bilateral first arch anomalies is very rare. Here, we present a case of bilateral first arch anomalies co-existing with bilateral second arch anomalies in a patient with no related family history and no associated syndrome.

  1. Gravity anomalies, forearc morphology and seismicity in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassett, D.; Watts, A. B.; Das, S.

    2012-12-01

    We apply spectral averaging techniques to isolate and remove the long-wavelength large-amplitude trench-normal topographic and free-air gravity anomaly "high" and "low" associated with subduction zones. The residual grids generated illuminate the short-wavelength structure of the forearc. Systematic analysis of all subduction boundaries on Earth has enabled a classification of these grids with particular emphasis placed on topography and gravity anomalies observed in the region above the shallow seismogenic portion of the plate interface. The isostatic compensation of these anomalies is investigated using 3D calculations of the gravitational admittance and coherence. In the shallow region of the megathrust, typically within 100 km from the trench, isolated residual anomalies with amplitudes of up to 2.5 km and 125 mGal are generally interpreted as accreted/subducting relief in the form of seamounts and other bathymetric features. While most of these anomalies, which have radii < 50km, are correlated with areas of reduced seismicity, several in regions such as Japan and Java appear to have influenced the nucleation and/or propagation of large magnitude earthquakes. Long-wavelength (500 - >1000 km) trench-parallel forearc ridges with residual anomalies of up to 1.5 km and 150 mGal are identified in approximately one-third of the subduction zones analyzed. Despite great length along strike, these ridges are less than 100 km wide and several appear uncompensated. A high proportion of arc-normal structure and the truncation/morphological transition of trench-parallel forearc ridges is explained through the identification and tracking of pre-existing structure on the over-riding and subducting plates into the seismogenic portion of the plate boundary. Spatial correlations between regions with well-defined trench-parallel forearc ridges and the occurrence of large magnitude interplate earthquakes, in addition to the uncompensated state of these ridges, suggest links

  2. Analysis of groundwater anomalies using GRACE over various districts of Jharkhand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Arpita; Kumar, Anant; Kumar, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    Groundwater is an important requirement for the massive population of India. Generally the groundwater level is monitored by using monitoring wells. In this study, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS), Land surface state variable GLDAS and Soil Moisture (SM) data were tested for estimating ground water information and based on these groundwater assessments were carried out over the years 2003 to 2012 for Jharkhand State. Additionally, Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) accumulated rainfall data was also used for the year's 2008 to 2012.From the study over 120 months span of various districts the maximum depletion in storage of groundwater averaged over the six districts is +/-5cm/yr in the year 2010 and maximum storage year (in term of Equivalent water thickness) groundwater average over the six districts is +/-4.4cm in the year 2003. The study also utilized ground based Seasonal changes in the groundwater resource over 287 monitoring wells and estimated groundwater data using map analysis over Jharkhand. This study analyzed seasonal water level variations based on groundwater anomaly. Remote sensing generated result compared with well data shows R2 = 0.6211 and RMSE = 39.46 cm at average seasonal cycle. Also information of different time periods of rainfall (i.e., pre-monsoon and post-monsoon) was analyzed. The trend analysis of rainfall and estimated groundwater gives the basic knowledge that groundwater storage loss and gain showed similarities with increase and decrease in rainfall.

  3. Determination Gradients of the Earth's Magnetic Field from the Measurements of the Satellites and Inversion of the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karoly, Kis; Taylor, Patrick T.; Geza, Wittmann

    2014-01-01

    We computed magnetic field gradients at satellite altitude, over Europe with emphasis on the Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (KMA). They were calculated using the CHAMP satellite total magnetic anomalies. Our computations were done to determine how the magnetic anomaly data from the new ESA/Swarm satellites could be utilized to determine the structure of the magnetization of the Earths crust, especially in the region of the KMA. Since the ten years of 2 CHAMP data could be used to simulate the Swarm data. An initial East magnetic anomaly gradient map of Europe was computed and subsequently the North, East and Vertical magnetic gradients for the KMA region were calculated. The vertical gradient of the KMA was determined using Hilbert transforms. Inversion of the total KMA was derived using Simplex and Simulated Annealing algorithms. Our resulting inversion depth model is a horizontal quadrangle with upper 300-329 km and lower 331-339 km boundaries.

  4. Moebius syndrome with Taussig-Bing anomaly.

    PubMed

    Islam, M I; Chowdhury, A S; Hasan, M T

    2014-01-01

    We report a 6 years old male child, presented with difficulty in swallowing, crying and smiling from early infancy and recurrent episodes of cyanosis on exertion for about 2 years. He had facial dysmorphism, clubbing and polydactyly and right sided lower motor neuron type of facial nerve palsy. On examination and relevant investigations findings were consistent with Moebius syndrome and Taussig-Bing anomaly. Moebius syndrome comprises of congenital facial nerve palsy with or without palsy of the other cranial nerves and the associated organ system malformations. Taussig-Bing anomaly is a rare congenital heart malformation consisting of a transposed aorta, a large pulmonary artery which arises primarily from the right ventricle and ventricular septal defect. Simultaneous occurrence of Moebius syndrome and Taussig-Bing anomaly has not yet been reported in the past.

  5. Interpretation of satellite elevation magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, C. G. A.; Carle, H. M.; Hayling, K. L.

    1986-01-01

    The present discussion is based on a study of the magnetic field data obtained with the aid of the magnetic field satellite Magsat, deployed in October 1979, over most of the earth during a 7.5-month mission. Inversions using spherical harmonic coefficients are considered along with the inversion of residual fields. In order to perform the correct operation, it is necessary to add on to the source function produced by the inversion process a magnetization function which has no external field. Such a function is known as an annihilator. The use of the annihilator for Pacific Ocean anomalies is discussed. Attention is given to models of oceanic crustal magnetization, and continental long-wavelength anomalies. It is found that in continental regions the annihilator is also useful if induced magnetizations are thought to be responsible for the long-wavelength anomaly.

  6. Trace anomaly on a quantum spacetime manifold

    SciTech Connect

    Spallucci, Euro; Smailagic, Anais; Nicolini, Piero

    2006-04-15

    In this paper we investigate the trace anomaly in a space-time where single events are delocalized as a consequence of short distance quantum coordinate fluctuations. We obtain a modified form of heat kernel asymptotic expansion which does not suffer from short distance divergences. Calculation of the trace anomaly is performed using an IR regulator in order to circumvent the absence of UV infinities. The explicit form of the trace anomaly is presented and the corresponding 2D Polyakov effective action and energy-momentum tensor are obtained. The vacuum expectation value of the energy-momentum tensor in the Boulware, Hartle-Hawking and Unruh vacua is explicitly calculated in a rt section of a recently found, noncommutative inspired, Schwarzschild-like solution of the Einstein equations. The standard short distance divergences in the vacuum expectation values are regularized in agreement with the absence of UV infinities removed by quantum coordinate fluctuations.

  7. 'T hooft anomaly matching for QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Terning, John

    1998-03-03

    I present a set of theories which display non-trivial 'tHooft anomaly matching for QCD with F flavors. The matching theories arenon-Abelian gauge theories with "dual" quarks and baryons, rather thanthe purely confining theories of baryons that 't Hooft originallysearched for. The matching gauge groups are required to have an Fpm 6dimensional representation. Such a correspondence is reminiscent ofSeiberg's duality for supersymmetric (SUSY) QCD, and these theories arecandidates for non-SUSY duality. However anomaly matching by itself isnot sufficiently restrictive, and duality for QCD cannot be establishedat present. At the very least, the existence of multiple anomaly matchingsolutions should provide a note of caution regarding conjectured non-SUSYdualities.

  8. Towards developing an analytical procedure of defining the equatorial electrojet for correcting satellite magnetic anomaly data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravat, Dhananjay; Hinze, William J.

    1991-01-01

    Analysis of the total magnetic intensity MAGSAT data has identified and characterized the variability of ionospheric current effects as reflected in the geomagnetic field as a function of longitude, elevation, and time (daily as well as monthly variations). This analysis verifies previous observations in POGO data and provides important boundary conditions for theoretical studies of ionospheric currents. Furthermore, the observations have led to a procedure to remove these temporal perturbations from lithospheric MAGSAT magnetic anomaly data based on 'along-the-dip-latitude' averages from dawn and dusk data sets grouped according to longitudes, time (months), and elevation. Using this method, high-resolution lithospheric magnetic anomaly maps have been prepared of the earth over a plus or minus 50 deg latitude band. These maps have proven useful in the study of the structures, nature, and processes of the lithosphere.

  9. Anomaly Detection for Discrete Sequences: A Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Chandola, Varun; Banerjee, Arindam; Kumar, Vipin

    2012-01-01

    This survey attempts to provide a comprehensive and structured overview of the existing research for the problem of detecting anomalies in discrete/symbolic sequences. The objective is to provide a global understanding of the sequence anomaly detection problem and how existing techniques relate to each other. The key contribution of this survey is the classification of the existing research into three distinct categories, based on the problem formulation that they are trying to solve. These problem formulations are: 1) identifying anomalous sequences with respect to a database of normal sequences; 2) identifying an anomalous subsequence within a long sequence; and 3) identifying a pattern in a sequence whose frequency of occurrence is anomalous. We show how each of these problem formulations is characteristically distinct from each other and discuss their relevance in various application domains. We review techniques from many disparate and disconnected application domains that address each of these formulations. Within each problem formulation, we group techniques into categories based on the nature of the underlying algorithm. For each category, we provide a basic anomaly detection technique, and show how the existing techniques are variants of the basic technique. This approach shows how different techniques within a category are related or different from each other. Our categorization reveals new variants and combinations that have not been investigated before for anomaly detection. We also provide a discussion of relative strengths and weaknesses of different techniques. We show how techniques developed for one problem formulation can be adapted to solve a different formulation, thereby providing several novel adaptations to solve the different problem formulations. We also highlight the applicability of the techniques that handle discrete sequences to other related areas such as online anomaly detection and time series anomaly detection.

