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Sample records for addition atomic force

  1. Change in surface properties of Microthrix parvicella upon addition of polyaluminium chloride as characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hamit-Eminovski, Jildiz; Eskilsson, Krister; Arnebrant, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The filamentous bacterium Microthrix parvicella causes severe separation and foaming problems at wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). An effective control of the bacterium in activated sludge WWTPs can be accomplished by dosage with polyaluminium chloride (PAX-14). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether addition of PAX-14 affects surface properties such as the hydrophobicity of the bacterium and to study the exopolymers of M. parvicella that host surface-associated enzymes. To this end, force measurements by atomic force microscopy were carried out to measure the interactions between hydrophilic and hydrophobized tips and the bacterium surface. Addition of PAX-14 caused no changes in the hydrophobicity of the bacterium surface but the data indicate that it collapsed the polymeric layer likely due to electrostatic screening. It is concluded that the collapse of the polymeric layer may affect the transport of substrates (eg free fatty acids) to the bacterium and hence the competitiveness of M. parvicella compared to the other bacteria present in activated sludge.

  2. Study of polymeric additive effect on calcium oxalate dihydrate crystal growth using real-time atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Taesung; Kim, Jong-Nam; Kim, Woo-Sik; Kyun Choi, Chang

    2011-07-01

    Microscopic events associated with crystal growth and characterization of the growth hillocks on the (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces of COD were examined by atomic force microscopy. The (1 0 0) and (1 0 1) faces of COD developed elliptical and triangular hillocks and pits, respectively. Each face exhibited hillocks with step sites that can be assigned to specific crystal planes, enabling direct determination of the growth rates along specific crystallographic directions. The addition of macromolecules with anionic side chains, poly- L-aspartate, poly- L-glutamate, and polyacrylate resulted in inhibition of growth on the hillock step planes. The magnitude of their effect depended on the macromolecule structures and identity of the step site. The isotropic shape of the COD hillocks mimicked the shape of the resulting macroscopic COD crystals based on step-specific binding of the macromolecules to the COD crystal, with stronger step pinning along the [0 1 0] direction than in the [0 0 1] direction. Electrostatic matching between the crystal faces and additives according to the ionic array of calcium oxalate in the COD structure was found to be responsible for the preferential binding of the macromolecules to terraces.

  3. Atomic Force Microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

    1988-12-01

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  4. Deep atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H.; Drake, B.; Randall, C.; Hansma, P. K.

    2013-12-15

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) possesses several desirable imaging features including the ability to produce height profiles as well as two-dimensional images, in fluid or air, at high resolution. AFM has been used to study a vast selection of samples on the scale of angstroms to micrometers. However, current AFMs cannot access samples with vertical topography of the order of 100 μm or greater. Research efforts have produced AFM scanners capable of vertical motion greater than 100 μm, but commercially available probe tip lengths are still typically less than 10 μm high. Even the longest probe tips are below 100 μm and even at this range are problematic. In this paper, we present a method to hand-fabricate “Deep AFM” probes with tips of the order of 100 μm and longer so that AFM can be used to image samples with large scale vertical topography, such as fractured bone samples.

  5. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file)

    This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams.

    The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles.

    The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip.

    At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008).

    The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate.

    A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit.

    The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  6. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2006-08-22

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  7. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V.; Wang, Chengpu

    2004-11-16

    An atomic force microscope is described having a cantilever comprising a base and a probe tip on an end opposite the base; a cantilever drive device connected to the base; a magnetic material coupled to the probe tip, such that when an incrementally increasing magnetic field is applied to the magnetic material an incrementally increasing force will be applied to the probe tip; a moveable specimen base; and a controller constructed to obtain a profile height of a specimen at a point based upon a contact between the probe tip and a specimen, and measure an adhesion force between the probe tip and the specimen by, under control of a program, incrementally increasing an amount of a magnetic field until a release force, sufficient to break the contact, is applied. An imaging method for atomic force microscopy involving measuring a specimen profile height and adhesion force at multiple points within an area and concurrently displaying the profile and adhesion force for each of the points is also described. A microscope controller is also described and is constructed to, for a group of points, calculate a specimen height at a point based upon a cantilever deflection, a cantilever base position and a specimen piezo position; calculate an adhesion force between a probe tip and a specimen at the point by causing an incrementally increasing force to be applied to the probe tip until the probe tip separates from a specimen; and move the probe tip to a new point in the group.

  8. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.

    2010-01-01

    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  9. Fidelity imaging for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, Sayan; Salapaka, Murti

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is widely employed for imaging material at the nanoscale. However, real-time measures on image reliability are lacking in contemporary atomic force microscopy literature. In this article, we present a real-time technique that provides an image of fidelity for a high bandwidth dynamic mode imaging scheme. The fidelity images define channels that allow the user to have additional authority over the choice of decision threshold that facilitates where the emphasis is desired, on discovering most true features on the sample with the possible detection of high number of false features, or emphasizing minimizing instances of false detections. Simulation and experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of fidelity imaging.

  10. Atomic Force Microscope Mediated Chromatography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to inject a sample, provide shear-driven liquid flow over a functionalized substrate, and detect separated components. This is demonstrated using lipophilic dyes and normal phase chromatography. A significant reduction in both size and separation time scales is achieved with a 25-micron-length column scale, and one-second separation times. The approach has general applications to trace chemical and microfluidic analysis. The AFM is now a common tool for ultra-microscopy and nanotechnology. It has also been demonstrated to provide a number of microfluidic functions necessary for miniaturized chromatography. These include injection of sub-femtoliter samples, fluidic switching, and sheardriven pumping. The AFM probe tip can be used to selectively remove surface layers for subsequent microchemical analysis using infrared and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. With its ability to image individual atoms, the AFM is a remarkably sensitive detector that can be used to detect separated components. These diverse functional components of microfluidic manipulation have been combined in this work to demonstrate AFM mediated chromatography. AFM mediated chromatography uses channel-less, shear-driven pumping. This is demonstrated with a thin, aluminum oxide substrate and a non-polar solvent system to separate a mixture of lipophilic dyes. In conventional chromatographic terms, this is analogous to thin-layer chromatography using normal phase alumina substrate with sheardriven pumping provided by the AFM tip-cantilever mechanism. The AFM detection of separated components is accomplished by exploiting the variation in the localized friction of the separated components. The AFM tip-cantilever provides the mechanism for producing shear-induced flows and rapid pumping. Shear-driven chromatography (SDC) is a relatively new concept that overcomes the speed and miniaturization limitations of conventional liquid chromatography. SDC is based on a

  11. Sensing mode atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Hough, Paul V. C.; Wang, Chengpu

    2003-01-01

    An atomic force microscope utilizes a pulse release system and improved method of operation to minimize contact forces between a probe tip affixed to a flexible cantilever and a specimen being measured. The pulse release system includes a magnetic particle affixed proximate the probe tip and an electromagnetic coil. When energized, the electromagnetic coil generates a magnetic field which applies a driving force on the magnetic particle sufficient to overcome adhesive forces exhibited between the probe tip and specimen. The atomic force microscope includes two independently displaceable piezo elements operable along a Z-axis. A controller drives the first Z-axis piezo element to provide a controlled approach between the probe tip and specimen up to a point of contact between the probe tip and specimen. The controller then drives the first Z-axis piezo element to withdraw the cantilever from the specimen. The controller also activates the pulse release system which drives the probe tip away from the specimen during withdrawal. Following withdrawal, the controller adjusts the height of the second Z-axis piezo element to maintain a substantially constant approach distance between successive samples.

  12. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ulčinas, A; Vaitekonis, Š

    2017-03-10

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  13. Rotational scanning atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulčinas, A.; Vaitekonis, Š.

    2017-03-01

    A non-raster scanning technique for atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging which combines rotational and translational motion is presented. The use of rotational motion for the fast scan axis allows us to significantly increase the scanning speed while imaging a large area (diameter > 30 μm). An image reconstruction algorithm and the factors influencing the resolution of the technique are discussed. The experimental results show the potential of the rotational scanning technique for high-throughput large area AFM investigation.

  14. Atomically resolved force microscopy at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Morita, Seizo

    2014-04-24

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can now not only image individual atoms but also construct atom letters using atom manipulation method even at room temperature (RT). Therefore, the AFM is the second generation atomic tool following the scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). However the AFM can image even insulating atoms, and also directly measure/map the atomic force and potential at the atomic scale. Noting these advantages, we have been developing a bottom-up nanostructuring system at RT based on the AFM. It can identify chemical species of individual atoms and then manipulate selected atom species to the predesigned site one-by-one to assemble complex nanostructures consisted of multi atom species at RT. Here we introduce our results toward atom-by-atom assembly of composite nanostructures based on the AFM at RT including the latest result on atom gating of nano-space for atom-by-atom creation of atom clusters at RT for semiconductor surfaces.

  15. Nanorheology by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Tai-De; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Ortiz-Young, Deborah; Riedo, Elisa

    2014-12-15

    We present an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based method to investigate the rheological properties of liquids confined within a nanosize gap formed by an AFM tip apex and a solid substrate. In this method, a conventional AFM cantilever is sheared parallel to a substrate surface by means of a lock-in amplifier while it is approaching and retracting from the substrate in liquid. The normal solvation forces and lateral viscoelastic shear forces experienced by the AFM tip in liquid can be simultaneously measured as a function of the tip-substrate distance with sub-nanometer vertical resolution. A new calibration method is applied to compensate for the linear drift of the piezo transducer and substrate system, leading to a more precise determination of the tip-substrate distance. By monitoring the phase lag between the driving signal and the cantilever response in liquid, the frequency dependent viscoelastic properties of the confined liquid can also be derived. Finally, we discuss the results obtained with this technique from different liquid-solid interfaces. Namely, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and water on mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  16. Nanorheology by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Tai-De; Chiu, Hsiang-Chih; Ortiz-Young, Deborah; Riedo, Elisa

    2014-12-01

    We present an Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) based method to investigate the rheological properties of liquids confined within a nanosize gap formed by an AFM tip apex and a solid substrate. In this method, a conventional AFM cantilever is sheared parallel to a substrate surface by means of a lock-in amplifier while it is approaching and retracting from the substrate in liquid. The normal solvation forces and lateral viscoelastic shear forces experienced by the AFM tip in liquid can be simultaneously measured as a function of the tip-substrate distance with sub-nanometer vertical resolution. A new calibration method is applied to compensate for the linear drift of the piezo transducer and substrate system, leading to a more precise determination of the tip-substrate distance. By monitoring the phase lag between the driving signal and the cantilever response in liquid, the frequency dependent viscoelastic properties of the confined liquid can also be derived. Finally, we discuss the results obtained with this technique from different liquid-solid interfaces. Namely, octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane and water on mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  17. Calibration of frictional forces in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ogletree, D.F.; Carpick, R.W.; Salmeron, M.

    1996-09-01

    The atomic force microscope can provide information on the atomic-level frictional properties of surfaces, but reproducible quantitative measurements are difficult to obtain. Parameters that are either unknown or difficult to precisely measure include the normal and lateral cantilever force constants (particularly with microfabricated cantilevers), the tip height, the deflection sensor response, and the tip structure and composition at the tip-surface contact. We present an {ital in} {ital situ} experimental procedure to determine the response of a cantilever to lateral forces in terms of its normal force response. This procedure is quite general. It will work with any type of deflection sensor and does not require the knowledge or direct measurement of the lever dimensions or the tip height. In addition, the shape of the tip apex can be determined. We also discuss a number of specific issues related to force and friction measurements using optical lever deflection sensing. We present experimental results on the lateral force response of commercially available V-shaped cantilevers. Our results are consistent with estimates of lever mechanical properties using continuum elasticity theory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2002-01-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  19. Hyperbaric Hydrothermal Atomic Force Microscope

    DOEpatents

    Knauss, Kevin G.; Boro, Carl O.; Higgins, Steven R.; Eggleston, Carrick M.

    2003-07-01

    A hyperbaric hydrothermal atomic force microscope (AFM) is provided to image solid surfaces in fluids, either liquid or gas, at pressures greater than normal atmospheric pressure. The sample can be heated and its surface imaged in aqueous solution at temperatures greater than 100.degree. C. with less than 1 nm vertical resolution. A gas pressurized microscope base chamber houses the stepper motor and piezoelectric scanner. A chemically inert, flexible membrane separates this base chamber from the sample cell environment and constrains a high temperature, pressurized liquid or gas in the sample cell while allowing movement of the scanner. The sample cell is designed for continuous flow of liquid or gas through the sample environment.

  20. Spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy of biomass.

    PubMed

    Tetard, L; Passian, A; Farahi, R H; Kalluri, U C; Davison, B H; Thundat, T

    2010-05-01

    Scanning probe microscopy has emerged as a powerful approach to a broader understanding of the molecular architecture of cell walls, which may shed light on the challenge of efficient cellulosic ethanol production. We have obtained preliminary images of both Populus and switchgrass samples using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show distinctive features that are shared by switchgrass and Populus. These features may be attributable to the lignocellulosic cell wall composition, as the collected images exhibit the characteristic macromolecular globule structures attributable to the lignocellulosic systems. Using both AFM and a single case of mode synthesizing atomic force microscopy (MSAFM) to characterize Populus, we obtained images that clearly show the cell wall structure. The results are of importance in providing a better understanding of the characteristic features of both mature cells as well as developing plant cells. In addition, we present spectroscopic investigation of the same samples.

  1. Atomic Force Microscopy of Biological Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Frederix, Patrick L.T.M.; Bosshart, Patrick D.; Engel, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an ideal method to study the surface topography of biological membranes. It allows membranes that are adsorbed to flat solid supports to be raster-scanned in physiological solutions with an atomically sharp tip. Therefore, AFM is capable of observing biological molecular machines at work. In addition, the tip can be tethered to the end of a single membrane protein, and forces acting on the tip upon its retraction indicate barriers that occur during the process of protein unfolding. Here we discuss the fundamental limitations of AFM determined by the properties of cantilevers, present aspects of sample preparation, and review results achieved on reconstituted and native biological membranes. PMID:19167286

  2. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration.

    PubMed

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A R; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-06-03

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the calculation of atom-surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v(4). These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v(3).

  3. Atomic force microscopy as nanorobot.

    PubMed

    Xi, Ning; Fung, Carmen Kar Man; Yang, Ruiguo; Lai, King Wai Chiu; Wang, Donna H; Seiffert-Sinha, Kristina; Sinha, Animesh A; Li, Guangyong; Liu, Lianqing

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a powerful and widely used imaging technique that can visualize single molecules under physiological condition at the nanometer scale. In this chapter, an AFM-based nanorobot for biological studies is introduced. Using the AFM tip as an end effector, the AFM can be modified into a nanorobot that can manipulate biological objects at the single-molecule level. By functionalizing the AFM tip with specific antibodies, the nanorobot is able to identify specific types of receptors on the cell membrane. It is similar to the fluorescent optical microscopy but with higher resolution. By locally updating the AFM image based on interaction force information and objects' model during nanomanipulation, real-time visual feedback is obtained through the augmented reality interface. The development of the AFM-based nanorobotic system enables us to conduct in situ imaging, sensing, and manipulation simultaneously at the nanometer scale (e.g., protein and DNA levels). The AFM-based nanorobotic system offers several advantages and capabilities for studying structure-function relationships of biological specimens. As a result, many biomedical applications can be achieved by the AFM-based nanorobotic system.

  4. Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisenhorn, Albrecht Ludwig

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) was invented by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber in 1986 as an offspring of the very successful scanning tunneling microscope (STM), which Binnig and Rohrer invented in 1982 and for which they shared the Nobel prize. While the STM can only image conducting surfaces, the AFM has overcome this limitation. An AFM creates a three-dimensional image of the sample surface by raster scanning this surface under a sharp tip that is attached to a cantilever. The tip moves the cantilever up and down while going over "hills" and through "valleys" of the surface. The vertical motion of the cantilever deflects a laser beam that is reflected off the back of the cantilever toward a two-segment photodiode. The difference of the intensity of the two segments is used as the deflection signal. A feedback loop is used to keep the deflection signal constant by moving the sample surface up and down accordingly. This vertical motion gives a direct measurement of the surface height. The forces involved in the imaging process have been studied in air and water. Due to adsorbed layers on tip and sample surface when scanning in air (capillary condensation) the imaging forces are >10 ^{-7} N. If the tip and sample surface are immersed in water the forces can be reduced to {~}10^{ -9} N. An AFM with a large scanner can image up to tens of micrometers like an optical microscope. Zooming in allows one to get resolution of a few nanometers, which makes the AFM a natural continuation of the optical microscope towards higher magnification. Integrated circuit chips, photographic film, bacteria, red and white blood cells, purple membrane, polymerized Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films, and stoma have been imaged at low and high magnification. The AFM has shown its power by imaging "hard" and "soft" surfaces with atomic and (sub)molecular resolution respectively. The "hard" crystalline surfaces of mica, graphite, RuCl_3, Ge(111), Bi(111), and zeolites (clinoptilolite (010

  5. Atom world based on nano-forces: 25 years of atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Morita, Seizo

    2011-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has opened up the new nanoworlds of scanning probe microscopy. STM is the first-generation atomic tool that can image, evaluate and manipulate individual atoms and consequently can create nanostructures by true bottom-up methods based on atom-by-atom manipulation. Atomic force microscopy is a second-generation atomic tool that has followed the footsteps of STM, and which is now opening doors to a new atom world based on using nanoscale forces.

  6. High-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Rubén; García, Ricardo; Schwarz, Udo

    2009-07-01

    Progress in nanoscience and nanotechnology requires tools that enable the imaging and manipulation of matter at the atomic and molecular scale. During the last two decades or so, scanning probe-based techniques have proven to be particularly versatile in this regard. Among the various probe-based approaches, atomic force microscopy (AFM) stands out in many ways, including the total number of citations and the breadth of possible applications, ranging from materials characterization to nanofabrication and biological studies. However, while nanometer scale operation in different environments became routine, atomic resolution imaging remained elusive for a long time. The reason for this initial deficiency was that contact with the sample blunts atomically sharp tips, which are mandatory for successful atomic resolution imaging. This problem was overcome in the mid-1990s with the introduction of noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM), which represents a version of AFM where the cantilever is oscillated close to the sample surface without actually 'touching' it. This allows the preservation of the atomic sharpness of the tip while interaction-induced changes in the cantilever's resonance frequency are used to quantify the tip-sample distance. Since then, progress has been steady and includes the development of commercial instruments as well as the addition of many new capabilities beyond imaging, such as the identification and manipulation of individual atoms. A series of annual international conferences, starting in Osaka in 1998, have contributed significantly to this outstanding performance. The program of the most recent conference from this series, held in Madrid on 15-19 September 2008, reflects the maturity of this field, with an increasing number of groups developing strong activities that involve novel approaches and applications covering areas well beyond the original vacuum-based imaging. In this special issue of Nanotechnology we present a selection of

  7. Can Atomic Force Microscopy Achieve Atomic Resolution in Contact Mode?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarvis, M. R.; Pérez, Rubén; Payne, M. C.

    2001-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy operating in the contact mode is studied using total-energy pseudopotential calculations. It is shown that, in the case of a diamond tip and a diamond surface, it is possible for a tip terminated by a single atom to sustain forces in excess of 30 nN. It is also shown that imaging at atomic resolution may be limited by blunting of the tip during lateral scanning.

  8. High-speed atomic force microscopy: imaging and force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Eghiaian, Frédéric; Rico, Felix; Colom, Adai; Casuso, Ignacio; Scheuring, Simon

    2014-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the type of scanning probe microscopy that is probably best adapted for imaging biological samples in physiological conditions with submolecular lateral and vertical resolution. In addition, AFM is a method of choice to study the mechanical unfolding of proteins or for cellular force spectroscopy. In spite of 28 years of successful use in biological sciences, AFM is far from enjoying the same popularity as electron and fluorescence microscopy. The advent of high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM), about 10 years ago, has provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of membrane proteins and molecular machines from the single-molecule to the cellular level. HS-AFM imaging at nanometer-resolution and sub-second frame rate may open novel research fields depicting dynamic events at the single bio-molecule level. As such, HS-AFM is complementary to other structural and cellular biology techniques, and hopefully will gain acceptance from researchers from various fields. In this review we describe some of the most recent reports of dynamic bio-molecular imaging by HS-AFM, as well as the advent of high-speed force spectroscopy (HS-FS) for single protein unfolding.

  9. Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Yeshua, Talia; Palchan, Mila; Lovsky, Yulia; Taha, Hesham

    2010-03-01

    Lithography based on scanning probe microscopic techniques has considerable potential for accurate & localized deposition of material on the nanometer scale. Controlled deposition of metallic features with high purity and spatial accuracy is of great interest for circuit edit applications in the semiconductor industry, for plasmonics & nanophotonics and for basic research in surface enhanced Raman scattering & nanobiophysics. Within the context of metal deposition we will review the development of fountain pen nanochemistry and its most recent emulation Atomic Force Controlled Capillary Electrophoresis (ACCE). Using this latter development we will demonstrate achievement of unprecedented control of nanoparticle deposition using a three-electrode geometry. Three electrodes are attached: one on the outside of a metal coated glass probe, one on the inside of a hollow probe in a solution containing Au nanoparticles in the capillary, and a third on the surface where the writing takes place. The three electrodes provide electrical pulses for accurate control of deposition and retraction of the liquid from the surface overcoming the lack of control seen in both dip pen lithography & fountain pen nanochemistry when the tip contacts the surface. With this development, we demonstrate depositing a single 1.3 nm Au nanoparticle onto surfaces such as semiconductors.

  10. Equilibrium capillary forces with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sprakel, J; Besseling, N A M; Leermakers, F A M; Cohen Stuart, M A

    2007-09-07

    We present measurements of equilibrium forces resulting from capillary condensation. The results give access to the ultralow interfacial tensions between the capillary bridge and the coexisting bulk phase. We demonstrate this with solutions of associative polymers and an aqueous mixture of gelatin and dextran, with interfacial tensions around 10 microN/m. The equilibrium nature of the capillary forces is attributed to the combination of a low interfacial tension and a microscopic confinement geometry, based on nucleation and growth arguments.

  11. Polynomial force approximations and multifrequency atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Platz, Daniel; Forchheimer, Daniel; Tholén, Erik A; Haviland, David B

    2013-01-01

    We present polynomial force reconstruction from experimental intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM) data. We study the tip-surface force during a slow surface approach and compare the results with amplitude-dependence force spectroscopy (ADFS). Based on polynomial force reconstruction we generate high-resolution surface-property maps of polymer blend samples. The polynomial method is described as a special example of a more general approximative force reconstruction, where the aim is to determine model parameters that best approximate the measured force spectrum. This approximative approach is not limited to spectral data, and we demonstrate how it can be adapted to a force quadrature picture.

  12. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    DOE PAGES

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; ...

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contributionmore » to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.« less

  13. Friction forces on atoms after acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Intravaia, Francesco; Mkrtchian, Vanik E.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi; Scheel, Stefan; Dalvit, Diego A. R.; Henkel, Carsten

    2015-05-12

    The aim of this study is to revisit the calculation of atom–surface quantum friction in the quantum field theory formulation put forward by Barton (2010 New J. Phys. 12 113045). We show that the power dissipated into field excitations and the associated friction force depend on how the atom is boosted from being initially at rest to a configuration in which it is moving at constant velocity (v) parallel to the planar interface. In addition, we point out that there is a subtle cancellation between the one-photon and part of the two-photon dissipating power, resulting in a leading order contribution to the frictional power which goes as v4. These results are also confirmed by an alternative calculation of the average radiation force, which scales as v3.

  14. Magnetic exchange force microscopy with atomic resolution.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Uwe; Schwarz, Alexander; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2007-03-29

    The ordering of neighbouring atomic magnetic moments (spins) leads to important collective phenomena such as ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism. A full understanding of magnetism on the nanometre scale therefore calls for information on the arrangement of spins in real space and with atomic resolution. Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy accomplishes this but can probe only conducting materials. Force microscopy can be used on any sample independent of its conductivity. In particular, magnetic force microscopy is well suited to exploring ferromagnetic domain structures. However, atomic resolution cannot be achieved because data acquisition involves the sensing of long-range magnetostatic forces between tip and sample. Magnetic exchange force microscopy has been proposed for overcoming this limitation: by using an atomic force microscope with a magnetic tip, it should be possible to detect the short-range magnetic exchange force between tip and sample spins. Here we show for a prototypical antiferromagnetic insulator, the (001) surface of nickel oxide, that magnetic exchange force microscopy can indeed reveal the arrangement of both surface atoms and their spins simultaneously. In contrast with previous attempts to implement this method, we use an external magnetic field to align the magnetic polarization at the tip apex so as to optimize the interaction between tip and sample spins. This allows us to observe the direct magnetic exchange coupling between the spins of the tip atom and sample atom that are closest to each other, and thereby demonstrate the potential of magnetic exchange force microscopy for investigations of inter-spin interactions at the atomic level.

  15. Electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Butt, Hans-Jüurgen

    1991-01-01

    In atomic force microscopy, the stylus experiences an electrostatic force when imaging in aqueous medium above a charged surface. This force has been calculated numerically with continuum theory for a silicon nitrite or silicon oxide stylus. For comparison, the Van der Waals force was also calculated. In contrast to the Van der Waals attraction, the electrostatic force is repulsive. At a distance of 0.5 nm the electrostatic force is typically 10-12-10-10 N and thus comparable in strength to the Van der Waals force. The electrostatic force increases with increasing surface charge density and decreases roughly exponentially with distance. It can be reduced by imaging in high salt concentrations. Below surface potentials of ≈50 mV, a simple analytical approximation of the electrostatic force is described. PMID:19431803

  16. Phase imaging with intermodulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Platz, Daniel; Tholén, Erik A; Hutter, Carsten; von Bieren, Arndt C; Haviland, David B

    2010-05-01

    Intermodulation atomic force microscopy (IMAFM) is a dynamic mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with two-tone excitation. The oscillating AFM cantilever in close proximity to a surface experiences the nonlinear tip-sample force which mixes the drive tones and generates new frequency components in the cantilever response known as intermodulation products (IMPs). We present a procedure for extracting the phase at each IMP and demonstrate phase images made by recording this phase while scanning. Amplitude and phase images at intermodulation frequencies exhibit enhanced topographic and material contrast.

  17. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  18. Atomically resolved graphitic surfaces in air by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wastl, Daniel S; Weymouth, Alfred J; Giessibl, Franz J

    2014-05-27

    Imaging at the atomic scale using atomic force microscopy in biocompatible environments is an ongoing challenge. We demonstrate atomic resolution of graphite and hydrogen-intercalated graphene on SiC in air. The main challenges arise from the overall surface cleanliness and the water layers which form on almost all surfaces. To further investigate the influence of the water layers, we compare data taken with a hydrophilic bulk-silicon tip to a hydrophobic bulk-sapphire tip. While atomic resolution can be achieved with both tip materials at moderate interaction forces, there are strong differences in force versus distance spectra which relate to the water layers on the tips and samples. Imaging at very low tip-sample interaction forces results in the observation of large terraces of a naturally occurring stripe structure on the hydrogen-intercalated graphene. This structure has been previously reported on graphitic surfaces that are not covered with disordered adsorbates in ambient conditions (i.e., on graphite and bilayer graphene on SiC, but not on monolayer graphene on SiC). Both these observations indicate that hydrogen-intercalated graphene is close to an ideal graphene sample in ambient environments.

  19. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniël; Calogero, Gaetano; Koster, Rik S.; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniel; van Huis, Marijn A.; Swart, Ingmar

    2016-06-01

    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy images as a benchmark, we show that the position of the dopant atoms can be determined using atomic force microscopy. Specifically, the frequency shift-distance curves Δ f (z ) acquired above a N atom are significantly different from the curves measured over a C atom. Similar behavior was found for N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111). The results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations employing a van der Waals functional.

  20. Reconstructing the distributed force on an atomic force microscope cantilever.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ryan; Killgore, Jason

    2017-03-10

    A methodology is developed to reconstruct the force applied to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever given the shape in which it vibrates. This is accomplished by rewriting Bernoulli-Euler beam theory such that the force on the cantilever is approximated as a linear superposition of the theoretical cantilever eigenmodes. The weighting factors in this summation are calculated from the amplitude and phase measured along the length of the cantilever. The accuracy of the force reconstruction is shown to depend on the frequency at which the measurement is performed, the number of discrete points measured along the length of the cantilever, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured signal. In contrast to other AFM force reconstruction techniques, this method can reconstruct the distribution of force applied over the length of the AFM cantilever. However, this method performs poorly for localized forces applied to the cantilever, such as is typical of most tip-sample interaction forces. Proof of concept experiments are performed on an electrostatically excited cantilever and the expected force distribution is recovered. This force reconstruction technique offers previously unavailable insight into the distributed forces experienced by an AFM cantilever.

  1. Reconstructing the distributed force on an atomic force microscope cantilever

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Killgore, Jason

    2017-03-01

    A methodology is developed to reconstruct the force applied to an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever given the shape in which it vibrates. This is accomplished by rewriting Bernoulli–Euler beam theory such that the force on the cantilever is approximated as a linear superposition of the theoretical cantilever eigenmodes. The weighting factors in this summation are calculated from the amplitude and phase measured along the length of the cantilever. The accuracy of the force reconstruction is shown to depend on the frequency at which the measurement is performed, the number of discrete points measured along the length of the cantilever, and the signal-to-noise ratio of the measured signal. In contrast to other AFM force reconstruction techniques, this method can reconstruct the distribution of force applied over the length of the AFM cantilever. However, this method performs poorly for localized forces applied to the cantilever, such as is typical of most tip–sample interaction forces. Proof of concept experiments are performed on an electrostatically excited cantilever and the expected force distribution is recovered. This force reconstruction technique offers previously unavailable insight into the distributed forces experienced by an AFM cantilever.

  2. Interfacial forces between silica surfaces measured by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Duan, Jinming

    2009-01-01

    Colloidal particle stability and some other interfacial phenomena are governed by interfacial force interactions. The two well known forces are van der Waals force and electrostatic force, as documented by the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO) theory. Moreover, advances in modern instrumentation and colloid science suggested that some short-ranged forces or structure forces are important for relevant colloidal systems. The interfacial and/or molecular forces can be measured as a resultant force as function of separation distance by atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloid probe. This article presents a discussion on AFM colloid probe measurement of silica particle and silica wafer surfaces in solutions with some technical notifications in measurement and data convolution mechanisms. The measured forces are then analyzed and discussed based on the 'constant charge' and 'constant potential' models of DLVO theory. The difference between the prediction of DLVO theory and the measured results indicates that there is a strong short-range structure force between the two hydrophilic surfaces, even at extremely low ionic concentration, such as Milli-Q water purity solution.

  3. Theoretical Models for Surface Forces and Adhesion and Their Measurement Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Fabio L.; Bueno, Carolina C.; Da Róz, Alessandra L.; Ziemath, Ervino C.; Oliveira, Osvaldo N.

    2012-01-01

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of AFS, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution. PMID:23202925

  4. Theoretical models for surface forces and adhesion and their measurement using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Leite, Fabio L; Bueno, Carolina C; Da Róz, Alessandra L; Ziemath, Ervino C; Oliveira, Osvaldo N

    2012-10-08

    The increasing importance of studies on soft matter and their impact on new technologies, including those associated with nanotechnology, has brought intermolecular and surface forces to the forefront of physics and materials science, for these are the prevailing forces in micro and nanosystems. With experimental methods such as the atomic force spectroscopy (AFS), it is now possible to measure these forces accurately, in addition to providing information on local material properties such as elasticity, hardness and adhesion. This review provides the theoretical and experimental background of afs, adhesion forces, intermolecular interactions and surface forces in air, vacuum and in solution.

  5. Correct height measurement in noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sadewasser, Sascha; Lux-Steiner, Martha Ch

    2003-12-31

    We demonstrate that topography measurements by noncontact atomic force microscopy are subject to residual electrostatic forces. On highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG) with a submonolayer coverage of C60, we monitor the step height from C60 to HOPG as a function of dc bias between tip and sample. Because of the different contact potential of C60 and HOPG ( approximately 50 mV), the step height is strongly dependent on the dc bias. The presented results and additional simulations demonstrate clearly that for correct height measurements it is mandatory to use a Kelvin probe force microscopy method with active compensation of electrostatic forces.

  6. Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces.

    PubMed

    Chang, D E; Sinha, K; Taylor, J M; Kimble, H J

    2014-07-10

    Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here we theoretically show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. Our proposed trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground-state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited-state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyse realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

  7. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs.

  8. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all‐atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841080

  9. Investigating bioconjugation by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnological applications increasingly exploit the selectivity and processivity of biological molecules. Integration of biomolecules such as proteins or DNA into nano-systems typically requires their conjugation to surfaces, for example of carbon-nanotubes or fluorescent quantum dots. The bioconjugated nanostructures exploit the unique strengths of both their biological and nanoparticle components and are used in diverse, future oriented research areas ranging from nanoelectronics to biosensing and nanomedicine. Atomic force microscopy imaging provides valuable, direct insight for the evaluation of different conjugation approaches at the level of the individual molecules. Recent technical advances have enabled high speed imaging by AFM supporting time resolutions sufficient to follow conformational changes of intricately assembled nanostructures in solution. In addition, integration of AFM with different spectroscopic and imaging approaches provides an enhanced level of information on the investigated sample. Furthermore, the AFM itself can serve as an active tool for the assembly of nanostructures based on bioconjugation. AFM is hence a major workhorse in nanotechnology; it is a powerful tool for the structural investigation of bioconjugation and bioconjugation-induced effects as well as the simultaneous active assembly and analysis of bioconjugation-based nanostructures. PMID:23855448

  10. Neuron Biomechanics Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Spedden, Elise; Staii, Cristian

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical interactions play a key role in many processes associated with neuronal growth and development. Over the last few years there has been significant progress in our understanding of the role played by the substrate stiffness in neuronal growth, of the cell-substrate adhesion forces, of the generation of traction forces during axonal elongation, and of the relationships between the neuron soma elastic properties and its health. The particular capabilities of the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), such as high spatial resolution, high degree of control over the magnitude and orientation of the applied forces, minimal sample damage, and the ability to image and interact with cells in physiologically relevant conditions make this technique particularly suitable for measuring mechanical properties of living neuronal cells. This article reviews recent advances on using the AFM for studying neuronal biomechanics, provides an overview about the state-of-the-art measurements, and suggests directions for future applications. PMID:23921683

  11. Atomic force microscopy on liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Christian; Schulz, Benjamin

    This chapter provides an introduction to the atomic force microscopy (AFM) on thermotropic liquid crystals. We first give a general introduction to the technique of AFM and then describe the special requirements that have to be met for the imaging of liquid-crystalline surfaces. We also discuss the relation between the quality or reliability of the imaging results and various parameters of the scanning conditions. We briey review the existing work on AFM on liquid crystals and finally describe applications beyond the imaging, such as molecular force spectroscopy or manipulation of surface structures.

  12. Atomic Force Microscope for Imaging and Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pike, W. T.; Hecht, M. H.; Anderson, M. S.; Akiyama, T.; Gautsch, S.; deRooij, N. F.; Staufer, U.; Niedermann, Ph.; Howald, L.; Mueller, D.

    2000-01-01

    We have developed, built, and tested an atomic force microscope (AFM) for extraterrestrial applications incorporating a micromachined tip array to allow for probe replacement. It is part of a microscopy station originally intended for NASA's 2001 Mars lander to identify the size, distribution, and shape of Martian dust and soil particles. As well as imaging topographically down to nanometer resolution, this instrument can be used to reveal chemical information and perform infrared and Raman spectroscopy at unprecedented resolution.

  13. Imaging DNA Structure by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pyne, Alice L B; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2016-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a microscopy technique that uses a sharp probe to trace a sample surface at nanometre resolution. For biological applications, one of its key advantages is its ability to visualize substructure of single molecules and molecular complexes in an aqueous environment. Here, we describe the application of AFM to determine superstructure and secondary structure of surface-bound DNA. The method is also readily applicable to probe DNA-DNA interactions and DNA-protein complexes.

  14. First Atomic Force Microscope Image from Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This calibration image presents three-dimensional data from the atomic force microscope on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander, showing surface details of a substrate on the microscope station's sample wheel. It will be used as an aid for interpreting later images that will show shapes of minuscule Martian soil particles.

    The area imaged by the microscope is 40 microns by 40 microns, small enough to fit on an eyelash. The grooves in this substrate are 14 microns (0.00055 inch) apart, from center to center. The vertical dimension is exaggerated in the image to make surface details more visible. The grooves are 300 nanometers (0.00001 inch) deep.

    This is the first atomic force microscope image recorded on another planet. It was taken on July 9, 2008, during the 44th Martian day, or sol, of the Phoenix mission since landing.

    Phoenix's Swiss-made atomic force microscope builds an image of the surface shape of a particle by sensing it with a sharp tip at the end of a spring, all microfabricated out of a silicon wafer. A strain gauge records how far the spring flexes to follow the contour of the surface. It can provide details of soil-particle shapes smaller than one-hundredth the width of a human hair. This is about 20 times smaller than what can be resolved with Phoenix's optical microscope, which has provided much higher-magnification imaging than anything seen on Mars previously. Both microscopes are part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry and Conductivity Analyzer.

  15. Periodicity in bimodal atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Chia-Yun; Santos, Sergio Chiesa, Matteo; Barcons, Victor

    2015-07-28

    Periodicity is fundamental for quantification and the application of conservation principles of many important systems. Here, we discuss periodicity in the context of bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM). The relationship between the excited frequencies is shown to affect and control both experimental observables and the main expressions quantified via these observables, i.e., virial and energy transfer expressions, which form the basis of the bimodal AFM theory. The presence of a fundamental frequency further simplifies the theory and leads to close form solutions. Predictions are verified via numerical integration of the equation of motion and experimentally on a mica surface.

  16. Ultrastable Atomic Force Microscopy for Biophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churnside, Allison B.

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a multifunctional workhorse of nanoscience and molecular biophysics, but instrumental drift remains a critical issue that limits the precision and duration of experiments. We have significantly reduced the two most important types of drift: in position and in force. The first, position drift, is defined as uncontrolled motion between the tip and the sample, which occurs in all three dimensions. By scattering a laser off the apex of a commercial AFM tip, we locally measured and thereby actively controlled its three-dimensional position above a sample surface to <0.4 A (Deltaf = 0.01--10 Hz) in air at room temperature. With this enhanced stability, we demonstrated atomic-scale (˜1 A) tip-sample stability and registration over tens of minutes with a series of AFM images. The second type of drift is force drift. We found that the primary source of force drift for a popular class of soft cantilevers is their gold coating, even though they are coated on both sides to minimize drift. When the gold coating was removed through a simple chemical etch, this drift in deflection was reduced by more than an order of magnitude over the first 2 hours after wetting the tip. Removing the gold also led to ˜ 10-fold reduction in reflected light, yet short-term (0.1--10 s) force precision improved. With both position and force drift greatly reduced, the utility of the AFM is enhanced. These improvements led to several new AFM abilities, including a five-fold increase in the image signal-to-noise ratio; tip-registered, label-free optical imaging; registered tip return to a particular point on the sample; and dual-detection force spectroscopy, which enables a new extension clamp mode. We have applied these abilities to folding of both membrane and soluble proteins. In principle, the techniques we describe can be fully incorporated into many types of scanning probe microscopy, making this work a general improvement to scanning probe techniques.

  17. Microfluidics, Chromatography, and Atomic-Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    A Raman-and-atomic-force microscope (RAFM) has been shown to be capable of performing several liquid-transfer and sensory functions essential for the operation of a microfluidic laboratory on a chip that would be used to perform rapid, sensitive chromatographic and spectro-chemical analyses of unprecedentedly small quantities of liquids. The most novel aspect of this development lies in the exploitation of capillary and shear effects at the atomic-force-microscope (AFM) tip to produce shear-driven flow of liquids along open microchannels of a microfluidic device. The RAFM can also be used to perform such functions as imaging liquids in microchannels; removing liquid samples from channels for very sensitive, tip-localized spectrochemical analyses; measuring a quantity of liquid adhering to the tip; and dip-pen deposition from a chromatographic device. A commercial Raman-spectroscopy system and a commercial AFM were integrated to make the RAFM so as to be able to perform simultaneous topographical AFM imaging and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) at the AFM tip. The Raman-spectroscopy system includes a Raman microprobe attached to an optical microscope, the translation stage of which is modified to accommodate the AFM head. The Raman laser excitation beam, which is aimed at the AFM tip, has a wavelength of 785 nm and a diameter of about 5 m, and its power is adjustable up to 10 mW. The AFM is coated with gold to enable tip-localized SERS.

  18. Molecular Articulation in Response to Interactive Atomic Forces in Docker

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-12-01

    MOLECULAR ARTICULATION IN RESPONSE TO INTERACTIVE ATOMIC FORCES IN DOCKER THESIS Todd R. Kellett, Captain, USAF < AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D- 15 IDb~tzkac Unkg...ARTICULATION IN RESPONSE TO INTERACTIVE ATOMIC FORCES IN DOCKER THESIS Todd R. Kellett, Captain, USAF AFIT/GCS/ENG/96D- 15 Approved for public...INTERACTIVE ATOMIC FORCES IN DOCKER THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of Technology Air

  19. Applications of Atomic Resolution Atomic Force Microscopy to Nanoscience & Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodin, Thor

    2001-03-01

    New developments in nanophysical scanning probe microscopy in terms of its unique relatonship to nanoscience, together with specific applications to nanoelectronic and biotechnology, will be discussed(1).Innovative examples of chemical physics at interfaces are analyzed where state-of-the-art non contact atomic force microscopy(nc-AFM) measurement of a specific physical or chemical property is correlated with position, orientation and/or location with atomic resolution. Analysis of specific current as well as future applications of nc-AFM to the detection, manipulation and fabrication of nanostructures on the molecular scale will be presented.Design features of nano-instrumentation based on carbon nanotube technology, high frequency solid state micro-oscillators and variable temperature applications will be presented.Specific examples pertaining to, (1) chemical bonding interaction on a semiconductor,(2) surface structure of an ionic insulator,(3) structural features in a biological interface and (4) nanofabrication of a quantum electron device, will be reviewed in terms of their innovativeness and significance to nanoscience and nanotechnology. 1 ``Scanning Probe Microscopies,Nanoscience & Nanotechnology" T.N. Rhodin, Proceedings of nc-AFM Workshop, July 2000, Hamburg, Germany. Springer Verlag U. Schwarz, H. Hoelscher and M. Wiesendanger, guest editors.

  20. Atomic force microscopy of biological samples.

    PubMed

    Allison, David P; Mortensen, Ninell P; Sullivan, Claretta J; Doktycz, Mitchel J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to evaluate structural-functional relationships in real time has allowed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to assume a prominent role in post genomic biological research. In this mini-review, we highlight the development of imaging and ancillary techniques that have allowed SPM to permeate many key areas of contemporary research. We begin by examining the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by Binnig and Rohrer in 1982 and discuss how it served to team biologists with physicists to integrate high-resolution microscopy into biological science. We point to the problems of imaging nonconductive biological samples with the STM and relate how this led to the evolution of the atomic force microscope (AFM) developed by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber, in 1986. Commercialization in the late 1980s established SPM as a powerful research tool in the biological research community. Contact mode AFM imaging was soon complemented by the development of non-contact imaging modes. These non-contact modes eventually became the primary focus for further new applications including the development of fast scanning methods. The extreme sensitivity of the AFM cantilever was recognized and has been developed into applications for measuring forces required for indenting biological surfaces and breaking bonds between biomolecules. Further functional augmentation to the cantilever tip allowed development of new and emerging techniques including scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM), scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) and scanning near field ultrasonic holography (SNFUH).