  10. Radioactive anomaly discrimination from spectral ratios

    DOEpatents

    Maniscalco, James; Sjoden, Glenn; Chapman, Mac Clements

    2013-08-20

    A method for discriminating a radioactive anomaly from naturally occurring radioactive materials includes detecting a first number of gamma photons having energies in a first range of energy values within a predetermined period of time and detecting a second number of gamma photons having energies in a second range of energy values within the predetermined period of time. The method further includes determining, in a controller, a ratio of the first number of gamma photons having energies in the first range and the second number of gamma photons having energies in the second range, and determining that a radioactive anomaly is present when the ratio exceeds a threshold value.

  11. Adaptive Anomaly Detection using Isolation Forest

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-20

    detectors such as ORCA [8] and one-class SVM [31], and density-based anomaly detector LOF [9]. The rest of the paper is organised as follows. Section 2...that a value can be computed using this measure. We use k = 5 in our experiments. The second experiment compares HS*-Trees with ORCA [8], one-class...SVM (first mentioned in [31]) and LOF [9]. ORCA employs distance-based definition (ii), stated in sec- tion 3.1, to rank anomalies; LOF is the state-of

  12. Meteoroid-Induced Anomalies on Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Bill

    2015-01-01

    Sporadic meteoroid background is directional (not isotropic) and accounts for 90 percent of the meteoroid risk to a typical spacecraft. Meteor showers get all the press, but account for only approximately10 percent of spacecraft risk. Bias towards assigning meteoroid cause to anomalies during meteor showers. Vast majority of meteoroids come from comets and have a bulk density of approximately 1 gram per cubic centimeter (ice). High speed meteoroids (approximately 50 kilometers per second) can induce electrical anomalies in spacecraft through discharging of charged surfaces (also EMP (electromagnetic pulse?).

  13. Perioperative and Anesthetic Considerations in Ebstein's Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Ross, Faith J; Latham, Gregory J; Richards, Michael; Geiduschek, Jeremy; Thompson, Douglas; Joffe, Denise

    2016-03-01

    Ebstein's anomaly is a complex and heterogeneous form of congenital heart disease characterized by malformation and apical displacement of the tricuspid valve leaflets. Patients may present at any time from the neonatal period to adulthood with symptoms ranging from cardiac failure and cyanosis to paroxysmal arrhythmias. Depending on the timing of presentation, various surgical options are available for the management of symptomatic patients. This review will discuss the perioperative and anesthetic management of patients with Ebstein's anomaly with reference to the more common surgical approaches.

  14. Developmental Venous Anomaly Responsible for Hemifacial Spasm

    PubMed Central

    Chiaramonte, R.; Bonfiglio, M.; D'Amore, A.; Chiaramonte, I.

    2013-01-01

    Hemifacial spasm (HFS) is a facial movement disorder characterized by involuntary, unilateral and intermittent contractions of the facial muscles. It is one of the syndromes related to neurovascular conflict, first described by Jannetta et al. in 1979. Typically, HFS is due to pulsatile compression by the anterior inferior cerebellar artery. We describe a rare case of left developmental venous anomaly in a 59-year-old man referred to us with a six-month history of left-sided HFS. We performed an MR study of the brain and cerebellopontine angles, which demonstrated a compression of the ipsilateral facial nerve by the developmental venous anomaly. PMID:23859243

  15. The source of marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Christopher G. A.

    1987-01-01

    The Vine-Matthews hypothesis (1963) is examined. This hypothesis suggests that oceanic rocks become polarized in the direction of the magnetic field at the time of their formation, thus recording the polarity history of the earth's magnetic field. This produces the lineated magnetic anomalies on either side of the midoceanic ridge crests. The strength of these magnetic anomalies is studied to determine the strength of magnetization. Indirect determinations of the magnetization intensity of the oceanic crust and direct observations of the oceanic crust are compared. It is found that the average magnetization of a 6-km thick oceanic crust is 1.18 A/m.

  16. Associated congenital anomalies among cases with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Claude; Dott, Beatrice; Alembik, Yves; Roth, Marie-Paule

    2015-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common congenital anomaly widely studied for at least 150 years. However, the type and the frequency of congenital anomalies associated with DS are still controversial. Despite prenatal diagnosis and elective termination of pregnancy for fetal anomalies, in Europe, from 2008 to 2012 the live birth prevalence of DS per 10,000 was 10. 2. The objectives of this study were to examine the major congenital anomalies occurring in infants and fetuses with Down syndrome. The material for this study came from 402,532 consecutive pregnancies of known outcome registered by our registry of congenital anomalies between 1979 and 2008. Four hundred sixty seven (64%) out of the 728 cases with DS registered had at least one major associated congenital anomaly. The most common associated anomalies were cardiac anomalies, 323 cases (44%), followed by digestive system anomalies, 42 cases (6%), musculoskeletal system anomalies, 35 cases (5%), urinary system anomalies, 28 cases (4%), respiratory system anomalies, 13 cases (2%), and other system anomalies, 26 cases (3.6%). Among the cases with DS with congenital heart defects, the most common cardiac anomaly was atrioventricular septal defect (30%) followed by atrial septum defect (25%), ventricular septal defect (22%), patent ductus arteriosus (5%), coarctation of aorta (5%), and tetralogy of Fallot (3%). Among the cases with DS with a digestive system anomaly recorded, duodenal atresia (67%), Hirschsprung disease (14%), and tracheo-esophageal atresia (10%) were the most common. Fourteen (2%) of the cases with DS had an obstructive anomaly of the renal pelvis, including hydronephrosis. The other most common anomalies associated with cases with DS were syndactyly, club foot, polydactyly, limb reduction, cataract, hydrocephaly, cleft palate, hypospadias and diaphragmatic hernia. Many studies to assess the anomalies associated with DS have reported various results. There is no agreement in the literature as to

  17. A triple junction trace beneath Reunion Island? Insight from marine magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bissessur, D.; Dyment, J.; Deplus, C.; Yatheesh, V.

    2009-04-01

    Reunion Island is the most recent expression of a hotspot which formed the Deccan Trap flood basalt, the Chagos-Laccadives Ridge, the southern part of the Mascarene Plateau, Mauritius and Reunion Islands. Both Mauritius and Reunion islands are isolated structures which have formed on the pre-existing oceanic lithosphere of the Mascarene Basin, an oceanic basin created by seafloor spreading between anomalies 34 and 27 (83-60 Ma). The location of Mauritius and Reunion islands may reflect either a preferential rise of hotspot material through pre-existing structures of the oceanic lithosphere or the discontinuous activity of a weakening hotspot. We address this question using bathymetric and magnetic data collected by R/V L'Atalante in 2006 as part of cruise FOREVER (FORmation and Evolution of the Volcanic Edifice of Reunion), complemented by other data in the area. We apply crossover error analysis to correct data from different cruises for time variations not considered by the IGRF model and build a magnetic anomaly map. This map displays coherent magnetic anomalies over most of the area. Anomalies 28 to 20 are identified in the Madagascar Basin, east of the Mascarene Islands. Conjugate sequences of anomalies 31 to 27 (on the northern flank) and 34 to 27 (on the southern flank) are recognized west of the Mascarene Islands, on the conjugate flanks of the Mascarene fossil spreading centre. In the Mascarene Island compartment, the seafloor spreading anomalies can be deciphered under most of the Reunion Island edifice (radius 100 km) with only an inner zone of radius 50 km showing shorter wavelength anomalies related to the volcanic structures of the island. The seafloor spreading lineations show two orientations, N120°E-N140°E and N90°E-N110°E in the central and eastern part of the compartment, respectively. We interpret these different orientations as reflecting the presence of the trace of the Indian Ocean Triple Junction (IOTJ, between India, Africa, and

  18. Magnetic anomaly pattern of the Marsili Basin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): Ultrafast oceanic spreading or not?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speranza, F.; Nicolosi, I.; Chiappini, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Marsili Basin is a ~100x70 km flat and deep (3000-3500 m) basin located in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea, encircling the huge 16x50 km (and ~3000 m high) Marsili seamount. Though results from ODP Site 650 had proven more than twenty years ago the oceanic nature of the Marsili Basin, oceanic-type linear magnetic anomalies above the basin floor were clearly documented only in the last few years. Nicolosi et al. (2006) reported on spectral analysis of both airborne and shipborne magnetic maps from the Marsili Basin, and showed the occurrence of six magnetic anomaly stripes covering the flat basin floor, symmetrically arranged with respect to a central positive anomaly located above the Marsili seamount. By assuming that the two 17 km wide lateral normal polarity stripes formed during the Olduvai chron (1.77-1.95 Ma), Nicolosi et al. (2006) suggested that the Marsili Basin opened at the ultrafast full-spreading rate of ~19 cm/yr between 2.1 and 1.6 Ma. They also proposed that the normally magnetized Marsili seamount formed during the Brunhes chron (after 0.78 Ma), when slower spreading (coupled with huge magmatic inflation) resumed, after ~1 Myr of spreading cessation. The spreading model by Nicolosi et al. (2006) has been recently questioned by Cocchi et al. (2009), who argued that filtering had created fictitious anomaly stripes. Cocchi et al. (2009) also gathered new high-resolution shipborne magnetic anomaly data from the Marsili seamount and surrounding basin area. They found two tiny positive magnetic anomaly stripes flanking the Marsili seamount in the north, which they interpreted as due to spreading occurring during the Jaramillo subchron (0.99-1.07 Ma). Consequently, they calculated a post-1.95 Ma initial spreading rate of 3.4 cm/yr (instead of 19 cm/yr), and supported a decreasing yet continuous spreading until Present. Here we discuss the whole magnetic residual evidence from the Marsili Basin. First, we show that magnetic anomaly stripes are also

  19. Use of MAGSAT anomaly data for crustal structure and mineral resources in the US midcontinent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, R. S.

    1983-01-01

    Magnetic field data acquired by NASA's MAGSAT satellite is used to construct a long-wavelength magnetic anomaly map for the U.S. midcontinent. This aids in interpretation of gross crustal geology (structure, lithologic composition, resource potential) of the region. Magnetic properties of minerals and rocks are investigated and assessed, to help in evaluation and modelling of crustal magnetization sources and depth to the Curie-temperature isotherm.

  20. Effects of longwave cloud radiative forcing anomalies on the atmospheric response to equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghang; Cess, Robert D.; Zhang, Ming-Hua

    1995-07-01

    The latest version of the National Center for Atmospheric Research community climate model (CCM2) has been used to investigate cloud radiative forcing (CRF) anomalies associated with equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and the effects of the longwave CRF (LWCRF) anomalies on the atmospheric response to the SST anomalies. The SST anomalies cause large CRF anomalies, both longwave and shortwave, as well as latent heat anomalies at low latitudes on a global scale. The relative magnitude of the simulated longwave and shortwave CRF anomalies is consistent with the result of the Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE), implying that cloud height and cloud radiative properties such as emissivity and reflectivity are well simulated by the model. The LWCRF anomaly strongly enhances the precipitation anomaly in the whole tropical belt. The positive (negative) LWCRF anomaly warms (cools) the troposphere and destabilizes (stabilizes) the upper troposphere. The LWCRF anomaly enhances the Southern Oscillation and the related Walker circulation anomaly. The effects of the LWCRF anomaly are essential to the northern hemispheric extratropical circulation anomaly, the Pacific/North American pattern.

  1. Complex postaxial polydactyly types A and B with camptodactyly, hypoplastic third toe, zygodactyly and other digit anomalies caused by a novel GLI3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, Sara; Yıldız, Esra; Lal, Karmoon; Tolun, Aslıhan; Malik, Sajid

    2017-03-14

    Polydactyly is a phenotypically and genetically highly heterogeneous limb malformation with preaxial and postaxial subtypes and subtypes A and B. Most polydactyly entities are associated with GLI3 mutation. We report on 10 affected individuals from a large Pakistani kindred initially evaluated as a possible new condition. The phenotype is postaxial polydactyly types A and B associated with zygodactyly, postaxial webbing of toes and additional features not previously reported for isolated polydactyly such as camptodactyly, hypoplasia of third toe, and wide space between hallux and second toe. Hypothesizing that the disorder could have resulted from a mutation in a novel gene responsible for polydactyly, we launched a genetic investigation. By linkage mapping and exome sequencing in the most severe case, we identified novel heterozygous frameshift mutation NM_000168.5 (GLI3): c.3635delG (p.(Gly1212Alafs*18)) but did not detect any other possibly deleterious mutation that could explain the unusual features of camptodactyly, hypoplasia of third toe and wide space between first and second toes. Our findings further expand the phenotypic variability of GLI3 polydactyly. We also present a review of GLI3-associated isolated limb anomalies, which indicates that GLI3 mutation leads primarily to two well-established polydactyly types: postaxial types A and B and crossed polydactyly type I. In addition, a variety of other minor digit anomalies generally accompany polydactyly, and there is no straightforward genotype-polydactyly phenotype correlation.

  2. A hyperspectral imagery anomaly detection algorithm based on local three-dimensional orthogonal subspace projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xing; Wen, Gongjian

    2015-10-01

    Anomaly detection (AD) becomes increasingly important in hyperspectral imagery analysis with many practical applications. Local orthogonal subspace projection (LOSP) detector is a popular anomaly detector which exploits local endmembers/eigenvectors around the pixel under test (PUT) to construct background subspace. However, this subspace only takes advantage of the spectral information, but the spatial correlat ion of the background clutter is neglected, which leads to the anomaly detection result sensitive to the accuracy of the estimated subspace. In this paper, a local three dimensional orthogonal subspace projection (3D-LOSP) algorithm is proposed. Firstly, under the jointly use of both spectral and spatial information, three directional background subspaces are created along the image height direction, the image width direction and the spectral direction, respectively. Then, the three corresponding orthogonal subspaces are calculated. After that, each vector along three direction of the local cube is projected onto the corresponding orthogonal subspace. Finally, a composite score is given through the three direction operators. In 3D-LOSP, the anomalies are redefined as the target not only spectrally different to the background, but also spatially distinct. Thanks to the addition of the spatial information, the robustness of the anomaly detection result has been improved greatly by the proposed 3D-LOSP algorithm. It is noteworthy that the proposed algorithm is an expansion of LOSP and this ideology can inspire many other spectral-based anomaly detection methods. Experiments with real hyperspectral images have proved the stability of the detection result.

  3. Multi-Level Anomaly Detection on Time-Varying Graph Data

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A; Collins, John P; Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A; Sullivan, Blair D

    2015-01-01

    This work presents a novel modeling and analysis framework for graph sequences which addresses the challenge of detecting and contextualizing anomalies in labelled, streaming graph data. We introduce a generalization of the BTER model of Seshadhri et al. by adding flexibility to community structure, and use this model to perform multi-scale graph anomaly detection. Specifically, probability models describing coarse subgraphs are built by aggregating probabilities at finer levels, and these closely related hierarchical models simultaneously detect deviations from expectation. This technique provides insight into a graph's structure and internal context that may shed light on a detected event. Additionally, this multi-scale analysis facilitates intuitive visualizations by allowing users to narrow focus from an anomalous graph to particular subgraphs or nodes causing the anomaly. For evaluation, two hierarchical anomaly detectors are tested against a baseline Gaussian method on a series of sampled graphs. We demonstrate that our graph statistics-based approach outperforms both a distribution-based detector and the baseline in a labeled setting with community structure, and it accurately detects anomalies in synthetic and real-world datasets at the node, subgraph, and graph levels. To illustrate the accessibility of information made possible via this technique, the anomaly detector and an associated interactive visualization tool are tested on NCAA football data, where teams and conferences that moved within the league are identified with perfect recall, and precision greater than 0.786.

  4. A multi-level anomaly detection algorithm for time-varying graph data with interactive visualization

    DOE PAGES

    Bridges, Robert A.; Collins, John P.; Ferragut, Erik M.; ...

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel modeling and analysis framework for graph sequences which addresses the challenge of detecting and contextualizing anomalies in labelled, streaming graph data. We introduce a generalization of the BTER model of Seshadhri et al. by adding flexibility to community structure, and use this model to perform multi-scale graph anomaly detection. Specifically, probability models describing coarse subgraphs are built by aggregating node probabilities, and these related hierarchical models simultaneously detect deviations from expectation. This technique provides insight into a graph's structure and internal context that may shed light on a detected event. Additionally, this multi-scale analysis facilitatesmore » intuitive visualizations by allowing users to narrow focus from an anomalous graph to particular subgraphs or nodes causing the anomaly. For evaluation, two hierarchical anomaly detectors are tested against a baseline Gaussian method on a series of sampled graphs. We demonstrate that our graph statistics-based approach outperforms both a distribution-based detector and the baseline in a labeled setting with community structure, and it accurately detects anomalies in synthetic and real-world datasets at the node, subgraph, and graph levels. Furthermore, to illustrate the accessibility of information made possible via this technique, the anomaly detector and an associated interactive visualization tool are tested on NCAA football data, where teams and conferences that moved within the league are identified with perfect recall, and precision greater than 0.786.« less

  5. A multi-level anomaly detection algorithm for time-varying graph data with interactive visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, Robert A.; Collins, John P.; Ferragut, Erik M.; Laska, Jason A.; Sullivan, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents a novel modeling and analysis framework for graph sequences which addresses the challenge of detecting and contextualizing anomalies in labelled, streaming graph data. We introduce a generalization of the BTER model of Seshadhri et al. by adding flexibility to community structure, and use this model to perform multi-scale graph anomaly detection. Specifically, probability models describing coarse subgraphs are built by aggregating node probabilities, and these related hierarchical models simultaneously detect deviations from expectation. This technique provides insight into a graph's structure and internal context that may shed light on a detected event. Additionally, this multi-scale analysis facilitates intuitive visualizations by allowing users to narrow focus from an anomalous graph to particular subgraphs or nodes causing the anomaly. For evaluation, two hierarchical anomaly detectors are tested against a baseline Gaussian method on a series of sampled graphs. We demonstrate that our graph statistics-based approach outperforms both a distribution-based detector and the baseline in a labeled setting with community structure, and it accurately detects anomalies in synthetic and real-world datasets at the node, subgraph, and graph levels. Furthermore, to illustrate the accessibility of information made possible via this technique, the anomaly detector and an associated interactive visualization tool are tested on NCAA football data, where teams and conferences that moved within the league are identified with perfect recall, and precision greater than 0.786.