  1. Atomic force microscopy of biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2010-01-01

    The ability to evaluate structural-functional relationships in real time has allowed scanning probe microscopy (SPM) to assume a prominent role in post genomic biological research. In this mini-review, we highlight the development of imaging and ancillary techniques that have allowed SPM to permeate many key areas of contemporary research. We begin by examining the invention of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) by Binnig and Rohrer in 1982 and discuss how it served to team biologists with physicists to integrate high-resolution microscopy into biological science. We point to the problems of imaging nonconductive biological samples with the STM and relate how this led to the evolution of the atomic force microscope (AFM) developed by Binnig, Quate, and Gerber, in 1986. Commercialization in the late 1980s established SPM as a powerful research tool in the biological research community. Contact mode AFM imaging was soon complemented by the development of non-contact imaging modes. These non-contact modes eventually became the primary focus for further new applications including the development of fast scanning methods. The extreme sensitivity of the AFM cantilever was recognized and has been developed into applications for measuring forces required for indenting biological surfaces and breaking bonds between biomolecules. Further functional augmentation to the cantilever tip allowed development of new and emerging techniques including scanning ion-conductance microscopy (SICM), scanning electrochemical microscope (SECM), Kelvin force microscopy (KFM) and scanning near field ultrasonic holography (SNFUH).

  2. Investigating cell mechanics with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Haase, Kristina; Pelling, Andrew E

    2015-03-06

    Transmission of mechanical force is crucial for normal cell development and functioning. However, the process of mechanotransduction cannot be studied in isolation from cell mechanics. Thus, in order to understand how cells 'feel', we must first understand how they deform and recover from physical perturbations. Owing to its versatility, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a popular tool to study intrinsic cellular mechanical properties. Used to directly manipulate and examine whole and subcellular reactions, AFM allows for top-down and reconstitutive approaches to mechanical characterization. These studies show that the responses of cells and their components are complex, and largely depend on the magnitude and time scale of loading. In this review, we generally describe the mechanotransductive process through discussion of well-known mechanosensors. We then focus on discussion of recent examples where AFM is used to specifically probe the elastic and inelastic responses of single cells undergoing deformation. We present a brief overview of classical and current models often used to characterize observed cellular phenomena in response to force. Both simple mechanistic models and complex nonlinear models have been used to describe the observed cellular behaviours, however a unifying description of cell mechanics has not yet been resolved.

  3. Investigating cell mechanics with atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Haase, Kristina; Pelling, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    Transmission of mechanical force is crucial for normal cell development and functioning. However, the process of mechanotransduction cannot be studied in isolation from cell mechanics. Thus, in order to understand how cells ‘feel’, we must first understand how they deform and recover from physical perturbations. Owing to its versatility, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a popular tool to study intrinsic cellular mechanical properties. Used to directly manipulate and examine whole and subcellular reactions, AFM allows for top-down and reconstitutive approaches to mechanical characterization. These studies show that the responses of cells and their components are complex, and largely depend on the magnitude and time scale of loading. In this review, we generally describe the mechanotransductive process through discussion of well-known mechanosensors. We then focus on discussion of recent examples where AFM is used to specifically probe the elastic and inelastic responses of single cells undergoing deformation. We present a brief overview of classical and current models often used to characterize observed cellular phenomena in response to force. Both simple mechanistic models and complex nonlinear models have been used to describe the observed cellular behaviours, however a unifying description of cell mechanics has not yet been resolved. PMID:25589563

  4. Interpreting atomic force microscopy measurements of hydrodynamic and surface forces with nonlinear parametric estimation.

    PubMed

    Cui, Song; Manica, Rogerio; Tabor, Rico F; Chan, Derek Y C

    2012-10-01

    A nonlinear parameter estimation method has been developed to extract the separation-dependent surface force and cantilever spring constant from atomic force microscope data taken at different speeds for the interaction between a silica colloidal probe and plate in aqueous solution. The distinguishing feature of this approach is that it exploits information from the velocity dependence of the force-displacement data due to hydrodynamic interaction to provide an unbiased estimate of the functional form of the separation-dependent surface force. An assumed function for the surface force with unknown parameters is not required. In addition, the analysis also yields a consistent estimate of the in situ cantilever spring constant. In combination with data from static force measurements, this approach can further be used to quantify the extent of hydrodynamic slip.

  5. Atomic Force Microscopy: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gould, Scot A. C.

    When the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented in 1980, it was hoped that all scientists would benefit from a device that could image surfaces with atomic resolution. Unfortunately while conductors and semiconductors could be imaged with the STM, the vast number of non-conductors, for examples, most ceramics, proteins and cells were virtually unobservable. With the invention of a new device, the atomic force microscope (AFM) suddenly scientists could image the topography of all samples, including non-conductors. The basic construction and operation of the AFM consists of placing a small probe at the end of a spring and measuring the deflection of the spring. Along with the STM, the AFM has revolutionized the study of surfaces in air, water and vacuum. This dissertation reports some of the work I have been involved in. Specifically: (1) building an AFM that used an STM to measure the deflection of the cantilever, (2) building an improved AFM that used an optical level to measure the deflection of the cantilever, microfabricated tips and a water cell, (3) adding a force modulation imaging mode for imaging the surface elasticity, (4) the creation of a theoretical model to help explain atomic imaging, and (5) the creation of image processing techniques that filter out noise inherent in the system and enhance the topographical features of the surface. Using these techniques, we have imaged and analyzed (1) the amino acid crystal DL-leucine and noted that the surface represents an extension of the bulk crystal, (2) imaged polyalanine demonstrating the ability of the microscope to image polymers with molecular resolution, (3) observed the process of blood clotting at the molecular level, (4) imaged important samples including germanium and graphite with atomic resolution and large scale objects including red and white blood cells with nanometer resolution, (5) imaged photographic film as an example of industrial quality control, (6) demonstrated through

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy for DNA SNP Identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valbusa, Ugo; Ierardi, Vincenzo

    The knowledge of the effects of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the human genome greatly contributes to better comprehension of the relation between genetic factors and diseases. Sequence analysis of genomic DNA in different individuals reveals positions where variations that involve individual base substitutions can occur. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms are highly abundant and can have different consequences at phenotypic level. Several attempts were made to apply atomic force microscopy (AFM) to detect and map SNP sites in DNA strands. The most promising approach is the study of DNA mutations producing heteroduplex DNA strands and identifying the mismatches by means of a protein that labels the mismatches. MutS is a protein that is part of a well-known complex of mismatch repair, which initiates the process of repairing when the MutS binds to the mismatched DNA filament. The position of MutS on the DNA filament can be easily recorded by means of AFM imaging.

  7. High-frequency multimodal atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Nievergelt, Adrian P; Adams, Jonathan D; Odermatt, Pascal D

    2014-01-01

    Summary Multifrequency atomic force microscopy imaging has been recently demonstrated as a powerful technique for quickly obtaining information about the mechanical properties of a sample. Combining this development with recent gains in imaging speed through small cantilevers holds the promise of a convenient, high-speed method for obtaining nanoscale topography as well as mechanical properties. Nevertheless, instrument bandwidth limitations on cantilever excitation and readout have restricted the ability of multifrequency techniques to fully benefit from small cantilevers. We present an approach for cantilever excitation and deflection readout with a bandwidth of 20 MHz, enabling multifrequency techniques extended beyond 2 MHz for obtaining materials contrast in liquid and air, as well as soft imaging of delicate biological samples. PMID:25671141

  8. Atomic force microscopy of Precambrian microscopic fossils.

    PubMed

    Kempe, André; Schopf, J William; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B; Heckl, Wolfgang M

    2002-07-09

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique used routinely in material science to image substances at a submicron (including nm) scale. We apply this technique to analysis of the fine structure of organic-walled Precambrian fossils, microscopic sphaeromorph acritarchs (cysts of planktonic unicellular protists) permineralized in approximately 650-million-year-old cherts of the Chichkan Formation of southern Kazakhstan. AFM images, backed by laser-Raman spectroscopic analysis of individual specimens, demonstrate that the walls of these petrified fossils are composed of stacked arrays of approximately 200-nm-sized angular platelets of polycyclic aromatic kerogen. Together, AFM and laser-Raman spectroscopy provide means by which to elucidate the submicron-scale structure of individual microscopic fossils, investigate the geochemical maturation of ancient organic matter, and, potentially, distinguish true fossils from pseudofossils and probe the mechanisms of fossil preservation by silica permineralization.

  9. Atomic force microscopy of Precambrian microscopic fossils

    PubMed Central

    Kempe, André; Schopf, J. William; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy B.; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2002-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique used routinely in material science to image substances at a submicron (including nm) scale. We apply this technique to analysis of the fine structure of organic-walled Precambrian fossils, microscopic sphaeromorph acritarchs (cysts of planktonic unicellular protists) permineralized in ≈650-million-year-old cherts of the Chichkan Formation of southern Kazakhstan. AFM images, backed by laser-Raman spectroscopic analysis of individual specimens, demonstrate that the walls of these petrified fossils are composed of stacked arrays of ≈200-nm-sized angular platelets of polycyclic aromatic kerogen. Together, AFM and laser-Raman spectroscopy provide means by which to elucidate the submicron-scale structure of individual microscopic fossils, investigate the geochemical maturation of ancient organic matter, and, potentially, distinguish true fossils from pseudofossils and probe the mechanisms of fossil preservation by silica permineralization. PMID:12089337

  10. Atomic force microscopy of model lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Morandat, Sandrine; Azouzi, Slim; Beauvais, Estelle; Mastouri, Amira; El Kirat, Karim

    2013-02-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are biomimetic model systems that are now widely used to address the biophysical and biochemical properties of biological membranes. Two main methods are usually employed to form SLBs: the transfer of two successive monolayers by Langmuir-Blodgett or Langmuir-Schaefer techniques, and the fusion of preformed lipid vesicles. The transfer of lipid films on flat solid substrates offers the possibility to apply a wide range of surface analytical techniques that are very sensitive. Among them, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has opened new opportunities for determining the nanoscale organization of SLBs under physiological conditions. In this review, we first focus on the different protocols generally employed to prepare SLBs. Then, we describe AFM studies on the nanoscale lateral organization and mechanical properties of SLBs. Lastly, we survey recent developments in the AFM monitoring of bilayer alteration, remodeling, or digestion, by incubation with exogenous agents such as drugs, proteins, peptides, and nanoparticles.

  11. Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy and Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Carsten; Platz, Daniel; Tholen, Erik; Haviland, David; Hansson, Hans

    2009-03-01

    We present a powerful new method of dynamic AFM, which allows to gain far more information about the tip-surface interaction than standard amplitude or phase imaging, while scanning at comparable speed. Our method, called intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM), employs the manifestly nonlinear phenomenon of intermodulation to extract information about tip-surface forces. ImAFM uses one eigenmode of a mechanical resonator, the latter driven at two frequencies to produce many spectral peaks near its resonace, where sensitivity is highest [1]. We furthermore present a protocol for decoding the combined information encoded in the spectrum of intermodulation peaks. Our theoretical framework suggests methods to enhance the gained information by using a different parameter regime as compared to Ref. [1]. We also discuss strategies for solving the inverse problem, i.e., for extracting the nonlinear tip-surface interaction from the response, also naming limitations of our theoretical analysis. We will further report on latest progress to experimentally employ our new protocol.[3pt] [1] D. Platz, E. A. Tholen, D. Pesen, and D. B. Haviland, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 153106 (2008).

  12. Single molecule atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy of chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kocun, Marta; Grandbois, Michel; Cuccia, Louis A

    2011-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based force spectroscopy was used to study the desorption of individual chitosan polymer chains from substrates with varying chemical composition. AFM images of chitosan adsorbed onto a flat mica substrate show elongated single strands or aggregated bundles. The aggregated state of the polymer is consistent with the high level of flexibility and mobility expected for a highly positively charged polymer strand. Conversely, the visualization of elongated strands indicated the presence of stabilizing interactions with the substrate. Surfaces with varying chemical composition (glass, self-assembled monolayer of mercaptoundecanoic acid/decanethiol and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)) were probed with chitosan modified AFM tips and the corresponding desorption energies, calculated from plateau-like features, were attributed to the desorption of individual polymer strands. Desorption energies of 2.0±0.3×10(-20)J, 1.8±0.3×10(-20)J and 3.5±0.3×10(-20)J were obtained for glass, SAM of mercaptoundecanoic/dodecanethiol and PTFE, respectively. These single molecule level results can be used as a basis for investigating chitosan and chitosan-based materials for biomaterial applications.

  13. Measuring and Understanding Forces on Atomic Length Scales with the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cleveland, Jason Paul

    Most microscopes can be used with little understanding of how they work--much can be learned looking through a light microscope without ever knowing what a photon is or who Maxwell was--and the Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is no exception. Many AFM images don't look much different from a mountainous landscape, and much is learned interpreting them as such; however, to really push a microscope to its limits means understanding the interactions creating the contrast in the picture. For a Scanning Electron Microscope, this means understanding how electrons interact with matter, for an AFM it means understanding forces. The focus of this thesis is understanding the forces acting (especially in liquids) between tip and sample in AFM and a better understanding the instrument itself. Chapters I, II and VI involve better characterizing and improving the most important part of the AFM, the tiny cantilever used to measure forces. Chapter I describes a solution to one of the most basic problems that must be solved before forces can be accurately measured--measuring the stiffness of these cantilevers. Many limitations in AFM are set by physical characteristics of the cantilever itself, such as resonance frequency, spring constant, and quality factor. If an external force can be applied to the cantilever, feedback can be used to improve these characteristics. Chapter II shows how to do this using a magnetically applied external force, which has the advantage of working in liquids. These physical characteristics also change drastically when the cantilever is immersed in fluid. The resonance frequency of common cantilevers drops by as much as a factor of six in going from air to water. Chapter VI studies these changes and shows how further miniaturization of cantilevers can improve imaging speeds and signal-to-noise ratio. Early in its career, the AFM was heralded as having atomic resolution, but as the field matured researchers realized that the contact area between tip and

  14. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  15. Atomic Force Microscopy on Its Way to Adolescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.

    2003-12-01

    When the atomic force microscope (AFM) was introduced in 1986, its potential to resolve surfaces with true atomic resolution was already proposed. However, substantial problems had to be overcome before atomic resolution became possible by AFM. Today, true atomic resolution by AFM is standard practice. This article discusses the influence of the cantilever stiffness and — amplitude on noise and short-range force sensitivity and introduces a sensor operating at near optimal conditions (qPlus sensor). The data achieved with this optimized sensing technology show substructures within single atom images, attributed to atomic orbitals.

  16. Introduction to atomic force microscopy (AFM) in biology.

    PubMed

    Goldsbury, Claire S; Scheuring, Simon; Kreplak, Laurent

    2009-11-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has the unique capability of imaging biological samples with molecular resolution in buffer solution. In addition to providing topographical images of surfaces with nanometer- to angstrom-scale resolution, forces between single molecules and mechanical properties of biological samples can be investigated from the nanoscale to the microscale. Importantly, the measurements are made in buffer solutions, allowing biological samples to "stay alive" within a physiological-like environment while temporal changes in structure are measured-e.g., before and after addition of chemical reagents. These qualities distinguish AFM from conventional imaging techniques of comparable resolution, e.g., electron microscopy (EM). This unit provides an introduction to AFM on biological systems and describes specific examples of AFM on proteins, cells, and tissues. The physical principles of the technique and methodological aspects of its practical use and applications are also described.

  17. Sharp Tips on the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the eight sharp tips of the NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA.

    The microscope maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with one of the tips at the end of a beam. For the AFM image taken, the tip at the end of the upper right beam was used. The tip pointing up in the enlarged image is the size of a smoke particle at its base, or 2 microns. This image was taken with a scanning electron microscope before Phoenix launched on August 4, 2007.

    The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium in collaboration with Imperial College London.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  18. Atomic Force Microscopy Based Cell Shape Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adia-Nimuwa, Usienemfon; Mujdat Tiryaki, Volkan; Hartz, Steven; Xie, Kan; Ayres, Virginia

    2013-03-01

    Stellation is a measure of cell physiology and pathology for several cell groups including neural, liver and pancreatic cells. In the present work, we compare the results of a conventional two-dimensional shape index study of both atomic force microscopy (AFM) and fluorescent microscopy images with the results obtained using a new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index similar to sphericity index. The stellation of astrocytes is investigated on nanofibrillar scaffolds composed of electrospun polyamide nanofibers that has demonstrated promise for central nervous system (CNS) repair. Recent work by our group has given us the ability to clearly segment the cells from nanofibrillar scaffolds in AFM images. The clear-featured AFM images indicated that the astrocyte processes were longer than previously identified at 24h. It was furthermore shown that cell spreading could vary significantly as a function of environmental parameters, and that AFM images could record these variations. The new three-dimensional AFM-based shape index incorporates the new information: longer stellate processes and cell spreading. The support of NSF PHY-095776 is acknowledged.

  19. Atomic force microscopy investigation of viruses.

    PubMed

    McPherson, Alexander; Kuznetsov, Yurii G

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to be a valuable approach to delineate the architectures and detailed structural features of a wide variety of viruses. These have ranged from small plant satellite viruses of only 17 nm to the giant mimivirus of 750 nm diameter, and they have included diverse morphologies such as those represented by HIV, icosahedral particles, vaccinia, and bacteriophages. Because it is a surface technique, it provides images and information that are distinct from those obtained by electron microscopy, and in some cases, at even higher resolution. By enzymatic and chemical dissection of virions, internal structures can be revealed, as well as DNA and RNA. The method is relatively rapid and can be carried out on both fixed and unfixed samples in either air or fluids, including culture media. It is nondestructive and even non-perturbing. It can be applied to individual isolated virus, as well as to infected cells. AFM is still in its early development and holds great promise for further investigation of biological systems at the nanometer scale.

  20. Digital force-feedback for protein unfolding experiments using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bippes, Christian A.; Janovjak, Harald; Kedrov, Alexej; Muller, Daniel J.

    2007-01-01

    Since its invention in the 1990s single-molecule force spectroscopy has been increasingly applied to study protein (un-)folding, cell adhesion, and ligand-receptor interactions. In most force spectroscopy studies, the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM) is separated from a surface at a constant velocity, thus applying an increasing force to folded bio-molecules or bio-molecular bonds. Recently, Fernandez and co-workers introduced the so-called force-clamp technique. Single proteins were subjected to a defined constant force allowing their life times and life time distributions to be directly measured. Up to now, the force-clamping was performed by analogue PID controllers, which require complex additional hardware and might make it difficult to combine the force-feedback with other modes such as constant velocity. These points may be limiting the applicability and versatility of this technique. Here we present a simple, fast, and all-digital (software-based) PID controller that yields response times of a few milliseconds in combination with a commercial AFM. We demonstrate the performance of our feedback loop by force-clamp unfolding of single Ig27 domains of titin and the membrane proteins bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and the sodium/proton antiporter NhaA.

  1. A compact vertical scanner for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hong; Shim, Jaesool; Lee, Dong-Yeon

    2010-01-01

    A compact vertical scanner for an atomic force microscope (AFM) is developed. The vertical scanner is designed to have no interference with the optical microscope for viewing the cantilever. The theoretical stiffness and resonance of the scanner are derived and verified via finite element analysis. An optimal design process that maximizes the resonance frequency is performed. To evaluate the scanner's performance, experiments are performed to evaluate the travel range, resonance frequency, and feedback noise level. In addition, an AFM image using the proposed vertical scanner is generated.

  2. Sublattice identification in noncontact atomic force microscopy of the NaCl(001) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, R.; Weiner, D.; Schirmeisen, A.; Foster, A. S.

    2009-09-15

    We compare the three-dimensional force field obtained from frequency-distance measurements above the NaCl(001) surface to atomistic calculations using various tip models. In the experiments, long-range forces cause a total attractive force even on the similarly charged site. Taking force differences between two sites minimizes the influence of such long-range forces. The magnitude of the measured force differences are by a factor of 6.5-10 smaller than the calculated forces. This is an indication that for the particular tip used in this experiment several atoms of the tip interact with the surface atoms at close tip-sample distances. The interaction of these additional atoms with the surface is small at the imaging distance, because symmetric images are obtained. The force distance characteristics resemble those of a negative tip apex ion which could be explained, e.g., by a neutral Si tip.

  3. Atomic force microscopy study of tooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Farina, M; Schemmel, A; Weissmüller, G; Cruz, R; Kachar, B; Bisch, P M

    1999-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study tooth surfaces in order to compare the pattern of particle distribution in the outermost layer of the tooth surfaces. Human teeth and teeth from a rodent (Golden hamster), from a fish (piranha), and from a grazing mollusk (chiton) with distinct feeding habits were analyzed in terms of particle arrangement, packing, and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for comparison. It was found that AFM gives high-contrast, high-resolution images and is an important tool as a source of complementary and/or new structural information. All teeth were cleaned and some were etched with acidic solutions before analysis. It was observed that human enamel (permanent teeth) presents particles tightly packed in the outer surface, whereas enamel from the hamster (continuously growing teeth) shows particles of less dense packing. The piranha teeth have a thin cuticle covering the long apatite crystals of the underlying enameloid. This cuticle has a rough surface of particles that have a globular appearance after the brief acidic treatment. The similar appearance of the in vivo naturally etched tooth surface suggests that the pattern of globule distribution may be due to the presence of an organic material. Elemental analysis of this cuticle indicated that calcium, phosphorus, and iron are the main components of the structure while electron microdiffraction of pulverized cuticle particles showed a pattern consistent with hydroxyapatite. The chiton mineralized tooth cusp had a smooth surface in an unabraded region and a very rough structure with the magnetite crystals (already known to make part of the structure) protruding from the surface. It was concluded that the structures analyzed are optimized for efficiency in feeding mechanism and life span of the teeth.

  4. Advanced atomic force microscopy: Development and application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Deron A.

    Over the decade since atomic force microscopy (AFM) was invented, development of new microscopes has been closely intertwined with application of AFM to problems of interest in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. New techniques such as tapping mode AFM move quickly in our lab from the designer's bench to the user's table-since this is often the same piece of furniture. In return, designers get ample feedback as to what problems are limiting current instruments, and thus need most urgent attention. Tip sharpness and characterization are such a problem. Chapter 1 describes an AFM designed to operate in a scanning electron microscope, whose electron beam is used to deposit sharp carbonaceous tips. These tips can be tested and used in situ. Another limitation is addressed in Chapter 2: the difficulty of extracting more than just topographic information from a sample. A combined AFM/confocal optical microscope was built to provide simultaneous, independent images of the topography and fluorescence of a sample. In combination with staining or antibody labelling, this could provide submicron information about the composition of a sample. Chapters 3 and 4 discuss two generations of small cantilevers developed for lower-noise, higher-speed AFM of biological samples. In Chapter 4, a 26 mum cantilever is used to image the process of calcite growth from solution at a rate of 1.6 sec/frame. Finally, Chapter 5 explores in detail a biophysics problem that motivates us to develop fast, quiet, and gentle microscopes; namely, the control of crystal growth in seashells by the action of soluble proteins on a growing calcite surface.

  5. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This report focuses on the effects of interparticle forces on the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal water slurry (CWS). We found that the CWS flow behavior index is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The former intensifies as the Hamaker constant increases and the interparticle distance reduces while the latter increases as the particle surface charge density increases. The interparticle attraction causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior. In contrast, the interparticle repulsion prevents particle aggregation and thus leads to Newtonian behavior. Both atomized at low atomizing air pressures (less than 270 kPa) using twin-fluid jet atomizers of various distributor designs. We found that the atomized drop sizes of micronized coal water slurries substantially decrease as the atomizing air pressure exceeds a threshold value. The effects of coal volume fraction, coal particle surface charge, liquid composition and liquid viscosity on slurry atomization can be accounted for by their effects on slurry rheology. 26 refs.

  6. Velocity-dependent dipole forces on an excited atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaire, M.; Lambrecht, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a time-dependent calculation of the velocity-dependent forces which act on an excited atomic dipole in relative motion with respect to ground state atoms of a different kind. Both its interaction with a single atom and with a dilute atomic plate are evaluated. In either case, the total force consists of a conservative van der Waals component and a nonconservative Röntgen component. On physical grounds, the former corresponds to the velocity-dependent recoil experienced by the excited atom in the processes of absorption and emission of the photons that it exchanges with the ground-state atoms on a periodic basis. The latter corresponds to the time-variation of the Röntgen momentum, which is also mediated by the periodic exchange of quasiresonant photons. We find that, at leading order, all these interactions are linear in velocity. In the nonretarded regime the van der Waals force dominates, being antiparallel to the velocity. On the contrary, in the retarded regime the velocity-dependent forces oscillate in space, van der Waals and Röntgen forces are of the same order in the atom-atom interaction, and the Röntgen component dominates in the atom-surface interaction.

  7. Quantification of Staphylococcus aureus adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merghni, Abderrahmen; Kammoun, Dorra; Hentati, Hajer; Janel, Sébastien; Popoff, Michka; Lafont, Frank; Aouni, Mahjoub; Mastouri, Maha

    2016-08-01

    In the oral cavity dental restorative biomaterials can act as a reservoir for infection with opportunistic Staphylococcus aureus pathogen, which can lead to the occurrence of secondary caries and treatment failures. Our aim was to evaluate the adhesion forces by S. aureus on four dental restorative biomaterials and to correlate this finding to differences in specific surface characteristics. Additionally, the influence of salivary conditioning films in exerted adhesion forces was investigated. The substrate hydrophobicity was measured by goniometer and the surface free energy was calculated using the equilibrium advancing contact angle values of water, formamide, and diiodomethane on the tested surfaces. The surface roughness was determined using atomic force microscope (AFM). Additionally, cell force spectroscopy was achieved to quantify the forces that drive cell-substrate interactions. S. aureus bacterium exerted a considerable adhesion forces on various dental restorative materials, which decreased in the presence of saliva conditioning film. The influence of the surface roughness and free energy in initial adhesion appears to be more important than the effect of hydrophobicity, either in presence or absence of saliva coating. Hence, control of surface properties of dental restorative biomaterials is of crucial importance in preventing the attachment and subsequent the biofilm formation.

  8. Surface Biology of DNA by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansma, Helen G.

    2001-10-01

    The atomic force microscope operates on surfaces. Since surfaces occupy much of the space in living organisms, surface biology is a valid and valuable form of biology that has been difficult to investigate in the past owing to a lack of good technology. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of DNA has been used to investigate DNA condensation for gene therapy, DNA mapping and sizing, and a few applications to cancer research and to nanotechnology. Some of the most exciting new applications for atomic force microscopy of DNA involve pulling on single DNA molecules to obtain measurements of single-molecule mechanics and thermodynamics.

  9. Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Albers, Boris J; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I; Schwarz, Udo D

    2008-03-01

    We present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1 pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15 pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

  10. Combined low-temperature scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope for atomic resolution imaging and site-specific force spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Udo; Albers, Boris J.; Liebmann, Marcus; Schwendemann, Todd C.; Baykara, Mehmet Z.; Heyde, Markus; Salmeron, Miquel; Altman, Eric I.; Schwarz, Udo D.

    2008-02-27

    The authors present the design and first results of a low-temperature, ultrahigh vacuum scanning probe microscope enabling atomic resolution imaging in both scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) modes. A tuning-fork-based sensor provides flexibility in selecting probe tip materials, which can be either metallic or nonmetallic. When choosing a conducting tip and sample, simultaneous STM/NC-AFM data acquisition is possible. Noticeable characteristics that distinguish this setup from similar systems providing simultaneous STM/NC-AFM capabilities are its combination of relative compactness (on-top bath cryostat needs no pit), in situ exchange of tip and sample at low temperatures, short turnaround times, modest helium consumption, and unrestricted access from dedicated flanges. The latter permits not only the optical surveillance of the tip during approach but also the direct deposition of molecules or atoms on either tip or sample while they remain cold. Atomic corrugations as low as 1 pm could successfully be resolved. In addition, lateral drifts rates of below 15 pm/h allow long-term data acquisition series and the recording of site-specific spectroscopy maps. Results obtained on Cu(111) and graphite illustrate the microscope's performance.

  11. Estimation of additive forces and moments for supersonic inlets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, Stanley C., Jr.; Dillenius, Marnix F. E.

    1991-01-01

    A technique for estimating the additive forces and moments associated with supersonic, external compression inlets as a function of mass flow ratio has been developed. The technique makes use of a low order supersonic paneling method for calculating minimum additive forces at maximum mass flow conditions. A linear relationship between the minimum additive forces and the maximum values for fully blocked flow is employed to obtain the additive forces at a specified mass flow ratio. The method is applicable to two-dimensional inlets at zero or nonzero angle of attack, and to axisymmetric inlets at zero angle of attack. Comparisons with limited available additive drag data indicate fair to good agreement.

  12. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Keir C.; Nagy, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. These techniques are described and illustrated with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations. PMID:18511917

  13. Single-molecule force spectroscopy: optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Keir C; Nagy, Attila

    2008-06-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy has emerged as a powerful tool to investigate the forces and motions associated with biological molecules and enzymatic activity. The most common force spectroscopy techniques are optical tweezers, magnetic tweezers and atomic force microscopy. Here we describe these techniques and illustrate them with examples highlighting current capabilities and limitations.

  14. The role of nonlinear dynamics in quantitative atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Platz, Daniel; Forchheimer, Daniel; Tholén, Erik A; Haviland, David B

    2012-07-05

    Various methods of force measurement with the atomic force microscope are compared for their ability to accurately determine the tip-surface force from analysis of the nonlinear cantilever motion. It is explained how intermodulation, or the frequency mixing of multiple drive tones by the nonlinear tip-surface force, can be used to concentrate the nonlinear motion in a narrow band of frequency near the cantilever's fundamental resonance, where accuracy and sensitivity of force measurement are greatest. Two different methods for reconstructing tip-surface forces from intermodulation spectra are explained. The reconstruction of both conservative and dissipative tip-surface interactions from intermodulation spectra are demonstrated on simulated data.

  15. MIDAS: Lessons learned from the first spaceborne atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bentley, Mark Stephen; Arends, Herman; Butler, Bart; Gavira, Jose; Jeszenszky, Harald; Mannel, Thurid; Romstedt, Jens; Schmied, Roland; Torkar, Klaus

    2016-08-01

    The Micro-Imaging Dust Analysis System (MIDAS) atomic force microscope (AFM) onboard the Rosetta orbiter was the first such instrument launched into space in 2004. Designed only a few years after the technique was invented, MIDAS is currently orbiting comet 67P Churyumov-Gerasimenko and producing the highest resolution 3D images of cometary dust ever made in situ. After more than a year of continuous operation much experience has been gained with this novel instrument. Coupled with operations of the Flight Spare and advances in terrestrial AFM a set of "lessons learned" has been produced, cumulating in recommendations for future spaceborne atomic force microscopes. The majority of the design could be reused as-is, or with incremental upgrades to include more modern components (e.g. the processor). Key additional recommendations are to incorporate an optical microscope to aid the search for particles and image registration, to include a variety of cantilevers (with different spring constants) and a variety of tip geometries.

  16. Optical force on atoms with periodic adiabatic rapid passage sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Xiyue

    Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) is a long-existing method to invert the population of a two-level nuclear spin system. Its extension to the optical domain necessitates a frequency chirped light pulse to interact with a two-level atom through dipole interaction. In this dissertation ARP processes for various pulse schemes and pulse parameters have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The non-adiabatic transition probability of ARP was quantified to characterize the efficiency of ARP for population transfer. Unanticipated regularities were found in the pulse parameter space. ARP sequences in periodic phase coherent counter-propagating light pulses can be used to produce large optical forces on atoms. The magnitude of the force is proportional to the pulse repetition rate. So the force can be much larger than the usual radiative force if the pulse repetition rate is much higher than the spontaneous emission rate. The behavior of the atoms in such periodic ARP fields without spontaneous emission is well described by a periodic Hamiltonian. By investigating the evolution of the Bloch vector on the Bloch sphere, we related the average optical force on atoms to the non-adiabatic transition probability of a single pulse. Syncopation time has to be introduced in the pulsing scheme to produce a directional force in the presence of spontaneous emission. Experimentally, we observed the force on He* atoms by the deflection of the atomic beam with periodic chirped pulses from counter-propagating pulse trains. The chirped pulse train was realized by synchronized phase and amplitude modulation of the light from a cw diode laser. The Fourier spectrum of the modulated light was monitored to guarantee the quality of the chirped pulses. The measured ARP forces are about half of the theoretical predictions. Not only have we shown that such forces are huge and robust, but we have also been able to map the forces in the two dimensional pulse parameter space. The force

  17. Numerical study of the hydrodynamic drag force in atomic force microscopy measurements undertaken in fluids.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Méndez, J V; Alonso-Rasgado, M T; Faria, E Correia; Flores-Johnson, E A; Snook, R D

    2014-11-01

    When atomic force microscopy (AFM) is employed for in vivo study of immersed biological samples, the fluid medium presents additional complexities, not least of which is the hydrodynamic drag force due to viscous friction of the cantilever with the liquid. This force should be considered when interpreting experimental results and any calculated material properties. In this paper, a numerical model is presented to study the influence of the drag force on experimental data obtained from AFM measurements using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. The model provides quantification of the drag force in AFM measurements of soft specimens in fluids. The numerical predictions were compared with experimental data obtained using AFM with a V-shaped cantilever fitted with a pyramidal tip. Tip velocities ranging from 1.05 to 105 μm/s were employed in water, polyethylene glycol and glycerol with the platform approaching from a distance of 6000 nm. The model was also compared with an existing analytical model. Good agreement was observed between numerical results, experiments and analytical predictions. Accurate predictions were obtained without the need for extrapolation of experimental data. In addition, the model can be employed over the range of tip geometries and velocities typically utilized in AFM measurements.

  18. Atomic force microscope manipulation of Ag atom on the Si(111) surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkhtaivan, Batnyam; Oshiyama, Atsushi

    2017-01-01

    We present first-principles total-energy electronic-structure calculations that provide the microscopic mechanism of Ag atom diffusion between the half unit cells (HUCs) on the Si(111)-(7 ×7 ) surface with and without the tip of the atomic force microscope (AFM). We find that, without the presence of the AFM tip, there are three pathways of inter-HUC diffusion. The pathway, in which the diffusing atom passes over the nanohole of the surface, has the lowest energy barrier. The diffusion along this pathway between the two HUCs is almost symmetric with the energy barrier of about 0.8 eV in both directions. In the other two pathways, the adatom diffuses along the edge of the nanohole. The diffusion along these two pathways have an energy barrier of about 1 eV. With the presence of the tip, we find that the reaction pathways are essentially the same, but the diffusion along the edge of the nanohole has a lower energy barrier than the diffusion over the nanohole. Thus the diffusion channel is changed by the presence of the tip. In the diffusion along the edge of the nanohole, the energy barrier in one direction is substantially reduced to be 0.2-0.4 eV by the tip, while that of the diffusion in the reverse direction remains larger than 1 eV. The Si tip reduces the energy barrier more than the Pt tip due to the flexibility of the tip apex structure. In addition to the reduction of the barrier, the tip traps the diffusing adatom preventing diffusion in the reverse direction. Also we find that the shape of the tip apex structure is important for the adatom's trapping ability. The bond formation between the AFM tip atom and the surface adatom is essential for atom manipulation using the AFM tip. Our results show that atom manipulation is possible with both the metallic and semiconducting AFM tips.

  19. CO tip functionalization inverts atomic force microscopy contrast via short-range electrostatic forces.

    PubMed

    Schneiderbauer, Maximilian; Emmrich, Matthias; Weymouth, Alfred J; Giessibl, Franz J

    2014-04-25

    We investigate insulating Cu2N islands grown on Cu(100) by means of combined scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy with two vastly different tips: a bare metal tip and a CO-terminated tip. We use scanning tunneling microscopy data as proposed by Choi, Ruggiero, and Gupta to unambiguously identify atomic positions. Atomic force microscopy images taken with the two different tips show an inverted contrast over Cu2N. The observed force contrast can be explained with an electrostatic model, where the two tips have dipole moments of opposite directions. This highlights the importance of short-range electrostatic forces in the formation of atomic contrast on polar surfaces in noncontact atomic force microscopy.

  20. Probing physical properties at the nanoscale using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ditzler, Lindsay Rachel

    Techniques that measure physical properties at the nanoscale with high sensitivity are significantly limited considering the number of new nanomaterials being developed. The development of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has lead to significant advancements in the ability to characterize physical properties of materials in all areas of science: chemistry, physics, engineering, and biology have made great scientific strides do to the versatility of the AFM. AFM is used for quantification of many physical properties such as morphology, electrical, mechanical, magnetic, electrochemical, binding interactions, and protein folding. This work examines the electrical and mechanical properties of materials applicable to the field of nano-electronics. As electronic devices are miniaturized the demand for materials with unique electrical properties, which can be developed and exploited, has increased. For example, discussed in this work, a derivative of tetrathiafulvalene, which exhibits a unique loss of conductivity upon compression of the self-assembled monolayer could be developed into a molecular switch. This work also compares tunable organic (tetraphenylethylene tetracarboxylic acid and bis(pyridine)s assemblies) and metal-organic (Silver-stilbizole coordination compounds) crystals which show high electrical conductivity. The electrical properties of these materials vary depending on their composition allowing for the development of compositionally tunable functional materials. Additional work was done to investigate the effects of molecular environment on redox active 11-ferroceneyl-1 undecanethiol (Fc) molecules. The redox process of mixed monolayers of Fc and decanethiol was measured using conductive probe atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy. As the concentration of Fc increased large, variations in the force were observed. Using these variations the number of oxidized molecules in the monolayer was determined. AFM is additionally capable of investigating

  1. Quantitative Membrane Electrostatics with the Atomic Force Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Mayer, Kathryn M.; Hafner, Jason H.

    2007-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is sensitive to electric double layer interactions in electrolyte solutions, but provides only a qualitative view of interfacial electrostatics. We have fully characterized silicon nitride probe tips and other experimental parameters to allow a quantitative electrostatic analysis by AFM, and we have tested the validity of a simple analytical force expression through numerical simulations. As a test sample, we have measured the effective surface charge density of supported zwitterionic dioleoylphosphatidylcholine membranes with a variable fraction of anionic dioleoylphosphatidylserine. The resulting surface charge density and surface potential values are in quantitative agreement with those predicted by the Gouy-Chapman-Stern model of membrane charge regulation, but only when the numerical analysis is employed. In addition, we demonstrate that the AFM can detect double layer forces at a separation of several screening lengths, and that the probe only perturbs the membrane surface potential by <2%. Finally, we demonstrate 50-nm resolution electrostatic mapping on heterogeneous model membranes with the AFM. This novel combination of capabilities demonstrates that the AFM is a unique and powerful probe of membrane electrostatics. PMID:17158563

  2. Atomic force microscopy as an advanced tool in neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Jembrek, Maja Jazvinšćak; Šimić, Goran; Hof, Patrick R.; Šegota, Suzana

    2015-01-01

    This review highlights relevant issues about applications and improvements of atomic force microscopy (AFM) toward a better understanding of neurodegenerative changes at the molecular level with the hope of contributing to the development of effective therapeutic strategies for neurodegenerative illnesses. The basic principles of AFM are briefly discussed in terms of evaluation of experimental data, including the newest PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (QNM) and the evaluation of Young’s modulus as the crucial elasticity parameter. AFM topography, revealed in imaging mode, can be used to monitor changes in live neurons over time, representing a valuable tool for high-resolution detection and monitoring of neuronal morphology. The mechanical properties of living cells can be quantified by force spectroscopy as well as by new AFM. A variety of applications are described, and their relevance for specific research areas discussed. In addition, imaging as well as non-imaging modes can provide specific information, not only about the structural and mechanical properties of neuronal membranes, but also on the cytoplasm, cell nucleus, and particularly cytoskeletal components. Moreover, new AFM is able to provide detailed insight into physical structure and biochemical interactions in both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. PMID:28123795

  3. Dressed-atom description of the bichromatic force

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Metcalf, Harold

    2004-12-01

    We develop a dressed-atom picture of the bichromatic force in two standing waves using a Floquet approach. It is based on previous work, but the approach allows for an interpretation of the velocity range of the force. It is limited to two-level atoms and one dimension, and the Floquet frequency is the beat between the two bichromatic optical fields. The force is mediated by Landau-Zener transitions between the dressed states of the Floquet Hamiltonian. Related topics have been addressed before in the literature, but not applied to this particular case.

  4. High bandwidth deflection readout for atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Steininger, Juergen; Bibl, Matthias; Yoo, Han Woong; Schitter, Georg

    2015-10-01

    This contribution presents the systematic design of a high bandwidth deflection readout mechanism for atomic force microscopes. The widely used optical beam deflection method is revised by adding a focusing lens between the cantilever and the quadrant photodetector (QPD). This allows the utilization of QPDs with a small active area resulting in an increased detection bandwidth due to the reduced junction capacitance. Furthermore the additional lens can compensate a cross talk between a compensating z-movement of the cantilever and the deflection readout. Scaling effects are analyzed to get the optimal spot size for the given geometry of the QPD. The laser power is tuned to maximize the signal to noise ratio without limiting the bandwidth by local saturation effects. The systematic approach results in a measured -3 dB detection bandwidth of 64.5 MHz at a deflection noise density of 62fm/√Hz.

  5. Quantification of in-contact probe-sample electrostatic forces with dynamic atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Carmichael, Ben; Baris Okatan, M.; Kravchenko, Ivan I.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Tselev, Alexander

    2017-02-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods utilizing resonant mechanical vibrations of cantilevers in contact with a sample surface have shown sensitivities as high as few picometers for detecting surface displacements. Such a high sensitivity is harnessed in several AFM imaging modes. Here, we demonstrate a cantilever-resonance-based method to quantify electrostatic forces on a probe in the probe-sample junction in the presence of a surface potential or when a bias voltage is applied to the AFM probe. We find that the electrostatic forces acting on the probe tip apex can produce signals equivalent to a few pm of surface displacement. In combination with modeling, the measurements of the force were used to access the strength of the electrical field at the probe tip apex in contact with a sample. We find an evidence that the electric field strength in the junction can reach ca. 1 V nm-1 at a bias voltage of a few volts and is limited by non-ideality of the tip-sample contact. This field is sufficiently strong to significantly influence material states and kinetic processes through charge injection, Maxwell stress, shifts of phase equilibria, and reduction of energy barriers for activated processes. Besides, the results provide a baseline for accounting for the effects of local electrostatic forces in electromechanical AFM measurements as well as offer additional means to probe ionic mobility and field-induced phenomena in solids.