  6. Holonomy Attractor Connecting Spaces of Different Curvature Responsible for ``Anomalies''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Bernd

    2009-03-01

    In this lecture paper we derive Magic Angle Precession (MAP) from first geometric principles. MAP can arise in situations, where precession is multiply related to spin, linearly by time or distance (dynamic phase, rolling, Gauss law) and transcendentally by the holonomy loop path (geometric phase). With linear spin-precession coupling, gyroscopes can be spun up and down to very high frequencies via low frequency holonomy control induced by external accelerations, which provides for extreme coupling strengths or "anomalies" that can be tested by the powerball or gyrotwister device. Geometrically, a gyroscopic manifold with spherical metric is tangentially aligned to a precession wave channel with conic or hyperbolic metric (like the relativistic Thomas precession). Transporting triangular spin/precession vector relations across the tangential boundary of contact with SO(3) Lorentz symmetry, we get extreme vector currents near the attractor fixed points in precession phase space, where spin currents remain intact while crossing the contact boundaries between regions of different curvature signature (-1, 0, +1). The problem can be geometrically solved by considering a curvature invariant triangular condition, which holds on surfaces with different curvature that are in contact and locally parallel. In this case two out of three angles are identical, whereas the third angle is different due to holonomy. If we require that the side length ratio corresponding to these angles are invariant we get a geodesic chaotic attractor, which is a cosine map cos(x)˜Mx in parameter space providing for fixed points, limit cycle bifurcations, and singularities. The situation could be quite natural and common in the context of vector currents in curved spacetime and gauge theories. MAP could even be part of the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge is the geometric U(1) precession spin current and gauge potential with magnetic effects given by extra rotations under the

  7. Cardiac anomalies in individuals with the 18q deletion syndrome; report of a child with Ebstein anomaly and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Trier, Dorothée C; Feenstra, Ilse; Bot, Petra; de Leeuw, Nicole; Draaisma, Jos M Th

    2013-08-01

    Individuals with the 18q deletion syndrome are presented with various clinical characteristics, including cardiac anomalies in 24-36% of the reported cases. Nonetheless, genotype-phenotype correlations for cardiac anomalies in the 18q deletion syndrome have rarely been reported. We report on two girls with a terminal 18q deletion, one in whom an Ebstein anomaly and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome were detected and the other with multiple valve stenosis and a ventricular septal defect. The genotype and cardiac abnormalities of these girls and 17 other individuals with a de novo 18qter deletion reported in the literature are reviewed. All 19 individuals shared a small overlapping deletion region between 18q22.3q23. The most common cardiac defects detected were pulmonary valve anomalies and atrial septal defects. Ebstein anomaly, a rare cardiac malformation, was diagnosed in two individuals. Additional molecularly based genotype-phenotype studies are needed in order to pinpoint candidate genes within this region that contribute to normal cardiac development. A careful cardiac evaluation consisting of physical examination, ECG and ultrasound examination should be performed in all individuals diagnosed with the 18q deletion syndrome.

  8. Contour Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the early 1990s, the Ohio State University Center for Mapping, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space (CCDS), developed a system for mobile mapping called the GPSVan. While driving, the users can map an area from the sophisticated mapping van equipped with satellite signal receivers, video cameras and computer systems for collecting and storing mapping data. George J. Igel and Company and the Ohio State University Center for Mapping advanced the technology for use in determining the contours of a construction site. The new system reduces the time required for mapping and staking, and can monitor the amount of soil moved.

  9. Anatomic Anomalies Encountered in 467 Open Carpal Tunnel Surgeries.

    PubMed

    Afshar, Ahmadreza; Nasiri, Behnam; Mousavi, Seyed Ahmad; Hesarikia, Hamid; Navaeifar, Nasrin; Taleb, Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common compression neuropathy and carpal tunnel surgery is the most frequently performed hand surgery. Anatomic anomalies may predispose the median nerve to compression. The aim of the current study was to search for anatomic anomalies in open carpal tunnel surgeries through a cross-sectional study. During a cross-sectional study in a one-year period, 436 consecutive patients (307 females and 129 males) with the average age of 50.3 ± 2.4 years underwent 467 classic open carpal tunnel surgeries. Thirty-one patients had bilateral surgeries. A thorough inspection of the incisions was conducted to search for vascular, neural, tendon and muscular anomalies. Forty-two (8.9%) hands (14 males and 28 females) had anomalies. The average age of the patients with discovered anomalies was 48.6 ± 7.6 years. Ten anomalies were seen on the left hands and 32 anomalies were seen on the right hands. Among the 42 anomalies, there were 16 persistent median arteries, 14 anomalies of the median nerve, 7 intratunnel intrusion of the flexor and lumbrical muscle bellies and 5 anomalies of the origin of the thenar muscles. There was no correlation between the discovered anomalies and the age, gender or hand sides. Anatomical anomalies are not uncommon in carpal tunnel surgeries. However, the frequencies of the reported anomalies vary among different studies. Familiarity with these anomalies increases the safety of the operation.

  10. Do retractile testes have anatomical anomalies?

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Kleber M.; Costa, Suelen F.; Sampaio, Francisco J.B.; Favorito, Luciano A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess the incidence of anatomical anomalies in patients with retractile testis. Materials and Methods: We studied prospectively 20 patients (28 testes) with truly retractile testis and compared them with 25 human fetuses (50 testes) with testis in scrotal position. We analyzed the relations among the testis, epididymis and patency of the processus vaginalis (PV). To analyze the relations between the testis and epididymis, we used a previous classification according to epididymis attachment to the testis and the presence of epididymis atresia. To analyze the structure of the PV, we considered two situations: obliteration of the PV and patency of the PV. We used the Chi-square test for contingency analysis of the populations under study (p <0.05). Results: The fetuses ranged in age from 26 to 35 weeks post-conception (WPC) and the 20 patients with retractile testis ranged in ages from 1 to 12 years (average of 5.8). Of the 50 fetal testes, we observed complete patency of the PV in 2 cases (4%) and epididymal anomalies (EAs) in 1 testis (2%). Of the 28 retractile testes, we observed patency of the PV in 6 cases (21.4%) and EA in 4 (14.28%). When we compared the incidence of EAs and PV patency we observed a significantly higher prevalence of these anomalies in retractile testes (p=0.0116). Conclusions: Retractile testis is not a normal variant with a significant risk of patent processus vaginalis and epididymal anomalies. PMID:27564294

  11. The "parity" anomaly on an unorientable manifold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witten, Edward

    2016-11-01

    The "parity" anomaly—more accurately described as an anomaly in time-reversal or reflection symmetry—arises in certain theories of fermions coupled to gauge fields and/or gravity in a spacetime of odd dimension. This anomaly has traditionally been studied on orientable manifolds only, but recent developments involving topological superconductors have made it clear that one can get more information by asking what happens on an unorientable manifold. In this paper, we give a full description of the "parity" anomaly for fermions coupled to gauge fields and gravity in 2 +1 dimensions on a possibly unorientable spacetime. We consider an application to topological superconductors and another application to M theory. The application to topological superconductors involves using knowledge of the "parity" anomaly as an ingredient in constructing gapped boundary states of these systems and in particular in gapping the boundary of a ν =16 system in a topologically trivial fashion. The application to M theory involves showing the consistency of the path integral of an M theory membrane on a possibly unorientable worldvolume. In the past, this has been done only in the orientable case.

  12. Kohn anomaly in phonon driven superconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. P.; Chaudhury, R.

    2014-08-01

    Anomalies often occur in the physical world. Sometimes quite unexpectedly anomalies may give rise to new insight to an unrecognized phenomenon. In this paper we shall discuss about Kohn anomaly in a conventional phonon-driven superconductor by using a microscopic approach. Recently Aynajian et al.'s experiment showed a striking feature; the energy of phonon at a particular wave-vector is almost exactly equal to twice the energy of the superconducting gap. Although the phonon mechanism of superconductivity is well known for many conventional superconductors, as has been noted by Scalapino, the new experimental results reveal a genuine puzzle. In our recent work we have presented a detailed theoretical analysis with the help of microscopic calculations to unravel this mystery. We probe this aspect of phonon behaviour from the properties of electronic polarizability function in the superconducting phase of a Fermi liquid metal, leading to the appearance of a Kohn singularity. We show the crossover to the standard Kohn anomaly of the normal phase for temperatures above the transition temperature. Our analysis provides a nearly complete explanation of this new experimentally discovered phenomenon. This report is a shorter version of our recent work in JPCM.

  13. The mineralogy of global magnetic anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, S. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The Curie Balance was brought to operational stage and is producing data of a preliminary nature. Substantial problems experienced in the assembly and initial operation of the instrument were, for the most part, rectified, but certain problems still exist. Relationships between the geology and the gravity and MAGSAT anomalies of West Africa are reexamined in the context of a partial reconstruction of Gondwanaland.

  14. Contextual Detection of Anomalies within Hyperspectral Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Hyperspectral Imagery (HSI), Unsupervised Target Detection, Target Identification, Contextual Anomaly Detection 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...processing. Hyperspectral imaging has a wide range of applications within remote sensing, not limited to terrain classification , environmental monitoring...Johnson, R. J. (2008). Improved feature extraction, feature selection, and identification techniques that create a fast unsupervised hyperspectral

  15. Congenital anomalies of kidney and urinary tract.

    PubMed

    Toka, Hakan R; Toka, Okan; Hariri, Ali; Nguyen, Hiep T

    2010-07-01

    Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract anatomy (CAKUT) are common in children and represent approximately 30% of all prenatally diagnosed malformations. CAKUT is phenotypically variable and can affect the kidney(s) alone and/or the lower urinary tract. The spectrum includes more common anomalies such as vesicoureteral reflux and, rarely, more severe malformations such as bilateral renal agenesis. In young children, congenital anomalies are the leading cause of kidney failure and for kidney transplantation or dialysis. CAKUT can also lead to significant renal problems in adulthood and may present itself with hypertension and/or proteinuria. Congenital renal anomalies can be sporadic or familial, syndromic (also affecting nonrenal or non-urinary tract tissues), or nonsyndromic. Genetic causes have been identified for the syndromic forms and have shed some light into the molecular mechanisms of kidney development in human beings. The genetic causes for the more common nonsyndromic forms of CAKUT are unknown. The role of prenatal interventions and postnatal therapies as well as the benefits of screening affected individuals and their family members are not clear.

  16. Newborn with Gastroschisis associated with Limb Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Win, Phyu Phyu

    2017-01-01

    Gastroschisis is often found together with other extra intestinal conditions such as limb, spine, cardiac, central nervous system and genitourinary abnormalities. There are reports of its association with young maternal age. The cases presented here highlight the association of gastroschisis with limbs anomalies and young maternal age. PMID:28083494

  17. The Coulomb Anomaly in Strongly Disordered Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    The strength of this anomaly grows with increasing sheet resistance , R(sub n), at low R(sub n) but saturates at high R(sub n). We suggest that the granular morphology of these films is responsible for the saturation. (Author)

  18. Consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Giaccari, Stefano; Menotti, Pietro

    2009-03-15

    Exact consistent gravitational anomalies for chiral bosons in two dimensions are treated both with the Schwinger-DeWitt regularization and independently through a cohomological procedure. The diffeomorphism transformations are described by a single ghost which allows one to climb the cohomological chain in a unique way.

  19. Anomaly Recovery and the Mars Exploration Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, Jacob R.; Dewell, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    The premise of the design of operations for the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) is that the vehicles will drive each day. As a result, they will encounter some aspect of the terrain environment that cannot be anticipated or otherwise accommodated by the sequences linked onboard that day. The operations team then must correct the problem by planning then commanding the execution of a different drive the next day. Often other aspects of the operation on the surface of Mars: environmental changes, component degradation, errors in sequence design or execution, etc., lead to anomalies which must be addressed before normal operations can resume. The operational design that makes it possible to recover from a driving error each day also reduces the time needed to recover from anomalies. As an example of the efficiency achieved, less than 5% (about 30 sols out of 700 sols of operations) of the time on the surface has been devoted to recovery from anomalies for each vehicle. In this paper the major anomalies experienced by the MER rovers will be recounted and the streamlined approaches to addressing these problems described. The operational flexibility developed for these missions is also a function of the system design that anticipated a number of likely faults and conditions arising from uncertainty in sequence execution and environmental change. This design will be described as well as the considerations in operation that motivated this design. These considerations will likely be present in any future surface mission.

  20. Trace anomaly and counterterms in designer gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anabalón, Andrés; Astefanesei, Dumitru; Choque, David; Martínez, Cristián

    2016-03-01

    We construct concrete counterterms of the Balasubramanian-Kraus type for Einstein-scalar theories with designer gravity boundary conditions in AdS4, so that the total action is finite on-shell and satisfy a well defined variational principle. We focus on scalar fields with the conformal mass m 2 = -2 l -2 and show that the holographic mass matches the Hamiltonian mass for any boundary conditions. We compute the trace anomaly of the dual field theory in the generic case, as well as when there exist logarithmic branches of non-linear origin. As expected, the anomaly vanishes for the boundary conditions that are AdS invariant. When the anomaly does not vanish, the dual stress tensor describes a thermal gas with an equation of state related to the boundary conditions of the scalar field. In the case of a vanishing anomaly, we recover the dual theory of a massless thermal gas. As an application of the formalism, we consider a general family of exact hairy black hole solutions that, for some particular values of the parameters in the moduli potential, contains solutions of four-dimensional gauged {N}=8 supergravity and its ω-deformation. Using the AdS/CFT duality dictionary, they correspond to triple trace deformations of the dual field theory.

  1. Ebstein anomaly review: what's now, what's next?

    PubMed

    Dearani, Joseph A; Mora, Bassem N; Nelson, Timothy J; Haile, Dawit T; O'Leary, Patrick W

    2015-10-01

    Ebstein anomaly accounts for 1% of all congenital heart disease. It is a right ventricular myopathy with failure of tricuspid valve delamination and highly variable tricuspid valve morphology that usually results in severe regurgitation. It is the only congenital heart lesion that has a range of clinical presentations, from the severely symptomatic neonate to an asymptomatic adult. Neonatal operation has high operative mortality, whereas operation performed beyond infancy and into adulthood has low operative mortality. Late survival and quality of life for hospital survivors are excellent for the majority of patients in all age brackets. Atrial tachyarrhythmias are the most common late complication. There have been more techniques of tricuspid repair reported in the literature than any other congenital or acquired cardiac lesion. This is largely due to the infinite anatomic variability encountered with this anomaly. The cone reconstruction of Ebstein anomaly can achieve near anatomic restoration of the tricuspid valve anatomy. Early and intermediate results with these repairs are promising. Reduced right ventricular function continues to be a challenge for some patients, as is the need for reoperation for recurrent tricuspid regurgitation. The purpose of this article is to outline the current standard of care for diagnosis and treatment of Ebstein anomaly and describe innovative strategies to address poor right ventricular function and associated right-sided heart failure.

  2. Group actions and anomalies in gauge theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catenacci, R.; Pirola, G. P.; Martellini, Maurizio; Reina, Cesare

    1986-05-01

    The transformation properties are studied of the vacuum functional W(A) for chiral fermions in a gauge potential A under the group A×U(1)×R+ of gauge, chiral and scale transformations. The vacuum functional W is identified with a section of a G×U(1)×R+ line bundle over the space A of all gauge potentials. Known results on bundles carrying group actions give a simple and unifying clue to non-abelian, abelian chiral anomalies, as well as to trace anomalies. While the first are due to the twisting of a line bundle on A/G, the abelian chiral and trace anomalies are related to characters of U(1) and R+ respectively. Characters of U(1) are basically controlled by ``winding numbers'', i.e. again by topology. Opposite to these, trace anomalies seem to have little to do with topology, with the exception of two-dimensional theories. Also at Gruppo Nazionale di Fisica Matematica, CNR.

  3. Anomaly Detection Techniques for Ad Hoc Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Chaoli

    2009-01-01

    Anomaly detection is an important and indispensable aspect of any computer security mechanism. Ad hoc and mobile networks consist of a number of peer mobile nodes that are capable of communicating with each other absent a fixed infrastructure. Arbitrary node movements and lack of centralized control make them vulnerable to a wide variety of…

  4. The anomaly data base of screwworm information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Standard statistical processing of anomaly data in the screwworm eradication data system is possible from data compiled on magnetic tapes with the Univac 1108 computer. The format and organization of the data in the data base, which is also available on dedicated disc storage, are described.

  5. Gravitational anomalies in the solar system?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iorio, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    Mindful of the anomalous perihelion precession of Mercury discovered by Le Verrier in the second half of the nineteenth century and its successful explanation by Einstein with his General Theory of Relativity in the early years of the twentieth century, discrepancies among observed effects in our Solar system and their theoretical predictions on the basis of the currently accepted laws of gravitation applied to known matter-energy distributions have the potential of paving the way for remarkable advances in fundamental physics. This is particularly important now more than ever, given that most of the universe seems to be made of unknown substances dubbed Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Should this not be directly the case, Solar system's anomalies could anyhow lead to advancements in either cumulative science, as shown to us by the discovery of Neptune in the first half of the nineteenth century, and technology itself. Moreover, investigations in one of such directions can serendipitously enrich the other one as well. The current status of some alleged gravitational anomalies in the Solar system is critically reviewed. They are: (a) Possible anomalous advances of planetary perihelia. (b) Unexplained orbital residuals of a recently discovered moon of Uranus (Mab). (c) The lingering unexplained secular increase of the eccentricity of the orbit of the Moon. (d) The so-called Faint Young Sun Paradox. (e) The secular decrease of the mass parameter of the Sun. (f) The Flyby Anomaly. (g) The Pioneer Anomaly. (h) The anomalous secular increase of the astronomical unit.

  6. Psychoeducational Implications of Sex Chromosome Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodrich, David L.; Tarbox, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Numerous anomalies involving the sex chromosomes (X or Y) have been documented and their impact on development, learning, and behavior studied. This article reviews three of these disorders, Turner syndrome, Klinefelter syndrome, and Lesch-Nyhan disease. Each of these three is associated with one or more selective impairments or behavioral…

  7. Resolving the Cassini/Huygens relay anomaly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.

    2002-01-01

    A test using NASA's DSN to mimic the probe's signal was performed in 2000 and uncovered an anomaly that, unchecked, would result in nearly complete loss of the Huygens mission. This led to a suggested modification to the Cassini trajectory that will result in nearly complete data return for Huygens with minimal impact on Cassini.

  8. [Clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly].

    PubMed

    Split, Wojciech; Sawrasewicz-Rybak, Małgorzata

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to consider Kimmerle anomaly (ponticulus posterior of the atlas) as an anatomic variant, which can cause a set of clinical symptoms and signs. A hundred and eight patients, 58 females and 50 males at the age of 18-59 years (M. 36.9 years, SD = 9.6) with radiologically verified Kimmerle anomaly were examined. A control group comprised 40 healthy subjects at the similar age range. The diagnosis of headaches was based on the criteria proposed by the IHS. A character of headaches, their localization, frequency, duration, number of days with headaches per year, circumstances associated with their onset and concomitant symptoms were evaluated. All the patients were subjected to electrophysiological studies (ENG, EEG and VEP). The results were statistically analyzed using a SPSS/PC+ computer system. It was revealed that clinical symptoms and signs in Kimmerle anomaly occurred most frequently in the third and fourth decade of life (65% of cases). These were most often tension-type headaches (50% of cases with headaches), vascular headaches (26% of cases) and neuralgia (24% of cases). Intensity of headaches was high. Headaches were accompanied by other complaints like vertigo (59% of cases) and in one third of cases--nausea. About 10% of patients also suffered from vomiting, paresthesia, dizziness, short periods of loss of consciousness. Sporadically--tinitus, drop attack, and vegetative symptoms. In cases without pain the most frequent signs were short periods of loss of consciousness, dizziness, and also nausea and dizziness. The EEG examination revealed pathology in 40% of patients with Kimmerle anomaly. The ENG examination in more than 33% of anomaly cases showed injury in the central part of vestibular system. Improper answers were reported in about 75% of the patients during the VEP examination.