  6. Quantification of In-Contact Probe-Sample Electrostatic Forces with Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Carmichael, Ben; Okatan, M; Kravchenko, Ivan; Kalinin, Sergei; Tselev, Alexander

    2016-12-13

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) methods utilizing resonant mechanical vibrations of cantilevers in contact with a sample surface have shown sensitivities as high as few picometers for detecting surface displacements. Such a high sensitivity is harnessed in several AFM imaging modes. Here, we demonstrate a cantilever-resonance-based method to quantify electrostatic forces on a probe in the probe-sample junction in the presence of a surface potential or when a bias voltage is applied to the AFM probe. We find that the electrostatic forces acting on the probe tip apex can produce signals equivalent to a few pm of surface displacement. In combination with modeling, the measurements of the force were used to access the strength of the electrical field at the probe tip apex in contact with a sample. We find an evidence that the electric field strength in the junction can reach ca. 1 V/nm at a bias voltage of a few volts and is limited by non-ideality of the tip-sample contact. This field is sufficiently strong to significantly influence material states and kinetic processes through charge injection, Maxwell stress, shifts of phase equilibria, and reduction of energy barriers for activated processes. Besides, the results provide a baseline for accounting for the effects of local electrostatic forces in electromechanical AFM measurements as well as offer additional means to probe ionic mobility and field-induced phenomena in solids.

  7. Quantification of in-contact probe-sample electrostatic forces with dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Balke, Nina; Jesse, Stephen; Carmichael, Ben; Okatan, M Baris; Kravchenko, Ivan I; Kalinin, Sergei V; Tselev, Alexander

    2017-01-04

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) methods utilizing resonant mechanical vibrations of cantilevers in contact with a sample surface have shown sensitivities as high as few picometers for detecting surface displacements. Such a high sensitivity is harnessed in several AFM imaging modes. Here, we demonstrate a cantilever-resonance-based method to quantify electrostatic forces on a probe in the probe-sample junction in the presence of a surface potential or when a bias voltage is applied to the AFM probe. We find that the electrostatic forces acting on the probe tip apex can produce signals equivalent to a few pm of surface displacement. In combination with modeling, the measurements of the force were used to access the strength of the electrical field at the probe tip apex in contact with a sample. We find an evidence that the electric field strength in the junction can reach ca. 1 V nm(-1) at a bias voltage of a few volts and is limited by non-ideality of the tip-sample contact. This field is sufficiently strong to significantly influence material states and kinetic processes through charge injection, Maxwell stress, shifts of phase equilibria, and reduction of energy barriers for activated processes. Besides, the results provide a baseline for accounting for the effects of local electrostatic forces in electromechanical AFM measurements as well as offer additional means to probe ionic mobility and field-induced phenomena in solids.

  8. Measurement methods in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Torre, Bruno; Canale, Claudio; Ricci, Davide; Braga, Pier Carlo

    2011-01-01

    This chapter is introductory to the measurements: it explains different measurement techniques both for imaging and for force spectroscopy, on which most of the AFM experiments rely. It gives a general overview of the different techniques and of the output expected from the instrument; therefore it is, at a basic level, a good tool to properly start a new experiment. Concepts introduced in this chapter give the base for understanding the applications shown in the following chapters. Subheading 1 introduces the distinction between spectroscopy and imaging experiments and, within the last ones, between DC and AC mode. Subheading 2 is focused on DC mode (contact), explaining the topography and the lateral force channel. Subheading 3 introduces AC mode, both in noncontact and intermittent contact case. Phase imaging and force modulation are also discussed. Subheading 4 explains how the AFM can be used to measure local mechanical and adhesive properties of specimens by means of force spectroscopy technique. An overview on the state of the art and future trends in this field is also given.

  9. Effect of dispersion forces on squeezing with Rydberg atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, S. K.; Muhamad, M. R.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.

    1994-01-01

    We report exact results concerning the effect of dipole-dipole interaction (dispersion forces) on dynamic and steady-state characteristics of squeezing in the emitted fluorescent field from two identical coherently driven two-level atoms. The atomic system is subjected to three different damping baths in particular the normal vacuum, a broad band thermal field and a broad band squeezed vacuum. The atomic model is the Dicke model, hence possible experiments are most likely to agree with theory when performed on systems of Rydberg atoms making microwave transitions. The presence of dipole-dipole interaction can enhance squeezing for realizable values of the various parameters involved.

  10. Manipulation of cadmium selenide nanorods with an atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Tranvouez, E; Orieux, A; Boer-Duchemin, E; Devillers, C H; Huc, V; Comtet, G; Dujardin, G

    2009-04-22

    We have used an atomic force microscope (AFM) to manipulate and study ligand-capped cadmium selenide nanorods deposited on highly oriented pyrolitic graphite (HOPG). The AFM tip was used to manipulate (i.e., translate and rotate) the nanorods by applying a force perpendicular to the nanorod axis. The manipulation result was shown to depend on the point of impact of the AFM tip with the nanorod and whether the nanorod had been manipulated previously. Forces applied parallel to the nanorod axis, however, did not give rise to manipulation. These results are interpreted by considering the atomic-scale interactions of the HOPG substrate with the organic ligands surrounding the nanorods. The vertical deflection of the cantilever was recorded during manipulation and was combined with a model in order to estimate the value of the horizontal force between the tip and nanorod during manipulation. This horizontal force is estimated to be on the order of a few tens of nN.

  11. A detailed guideline for the fabrication of single bacterial probes used for atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Thewes, Nicolas; Loskill, Peter; Spengler, Christian; Hümbert, Sebastian; Bischoff, Markus; Jacobs, Karin

    2015-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) evolved as a standard device in modern microbiological research. However, its capability as a sophisticated force sensor is not used to its full capacity. The AFM turns into a unique tool for quantitative adhesion research in bacteriology by using "bacterial probes". Thereby, bacterial probes are AFM cantilevers that provide a single bacterium or a cluster of bacteria as the contact-forming object. We present a step-by-step protocol for preparing bacterial probes, performing force spectroscopy experiments and processing force spectroscopy data. Additionally, we provide a general insight into the field of bacterial cell force spectroscopy.

  12. Photothermal excitation setup for a modified commercial atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Adam, Holger; Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Kobayashi, Kei; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2014-02-15

    High-resolution imaging in liquids using frequency modulation atomic force microscopy is known to suffer from additional peaks in the resonance spectrum that are unrelated to the cantilever resonance. These unwanted peaks are caused by acoustic modes of the liquid and the setup arising from the indirect oscillation excitation by a piezoelectric transducer. Photothermal excitation has been identified as a suitable method for exciting the cantilever in a direct manner. Here, we present a simple design for implementing photothermal excitation in a modified Multimode scan head from Bruker. Our approach is based on adding a few components only to keep the modifications as simple as possible and to maintain the low noise level of the original setup with a typical deflection noise density of about 15 fm/√(Hz) measured in aqueous solution. The success of the modification is illustrated by a comparison of the resonance spectra obtained with piezoelectric and photothermal excitation. The performance of the systems is demonstrated by presenting high-resolution images on bare calcite in liquid as well as organic adsorbates (Alizarin Red S) on calcite with simultaneous atomic resolution of the underlying calcite substrate.

  13. Cutting forces related with lattice orientations of graphene using an atomic force microscopy based nanorobot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Gao, Yang; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao; Ma, Laipeng; Dong, Zaili; Wejinya, Uchechukwu C.

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between cutting forces and lattice orientations of monolayer graphene is investigated by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) based nanorobot. In the beginning, the atomic resolution image of the graphene lattice is obtained by using an AFM. Then, graphene cutting experiments are performed with sample rotation method, which gets rid of the tip effect completely. The experimental results show that the cutting force along the armchair orientation is larger than the force along the zigzag orientation, and the cutting forces are almost identical every 60°, which corresponds well with the 60° symmetry in graphene honeycomb lattice structure. By using Poisson analysis method, the single cutting force along zigzag orientation is 3.9 nN, and the force along armchair is 20.5 nN. This work lays the experimental foundation to build a close-loop fabrication strategy with real-time force as a feedback sensor to control the cutting direction.

  14. Single ricin detection by atomic force microscopy chemomechanical mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guojun; Zhou, Jianfeng; Park, Bosoon; Xu, Bingqian

    2009-07-01

    The authors report on a study of detecting ricin molecules immobilized on chemically modified Au (111) surface by chemomechanically mapping the molecular interactions with a chemically modified atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip. AFM images resolved the different fold-up conformations of single ricin molecule as well as their intramolecule structure of A- and B-chains. AFM force spectroscopy study of the interaction indicates that the unbinding force has a linear relation with the logarithmic force loading rate, which agrees well with calculations using one-barrier bond dissociation model.

  15. Nonequilibrium forces between atoms and dielectrics mediated by a quantum field

    SciTech Connect

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2011-07-15

    In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-graining to the physical variables--the medium, the quantum field, and the atom's internal degrees of freedom, in that order--to extract their averaged effects from the lowest tier progressively to the top tier. The first tier of coarse-graining provides the averaged effect of the medium upon the field, quantified by a complex permittivity (in the frequency domain) describing the response of the dielectric to the field in addition to its back action on the field through a stochastic forcing term. The last tier of coarse-graining over the atom's internal degrees of freedom results in an equation of motion for the atom's center of mass from which we can derive the force on the atom. Our nonequilibrium formulation provides a fully dynamical description of the atom's motion including back-action effects from all other relevant variables concerned. In the long-time limit we recover the known results for the atom-dielectric force when the combined system is in equilibrium or in a nonequilibrium stationary state.

  16. Quantitative surface parameter maps using Intermodulation Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forchheimer, Daniel; Platz, Daniel; Tholén, Erik; Hutter, Carsten; Haviland, David

    2011-03-01

    It is well known that the phase image in amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy (AM-AFM) is sensitive to material properties of the surface. However that information is not enough to fully quantify the tip-surface interaction. We have developed Intermodulation AFM, based on a spectral analysis of the cantilever's nonlinear dynamics, which increases the amount of information obtained without increasing scan time. We show how it is possible to extract quantitative material properties of the surface from this additional information. The method works under the assumption of a tip-surface force model, such as the DMT model, fitting the model parameters to the measured spectral data. The parameters are obtained at each pixel of the AFM image and form surface property maps which can be displayed together with topography. We demonstrate this on different surfaces such as polymer blends, extracting stiffness and adhesive properties. D. Platz, E. A. Tholen, D. Pesen, and D. B. Haviland, Appl. Phys. Lett., 92, 153106 (2008)

  17. Improved atomic force microscope using a laser diode interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarid, Dror; Pax, Paul; Yi, Leon; Howells, Sam; Gallagher, Mark; Chen, Ting; Elings, Virgil; Bocek, Dan

    1992-08-01

    The performance of an atomic force microscope using a laser diode interferometer has been improved to the point where its resolution is comparable to that of laser beam deflection systems. We describe the structure of this microscope, present a model that takes into account the main parameters associated with its operation, and demonstrate its sensitivity by showing images of a small area scan with atomic resolution as well as a large area scan in a stand-alone configuration.

  18. Universal aspects of adhesion and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Smith, John R.; Ferrante, John

    1990-01-01

    Adhesive energies are computed for flat and atomically sharp tips as a function of the normal distance to the substrate. The dependence of binding energies on tip shape is investigated. The magnitudes of the binding energies for the atomic force microscope are found to depend sensitively on tip material, tip shape and the sample site being probed. The form of the energy-distance curve, however, is universal and independent of these variables, including tip shape.

  19. A Dressed Atom Description of the Bichromatic Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, Leonid; Metcalf, Harold

    2004-05-01

    We have elaborated on the dressed atom description of the bichromatic force initially proposed by Grimm et al(R. Grimm et al., Opt. Lett. 19), 658 (1994).^,(R. Grimm et al., Proceeding of the International School of Physics, ``Enrico Fermi", Course CXXXI, IOS Press, Amsterdam 1996.). We present two completely equivalent Floquet Hamiltonians that mimic the ``atom plus field" system of the dressed atom spectrum. One is best for high velocities and the other for small velocities (kv relative to 2δ, the bichromatic frequency difference). Then we argue that the force arises from the exchange of kinetic energy with the ``atom plus field" system. But transitions between the dressed states must occur by Landau-Zener (LZ) transitions as the atoms pass through exact or small crossings, and calculate these rates from the eigenstates of the Floquet Hamiltonian. We find that some ``anti-crossings" are passed adiabatically and some non-adiabatically, and the criterion is the atomic velocity. We find two LZ velocities that bound the range of the force, thus enabling a description of its velocity range. This is the first time that the observed capture range ± δ/2k has been calculated.

  20. Probe-rotating atomic force microscopy for determining material properties

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2014-03-15

    In this paper, we propose a probe-rotating atomic force microscope that enables scan in an arbitrary direction in the contact imaging mode, which is difficult to achieve using a conventional atomic force microscope owing to the orientation-dependent probe and the inability to rotate the probe head. To enable rotation of the probe about its vertical axis, we employed a compact and light probe head, the sensor of which is made of an optical disk drive pickup unit. Our proposed mechanical configuration, operating principle, and control system enables axial and lateral scan in various directions.

  1. Note: Artificial neural networks for the automated analysis of force map data in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-05-15

    Force curves recorded with the atomic force microscope on structured samples often show an irregular force versus indentation behavior. An analysis of such curves using standard contact models (e.g., the Sneddon model) would generate inaccurate Young's moduli. A critical inspection of the force curve shape is therefore necessary for estimating the reliability of the generated Young's modulus. We used a trained artificial neural network to automatically recognize curves of “good” and of “bad” quality. This is especially useful for improving the analysis of force maps that consist of a large number of force curves.

  2. Universal aspects of brittle fracture, adhesion, and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjea, Amitava; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1989-01-01

    This universal relation between binding energy and interatomic separation was originally discovered for adhesion at bimetallic interfaces involving the simple metals Al, Zn, Mg, and Na. It is shown here that the same universal relation extends to adhesion at transition-metal interfaces. Adhesive energies have been computed for the low-index interfaces of Al, Ni, Cu, Ag, Fe, and W, using the equivalent-crystal theory (ECT) and keeping the atoms in each semiinfinite slab fixed rigidly in their equilibrium positions. These adhesive energy curves can be scaled onto each other and onto the universal adhesion curve. The effect of tip shape on the adhesive forces in the atomic-force microscope (AFM) is studied by computing energies and forces using the ECT. While the details of the energy-distance and force-distance curves are sensitive to tip shape, all of these curves can be scaled onto the universal adhesion curve.

  3. Will a Decaying Atom Feel a Friction Force?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Trautmann, Nils; Barnett, Stephen M.

    2017-02-01

    We show how a simple calculation leads to the surprising result that an excited two-level atom moving through a vacuum sees a tiny friction force of first order in v /c . At first sight this seems to be in obvious contradiction to other calculations showing that the interaction with the vacuum does not change the velocity of an atom. It is even more surprising that this change in the atom's momentum turns out to be a necessary result of energy and momentum conservation in special relativity.

  4. Will a Decaying Atom Feel a Friction Force?

    PubMed

    Sonnleitner, Matthias; Trautmann, Nils; Barnett, Stephen M

    2017-02-03

    We show how a simple calculation leads to the surprising result that an excited two-level atom moving through a vacuum sees a tiny friction force of first order in v/c. At first sight this seems to be in obvious contradiction to other calculations showing that the interaction with the vacuum does not change the velocity of an atom. It is even more surprising that this change in the atom's momentum turns out to be a necessary result of energy and momentum conservation in special relativity.

  5. High-speed force mapping on living cells with a small cantilever atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Braunsmann, Christoph; Seifert, Jan; Rheinlaender, Johannes; Schäffer, Tilman E.

    2014-07-15

    The imaging speed of the wide-spread force mapping mode for quantitative mechanical measurements on soft samples in liquid with the atomic force microscope (AFM) is limited by the bandwidth of the z-scanner and viscous drag forces on the cantilever. Here, we applied high-speed, large scan-range atomic force microscopy and small cantilevers to increase the speed of force mapping by ≈10−100 times. This allowed resolving dynamic processes on living mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Cytoskeleton reorganization during cell locomotion, growth of individual cytoskeleton fibers, cell blebbing, and the formation of endocytic pits in the cell membrane were observed. Increasing the force curve rate from 2 to 300 Hz increased the measured apparent Young's modulus of the cells by about 10 times, which facilitated force mapping measurements at high speed.

  6. Imaging proteins with atomic force microscopy: an overview.

    PubMed

    Silva, Luciano Paulino

    2005-08-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become a common tool for biophysical studies of proteins; mainly due its property to perform characterizations near physiological conditions. The tertiary and quaternary structures, forces driving folding-unfolding processes, and secondary structure elements can be studied in their native environments allowing high resolution level associated with small distortions. This review outlines the operational principles and applications of AFM for protein biophysics.

  7. Using Atom Interferometry to Search for New Forces

    SciTech Connect

    Wacker, Jay G.; /SLAC

    2009-12-11

    Atom interferometry is a rapidly advancing field and this Letter proposes an experiment based on existing technology that can search for new short distance forces. With current technology it is possible to improve the sensitivity by up to a factor of 10{sup 2} and near-future advances will be able to rewrite the limits for forces with ranges from 100 {micro}m to 1km.

  8. Dispersion forces at arbitrary distances. [between closed-shell atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobi, N.; Csanak, G.

    1975-01-01

    The formalism of Boehm and Yaris is used to evaluate explicitly the leading term of the London dispersion force between closed-shell atoms. Instead of using the usual multipole expansion, which breaks down at intermediate internuclear distances, an analytic representation of the Born amplitude together with a general angular momentum analysis is used. As a result, expressions are obtained which reduce to the usual dispersion forces at large distances and are finite at all distances.

  9. Microrheology of cells with magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rebêlo, L M; de Sousa, J S; Mendes Filho, J; Schäpe, J; Doschke, H; Radmacher, M

    2014-04-07

    We propose a magnetic force modulation method to measure the stiffness and viscosity of living cells using a modified AFM apparatus. An oscillating magnetic field makes a magnetic cantilever oscillate in contact with the sample, producing a small AC indentation. By comparing the amplitude of the free cantilever motion (A0) with the motion of the cantilever in contact with the sample (A1), we determine the sample stiffness and viscosity. To test the method, the frequency-dependent stiffness of 3T3 fibroblasts was determined as a power law k(s)(f) = α + β(f/f¯)(γ) (α = 7.6 × 10(-4) N m(-1), β = 1.0 × 10(-4) N m(-1), f¯ = 1 Hz, γ = 0.6), where the coefficient γ = 0.6 is in good agreement with rheological data of actin solutions with concentrations similar to those in cells. The method also allows estimation of the internal friction of the cells. In particular we found an average damping coefficient of 75.1 μN s m(-1) for indentation depths ranging between 1.0 μm and 2.0 μm.

  10. Taking Nanomedicine Teaching into Practice with Atomic Force Microscopy and Force Spectroscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Filomena A.; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C.

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic…

  11. Unifying theory of tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulo, Álvaro San; García, Ricardo

    2002-07-01

    We propose a general method for describing tapping-mode atomic-force microscopy. The combined participation of attractive and repulsive interactions determines the multivalued nature of the resonance curve. This, in turn, implies the coexistence of two different stable oscillations for some excitation frequencies. The coexistence of two stable oscillations depends on the driving force and tip-surface separation. Increasing the driving force inhibits the low-amplitude oscillation state. Because resolution depends on the oscillation state, we propose that the absence of the low amplitude solution is responsible for the inconsistencies observed in high-resolution imaging of biomolecules.

  12. Resolving amorphous solid-liquid interfaces by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burson, Kristen M.; Gura, Leonard; Kell, Burkhard; Büchner, Christin; Lewandowski, Adrian L.; Heyde, Markus; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2016-05-01

    Recent advancements in liquid atomic force microscopy make it an ideal technique for probing the structure of solid-liquid interfaces. Here, we present a structural study of a two-dimensional amorphous silica bilayer immersed in an aqueous solution utilizing liquid atomic force microscopy with sub-nanometer resolution. Structures show good agreement with atomically resolved ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy images obtained on the same sample system, owing to the structural stability of the silica bilayer and the imaging clarity from the two-dimensional sample system. Pair distance histograms of ring center positions are utilized to develop quantitative metrics for structural comparison, and the physical origin of pair distance histogram peaks is addressed by direct assessment of real space structures.

  13. Modeling noncontact atomic force microscopy resolution on corrugated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Burson, Kristen M; Yamamoto, Mahito; Cullen, William G

    2012-01-01

    Key developments in NC-AFM have generally involved atomically flat crystalline surfaces. However, many surfaces of technological interest are not atomically flat. We discuss the experimental difficulties in obtaining high-resolution images of rough surfaces, with amorphous SiO(2) as a specific case. We develop a quasi-1-D minimal model for noncontact atomic force microscopy, based on van der Waals interactions between a spherical tip and the surface, explicitly accounting for the corrugated substrate (modeled as a sinusoid). The model results show an attenuation of the topographic contours by ~30% for tip distances within 5 Å of the surface. Results also indicate a deviation from the Hamaker force law for a sphere interacting with a flat surface.

  14. Elasticity measurement of breast cancer cells by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaoxian; Wang, Yuhua; Jiang, Ningcheng; Yang, Hongqin; Lin, Juqiang; Xie, Shusen

    2014-09-01

    Mechanical properties of living cells play an important role in understanding various cells' function and state. Therefore cell biomechanics is expected to become a useful tool for cancer diagnosis. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) using a square pyramid probe was performed to investigate cancerous (MCF-7) and benign (MCF-10A) human breast epithelial cells. The new QITM mode was used to acquire high-resolution topographic images and elasticity of living cells. Furthermore, individual force curves were recorded at maximum loads of 0.2, 0.5 and 1 nN, and the dependence of cell's elasticity with loading force was discussed. It was showed that the cancerous cells exhibited smaller elasticity modulus in comparison to non-cancerous counterparts. The elasticity modulus increased as the loading force increased from 0.2 nN to 1 nN. This observation indicates that loading force affects the cell's apparent elasticity and it is important to choose the appropriate force applied to cells in order to distinguish normal and cancer cells. The results reveal that the mechanical properties of living cells measured by atomic force microscopy may be a useful indicator of cell type and disease.

  15. Resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H. (Inventor); Cantrell, Sean A. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A scanning probe microscope and methodology called resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM), employs an ultrasonic wave launched from the bottom of a sample while the cantilever of an atomic force microscope, driven at a frequency differing from the ultrasonic frequency by one of the contact resonance frequencies of the cantilever, engages the sample top surface. The nonlinear mixing of the oscillating cantilever and the ultrasonic wave in the region defined by the cantilever tip-sample surface interaction force generates difference-frequency oscillations at the cantilever contact resonance. The resonance-enhanced difference-frequency signals are used to create images of nanoscale near-surface and subsurface features.

  16. Nanoprocessing of layered crystalline materials by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Shojiro; Wang, Mei

    2015-01-01

    By taking advantage of the mechanical anisotropy of crystalline materials, processing at a single-layer level can be realized for layered crystalline materials with periodically weak bonds. Mica (muscovite), graphite, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride have layered structures, and there is little interaction between the cleavage planes existing in the basal planes of these materials. Moreover, it is easy to image the atoms on the basal plane, where the processed shape can be observed on the atomic level. This study reviews research evaluating the nanometer-scale wear and friction as well as the nanometer-scale mechanical processing of muscovite using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It also summarizes recent AFM results obtained by our research group regarding the atomic-scale mechanical processing of layered materials including mica, graphite, MoS2, and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  17. Relative microelastic mapping of living cells by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    A-Hassan, E; Heinz, W F; Antonik, M D; D'Costa, N P; Nageswaran, S; Schoenenberger, C A; Hoh, J H

    1998-01-01

    The spatial and temporal changes of the mechanical properties of living cells reflect complex underlying physiological processes. Following these changes should provide valuable insight into the biological importance of cellular mechanics and their regulation. The tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be used to indent soft samples, and the force versus indentation measurement provides information about the local viscoelasticity. By collecting force-distance curves on a time scale where viscous contributions are small, the forces measured are dominated by the elastic properties of the sample. We have developed an experimental approach, using atomic force microscopy, called force integration to equal limits (FIEL) mapping, to produce robust, internally quantitative maps of relative elasticity. FIEL mapping has the advantage of essentially being independent of the tip-sample contact point and the cantilever spring constant. FIEL maps of living Madine-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells show that elasticity is uncoupled from topography and reveal a number of unexpected features. These results present a mode of high-resolution visualization in which the contrast is based on the mechanical properties of the sample. PMID:9512052

  18. High precision deflection measurement of microcantilever in an optical pickup head based atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang Heon

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents the methodology to measure the precise deflection of microcantilever in an optical pickup head based atomic force microscopy. In this paper, three types of calibration methods have been proposed: full linearization, sectioned linearization, and the method based on astigmatism. In addition, the probe heads for easy calibration of optical pickup head and fast replacement of optical pickup head have been developed. The performances of each method have been compared through a set of experiments and constant height mode operation which was not possible in the optical pickup head based atomic force microscopy has been carried out successfully.

  19. Tooth structure studied using the atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasas, Sandor; Berdal, Ariane; Celio, Marco R.

    1993-06-01

    We used the atomic force microscope (AFM) to observe structure of the tooth, both rat and human. The rigidity and the surface flatness of thin sections of this mineralized tissue, allow us to attain good resolution with the AFM. As enamel contains uniquely large crystals of hydroxyapatite it can be investigated at high resolution. Tooth enamel and thin slices of undecalcified developing tooth germs from 2 - 12 day old rats were observed, embedded in acrylic resin (Lowicryl K4M). In addition, as orthophosphoric acid is widely used clinically to etch tooth enamel before restoring with composites, we studied its action at pH2 on the tooth surface during 1 hour of exposition. Hydroxyapatite crystals and collagen fibers were seen in the tooth slices observed in air, and the classical structure of the enamel was visible. The etched enamel surface under liquid, showed dramatic differences to that imaged in air. Modifications to the surface were also seen during exposure to the acid.

  20. Advances in the atomic force microscopy for critical dimension metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Danish; Ahmad, Khurshid; Song, Jianmin; Xie, Hui

    2017-01-01

    Downscaling, miniaturization and 3D staking of the micro/nano devices are burgeoning phenomena in the semiconductor industry which have posed sophisticated challenges in the critical dimension (CD) metrology. Over the past few years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as an important CD metrology technique in meeting these challenges because of its high accuracy, 3D imaging capability, high spatial resolution and non-destructive nature. In this article, advances in the AFM based critical dimension (CD) metrology are systematically reviewed and discussed. CD metrology AFM techniques, strengths, limitations and scanning algorithms are described. Developments towards accurate measurements such as creep and hysteresis compensation of the piezoelectric scanners, their calibration and tip characterization are discussed. In addition, image reconstruction and measures for achieving high accuracy CD measurements with hybrid metrology technique are also discussed. CD metrology challenges offered by the next generation lithography (NGL) techniques such as those associated with the 3D nanodevices of 10 nm node and beyond have been highlighted.

  1. Lipid domains in supported lipid bilayer for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wan-Chen; Blanchette, Craig D; Ratto, Timothy V; Longo, Marjorie L

    2007-01-01

    Phase-separated supported lipid bilayers have been widely used to study the phase behavior of multicomponent lipid mixtures. One of the primary advantages of using supported lipid bilayers is that the two-dimensional platform of this model membrane system readily allows lipid-phase separation to be characterized by high-resolution imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). In addition, when supported lipid bilayers have been functionalized with a specific ligand, protein-membrane interactions can also be imaged and characterized through AFM. It has been recently demonstrated that when the technique of vesicle fusion is used to prepare supported lipid bilayers, the thermal history of the vesicles before deposition and the supported lipid bilayers after formation will have significant effects on the final phase-separated domain structures. In this chapter, three methods of vesicle preparations as well as three deposition conditions will be presented. Also, the techniques and strategies of using AFM to image multicomponent phase-separated supported lipid bilayers and protein binding will be discussed.

  2. Advances in Bichromatic Force Slowing of Atoms and Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chieda, M. A.; Eyler, E. E.

    2012-06-01

    The optical bichromatic force (BCF) holds promise as an efficient, simple, and compact means to slow atoms and molecules to MOT capture velocities.ootnotetextM. Cashen and H. Metcalf, JOSA B 20, 915 (2003).^,ootnotetextM. A. Chieda and E. E. Eyler, PRA 84, 063401 (2011). Metastable helium beams, with v˜1000 m/s, are especially worthwhile atomic candidates since they presently require Zeeman slowers with lengths of 2--3 m. We present a novel BCF decelerator in which the Doppler shifts are chirped to keep the force centered on the atoms as they slow. This is made possible by recent advances in high-power diode lasers and electronics, and avoids many of the problems of alternative designs using large detunings. Initial tests on He* atoms show encouraging results. Unlike atoms, direct laser slowing of molecules remains exceedingly difficult, although success with SrF has very recently been reported.ootnotetextJ. F. Barry, E. S. Shuman, E. B. Norrgard, and D. DeMille, to be published. We calculate that for molecules with near-cycling transitions, rapid laser BCF slowing should be possible.ootnotetextChieda, op. sit. For the CaF molecule, we predict slowing by δv = 150 m/s, enough to bring a buffer-gas cooled beam to rest. An experimental demonstration is in progress.

  3. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of glass decay

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Heras, M. . E-mail: mgheras@cenim.csic.es; Carmona, N.; Ruiz-Conde, A.

    2005-11-15

    Conventional methods such as scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry are commonly used to characterize corroded glasses. However, their use is often restricted when glass pieces come from historical artworks and may not be damaged. Atomic force microscopy can be an alternative method for characterizing such glasses since it is an essentially non-destructive technique which allows their topographic analysis with good vertical and lateral resolutions. In addition, samples do not require any previous manipulation. The application of atomic force microscopy to study glass decay is reported in this paper. The main goals of the research were to study the corroded texture of both historical glass pieces and model glasses weathered in the laboratory, and to determine and compare the chemical corrosion mechanisms which occurred in both cases. The resulting data suggest that atomic force microscopy can be a useful technique for characterizing decay mechanisms in historical glasses.

  4. Single-shell carbon nanotubes imaged by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Höper, Ralf; Workman, Richard K.; Chen, Dong; Sarid, Dror; Yadav, Tapesh; Withers, James C.; Loutfy, Raouf O.

    1994-05-01

    Single-shell carbon nanotubes, approximately 1 nm in diameter, have been imaged for the first time by atomic force microscopy operating in both the contact and tapping modes. For the contact mode, the height of the imaged nanotubes has been calibrated using the atomic steps of the silicon substrate on which the nanotubes were deposited. For the tapping mode, the calibration was performed using an industry-standard grating. The paper discusses substrate and sample preparation methods for the characterization by scanning probe microscopy of nanotubes deposited on a substrate.

  5. Influence of the Coriolis force in atom interferometry.

    PubMed

    Lan, Shau-Yu; Kuan, Pei-Chen; Estey, Brian; Haslinger, Philipp; Müller, Holger

    2012-03-02

    In a light-pulse atom interferometer, we use a tip-tilt mirror to remove the influence of the Coriolis force from Earth's rotation and to characterize configuration space wave packets. For interferometers with a large momentum transfer and large pulse separation time, we improve the contrast by up to 350% and suppress systematic effects. We also reach what is to our knowledge the largest space-time area enclosed in any atom interferometer to date. We discuss implications for future high-performance instruments.

  6. Improved atomic force microscopy cantilever performance by partial reflective coating

    PubMed Central

    Miyahara, Yoichi; Aeschimann, Laure; Grütter, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Optical beam deflection systems are widely used in cantilever based atomic force microscopy (AFM). Most commercial cantilevers have a reflective metal coating on the detector side to increase the reflectivity in order to achieve a high signal on the photodiode. Although the reflective coating is usually much thinner than the cantilever, it can still significantly contribute to the damping of the cantilever, leading to a lower mechanical quality factor (Q-factor). In dynamic mode operation in high vacuum, a cantilever with a high Q-factor is desired in order to achieve a lower minimal detectable force. The reflective coating can also increase the low-frequency force noise. In contact mode and force spectroscopy, a cantilever with minimal low-frequency force noise is desirable. We present a study on cantilevers with a partial reflective coating on the detector side. For this study, soft (≈0.01 N/m) and stiff (≈28 N/m) rectangular cantilevers were used with a custom partial coating at the tip end of the cantilever. The Q-factor, the detection and the force noise of fully coated, partially coated and uncoated cantilevers are compared and force distance curves are shown. Our results show an improvement in low-frequency force noise and increased Q-factor for the partially coated cantilevers compared to fully coated ones while maintaining the same reflectivity, therefore making it possible to combine the best of both worlds. PMID:26199849

  7. Surface roughness contribution to the adhesion force distribution of salmeterol xinafoate on lactose carriers by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazrul; Stewart, Peter; Larson, Ian; Hartley, Patrick

    2005-07-01

    Adhesion force distributions of silica spheres (5 and 20 microm) and salmeterol xinafoate (4 microm) particles with inhalation grade lactose surfaces and spin coated lactose films were determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the influence of surface roughness on the force distributions. The roughness of lactose particles and films was determined by both AFM and confocal microscopy (CM); the lactose particles showed RMS R(q) values between 0.93 and 2.2 microm. The adhesion force distributions for silica and SX probes were significantly different for the different lactose carriers and broad, e.g., the adhesion force distribution between a 5 microm silica sphere and lactose particles ranged from 5 to 105 nN. This contrasted with distributions on smooth spin coated lactose films (RMS R(q) of 0.28 nm) which were not significantly different and were narrow, e.g., the adhesion force distribution between a 5 microm silica sphere and spin coated lactose films was between 42 and 68 nN. In addition, no significant difference in adhesion force distribution occurred with silica probe size on the lactose carrier surface. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis confirmed that the lactose surfaces were free of impurities that might contribute to variation in adhesion. Although the almost atomically flat films showed some adhesion variability, the surface roughness of the lactose particles was a major contributing factor to the broad distributions seen in this study.

  8. Revealing the hidden atom in graphite by low-temperature atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hembacher, Stefan; Giessibl, Franz J; Mannhart, Jochen; Quate, Calvin F

    2003-10-28

    Carbon, the backbone material of life on Earth, comes in three modifications: diamond, graphite, and fullerenes. Diamond develops tetrahedral sp3 bonds, forming a cubic crystal structure, whereas graphite and fullerenes are characterized by planar sp2 bonds. Polycrystalline graphite is the basis for many products of everyday life: pencils, lubricants, batteries, arc lamps, and brushes for electric motors. In crystalline form, highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is used as a diffracting element in monochromators for x-ray and neutron scattering and as a calibration standard for scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The graphite surface is easily prepared as a clean atomically flat surface by cleavage. This feature is attractive and is used in many laboratories as the surface of choice for "seeing atoms." Despite the proverbial ease of imaging graphite by STM with atomic resolution, every second atom in the hexagonal surface unit cell remains hidden, and STM images show only a single atom in the unit cell. Here we present measurements with a low-temperature atomic force microscope with pico-Newton force sensitivity that reveal the hidden surface atom.

  9. Atomic-scale mechanical properties of orientated C60 molecules revealed by noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pawlak, Rémy; Kawai, Shigeki; Fremy, Sweetlana; Glatzel, Thilo; Meyer, Ernst

    2011-08-23

    In this work, the mechanical properties of C(60) molecules adsorbed on Cu(111) are measured by tuning-fork-based noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) and spectroscopy at cryogenic conditions. Site-specific tip-sample force variations are detected above the buckyball structure. Moreover, high-resolution images obtained by nc-AFM show the chemical structure of this molecule and describes unambiguously its orientations on the surface.

  10. Hydrogen-related contrast in atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, René; Schwarz, Alexander; Wiesendanger, Roland

    2009-07-01

    We study the effect of hydrogen adsorption on gadolinium islands epitaxially grown on W(110) utilizing atomic force microscopy operated in the non-contact regime. In constant force images, gadolinium islands exhibit two height levels, corresponding to hydrogen covered and clean gadolinium areas, respectively. The experimentally measured height differences are strongly bias dependent, showing that the contrast pattern is dominated by electrostatic tip-sample forces. We interpret our experimental findings in terms of a local reduction of the work function and the presence of localized charges on hydrogen covered areas. Both effects lead to a variation of the contact potential difference between tip and surface areas, which are clean or hydrogen covered gadolinium. After clarifying the electrostatic contrast formation, we can unambiguously identify regions of clean gadolinium on the islands. These results are important for further magnetic exchange force microscopy based studies, because hydrogen also alters the magnetic properties locally.

  11. Length-extension resonator as a force sensor for high-resolution frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in air

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Tino

    2016-01-01

    Summary Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy has turned into a well-established method to obtain atomic resolution on flat surfaces, but is often limited to ultra-high vacuum conditions and cryogenic temperatures. Measurements under ambient conditions are influenced by variations of the dew point and thin water layers present on practically every surface, complicating stable imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate high-resolution imaging in air using a length-extension resonator operating at small amplitudes. An additional slow feedback compensates for changes in the free resonance frequency, allowing stable imaging over a long period of time with changing environmental conditions. PMID:27335735

  12. Length-extension resonator as a force sensor for high-resolution frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy in air.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Hannes; Wagner, Tino; Stemmer, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy has turned into a well-established method to obtain atomic resolution on flat surfaces, but is often limited to ultra-high vacuum conditions and cryogenic temperatures. Measurements under ambient conditions are influenced by variations of the dew point and thin water layers present on practically every surface, complicating stable imaging with high resolution. We demonstrate high-resolution imaging in air using a length-extension resonator operating at small amplitudes. An additional slow feedback compensates for changes in the free resonance frequency, allowing stable imaging over a long period of time with changing environmental conditions.

  13. Minimizing pulling geometry errors in atomic force microscope single molecule force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Monica; Lee, Whasil; Ke, Changhong; Marszalek, Piotr E; Cole, Daniel G; Clark, Robert L

    2008-10-01

    In atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS), it is assumed that the pulling angle is negligible and that the force applied to the molecule is equivalent to the force measured by the instrument. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the pulling geometry errors can drastically alter the measured force-extension relationship of molecules. Here we describe a software-based alignment method that repositions the cantilever such that it is located directly above the molecule's substrate attachment site. By aligning the applied force with the measurement axis, the molecule is no longer undergoing combined loading, and the full force can be measured by the cantilever. Simulations and experimental results verify the ability of the alignment program to minimize pulling geometry errors in AFM-SMFS studies.

  14. Minimizing Pulling Geometry Errors in Atomic Force Microscope Single Molecule Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Monica; Lee, Whasil; Ke, Changhong; Marszalek, Piotr E.; Cole, Daniel G.; Clark, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    In atomic force microscopy-based single molecule force spectroscopy (AFM-SMFS), it is assumed that the pulling angle is negligible and that the force applied to the molecule is equivalent to the force measured by the instrument. Recent studies, however, have indicated that the pulling geometry errors can drastically alter the measured force-extension relationship of molecules. Here we describe a software-based alignment method that repositions the cantilever such that it is located directly above the molecule's substrate attachment site. By aligning the applied force with the measurement axis, the molecule is no longer undergoing combined loading, and the full force can be measured by the cantilever. Simulations and experimental results verify the ability of the alignment program to minimize pulling geometry errors in AFM-SMFS studies. PMID:18641069

  15. Athermalization in atomic force microscope based force spectroscopy using matched microstructure coupling.

    PubMed

    Torun, H; Finkler, O; Degertekin, F L

    2009-07-01

    The authors describe a method for athermalization in atomic force microscope (AFM) based force spectroscopy applications using microstructures that thermomechanically match the AFM probes. The method uses a setup where the AFM probe is coupled with the matched structure and the displacements of both structures are read out simultaneously. The matched structure displaces with the AFM probe as temperature changes, thus the force applied to the sample can be kept constant without the need for a separate feedback loop for thermal drift compensation, and the differential signal can be used to cancel the shift in zero-force level of the AFM.

  16. Interplay between Switching Driven by the Tunneling Current and Atomic Force of a Bistable Four-Atom Si Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shiro; Maeda, Keisuke; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki; Abe, Masayuki; Zobač, Vladimír; Pou, Pablo; Rodrigo, Lucia; Mutombo, Pingo; Pérez, Ruben; Jelínek, Pavel; Morita, Seizo

    2015-07-08

    We assemble bistable silicon quantum dots consisting of four buckled atoms (Si4-QD) using atom manipulation. We demonstrate two competing atom switching mechanisms, downward switching induced by tunneling current of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and opposite upward switching induced by atomic force of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Simultaneous application of competing current and force allows us to tune switching direction continuously. Assembly of the few-atom Si-QDs and controlling their states using versatile combined AFM/STM will contribute to further miniaturization of nanodevices.

  17. Molecular determinants of bacterial adhesion monitored by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Razatos, Anneta; Ong, Yea-Ling; Sharma, Mukul M.; Georgiou, George

    1998-01-01

    Bacterial adhesion and the subsequent formation of biofilm are major concerns in biotechnology and medicine. The initial step in bacterial adhesion is the interaction of cells with a surface, a process governed by long-range forces, primarily van der Waals and electrostatic interactions. The precise manner in which the force of interaction is affected by cell surface components and by the physiochemical properties of materials is not well understood. Here, we show that atomic force microscopy can be used to analyze the initial events in bacterial adhesion with unprecedented resolution. Interactions between the cantilever tip and confluent monolayers of isogenic strains of Escherichia coli mutants exhibiting subtle differences in cell surface composition were measured. It was shown that the adhesion force is affected by the length of core lipopolysaccharide molecules on the E. coli cell surface and by the production of the capsular polysaccharide, colanic acid. Furthermore, by modifying the atomic force microscope tip we developed a method for determining whether bacteria are attracted or repelled by virtually any biomaterial of interest. This information will be critical for the design of materials that are resistant to bacterial adhesion. PMID:9736689

  18. Sampling Protein Form and Function with the Atomic Force Microscope*

    PubMed Central

    Baclayon, Marian; Roos, Wouter H.; Wuite, Gijs J. L.

    2010-01-01

    To study the structure, function, and interactions of proteins, a plethora of techniques is available. Many techniques sample such parameters in non-physiological environments (e.g. in air, ice, or vacuum). Atomic force microscopy (AFM), however, is a powerful biophysical technique that can probe these parameters under physiological buffer conditions. With the atomic force microscope operating under such conditions, it is possible to obtain images of biological structures without requiring labeling and to follow dynamic processes in real time. Furthermore, by operating in force spectroscopy mode, it can probe intramolecular interactions and binding strengths. In structural biology, it has proven its ability to image proteins and protein conformational changes at submolecular resolution, and in proteomics, it is developing as a tool to map surface proteomes and to study protein function by force spectroscopy methods. The power of AFM to combine studies of protein form and protein function enables bridging various research fields to come to a comprehensive, molecular level picture of biological processes. We review the use of AFM imaging and force spectroscopy techniques and discuss the major advances of these experiments in further understanding form and function of proteins at the nanoscale in physiologically relevant environments. PMID:20562411

  19. [Atomic force microscopy: a tool to analyze the viral cycle].

    PubMed

    Bernaud, Julien; Castelnovo, Martin; Muriaux, Delphine; Faivre-Moskalenko, Cendrine

    2015-05-01

    Each step of the HIV-1 life cycle frequently involves a change in the morphology and/or mechanical properties of the viral particle or core. The atomic force microscope (AFM) constitutes a powerful tool for characterizing these physical changes at the scale of a single virus. Indeed, AFM enables the visualization of viral capsids in a controlled physiological environment and to probe their mechanical properties by nano-indentation. Finally, AFM force spectroscopy allows to characterize the affinities between viral envelope proteins and cell receptors at the single molecule level.

  20. Ubiquitous mechanisms of energy dissipation in noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, S Alireza; Goedecker, Stefan; Baratoff, Alexis; Lenosky, Thomas; Meyer, Ernst; Hug, Hans J

    2008-06-13

    Atomistic simulations considering larger tip structures than hitherto assumed reveal novel dissipation mechanisms in noncontact atomic force microscopy. The potential energy surfaces of realistic silicon tips exhibit many energetically close local minima that correspond to different structures. Most of them easily deform, thus causing dissipation arising from hysteresis in force versus distance characteristics. Furthermore, saddle points which connect local minima can suddenly switch to connect different minima. Configurations driven into metastability by the tip motion can thus suddenly access lower energy structures when thermal activation becomes allowed within the time required to detect the resulting average dissipation.

  1. Automated manipulation of carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Wu, Sen; Fu, Xing

    2013-01-01

    The manipulation of carbon nanotubes is an important and essential step for carbon-based nanodevice or nanocircuit assembly. However, the conventional push-and-image approach of manipulating carbon nanotubes using atomic force microscopy has low efficiency on account of the reduplicated scanning process during manipulation. In this article, an automated manipulation system is designed and tested. This automated manipulation system, which includes an atomic force microscope platform and a self-developed computer program for one-dimensional manipulation, is capable of automatically moving any assigned individual carbon nanotube to a defined target location without any intermediate scanning procedure. To demonstrate the high-efficiency of this automated manipulation system and its potential applications in nanoassembly, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used this system to manipulate a carbon nanotube to a defined target location. In the second experiment, this system was used to automatically manipulate several carbon nanotubes for generating and translating a defined pattern of nanotubes.

  2. Semi-automatic atomic force microscope for imaging in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mou, Jianxun; Huang, Gang; Shao, Zhifeng

    1995-12-01

    A semiautomatic atomic force microscope for imaging in solution is described. With this new design, the laser beam is focused into a fine line, and a rotating mirror is used to deflect the optical signal onto a fixed photodetector. The alignment is now operated with stepper motors. Combined with a three stepper motor sequential advancement for tip engagement, the operation of the atomic force microscope for imaging in solution is much simplified, and the crashing of the tip is largely avoided. Since all controls are now coupled with stepper motors, this system is fully compatible with automation and operation in a self sealed temperature controlled chamber. The design and the construction of this system is relatively simple and can be fitted into any existing system.

  3. Mapping and control of atomic force on Si(1 1 1)square root(3) x square root(3)-Ag surface using noncontact atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Morita, S; Sugawara, Y

    2002-05-01

    We demonstrated the possibility of measuring the three-dimensional force-related map with true atomic resolution between an Si tip and Si(1 1 1)square root(3) x square root(3)-Ag sample surface by measuring the tip-sample distance dependence of noncontact atomic force microscope (NC-AFM) image, i.e. atomically resolved atomic force spectroscopy. Furthermore, we demonstrated the possibility of controlling the interaction force between the atom on the tip apex and a sample atom of Si(1 1 1)square root(3) x square root(3)-Ag surface on an atomic scale by placing an Ag atom on the Si tip apex instead of Si atom.

  4. Non-contact atomic-level interfacial force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Houston, J.E.; Fleming, J.G.

    1997-02-01

    The scanning force microscopies (notably the Atomic Force Microscope--AFM), because of their applicability to nearly all materials, are presently the most widely used of the scanning-probe techniques. However, the AFM uses a deflection sensor to measure sample/probe forces which suffers from an inherent mechanical instability that occurs when the rate of change of the force with respect to the interfacial separation becomes equal to the spring constant of the deflecting member. This instability dramatically limits the breadth of applicability of AFM-type techniques to materials problems. In the course of implementing a DOE sponsored basic research program in interfacial adhesion, a self-balancing force sensor concept has been developed and incorporated into an Interfacial Force Microscopy (IFM) system by Sandia scientists. This sensor eliminates the instability problem and greatly enhances the applicability of the scanning force-probe technique to a broader range of materials and materials parameters. The impact of this Sandia development was recognized in 1993 by a Department of Energy award for potential impact on DOE programs and by an R and D 100 award for one of the most important new products of 1994. However, in its present stage of development, the IFM is strictly a research-level tool and a CRADA was initiated in order to bring this sensor technology into wide-spread availability by making it accessible in the form of a commercial instrument. The present report described the goals, approach and results of this CRADA effort.

  5. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xiaobin; Shi, Xuetao; Ostrovidov, Serge; Wu, Hongkai; Nakajima, Ken

    2016-03-01

    A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  6. Probing starch-iodine interaction by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiongwei; An, Hongjie; Liu, Zhongdong; Yang, Hongshun; Wei, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    We explored the interaction of iodine with three crystalline type starches, corn, potato, and sweet potato starches using atomic force microscopy. Results revealed that starch molecules aggregated through interaction with iodine solution as well as iodine vapor. Detailed fine structures such as networks, chains, and super-helical structures were found in iodide solution tests. The nanostructures formed due to iodine adsorption could help to understand the formation and properties of the starch-iodine complex.

  7. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H∞ control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  8. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M

    2015-04-01

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H(∞) control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  9. Atomic force microscope observations of otoconia in the newt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallworth, R.; Wiederhold, M. L.; Campbell, J. B.; Steyger, P. S.

    1995-01-01

    Calcitic and aragonitic otoconia from the Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster, were examined using an atomic force microscope. The surface structure of both otoconial polymorphs consisted of arrays of elements approximately 50 nm in diameter. Elements were generally round and were separated by shallow depressions of no more than 20 nm. The elements are suggested to be single crystals of calcium carbonate. The relationship of these observations to theories of otoconial genesis is discussed.

  10. Model based control of dynamic atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Chibum; Salapaka, Srinivasa M.

    2015-04-15

    A model-based robust control approach is proposed that significantly improves imaging bandwidth for the dynamic mode atomic force microscopy. A model for cantilever oscillation amplitude and phase dynamics is derived and used for the control design. In particular, the control design is based on a linearized model and robust H{sub ∞} control theory. This design yields a significant improvement when compared to the conventional proportional-integral designs and verified by experiments.

  11. MATCH: an atom-typing toolset for molecular mechanics force fields.

    PubMed

    Yesselman, Joseph D; Price, Daniel J; Knight, Jennifer L; Brooks, Charles L

    2012-01-15

    We introduce a toolset of program libraries collectively titled multipurpose atom-typer for CHARMM (MATCH) for the automated assignment of atom types and force field parameters for molecular mechanics simulation of organic molecules. The toolset includes utilities for the conversion of multiple chemical structure file formats into a molecular graph. A general chemical pattern-matching engine using this graph has been implemented whereby assignment of molecular mechanics atom types, charges, and force field parameters are achieved by comparison against a customizable list of chemical fragments. While initially designed to complement the CHARMM simulation package and force fields by generating the necessary input topology and atom-type data files, MATCH can be expanded to any force field and program, and has core functionality that makes it extendable to other applications such as fragment-based property prediction. In this work, we demonstrate the accurate construction of atomic parameters of molecules within each force field included in CHARMM36 through exhaustive cross validation studies illustrating that bond charge increment rules derived from one force field can be transferred to another. In addition, using leave-one-out substitution it is shown that it is also possible to substitute missing intra and intermolecular parameters with ones included in a force field to complete the parameterization of novel molecules. Finally, to demonstrate the robustness of MATCH and the coverage of chemical space offered by the recent CHARMM general force field (Vanommeslaeghe, et al., J Comput Chem 2010, 31, 671), one million molecules from the PubChem database of small molecules are typed, parameterized, and minimized.

  12. Atomic force microscopy application in biological research: a review study.

    PubMed

    Vahabi, Surena; Nazemi Salman, Bahareh; Javanmard, Anahita

    2013-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a three-dimensional topographic technique with a high atomic resolution to measure surface roughness. AFM is a kind of scanning probe microscope, and its near-field technique is based on the interaction between a sharp tip and the atoms of the sample surface. There are several methods and many ways to modify the tip of the AFM to investigate surface properties, including measuring friction, adhesion forces and viscoelastic properties as well as determining the Young modulus and imaging magnetic or electrostatic properties. The AFM technique can analyze any kind of samples such as polymers, adsorbed molecules, films or fibers, and powders in the air whether in a controlled atmosphere or in a liquid medium. In the past decade, the AFM has emerged as a powerful tool to obtain the nanostructural details and biomechanical properties of biological samples, including biomolecules and cells. The AFM applications, techniques, and -in particular- its ability to measure forces, are not still familiar to most clinicians. This paper reviews the literature on the main principles of the AFM modality and highlights the advantages of this technique in biology, medicine, and- especially- dentistry. This literature review was performed through E-resources, including Science Direct, PubMed, Blackwell Synergy, Embase, Elsevier, and Scholar Google for the references published between 1985 and 2010.

  13. Characterization and Detection of Biological Weapons with Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Malkin, A J; Plomp, M; Leighton, T J; McPherson, A

    2006-09-25

    Critical gaps exist in our capabilities to rapidly characterize threat agents which could be used in attacks on facilities and military forces. DNA-based PCR and immunoassay-based techniques provide unique identification of species, strains and protein signatures of pathogens. However, differentiation between naturally occurring and weaponized bioagents and the identification of formulation signatures are beyond current technologies. One of the most effective and often the only definitive means to identify a threat agent is by its direct visualization. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a rapid imaging technique that covers the size range of most biothreat agents (several nanometers to tens of microns), is capable of resolving pathogen morphology and structure, and could be developed into a portable device for biological weapons (BW) field characterization. AFM can detect pathogens in aerosol, liquid, surface and soil samples while concomitantly acquiring their weaponization and threat agent digital signatures. BW morphological and structural signatures, including modifications to pathogen microstructural architecture and topology that occur during formulation and weaponization, provide the means for their differentiation from crude or purified unformulated agent, processing signatures, as well as assessment of their potential for dispersion, inhalation and environmental persistence. AFM visualization of pathogen morphology and architecture often provides valuable digital signatures and allows direct detection and identification of threat agents. We have demonstrated that pathogens, spanning the size range from several nanometers for small agricultural satellite viruses to almost half micron for pox viruses, and to several microns for bacteria and bacterial spores, can be visualized by AFM under physiological conditions to a resolution of {approx}20-30 {angstrom}. We have also demonstrated that viruses from closely related families could be differentiated by AFM on

  14. Hierarchical atom type definitions and extensible all-atom force fields.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhao; Yang, Chunwei; Cao, Fenglei; Li, Feng; Jing, Zhifeng; Chen, Long; Shen, Zhe; Xin, Liang; Tong, Sijia; Sun, Huai

    2016-03-15

    The extensibility of force field is a key to solve the missing parameter problem commonly found in force field applications. The extensibility of conventional force fields is traditionally managed in the parameterization procedure, which becomes impractical as the coverage of the force field increases above a threshold. A hierarchical atom-type definition (HAD) scheme is proposed to make extensible atom type definitions, which ensures that the force field developed based on the definitions are extensible. To demonstrate how HAD works and to prepare a foundation for future developments, two general force fields based on AMBER and DFF functional forms are parameterized for common organic molecules. The force field parameters are derived from the same set of quantum mechanical data and experimental liquid data using an automated parameterization tool, and validated by calculating molecular and liquid properties. The hydration free energies are calculated successfully by introducing a polarization scaling factor to the dispersion term between the solvent and solute molecules. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Surface-charge differentiation of streptavidin and avidin by atomic force microscopy-force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Lisa; Lopez-Elvira, Elena; Baró, Arturo M

    2014-09-15

    Chemical information can be obtained by using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and force spectroscopy (FS) with atomic or molecular resolution, even in liquid media. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that single molecules of avidin and streptavidin anchored to a biotinylated bilayer can be differentiated by using AFM, even though AFM topographical images of the two proteins are remarkably alike. At physiological pH, the basic glycoprotein avidin is positively charged, whereas streptavidin is a neutral protein. This charge difference can be determined with AFM, which can probe electrostatic double-layer forces by using FS. The force curves, owing to the electrostatic interaction, show major differences when measured on top of each protein as well as on the lipid substrate. FS data show that the two proteins are negatively charged. Nevertheless, avidin and streptavidin can be clearly distinguished, thus demonstrating the sensitivity of AFM to detect small changes in the charge state of macromolecules.

  16. Adhesion Forces between Lewis(X) Determinant Antigens as Measured by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tromas, C; Rojo, J; de la Fuente, J M; Barrientos, A G; García, R; Penadés, S

    2001-01-01

    The adhesion forces between individual molecules of Lewis(X) trisaccharide antigen (Le(X) ) have been measured in water and in calcium solution by using atomic force microscopy (AFM, see graph). These results demonstrate the self-recognition capability of this antigen, and reinforce the hypothesis that carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction could be considered as the first step in the cell-adhesion process in nature.

  17. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid.

    PubMed

    Miyazawa, K; Izumi, H; Watanabe-Nakayama, T; Asakawa, H; Fukuma, T

    2015-03-13

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.

  18. Fabrication of electron beam deposited tip for atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazawa, K.; Izumi, H.; Watanabe-Nakayama, T.; Asakawa, H.; Fukuma, T.

    2015-03-01

    Recently, possibilities of improving operation speed and force sensitivity in atomic-scale atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid using a small cantilever with an electron beam deposited (EBD) tip have been intensively explored. However, the structure and properties of an EBD tip suitable for such an application have not been well-understood and hence its fabrication process has not been established. In this study, we perform atomic-scale AFM measurements with a small cantilever and clarify two major problems: contaminations from a cantilever and tip surface, and insufficient mechanical strength of an EBD tip having a high aspect ratio. To solve these problems, here we propose a fabrication process of an EBD tip, where we attach a 2 μm silica bead at the cantilever end and fabricate a 500-700 nm EBD tip on the bead. The bead height ensures sufficient cantilever-sample distance and enables to suppress long-range interaction between them even with a short EBD tip having high mechanical strength. After the tip fabrication, we coat the whole cantilever and tip surface with Si (30 nm) to prevent the generation of contamination. We perform atomic-scale AFM imaging and hydration force measurements at a mica-water interface using the fabricated tip and demonstrate its applicability to such an atomic-scale application. With a repeated use of the proposed process, we can reuse a small cantilever for atomic-scale measurements for several times. Therefore, the proposed method solves the two major problems and enables the practical use of a small cantilever in atomic-scale studies on various solid-liquid interfacial phenomena.

  19. Atomic species identification at the (101) anatase surface by simultaneous scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Todorović, Milica; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Moreno, César; Ryan, James William; León, Carmen Pérez; Sagisaka, Keisuke; Palomares, Emilio; Matolín, Vladimír; Fujita, Daisuke; Perez, Ruben; Custance, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Anatase is a pivotal material in devices for energy-harvesting applications and catalysis. Methods for the accurate characterization of this reducible oxide at the atomic scale are critical in the exploration of outstanding properties for technological developments. Here we combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), supported by first-principles calculations, for the simultaneous imaging and unambiguous identification of atomic species at the (101) anatase surface. We demonstrate that dynamic AFM-STM operation allows atomic resolution imaging within the material's band gap. Based on key distinguishing features extracted from calculations and experiments, we identify candidates for the most common surface defects. Our results pave the way for the understanding of surface processes, like adsorption of metal dopants and photoactive molecules, that are fundamental for the catalytic and photovoltaic applications of anatase, and demonstrate the potential of dynamic AFM-STM for the characterization of wide band gap materials. PMID:26118408

  20. Atomic species identification at the (101) anatase surface by simultaneous scanning tunnelling and atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stetsovych, Oleksandr; Todorović, Milica; Shimizu, Tomoko K.; Moreno, César; Ryan, James William; León, Carmen Pérez; Sagisaka, Keisuke; Palomares, Emilio; Matolín, Vladimír; Fujita, Daisuke; Perez, Ruben; Custance, Oscar

    2015-06-01

    Anatase is a pivotal material in devices for energy-harvesting applications and catalysis. Methods for the accurate characterization of this reducible oxide at the atomic scale are critical in the exploration of outstanding properties for technological developments. Here we combine atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM), supported by first-principles calculations, for the simultaneous imaging and unambiguous identification of atomic species at the (101) anatase surface. We demonstrate that dynamic AFM-STM operation allows atomic resolution imaging within the material's band gap. Based on key distinguishing features extracted from calculations and experiments, we identify candidates for the most common surface defects. Our results pave the way for the understanding of surface processes, like adsorption of metal dopants and photoactive molecules, that are fundamental for the catalytic and photovoltaic applications of anatase, and demonstrate the potential of dynamic AFM-STM for the characterization of wide band gap materials.

  1. Observation of Individual Fluorine Atom from Highly Oriented Poly (tetrafluoroethylene) Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Jonathan A.,; Paley, Mark S.

    1999-01-01

    Direct observation of the film thickness, molecular structure and individual fluorine atoms from highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A thin PTFE film is mechanically deposited onto a smooth glass substrate at specific temperatures by a friction transfer technique. Atomic resolution images of these films show that the chain-like helical structures of the PTFE macromolecules are aligned parallel to each other with an intermolecular spacing of 5.72 A, and individual fluorine atoms are clearly observed along these twisted molecular chains with an interatomic spacing of 2.75 A. Furthermore, the first direct AFM measurements for the radius of the fluorine-helix, and of the carbon-helix in sub-angstrom scale are reported as 1.70 A and 0.54 A respectively.

  2. Observation of Individual Fluorine Atoms from Highly Oriented Poly(Tetrafluoroethylene) Films by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    Direct observation of the film thickness, molecular structure, and individual fluorine atoms from highly oriented poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE) films were achieved using atomic force microscopy (AFM). A thin PTFE film is mechanically deposited onto a smooth glass substrate at specific temperatures by a friction-transfer technique. Atomic resolution images of these films show that the chain-like helical structures of the PTFE macromolecules are aligned parallel to each other with an intermolecular spacing of 5.72 A, and individual fluorine atoms are clearly observed along these twisted molecular chains with an interatomic spacing of 2.75 A. Furthermore, the first direct AFM measurements for the radius of the fluorine-helix, and of the carbon-helix in sub-angstrom scale are reported as 1.7 and 0.54 A respectively.

  3. Noninvasive determination of optical lever sensitivity in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.J.; Proksch, R.; Sader, J.E.; Polcik, M.; Mc Endoo, S.; Cleveland, J.P.; Jarvis, S.P.

    2006-01-15

    Atomic force microscopes typically require knowledge of the cantilever spring constant and optical lever sensitivity in order to accurately determine the force from the cantilever deflection. In this study, we investigate a technique to calibrate the optical lever sensitivity of rectangular cantilevers that does not require contact to be made with a surface. This noncontact approach utilizes the method of Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 70, 3967 (1999)] to calibrate the spring constant of the cantilever in combination with the equipartition theorem [J. L. Hutter and J. Bechhoefer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 1868 (1993)] to determine the optical lever sensitivity. A comparison is presented between sensitivity values obtained from conventional static mode force curves and those derived using this noncontact approach for a range of different cantilevers in air and liquid. These measurements indicate that the method offers a quick, alternative approach for the calibration of the optical lever sensitivity.

  4. Discriminating short-range from van der Waals forces using total force data in noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Stefan; Rahe, Philipp

    2014-06-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) features the measurement of forces with highest spatial resolution and sensitivity, resolving forces of the order of pico-Newtons with submolecular resolution. However, the measured total force is a mixture composed of various interactions. While some interactions such as electrostatic or magnetic forces can be excluded by a careful design of the experiment, the subtraction of van der Waals forces, which mainly originate from London dispersion interactions between the macroscopic tip shank and the bulk sample, remains a challenge. We present the determination of the inherently present van der Waals forces in total interaction force data from fitting a suitable model, allowing for extraction of the short-range force component. We compare the applicability of several van der Waals models based on experimental interaction data from the calcite(101¯4) surface. The feasibility to fit these models to experimental data is critically discussed. We furthermore introduce criteria to assess the transition point from pure long-range interaction to mixed short- and long-range forces based on the variance of lateral and vertical force data. This determination allows us to extract the short-range interaction forces, which remained a challenge so far in NC-AFM experiments.

  5. Effects of nonlinear forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Das, Soma; Sreeram, P A; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the effects of nonlinear tip-sample forces on dynamic mode atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy. The jumps and hysteresis observed in the vibration amplitude (A) versus tip-sample distance (h) curves have been traced to bistability in the resonance curve. A numerical analysis of the basic dynamic equation was used to explain the hysteresis in the experimental curve. It has been found that the location of the hysteresis in the A-h curve depends on the frequency of the forced oscillation relative to the natural frequency of the cantilever.

  6. Imaging stability in force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung I; Boehm, Ryan D

    2013-02-01

    We studied the stability of force-feedback high-speed atomic force microscopy (HSAFM) by imaging soft, hard, and biological sample surfaces at various applied forces. The HSAFM images showed sudden topographic variations of streaky fringes with a negative applied force when collected on a soft hydrocarbon film grown on a grating sample, whereas they showed stable topographic features with positive applied forces. The instability of HSAFM images with the negative applied force was explained by the transition between contact and noncontact regimes in the force-distance curve. When the grating surface was cleaned, and thus hydrophilic by removing the hydrocarbon film, enhanced imaging stability was observed at both positive and negative applied forces. The higher adhesive interaction between the tip and the surface explains the improved imaging stability. The effects of imaging rate on the imaging stability were tested on an even softer adhesive Escherichia coli biofilm deposited onto the grating structure. The biofilm and planktonic cell structures in HSAFM images were reproducible within the force deviation less than ∼0.5 nN at the imaging rate up to 0.2s per frame, suggesting that the force-feedback HSAFM was stable for various imaging speeds in imaging softer adhesive biological samples.

  7. Nano Scale Mechanical Analysis of Biomaterials Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutta, Diganta

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a probe-based microscope that uses nanoscale and structural imaging where high resolution is desired. AFM has also been used in mechanical, electrical, and thermal engineering applications. This unique technique provides vital local material properties like the modulus of elasticity, hardness, surface potential, Hamaker constant, and the surface charge density from force versus displacement curve. Therefore, AFM was used to measure both the diameter and mechanical properties of the collagen nanostraws in human costal cartilage. Human costal cartilage forms a bridge between the sternum and bony ribs. The chest wall of some humans is deformed due to defective costal cartilage. However, costal cartilage is less studied compared to load bearing cartilage. Results show that there is a difference between chemical fixation and non-chemical fixation treatments. Our findings imply that the patients' chest wall is mechanically weak and protein deposition is abnormal. This may impact the nanostraws' ability to facilitate fluid flow between the ribs and the sternum. At present, AFM is the only tool for imaging cells' ultra-structure at the nanometer scale because cells are not homogeneous. The first layer of the cell is called the cell membrane, and the layer under it is made of the cytoskeleton. Cancerous cells are different from normal cells in term of cell growth, mechanical properties, and ultra-structure. Here, force is measured with very high sensitivity and this is accomplished with highly sensitive probes such as a nano-probe. We performed experiments to determine ultra-structural differences that emerge when such cancerous cells are subject to treatments such as with drugs and electric pulses. Jurkat cells are cancerous cells. These cells were pulsed at different conditions. Pulsed and non-pulsed Jurkat cell ultra-structures were investigated at the nano meter scale using AFM. Jurkat cell mechanical properties were measured under

  8. Atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions for surface interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Outlaw, R. A.; Heinbockel, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base developed from analysis of the two-body potential data, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas surfaces and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  9. Characterization of new drug delivery nanosystems using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spyratou, Ellas; Mourelatou, Elena A.; Demetzos, C.; Makropoulou, Mersini; Serafetinides, A. A.

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes are the most attractive lipid vesicles for targeted drug delivery in nanomedicine, behaving also as cell models in biophotonics research. The characterization of the micro-mechanical properties of drug carriers is an important issue and many analytical techniques are employed, as, for example, optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. In this work, polyol hyperbranched polymers (HBPs) have been employed along with liposomes for the preparation of new chimeric advanced drug delivery nanosystems (Chi-aDDnSs). Aliphatic polyester HBPs with three different pseudogenerations G2, G3 and G4 with 16, 32, and 64 peripheral hydroxyl groups, respectively, have been incorporated in liposomal formulation. The atomic force microscopy (AFM) technique was used for the comparative study of the morphology and the mechanical properties of Chi-aDDnSs and conventional DDnS. The effects of both the HBPs architecture and the polyesters pseudogeneration number in the stability and the stiffness of chi-aDDnSs were examined. From the force-distance curves of AFM spectroscopy, the Young's modulus was calculated.

  10. VEDA: a web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Melcher, John; Hu, Shuiqing; Raman, Arvind

    2008-06-01

    We describe here the theory and applications of virtual environment dynamic atomic force microscopy (VEDA), a suite of state-of-the-art simulation tools deployed on nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org) for the accurate simulation of tip motion in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) over organic and inorganic samples. VEDA takes advantage of nanoHUB's cyberinfrastructure to run high-fidelity dAFM tip dynamics computations on local clusters and the teragrid. Consequently, these tools are freely accessible and the dAFM simulations are run using standard web-based browsers without requiring additional software. A wide range of issues in dAFM ranging from optimal probe choice, probe stability, and tip-sample interaction forces, power dissipation, to material property extraction and scanning dynamics over hetereogeneous samples can be addressed.

  11. Invited Article: VEDA: A web-based virtual environment for dynamic atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melcher, John; Hu, Shuiqing; Raman, Arvind

    2008-06-01

    We describe here the theory and applications of virtual environment dynamic atomic force microscopy (VEDA), a suite of state-of-the-art simulation tools deployed on nanoHUB (www.nanohub.org) for the accurate simulation of tip motion in dynamic atomic force microscopy (dAFM) over organic and inorganic samples. VEDA takes advantage of nanoHUB's cyberinfrastructure to run high-fidelity dAFM tip dynamics computations on local clusters and the teragrid. Consequently, these tools are freely accessible and the dAFM simulations are run using standard web-based browsers without requiring additional software. A wide range of issues in dAFM ranging from optimal probe choice, probe stability, and tip-sample interaction forces, power dissipation, to material property extraction and scanning dynamics over hetereogeneous samples can be addressed.

  12. Surface microstructure of bitumen characterized by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaokong; Burnham, Nancy A; Tao, Mingjiang

    2015-04-01

    Bitumen, also called asphalt binder, plays important roles in many industrial applications. It is used as the primary binding agent in asphalt concrete, as a key component in damping systems such as rubber, and as an indispensable additive in paint and ink. Consisting of a large number of hydrocarbons of different sizes and polarities, together with heteroatoms and traces of metals, bitumen displays rich surface microstructures that affect its rheological properties. This paper reviews the current understanding of bitumen's surface microstructures characterized by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microstructures of bitumen develop to different forms depending on crude oil source, thermal history, and sample preparation method. While some bitumens display surface microstructures with fine domains, flake-like domains, and dendrite structuring, 'bee-structures' with wavy patterns several micrometers in diameter and tens of nanometers in height are commonly seen in other binders. Controversy exists regarding the chemical origin of the 'bee-structures', which has been related to the asphaltene fraction, the metal content, or the crystallizing waxes in bitumen. The rich chemistry of bitumen can result in complicated intermolecular associations such as coprecipitation of wax and metalloporphyrins in asphaltenes. Therefore, it is the molecular interactions among the different chemical components in bitumen, rather than a single chemical fraction, that are responsible for the evolution of bitumen's diverse microstructures, including the 'bee-structures'. Mechanisms such as curvature elasticity and surface wrinkling that explain the rippled structures observed in polymer crystals might be responsible for the formation of 'bee-structures' in bitumen. Despite the progress made on morphological characterization of bitumen using AFM, the fundamental question whether the microstructures observed on bitumen surfaces represent its bulk structure remains to be addressed. In addition

  13. Atomic-scale sharpening of silicon tips in noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Caciuc, V; Hölscher, H; Blügel, S; Fuchs, H

    2006-01-13

    The atomic-scale stability of clean silicon tips used in noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) is simulated by ab initio calculations based on density functional theory. The tip structures are modeled by silicon clusters with and termination. For the often assumed Si(111)-type tip we observe the sharpening of the initially blunt tip via short-range chemical forces during the first approach and retraction cycle. The structural changes corresponding to this intrinsic process are irreversible and lead to stable NC-AFM imaging conditions. In opposition to the picture used in literature, the Si(001)-type tip does not exhibit the so-called "two-dangling bond" feature as a bulklike termination suggests.

  14. Interpreting motion and force for narrow-band intermodulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Platz, Daniel; Forchheimer, Daniel; Tholén, Erik A; Haviland, David B

    2013-01-01

    Intermodulation atomic force microscopy (ImAFM) is a mode of dynamic atomic force microscopy that probes the nonlinear tip-surface force by measurement of the mixing of multiple modes in a frequency comb. A high-quality factor cantilever resonance and a suitable drive comb will result in tip motion described by a narrow-band frequency comb. We show, by a separation of time scales, that such motion is equivalent to rapid oscillations at the cantilever resonance with a slow amplitude and phase or frequency modulation. With this time-domain perspective, we analyze single oscillation cycles in ImAFM to extract the Fourier components of the tip-surface force that are in-phase with the tip motion (F(I)) and quadrature to the motion (F(Q)). Traditionally, these force components have been considered as a function of the static-probe height only. Here we show that F(I) and F(Q) actually depend on both static-probe height and oscillation amplitude. We demonstrate on simulated data how to reconstruct the amplitude dependence of F(I) and F(Q) from a single ImAFM measurement. Furthermore, we introduce ImAFM approach measurements with which we reconstruct the full amplitude and probe-height dependence of the force components F(I) and F(Q), providing deeper insight into the tip-surface interaction. We demonstrate the capabilities of ImAFM approach measurements on a polystyrene polymer surface.

  15. Atomic force microscopy combined with optical microscopy for cells investigation.

    PubMed

    Cascione, Mariafrancesca; de Matteis, Valeria; Rinaldi, Rosaria; Leporatti, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    This review reports on the combined use of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and several type of optical/fluorescence/laser scanning microscopy for investigating cells. It is shown that the hybrid systems of AFM with optical-derived microscopies enable to study in detail cell surface properties (such as topography), their mechanical properties (e.g., Young's modulus) mechanotransduction phenomena and allow to gain insight into biological-related pathways and mechanisms in the complex nanoworld of cells. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:109-123, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Atomic force microscopy of electrospun organic-inorganic lipid nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinhong; Cohn, Celine; Qiu, Weiguo; Zha, Zhengbao; Dai, Zhifei; Wu, Xiaoyi

    2011-09-01

    An organic-inorganic hybridization strategy has been proposed to synthesize polymerizable lipid-based materials for the creation of highly stable lipid-mimetic nanostructures. We employ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to analyze the surface morphology and mechanical property of electrospun cholesteryl-succinyl silane (CSS) nanofibers. The AFM nanoindentation of the CSS nanofibers reveals elastic moduli of 55.3 ± 27.6 to 70.8 ± 35 MPa, which is significantly higher than the moduli of natural phospholipids and cholesterols. The study shows that organic-inorganic hybridization is useful in the design of highly stable lipid-based materials.

  17. Digital atomic force microscope moiré method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chia-Ming; Chen, Lien-Wen

    2004-11-01

    In this study, a novel digital atomic force microscope (AFM) moiré method is established to measure the displacement and strain fields. The moiré pattern is generated by the interference between the specimen grating and the virtual reference grating formed by digital image processes. The overlapped image is filtered by the 2-D wavelet transformation to obtain clear interference moiré patterns. From moiré patterns, the displacement and strain fields can be analyzed. The experimental results show that the digital AFM moiré method is very sensitive and easy to realize in nanoscale measurements.

  18. Two-axis probing system for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jayanth, G R; Jhiang, Sissy M; Menq, Chia-Hsiang

    2008-02-01

    A novel two-axis probing system is proposed for multiaxis atomic force microscopy (AFM). It employs a compliant manipulator that is optimally designed in terms of geometries and kinematics, and is actuated by multiple magnetic actuators to simultaneously control tip position and change tip orientation to achieve greater accessibility of the sample surface when imaging surfaces having large geometric variations. It leads to the creation of a multiaxis AFM system, which is a three-dimensional surface tool rather than a two-dimensional planar surface tool. The use of the system to scan the bottom corner of a grating step is reported.

  19. Fountain pen nanochemistry: Atomic force control of chrome etching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Aaron; Kheifetz, Yuri; Shambrodt, Efim; Radko, Anna; Khatchatryan, Edward; Sukenik, Chaim

    1999-10-01

    In this report we demonstrate a general method for affecting chemical reactions with a high degree of spatial control that has potentially wide applicability in science and technology. Our technique is based on complexing the delivery of liquid or gaseous materials through a cantilevered micropipette with an atomic force microscope that is totally integrated into a conventional optical microscope. Controlled etching of chrome is demonstrated without detectable effects on the underlying glass substrate. This simple combination allows for the nanometric spatial control of the whole world of chemical reactions in defined regions of surfaces. Applications of the technique in critical areas such as mask repair are likely.

  20. Magnetostriction-driven cantilevers for dynamic atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penedo, M.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Costa-Krämer, J. L.; Luna, M.; Briones, F.

    2009-10-01

    An actuation mode is presented to drive the mechanical oscillation of cantilevers for dynamic atomic force microscopy. The method is based on direct mechanical excitation of the cantilevers coated with amorphous Fe-B-N thin films, by means of the film magnetostriction, i.e., the dimensional change in the film when magnetized. These amorphous magnetostrictive Fe-B-N thin films exhibit soft magnetic properties, excellent corrosion resistance in liquid environments, nearly zero accumulated stress when properly deposited, and good chemical stability. We present low noise and high resolution topographic images acquired in liquid environment to demonstrate the method capability.

  1. Chromatin Imaging with Time-Lapse Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.

    2016-01-01

    Time-lapse atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used for direct visualization of the nanoscale dynamics of various biological systems. The advent of high-speed AFM instrumentation made it possible to image the dynamics of proteins and protein-DNA complexes within millisecond time range. This chapter describes protocols for studies of structure and dynamics of nucleosomes with time-lapse AFM including the high-speed AFM instrument. The necessary specifics for the preparation of chromatin samples for imaging with AFM including the protocols for the surface preparation are provided. PMID:25827873

  2. Understanding the plasmonics of nanostructured atomic force microscopy tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, A.; Bowman, R. W.; Zhang, L.; Turek, V.; Sigle, D. O.; Lombardi, A.; Weller, L.; Baumberg, J. J.

    2016-10-01

    Structured metallic tips are increasingly important for optical spectroscopies such as tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy, with plasmonic resonances frequently cited as a mechanism for electric field enhancement. We probe the local optical response of sharp and spherical-tipped atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips using a scanning hyperspectral imaging technique to identify the plasmonic behaviour. Localised surface plasmon resonances which radiatively couple with far-field light are found only for spherical AFM tips, with little response for sharp AFM tips, in agreement with numerical simulations of the near-field response. The precise tip geometry is thus crucial for plasmon-enhanced spectroscopies, and the typical sharp cones are not preferred.

  3. Atomic force microscopy of lead iodide crystal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, M. A.; Azoulay, M.; Jayatirtha, H. N.; Biao, Y.; Burger, A.; Collins, W. E.; Silberman, E.

    1994-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to characterize the surface of lead iodide crystals. The high vapor pressure of lead iodide prohibits the use of traditional high resolution surface study techniques that require high vacuum conditions. AFM was used to image numerous insulating surface in various ambients, with very little sample preparation techniques needed. Freshly cleaved and modified surfaces, including, chemical and vacuum etched, and air aged surfaces, were examined. Both intrinsic and induced defects were imaged with high resolution. The results were compared to a similar AFM study of mercuric iodide surfaces and it was found that, at ambient conditions, lead iodide is significantly more stable than mercuric iodide.

  4. CO tip functionalization in subatomic resolution atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Minjung; Chelikowsky, James R.

    2015-10-19

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) employing a CO-functionalized tip displays dramatically enhanced resolution wherein covalent bonds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon can be imaged. Employing real-space pseudopotential first-principles calculations, we examine the role of CO in functionalizing the nc-AFM tip. Our calculations allow us to simulate full AFM images and ascertain the enhancement mechanism of the CO molecule. We consider two approaches: one with an explicit inclusion of the CO molecule and one without. By comparing our simulations to existing experimental images, we ascribe the enhanced resolution of the CO functionalized tip to the special orbital characteristics of the CO molecule.

  5. Thermal calibration of photodiode sensitivity for atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Attard, Phil; Pettersson, Torbjoern; Rutland, Mark W.

    2006-11-15

    The photodiode sensitivity in the atomic force microscope is calibrated by relating the voltage noise to the thermal fluctuations of the cantilever angle. The method accounts for the ratio of the thermal fluctuations measured in the fundamental vibration mode to the total, and also for the tilt and extended tip of the cantilever. The method is noncontact and is suitable for soft or deformable surfaces where the constant compliance method cannot be used. For hard surfaces, the method can also be used to calibrate the cantilever spring constant.

  6. Mechanical properties of biological specimens explored by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasas, S.; Longo, G.; Dietler, G.

    2013-04-01

    The atomic force microscope is a widely used surface scanning apparatus capable of reconstructing at a nanometric scale resolution the 3D morphology of biological samples. Due to its unique sensitivity, it is now increasingly used as a force sensor, to characterize the mechanical properties of specimens with a similar lateral resolution. This unique capability has produced, in the last years, a vast increase in the number of groups that have exploited the versatility and sensitivity of the instrument to explore the nanomechanics of various samples in the fields of biology, microbiology and medicine. In this review we outline the state of the art in this field, reporting the most interesting recent works involving the exploration of the nanomechanical properties of various biological samples.

  7. Analysis of the physical atomic forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions and halogen ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Heinbockel, J. H.; Outlaw, R. A.

    1986-01-01

    The physical forces between atoms and molecules are important in a number of processes of practical importance, including line broadening in radiative processes, gas and crystal properties, adhesion, and thin films. The components of the physical forces between noble gas atoms, alkali ions, and halogen ions are analyzed and a data base for the dispersion forces is developed from the literature based on evaluations with the harmonic oscillator dispersion model for higher order coefficients. The Zener model of the repulsive core is used in the context of the recent asymptotic wave functions of Handler and Smith; and an effective ionization potential within the Handler and Smith wave functions is defined to analyze the two body potential data of Waldman and Gordon, the alkali-halide molecular data, and the noble gas crystal and salt crystal data. A satisfactory global fit to this molecular and crystal data is then reproduced by the model to within several percent. Surface potentials are evaluated for noble gas atoms on noble gas and salt crystal surfaces with surface tension neglected. Within this context, the noble gas surface potentials on noble gas and salt crystals are considered to be accurate to within several percent.

  8. Carbon Nanotube Atomic Force Microscopy for Proteomics and Biological Forensics

    SciTech Connect

    Noy, A; De Yoreo, J J; Malkin, A J

    2002-01-01

    The Human Genome Project was focused on mapping the complete genome. Yet, understanding the structure and function of the proteins expressed by the genome is the real end game. But there are approximately 100,000 proteins in the human body and the atomic structure has been determined for less than 1% of them. Given the current rate at which structures are being solved, it will take more than one hundred years to complete this task. The rate-limiting step in protein structure determination is the growth of high-quality single crystals for X-ray diffraction. Synthesis of the protein stock solution as well as X-ray diffraction and analysis can now often be done in a matter of weeks, but developing a recipe for crystallization can take years and, especially in the case of membrane proteins, is often completely unsuccessful. Consequently, techniques that can either help to elucidate the factors controlling macromolecular crystallization, increase the amount of structural information obtained from crystallized macromolecules or eliminate the need for crystallization altogether are of enormous importance. In addition, potential applications for those techniques extend well beyond the challenges of proteomics. The global spread of modern technology has brought with it an increasing threat from biological agents such as viruses. As a result, developing techniques for identifying and understanding the operation of such agents is becoming a major area of forensic research for DOE. Previous to this project, we have shown that we can use in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) to image the surfaces of growing macromolecular crystals with molecular resolution (1-5) In addition to providing unprecedented information about macromolecular nucleation, growth and defect structure, these results allowed us to obtain low-resolution phase information for a number of macromolecules, providing structural information that was not obtainable from X-ray diffraction(3). For some virus systems

  9. Taking nanomedicine teaching into practice with atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Freitas, Teresa; Santos, Nuno C

    2015-12-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful and powerful tool to study molecular interactions applied to nanomedicine. The aim of the present study was to implement a hands-on atomic AFM course for graduated biosciences and medical students. The course comprises two distinct practical sessions, where students get in touch with the use of an atomic force microscope by performing AFM scanning images of human blood cells and force spectroscopy measurements of the fibrinogen-platelet interaction. Since the beginning of this course, in 2008, the overall rating by the students was 4.7 (out of 5), meaning a good to excellent evaluation. Students were very enthusiastic and produced high-quality AFM images and force spectroscopy data. The implementation of the hands-on AFM course was a success, giving to the students the opportunity of contact with a technique that has a wide variety of applications on the nanomedicine field. In the near future, nanomedicine will have remarkable implications in medicine regarding the definition, diagnosis, and treatment of different diseases. AFM enables students to observe single molecule interactions, enabling the understanding of molecular mechanisms of different physiological and pathological processes at the nanoscale level. Therefore, the introduction of nanomedicine courses in bioscience and medical school curricula is essential.

  10. Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy: An Emerging Tool for Fundamental Catalysis Research.

    PubMed

    Altman, Eric I; Baykara, Mehmet Z; Schwarz, Udo D

    2015-09-15

    molecule. These advances highlight the potential for NC-AFM-based methods to become the cornerstone upon which a quantitative atomic scale view of each step of a catalytic process may be gained. Realizing this potential will rely on two breakthroughs: (1) development of robust methods for tip functionalization and (2) simplification of NC-AFM instrumentation and control schemes. Quartz force sensors may offer paths forward in both cases. They allow any material with an atomic asperity to be used as a tip, opening the door to a wide range of surface functionalization chemistry. In addition, they do not suffer from the instabilities that motivated the initial adoption of complex control strategies that are still used today.

  11. Stretching of Single Polymer Chains Using the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz, C.; van der Vegte, E. W.; van Swieten, E.; Robillard, G. T.; Hadziioannou, G.

    1998-03-01

    A variety of macroscopic phenomenon involve "nanoscale" polymer deformation including rubber elasticity, shear yielding, strain hardening, stress relaxation, fracture, and flow. With the advent of new and improved experimental techniques, such as the atomic force microscope (AFM), the probing of physical properties of polymers has reached finer and finer scales. The development of mixed self-assembling monolayer techniques and the chemical functionalization of AFM probe tips has allowed for mechanical experiments on single polymer chains of molecular dimensions. In our experiments, mixed monolayers are prepared in which end-functionalized, flexible polymer chains of thiol-terminated poly(methacrylic acid) are covalently bonded, isolated, and randomly distributed on gold substrates. The coils are then imaged, tethered to a gold-coated AFM tip, and stretched between the tip and the substrate in a conventional force / distance experiment. An increase in the attractive force due to entropic, elastic resistance to stretching, as well as fracture of the polymer chain is observed. The effect of chain stiffness, topological constraints, strain rate, mechanical hysteresis, and stress relaxation were investigated. Force modulation techniques were also employed in order to image the viscoelastic character of the polymer chains. Parallel work includes similar studies of biological systems such as wheat gluten proteins and polypeptides.