  9. Topological orders with global gauge anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke

    2015-08-01

    By definition, the physics of the d -dimensional (dim) boundary of a (d +1 ) -dim symmetry protected topological (SPT) state cannot be realized as itself on a d -dim lattice. If the symmetry of the system is unitary, then a formal way to determine whether a d -dim theory must be a boundary or not, is to couple this theory to a gauge field (or to "gauge" its symmetry), and check if there is a gauge anomaly. In this paper we discuss the following question: Can the boundary of a SPT state be driven into a fully gapped topological order which preserves all the symmetries? We argue (conjecture) that if the gauge anomaly of the boundary is "perturbative," then the boundary must remain gapless; while if the boundary only has global gauge anomaly but no perturbative anomaly, then it is possible to gap out the boundary by driving it into a topological state, when d ≥2 . We will demonstrate this conjecture with two examples: (1) the 3 d spin-1/2 chiral fermion with the well-known Witten's global anomaly [Phys. Lett. 117, 324 (1982), 10.1016/0370-2693(82)90728-6], which can be realized on the boundary of a 4 d topological superconductor with SU(2) or U (1 ) ⋊Z2 symmetry; and (2) the 4 d boundary of a 5 d topological superconductor with the same symmetry. We show that these boundary systems can be driven into a fully gapped Z2 N topological order with topological degeneracy, but this Z2 N topological order cannot be future driven into a trivial confined phase that preserves all the symmetries due to some special properties of its topological defects. Our study also leads to exotic states of matter in pure 3 d space.

  10. Lunar Proton Albedo Anomalies: Soil, Surveyors, and Statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N.; Spence, H. E.; Case, A. W.; Golightly, M. J.; Jordan, A.; Looper, M. D.; Petro, N. E.; Robinson, M. S.; Stubbs, T. J.; Zeitlin, C. J.; Blake, J. B.; Kasper, J. C.; Mazur, J. E.; Smith, S. S.; Townsend, L. W.

    2014-12-01

    Since the launch of LRO in 2009, the CRaTER instrument has been mapping albedo protons (~100 MeV) from the Moon. These protons are produced by nuclear spallation, a consequence of galactic cosmic ray (GCR) bombardment of the lunar regolith. Just as spalled neutrons and gamma rays reveal elemental abundances in the lunar regolith, albedo protons may be a complimentary method for mapping compositional variations. We presently find that the lunar maria have an average proton yield 0.9% ±0.3% higher than the average yield in the highlands; this is consistent with neutron data that is sensitive to the regolith's average atomic weight. We also see cases where two or more adjacent pixels (15° × 15°) have significantly anomalous yields above or below the mean. These include two high-yielding regions in the maria, and three low-yielding regions in the far-side highlands. Some of the regions could be artifacts of Poisson noise, but for completeness we consider possible effects from compositional anomalies in the lunar regolith, including pyroclastic flows, antipodes of fresh craters, and so-called "red spots". We also consider man-made landers and crash sites that may have brought elements not normally found in the lunar regolith.

  11. Short root anomaly in families and its association with other dental anomalies.

    PubMed

    Apajalahti, S; Arte, S; Pirinen, S

    1999-04-01

    In the present study, we collected a family series with short root anomaly in order to analyze the inheritance pattern of the condition. Another aim was to identify in these families an association with other dental anomalies, such as tooth agenesis, peg-shaped lateral incisors, supernumeraries, ectopia, and such morphological characteristics as invaginations, taurodontism, and a tendency to root resorption. Mesiodistal dimensions of the crowns of the affected teeth were measured in order to reveal any association with reduction or increase in tooth size. The apparent genetic heterogeneity of the pedigrees did not permit definitive conclusions as to the mode of inheritance. Autosomal dominant transmission of short root anomaly was seen in 3/8 families. In 2/8 families, the condition was seen in siblings but not in parents. An association with tooth agenesis and ectopic canines was noted, the prevalences of which were 46% and 33%, respectively. We stress the importance of not misdiagnosing this anomaly as resorption.

  12. Analysis of the nature of excessive cosmic radiation in the area of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly at altitudes 250-500km, from Kosmos-225 satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raychenko, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Results are presented from a study of the region of anomalous cosmic radiation in the area of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly at the altitudes 250-500 km, using data measurements taken on the Kosmos-225 satellite (14-29 June 1968). The existence of a stable intensity anomaly discovered in the experiments on the second and third Soviet spacecraft-satellites is confirmed. The total vector of the geomagnetic field at different altitudes was compared with isoline maps. An altitude profile of the South Atlantic anomaly of radiation intensity was obtained, using data from the same instrument. The nature of the anomalies in cosmic radiation intensity over the regions of negative magnetic anomalies is discussed.

  13. Orbital debris hazard insights from spacecraft anomalies studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, Darren S.

    2016-09-01

    Since the dawning of the space age space operators have been tallying spacecraft anomalies and failures then using these insights to improve the space systems and operations. As space systems improved and their lifetimes increased, the anomaly and failure modes have multiplied. Primary triggers for space anomalies and failures include design issues, space environmental effects, and satellite operations. Attempts to correlate anomalies to the orbital debris environment have started as early as the mid-1990's. Early attempts showed tens of anomalies correlated well to altitudes where the cataloged debris population was the highest. However, due to the complexity of tracing debris impacts to mission anomalies, these analyses were found to be insufficient to prove causation. After the fragmentation of the Chinese Feng-Yun satellite in 2007, it was hypothesized that the nontrackable fragments causing anomalies in LEO would have increased significantly from this event. As a result, debris-induced anomalies should have gone up measurably in the vicinity of this breakup. Again, the analysis provided some subtle evidence of debris-induced anomalies but it was not convincing. The continued difficulty in linking debris flux to satellite anomalies and failures prompted the creation of a series of spacecraft anomalies and failure workshops to investigate the identified shortfalls. These gatherings have produced insights into why this process is not straightforward. Summaries of these studies and workshops are presented and observations made about how to create solutions for anomaly attribution, especially as it relates to debris-induced spacecraft anomalies and failures.

  14. Atmospheric Drivers of Greenland Surface Melt Revealed by Self Organizing Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mioduszewski, J.; Rennermalm, A. K.; Hammann, A. C.; Tedesco, M.; Noble, E. U.; Stroeve, J. C.; Mote, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Recent acceleration in summer surface melt on the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) has occurred concurrently with a rapidly warming Arctic and has been connected to persistent, anomalous circulation patterns over Greenland. To identify patterns that favor enhanced GrIS surface melt and their decadal changes, we first develop a summer Arctic synoptic climatology by employing a nonlinear classification technique known as the self organizing map (SOM). This is applied to daily JJA sea level pressure (SLP) and 500 hPa geopotential height fields obtained from the Modern Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) reanalysis product from 1979 to 2014. Model output from Modèle Atmosphérique Régional (MAR) is used to relate meteorological conditions and subsequent Greenland surface melt anomalies to particular circulation regimes. Results demonstrate that circulation patterns featuring positive SLP anomalies from Greenland to the Beaufort Sea support the largest positive surface melt anomalies, particularly over western Greenland. These patterns facilitate strong meridional transport of heat and moisture, contrasted by a dominant zonal flow across the North Atlantic during periods of low surface melt. Additionally, composites of energy balance components reveal that melt events are favored under clear conditions generating positive shortwave radiation anomalies rather than increased downwelling longwave radiation occurring with increased cloud cover. Sea surface temperature anomalies suggest that there may be a linkage between surface melt and recent sea ice loss around Greenland, though a causal relationship is not established. We assess decadal shifts in the SOM nodes, finding an increased frequency of upper level patterns favoring higher 500 hPa geopotential heights primarily over Greenland. The observed increases in GrIS melt through the time period coincides with this shift in SOM node frequency.

  15. Data-driven modeling of surface temperature anomaly and solar activity trends

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    A novel two-step modeling scheme is used to reconstruct and analyze surface temperature and solar activity data at global, hemispheric, and regional scales. First, the self-organizing map (SOM) technique is used to extend annual modern climate data from the century to millennial scale. The SOM component planes are used to identify and quantify strength of nonlinear relations among modern surface temperature anomalies (<150 years), tropical and extratropical teleconnections, and Palmer Drought Severity Indices (0–2000 years). Cross-validation of global sea and land surface temperature anomalies verifies that the SOM is an unbiased estimator with less uncertainty than the magnitude of anomalies. Second, the quantile modeling of SOM reconstructions reveal trends and periods in surface temperature anomaly and solar activity whose timing agrees with published studies. Temporal features in surface temperature anomalies, such as the Medieval Warm Period, Little Ice Age, and Modern Warming Period, appear at all spatial scales but whose magnitudes increase when moving from ocean to land, from global to regional scales, and from southern to northern regions. Some caveats that apply when interpreting these data are the high-frequency filtering of climate signals based on quantile model selection and increased uncertainty when paleoclimatic data are limited. Even so, all models find the rate and magnitude of Modern Warming Period anomalies to be greater than those during the Medieval Warm Period. Lastly, quantile trends among reconstructed equatorial Pacific temperature profiles support the recent assertion of two primary El Niño Southern Oscillation types. These results demonstrate the efficacy of this alternative modeling approach for reconstructing and interpreting scale-dependent climate variables.