  12. Three-dimensional atomic force microscopy: interaction force vector by direct observation of tip trajectory.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, Krishna P; Grayer, Justin S; King, Gavin M

    2013-11-13

    The prospect of a robust three-dimensional atomic force microscope (AFM) holds significant promise in nanoscience. Yet, in conventional AFM, the tip-sample interaction force vector is not directly accessible. We scatter a focused laser directly off an AFM tip apex to rapidly and precisely measure the tapping tip trajectory in three-dimensional space. This data also yields three-dimensional cantilever spring constants, effective masses, and hence, the tip-sample interaction force components via Newton's second law. Significant lateral forces representing 49 and 13% of the normal force (Fz = 152 ± 17 pN) were observed in common tapping mode conditions as a silicon tip intermittently contacted a glass substrate in aqueous solution; as a consequence, the direction of the force vector tilted considerably more than expected. When addressing the surface of a lipid bilayer, the behavior of the force components differed significantly from that observed on glass. This is attributed to the lateral mobility of the lipid membrane coupled with its elastic properties. Direct access to interaction components Fx, Fy, and Fz provides a more complete view of tip dynamics that underlie force microscope operation and can form the foundation of a three-dimensional AFM in a plurality of conditions.

  13. Real-Time Nanoparticle–Cell Interactions in Physiological Media by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Particle–cell interactions in physiological media are important in determining the fate and transport of nanoparticles and biological responses to them. In this work, these interactions are assessed in real time using a novel atomic force microscopy (AFM) based platform. Industry-relevant CeO2 and Fe2O3 engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) of two primary particle sizes were synthesized by the flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) based Harvard Versatile Engineering Nanomaterials Generation System (Harvard VENGES) and used in this study. The ENPs were attached on AFM tips, and the atomic force between the tip and lung epithelia cells (A549), adhered on a substrate, was measured in biological media, with and without the presence of serum proteins. Two metrics were used to assess the nanoparticle cell: the detachment force required to separate the ENP from the cell and the number of bonds formed between the cell and the ENPs. The results indicate that these atomic level ENP–cell interaction forces strongly depend on the physiological media. The presence of serum proteins reduced both the detachment force and the number of bonds by approximately 50% indicating the important role of the protein corona on the particle cell interactions. Additionally, it was shown that particle to cell interactions were size and material dependent. PMID:25068097

  14. Lateral force microscope calibration using a modified atomic force microscope cantilever

    SciTech Connect

    Reitsma, M. G.

    2007-10-15

    A proof-of-concept study is presented for a prototype atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever and associated calibration procedure that provide a path for quantitative friction measurement using a lateral force microscope (LFM). The calibration procedure is based on the method proposed by Feiler et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 71, 2746 (2000)] but allows for calibration and friction measurements to be carried out in situ and with greater precision. The modified AFM cantilever is equipped with lateral lever arms that facilitate the application of normal and lateral forces, comparable to those acting in a typical LFM friction experiment. The technique allows the user to select acceptable precision via a potentially unlimited number of calibration measurements across the full working range of the LFM photodetector. A microfabricated version of the cantilever would be compatible with typical commercial AFM instrumentation and allow for common AFM techniques such as topography imaging and other surface force measurements to be performed.

  15. Atomic force microscopy to study intermolecular forces and bonds associated with bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lower, Steven K

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) operates on a very different principle than other forms of microscopy, such as optical microscopy or electron microscopy. The key component of an AFM is a cantilever that bends in response to forces that it experiences as it touches another surface. Forces as small as a few picoNewtons can be detected and probed with AFM. AFM has become very useful in biological sciences because it can be used on living cells that are immersed in water. AFM is particularly useful when the cantilever is modified with chemical groups (e.g. amine or carboxylic groups), small beads (e.g. glass or latex), or even a bacterium. This chapter describes how AFM can be used to measure forces and bonds between a bacterium and another surface. This paper also provides an example of the use of AFM on Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive bacterium that is often associated with biofilms in humans.

  16. Combined atomic force microscopy and voltage pulse technique to accurately measure electrostatic force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inami, Eiichi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2016-08-01

    We propose a new method of extracting electrostatic force. The technique is based on frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) combined with a voltage pulse. In this method, the work that the electrostatic field does on the oscillating tip is measured through the cantilever energy dissipation. This allows us to directly extract capacitive forces including the longer range part, to which the conventional FM-AFM is insensitive. The distance-dependent contact potential difference, which is modulated by local charges distributed on the surfaces of the tip and/or sample, could also be correctly obtained. In the absence of local charges, our method can perfectly reproduce the electrostatic force as a function of the distance and the bias voltage. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the system serves as a sensitive sensor enabling us to check the existence of the local charges such as trapped charges and patch charges.

  17. Easy and direct method for calibrating atomic force microscopy lateral force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhua; Bonin, Keith; Guthold, Martin

    2010-01-01

    We have designed and tested a new, inexpensive, easy-to-make and easy-to-use calibration standard for atomic force microscopy (AFM) lateral force measurements. This new standard simply consists of a small glass fiber of known dimensions and Young’s modulus, which is fixed at one end to a substrate and which can be bent laterally with the AFM tip at the other end. This standard has equal or less error than the commonly used method of using beam mechanics to determine a cantilever’s lateral force constant. It is transferable, thus providing a universal tool for comparing the calibrations of different instruments. It does not require knowledge of the cantilever dimensions and composition or its tip height. This standard also allows direct conversion of the photodiode signal to force and, thus, circumvents the requirement for a sensor response (sensitivity) measurement. PMID:17614616

  18. High resolution atomic force microscopy of double-stranded RNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ares, Pablo; Fuentes-Perez, Maria Eugenia; Herrero-Galán, Elías; Valpuesta, José M.; Gil, Adriana; Gomez-Herrero, Julio; Moreno-Herrero, Fernando

    2016-06-01

    Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to resolve the A-form sub-helical pitch periodicity. We have employed different high-sensitive force-detection methods and obtained images with similar spatial resolution. Therefore, we show here that the limiting factors for high-resolution AFM imaging of soft materials in liquid medium are, rather than the imaging mode, the force between the tip and the sample and the sharpness of the tip apex.Double-stranded (ds) RNA mediates the suppression of specific gene expression, it is the genetic material of a number of viruses, and a key activator of the innate immune response against viral infections. The ever increasing list of roles played by dsRNA in the cell and its potential biotechnological applications over the last decade has raised an interest for the characterization of its mechanical properties and structure, and that includes approaches using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and other single-molecule techniques. Recent reports have resolved the structure of dsDNA with AFM at unprecedented resolution. However, an equivalent study with dsRNA is still lacking. Here, we have visualized the double helix of dsRNA under near-physiological conditions and at sufficient resolution to

  19. Multifarious applications of atomic force microscopy in forensic science investigations.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Gaurav; Tharmavaram, Maithri; Rawtani, Deepak; Kumar, Sumit; Agrawal, Y

    2017-04-01

    Forensic science is a wide field comprising of several subspecialties and uses methods derived from natural sciences for finding criminals and other evidence valid in a legal court. A relatively new area; Nano-forensics brings a new era of investigation in forensic science in which instantaneous results can be produced that determine various agents such as explosive gasses, biological agents and residues in different crime scenes and terrorist activity investigations. This can be achieved by applying Nanotechnology and its associated characterization techniques in forensic sciences. Several characterization techniques exist in Nanotechnology and nano-analysis is one such technique that is used in forensic science which includes Electron microscopes (EM) like Transmission (TEM) and Scanning (SEM), Raman microscopy (Micro -Raman) and Scanning Probe Microscopes (SPMs) like Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). Atomic force microscopy enables surface characterization of different materials by examining their morphology and mechanical properties. Materials that are immeasurable such as hair, body fluids, textile fibers, documents, polymers, pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs), etc. are often encountered during forensic investigations. This review article will mainly focus on the use of AFM in the examination of different evidence such as blood stains, forged documents, human hair samples, ammunitions, explosives, and other such applications in the field of Forensic Science.

  20. Atomic-force-controlled capillary electrophoretic nanoprinting of proteins.

    PubMed

    Lovsky, Yulia; Lewis, Aaron; Sukenik, Chaim; Grushka, Eli

    2010-01-01

    The general nanoprinting and nanoinjection of proteins on non-conducting or conducting substrates with a high degree of control both in terms of positional and timing accuracy is an important goal that could impact diverse fields from biotechnology (protein chips) to molecular electronics and from fundamental studies in cell biology to nanophotonics. In this paper, we combine capillary electrophoresis (CE), a separation method with considerable control of protein movement, with the unparalleled positional accuracy of an atomic force microscope (AFM). This combination provides the ability to electrophoretically or electroosmotically correlate the timing of protein migration with AFM control of the protein deposition at a high concentration in defined locations and highly confined volumes estimated to be 2 al. Electrical control of bovine serum albumin printing on standard protein-spotting glass substrates is demonstrated. For this advance, fountain pen nanolithography (FPN) that uses cantilevered glass-tapered capillaries is amended with the placement of electrodes on the nanopipette itself. This results in imposed voltages that are three orders of magnitude less than what is normally used in capillary electrophoresis. The development of atomic-force-controlled capillary electrophoretic printing (ACCEP) has the potential for electrophoretic separation, with high resolution, both in time and in space. The large voltage drop at the tip of the tapered nanopipettes allows for significant increases in concentration of protein in the small printed volumes. All of these attributes combine to suggest that this methodology should have a significant impact in science and technology.

  1. Note: Electrical resolution during conductive atomic force microscopy measurements under different environmental conditions and contact forces

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, M.; Porti, M.; Nafria, M.; Aymerich, X.; Whittaker, E.; Hamilton, B.

    2010-10-15

    Conductive atomic force microscopy experiments on gate dielectrics in air, nitrogen, and UHV have been compared to evaluate the impact of the environment on topography and electrical measurements. In current images, an increase of the lateral resolution and a reduction of the conductivity were observed in N{sub 2} and, especially, in UHV (where current depends also on the contact force). Both effects were related to the reduction/elimination of the water layer between the tip and the sample in N{sub 2}/UHV. Therefore, since current measurements are very sensitive to environmental conditions, these factors must be taken into consideration when comparisons between several experiments are performed.

  2. Significant improvements in stability and reproducibility of atomic-scale atomic force microscopy in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akrami, S. M. R.; Nakayachi, H.; Watanabe-Nakayama, T.; Asakawa, H.; Fukuma, T.

    2014-11-01

    Recent advancement of dynamic-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) for liquid-environment applications enabled atomic-scale studies on various interfacial phenomena. However, instabilities and poor reproducibility of the measurements often prevent systematic studies. To solve this problem, we have investigated the effect of various tip treatment methods for atomic-scale imaging and force measurements in liquid. The tested methods include Si coating, Ar plasma, Ar sputtering and UV/O3 cleaning. We found that all the methods provide significant improvements in both the imaging and force measurements in spite of the tip transfer through the air. Among the methods, we found that the Si coating provides the best stability and reproducibility in the measurements. To understand the origin of the fouling resistance of the cleaned tip surface and the difference between the cleaning methods, we have investigated the tip surface properties by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and contact angle measurements. The results show that the contaminations adsorbed on the tip during the tip transfer through the air should desorb from the surface when it is immersed in aqueous solution due to the enhanced hydrophilicity by the tip treatments. The tip surface prepared by the Si coating is oxidized when it is immersed in aqueous solution. This creates local spots where stable hydration structures are formed. For the other methods, there is no active mechanism to create such local hydration sites. Thus, the hydration structure formed under the tip apex is not necessarily stable. These results reveal the desirable tip properties for atomic-scale AFM measurements in liquid, which should serve as a guideline for further improvements of the tip treatment methods.

  3. Robust high-resolution imaging and quantitative force measurement with tuned-oscillator atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dagdeviren, Omur E; Götzen, Jan; Hölscher, Hendrik; Altman, Eric I; Schwarz, Udo D

    2016-02-12

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and spectroscopy are based on locally detecting the interactions between a surface and a sharp probe tip. For highest resolution imaging, noncontact modes that avoid tip-sample contact are used; control of the tip's vertical position is accomplished by oscillating the tip and detecting perturbations induced by its interaction with the surface potential. Due to this potential's nonlinear nature, however, achieving reliable control of the tip-sample distance is challenging, so much so that despite its power vacuum-based noncontact AFM has remained a niche technique. Here we introduce a new pathway to distance control that prevents instabilities by externally tuning the oscillator's response characteristics. A major advantage of this operational scheme is that it delivers robust position control in both the attractive and repulsive regimes with only one feedback loop, thereby providing an easy-to-implement route to atomic resolution imaging and quantitative tip-sample interaction force measurement.

  4. Isoelectric point of fluorite by direct force measurements using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Assemi, Shoeleh; Nalaskowski, Jakub; Miller, Jan D; Johnson, William P

    2006-02-14

    Interaction forces between a fluorite (CaF2) surface and colloidal silica were measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) in 1 x 10(-3) M NaNO3 at different pH values. Forces between the silica colloid and fluorite flat were measured at a range of pH values above the isoelectric point (IEP) of silica so that the forces were mainly controlled by the fluorite surface charge. In this way, the IEP of the fluorite surface was deduced from AFM force curves at pH approximately 9.2. Experimental force versus separation distance curves were in good agreement with theoretical predictions based on long-range electrostatic interactions, allowing the potential of the fluorite surface to be estimated from the experimental force curves. AFM-deduced surface potentials were generally lower than the published zeta potentials obtained from electrokinetic methods for powdered samples. Differences in methodology, orientation of the fluorite, surface carbonation, and equilibration time all could have contributed to this difference.

  5. Nanoscale Characterization and Determination of Adhesion Forces of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pili by Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Touhami, Ahmed; Jericho, Manfred H.; Boyd, Jessica M.; Beveridge, Terry J.

    2006-01-01

    Type IV pili play an important role in bacterial adhesion, motility, and biofilm formation. Here we present high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of type IV pili from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. An individual pilus ranges in length from 0.5 to 7 μm and has a diameter from 4 to 6 nm, although often, pili bundles in which the individual filaments differed in both length and diameter were seen. By attaching bacteria to AFM tips, it was possible to fasten the bacteria to mica surfaces by pili tethers. Force spectra of tethered pili gave rupture forces of 95 pN. The slopes of force curves close to the rupture force were nearly linear but showed little variation with pilus length. Furthermore, force curves could not be fitted with wormlike-chain polymer stretch models when using realistic persistence lengths for pili. The observation that the slopes near rupture did not depend on the pili length suggests that they do not represent elastic properties of the pili. It is possible that this region of the force curves is determined by an elastic element that is part of the bacterial wall, although further experiments are needed to confirm this. PMID:16385026

  6. Atomic force microscopy based repeatable surface nanomachining for nanochannels on silicon substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhuxin; Wejinya, Uchechukwu C.

    2012-09-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based repeatable nanomachining for nanochannels on bare silicon surfaces is investigated experimentally for automated nano manufacturing applications. The relationship between the normal force applied on the AFM cantilever and the channel depth is established and analyzed using both linear and logarithmic fits. Thus, current results can be regarded as the calibration reference in order to accurately predict the nanochannel depth for additional nanotechnology related applications. An accurate prediction of the depth is not only for accuracy and efficiency, but also to prevent a costly diamond tip from unnecessary wear and tear. Furthermore, the experimental results also reveal that the fabrication procedure is repeatable.

  7. Determination of electrostatic force and its characteristics based on phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Kesheng; Cheng, Jia; Yao, Shiji; Lu, Yijia; Ji, Linhong; Xu, Dengfeng

    2016-12-01

    Electrostatic force measurement at the micro/nano scale is of great significance in science and engineering. In this paper, a reasonable way of applying voltage is put forward by taking an electrostatic chuck in a real integrated circuit manufacturing process as a sample, applying voltage in the probe and the sample electrode, respectively, and comparing the measurement effect of the probe oscillation phase difference by amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy. Based on the phase difference obtained from the experiment, the quantitative dependence of the absolute magnitude of the electrostatic force on the tip-sample distance and applied voltage is established by means of theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The results show that the varying characteristics of the electrostatic force with the distance and voltage at the micro/nano scale are similar to those at the macroscopic scale. Electrostatic force gradually decays with increasing distance. Electrostatic force is basically proportional to the square of applied voltage. Meanwhile, the applicable conditions of the above laws are discussed. In addition, a comparison of the results in this paper with the results of the energy dissipation method shows the two are consistent in general. The error decreases with increasing distance, and the effect of voltage on the error is small.

  8. Resonance frequency-retuned quartz tuning fork as a force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ooe, Hiroaki; Sakuishi, Tatsuya; Arai, Toyoko; Nogami, Makoto; Tomitori, Masahiko

    2014-07-28

    Based on a two-prong type quartz tuning fork, a force sensor with a high Q factor, which we call a retuned fork sensor, was developed for non-contact atomic force microscopy (nc-AFM) with atomic resolution. By cutting a small notch and attaching an AFM tip to one prong, its resonance frequency can be retuned to that of the other intact prong. In balancing the two prongs in this manner, a high Q factor (>50 000 in ultrahigh vacuum) is obtained for the sensor. An atomic resolution image of the Si(111)-7 × 7 surface was demonstrated using an nc-AFM with the sensor. The dependence of the Q factor on resonance frequency of the sensor and the long-range force between tip and sample were measured and analyzed in view of the various dissipation channels. Dissipation in the signal detection circuit turned out to be mainly limited by the total Q factor of the nc-AFM system.

  9. Multifunctional hydrogel nano-probes for atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jae Seol; Song, Jungki; Kim, Seong Oh; Kim, Seokbeom; Lee, Wooju; Jackman, Joshua A.; Kim, Dongchoul; Cho, Nam-Joon; Lee, Jungchul

    2016-05-01

    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) three decades ago, there have been numerous advances in its measurement capabilities. Curiously, throughout these developments, the fundamental nature of the force-sensing probe--the key actuating element--has remained largely unchanged. It is produced by long-established microfabrication etching strategies and typically composed of silicon-based materials. Here, we report a new class of photopolymerizable hydrogel nano-probes that are produced by bottom-up fabrication with compressible replica moulding. The hydrogel probes demonstrate excellent capabilities for AFM imaging and force measurement applications while enabling programmable, multifunctional capabilities based on compositionally adjustable mechanical properties and facile encapsulation of various nanomaterials. Taken together, the simple, fast and affordable manufacturing route and multifunctional capabilities of hydrogel AFM nano-probes highlight the potential of soft matter mechanical transducers in nanotechnology applications. The fabrication scheme can also be readily utilized to prepare hydrogel cantilevers, including in parallel arrays, for nanomechanical sensor devices.

  10. Investigating single molecule adhesion by atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Stetter, Frank W S; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-02-27

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment.

  11. A new ion sensing deep atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, Barney; Randall, Connor; Bridges, Daniel; Hansma, Paul K.

    2014-08-15

    Here we describe a new deep atomic force microscope (AFM) capable of ion sensing. A novel probe assembly incorporates a micropipette that can be used both for sensing ion currents and as the tip for AFM imaging. The key advance of this instrument over previous ion sensing AFMs is that it uses conventional micropipettes in a novel suspension system. This paper focuses on sensing the ion current passively while using force feedback for the operation of the AFM in contact mode. Two images are obtained simultaneously: (1) an AFM topography image and (2) an ion current image. As an example, two images of a MEMS device with a microchannel show peaks in the ion current as the pipette tip goes over the edges of the channel. This ion sensing AFM can also be used in other modes including tapping mode with force feedback as well as in non-contact mode by utilizing the ion current for feedback, as in scanning ion conductance microscopy. The instrument is gentle enough to be used on some biological samples such as plant leaves.

  12. Investigating Single Molecule Adhesion by Atomic Force Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Stetter, Frank W. S.; Kienle, Sandra; Krysiak, Stefanie; Hugel, Thorsten

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force spectroscopy is an ideal tool to study molecules at surfaces and interfaces. An experimental protocol to couple a large variety of single molecules covalently onto an AFM tip is presented. At the same time the AFM tip is passivated to prevent unspecific interactions between the tip and the substrate, which is a prerequisite to study single molecules attached to the AFM tip. Analyses to determine the adhesion force, the adhesion length, and the free energy of these molecules on solid surfaces and bio-interfaces are shortly presented and external references for further reading are provided. Example molecules are the poly(amino acid) polytyrosine, the graft polymer PI-g-PS and the phospholipid POPE (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine). These molecules are desorbed from different surfaces like CH3-SAMs, hydrogen terminated diamond and supported lipid bilayers under various solvent conditions. Finally, the advantages of force spectroscopic single molecule experiments are discussed including means to decide if truly a single molecule has been studied in the experiment. PMID:25867282

  13. Multifunctional hydrogel nano-probes for atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Seol; Song, Jungki; Kim, Seong Oh; Kim, Seokbeom; Lee, Wooju; Jackman, Joshua A.; Kim, Dongchoul; Cho, Nam-Joon; Lee, Jungchul

    2016-01-01

    Since the invention of the atomic force microscope (AFM) three decades ago, there have been numerous advances in its measurement capabilities. Curiously, throughout these developments, the fundamental nature of the force-sensing probe—the key actuating element—has remained largely unchanged. It is produced by long-established microfabrication etching strategies and typically composed of silicon-based materials. Here, we report a new class of photopolymerizable hydrogel nano-probes that are produced by bottom-up fabrication with compressible replica moulding. The hydrogel probes demonstrate excellent capabilities for AFM imaging and force measurement applications while enabling programmable, multifunctional capabilities based on compositionally adjustable mechanical properties and facile encapsulation of various nanomaterials. Taken together, the simple, fast and affordable manufacturing route and multifunctional capabilities of hydrogel AFM nano-probes highlight the potential of soft matter mechanical transducers in nanotechnology applications. The fabrication scheme can also be readily utilized to prepare hydrogel cantilevers, including in parallel arrays, for nanomechanical sensor devices. PMID:27199165

  14. Atomic force microscopy of asymmetric membranes from turtle erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yongmei; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Ding, Bohua; Hao, Xian; Jiang, Junguang; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2014-08-01

    The cell membrane provides critical cellular functions that rely on its elaborate structure and organization. The structure of turtle membranes is an important part of an ongoing study of erythrocyte membranes. Using a combination of atomic force microscopy and single-molecule force spectroscopy, we characterized the turtle erythrocyte membrane structure with molecular resolution in a quasi-native state. High-resolution images both leaflets of turtle erythrocyte membranes revealed a smooth outer membrane leaflet and a protein covered inner membrane leaflet. This asymmetry was verified by single-molecule force spectroscopy, which detects numerous exposed amino groups of membrane proteins in the inner membrane leaflet but much fewer in the outer leaflet. The asymmetric membrane structure of turtle erythrocytes is consistent with the semi-mosaic model of human, chicken and fish erythrocyte membrane structure, making the semi-mosaic model more widely applicable. From the perspective of biological evolution, this result may support the universality of the semi-mosaic model.

  15. Probing Single Membrane Proteins by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheuring, S.; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Müller, Daniel J.

    In this book chapter, we describe the working principle of the atomic force microscope (AFM), followed by the applications of AFM in high-resolution imaging and single-molecule force spectroscopy of membrane proteins. In the imaging mode, AFM allows observing the assembly of membrane proteins directly in native membranes approaching a resolution of ~0.5 nm with an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio. Conformational deviations of individual membrane proteins can be observed and their functional states directly imaged. Time-lapse AFM can image membrane proteins at work. In conjunction with high- resolution imaging, the use of the AFM as a single-molecule force spectroscope (SMFS) has gained tremendous importance in recent years. This combination allows to locate the inter- and intramolecular interactions of single membrane proteins. SMFS allows characterization of interactions that guide the folding of proteins and describe the parameters that lead to their destabilization, malfunction and misfolding. Moreover, it enables to measure the interactions established by ligand- and inhibitor-binding and in membrane protein assemblies. Because of its practical use in characterizing various parameters of membrane proteins in their native environment, AFM can be aptly described as a `lab on a tip' device.

  16. Subharmonic Oscillations and Chaos in Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2015-01-01

    The increasing use of dynamic atomic force microscopy (d-AFM) for nanoscale materials characterization calls for a deeper understanding of the cantilever dynamics influencing scan stability, predictability, and image quality. Model development is critical to such understanding. Renormalization of the equations governing d- AFM provides a simple interpretation of cantilever dynamics as a single spring and mass system with frequency dependent cantilever stiffness and damping parameters. The renormalized model is sufficiently robust to predict the experimentally observed splitting of the free-space cantilever resonance into multiple resonances upon cantilever-sample contact. Central to the model is the representation of the cantilever sample interaction force as a polynomial expansion with coefficients F(sub ij) (i,j = 0, 1, 2) that account for the effective interaction stiffness parameter, the cantilever-to-sample energy transfer, and the amplitude of cantilever oscillation. Application of the Melnikov method to the model equation is shown to predict a homoclinic bifurcation of the Smale horseshoe type leading to a cascade of period doublings with increasing drive displacement amplitude culminating in chaos and loss of image quality. The threshold value of the drive displacement amplitude necessary to initiate subharmonic generation depends on the acoustic drive frequency, the effective damping coefficient, and the nonlinearity of the cantilever-sample interaction force. For parameter values leading to displacement amplitudes below threshold for homoclinic bifurcation other bifurcation scenarios can occur, some of which lead to chaos.

  17. Non-additivity of molecule-surface van der Waals potentials from force measurements

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Christian; Fournier, Norman; Ruiz, Victor G.; Li, Chen; Müllen, Klaus; Rohlfing, Michael; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Temirov, Ruslan; Tautz, F. Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces act ubiquitously in condensed matter. Despite being weak on an atomic level, they substantially influence molecular and biological systems due to their long range and system-size scaling. The difficulty to isolate and measure vdW forces on a single-molecule level causes our present understanding to be strongly theory based. Here we show measurements of the attractive potential between differently sized organic molecules and a metal surface using an atomic force microscope. Our choice of molecules and the large molecule-surface separation cause this attraction to be purely of vdW type. The experiment allows testing the asymptotic vdW force law and its validity range. We find a superlinear growth of the vdW attraction with molecular size, originating from the increased deconfinement of electrons in the molecules. Because such non-additive vdW contributions are not accounted for in most first-principles or empirical calculations, we suggest further development in that direction. PMID:25424490

  18. Direct observation of dynamic force propagation between focal adhesions of cells on microposts by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Akinori; Mizutani, Yusuke; Subagyo, Agus; Hosoi, Hirotaka; Nakamura, Motonori; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Kawahara, Koichi; Okajima, Takaharu

    2011-12-01

    We investigated dynamic force propagation between focal adhesions of fibroblast cells cultured on polydimethylsiloxane micropost substrates, by atomic force microscopy. Live cells were mechanically modulated by the atomic force microscopy probe bound to cell apical surfaces at 0.01-0.5 Hz, while microposts served as a force sensor at basal surfaces. We observed that cells exhibited rheological behavior at the apical surface but had no apparent out-of-phase response at the basal surface, indicating that the dynamic force propagating through cytoskeletal filaments behaves in an elastic manner. Moreover, the direction of the propagated force was observed to be intimately associated with the prestress.

  19. Lateral force calibration of an atomic force microscope with a diamagnetic levitation spring system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Q.; Kim, K.-S.; Rydberg, A.

    2006-06-15

    A novel diamagnetic lateral force calibrator (D-LFC) has been developed to directly calibrate atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilever-tip or -bead assemblies. This enables an AFM to accurately measure the lateral forces encountered in friction or biomechanical-testing experiments at a small length scale. In the process of development, deformation characteristics of the AFM cantilever assemblies under frictional loading have been analyzed and four essential response variables, i.e., force constants, of the assembly have been identified. Calibration of the lateral force constant and the 'crosstalk' lateral force constant, among the four, provides the capability of measuring absolute AFM lateral forces. The D-LFC is composed of four NdFeB magnets and a diamagnetic pyrolytic graphite sheet, which can calibrate the two constants with an accuracy on the order of 0.1%. Preparation of the D-LFC and the data processing required to get the force constants is significantly simpler than any other calibration methods. The most up-to-date calibration technique, known as the 'wedge method', calibrates mainly one of the two constants and, if the crosstalk effect is properly analyzed, is primarily applicable to a sharp tip. In contrast, the D-LFC can calibrate both constants simultaneously for AFM tips or beads with any radius of curvature. These capabilities can extend the applicability of AFM lateral force measurement to studies of anisotropic multiscale friction processes and biomechanical behavior of cells and molecules under combined loading. Details of the D-LFC method as well as a comparison with the wedge method are provided in this article.

  20. Wettability and surface forces measured by atomic force microscopy: the role of roughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavoille, J.; Takadoum, J.; Martin, N.; Durand, D.

    2009-10-01

    Thin films of titanium, copper and silver with various roughnesses were prepared by physical vapour deposition technique: dc magnetron sputtering. By varying the deposition time from few minutes to one hour it was possible to obtain metallic films with surface roughness average ranging from 1 to 20 nm. The wettability of these films was studied by measuring the contact angle using the sessile drop method and surface forces were investigated using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) by measuring the pull-off force between the AFM tip and the surfaces. Experimental results have been mainly discussed in terms of metal surface reactivity, Young modulus of the materials and real surface of contact between the AFM tip and the film surfaces.

  1. Atomic force microscopy and force spectroscopy on the assessment of protein folding and functionality.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Filomena A; Martins, Ivo C; Santos, Nuno C

    2013-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) applied to biological systems can, besides generating high-quality and well-resolved images, be employed to study protein folding via AFM-based force spectroscopy. This approach allowed remarkable advances in the measurement of inter- and intramolecular interaction forces with piconewton resolution. The detection of specific interaction forces between molecules based on the AFM sensitivity and the manipulation of individual molecules greatly advanced the understanding of intra-protein and protein-ligand interactions. Apart from the academic interest in the resolution of basic scientific questions, this technique has also key importance on the clarification of several biological questions of immediate biomedical relevance. Force spectroscopy is an especially appropriate technique for "mechanical proteins" that can provide crucial information on single protein molecules and/or domains. Importantly, it also has the potential of combining in a single experiment spatial and kinetic measurements. Here, the main principles of this methodology are described, after which the ability to measure interactions at the single-molecule level is discussed, in the context of relevant protein-folding examples. We intend to demonstrate the potential of AFM-based force spectroscopy in the study of protein folding, especially since this technique is able to circumvent some of the difficulties typically encountered in classical thermal/chemical denaturation studies.

  2. Can Point Defects in Surfaces in Solution be Atomically Resolved by Atomic Force Microscopy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reischl, Bernhard; Raiteri, Paolo; Gale, Julian D.; Rohl, Andrew L.

    2016-11-01

    While the atomic force microscope (AFM) is able to image mineral surfaces in solution with atomic resolution, so far, it has been a matter of debate whether imaging point defects is also possible under these conditions. The difficulties stem from the limited knowledge of what types of defects may be stable in the presence of an AFM tip, as well as from the complicated imaging mechanism involving interactions between hydration layers over the surface and around the tip apex. Here, we present atomistic molecular dynamics and free energy calculations of the AFM imaging of vacancies and ionic substitutions in the calcite (10 1 ¯ 4 ) surface in water, using a new silica AFM tip model. Our results indicate that both calcium and carbonate vacancies, as well as a magnesium substitution, could be resolved in an AFM experiment, albeit with different imaging mechanisms.

  3. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes.

    PubMed

    Verbiest, G J; van der Zalm, D J; Oosterkamp, T H; Rost, M J

    2015-03-01

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  4. Mapping thermal conductivity using bimetallic atomic force microscopy probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grover, Ranjan; McCarthy, Brendan; Sarid, Dror; Guven, Ibrahim

    2006-06-01

    We demonstrate a technique to measure local thermal conductivity of materials using an atomic force microscope equipped with a commercial silicon cantilever coated by a thin metal film. This bimaterial cantilever acts as a bimetallic strip that bends when heated by a focused laser beam. The bending is apparent as a topographic distortion, which varies with the amount of heat flowing from the cantilever's tip into the sample. By comparing the surface topographies of the sample, as measured with heated and unheated cantilevers, the local thermal conductivity of the tip-sample contact area can be determined. Experimental results with this system are presented and found to be in good agreement with a finite element model.

  5. Measurement of solution viscosity by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Nabil; Nino, Diego F.; Moy, Vincent T.

    2001-06-01

    We report on studies aimed at employing the atomic force microscope (AFM) to measure the viscosity of aqueous solutions. At ambient temperature, the AFM cantilever undergoes thermal fluctuations that are highly sensitive to the local environment. Here, we present measurements of the cantilever's resonant frequency in aqueous solutions of glycerol, sucrose, ethanol, sodium chloride, polyethylene glycol, and bovine plasma albumin. The measurements revealed that variations in the resonant frequency of the cantilever in the different solutions are largely dependent on the viscosity of the medium. An application of this technique is to monitor the progression of a chemical reaction where a change in viscosity is expected to occur. An example is demonstrated through monitoring of the hydrolysis of double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid by DNase I.

  6. A subsurface add-on for standard atomic force microscopes

    SciTech Connect

    Verbiest, G. J.; Zalm, D. J. van der; Oosterkamp, T. H.; Rost, M. J.

    2015-03-15

    The application of ultrasound in an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) gives access to subsurface information. However, no commercially AFM exists that is equipped with this technique. The main problems are the electronic crosstalk in the AFM setup and the insufficiently strong excitation of the cantilever at ultrasonic (MHz) frequencies. In this paper, we describe the development of an add-on that provides a solution to these problems by using a special piezo element with a lowest resonance frequency of 2.5 MHz and by separating the electronic connection for this high frequency piezo element from all other connections. In this sense, we support researches with the possibility to perform subsurface measurements with their existing AFMs and hopefully pave also the way for the development of a commercial AFM that is capable of imaging subsurface features with nanometer resolution.

  7. Characterization of Gorleben groundwater colloids by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Plaschke, M; Römer, J; Kim, J I

    2002-11-01

    Groundwater colloids from the Gorleben site (Lower Saxony, Germany) are characterized in the presence of Eu(III) by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) with phase contrast imaging. Using a liquid cell the method allows investigations of samples being in contact with aqueous solution. This ensures that complex structures are kept in their native hydrated state. Different types of colloids and aggregates are found by AFM, e.g., spherical particles, fibrous structures, and structures which appear to be hollow. A partial coating of the edges of clay particles with humic colloids can be assumed from phase contrast images. Therefore, aquatic colloids and their aggregates found in Gorleben groundwater can be characterized as a complex mixture of components, which may influence the migration of groundwater contaminants in different processes.

  8. Atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy of native membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Müller, Daniel J; Engel, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Membrane proteins comprise 30% of the proteome of higher organisms. They mediate energy conversion, signal transduction, solute transport and secretion. Their native environment is a bilayer in a physiological buffer solution, hence their structure and function are preferably assessed in this environment. The surface structure of single membrane proteins can be determined in buffer solutions by atomic force microscopy (AFM) at a lateral resolution of less than 1 nm and a vertical resolution of 0.1-0.2 nm. Moreover, single proteins can be directly addressed, stuck to the AFM stylus and subsequently unfolded, revealing the molecular interactions of the protein studied. The examples discussed here illustrate the power of AFM in the structural analysis of membrane proteins in a native environment.

  9. The long range voice coil atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, H.; Randall, C.; Bridges, D.; Hansma, P. K.

    2012-02-15

    Most current atomic force microscopes (AFMs) use piezoelectric ceramics for scan actuation. Piezoelectric ceramics provide precision motion with fast response to applied voltage potential. A drawback to piezoelectric ceramics is their inherently limited ranges. For many samples this is a nonissue, as imaging the nanoscale details is the goal. However, a key advantage of AFM over other microscopy techniques is its ability to image biological samples in aqueous buffer. Many biological specimens have topography for which the range of piezoactuated stages is limiting, a notable example of which is bone. In this article, we present the use of voice coils in scan actuation for an actuation range in the Z-axis an order of magnitude larger than any AFM commercially available today. The increased scan size will allow for imaging an important new variety of samples, including bone fractures.

  10. Gating mechanosensitive channels in bacteria with an atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, Renata; Miller, Samantha; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Third Institute of Physics Team; School of Medical Sciences Collaboration

    The regulation of growth and integrity of bacteria is critically linked to mechanical stress. Bacteria typically maintain a high difference of osmotic pressure (turgor pressure) with respect to the environment. This pressure difference (on the order of 1 atm) is supported by the cell envelope, a composite of lipid membranes and a rigid cell wall. Turgor pressure is controlled by the ratio of osmolytes inside and outside bacteria and thus, can abruptly increase upon osmotic downshock. For structural integrity bacteria rely on the mechanical stability of the cell wall and on the action of mechanosensitive (MS) channels: membrane proteins that release solutes in response to stress in the cell envelope. We here present experimental data on MS channels gating. We activate channels by indenting living bacteria with the cantilever of an atomic force microscope (AFM). We compare responses of wild-type and mutant bacteria in which some or all MS channels have been eliminated.

  11. Atomic force microscopy for the examination of single cell rheology.

    PubMed

    Okajima, Takaharu

    2012-11-01

    Rheological properties of living cells play important roles in regulating their various biological functions. Therefore, measuring cell rheology is crucial for not only elucidating the relationship between the cell mechanics and functions, but also mechanical diagnosis of single cells. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a useful technique for single cell diagnosis because it allows us to measure the rheological properties of adherent cells at any region on the surface without any modifications. In this review, we summarize AFM techniques for examining single cell rheology in frequency and time domains. Recent applications of AFM for investigating the statistical analysis of single cell rheology in comparison to other micro-rheological techniques are reviewed, and we discuss what specificity and universality of cell rheology are extracted using AFM.

  12. Atomic force microscopy of single- and double-stranded DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Hansma, H G; Sinsheimer, R L; Li, M Q; Hansma, P K

    1992-01-01

    A method has been developed for imaging single-stranded DNA with the atomic force microscope (AFM). phi X174 single-stranded DNA in formaldehyde on mica can be imaged in the AFM under propanol or butanol or in air. Measured lengths of most molecules are on the order of 1 mu, although occasionally more extended molecules with lengths of 1.7 to 1.9 mu are seen. Single-stranded DNA in the AFM generally appears lumpier than double-stranded DNA, even when extended. Images of double-stranded lambda DNA in the AFM show more sharp kinks and bends than are typically observed in the electron microscope. Dense, aggregated fields of double-stranded plasmids can be converted by gentle rinsing with hot water to well spread fields. Images PMID:1386422

  13. The applications of atomic force microscopy to vision science.

    PubMed

    Last, Julie A; Russell, Paul; Nealey, Paul F; Murphy, Christopher J

    2010-12-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is widely used in materials science and has found many applications in biological sciences but has been limited in use in vision science. The AFM can be used to image the topography of soft biological materials in their native environments. It can also be used to probe the mechanical properties of cells and extracellular matrices, including their intrinsic elastic modulus and receptor-ligand interactions. In this review, the operation of the AFM is described along with a review of how it has been thus far used in vision science. It is hoped that this review will serve to stimulate vision scientists to consider incorporating AFM as part of their research toolkit.

  14. Pore size of agarose gels by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pernodet, N; Maaloum, M; Tinland, B

    1997-01-01

    The pore size of agarose gel in water at different concentrations was directly measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The experiment was specially designed to work under aqueous conditions and allows direct observation of the "unperturbed" gel without invasive treatment. The pore size a as a function of gel concentration C shows a power law dependence a approximately C-gamma, where gamma lies between the prediction of the Ogston model for a random array of straight chains, 0.5, and the value predicted by De Gennes for a network of flexible chains, 0.75. We confirm that gels present a wide pore size distribution and show that it narrows as the concentration increases.

  15. Imaging of nucleic acids with atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Lyubchenko, Yuri L.; Shlyakhtenko, Luda S.; Ando, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a key tool of nanotechnology with great importance in applications to DNA nanotechnology and to the recently emerging field of RNA nanotechnology. Advances in the methodology of AFM now enable reliable and reproducible imaging of DNA of various structures, topologies, and DNA and RNA nanostructures. These advances are reviewed here with emphasis on methods utilizing modification of mica to prepare the surfaces enabling reliable and reproducible imaging of DNA and RNA nanostructures. Since the AFM technology for DNA is more mature, AFM imaging of DNA is introduced in this review to provide experience and background for the improvement of AFM imaging of RNA. Examples of imaging different structures of RNA and DNA are discussed and illustrated. Special attention is given to the potential use of AFM to image the dynamics of nucleic acids at the nanometer scale. As such, we review recent advances with the use of time-lapse AFM. PMID:21310240

  16. The long range voice coil atomic force microscope

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, H.; Randall, C.; Bridges, D.; Hansma, P. K.

    2012-01-01

    Most current atomic force microscopes (AFMs) use piezoelectric ceramics for scan actuation. Piezoelectric ceramics provide precision motion with fast response to applied voltage potential. A drawback to piezoelectric ceramics is their inherently limited ranges. For many samples this is a nonissue, as imaging the nanoscale details is the goal. However, a key advantage of AFM over other microscopy techniques is its ability to image biological samples in aqueous buffer. Many biological specimens have topography for which the range of piezoactuated stages is limiting, a notable example of which is bone. In this article, we present the use of voice coils in scan actuation for an actuation range in the Z-axis an order of magnitude larger than any AFM commercially available today. The increased scan size will allow for imaging an important new variety of samples, including bone fractures. PMID:22380097

  17. Measuring viscoelasticity of soft samples using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, S; Berger, E J

    2009-09-01

    Relaxation indentation experiments using atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to obtain viscoelastic material properties of soft samples. The quasilinear viscoelastic (QLV) model formulated by Fung (1972, "Stress Strain History Relations of Soft Tissues in Simple Elongation," in Biomechanics, Its Foundation and Objectives, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 181-207) for uniaxial compression data was modified for the indentation test data in this study. Hertz contact mechanics was used for the instantaneous deformation, and a reduced relaxation function based on continuous spectrum is used for the time-dependent part in the model. The modified QLV indentation model presents a novel method to obtain viscoelastic properties from indentation data independent of relaxation times of the test. The major objective of the present study is to develop the QLV indentation model and implement the model on AFM indentation data for 1% agarose gel and a viscoelastic polymer using spherical indenter.

  18. Silicon Carbide Epitaxial Films Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) holds great potential as an electronic material because of its wide band gap energy, high breakdown electric field, thermal stability, and resistance to radiation damage. Possible aerospace applications of high-temperature, high-power, or high-radiation SiC electronic devices include sensors, control electronics, and power electronics that can operate at temperatures up to 600 C and beyond. Commercially available SiC devices now include blue light-emitting diodes (LED's) and high-voltage diodes for operation up to 350 C, with other devices under development. At present, morphological defects in epitaxially grown SiC films limit their use in device applications. Research geared toward reducing the number of structural inhomogeneities can benefit from an understanding of the type and nature of problems that cause defects. The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) has proven to be a useful tool in characterizing defects present on the surface of SiC epitaxial films. The in-house High-Temperature Integrated Electronics and Sensors (HTIES) Program at the NASA Lewis Research Center not only extended the dopant concentration range achievable in epitaxial SiC films, but it reduced the concentration of some types of defects. Advanced structural characterization using the AFM was warranted to identify the type and structure of the remaining film defects and morphological inhomogeneities. The AFM can give quantitative information on surface topography down to molecular scales. Acquired, in part, in support of the Advanced High Temperature Engine Materials Technology Program (HITEMP), the AFM had been used previously to detect partial fiber debonding in composite material cross sections. Atomic force microscopy examination of epitaxial SiC film surfaces revealed molecular-scale details of some unwanted surface features. Growth pits propagating from defects in the substrate, and hillocks due, presumably, to existing screw dislocations in the substrates, were

  19. Monoclonal antibody aggregation intermediates visualized by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hanjoo; Kirchmeier, Marc; Mach, Henryk

    2011-02-01

    Ubiquitous but highly variable processes of therapeutic protein aggregation remain poorly characterized, especially in the context of common infusion reactions and clinical immunogenicity. Among the numerous challenges is the characterization of intermediate steps that lead to the appearance of precipitates. Although the biophysical methods for elucidation of secondary and tertiary structures as well as overall size distribution are typically well established in the development laboratories, the use of molecular scale imaging techniques is still relatively rare due to low throughput and technical complexity. In this work, we present the use of atomic force microscopy to examine morphology of monoclonal antibody aggregates. Despite varying in primary structure as a result of different complementarity defining regions, most antibodies studied exhibited a similar aggregation intermediate consisting of several monomers. However, the manner of subsequent condensation of these oligomers appeared to differ between the antibodies, suggesting stability-dependent mechanisms.

  20. GaN nanowire tips for nanoscale atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Behzadirad, Mahmoud; Nami, Mohsen; Rishinaramagalam, Ashwin; Feezell, Daniel; Busani, Tito

    2017-04-07

    Imaging of high-aspect-ratio nanostructures with sharp edges and straight walls in nanoscale metrology by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has been challenging due to the mechanical properties and conical geometry of the majority of available commercial tips. Here we report on the fabrication of GaN probes for nanoscale metrology of high-aspect-ratio structures to enhance the resolution of AFM imaging and improve the durability of AFM tips. GaN nanowires (NWs) were fabricated using bottom-up and top-down techniques and bonded to Si cantilevers to scan vertical trenches on Si substrates. Over several scans, the GaN probes demonstrated excellent durability while scanning uneven structures and showed resolution enhancements in topography images, independent of scan direction, compared to commercial Si tips.

  1. Atomic force microscopy of atomic-scale ledges and etch pits formed during dissolution of quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, A. J.; Manne, S.; Hansma, P. K.

    1991-01-01

    The processes involved in the dissolution and growth of crystals are closely related. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) of faceted pits (called negative crystals) formed during quartz dissolution reveals subtle details of these underlying physical mechanisms for silicates. In imaging these surfaces, the AFM detected ledges less than 1 nm high that were spaced 10 to 90 nm apart. A dislocation pit, invisible to optical and scanning electron microscopy measurements and serving as a ledge source, was also imaged. These observations confirm the applicability of ledge-motion models to dissolution and growth of silicates; coupled with measurements of dissolution rate on facets, these methods provide a powerful tool for probing mineral surface kinetics.

  2. Nanoscale imaging of Bacillus thuringiensis flagella using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillis, Annika; Dupres, Vincent; Delestrait, Guillaume; Mahillon, Jacques; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2012-02-01

    Because bacterial flagella play essential roles in various processes (motility, adhesion, host interactions, secretion), studying their expression in relation to function is an important challenge. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to gain insight into the nanoscale surface properties of two wild-type and four mutant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis exhibiting various levels of flagellation. We show that, unlike AFM in liquid, AFM in air is a simple and reliable approach to observe the morphological details of the bacteria, and to quantify the density and dimensions of their flagella. We found that the amount of flagella expressed by the six strains, as observed at the nanoscale, correlates with their microscopic swarming motility. These observations provide novel information on flagella expression in Gram-positive bacteria and demonstrate the power of AFM in genetic studies for the fast assessment of the phenotypic characteristics of bacterial strains altered in cell surface appendages.Because bacterial flagella play essential roles in various processes (motility, adhesion, host interactions, secretion), studying their expression in relation to function is an important challenge. Here, we use atomic force microscopy (AFM) to gain insight into the nanoscale surface properties of two wild-type and four mutant strains of Bacillus thuringiensis exhibiting various levels of flagellation. We show that, unlike AFM in liquid, AFM in air is a simple and reliable approach to observe the morphological details of the bacteria, and to quantify the density and dimensions of their flagella. We found that the amount of flagella expressed by the six strains, as observed at the nanoscale, correlates with their microscopic swarming motility. These observations provide novel information on flagella expression in Gram-positive bacteria and demonstrate the power of AFM in genetic studies for the fast assessment of the phenotypic characteristics of bacterial strains altered in

  3. [Application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Milka, Michał; Mróz, Iwona; Jastrzebska, Maria; Wrzalik, Roman; Dobrowolski, Dariusz; Roszkowska, Anna M; Moćko, Lucyna; Wylegała, Edward

    2012-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows to examine surface of different biological objects in the nearly physiological conditions at the nanoscale. The purpose of this work is to present the history of introduction and the potential applications of the AFM in ophthalmology research and clinical practice. In 1986 Binnig built the AFM as a next generation of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM). The functional principle of AFM is based on the measurement of the forces between atoms on the sample surface and the probe. As a result, the three-dimensional image of the surface with the resolution on the order of nanometres can be obtained. Yamamoto used as the first the AFM on a wide scale in ophthalmology. The first investigations used the AFM method to study structure of collagen fibres of the cornea and of the sclera. Our research involves the analysis of artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs). According to earlier investigations, e.g. Lombardo et al., the AFM was used to study only native IOLs. Contrary to the earlier investigations, we focused our measurements on lenses explanted from human eyes. The surface of such lenses is exposed to the influence of the intraocular aqueous environment, and to the related impacts of biochemical processes. We hereby present the preliminary results of our work in the form of AFM images depicting IOL surface at the nanoscale. The images allowed us to observe early stages of the dye deposit formation as well as local calcinosis. We believe that AFM is a very promising tool for studying the structure of IOL surface and that further observations will make it possible to explain the pathomechanism of artificial intraocular lens opacity formation.

  4. Probing surface adhesion forces of Enterococcus faecalis to medical-grade polymers using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sénéchal, Annie; Carrigan, Shawn D; Tabrizian, Maryam

    2004-05-11

    The aim of this study was to compare the initial adhesion forces of the uropathogen Enterococcus faecalis with the medical-grade polymers polyurethane (PU), polyamide (PA), and poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (PTFE). To quantify the cell-substrate adhesion forces, a method was developed using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid that allows for the detachment of individual live cells from a polymeric surface through the application of increasing force using unmodified cantilever tips. Results show that the lateral force required to detach E. faecalis cells from a substrate differed depending on the nature of the polymeric surface: a force of 19 +/- 4 nN was required to detach cells from PU, 6 +/- 4 nN from PA, and 0.7 +/- 0.3 nN from PTFE. Among the unfluorinated polymers (PU and PA), surface wettability was inversely proportional to the strength of adhesion. AFM images also demonstrated qualitative differences in bacterial adhesion; PU was covered by clusters of cells with few cell singlets present, whereas PA was predominantly covered by individual cells. Moreover, extracellular material could be observed on some clusters of PU-adhered cells as well as in the adjacent region surrounding cells adhered on PA. E. faecalis adhesion to the fluorinated polymer (PTFE) showed different characteristics; only a few individual cells were found, and bacteria were easily damaged, and thus detached, by the tip. This work demonstrates the utility of AFM for measurement of cell-substrate lateral adhesion forces and the contribution these forces make toward understanding the initial stages of bacterial adhesion. Further, it suggests that initial adhesion can be controlled, through appropriate biomaterial design, to prevent subsequent formation of aggregates and biofilms.

  5. Localization and force analysis at the single virus particle level using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chih-Hao; Horng, Jim-Tong; Chang, Jeng-Shian; Hsieh, Chung-Fan; Tseng, You-Chen; Lin, Shiming

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Localization of single virus particle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force measurements. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Force mapping. -- Abstract: Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a vital instrument in nanobiotechnology. In this study, we developed a method that enables AFM to simultaneously measure specific unbinding force and map the viral glycoprotein at the single virus particle level. The average diameter of virus particles from AFM images and the specificity between the viral surface antigen and antibody probe were integrated to design a three-stage method that sets the measuring area to a single virus particle before obtaining the force measurements, where the influenza virus was used as the object of measurements. Based on the purposed method and performed analysis, several findings can be derived from the results. The mean unbinding force of a single virus particle can be quantified, and no significant difference exists in this value among virus particles. Furthermore, the repeatability of the proposed method is demonstrated. The force mapping images reveal that the distributions of surface viral antigens recognized by antibody probe were dispersed on the whole surface of individual virus particles under the proposed method and experimental criteria; meanwhile, the binding probabilities are similar among particles. This approach can be easily applied to most AFM systems without specific components or configurations. These results help understand the force-based analysis at the single virus particle level, and therefore, can reinforce the capability of AFM to investigate a specific type of viral surface protein and its distributions.

  6. Optimization and calibration of atomic force microscopy sensitivity in terms of tip-sample interactions in high-order dynamic atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yu; Guo Qiuquan; Nie Hengyong; Lau, W. M.; Yang Jun

    2009-12-15

    The mechanism of dynamic force modes has been successfully applied to many atomic force microscopy (AFM) applications, such as tapping mode and phase imaging. The high-order flexural vibration modes are recent advancement of AFM dynamic force modes. AFM optical lever detection sensitivity plays a major role in dynamic force modes because it determines the accuracy in mapping surface morphology, distinguishing various tip-surface interactions, and measuring the strength of the tip-surface interactions. In this work, we have analyzed optimization and calibration of the optical lever detection sensitivity for an AFM cantilever-tip ensemble vibrating in high-order flexural modes and simultaneously experiencing a wide range and variety of tip-sample interactions. It is found that the optimal detection sensitivity depends on the vibration mode, the ratio of the force constant of tip-sample interactions to the cantilever stiffness, as well as the incident laser spot size and its location on the cantilever. It is also found that the optimal detection sensitivity is less dependent on the strength of tip-sample interactions for high-order flexural modes relative to the fundamental mode, i.e., tapping mode. When the force constant of tip-sample interactions significantly exceeds the cantilever stiffness, the optimal detection sensitivity occurs only when the laser spot locates at a certain distance from the cantilever-tip end. Thus, in addition to the 'globally optimized detection sensitivity', the 'tip optimized detection sensitivity' is also determined. Finally, we have proposed a calibration method to determine the actual AFM detection sensitivity in high-order flexural vibration modes against the static end-load sensitivity that is obtained traditionally by measuring a force-distance curve on a hard substrate in the contact mode.

  7. Nanomechanics of Cells and Biomaterials Studied by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Jason I; Revenko, Irène; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2015-11-18

    The behavior and mechanical properties of cells are strongly dependent on the biochemical and biomechanical properties of their microenvironment. Thus, understanding the mechanical properties of cells, extracellular matrices, and biomaterials is key to understanding cell function and to develop new materials with tailored mechanical properties for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as an indispensable technique for measuring the mechanical properties of biomaterials and cells with high spatial resolution and force sensitivity within physiologically relevant environments and timescales in the kPa to GPa elastic modulus range. The growing interest in this field of bionanomechanics has been accompanied by an expanding array of models to describe the complexity of indentation of hierarchical biological samples. Furthermore, the integration of AFM with optical microscopy techniques has further opened the door to a wide range of mechanotransduction studies. In recent years, new multidimensional and multiharmonic AFM approaches for mapping mechanical properties have been developed, which allow the rapid determination of, for example, cell elasticity. This Progress Report provides an introduction and practical guide to making AFM-based nanomechanical measurements of cells and surfaces for tissue engineering applications.

  8. Atomic force microscopy study of living diatoms in ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Gebeshuber, I C; Kindt, J H; Thompson, J B; Del Amo, Y; Stachelberger, H; Brzezinski, M A; Stucky, G D; Morse, D E; Hansma, P K

    2003-12-01

    We present the first in vivo study of diatoms using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Three chain-forming, benthic freshwater species -Eunotia sudetica, Navicula seminulum and a yet unidentified species - are directly imaged while growing on glass slides. Using the AFM, we imaged the topography of the diatom frustules at the nanometre range scale and we determined the thickness of the organic case enveloping the siliceous skeleton of the cell (10 nm). Imaging proved to be stable for several hours, thereby offering the possibility to study long-term dynamic changes, such as biomineralization or cell movement, as they occur. We also focused on the natural adhesives produced by these unicellular organisms to adhere to other cells or the substratum. Most man-made adhesives fail in wet conditions, owing to chemical modification of the adhesive or its substrate. Diatoms produce adhesives that are extremely strong and robust both in fresh- and in seawater environments. Our phase-imaging and force-pulling experiments reveal the characteristics of these natural adhesives that might be of use in designing man-made analogues that function in wet environments. Engineering stable underwater adhesives currently poses a major technical challenge.

  9. Probing the Lipid Membrane Dipole Potential by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yi; Mayer, Kathryn M.; Wickremasinghe, Nissanka S.; Hafner, Jason H.

    2008-01-01

    The electrostatic properties of biological membranes can be described by three parameters: the transmembrane potential, the membrane surface potential, and the membrane dipole potential. The first two are well characterized in terms of their magnitudes and biological effects. The dipole potential, however, is not well characterized. Various methods to measure the membrane dipole potential indirectly yield different values, and there is not even agreement on the source of the membrane dipole moment. This ambiguity impedes investigations into the biological effects of the membrane dipole moment, which should be substantial considering the large interfacial fields with which it is associated. Electrostatic analysis of phosphatidylcholine lipid membranes with the atomic force microscope reveals a repulsive force between the negatively charged probe tips and the zwitterionic lipids. This unexpected interaction has been analyzed quantitatively to reveal that the repulsion is due to a weak external field created by the internal membrane dipole potential. The analysis yields a dipole moment of 1.5 Debye per lipid with a dipole potential of +275 mV for supported phosphatidylcholine membranes. This new ability to quantitatively measure the membrane dipole moment in a noninvasive manner with nanometer scale spatial resolution will be useful in identifying the biological effects of the dipole potential. PMID:18805919

  10. Mechanics of proteins with a focus on atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Rico, Felix; Rigato, Annafrancesca; Picas, Laura; Scheuring, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of proteins to function relies on a balance between molecular stability to maintain their folded state and structural flexibility allowing conformational changes related to biological function. Among many others, four different examples can be chosen. The giant protein titin is stretched and can unfold during muscle contraction providing passive elasticity to muscle tissue; myoglobin adsorbs and releases oxygen molecules thank to conformational changes in its structure; the outer membrane protein G (OmpG) is a bacterial porin with a long and flexible loop that modulates gating; and the proton pump bacteriorhodopsin adapts its cytosolic half to allow proton pumping. All these conformational changes triggered either by chemical or by physical cues, require mechanical flexibility or elasticity of certain protein domains. While the methods to determine protein structure, X-ray crystallography above all, have been dramatically improved over the last decades, the number of tools that directly measure the mechanical flexibility of proteins and protein domains is still limited. In this tutorial, after a brief introduction to protein structure, we present some of the available techniques to estimate protein flexibility, then focusing on atomic force microscopy (AFM). We describe the principles of the technique and its various imaging and force spectroscopy modes of operation that allow probing the elasticity of proteins, protein domains and their surrounding environment.

  11. Generation of living cell arrays for atomic force microscopy studies.

    PubMed

    Formosa, Cécile; Pillet, Flavien; Schiavone, Marion; Duval, Raphaël E; Ressier, Laurence; Dague, Etienne

    2015-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a useful tool for studying the morphology or the nanomechanical and adhesive properties of live microorganisms under physiological conditions. However, to perform AFM imaging, living cells must be immobilized firmly enough to withstand the lateral forces exerted by the scanning tip, but without denaturing them. This protocol describes how to immobilize living cells, ranging from spores of bacteria to yeast cells, into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamps, with no chemical or physical denaturation. This protocol generates arrays of living cells, allowing statistically relevant measurements to be obtained from AFM measurements, which can increase the relevance of results. The first step of the protocol is to generate a microstructured silicon master, from which many microstructured PDMS stamps can be replicated. Living cells are finally assembled into the microstructures of these PDMS stamps using a convective and capillary assembly. The complete procedure can be performed in 1 week, although the first step is done only once, and thus repeats can be completed within 1 d.

  12. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Ryan; Moon, Robert; Pratt, Jon; Shaw, Gordon; Raman, Arvind

    2011-11-11

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale resolution of both inorganic and biological surfaces and nanomaterials. We present a framework to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. We demonstrate the framework by quantifying uncertainty in AFM-based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), an abundant, plant-derived nanomaterial whose mechanical properties are comparable to Kevlar fibers. For a single, isolated CNC the transverse elastic modulus was found to have a mean of 8.1 GPa and a 95% confidence interval of 2.7-20 GPa. A key result is that multiple replicates of force-distance curves do not sample the important sources of uncertainty, which are systematic in nature. The dominant source of uncertainty is the nondimensional photodiode sensitivity calibration rather than the cantilever stiffness or Z-piezo calibrations. The results underscore the great need for, and open a path towards, quantifying and minimizing uncertainty in AFM-based material property measurements of nanoparticles, nanostructured surfaces, thin films, polymers and biomaterials.

  13. Triaxial Atomic Force Microscope Contact-Free Tweezers for Nanoassembly

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Keith A; Westervelt, Robert M

    2010-01-01

    We propose a Traixial Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Contact-free Tweezer (TACT) for the controlled assembly of nanoparticles suspended in a liquid. The TACT overcomes four major challenges faced in nanoassembly: (1) The TACT can hold and position a single nanoparticle with spatial accuracy smaller than the nanoparticle size (~ 5 nm). (2) The nanoparticle is held away from the surface of the TACT by negative dielectrophoresis (nDEP) to prevent van der Waals forces from sticking it to the TACT. (3) The TACT holds nanoparticles in a trap that is size-matched to the particle and surrounded by a repulsive region so that it will only trap a single particle at a time. (4) The trap can hold a semiconductor nanoparticle in water with a trapping energy greater than thermal energy. For example, a 5 nm radius silicon nanoparticle is held with 10 kBT at room temperature. We propose methods for using the TACT as a nanoscale pick-and-place tool to assemble semiconductor quantum dots, biological molecules, semiconductor nanowires, and carbon nanotubes. PMID:19713582

  14. Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry.

    PubMed

    Jin, X; Kasal, B

    2016-10-01

    This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion forces, which are essential for data interpretation. When a common Si AFM tip with nanometre size is used, the influence of tip wear can be significant. Therefore, control experiments should take the sequence of measurements into consideration, e.g. repeated experiments with used tip. In comparison, colloidal tips provide highly reproducible results. Similar average values but different distributions are shown for the adhesion measured on two major components of wood surface (cell wall and lumen). Evidence supports the hypothesis that the difference of the adhesion force distribution on these two locations was mainly induced by their surface roughness.

  15. Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, X.; Kasal, B.

    2016-10-01

    This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion forces, which are essential for data interpretation. When a common Si AFM tip with nanometre size is used, the influence of tip wear can be significant. Therefore, control experiments should take the sequence of measurements into consideration, e.g. repeated experiments with used tip. In comparison, colloidal tips provide highly reproducible results. Similar average values but different distributions are shown for the adhesion measured on two major components of wood surface (cell wall and lumen). Evidence supports the hypothesis that the difference of the adhesion force distribution on these two locations was mainly induced by their surface roughness.

  16. Adhesion force mapping on wood by atomic force microscopy: influence of surface roughness and tip geometry

    PubMed Central

    Kasal, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to address the interpretation of atomic force microscopy (AFM) adhesion force measurements conducted on the heterogeneous rough surface of wood and natural fibre materials. The influences of wood surface roughness, tip geometry and wear on the adhesion force distribution are examined by cyclic measurements conducted on wood surface under dry inert conditions. It was found that both the variation of tip and surface roughness of wood can widen the distribution of adhesion forces, which are essential for data interpretation. When a common Si AFM tip with nanometre size is used, the influence of tip wear can be significant. Therefore, control experiments should take the sequence of measurements into consideration, e.g. repeated experiments with used tip. In comparison, colloidal tips provide highly reproducible results. Similar average values but different distributions are shown for the adhesion measured on two major components of wood surface (cell wall and lumen). Evidence supports the hypothesis that the difference of the adhesion force distribution on these two locations was mainly induced by their surface roughness. PMID:27853541

  17. Atomic force microscopy detects changes in the interaction forces between GroEL and substrate proteins.

    PubMed

    Vinckier, A; Gervasoni, P; Zaugg, F; Ziegler, U; Lindner, P; Groscurth, P; Plückthun, A; Semenza, G

    1998-06-01

    The structure of the Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL has been investigated by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) under liquid. High-resolution images can be obtained, which show the up-right position of GroEL adsorbed on mica with the substrate-binding site on top. Because of this orientation, the interaction between GroEL and two substrate proteins, citrate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a destabilizing Gly-->Ala mutation and RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli with two Cys-->Ala mutations, could be studied by force spectroscopy under different conditions. The results show that the interaction force decreases in the presence of ATP (but not of ATPgammaS) and that the force is smaller for native-like proteins than for the fully denatured ones. It also demonstrates that the interaction energy with GroEL increases with increasing molecular weight. By measuring the interaction force changes between the chaperonin and the two different substrate proteins, we could specifically detect GroEL conformational changes upon nucleotide binding.

  18. Accurate force spectroscopy in tapping mode atomic force microscopy in liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xin; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2010-01-01

    Existing force spectroscopy methods in tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) such as higher harmonic inversion [M. Stark, R. W. Stark, W. M. Heckl, and R. Guckenberger, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99, 8473 (2002)] or scanning probe acceleration microscopy [J. Legleiter, M. Park, B. Cusick, and T. Kowalewski, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103, 4813 (2006)] or integral relations [M. Lee and W. Jhe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 036104 (2006); S. Hu and A. Raman, Nanotechnology 19, 375704 (2008); H. Hölscher, Appl. Phys. Lett. 89, 123109 (2006); A. J. Katan, Nanotechnology 20, 165703 (2009)] require and assume as an observable the tip dynamics in a single eigenmode of the oscillating microcantilever. We demonstrate that this assumption can distort significantly the extracted tip-sample interaction forces when applied to tapping mode AFM with soft cantilevers in liquid environments. This exception is due to the fact that under these conditions the second eigenmode is momentarily excited and the observed tip dynamics clearly contains contributions from the fundamental and second eigenmodes. To alleviate this problem, a simple experimental method is proposed to screen the second eigenmode contributions in the observed tip deflection signal to allow accurate tip-sample force reconstruction in liquids. The method is implemented experimentally to reconstruct interaction forces on polymer, bacteriorhodopsin membrane, and mica samples in buffer solutions.

  19. Atomic force microscopy detects changes in the interaction forces between GroEL and substrate proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Vinckier, A; Gervasoni, P; Zaugg, F; Ziegler, U; Lindner, P; Groscurth, P; Plückthun, A; Semenza, G

    1998-01-01

    The structure of the Escherichia coli chaperonin GroEL has been investigated by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) under liquid. High-resolution images can be obtained, which show the up-right position of GroEL adsorbed on mica with the substrate-binding site on top. Because of this orientation, the interaction between GroEL and two substrate proteins, citrate synthase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae with a destabilizing Gly-->Ala mutation and RTEM beta-lactamase from Escherichia coli with two Cys-->Ala mutations, could be studied by force spectroscopy under different conditions. The results show that the interaction force decreases in the presence of ATP (but not of ATPgammaS) and that the force is smaller for native-like proteins than for the fully denatured ones. It also demonstrates that the interaction energy with GroEL increases with increasing molecular weight. By measuring the interaction force changes between the chaperonin and the two different substrate proteins, we could specifically detect GroEL conformational changes upon nucleotide binding. PMID:9635779

  20. High viscosity environments: an unexpected route to obtain true atomic resolution with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stefan A L; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Brosnan, Timothy M; Jarvis, Suzanne P; Rodriguez, Brian J

    2014-05-02

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is widely used in liquid environments, where true atomic resolution at the solid-liquid interface can now be routinely achieved. It is generally expected that AFM operation in more viscous environments results in an increased noise contribution from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby reducing the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Thus, viscous fluids such as ionic and organic liquids have been generally avoided for high-resolution AFM studies despite their relevance to, e.g. energy applications. Here, we investigate the thermal noise limitations of dynamic AFM operation in both low and high viscosity environments theoretically, deriving expressions for the amplitude, phase and frequency noise resulting from the thermal motion of the cantilever, thereby defining the performance limits of amplitude modulation, phase modulation and frequency modulation AFM. We show that the assumption of a reduced SNR in viscous environments is not inherent to the technique and demonstrate that SNR values comparable to ultra-high vacuum systems can be obtained in high viscosity environments under certain conditions. Finally, we have obtained true atomic resolution images of highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and mica surfaces, thus revealing the potential of high-resolution imaging in high viscosity environments.

  1. Microrheology of growing Escherichia coli biofilms investigated by using magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tiansheng; Gong, Xiangjun; Schönherr, Holger; Zhang, Guangzhao

    2016-12-01

    Microrheology of growing biofilms provides insightful information about its structural evolution and properties. In this study, the authors have investigated the microrheology of Escherichia coli (strain HCB1) biofilms at different indentation depth (δ) by using magnetic force modulation atomic force microscopy as a function of disturbing frequency (f). As δ increases, the dynamic stiffness (ks) for the biofilms in the early stage significantly increases. However, it levels off when the biofilms are matured. The facts indicate that the biofilms change from inhomogeneous to homogeneous in structure. Moreover, ks is scaled to f, which coincides with the rheology of soft glasses. The exponent increases with the incubation time, indicating the fluidization of biofilms. In contrast, the upper layer of the matured biofilms is solidlike in that the storage modulus is always larger than the loss modulus, and its viscoelasticity is slightly influenced by the shear stress.

  2. An open source/real-time atomic force microscope architecture to perform customizable force spectroscopy experiments.

    PubMed

    Materassi, Donatello; Baschieri, Paolo; Tiribilli, Bruno; Zuccheri, Giampaolo; Samorì, Bruno

    2009-08-01

    We describe the realization of an atomic force microscope architecture designed to perform customizable experiments in a flexible and automatic way. Novel technological contributions are given by the software implementation platform (RTAI-LINUX), which is free and open source, and from a functional point of view, by the implementation of hard real-time control algorithms. Some other technical solutions such as a new way to estimate the optical lever constant are described as well. The adoption of this architecture provides many degrees of freedom in the device behavior and, furthermore, allows one to obtain a flexible experimental instrument at a relatively low cost. In particular, we show how such a system has been employed to obtain measures in sophisticated single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments [Fernandez and Li, Science 303, 1674 (2004)]. Experimental results on proteins already studied using the same methodologies are provided in order to show the reliability of the measure system.

  3. QPlus: atomic force microscopy on single-crystal insulators with small oscillation amplitudes at 5 K.

    PubMed

    Bettac, Andreas; Koeble, Juergen; Winkler, Konrad; Uder, Bernd; Maier, Markus; Feltz, Albrecht

    2009-07-01

    Based on a proven low temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) platform, we have integrated a QPlus sensor, which employs a quartz tuning fork for force detection in non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). For combined STM operation, this sensor has key advantages over conventional sensors. For quantitative force spectroscopy on insulating thin films or semiconductors, decoupling of the tunneling current and the piezo-electrically induced AFM signal is important. In addition, extremely low signals require the first amplification stage to be very close to the sensor, i.e. to be compatible with low temperatures. We present atomic resolution imaging on single-crystal NaCl(100) with oscillation amplitudes below 100 pm (peak-to-peak) and operation at higher flexural modes in constant frequency shift (df) imaging feedback. We also present atomic resolution measurements on MgO(100) and Au(111), and first evaluation measurements of the QPlus sensor in Kelvin probe microscopy on Si(111) 7 x 7.

  4. A virtual instrument to standardise the calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, John E.; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T.; Haviland, David B.; Higgins, Michael J.; Kilpatrick, Jason I.; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J.; Slattery, Ashley D.; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often calibrate the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual instruments. This calibration is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual instrument (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their calibration measurements to those of others—standardising AFM force measurements—and simultaneously enabling non-invasive calibration of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global calibration initiative requires no additional instrumentation or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current calibration.

  5. A virtual instrument to standardise the calibration of atomic force microscope cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Sader, John E; Borgani, Riccardo; Gibson, Christopher T; Haviland, David B; Higgins, Michael J; Kilpatrick, Jason I; Lu, Jianing; Mulvaney, Paul; Shearer, Cameron J; Slattery, Ashley D; Thorén, Per-Anders; Tran, Jim; Zhang, Heyou; Zhang, Hongrui; Zheng, Tian

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscope (AFM) users often calibrate the spring constants of cantilevers using functionality built into individual instruments. This calibration is performed without reference to a global standard, hindering the robust comparison of force measurements reported by different laboratories. Here, we describe a virtual instrument (an internet-based initiative) whereby users from all laboratories can instantly and quantitatively compare their calibration measurements to those of others-standardising AFM force measurements-and simultaneously enabling non-invasive calibration of AFM cantilevers of any geometry. This global calibration initiative requires no additional instrumentation or data processing on the part of the user. It utilises a single website where users upload currently available data. A proof-of-principle demonstration of this initiative is presented using measured data from five independent laboratories across three countries, which also allows for an assessment of current calibration.

  6. Drive-amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy: From vacuum to liquids

    PubMed Central

    Jaafar, Miriam; Cuenca, Mariano; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind

    2012-01-01

    Summary We introduce drive-amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy as a dynamic mode with outstanding performance in all environments from vacuum to liquids. As with frequency modulation, the new mode follows a feedback scheme with two nested loops: The first keeps the cantilever oscillation amplitude constant by regulating the driving force, and the second uses the driving force as the feedback variable for topography. Additionally, a phase-locked loop can be used as a parallel feedback allowing separation of the conservative and nonconservative interactions. We describe the basis of this mode and present some examples of its performance in three different environments. Drive-amplutide modulation is a very stable, intuitive and easy to use mode that is free of the feedback instability associated with the noncontact-to-contact transition that occurs in the frequency-modulation mode. PMID:22563531

  7. Drive-amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy: From vacuum to liquids.

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Miriam; Martínez-Martín, David; Cuenca, Mariano; Melcher, John; Raman, Arvind; Gómez-Herrero, Julio

    2012-01-01

    We introduce drive-amplitude-modulation atomic force microscopy as a dynamic mode with outstanding performance in all environments from vacuum to liquids. As with frequency modulation, the new mode follows a feedback scheme with two nested loops: The first keeps the cantilever oscillation amplitude constant by regulating the driving force, and the second uses the driving force as the feedback variable for topography. Additionally, a phase-locked loop can be used as a parallel feedback allowing separation of the conservative and nonconservative interactions. We describe the basis of this mode and present some examples of its performance in three different environments. Drive-amplutide modulation is a very stable, intuitive and easy to use mode that is free of the feedback instability associated with the noncontact-to-contact transition that occurs in the frequency-modulation mode.

  8. Nonequilibrium forces between atoms and dielectrics mediated by a quantum field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behunin, Ryan O.; Hu, Bei-Lok

    2011-07-01

    In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-graining to the physical variables—the medium, the quantum field, and the atom’s internal degrees of freedom, in that order—to extract their averaged effects from the lowest tier progressively to the top tier. The first tier of coarse-graining provides the averaged effect of the medium upon the field, quantified by a complex permittivity (in the frequency domain) describing the response of the dielectric to the field in addition to its back action on the field through a stochastic forcing term. The last tier of coarse-graining over the atom’s internal degrees of freedom results in an equation of motion for the atom’s center of mass from which we can derive the force on the atom. Our nonequilibrium formulation provides a fully dynamical description of the atom’s motion including back-action effects from all other relevant variables concerned. In the long-time limit we recover the known results for the atom-dielectric force when the combined system is in equilibrium or in a nonequilibrium stationary state.

  9. Segmented nanofibers of spider dragline silk: Atomic force microscopy and single-molecule force spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Oroudjev, E.; Soares, J.; Arcidiacono, S.; Thompson, J. B.; Fossey, S. A.; Hansma, H. G.

    2002-01-01

    Despite its remarkable materials properties, the structure of spider dragline silk has remained unsolved. Results from two probe microscopy techniques provide new insights into the structure of spider dragline silk. A soluble synthetic protein from dragline silk spontaneously forms nanofibers, as observed by atomic force microscopy. These nanofibers have a segmented substructure. The segment length and amino acid sequence are consistent with a slab-like shape for individual silk protein molecules. The height and width of nanofiber segments suggest a stacking pattern of slab-like molecules in each nanofiber segment. This stacking pattern produces nano-crystals in an amorphous matrix, as observed previously by NMR and x-ray diffraction of spider dragline silk. The possible importance of nanofiber formation to native silk production is discussed. Force spectra for single molecules of the silk protein demonstrate that this protein unfolds through a number of rupture events, indicating a modular substructure within single silk protein molecules. A minimal unfolding module size is estimated to be around 14 nm, which corresponds to the extended length of a single repeated module, 38 amino acids long. The structure of this spider silk protein is distinctly different from the structures of other proteins that have been analyzed by single-molecule force spectroscopy, and the force spectra show correspondingly novel features. PMID:11959907

  10. Noncontact estimation of intercellular breaking force using a femtosecond laser impulse quantified by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Yoichiroh; Hagiyama, Man; Iino, Takanori; Murakami, Yoshinori; Ito, Akihiko

    2011-02-01

    When a femtosecond laser pulse (fsLP) is focused through an objective lens into a culture medium, an impulsive force (fsLP-IF) is generated that propagates from the laser focal point (O(f)) in a micron-sized space. This force can detach individual adherent cells without causing considerable cell damage. In this study, an fsLP-IF was reflected in the vibratory movement of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Based on the magnitude of the vibration and the geometrical relationship between O(f) and the cantilever, the fsLP-IF generated at O(f) was calculated as a unit of impulse [N-s]. This impulsive force broke adhesion molecule-mediated intercellular interactions in a manner that depended on the adhesion strength that was estimated by the cell aggregation assay. The force also broke the interactions between streptavidin-coated microspheres and a biotin-coated substrate with a measurement error of approximately 7%. These results suggest that fsLP-IF can be used to break intermolecular and intercellular interactions and estimate the adhesion strength. The fsLP-IF was used to break intercellular contacts in two biologically relevant cultures: a coculture of leukocytes seeded over on an endothelial cell monolayer, and a polarized monolayer culture of epithelial cells. The impulses needed to break leukocyte-endothelial and interepithelial interactions, which were calculated based on the geometrical relationship between O(f) and the adhesive interface, were on the order of 10(-13) and 10(-12) N-s, respectively. When the total impulse at O(f) is well-defined, fsLP-IF can be used to estimate the force required to break intercellular adhesions in a noncontact manner under biologically relevant conditions.

  11. Forced translocation of DNA hairpins through a tight molecular nanopore studied by atomic force microscopy in force-spectroscopy mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, Brian Alan

    The transit of Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) through a molecular nanopore has been studied by pulling a beta-cyclodextrin ring over single stranded DNA using an atomic force microscope. After an exhaustive search, it was determined that n-propyl silane surface provides the most reliable background surface for performing force spectroscopy of DNA. A versatile rotaxane complex was formed between a hydrophobic molecule and cyclodextrin. DNA was then added to this complex to form a DNA rotaxane. The cyclodextrin is covalently linked by a molecular tether to the force probe, which both pulls on the cyclodextrin and reads off the forces required for passage of the DNA. The bases do not provide an obstacle to the passage of the cyclodextrin, but hairpins represent large barriers to transit, and analysis of the pulling kinetics show the opening rates of the hairpins. The utility of the system was determined by investigating the kinetics of the analogous biological system with two unusual hairpins: Unusually stable hairpins (consisting of the bases CTTG in the loop) and sequences with CTG repeats motifs. CTTG hairpins prove to be completely impassable both to reverse transcriptase and the cyclodextrin, while CTG repeats pass with an ease appropriate to their bulk measurements, but still enough force to stall a polymerase enzyme proving that the kinetic analysis is alone responsible for the stalling.

  12. Harnessing bifurcations in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy to calibrate time-varying tip-sample force measurements.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Ozgur

    2007-10-01

    Torsional harmonic cantilevers allow measurement of time-varying tip-sample forces in tapping-mode atomic force microscopy. Accuracy of these force measurements is important for quantitative nanomechanical measurements. Here we demonstrate a method to convert the torsional deflection signals into a calibrated force wave form with the use of nonlinear dynamical response of the tapping cantilever. Specifically the transitions between steady oscillation regimes are used to calibrate the torsional deflection signals.

  13. Nanomechanical Characterization of Bacillus anthracis Spores by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Burggraf, Larry W.; Xing, Yun

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The study of structures and properties of bacterial spores is important to understanding spore formation and biological responses to environmental stresses. While significant progress has been made over the years in elucidating the multilayer architecture of spores, the mechanical properties of the spore interior are not known. Here, we present a thermal atomic force microscopy (AFM) study of the nanomechanical properties of internal structures of Bacillus anthracis spores. We developed a nanosurgical sectioning method in which a stiff diamond AFM tip was used to cut an individual spore, exposing its internal structure, and a soft AFM tip was used to image and characterize the spore interior on the nanometer scale. We observed that the elastic modulus and adhesion force, including their thermal responses at elevated temperatures, varied significantly in different regions of the spore section. Our AFM images indicated that the peptidoglycan (PG) cortex of Bacillus anthracis spores consisted of rod-like nanometer-sized structures that are oriented in the direction perpendicular to the spore surface. Our findings may shed light on the spore architecture and properties. IMPORTANCE A nanosurgical AFM method was developed that can be used to probe the structure and properties of the spore interior. The previously unknown ultrastructure of the PG cortex of Bacillus anthracis spores was observed to consist of nanometer-sized rod-like structures that are oriented in the direction perpendicular to the spore surface. The variations in the nanomechanical properties of the spore section were largely correlated with its chemical composition. Different components of the spore materials showed different thermal responses at elevated temperatures. PMID:26969703

  14. Uncertainty quantification in nanomechanical measurements using the atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Ryan; Moon, Robert; Pratt, Jon; Shaw, Gordon; Raman, Arvind

    2011-11-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in measured properties of nanomaterials is a prerequisite for the manufacture of reliable nanoengineered materials and products. Yet, rigorous uncertainty quantification (UQ) is rarely applied for material property measurements with the atomic force microscope (AFM), a widely used instrument that can measure properties at nanometer scale resolution of both inorganic and biological surfaces and nanomaterials. We present a framework to ascribe uncertainty to local nanomechanical properties of any nanoparticle or surface measured with the AFM by taking into account the main uncertainty sources inherent in such measurements. We demonstrate the framework by quantifying uncertainty in AFM-based measurements of the transverse elastic modulus of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs), an abundant, plant-derived nanomaterial whose mechanical properties are comparable to Kevlar fibers. For a single, isolated CNC the transverse elastic modulus was found to have a mean of 8.1 GPa and a 95% confidence interval of 2.7-20 GPa. A key result is that multiple replicates of force-distance curves do not sample the important sources of uncertainty, which are systematic in nature. The dominant source of uncertainty is the nondimensional photodiode sensitivity calibration rather than the cantilever stiffness or Z-piezo calibrations. The results underscore the great need for, and open a path towards, quantifying and minimizing uncertainty in AFM-based material property measurements of nanoparticles, nanostructured surfaces, thin films, polymers and biomaterials. This work is a partial contribution of the USDA Forest Service and NIST, agencies of the US government, and is not subject to copyright.

  15. ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS: AN ADDITIONAL SOURCE FOR HELIOSPHERIC PICKUP IONS

    SciTech Connect

    Bochsler, Peter; Moebius, Eberhard

    2010-09-20

    Recently, Schwadron and McComas discussed the possibility of inner source pickup particles originating from the ionization of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), based on new data from the IBEX mission. This proposition has some interesting features, namely, it might be able to explain why inner source pickup ions (PUIs) have a composition resembling solar abundances and show no indication of overabundance of refractory elements, although this should be expected, if the conventional explanation of solar wind-dust interaction for the origin of this heliospheric component were correct. In this Letter, we explore further consequences for ENA-related PUIs and investigate their velocity distributions. We conclude that this model will not reproduce the observed velocity distributions of inner source PUIs and point out a substantial deviation in their composition. However, it seems likely that the ionization of ENAs as observed with IBEX could contribute a significant amount of heliospheric suprathermal tail ions. Some possible consequences of our investigation for heliospheric particle populations are briefly discussed.

  16. Application of atomic force microscopy to the study of natural and model soil particles.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Bryant, R; Doerr, S H; Rhodri Williams, P; Wright, C J

    2008-09-01

    previous macroscopic determination of the proportions of organic material chemically extracted from bulk samples of the soils from which specimen particles were drawn. Interaction forces were measured between atomic force microscopy cantilever tips (Si(3)N(4)) and natural soil and model surfaces. Adhesion forces at humic acid free specimen surfaces (Av. 20.0 nN), which are primarily hydrophilic and whose interactions are subject to a significant contribution from the capillary forces, were found to be larger than those of specimen surfaces with adsorbed humic acid (Av. 6.5 nN). This suggests that adsorbed humic acid increased surface hydrophobicity. The magnitude and distribution of adhesion forces between atomic force microscopy tips and the natural particle surfaces was affected by both local surface roughness and the presence of adsorbed organic material. The present study has correlated nanoscale measurements with established macroscale methods of soil study. Thus, the research demonstrates that atomic force microscopy is an important addition to soil science that permits a multiscale analysis of the multifactorial phenomena of soil hydrophobicity and wetting.

  17. Recent Progress in Molecular Recognition Imaging Using Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Senapati, Subhadip; Lindsay, Stuart

    2016-03-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an extremely powerful tool in the field of bionanotechnology because of its ability to image single molecules and make measurements of molecular interaction forces with piconewton sensitivity. It works in aqueous media, enabling studies of molecular phenomenon taking place under physiological conditions. Samples can be imaged in their near-native state without any further modifications such as staining or tagging. The combination of AFM imaging with the force measurement added a new feature to the AFM technique, that is, molecular recognition imaging. Molecular recognition imaging enables mapping of specific interactions between two molecules (one attached to the AFM tip and the other to the imaging substrate) by generating simultaneous topography and recognition images (TREC). Since its discovery, the recognition imaging technique has been successfully applied to different systems such as antibody-protein, aptamer-protein, peptide-protein, chromatin, antigen-antibody, cells, and so forth. Because the technique is based on specific binding between the ligand and receptor, it has the ability to detect a particular protein in a mixture of proteins or monitor a biological phenomenon in the native physiological state. One key step for recognition imaging technique is the functionalization of the AFM tips (generally, silicon, silicon nitrides, gold, etc.). Several different functionalization methods have been reported in the literature depending on the molecules of interest and the material of the tip. Polyethylene glycol is routinely used to provide flexibility needed for proper binding as a part of the linker that carries the affinity molecule. Recently, a heterofunctional triarm linker has been synthesized and successfully attached with two different affinity molecules. This novel linker, when attached to AFM tip, helped to detect two different proteins simultaneously from a mixture of proteins using a so-called "two

  18. Atomic force microscopy investigation of the giant mimivirus

    SciTech Connect

    Kuznetsov, Yuri G.; Xiao Chuan; Sun Siyang; Raoult, Didier; Rossmann, Michael; McPherson, Alexander

    2010-08-15

    Mimivirus was investigated by atomic force microscopy in its native state following serial degradation by lysozyme and bromelain. The 750-nm diameter virus is coated with a forest of glycosylated protein fibers of lengths about 140 nm with diameters 1.4 nm. Fibers are capped with distinctive ellipsoidal protein heads of estimated Mr = 25 kDa. The surface fibers are attached to the particle through a layer of protein covering the capsid, which is in turn composed of the major capsid protein (MCP). The latter is organized as an open network of hexagonal rings with central depressions separated by 14 nm. The virion exhibits an elaborate apparatus at a unique vertex, visible as a star shaped depression on native particles, but on defibered virions as five arms of 50 nm width and 250 nm length rising above the capsid by 20 nm. The apparatus is integrated into the capsid and not applied atop the icosahedral lattice. Prior to DNA release, the arms of the star disengage from the virion and it opens by folding back five adjacent triangular faces. A membrane sac containing the DNA emerges from the capsid in preparation for fusion with a membrane of the host cell. Also observed from disrupted virions were masses of distinctive fibers of diameter about 1 nm, and having a 7-nm periodicity. These are probably contained within the capsid along with the DNA bearing sac. The fibers were occasionally observed associated with toroidal protein clusters interpreted as processive enzymes modifying the fibers.