  16. USGS maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Discover a small sample of the millions of maps produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in its mission to map the Nation and survey its resources. This booklet gives a brief overview of the types of maps sold and distributed by the USGS through its Earth Science Information Centers (ESIC) and also available from business partners located in most States. The USGS provides a wide variety of maps, from topographic maps showing the geographic relief and thematic maps displaying the geology and water resources of the United States, to special studies of the moon and planets.

  17. The Global Climate Anomaly in 1940-1942

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brönnimann, S.; Luterbacher, J.; Staehelin, J.; Svendby, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    An unprecedented climatic anomaly occurred in the tropics and in the Northern Hemisphere in 1940-1942. During a strong and prolonged El Niño [Bigg & Inoué, QJRMS 118 (1992), 125], extremely cold winters were observed in Europe, accompanied by very warm temperatures in Alaska and large parts of the Arctic and a cold North Pacific. The anomalies were strong (comprising the two coldest European winters of the 20th century) and extraordinarily persistent. In addition, exceptionally high values of total ozone are reported [Langlo, Geofys. Publ. 18/6 (1952)], pointing to an anomalous stratospheric circulation. Events of this magnitude have a strong economical and environmental impact; the 1940s anomaly even affected World War II. Studying this anomaly in detail contributes to (1) document the extent of 20th century climate variability, (2) understand large-scale coupling processes between the tropics and the extratropics and between the troposphere and the stratosphere and (3) develop tools to analyze past upper-level climate variability prior to 1948, i.e., the reanalysis period. For this study we have compiled, digitized, and re-evaluated several tens of thousands of temperature and pressure profiles from aircraft and radiosonde ascents up to 50 hPa [Brönnimann, Int. J. Clim. 23 (2003), 769]. The upper-air data were supplemented with data from the Earth's surface and used to statistically reconstruct monthly upper-level fields for the extratropical Northern Hemisphere up to 100 hPa [Brönnimann & Luterbacher, Clim. Dyn., submitted]. Although the quality of the reconstructed stratospheric fields is not comparable to more recent data, it is sufficient to allow a broad characterization of the circulation at 100 hPa during the early 1940s. In addition to upper-air data, several total ozone series from the 1940s were re-evaluated [Brönnimann et al., QJRMS 129 (2003), 2819], providing further information on the stratosphere. In this paper we present an analysis of these

  18. CONMAP - USGS MARINE MAPPING PROGRAM.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Escowitz, Edward C.

    1985-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has commenced a marine mapping program, CONMAP (the Continental Margin Maps), which is supported by, and dependent on, a foundation of digital data-bases. The goal of the program's first phase is to prepare a series of maps that completely cover the Exclusive Economic Zone. The maps will be prepared using an Albers' Conic Equal-Area Projection at a scale of 1:1,000,000. An initial product of CONMAP will be a series of base map panels portraying the topographic and bathymetric relief, political boundaries and key geographic locations. Additional maps will be prepared which portray other data types and analytical themes.

  19. Map projections for larger-scale mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, J. P.

    1982-01-01

    For the U.S. Geological Survey maps at 1:1,000,000-scale and larger, the most common projections are conformal, such as the Transverse Mercator and Lambert Conformal Conic. Projections for these scales should treat the Earth as an ellipsoid. In addition, the USGS has conceived and designed some new projections, including the Space Oblique Mercator, the first map projection designed to permit low-distortion mapping of the Earth from satellite imagery, continuously following the groundtrack. The USGS has programmed nearly all pertinent projection equations for inverse and forward calculations. These are used to plot maps or to transform coordinates from one projection to another. The projections in current use are described.

  20. Depth Estimation for Magnetic/Gravity Anomaly Using Model Correction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengfei; Liu, Tianyou; Zhu, Peimin; Yang, Yushan; Zhou, Qiaoli; Zhang, Henglei; Chen, Guoxiong

    2017-03-01

    The Tilt-depth method has been widely used to determinate the source depth of a magnetic anomaly. In the present study, we deduce similar Tilt-depth methods for both magnetic and gravity data based on the contact and sphere models and obtain the same equation for a gravity anomaly as that for a magnetic anomaly. The theoretical equations and the model tests show that the routine Tilt-depth method would result in unreliable depth estimation for deep sources. This is due to that the contact model is no longer valid for causative sources under the condition in which the depths of causative sources are significantly larger than their horizontal lengths. Accordingly, we suggest that the Tilt-depth derived from the contact model can be used to detect a shallow source, whereas the Tilt-depth derived from the sphere model can be used to detect a deep source. We propose a weighting method based on the estimated depths from both the contact model and the sphere model to estimate the depth for real data. The model tests suggest that the determined depths from the contact model and the sphere model are shallower and deeper, respectively, than the real depth, while the estimated depth from the proposed method is more close to the actual depth. In the application to the Weigang iron ore located in Jiangsu province, China, the routine Tilt-depth method results in -76% relative error, whereas the proposed method obtains the reliable depth estimation compared with the drill holes. In addition, the proposed method works well in the application for the Shijiaquan iron ore located in Shandong province, China. These results indicate that the proposed weighting equation is a general improvement.

  1. A study of Hot Flow Anomalies and their internal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Artyom; Vaisberg, Oleg

    Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs) were studied for long time. Here we attempt to study internal structure of HFAs. Our study is based on the Interball Tail Probe data. We used data from ion-spectrometer SCA-1, magnetic field measurements from MIF and ELECTRON spectrometer measurements. We have chosen five anomalies for our investigation on the basis of well resolved structure. We calculated displacement velocity along bow shock, flow velocities within HFA and compared convection patterns within them. We checked the main criteria of HFA formation: motional electric field direction was directed toward current sheet at least at one side of it (except one case), bow shock was quasi-perpendicular at least at one side of HFA, and angle between current sheet normal and solar wind velocity was large. Convection velocities of plasma within HFA were calculated by subtracting average velocity from measured ion velocities along spacecraft trajectory through anomaly. These convection velocities, viewed in coordinate system determined by shock normal and calculated IMF current sheet normal, clearly show separation of HFA region in 3 parts: leading part, narrow central part, and trailing part. HFAs we analyzed can be separated in two groups according to pattern of convection velocities. First type of HFAs have velocities directed from central region and circulation in leading and trailing parts. Second type of HFAs show predominant motion along the current sheet. There also other differences between these two types of HFA that are discussed in presentation. Judging from plasma convection pattern within HFAs received additional evidence that central region is the source of energy and momentum near interplanetary current sheet crossing location. We calculated balance of energy within HFA using momentum equation to estimate what amount of reflected particles is needed for central region to be the energy source.

  2. Spectral anomalies in Young's double-slit interference experiment.

    PubMed

    Pu, Jixiong; Cai, Chao; Nemoto, Shojiro

    2004-10-18

    We report a phenomenon of spectral anomalies in the interference field of Young's double-slit interference experiment. The potential applications of the spectral anomalies in the information encoding and information transmission in free space are also considered.

  3. The association of congenital spinal anomalies with imperforate anus.

    PubMed

    Denton, J R

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-four patients with congenital imperforate anus were studied to investigate: (1) the incidence of congenital spinal anomalies; (2) the orthopedic significance of these anomalies; (3) the incidence of other musculoskeletal disorders; and (4) the incidence of anomalies in other organ systems in the anal-spine anomaly group. There was a 38% incidence of spinal anomalies in 94 patients with congenital imperforate anus. Most of these abnormalities were sacral, and there were no related or progressive spinal deformities. The incidence of other musculoskeletal anomalies was much lower than of the spine (only 9% of the total). The triad of caudal regression-imperforate anus, spinal anomalies, and genitourinary tract anomalies-was present in 19 (53%) of the 36 cases, much more than any other combination of major system abnormalities such as the VATER of VACTEL syndromes.

  4. RICH MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Michael Goodchild recently gave eight reasons why traditional maps are limited as communication devices, and how interactive internet mapping can overcome these limitations. In the past, many authorities in cartography, from Jenks to Bertin, have emphasized the importance of sim...

  5. Historical Mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    Maps become out of date over time. Maps that are out of date, however, can be useful to historians, attorneys, environmentalists, genealogists, and others interested in researching the background of a particular area. Local historians can compare a series of maps of the same area compiled over a long period of time to learn how the area developed. A succession of such maps can provide a vivid picture of how a place changed over time.

  6. Ebstein's Anomaly: Genetics, Clinical Manifestations, and Management.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2016-11-19

    Ebstein's anomaly is uncommon. Genetic bases of this congenital heart defect may be related to the mutations in myosin heavy chain 7 and NKX2.5, among others. Asymptomatic patients with Ebstein's anomaly can be conservatively treated and kept under close follow-up, whereas surgical operation is indicated for those patients with evidence of right heart dilation and progressively impaired ventricular systolic function. A biventricular repair consisting of the reconstruction of a competent monocuspid tricuspid valve, right ventriculorrhaphy, subtotal atrial septal defect closure, and aggressive reduction atrioplasty is suitable for most patients, and 1.5-ventricular repair (bidirectional Glenn shunt) is indicated for patients with poor right ventricular function; by contrast, heart transplantation is used in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction.