  19. Research on three dimensional machining effects using atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Yao-Ting; Kuo, Kai-Chen; Tseng, Ching-En; Huang, Jian-Yin; Lai, Yi-Chih; Yen, Jia-Yush; Lee, Chih-Kung; Chuang, Wei-Li

    2009-06-01

    This research studies the use of scanning probe microscope as the tool to manufacture three dimensional nanoscale objects. We modified a commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) and replaced the original probe control system with a personal computer (PC) based controller. The modified system used the scanning probe in the AFM for the cutting tool and used the PC controller to control work piece. With the new controller, one could implement multiaxes motion control to perform trajectory planning and to test various cutting strategies. The experiments discovered that the debris can coalesce with the sample material and cause tremendous problem in the nanomachining process. This research thus proposed to make use of this material and developed a piling algorithm to not only cut but also pile up the debris in a favorable way for steric shaping. The experimental results showed that the proposed cutting and shaping algorithm can produce nano-objects as high as a few hundred nanometers. The probe tip typically wears down to around 500 μm diameter after the machining process, putting a limit on the machining resolution. The vertical resolution can achieve less than 10 nm without controlled environment.

  20. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy characterization of silicon nanowire

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The electrical conduction properties of lateral and vertical silicon nanowires (SiNWs) were investigated using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). Horizontal SiNWs, which were synthesized by the in-plane solid-liquid-solid technique, are randomly deployed into an undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer. Local current mapping shows that the wires have internal microstructures. The local current-voltage measurements on these horizontal wires reveal a power law behavior indicating several transport regimes based on space-charge limited conduction which can be assisted by traps in the high-bias regime (> 1 V). Vertical phosphorus-doped SiNWs were grown by chemical vapor deposition using a gold catalyst-driving vapor-liquid-solid process on higly n-type silicon substrates. The effect of phosphorus doping on the local contact resistance between the AFM tip and the SiNW was put in evidence, and the SiNWs resistivity was estimated. PMID:21711623

  1. Medical applications of atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Samjin; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Kim, Kyung Sook; Lee, Gi-Ja; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy techniques, which are considered the multi-functional and powerful toolkits for probing the nanostructural, biomechanical and physicochemical properties of biomedical samples in medical science. We introduce briefly the basic principles of AFM and Raman spectroscopy, followed by diagnostic assessments of some selected diseases in biomedical applications using them, including mitochondria isolated from normal and ischemic hearts, hair fibers, individual cells, and human cortical bone. Finally, AFM and Raman spectroscopy applications to investigate the effects of pharmacotherapy, surgery, and medical device therapy in various medicines from cells to soft and hard tissues are discussed, including pharmacotherapy--paclitaxel on Ishikawa and HeLa cells, telmisartan on angiotensin II, mitomycin C on strabismus surgery and eye whitening surgery, and fluoride on primary teeth--and medical device therapy--collagen cross-linking treatment for the management of progressive keratoconus, radiofrequency treatment for skin rejuvenation, physical extracorporeal shockwave therapy for healing of Achilles tendinitis, orthodontic treatment, and toothbrushing time to minimize the loss of teeth after exposure to acidic drinks.

  2. Cellular effects of magnetic nanoparticles explored by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hongli; Li, Jingchao; Dulińska-Molak, Ida; Kawazoe, Naoki; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Mamiya, Hiroaki; Chen, Guoping

    2015-09-01

    The investigation of subtle change of cells exposed to nanomaterials is extremely essential but also challenging for nanomaterial-based biological applications. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to investigate the effects of iron-iron oxide core-shell magnetic nanoparticles on the mechanical properties of bovine articular chondrocytes (BACs). After being exposed to the nanoparticles even at a high nanoparticle-concentration (50 μg mL(-1)), no obvious difference was observed by using conventional methods, including the WST-1 assay and live/dead staining. However a significant difference of Young's modulus of the cells was detected by AFM even when the concentration of nanoparticles applied in the cell culture medium was low (10 μg mL(-1)). The difference of cellular Young's modulus increased with the increase of nanoparticle concentration. AFM was demonstrated to be a useful tool to identify the subtle change of cells when they were exposed to nanomaterials even at a low concentration.

  3. Poroelasticity of cell nuclei revealed through atomic force microscopy characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Fanan; Lan, Fei; Liu, Bin; Liu, Lianqing; Li, Guangyong

    2016-11-01

    With great potential in precision medical application, cell biomechanics is rising as a hot topic in biology. Cell nucleus, as the largest component within cell, not only contributes greatly to the cell's mechanical behavior, but also serves as the most vital component within cell. However, cell nucleus' mechanics is still far from unambiguous up to now. In this paper, we attempted to characterize and evaluate the mechanical property of isolated cell nuclei using Atomic Force Microscopy with a tipless probe. As indicated from typical indentation, changing loading rate and stress relaxation experiment results, cell nuclei showed significant dynamically mechanical property, i.e., time-dependent mechanics. Furthermore, through theoretical analysis, finite element simulation and stress relaxation experiment, the nature of nucleus' mechanics was better described by poroelasticity, rather than viscoelasticity. Therefore, the essence of nucleus' mechanics was clarified to be poroelastic through a sophisticated analysis. Finally, we estimated the poroelastic parameters for nuclei of two types of cells through a combination of experimental data and finite element simulation.

  4. High-throughput atomic force microscopes operating in parallel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghian, Hamed; Herfst, Rodolf; Dekker, Bert; Winters, Jasper; Bijnagte, Tom; Rijnbeek, Ramon

    2017-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is an essential nanoinstrument technique for several applications such as cell biology and nanoelectronics metrology and inspection. The need for statistically significant sample sizes means that data collection can be an extremely lengthy process in AFM. The use of a single AFM instrument is known for its very low speed and not being suitable for scanning large areas, resulting in a very-low-throughput measurement. We address this challenge by parallelizing AFM instruments. The parallelization is achieved by miniaturizing the AFM instrument and operating many of them simultaneously. This instrument has the advantages that each miniaturized AFM can be operated independently and that the advances in the field of AFM, both in terms of speed and imaging modalities, can be implemented more easily. Moreover, a parallel AFM instrument also allows one to measure several physical parameters simultaneously; while one instrument measures nano-scale topography, another instrument can measure mechanical, electrical, or thermal properties, making it a lab-on-an-instrument. In this paper, a proof of principle of such a parallel AFM instrument has been demonstrated by analyzing the topography of large samples such as semiconductor wafers. This nanoinstrument provides new research opportunities in the nanometrology of wafers and nanolithography masks by enabling real die-to-die and wafer-level measurements and in cell biology by measuring the nano-scale properties of a large number of cells.

  5. Visualization of Cytoskeletal Elements by the Atomic Force Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdyyeva, Tamara; Woodworth, Craig; Sokolov, Igor

    2004-03-01

    We describe a novel application of atomic force microscopy (AFM) to directly visualize cytoskeletal fibers in human foreskin epithelial cells. The nonionic detergent Triton X-100 in a low concentration was used to remove the membrane, soluble proteins, and organelles from the cell. The remaining cytoskeleton can then be directly visualized in either liquid or air-dried ambient conditions. These two types of scanning provide complimentary information. Scanning in liquids visualizes the surface filaments of the cytoskeleton, whereas scanning in air shows both the surface filaments and the total volume of the cytoskeletal fibers. The smallest fibers observed were ca. 50 nm in diameter. The lateral resolution of this technique was ca.20 nm, which can be increased to a single nanometer level by choosing sharper AFM tips. Because the AFM is a true 3 dimensional technique, we are able to quantify the observed cytoskeleton by its density and volume. The types of fibers can be identified by their size, similar to electron microscopy.

  6. Actuation of atomic force microscopy microcantilevers using contact acoustic nonlinearities

    SciTech Connect

    Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2013-11-15

    A new method of actuating atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers is proposed in which a high frequency (>5 MHz) wave modulated by a lower frequency (∼300 kHz) wave passes through a contact acoustic nonlinearity at the contact interface between the actuator and the cantilever chip. The nonlinearity converts the high frequency, modulated signal to a low frequency drive signal suitable for actuation of tapping-mode AFM probes. The higher harmonic content of this signal is filtered out mechanically by the cantilever transfer function, providing for clean output. A custom probe holder was designed and constructed using rapid prototyping technologies and off-the-shelf components and was interfaced with an Asylum Research MFP-3D AFM, which was then used to evaluate the performance characteristics with respect to standard hardware and linear actuation techniques. Using a carrier frequency of 14.19 MHz, it was observed that the cantilever output was cleaner with this actuation technique and added no significant noise to the system. This setup, without any optimization, was determined to have an actuation bandwidth on the order of 10 MHz, suitable for high speed imaging applications. Using this method, an image was taken that demonstrates the viability of the technique and is compared favorably to images taken with a standard AFM setup.

  7. Atomic force microscope cantilever calibration using a focused ion beam.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Ashley D; Quinton, Jamie S; Gibson, Christopher T

    2012-07-20

    A calibration method is presented for determining the spring constant of atomic force microscope (AFM) cantilevers, which is a modification of the established Cleveland added mass technique. A focused ion beam (FIB) is used to remove a well-defined volume from a cantilever with known density, substantially reducing the uncertainty usually present in the added mass method. The technique can be applied to any type of AFM cantilever; but for the lowest uncertainty it is best applied to silicon cantilevers with spring constants above 0.7 N m(-1), where uncertainty is demonstrated to be typically between 7 and 10%. Despite the removal of mass from the cantilever, the calibration method presented does not impair the probes' ability to acquire data. The technique has been extensively tested in order to verify the underlying assumptions in the method. This method was compared to a number of other calibration methods and practical improvements to some of these techniques were developed, as well as important insights into the behavior of FIB modified cantilevers. These results will prove useful to research groups concerned with the application of microcantilevers to nanoscience, in particular for cases where maintaining pristine AFM tip condition is critical.

  8. Atomic force microscopy of differential weathering in real time

    SciTech Connect

    Heaton, J.S.; Engstrom, R.C. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1994-04-01

    Differential weathering of a rock sample was observed in-situ using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The sample contained fayalite intergrown with veins of magnetite and serpentine. Analyses consisted of polishing the sample with alumina and recording AFM scans periodically during subsequent exposure to nitric acid. Immediately after polishing, serpentine areas were recessed compared to fayalite and magnetite, which were similar in height. As weathering proceeded, both serpentine and magnetite areas protruded from the fayalite surface, and no significant change in the relative heights of magnetite and serpentine features was observed. This suggests that serpentine is less resistant to mechanical weathering than fayalite or magnetite but that serpentine and magnetite are both more resistant to chemical weathering than fayalite. Differential weathering rates between fayalite and magnetite, on the order of a few unit cells per minute, were determined in various nitric acid concentrations by measuring the difference in height between the two minerals as a function of time. A dissolution rate law for fayalite was determined by comparing the rates for different concentrations of nitric acid and assuming the dissolution of magnetite was negligible compared to that of fayalite. The rate law from this study is Rate = 7.7* [HNO[sub 3

  9. Mechanical properties of graphene cantilever from atomic force microscopy and density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Rasuli, R; Iraji Zad, A; Ahadian, M M

    2010-05-07

    We have studied the mechanical properties of a few-layer graphene cantilever (FLGC) using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The mechanical properties of the suspended FLGC over an open hole have been derived from the AFM data. Force displacement curves using the Derjaguin-Müller-Toporov (DMT) and the massless cantilever beam models yield a Young modulus of E(c) approximately 37, E(a) approximately 0.7 TPa and a Hamakar constant of approximately 3 x 10( - 18) J. The threshold force to shear the FLGC was determined from a breaking force and modeling. In addition, we studied a graphene nanoribbon (GNR), which is a system similar to the FLGC; using density functional theory (DFT). The in-plane Young's modulus for the GNRs were calculated from the DFT outcomes approximately 0.82 TPa and the results were compared with the experiment. We found that the Young's modulus and the threshold shearing force are dependent on the direction of applied force and the values are different for zigzag edge and armchair edge GNRs.

  10. Ab initio simulation of atomic-scale imaging in noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Caciuc, V; Hölscher, H

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we summarize some results of our ab initio simulations aimed at investigating the mechanism of the NC-AFM image contrast on semiconductor and metallic surfaces. We start with an introduction into the basic ideas behind the ab initio simulation process of the NC-AFM experimental results. Our simulations reveal that the interaction of a clean silicon tip with a semiconductor surface like InAs(110) might lead to bond-formation and bond-breaking processes during the approach and retraction of the tip. This imaging mechanism is very similar to that observed on a metallic surface like Ag(110). Interestingly, a clean silicon tip can become contaminated with Ag surface atoms. On both types of surface we observe a significant energy dissipation which is caused by a hysteresis in the tip-sample force curves calculated on the approach and retraction path.

  11. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  12. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  13. Graphene-coated atomic force microscope tips for reliable nanoscale electrical characterization.

    PubMed

    Lanza, M; Bayerl, A; Gao, T; Porti, M; Nafria, M; Jing, G Y; Zhang, Y F; Liu, Z F; Duan, H L

    2013-03-13

    Graphene single-layer films are grown by chemical vapor deposition and transferred onto commercially available conductive tips for atomic force microscopy. Graphene-coated tips are much more resistant to both high currents and frictions than commercially available, metal-varnished, conductive atomic force microscopy tips, leading to much larger lifetimes and more reliable imaging due to a lower tip-sample interaction.

  14. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25{degrees}C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  15. Indirect modulation of nonmagnetic probes for force modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-Ren; Garno, Jayne C

    2009-02-15

    Frequency-dependent changes for phase and amplitude images are demonstrated with test platforms of organosilane ring patterns, using force modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) with an alternate instrument configuration. The imaging setup using indirect magnetic modulation (IMM) is based on indirect oscillation of soft, nonmagnetic cantilevers, with spring constants <1 N m(-1). The tip is driven to vibrate by the motion of a tip holder assembly which contains ferromagnetic materials. The entire tip assembly is induced to vibrate with the flux of an external ac electromagnetic field, supplied by a wire coil solenoid placed underneath the sample plate. With the use of IMM, dynamic parameters of the driving frequencies and amplitude of the tip motion can be optimized to sensitively map the elastic response of samples. An advantage of this instrument setup is that a magnetic coating is not required to drive the periodic oscillation of the tip. The instrument configuration for IMM may not be practical for intermittent imaging modes, which often work best with stiff cantilevers. However, indirect actuation provides an effective approach for imaging with low force setpoints and is well-suited for dynamic AFM modes using continuous contact imaging.

  16. Fabrication of nanometer-sized protein patterns using atomic force microscopy and selective immobilization.

    PubMed Central

    Wadu-Mesthrige, K; Amro, N A; Garno, J C; Xu, S; Liu , G

    2001-01-01

    A new methodology is introduced to produce nanometer-sized protein patterns. The approach includes two main steps, nanopatterning of self-assembled monolayers using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanolithography and subsequent selective immobilization of proteins on the patterned monolayers. The resulting templates and protein patterns are characterized in situ using AFM. Compared with conventional protein fabrication methods, this approach is able to produce smaller patterns with higher spatial precision. In addition, fabrication and characterization are completed in near physiological conditions. The adsorption configuration and bioreactivity of the proteins within the nanopatterns are also studied in situ. PMID:11259301

  17. Non-Abelian geometric phase and long-range atomic forces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zygelman, B.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown how gauge fields, or geometric phases, manifest as observable effects in both bound and free diatom systems. It is shown that, in addition to altering energy splittings in bound systems, geometric phases induce transitions in levels separated by a finite-energy gap. An example is given where the non-Abelian gauge field couples nondegenerate electronic levels in a diatom. This gauge-field coupling gives rise to an observable effect. It is shown that when the diatom is 'pulled apart', the non-Abelian geometric phase manifests as a long-range atomic force.

  18. Heat conduction in double-walled carbon nanotubes with intertube additional carbon atoms.

    PubMed

    Cui, Liu; Feng, Yanhui; Tan, Peng; Zhang, Xinxin

    2015-07-07

    Heat conduction of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) with intertube additional carbon atoms was investigated for the first time using a molecular dynamics method. By analyzing the phonon vibrational density of states (VDOS), we revealed that the intertube additional atoms weak the heat conduction along the tube axis. Moreover, the phonon participation ratio (PR) demonstrates that the heat transfer in DWCNTs is dominated by low frequency modes. The added atoms cause the mode weight factor (MWF) of the outer tube to decrease and that of the inner tube to increase, which implies a lower thermal conductivity. The effects of temperature, tube length, and the number and distribution of added atoms were studied. Furthermore, an orthogonal array testing strategy was designed to identify the most important structural factor. It is indicated that the tendencies of thermal conductivity of DWCNTs with added atoms change with temperature and length are similar to bare ones. In addition, thermal conductivity decreases with the increasing number of added atoms, more evidently for atom addition concentrated at some cross-sections rather than uniform addition along the tube length. Simultaneously, the number of added atoms at each cross-section has a considerably more remarkable impact, compared to the tube length and the density of chosen cross-sections to add atoms.

  19. The Polarizable Atomic Multipole-based AMOEBA Force Field for Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yue; Xia, Zhen; Zhang, Jiajing; Best, Robert; Wu, Chuanjie; Ponder, Jay W.; Ren, Pengyu

    2013-01-01

    Development of the AMOEBA (Atomic Multipole Optimized Energetics for Biomolecular Simulation) force field for proteins is presented. The current version (AMOEBA-2013) utilizes permanent electrostatic multipole moments through the quadrupole at each atom, and explicitly treats polarization effects in various chemical and physical environments. The atomic multipole electrostatic parameters for each amino acid residue type are derived from high-level gas phase quantum mechanical calculations via a consistent and extensible protocol. Molecular polarizability is modeled via a Thole-style damped interactive induction model based upon distributed atomic polarizabilities. Inter- and intramolecular polarization is treated in a consistent fashion via the Thole model. The intramolecular polarization model ensures transferability of electrostatic parameters among different conformations, as demonstrated by the agreement between QM and AMOEBA electrostatic potentials, and dipole moments of dipeptides. The backbone and side chain torsional parameters were determined by comparing to gas-phase QM (RI-TRIM MP2/CBS) conformational energies of dipeptides and to statistical distributions from the Protein Data Bank. Molecular dynamics simulations are reported for short peptides in explicit water to examine their conformational properties in solution. Overall the calculated conformational free energies and J-coupling constants are consistent with PDB statistics and experimental NMR results, respectively. In addition, the experimental crystal structures of a number of proteins are well maintained during molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. While further calculations are necessary to fully validate the force field, initial results suggest the AMOEBA polarizable multipole force field is able to describe the structure and energetics of peptides and proteins, in both gas-phase and solution environments. PMID:24163642

  20. The chemical structure of a molecule resolved by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Leo; Mohn, Fabian; Moll, Nikolaj; Liljeroth, Peter; Meyer, Gerhard

    2009-08-28

    Resolving individual atoms has always been the ultimate goal of surface microscopy. The scanning tunneling microscope images atomic-scale features on surfaces, but resolving single atoms within an adsorbed molecule remains a great challenge because the tunneling current is primarily sensitive to the local electron density of states close to the Fermi level. We demonstrate imaging of molecules with unprecedented atomic resolution by probing the short-range chemical forces with use of noncontact atomic force microscopy. The key step is functionalizing the microscope's tip apex with suitable, atomically well-defined terminations, such as CO molecules. Our experimental findings are corroborated by ab initio density functional theory calculations. Comparison with theory shows that Pauli repulsion is the source of the atomic resolution, whereas van der Waals and electrostatic forces only add a diffuse attractive background.

  1. Casimir Forces and Quantum Friction from Ginzburg Radiation in Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marino, Jamir; Recati, Alessio; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically propose an experimentally viable scheme to use an impurity atom in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to realize condensed-matter analogs of quantum vacuum effects. In a suitable atomic level configuration, the collisional interaction between the impurity atom and the density fluctuations in the condensate can be tailored to closely reproduce the electric-dipole coupling of quantum electrodynamics. By virtue of this analogy, we recover and extend the paradigm of electromagnetic vacuum forces to the domain of cold atoms, showing in particular the emergence, at supersonic atomic speeds, of a novel power-law scaling of the Casimir force felt by the atomic impurity, as well as the occurrence of a quantum frictional force, accompanied by the Ginzburg emission of Bogoliubov quanta. Observable consequences of these quantum vacuum effects in realistic spectroscopic experiments are discussed.

  2. Casimir Forces and Quantum Friction from Ginzburg Radiation in Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensates.

    PubMed

    Marino, Jamir; Recati, Alessio; Carusotto, Iacopo

    2017-01-27

    We theoretically propose an experimentally viable scheme to use an impurity atom in an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, in order to realize condensed-matter analogs of quantum vacuum effects. In a suitable atomic level configuration, the collisional interaction between the impurity atom and the density fluctuations in the condensate can be tailored to closely reproduce the electric-dipole coupling of quantum electrodynamics. By virtue of this analogy, we recover and extend the paradigm of electromagnetic vacuum forces to the domain of cold atoms, showing in particular the emergence, at supersonic atomic speeds, of a novel power-law scaling of the Casimir force felt by the atomic impurity, as well as the occurrence of a quantum frictional force, accompanied by the Ginzburg emission of Bogoliubov quanta. Observable consequences of these quantum vacuum effects in realistic spectroscopic experiments are discussed.

  3. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanowicz, Paweł; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava; Gabryś, Halina

    2014-06-01

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  4. AtomicJ: An open source software for analysis of force curves

    SciTech Connect

    Hermanowicz, Paweł Gabryś, Halina; Sarna, Michał; Burda, Kvetoslava

    2014-06-15

    We present an open source Java application for analysis of force curves and images recorded with the Atomic Force Microscope. AtomicJ supports a wide range of contact mechanics models and implements procedures that reduce the influence of deviations from the contact model. It generates maps of mechanical properties, including maps of Young's modulus, adhesion force, and sample height. It can also calculate stacks, which reveal how sample's response to deformation changes with indentation depth. AtomicJ analyzes force curves concurrently on multiple threads, which allows for high speed of analysis. It runs on all popular operating systems, including Windows, Linux, and Macintosh.

  5. Simulation of the observability of atomic defects by atomic force microscopy in contact and non-contact modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, I. Yu.; Henderson, G. S.

    2002-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) scans of a crystal surface containing an atomic defect were simulated in both contact and non-contact regimes. When scanning in contact mode near a defect, the tip-sample force interaction experiences bifurcation of the lines of constant force. When the load force is small, the bifurcation causes the tip to be "pushed" out of the defect. However, if scan force is higher than some critical value (dependent upon the composition of the tip and sample) the AFM tip becomes "trapped" in the vicinity of defect. The trapped tip remains at the level of the vacancy and consequently crashes into the sample, as the scan continues. This results in either the tip apex being destroyed, or disruption of the crystal lattice around the defect. Both effects result in the "disappearance" of the defect from the scan images. The trap is intrinsic and cannot be avoided. For the case of non-contact mode, the tip position is driven by the scan force gradient rather than the force. Simulations show that for this case the trap does not exist and atomic defects will not be destroyed. This explains why atomic defects are generally not observed when using contact mode AFM, but are observed in non-contact AFM.

  6. First-Principles Calculation of Femtosecond Symmetry-Breaking Atomic Forces in Photoexcited Bismuth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Éamonn D.; Fahy, Stephen

    2015-02-01

    We present a first-principles method for the calculation of the polarization-dependent atomic forces resulting from optical excitation in a solid. We calculate the induced force driving the Eg phonon mode in bismuth immediately after absorption of polarized light. When radiation with polarization perpendicular to the c axis is absorbed, the photoexcited charge density breaks the threefold rotational symmetry, leading to an atomic force component perpendicular to the axis. We calculate the initial excited electronic distribution as a function of photon energy and polarization and find the resulting atomic force components parallel and perpendicular to the axis. The magnitude of the calculated force is in excellent agreement with that derived from recent measurements of the amplitude of Eg atomic motion and the decay time of several femtoseconds for the driving force.

  7. High-speed atomic force microscopy and peak force tapping control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuiqing; Mininni, Lars; Hu, Yan; Erina, Natalia; Kindt, Johannes; Su, Chanmin

    2012-03-01

    ITRS Roadmap requires defect size measurement below 10 nanometers and challenging classifications for both blank and patterned wafers and masks. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is capable of providing metrology measurement in 3D at sub-nanometer accuracy but has long suffered from drawbacks in throughput and limitation of slow topography imaging without chemical information. This presentation focus on two disruptive technology developments, namely high speed AFM and quantitative nanomechanical mapping, which enables high throughput measurement with capability of identifying components through concurrent physical property imaging. The high speed AFM technology has allowed the imaging speed increase by 10-100 times without loss of the data quality. Such improvement enables the speed of defect review on a wafer to increase from a few defects per hour to nearly 100 defects an hour, approaching the requirements of ITRS Roadmap. Another technology development, Peak Force Tapping, substantially simplified the close loop system response, leading to self-optimization of most challenging samples groups to generate expert quality data. More importantly, AFM also simultaneously provides a series of mechanical property maps with a nanometer spatial resolution during defect review. These nanomechanical maps (including elastic modulus, hardness, and surface adhesion) provide complementary information for elemental analysis, differentiate defect materials by their physical properties, and assist defect classification beyond topographic measurements. This paper will explain the key enabling technologies, namely high speed tip-scanning AFM using innovative flexure design and control algorithm. Another critical element is AFM control using Peak Force Tapping, in which the instantaneous tip-sample interaction force is measured and used to derive a full suite of physical properties at each imaging pixel. We will provide examples of defect review data on different wafers and media disks

  8. Atomic Force Microscopy of Red-Light Photoreceptors Using PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Marie E.; Sorenson, Blaire A.; Thomas, J. Santoro; Stojković, Emina A.; Tsonchev, Stefan; Nicholson, Kenneth T.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) uses a pyramidal tip attached to a cantilever to probe the force response of a surface. The deflections of the tip can be measured to ~10 pN by a laser and sectored detector, which can be converted to image topography. Amplitude modulation or “tapping mode” AFM involves the probe making intermittent contact with the surface while oscillating at its resonant frequency to produce an image. Used in conjunction with a fluid cell, tapping-mode AFM enables the imaging of biological macromolecules such as proteins in physiologically relevant conditions. Tapping-mode AFM requires manual tuning of the probe and frequent adjustments of a multitude of scanning parameters which can be challenging for inexperienced users. To obtain high-quality images, these adjustments are the most time consuming. PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Property Mapping (PF-QNM) produces an image by measuring a force response curve for every point of contact with the sample. With ScanAsyst software, PF-QNM can be automated. This software adjusts the set-point, drive frequency, scan rate, gains, and other important scanning parameters automatically for a given sample. Not only does this process protect both fragile probes and samples, it significantly reduces the time required to obtain high resolution images. PF-QNM is compatible for AFM imaging in fluid; therefore, it has extensive application for imaging biologically relevant materials. The method presented in this paper describes the application of PF-QNM to obtain images of a bacterial red-light photoreceptor, RpBphP3 (P3), from photosynthetic R. palustris in its light-adapted state. Using this method, individual protein dimers of P3 and aggregates of dimers have been observed on a mica surface in the presence of an imaging buffer. With appropriate adjustments to surface and/or solution concentration, this method may be generally applied to other biologically relevant macromolecules and soft materials. PMID

  9. Optical Forces from Periodic Adiabatic Rapid Passage Sequences on Metastable Helium Atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stack, Daniel Thomas

    Over the past 30 years, optical manipulation of neutral atoms has been primarily performed with a monochromatic laser beam. The simplest tool for the control of atomic motion is the radiative force exerted by a monochromatic laser on a two-level atom. The radiative force arises from absorption followed by spontaneous emission, and its magnitude is limited by the atom's excited state lifetime. The coherent momentum exchanges between light fields and atoms can be exploited to produce long-range optical forces much greater than the radiative force through the use of absorption-stimulated emission processes. Adiabatic Rapid Passage (ARP) is a long-existing method to invert the population of a two-level nuclear spin system. Its extension to the optical domain necessitates a frequency chirped light pulse to interact with a two-level atom via the dipole interaction. I will first present a numerical study of the properties of optical forces on moving atoms derived from purely stimulated processes produced by multiple ARP sequences. This will be followed by experimental observations of long-range ARP forces much larger than the radiative force in metastable helium. Sequences of properly timed laser pulses may be used for rapid deceleration of neutral atomic (or molecular) beams.

  10. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri

    2015-10-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  11. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri

    2015-10-01

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  12. Autopilot for frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kuchuk, Kfir; Schlesinger, Itai; Sivan, Uri

    2015-10-15

    One of the most challenging aspects of operating an atomic force microscope (AFM) is finding optimal feedback parameters. This statement applies particularly to frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM), which utilizes three feedback loops to control the cantilever excitation amplitude, cantilever excitation frequency, and z-piezo extension. These loops are regulated by a set of feedback parameters, tuned by the user to optimize stability, sensitivity, and noise in the imaging process. Optimization of these parameters is difficult due to the coupling between the frequency and z-piezo feedback loops by the non-linear tip-sample interaction. Four proportional-integral (PI) parameters and two lock-in parameters regulating these loops require simultaneous optimization in the presence of a varying unknown tip-sample coupling. Presently, this optimization is done manually in a tedious process of trial and error. Here, we report on the development and implementation of an algorithm that computes the control parameters automatically. The algorithm reads the unperturbed cantilever resonance frequency, its quality factor, and the z-piezo driving signal power spectral density. It analyzes the poles and zeros of the total closed loop transfer function, extracts the unknown tip-sample transfer function, and finds four PI parameters and two lock-in parameters for the frequency and z-piezo control loops that optimize the bandwidth and step response of the total system. Implementation of the algorithm in a home-built AFM shows that the calculated parameters are consistently excellent and rarely require further tweaking by the user. The new algorithm saves the precious time of experienced users, facilitates utilization of FM-AFM by casual users, and removes the main hurdle on the way to fully automated FM-AFM.

  13. Contact resonances of U-shaped atomic force microscope probes

    SciTech Connect

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A.

    2016-01-21

    Recent approaches used to characterize the elastic or viscoelastic properties of materials with nanoscale resolution have focused on the contact resonances of atomic force microscope (CR-AFM) probes. The experiments for these CR-AFM methods involve measurement of several contact resonances from which the resonant frequency and peak width are found. The contact resonance values are then compared with the noncontact values in order for the sample properties to be evaluated. The data analysis requires vibration models associated with the probe during contact in order for the beam response to be deconvolved from the measured spectra. To date, the majority of CR-AFM research has used rectangular probes that have a relatively simple vibration response. Recently, U-shaped AFM probes have created much interest because they allow local sample heating. However, the vibration response of these probes is much more complex such that CR-AFM is still in its infancy. In this article, a simplified analytical model of U-shaped probes is evaluated for contact resonance applications relative to a more complex finite element (FE) computational model. The tip-sample contact is modeled using three orthogonal Kelvin-Voigt elements such that the resonant frequency and peak width of each mode are functions of the contact conditions. For the purely elastic case, the frequency results of the simple model are within 8% of the FE model for the lowest six modes over a wide range of contact stiffness values. Results for the viscoelastic contact problem for which the quality factor of the lowest six modes is compared show agreement to within 13%. These results suggest that this simple model can be used effectively to evaluate CR-AFM experimental results during AFM scanning such that quantitative mapping of viscoelastic properties may be possible using U-shaped probes.

  14. Dimensional characterization of extracellular vesicles using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebaihi, N.; De Boeck, B.; Yuana, Y.; Nieuwland, R.; Pétry, J.

    2017-03-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are small biological entities released from cells into body fluids. EV are recognized as mediators in intercellular communication and influence important physiological processes. It has been shown that the concentration and composition of EV in body fluids may differ from healthy subjects to patients suffering from particular disease. So, EV have gained a strong scientific and clinical interest as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of disease. Due to their small size, accurate detection and characterization of EV remain challenging. The aim of the presented work is to propose a characterization method of erythrocyte-derived EV using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The vesicles are immobilized on anti-CD235a-modified mica and analyzed by AFM under buffer liquid and dry conditions. EV detected under both conditions show very similar sizes namely ~30 nm high and ~90 nm wide. The size of these vesicles remains stable over drying time as long as 7 d at room temperature. Since the detected vesicles are not spherical, EV are characterized by their height and diameter, and not only by the height as is usually done for spherical nanoparticles. In order to obtain an accurate measurement of EV diameters, the geometry of the AFM tip was evaluated to account for the lateral broadening artifact inherent to AFM measurements. To do so, spherical polystyrene (PS) nanobeads and EV were concomitantly deposited on the same mica substrate and simultaneously measured by AFM under dry conditions. By applying this procedure, direct calibration of the AFM tip could be performed together with EV characterization under identical experimental conditions minimizing external sources of uncertainty on the shape and size of the tip, thus allowing standardization of EV measurement.

  15. Investigation of Acoustic Fields Generated by Eddy Currents Using an Atomic Force Microscope (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2014-0230 INVESTIGATION OF ACOUSTIC FIELDS GENERATED BY EDDY CURRENTS USING AN ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE (POSTPRINT) V...Institute of Physics AIR FORCE RESEARCH LABORATORY MATERIALS AND MANUFACTURING DIRECTORATE WRIGHT-PATTERSON AIR FORCE BASE, OH 45433-7750 AIR... FORCE MATERIEL COMMAND UNITED STATES AIR FORCE NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in

  16. Force-feedback joystick as a low-cost haptic interface for an atomic-force-microscopy nanomanipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubio-Sierra, F. J.; Stark, R. W.; Thalhammer, S.; Heckl, W. M.

    In order to manipulate materials at the nanometer scale, new methods and devices have to be developed. A nanomanipulator interface was designed and implemented in a commercial atomic-force-microscope (AFM) system. With the aid of a positioning joystick, direct positioning of the AFM probe with nanometer precision was possible. A commercial force-feedback joystick served as a haptic interface and provided the user with real-time feeling of the tip-sample interactions. Due to the open design, the manipulator interface could be used with other microscopes of the SPM family. In addition, the nanomanipulator and an UV-laser microbeam for photoablation were combined on an inverted optical microscope. To test the nanomanipulator, human metaphase chromosomes were dissected using both photoablation and mechanical AFM manipulation. The experimental results show that by combining both methods, biological material can be manipulated on different size scales in one integrated instrument. The effects of manipulation on the chromosome were studied in detail by AFM. Sub-400 nm cuts were achieved by photonic ablation. Chromosomal fragments of a size less than of 500 nm could be isolated. By means of mechanical microdissection, different cut sizes ranging from 80 nm to 500 nm could be easily obtained by applying different load forces.

  17. Development of a combined atomic force microscopy and side-view imaging system for mechanotransduction research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beicker, Kellie N.

    Key metrics for understanding cell response to mechanical stimuli include rearrangement of the cytoskeletal and nucleoskeletal structure, induced strains and biochemical distributions; however, structural information during applied stress is limited by our ability to image cells under load. In order to study the mechanics of single cells and subcellular components under load, I have developed a unique imaging system that combines an atomic force microscope (AFM) with both vertical light-sheet (VLS) illumination and a new imaging technique called PRISM - Pathway Rotated Imaging for Sideways Microscopy. The combined AFM and PRISM system facilitates the imaging of cell deformation in the direction of applied force with accompanying pico-Newton resolution force measurements. The additional inclusion of light-sheet microscopy improves the signal-to-noise ratio achieved by illumination of only a thin layer of the cell. This system is capable of pico-newton resolution force measurements with simultaneous side-view high frame rate imaging for single-molecule and single-cell force studies. Longer-term goals for this instrument are to investigate how external mechanical stimuli, specifically single-molecule interactions, alter gene expression, motility, and differentiation. The overall goal of my dissertation work is to design a tool useful for mechanobiology studies of single cells. This requires the design and implementation of PRISM and VLS systems that can be coupled to the standard Asylum AFM on inverted optical microscope. I also examine the strategy and implementation of experimental procedures and data analysis pipelines for single-cell and single-molecule force spectroscopy. These goals can be broken down as follows: • Performed single-molecule force spectroscopy experiments. • Performed single-cell force spectroscopy experiments. • Constructed and characterized the side-view microscopy system. • Applied combined AFM and side-vew microscopy system.

  18. Individual globular domains and domain unfolding visualized in overstretched titin molecules with atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mártonfalvi, Zsolt; Kellermayer, Miklós

    2014-01-01

    Titin is a giant elastomeric protein responsible for the generation of passive muscle force. Mechanical force unfolds titin's globular domains, but the exact structure of the overstretched titin molecule is not known. Here we analyzed, by using high-resolution atomic force microscopy, the structure of titin molecules overstretched with receding meniscus. The axial contour of the molecules was interrupted by topographical gaps with a mean width of 27.7 nm that corresponds well to the length of an unfolded globular (immunoglobulin and fibronectin) domain. The wide gap-width distribution suggests, however, that additional mechanisms such as partial domain unfolding and the unfolding of neighboring domain multimers may also be present. In the folded regions we resolved globules with an average spacing of 5.9 nm, which is consistent with a titin chain composed globular domains with extended interdomain linker regions. Topographical analysis allowed us to allocate the most distal unfolded titin region to the kinase domain, suggesting that this domain systematically unfolds when the molecule is exposed to overstretching forces. The observations support the prediction that upon the action of stretching forces the N-terminal ß-sheet of the titin kinase unfolds, thus exposing the enzyme's ATP-binding site and hence contributing to the molecule's mechanosensory function.

  19. Modeling and boundary force control of microcantilevers utilized in atomic force microscopy for cellular imaging and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Sohrab

    This dissertation undertakes the theoretical and experimental developments microcantilevers utilized in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) with applications to cellular imaging and characterization. The capability of revealing the inhomogeneties or interior of ultra-small materials has been of most interest to many researchers. However, the fundamental concept of signal and image formation remains unexplored and not fully understood. For his, a semi-empirical nonlinear force model is proposed to show that virtual frequency generation, regarded as the simplest synthesized subsurface probe, occurs optimally when the force is tuned to the van der Waals form. This is the first-time observation of a novel theoretical dynamic multi-frequency force microscopy that has not been already reported. Owing to the broad applications of microcantilevers in the nanoscale imaging and microscopic techniques, there is an essential feeling to study and propose a comprehensive model of such systems. Therefore, in the theoretical part of this dissertation, a distributed-parameters representation modeling of the microcantilever along with a general interaction force comprising of two attractive and repulsive components with general amplitude and power terms is studied. This model is investigated in a general 2D Cartesian coordinate to consider the motions of the probe with a tip mass. There is an excitation at the microcantilever's base such that the end of the beam is subject to the proposed general force. These forces are very sensitive to the amplitude and power terms of these parts; on the other hand, atomic intermolecular force is a function of the distance such that this distance itself is also a function of the interaction force that will result in a nonlinear implicit equation. From a parametric study in the probe-sample excitation, it is shown that the predicted behavior of the generated difference-frequency oscillation amplitude agrees well with experimental measurements. Following

  20. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M.; Hwu, E.-T.; Huang, K.-Y.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S.

    2014-10-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  1. High-speed atomic force microscope based on an astigmatic detection system

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, H.-S.; Chen, Y.-H.; Hwu, E.-T.; Chang, C.-S.; Hwang, I.-S.; Ding, R.-F.; Huang, H.-F.; Wang, W.-M.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2014-10-15

    High-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) enables visualizing dynamic behaviors of biological molecules under physiological conditions at a temporal resolution of 1s or shorter. A small cantilever with a high resonance frequency is crucial in increasing the scan speed. However, detecting mechanical resonances of small cantilevers is technically challenging. In this study, we constructed an atomic force microscope using a digital versatile disc (DVD) pickup head to detect cantilever deflections. In addition, a flexure-guided scanner and a sinusoidal scan method were implemented. In this work, we imaged a grating sample in air by using a regular cantilever and a small cantilever with a resonance frequency of 5.5 MHz. Poor tracking was seen at the scan rate of 50 line/s when a cantilever for regular AFM imaging was used. Using a small cantilever at the scan rate of 100 line/s revealed no significant degradation in the topographic images. The results indicate that a smaller cantilever can achieve a higher scan rate and superior force sensitivity. This work shows the potential for using a DVD pickup head in future HS-AFM technology.

  2. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Atomic Force Microscopy at the Water-Muscovite Interface: Hydration Layer Structure and Force Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Kazuya; Liang, Yunfeng; Amano, Ken-ichi; Murata, Sumihiko; Matsuoka, Toshifumi; Takahashi, Satoru; Nishi, Naoya; Sakka, Tetsuo

    2016-04-19

    With the development of atomic force microscopy (AFM), it is now possible to detect the buried liquid-solid interfacial structure in three dimensions at the atomic scale. One of the model surfaces used for AFM is the muscovite surface because it is atomically flat after cleavage along the basal plane. Although it is considered that force profiles obtained by AFM reflect the interfacial structures (e.g., muscovite surface and water structure), the force profiles are not straightforward because of the lack of a quantitative relationship between the force and the interfacial structure. In the present study, molecular dynamics simulations were performed to investigate the relationship between the muscovite-water interfacial structure and the measured AFM force using a capped carbon nanotube (CNT) AFM tip. We provide divided force profiles, where the force contributions from each water layer at the interface are shown. They reveal that the first hydration layer is dominant in the total force from water even after destruction of the layer. Moreover, the lateral structure of the first hydration layer transcribes the muscovite surface structure. It resembles the experimentally resolved surface structure of muscovite in previous AFM studies. The local density profile of water between the tip and the surface provides further insight into the relationship between the water structure and the detected force structure. The detected force structure reflects the basic features of the atomic structure for the local hydration layers. However, details including the peak-peak distance in the force profile (force-distance curve) differ from those in the density profile (density-distance curve) because of disturbance by the tip.

  3. Periodic Charging of Individual Molecules Coupled to the Motion of an Atomic Force Microscopy Tip.

    PubMed

    Kocić, N; Weiderer, P; Keller, S; Decurtins, S; Liu, S-X; Repp, J

    2015-07-08

    Individual molecules at the edges of self-assembled islands grown on Ag(111) can be deliberately switched in their charge state with the electric field from a scanning-probe tip. Close to the threshold voltage for a charge state transition, periodic switching of the charge is directly driven by the cantilever motion in frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM), as can be deduced from the signature in the measured frequency shift. In this regime, the integrated frequency shift yields the tip-sample force that is due to a single additional electron. Further, the signature of the dynamic charging response provides information on the electronic coupling of the molecule to the substrate. In analogy to previous experiments on quantum dots, this may also be used in the future to access excited state properties of single molecules from AFM experiments.