  7. The flyby anomaly: a multivariate analysis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acedo, L.

    2017-02-01

    The flyby anomaly is the unexpected variation of the asymptotic post-encounter velocity of a spacecraft with respect to the pre-encounter velocity as it performs a slingshot manoeuvre. This effect has been detected in, at least, six flybys of the Earth but it has not appeared in other recent flybys. In order to find a pattern in these, apparently contradictory, data several phenomenological formulas have been proposed but all have failed to predict a new result in agreement with the observations. In this paper we use a multivariate dimensional analysis approach to propose a fitting of the data in terms of the local parameters at perigee, as it would occur if this anomaly comes from an unknown fifth force with latitude dependence. Under this assumption, we estimate the range of this force around 300 km.

  8. Topology of Fermi surfaces and anomaly inflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adem, Alejandro; Camarena, Omar Antolín; Semenoff, Gordon W.; Sheinbaum, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    We derive a rigorous classification of topologically stable Fermi surfaces of non-interacting, discrete translation-invariant systems from electronic band theory, adiabatic evolution and their topological interpretations. For systems on an infinite crystal it is shown that there can only be topologically unstable Fermi surfaces. For systems on a half- space and with a gapped bulk, our derivation naturally yields a K -theory classification. Given the d - 1-dimensional surface Brillouin zone X s of a d-dimensional half-space, our result implies that different classes of globally stable Fermi surfaces belong in K -1 (Xs) for systems with only discrete translation-invariance. This result has a chiral anomaly inflow interpretation, as it reduces to the spectral flow for d = 2. Through equivariant homotopy methods we extend these results for symmetry classes AI, AII, C and D and discuss their corresponding anomaly inflow interpretation.

  9. Conformal anomaly around the sudden singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houndjo, S. J. M.

    2010-10-01

    Quantum effects due to particle creation on a classical sudden singularity have been investigated in a previous work. The conclusion was that quantum effects do not lead to the avoidance nor the modification of the sudden future singularity. In this paper, we investigate quantum corrections coming from conformal anomaly near the sudden future singularity. We conclude that when the equation of state is chosen to be p=-ρ-Aρα, the conformal anomaly can transform the sudden singularity into the singularity of type III for any α>1/2 and into the singularity of the type I (the big rip) or the big crunch for 1/2<α<3/2.

  10. Congenital anomalies of the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Klimo, Paul; Rao, Ganesh; Brockmeyer, Douglas

    2007-07-01

    There are numerous congenital anomalies of the cervical spine. They can be simple and clinically inconsequential to complex with serious neurologic and structural implications. They can occur in isolation or as one of several maldeveloped organs in the patients. Many are discovered incidentally. The more common anomalies seen by pediatric spine surgeons include defects of the anterior or posterior arches of C1, occipital assimilation of the atlas, basilar invagination or impression, os odontoideum, and Klippel-Feil syndrome. Management begins with a detailed history, physical examination, and imaging studies. In general, those lesions that are causing or have caused neurologic injury, chronic pain, or spinal deformity or place the patient at high risk for developing these require treatment.

  11. Holographic models and the QCD trace anomaly

    SciTech Connect

    Jose L. Goity, Roberto C. Trinchero

    2012-08-01

    Five dimensional dilaton models are considered as possible holographic duals of the pure gauge QCD vacuum. In the framework of these models, the QCD trace anomaly equation is considered. Each quantity appearing in that equation is computed by holographic means. Two exact solutions for different dilaton potentials corresponding to perturbative and non-perturbative {beta}-functions are studied. It is shown that in the perturbative case, where the {beta}-function is the QCD one at leading order, the resulting space is not asymptotically AdS. In the non-perturbative case, the model considered presents confinement of static quarks and leads to a non-vanishing gluon condensate, although it does not correspond to an asymptotically free theory. In both cases analyses based on the trace anomaly and on Wilson loops are carried out.

  12. System and method for anomaly detection

    DOEpatents

    Scherrer, Chad

    2010-06-15

    A system and method for detecting one or more anomalies in a plurality of observations is provided. In one illustrative embodiment, the observations are real-time network observations collected from a stream of network traffic. The method includes performing a discrete decomposition of the observations, and introducing derived variables to increase storage and query efficiencies. A mathematical model, such as a conditional independence model, is then generated from the formatted data. The formatted data is also used to construct frequency tables which maintain an accurate count of specific variable occurrence as indicated by the model generation process. The formatted data is then applied to the mathematical model to generate scored data. The scored data is then analyzed to detect anomalies.

  13. Lunar magnetic anomalies and the Cayley formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangway, D. W.; Gose, W. A.; Pearce, G. W.; Mcconnell, R. K.

    1973-01-01

    It is proposed that magnetic anomalies such as found at the Apollo 16 site are associated with breccia flows which cooled in place from above 770 C. The required field at the time that this process took place is a few thousand gamma. It is suggested that the surface and orbital magnetic anomalies are caused by basins filled with Cayley-like breccia flows to a thickness of the order of a kilometer. These breccia blankets settled in place from temperatures above 770 C and a thickness on the order of 1 km was welded to a level of 2 to 4 on Warner's scale. A base surge caused by impact or by a volcanic event could be the mechanism by which these breccia blankets were deposited.

  14. The winter anomaly and sudden stratospheric warmings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lastovicka, J.

    1984-08-01

    Large-scale stratospheric warmings are examined on the basis of 22-year measurements of radio-wave absorption at the Panska Ves observatory. It is shown that these warmings, accompanied by the reversal of wind direction in the lower thermosphere, lead not to an increase but to a decrease in the radio-wave absorption in the lower ionosphere, i.e., to the disappearance of the winter anomaly. It is concluded that the absorption decrease is connected not only with cooling in the mesopause region but also with a total change in the dynamic conditions of the lower ionosphere. The behavior of the winter anomaly in the 1979-1980 and 1981-1982 periods is examined in detail.

  15. Equatorial thermosphere anomaly: Observations and simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, J.; Thayer, J. P.; Wang, W.; Richmond, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Several mechanisms including heat transport due to zonal winds, chemical heating and field-aligned ion drag have been proposed to explain the formation of the Equatorial Thermosphere Anomaly (ETA), but the real cause of the ETA formation in thermosphere temperature is still a mystery. Various observations of the ionosphere and thermosphere have been used to investigate the variations of equatorial anomalies in both the ETA and EIA, and their interactions. The similarities and differences between the ETA and the EIA can provide important insight to the physical connections of this ion-neutral coupling problem. Meanwhile, the combination of observations and theoretical models allows us to understand the fundamental physical and chemical ion-neutral processes in the equatorial F region. This talk will highlight the recent progress of the formation of the ETA associated with the ion-neutral coupling in the equatorial region.

  16. Congenital anomalies of the optic nerve

    PubMed Central

    Amador-Patarroyo, Manuel J.; Pérez-Rueda, Mario A.; Tellez, Carlos H.

    2014-01-01

    Congenital optic nerve head anomalies are a group of structural malformations of the optic nerve head and surrounding tissues, which may cause congenital visual impairment and blindness. Each entity in this group of optic nerve anomalies has individually become more prevalent as our ability to differentiate between them has improved due to better characterization of cases. Access to better medical technology (e.g., neuroimaging and genetic analysis advances in recent years) has helped to expand our knowledge of these abnormalities. However, visual impairment may not be the only problem in these patients, some of these entities will be related to ophthalmologic, neurologic and systemic features that will help the physician to identify and predict possible outcomes in these patients, which sometimes may be life-threatening. Herein we present helpful hints, associations and management (when plausible) for them. PMID:25859137

  17. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva without characteristic skeletal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare but extremely disabling genetic disease of the skeletal system. This disease is characterized by progression of heterotopic ossification within skeletal muscles, ligaments and tendons. Most patients with FOP are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures such as biopsy that can cause lifelong disability. Almost all of the patients have some peculiar congenital anomalies, including short great toes, hallux valgus, short thumbs and hypoplasia of digital phalanges. These congenital defects support the diagnosis of FOP, but are not constantly observed in the totality of patients. If necessary, genetic studies can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, patients should be advised in order to avoid unnecessary traumas, surgical procedures, biopsies, intramuscular injections and vaccinations. Here, we describe a patient with FOP without characteristic congenital skeletal anomalies.

  18. Megadolichobasilar anomaly, basilar impression and occipito-vertebral anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, I; Pattyn, G; Calliauw, L

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a megadolichobasilar anomaly associated with basilar impression, bilateral megadolichocarotid arteries and an occipito-vertebral anastomosis. The concurrence of these anomalies lends support to the hypothesis that congenital factors play a part in the origin of the megadolichobasilar anomaly.

  19. Minor Physical Anomalies, Footprints, and Behavior: Was the Buddha Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draper, Thomas W.; Munoz, Milagros M.

    1982-01-01

    A relationship between an anomaly of the footprint suggested by ancient Abhidhamma meditations and Minor Physical Anomalies Scale was observed in children. The footprint anomalies correlated with the activity levels of children in the same way as the scores on the scale and consistently with prior research using the scale. (Author/RD)

  20. Ebstein anomaly in a meerkat (Suricata suricatta).

    PubMed

    Chai, Norin; Chetboul, Valérie; Carlos, Carolina; Nicolle, Audrey; Pouchelon, Jean-Louis; Bomsel, Marie Claude

    2004-12-01

    An 8-yr-old male meerkat (Suricata suricatta) presented with sudden lethargy. A globular-shaped heart associated with pleural effusion on chest thoracic radiographs was consistent with congestive heart failure, and echocardiography was performed under general anesthesia. It revealed an Ebstein anomaly, with mild pericardial effusion and marked right heart enlargement. The animal was treated with imidapril chlorydrate. After 4 mo of treatment, thoracic radiographs still showed right-sided cardiomegaly; however, the animal appeared clinically normal.