  4. Nanocharacterization of bio-silica using atomic force and ultrasonic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, Vinaypreet S.; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brar, N. S.

    2005-04-01

    Nanotechnology has become central to our research efforts to fabricate relatively smaller size devices, which are more versatile than their older and larger predecessors. Silica is a very important material in this regard. Recently, a new biomimetically inspired path to silica production has been demonstrated. This processing technique was inspired from biological organisms, such as marine diatoms, which produce silica at ambient conditions and almost neutral ph with beautiful control over location and structure. Recently, several researchers have demonstrated that positional control of silica formed could be achieved by application of an electric field to locate charged enzymes responsible for the bio catalytic condensation of silica from solution. Secondly, chemical and physical controls of silica structural morphology were achievable. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Ultrasonic Force Microscopy (UFM) techniques are employed for the first time to provide both substantially improved resolution of the morphology and relative measurement of the modulus of elasticity of the structures. In particular, these measurements reveal the positive impact of a shear flow field present during the silica formation on both the "ordering" of the structure and the mechanical properties.

  5. Imaging and Force Recognition of Single Molecular Behaviors Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mi; Dang, Dan; Liu, Lianqing; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2017-01-01

    The advent of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has provided a powerful tool for investigating the behaviors of single native biological molecules under physiological conditions. AFM can not only image the conformational changes of single biological molecules at work with sub-nanometer resolution, but also sense the specific interactions of individual molecular pair with piconewton force sensitivity. In the past decade, the performance of AFM has been greatly improved, which makes it widely used in biology to address diverse biomedical issues. Characterizing the behaviors of single molecules by AFM provides considerable novel insights into the underlying mechanisms guiding life activities, contributing much to cell and molecular biology. In this article, we review the recent developments of AFM studies in single-molecule assay. The related techniques involved in AFM single-molecule assay were firstly presented, and then the progress in several aspects (including molecular imaging, molecular mechanics, molecular recognition, and molecular activities on cell surface) was summarized. The challenges and future directions were also discussed. PMID:28117741

  6. Anharmonicity, solvation forces, and resolution in atomic force microscopy at the solid-liquid interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voïtchovsky, Kislon

    2013-08-01

    Solid-liquid interfaces are central to nanoscale science and technology and control processes as diverse as self-assembly, heterogeneous catalysis, wetting, electrochemistry, or protein function. Experimentally, measuring the structure and dynamics of solid-liquid interfaces with molecular resolution remains a challenge. This task can, in principle, be achieved with atomic force microscopy (AFM), which functions locally, and with nanometer precision. When operated dynamically and at small amplitudes, AFM can provide molecular-level images of the liquid solvation layers at the interfaces. At larger amplitudes, results in the field of multifrequency AFM have shown that anharmonicities in the tip motion can provide quantitative information about the solid's mechanical properties. The two approaches probe opposite aspects of the interface and are generally seen as distinct. Here it is shown that, for amplitudes Aforces. For A>d, the tip trajectory becomes rapidly anharmonic due to the tip tapping the solid, and the resolution decreases. A nonlinear transition between the two regimes occurs for A˜d and can be quantified with the second harmonic of the tip oscillation. These results, confirmed by computer simulations, remain valid in most experimental conditions. Significantly, they provide an objective criterion to enhance resolution and to decide whether the results are dominated by the properties of the solid or of the liquid.

  7. Monitoring Method of Cutting Force by Using Additional Spindle Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhan, Ahmed Aly Diaa; Matsubara, Atsushi; Sugihara, Motoyuki; Saraie, Hidenori; Ibaraki, Soichi; Kakino, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a monitoring method of cutting forces for end milling process by using displacement sensors. Four eddy-current displacement sensors are installed on the spindle housing of a machining center so that they can detect the radial motion of the rotating spindle. Thermocouples are also attached to the spindle structure in order to examine the thermal effect in the displacement sensing. The change in the spindle stiffness due to the spindle temperature and the speed is investigated as well. Finally, the estimation performance of cutting forces using the spindle displacement sensors is experimentally investigated by machining tests on carbon steel in end milling operations under different cutting conditions. It is found that the monitoring errors are attributable to the thermal displacement of the spindle, the time lag of the sensing system, and the modeling error of the spindle stiffness. It is also shown that the root mean square errors between estimated and measured amplitudes of cutting forces are reduced to be less than 20N with proper selection of the linear stiffness.

  8. Low temperature corneal laser welding investigated by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matteini, Paolo; Sbrana, Francesca; Tiribilli, Bruno; Pini, Roberto

    2009-02-01

    The structural modifications in the stromal matrix induced by low-temperature corneal laser welding were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). This procedure consists of staining the wound with Indocyanine Green (ICG), followed by irradiation with a near-infrared laser operated at low-power densities. This induces a local heating in the 55-65 °C range. In welded tissue, extracellular components undergo heat-induced structural modifications, resulting in a joining effect between the cut edges. However, the exact mechanism generating the welding, to date, is not completely understood. Full-thickness cuts, 3.5 mm in length, were made in fresh porcine cornea samples, and these were then subjected to laser welding operated at 16.7 W/cm2 power density. AFM imaging was performed on resin-embedded semi-thin slices once they had been cleared by chemical etching, in order to expose the stromal bulk of the tissue within the section. We then carried out a morphological analysis of characteristic fibrillar features in the laser-treated and control samples. AFM images of control stromal regions highlighted well-organized collagen fibrils (36.2 +/- 8.7 nm in size) running parallel to each other as in a typical lamellar domain. The fibrils exhibited a beaded pattern with a 22-39 nm axial periodicity. Laser-treated corneal regions were characterized by a significant disorganization of the intralamellar architecture. At the weld site, groups of interwoven fibrils joined the cut edges, showing structural properties that were fully comparable with those of control regions. This suggested that fibrillar collagen is not denatured by low-temperature laser welding, confirming previous transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations, and thus it is probably not involved in the closure mechanism of corneal cuts. The loss of fibrillar organization may be related to some structural modifications in some interfibrillar substance as proteoglycans or collagen VI. Furthermore, AFM

  9. Near-Field Acoustical Imaging using Lateral Bending Mode of Atomic Force Microscope Cantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, A.; Rabe, U.; Rödel, J.; Arnold, W.

    Scanning probe microscopy techniques enable one to investigate surface properties such as contact stiffness and friction between the probe tip and a sample with nm resolution. So far the bending and the torsional eigenmodes of an atomic force microscope cantilever have been used to image variations of elasticity and shear elasticity, respectively. Such images are near-field images with the resolution given by the contact radius typically between 10 nm and 50 nm. We show that the flexural modes of a cantilever oscillating in the width direction and parallel to the sample surface can also be used for imaging. Additional to the dominant in-plane component of the oscillation, the lateral modes exhibit a vertical component as well, provided there is an asymmetry in the cross-section of the cantilever or in its suspension. The out-of-plane deflection renders the lateral modes detectable by the optical position sensors used in atomic force microscopes. We studied cracks which were generated by Vickers indents, in submicro- and nanocrystalline ZrO2. Images of the lateral contact stiffness were obtained by vibrating the cantilever close to a contact-resonance frequency. A change in contact stiffness causes a shift of the resonant frequency and hence a change of the cantilever vibration amplitude. The lateral contact-stiffness images close to the crack faces display a contrast that we attribute to altered elastic properties indicating a process zone. This could be caused by a stress-induced phase transformation during crack propagation. Using the contact mode of an atomic force microscope, we measured the crack-opening displacement as a function of distance from the crack tip, and we determined the crack-tip toughness Ktip. Furthermore, K1c was inferred from the length of radial cracks of Vickers indents that were measured using classical scanning acoustic microscopy

  10. Integrated atomic force microscopy techniques for analysis of biomaterials: Study of membrane proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connelly, Laura S.

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is the prominent techniques for structural studies of biological materials in physiological relevant fluidic environments. AFM has been used to resolve the three-dimensional (3D) surface structure of cells, membranes, and proteins structures. Ion channels, formed by membrane proteins, are the key structures that control the activity of all living systems. This dissertation focuses on the structural evaluation of membrane proteins through atomic force microscopy. In Part I, AFM is utilized to study one of the most prominent medical issues facing our society, Alzheimer's Disease (AD). AD is a misfolded protein disease characterized by the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide as senile plaques, progressive neurodegeneration, and memory loss. Recent evidence suggests that AD pathology is linked to the destabilization of cellular ionic homeostasis mediated by toxic channel structures composed of Abeta peptides. Selectively engineered sequences of Abeta were examined by AFM to elucidate the substructures and thus activity Abeta channels. Key residues were evaluated with the intent better understand the exact nature by which these pores conduct electrical and molecular signals, which could aid in identifying potential therapeutic targets for the prevention/treatment of AD. Additionally, AFM was used to analyze brain derived Abeta and newly developed pharmacological agents to study membranes and Abeta. Part II, presents a novel technology that incorporates electrophysiology into the AFM interface, enabling simultaneous imaging and complementary conductance measurements. The activity of ion channels is studied by various techniques, including patch clamp, free standing lipid bilayers, droplet interface bilayers, and supported lipid bilayers. However, direct correlation with channel structures has remained a challenge. The integrated atomic force microscopy system presented offers a solution to this challenge. The functionality of the

  11. Surface roughtness and its influence on particle adhesion using atomic force microscope techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Gady, B.; Schaefer, D.; Reifenberger, R.; Rimai, D.; DeMejo, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    The surface force interactions between individual 8 {mu}m diameter spheres and atomically flat substrates have been systematically investigated using atomic force techniques. The lift-off force of glass, polystyrene and tin particles from atomically smooth mica and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite substrates was determined as a function of the applied loading force in an inert nitrogen environment. While the relative magnitudes of the measured lift-off force was found to scale as expected between the various systems studied, the absolute values were a factor of {approximately}50 smaller than expected from the Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts theory. The surface topography of representative spheres was characterized with atomic force microscopy, allowing a quantitative assessment of the role that surface roughness plays in the adhesion of micrometer-size particles to substrates. Taking into account the radius of curvature of the asperities measured from the atomic force scans, agreement between the measured and theoretical estimates for the lift-off forces was improved, with the corrected experimental forces about a factor of 3 smaller than theoretical expectations.

  12. Atomic structure of InSb(001) and GaAs(001) surfaces imaged with noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolodziej, J J; Such, B; Szymonski, M; Krok, F

    2003-06-06

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) has been used to study the c(8x2) InSb(001) and the c(8x2) GaAs(001) surfaces prepared by sputter cleaning and annealing. Atomically resolved tip-surface interaction maps display different characteristic patterns depending on the tip front atom type. It is shown that representative AFM maps can be interpreted consistently with the most recent structural model of A(III)B(V)(001) surface, as corresponding to the A(III) sublattice, to the B(V) sublattice, or to the combination of both sublattices.

  13. An Atomic Force Microscope with Dual Actuation Capability for Biomolecular Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Sevim, Semih; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Ozer, Sevil; Feng, Luying; Fakhraee, Arielle; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-01-01

    We report a modular atomic force microscope (AFM) design for biomolecular experiments. The AFM head uses readily available components and incorporates deflection-based optics and a piezotube-based cantilever actuator. Jetted-polymers have been used in the mechanical assembly, which allows rapid manufacturing. In addition, a FeCo-tipped electromagnet provides high-force cantilever actuation with vertical magnetic fields up to 0.55 T. Magnetic field calibration has been performed with a micro-hall sensor, which corresponds well with results from finite element magnetostatics simulations. An integrated force resolution of 1.82 and 2.98 pN, in air and in DI water, respectively was achieved in 1 kHz bandwidth with commercially available cantilevers made of Silicon Nitride. The controller and user interface are implemented on modular hardware to ensure scalability. The AFM can be operated in different modes, such as molecular pulling or force-clamp, by actuating the cantilever with the available actuators. The electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation capabilities have been demonstrated in unbinding experiments of the biotin-streptavidin complex. PMID:27273214

  14. An Atomic Force Microscope with Dual Actuation Capability for Biomolecular Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevim, Semih; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Ozer, Sevil; Feng, Luying; Fakhraee, Arielle; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-06-01

    We report a modular atomic force microscope (AFM) design for biomolecular experiments. The AFM head uses readily available components and incorporates deflection-based optics and a piezotube-based cantilever actuator. Jetted-polymers have been used in the mechanical assembly, which allows rapid manufacturing. In addition, a FeCo-tipped electromagnet provides high-force cantilever actuation with vertical magnetic fields up to 0.55 T. Magnetic field calibration has been performed with a micro-hall sensor, which corresponds well with results from finite element magnetostatics simulations. An integrated force resolution of 1.82 and 2.98 pN, in air and in DI water, respectively was achieved in 1 kHz bandwidth with commercially available cantilevers made of Silicon Nitride. The controller and user interface are implemented on modular hardware to ensure scalability. The AFM can be operated in different modes, such as molecular pulling or force-clamp, by actuating the cantilever with the available actuators. The electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation capabilities have been demonstrated in unbinding experiments of the biotin-streptavidin complex.

  15. An Atomic Force Microscope with Dual Actuation Capability for Biomolecular Experiments.

    PubMed

    Sevim, Semih; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Ozer, Sevil; Feng, Luying; Fakhraee, Arielle; Ergeneman, Olgaç; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J; Torun, Hamdi

    2016-06-07

    We report a modular atomic force microscope (AFM) design for biomolecular experiments. The AFM head uses readily available components and incorporates deflection-based optics and a piezotube-based cantilever actuator. Jetted-polymers have been used in the mechanical assembly, which allows rapid manufacturing. In addition, a FeCo-tipped electromagnet provides high-force cantilever actuation with vertical magnetic fields up to 0.55 T. Magnetic field calibration has been performed with a micro-hall sensor, which corresponds well with results from finite element magnetostatics simulations. An integrated force resolution of 1.82 and 2.98 pN, in air and in DI water, respectively was achieved in 1 kHz bandwidth with commercially available cantilevers made of Silicon Nitride. The controller and user interface are implemented on modular hardware to ensure scalability. The AFM can be operated in different modes, such as molecular pulling or force-clamp, by actuating the cantilever with the available actuators. The electromagnetic and piezoelectric actuation capabilities have been demonstrated in unbinding experiments of the biotin-streptavidin complex.

  16. Theoretical Study of the Effect of Probe Shape on Adhesion Force Between Probe and Substrate in Atomic Force Microscope Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Hu, Junhui; Kong, Lingjiang

    2013-12-01

    The quantitative description of adhesion force dependence on the probe shape is of importance in many scientific and industrial fields. We performed a theoretical study on the influences of the probe shape (the sphere and parabolic probe) on the adhesion force at different humidity in order to elucidate how the adhesion force varied with the probe shape in atomic force microscope manipulation experiment. We found that the combined action of the triple point and the Kelvin radius is the guiding trend of the adhesion force, and these two fundamental parameters are closely related to the probe shape. Meanwhile, the theoretical results demonstrated that the adhesion force are in a good agreement with the experiment data if the van der Waals force is take into account.

  17. Excited-state spectroscopy on an individual quantum dot using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Cockins, Lynda; Miyahara, Yoichi; Bennett, Steven D; Clerk, Aashish A; Grutter, Peter

    2012-02-08

    We present a new charge sensing technique for the excited-state spectroscopy of individual quantum dots, which requires no patterned electrodes. An oscillating atomic force microscope cantilever is used as a movable charge sensor as well as gate to measure the single-electron tunneling between an individual self-assembled InAs quantum dot and back electrode. A set of cantilever dissipation versus bias voltage curves measured at different cantilever oscillation amplitudes forms a diagram analogous to the Coulomb diamond usually measured with transport measurements. The excited-state levels as well as the electron addition spectrum can be obtained from the diagram. In addition, a signature which can result from inelastic tunneling by phonon emission or a peak in the density of states of the electrode is also observed, which demonstrates the versatility of the technique.

  18. Accurate formula for conversion of tunneling current in dynamic atomic force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sader, John E.; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2010-07-01

    Recent developments in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy enable simultaneous measurement of frequency shift and time-averaged tunneling current. Determination of the interaction force is facilitated using an analytical formula, valid for arbitrary oscillation amplitudes [Sader and Jarvis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 84, 1801 (2004)]. Here we present the complementary formula for evaluation of the instantaneous tunneling current from the time-averaged tunneling current. This simple and accurate formula is valid for any oscillation amplitude and current law. The resulting theoretical framework allows for simultaneous measurement of the instantaneous tunneling current and interaction force in dynamic atomic force microscopy.

  19. Probing anisotropic surface properties and interaction forces of chrysotile rods by atomic force microscopy and rheology.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dingzheng; Xie, Lei; Bobicki, Erin; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the surface properties and interactions of nonspherical particles is of both fundamental and practical importance in the rheology of complex fluids in various engineering applications. In this work, natural chrysotile, a phyllosilicate composed of 1:1 stacked silica and brucite layers which coil into cylindrical structure, was chosen as a model rod-shaped particle. The interactions of chrysotile brucite-like basal or bilayered edge planes and a silicon nitride tip were measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The force-distance profiles were fitted using the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which demonstrates anisotropic and pH-dependent surface charge properties of brucite-like basal plane and bilayered edge surface. The points of zero charge (PZC) of the basal and edge planes were estimated to be around pH 10-11 and 6-7, respectively. Rheology measurements of 7 vol % chrysotile (with an aspect ratio of 14.5) in 10 mM NaCl solution showed pH-dependent yield stress with a local maximum around pH 7-9, which falls between the two PZC values of the edge and basal planes of the rod particles. On the basis of the surface potentials of the edge and basal planes obtained from AFM measurements, theoretical analysis of the surface interactions of edge-edge, basal-edge, and basal-basal planes of the chrysotile rods suggests the yield stress maximum observed could be mainly attributed to the basal-edge attractions. Our results indicate that the anisotropic surface properties (e.g., charges) of chrysotile rods play an important role in the particle-particle interaction and rheological behavior, which also provides insight into the basic understanding of the colloidal interactions and rheology of nonspherical particles.

  20. Combined X-ray Microfluorescence and Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Mg Distribution in Whole Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lagomarsino, S.; Farruggia, G.; Trapani, V.; Mastrototaro, L.; Wolf, F.; Cedola, A.; Fratini, M.; Notargiacomo, A.; Bukreeva, I.; McNulty, I.; Vogt, S.; Kim, S.; Legnini, D.; Maier, J. A. M.

    2011-09-09

    We present in this paper a novel methodology that combines scanning x-ray fluorescencee microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The combination of these two techniques allows the determination of a concentration map of Mg in whole (not sectioned) cells.

  1. The Effects of Orthophosphate in Drinking Water on the Initial Copper Corrosion Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corroding of copper piping used in household drinking water plumbing may potentially impacts consumer’s health and economics. Copper corrosion studies conducted on newly corroding material with atomic force microscopy (AFM) may be particularly useful in understanding the impact ...

  2. Obtaining of images of ordered and disordered nanocrystal structures by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfenov, P. S.; Litvin, A. P.; Ushakova, E. V.; Fedorov, A. V.; Baranov, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    The morphology of films, superlattices, and other structures of colloidal nanocrystals has been investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The capabilities of ultrasharp and conventional probes for AFM are compared. The problems of detection of nanocrystal close packing are discussed.

  3. Development and Optimization of Dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy Techniques with Applications in Soft Matter Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eslami, Babak

    The overall goals of this project are (i) to improve the current dynamic modes of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with the focus of multifrequency AFM measurements on soft matters in ambient air and liquid environments and (ii) to develop a new methodology for mechanically characterizing the subsurface of soft samples, allowing users to gradually, controllably and reversibly reveal features that are buried under the surface. This dissertation includes a wide range of studies on multifrequency atomic force microscopy. Firstly, the imaging parameters (drive amplitude and frequency) of each eigenmode is studied, optimized based on the observables. Secondly, a new mutltifrequency AFM technique with capability of imaging subsurface features has been developed and verified through experiments. Based on the first goal of the project, an experimental protocol to select excitation frequency in air for single tapping mode and bimodal AFM are provided. Additionally, a rigorous guideline for the selection of drive frequency in ambient air, liquid environment based on the energy quantities and slope of the cantilever's phase response is established. Finally, an advantage of using higher and stiffer eigenmodes for imaging soft matters has been proposed and verified experimentally. By this technique, subsurface imaging capabilities of AFM are expanded.

  4. Atomic force microscope cantilever spring constant evaluation for higher mode oscillations: A kinetostatic method

    SciTech Connect

    Tseytlin, Yakov M.

    2008-02-15

    Our previous study of the particle mass sensor has shown a large ratio (up to thousands) between the spring constants of a rectangular cantilever in higher mode vibration and at the static bending or natural mode vibration. This has been proven by us through the derived nodal point position equation. That solution is good for a cantilever with the free end in noncontact regime and the probe shifted from the end to an effective section and contacting a soft object. Our further research shows that the same nodal position equation with the proper frequency equations may be used for the same spring constant ratio estimation if the vibrating at higher mode cantilever's free end has a significant additional mass clamped to it or that end is in permanent contact with an elastic or hard measurand object (reference cantilever). However, in the latter case, the spring constant ratio is much smaller (in tens) than in other mentioned cases at equal higher (up to fourth) vibration modes. We also present the spring constant ratio for a vibrating at higher eigenmode V-shaped cantilever, which is now in wide use for atomic force microscopy. The received results on the spring constant ratio are in good (within a few percent) agreement with the theoretical and experimental data published by other researchers. The knowledge of a possible spring constant transformation is important for the proper calibration and use of an atomic force microscope with vibrating cantilever in the higher eigenmodes for measurement and imaging with enlarged resolution.

  5. CHARMM additive and polarizable force fields for biophysics and computer-aided drug design

    PubMed Central

    Vanommeslaeghe, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular Mechanics (MM) is the method of choice for computational studies of biomolecular systems owing to its modest computational cost, which makes it possible to routinely perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on chemical systems of biophysical and biomedical relevance. Scope of Review As one of the main factors limiting the accuracy of MD results is the empirical force field used, the present paper offers a review of recent developments in the CHARMM additive force field, one of the most popular bimolecular force fields. Additionally, we present a detailed discussion of the CHARMM Drude polarizable force field, anticipating a growth in the importance and utilization of polarizable force fields in the near future. Throughout the discussion emphasis is placed on the force fields’ parametrization philosophy and methodology. Major Conclusions Recent improvements in the CHARMM additive force field are mostly related to newly found weaknesses in the previous generation of additive force fields. Beyond the additive approximation is the newly available CHARMM Drude polarizable force field, which allows for MD simulations of up to 1 microsecond on proteins, DNA, lipids and carbohydrates. General Significance Addressing the limitations ensures the reliability of the new CHARMM36 additive force field for the types of calculations that are presently coming into routine computational reach while the availability of the Drude polarizable force fields offers a model that is an inherently more accurate model of the underlying physical forces driving macromolecular structures and dynamics. PMID:25149274

  6. Automation of the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) I: bond perception and atom typing

    PubMed Central

    Vanommeslaeghe, K.; MacKerell, A. D.

    2012-01-01

    Molecular mechanics force fields are widely used in computer-aided drug design for the study of drug-like molecules alone or interacting with biological systems. In simulations involving biological macromolecules, the biological part is typically represented by a specialized biomolecular force field, while the drug is represented by a matching general (organic) force field. In order to apply these general force fields to an arbitrary drug-like molecule, functionality for assignment of atom types, parameters and charges is required. In the present article, which is part I of a series of two, we present the algorithms for bond perception and atom typing for the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF). The CGenFF atom typer first associates attributes to the atoms and bonds in a molecule, such as valence, bond order, and ring membership among others. Of note are a number of features that are specifically required for CGenFF. This information is then used by the atom typing routine to assign CGenFF atom types based on a programmable decision tree. This allows for straightforward implementation of CGenFF’s complicated atom typing rules and for equally straightforward updating of the atom typing scheme as the force field grows. The presented atom typer was validated by assigning correct atom types on 477 model compounds including in the training set as well as 126 test-set molecules that were constructed to specifically verify its different components. The program may be utilized via an online implementation at https://www.paramchem.org/. PMID:23146088

  7. Automation of the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF) I: bond perception and atom typing.

    PubMed

    Vanommeslaeghe, K; MacKerell, A D

    2012-12-21

    Molecular mechanics force fields are widely used in computer-aided drug design for the study of drug-like molecules alone or interacting with biological systems. In simulations involving biological macromolecules, the biological part is typically represented by a specialized biomolecular force field, while the drug is represented by a matching general (organic) force field. In order to apply these general force fields to an arbitrary drug-like molecule, functionality for assignment of atom types, parameters, and charges is required. In the present article, which is part I of a series of two, we present the algorithms for bond perception and atom typing for the CHARMM General Force Field (CGenFF). The CGenFF atom typer first associates attributes to the atoms and bonds in a molecule, such as valence, bond order, and ring membership among others. Of note are a number of features that are specifically required for CGenFF. This information is then used by the atom typing routine to assign CGenFF atom types based on a programmable decision tree. This allows for straightforward implementation of CGenFF's complicated atom typing rules and for equally straightforward updating of the atom typing scheme as the force field grows. The presented atom typer was validated by assigning correct atom types on 477 model compounds including in the training set as well as 126 test-set molecules that were constructed to specifically verify its different components. The program may be utilized via an online implementation at https://www.paramchem.org/ .

  8. Versatile atomic force microscopy setup combined with micro-focused X-ray beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slobodskyy, T.; Zozulya, A. V.; Tholapi, R.; Liefeith, L.; Fester, M.; Sprung, M.; Hansen, W.

    2015-06-01

    Micro-focused X-ray beams produced by third generation synchrotron sources offer new perspective of studying strains and processes at nanoscale. Atomic force microscope setup combined with a micro-focused synchrotron beam allows precise positioning and nanomanipulation of nanostructures under illumination. In this paper, we report on integration of a portable commercial atomic force microscope setup into a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline. Details of design, sample alignment procedure, and performance of the setup are presented.

  9. Joining patch-clamp and atomic force microscopy techniques for studying black lipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovalle-García, Erasmo; Ortega-Blake, Iván

    2007-08-01

    An experimental protocol that enables the direct characterization of freestanding lipid bilayers through a combination of atomic force microscopy and single channel recording is presented. The method consists of producing a 15μm diameter pore in a 3μm thick Mylar film that delimits two vessels. The micropore was done by a glass microneedle. >L-α-phosphatidylcholine bilayers were routinely painted on the pore, observed by atomic force microscopy, and tested with gramicidin D ion channels.

  10. Versatile atomic force microscopy setup combined with micro-focused X-ray beam

    SciTech Connect

    Slobodskyy, T. Tholapi, R.; Liefeith, L.; Hansen, W.; Zozulya, A. V. Fester, M.; Sprung, M.

    2015-06-15

    Micro-focused X-ray beams produced by third generation synchrotron sources offer new perspective of studying strains and processes at nanoscale. Atomic force microscope setup combined with a micro-focused synchrotron beam allows precise positioning and nanomanipulation of nanostructures under illumination. In this paper, we report on integration of a portable commercial atomic force microscope setup into a hard X-ray synchrotron beamline. Details of design, sample alignment procedure, and performance of the setup are presented.

  11. Measuring the charge state of an adatom with noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Gross, Leo; Mohn, Fabian; Liljeroth, Peter; Repp, Jascha; Giessibl, Franz J; Meyer, Gerhard

    2009-06-12

    Charge states of atoms can be investigated with scanning tunneling microscopy, but this method requires a conducting substrate. We investigated the charge-switching of individual adsorbed gold and silver atoms (adatoms) on ultrathin NaCl films on Cu(111) using a qPlus tuning fork atomic force microscope (AFM) operated at 5 kelvin with oscillation amplitudes in the subangstrom regime. Charging of a gold atom by one electron charge increases the force on the AFM tip by a few piconewtons. Moreover, the local contact potential difference is shifted depending on the sign of the charge and allows the discrimination of positively charged, neutral, and negatively charged atoms. The combination of single-electron charge sensitivity and atomic lateral resolution should foster investigations of molecular electronics, photonics, catalysis, and solar photoconversion.

  12. The Analog Atomic Force Microscope: Measuring, Modeling, and Graphing for Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Valerie; Brandt, Sharon; Lieberman, Marya

    2013-01-01

    using an analog atomic force microscope (A-AFM) made from a cardboard box and mailing tubes. Varying numbers of ping pong balls inside the tubes mimic atoms on a surface. Students use a dowel to make macroscale measurements similar to those of a nanoscale AFM tip as it…

  13. Mapping power-law rheology of living cells using multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu

    2015-10-26

    We present multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for mapping the complex shear modulus G* of living cells as a function of frequency over the range of 50–500 Hz in the same measurement time as the single-frequency force modulation measurement. The AFM technique enables us to reconstruct image maps of rheological parameters, which exhibit a frequency-dependent power-law behavior with respect to G{sup *}. These quantitative rheological measurements reveal a large spatial variation in G* in this frequency range for single cells. Moreover, we find that the reconstructed images of the power-law rheological parameters are much different from those obtained in force-curve or single-frequency force modulation measurements. This indicates that the former provide information about intracellular mechanical structures of the cells that are usually not resolved with the conventional force measurement methods.

  14. Comparison of force sensors for atomic force microscopy based on quartz tuning forks and length-extensional resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Pielmeier, Florian; Eguchi, Toyoaki; An, Toshu; Hasegawa, Yukio

    2011-09-01

    The force sensor is key to the performance of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nowadays, most atomic force microscopes use micromachined force sensors made from silicon, but piezoelectric quartz sensors are being applied at an increasing rate, mainly in vacuum. These self-sensing force sensors allow a relatively easy upgrade of a scanning tunneling microscope to a combined scanning tunneling/atomic force microscope. Two fundamentally different types of quartz sensors have achieved atomic resolution: the “needle sensor,” which is based on a length-extensional resonator, and the “qPlus sensor,” which is based on a tuning fork. Here, we calculate and measure the noise characteristics of these sensors. We find four noise sources: deflection detector noise, thermal noise, oscillator noise, and thermal drift noise. We calculate the effect of these noise sources as a factor of sensor stiffness, bandwidth, and oscillation amplitude. We find that for self-sensing quartz sensors, the deflection detector noise is independent of sensor stiffness, while the remaining three noise sources increase strongly with sensor stiffness. Deflection detector noise increases with bandwidth to the power of 1.5, while thermal noise and oscillator noise are proportional to the square root of the bandwidth. Thermal drift noise, however, is inversely proportional to bandwidth. The first three noise sources are inversely proportional to amplitude while thermal drift noise is independent of the amplitude. Thus, we show that the earlier finding that quoted an optimal signal-to-noise ratio for oscillation amplitudes similar to the range of the forces is still correct when considering all four frequency noise contributions. Finally, we suggest how the signal-to-noise ratio of the sensors can be improved further, we briefly discuss the challenges of mounting tips, and we compare the noise performance of self-sensing quartz sensors and optically detected Si cantilevers.

  15. Thermochemical nanolithography fabrication and atomic force microscopy characterization of functional nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Debin

    This thesis presents the development of a novel atomic force microscope (AFM) based nanofabrication technique termed as thermochemical nanolithography (TCNL). TCNL uses a resistively heated AFM cantilever to thermally activate chemical reactions on a surface with nanometer resolution. This technique can be used for fabrication of functional nanostructures that are appealing for various applications in nanofluidics, nanoelectronics, nanophotonics, and biosensing devices. This thesis research is focused on three main objectives. The first objective is to study the fundamentals of TCNL writing aspects. We have conducted a systematic study of the heat transfer mechanism using finite element analysis modeling, Raman spectroscopy, and local glass transition measurement. In addition, based on thermal kinetics analysis, we have identified several key factors to achieve high resolution fabrication of nanostructures during the TCNL writing process. The second objective is to demonstrate the use of TCNL on a variety of systems and thermochemical reactions. We show that TCNL can be employed to (1) modify the wettability of a polymer surface at the nanoscale, (2) fabricate nanoscale templates on polymer films for assembling nano-objects, such as proteins and DNA, (3) fabricate conjugated polymer semiconducting nanowires, and (4) reduce graphene oxide with nanometer resolution. The last objective is to characterize the TCNL nanostructures using AFM based methods, such as friction force microscopy, phase imaging, electric force microscopy, and conductive AFM. We show that they are useful for in situ characterization of nanostructures, which is particularly challenging for conventional macroscopic analytical tools, such as Raman spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy, and fluorescence microscopy.

  16. Net force on an asymmetrically excited two-atom system from vacuum fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaire, M.

    2016-12-01

    A net force on a system of two dissimilar atoms, one of which is excited, is shown to result from their van der Waals interaction. It is accompanied by a net transfer of linear momentum to the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. This momentum results from the asymmetric interference of the virtual photons scattered off each atom along the interatomic direction, which is in itself a manifestation of the optical theorem. Ultimately, the virtual photons' momentum, of equal strength and opposite direction to the momentum gained by the two-atom system while excited, is released through directional spontaneous emission, which allows for an indirect measure, a posteriori, of the total force on the excited system. A quantitative prediction is made in a two-alkali atom system. It is conjectured that a net force and hence a nonzero momentum of quantum fluctuations take place in any asymmetrically excited system.

  17. Computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy: energy dissipation of cantilever.

    PubMed

    Senda, Yasuhiro; Blomqvist, Janne; Nieminen, Risto M

    2016-09-21

    We propose a computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) in which the atomic force between the cantilever tip and the surface is calculated using a molecular dynamics method, and the macroscopic motion of the cantilever is modeled by an oscillating spring. The movement of atoms in the tip and surface is connected with the oscillating spring using a recently developed coupling method. In this computational model, the oscillation energy is dissipated, as observed in AFM experiments. We attribute this dissipation to the hysteresis and nonconservative properties of the interatomic force that acts between the atoms in the tip and sample surface. The dissipation rate strongly depends on the parameters used in the computational model.

  18. Thermodynamic analysis of liquid bridge for fixed volume in atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zheng; He, MengFu; Zhao, WenBin; Li, Yang

    2013-10-01

    In ambient condition, capillary forces are the major contributors to the adhesive forces between the tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) and the sample. In general, capillary forces are thought to be related to water film thickness, contact time and relative humidity and so on. In this paper, an original analysis regarding the liquid bridge, based on the surface and interface thermodynamic theory, is proposed. The cases covered in the study include the capillary forces and temperature of liquid bridge for quickly drawn liquid bridge, and for nonvolatile liquid bridge. The study results show that variation in temperature may occur in the liquid bridge when it is stretched.

  19. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Related Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-26

    primary surface contaminants on electrochemically etched tunpten STM tips as CO. graphite, WC, and tungsten oxide (B55). Several unusual STM tips...the energy density of states by a contamination -induced peak, charging of electron traps, and resonant tunneling in a double- barier quantum well...inequivalent molecules in the unit cell of a free standing tetracene crystal (D371). Atomic resolution on different faces of the conductive perylene radical

  20. Measurements of elastic modulus for human anterior lens capsule with atomic force microscopy: the effect of loading force.

    PubMed

    Tsaousis, Konstantinos T; Karagiannidis, Panagiotis G; Kopsachilis, Nikolaos; Symeonidis, Chrysanthos; Tsinopoulos, Ioannis T; Karagkiozaki, Varvara; Lamprogiannis, Lampros P; Logothetidis, Stergios

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to appraise the effect of loading force magnitude on the determination of the elastic modulus of the anterior lens capsule through atomic force microscopy. Four human anterior lens capsules taken during phacoemulsification cataract surgery were studied, free of epithelial cells, with atomic force microscopy. For the experiment, five different indentation loading forces were applied to near areas of the specimen. Experimental data was exported and analyzed according to the Hertz model to obtain the Young's modulus with regards to the elastic behavior of the material. Force-distance curves were acquired by applying a load of 2, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nN. When examining the results it was evident that determination of Young's modulus of the anterior lens capsule is dependent on the loading force concerning the examined range. Loading forces of 10 and 20 nN led to results without significant difference (p > 0.05) and more reproducible (coefficients of variation 12.4 and 11.7 %, respectively).

  1. Differentiating inclusion complexes from host molecules by tapping-mode atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz-Botella, S; Martin, M A; del Castillo, B; Vázquez, L

    1996-01-01

    Tapping-mode atomic force microscopy imaging under different cantilever vibration amplitudes has been used to differentiate the host beta-cyclodextrin nanotubes from retinal/beta-cyclodextrin inclusion complex nanotubes. It was observed that both compounds were deformed differently by the applied probe force because of their different local rigidity. This change in the elasticity properties can be explained as a consequence of the inclusion process. This method shows that tapping-mode atomic force microscopy is an useful tool to map soft sample elasticity properties and to distinguish inclusion complexes from their host molecules on the basis of their different mechanical response. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8804591

  2. Assemblies of pore-forming toxins visualized by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Neval; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2016-03-01

    A number of pore-forming toxins (PFTs) can assemble on lipid membranes through their specific interactions with lipids. The oligomeric assemblies of some PFTs have been successfully revealed either by electron microscopy (EM) and/or atomic force microscopy (AFM). Unlike EM, AFM imaging can be performed under physiological conditions, enabling the real-time visualization of PFT assembly and the transition from the prepore state, in which the toxin does not span the membrane, to the pore state. In addition to characterizing PFT oligomers, AFM has also been used to examine toxin-induced alterations in membrane organization. In this review, we summarize the contributions of AFM to the understanding of both PFT assembly and PFT-induced membrane reorganization. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Pore-Forming Toxins edited by Mauro Dalla Serra and Franco Gambale.

  3. Scanning thermal microscopy based on a modified atomic force microscope combined with pyroelectric detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniow, J.-S.; Chirtoc, M.; Trannoy, N.; Raphael, O.; Pelzl, J.

    2005-06-01

    We propose a novel approach in scanning thermal microscopy of layered samples. The thermal probe (ThP) (Wollaston wire) acts as a local a.c. heat source at the front of a sample layer deposited on a pyroelectric (PE) sensor. The PE signal is proportional to the heat wave transmitted through the sample. The ThP and PE signals can be used to generate complementary thermal conductivity maps and with some restrictions, thermal diffusivity maps of the sample. Additionally, the topography map is obtained in the usual way from the atomic force microscope. We give the theoretical background for the interpretation of PE signal obtained at low and at high frequency, and we demonstrate that it carries information on the thermal diffusivity of a test sample (12 μm thick PET polymer sheet). Finally, we discuss the contributions of heat transfer channels between ThP and sample, and the role of contact thermal resistance.

  4. Dynamic nano-triboelectrification using torsional resonance mode atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Wei; Yao, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of charge generation, distribution, and transfer between surfaces is very important for energy harvesting applications based on triboelectric effect. Here, we demonstrate dynamic nanotriboelectrification with torsional resonance (TR) mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments on rubbing the sample surface using TR mode for the generation of triboelectric charges and in-situ characterization of the charge distribution using scanning Kelvin probe microcopy (SKPM) were performed. This method allows the tip to perform lateral oscillation and maintains the tip-sample interaction in the attractive region to ensure high efficiency of the charge generation during the rubbing process. The measured efficiency of generating triboelectric charges can achieve ~10.53 times higher than conventional static/contact mode in the triboelectrification experiments. In addition to the charge generation, local discharging experiments were also performed. This work would provide a new method to generate patterned charges and also be helpful in understanding the mechanism of nanotriboelectrification. PMID:27302624

  5. Characterization of biaryl torsional energetics and its treatment in OPLS all-atom force fields.

    PubMed

    Dahlgren, Markus K; Schyman, Patric; Tirado-Rives, Julian; Jorgensen, William L

    2013-05-24

    The frequency of biaryl substructures in a database of approved oral drugs has been analyzed. This led to designation of 20 prototypical biaryls plus 10 arylpyridinones for parametrization in the OPLS all-atom force fields. Bond stretching, angle-bending, and torsional parameters were developed to reproduce the MP2 geometries and torsional energy profiles. The transferability of the new parameters was tested through their application to three additional biaryls. The torsional energetics for the 33 biaryl molecules are analyzed and factors leading to preferences for planar and nonplanar geometries are identified. For liquid biphenyl, the computed density and heat of vaporization at the boiling point (255 °C) are also reported.

  6. Removing material using atomic force microscopy with single- and multiple-tip sources.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ampere A

    2011-12-16

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been an effective material removing tool for fabricating various nanostructures because of its sub-nanometer precision and simplicity in operation. AFM material removing techniques have evolved from a solely mechanical process to one in which the tip can be loaded by additional energy sources, such as thermal, electric, or chemical, to enhance its fabrication abilities. In this paper, these material removing techniques are reviewed with an emphasis on their capabilities and recent progress. The recent hardware and software developments are first presented to provide a general view on the current status of the technology to be assessed. Following an overview of the feasibility and effectiveness of using mechanical scratching for removing various types of soft and hard materials, the processes of a wide range of approaches using multiple tip sources are then assessed with a focus on their principles, versatilities, and potentials for future applications.

  7. High-throughput automatic defect review for 300mm blank wafers with atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zandiatashbar, Ardavan; Kim, Byong; Yoo, Young-kook; Lee, Keibock; Jo, Ahjin; Lee, Ju Suk; Cho, Sang-Joon; Park, Sang-il

    2015-03-01

    While feature size in lithography process continuously becomes smaller, defect sizes on blank wafers become more comparable to device sizes. Defects with nm-scale characteristic size could be misclassified by automated optical inspection (AOI) and require post-processing for proper classification. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is known to provide high lateral and the highest vertical resolution by mechanical probing among all techniques. However, its low throughput and tip life in addition to the laborious efforts for finding the defects have been the major limitations of this technique. In this paper we introduce automatic defect review (ADR) AFM as a post-inspection metrology tool for defect study and classification for 300 mm blank wafers and to overcome the limitations stated above. The ADR AFM provides high throughput, high resolution, and non-destructive means for obtaining 3D information for nm-scale defect review and classification.

  8. Direct observation of supramolecular structures of biorelated materials by atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyasu; Kubota, Kei; Harada, Akira

    2000-04-01

    We have prepared DNA catenanes and studied the topological structures of DNA catenanes by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and electrophoresis. Nicked DNA was synthesized by the addition of DNASE I to a solution of plasmid pBR322. Catenated DNA molecules were prepared by the reaction of topoisomerase I with nicked DNA. Catenation reactions were monitored by the agarose gel electrophoresis. A droplet of solution, containing DNA catenanes extracted from the band of 1.0 percent agarose gel electrophoresis by a centrifugal filter device, was applied to a freshly cleaved mica surface. After drying the specimens, AFM measurements were carried out by using a silicon cantilever. The single molecule images of DNA catenanes were clearly observed for the first time by AFM using a tapping mode at room temperature and in an ambient atmosphere.

  9. Formation and disruption of current paths of anodic porous alumina films by conducting atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyoshi, K.; Nigo, S.; Inoue, J.; Sakai, O.; Kitazawa, H.; Kido, G.

    2010-11-01

    Anodic porous alumina (APA) films have a honeycomb cell structure of pores and a voltage-induced bi-stable switching effect. We have applied conducting atomic force microscopy (CAFM) as a method to form and to disrupt current paths in the APA films. A bi-polar switching operation was confirmed. We have firstly observed terminals of current paths as spots or areas typically on the center of the triangle formed by three pores. In addition, though a part of the current path showed repetitive switching, most of them were not observed again at the same position after one cycle of switching operations in the present experiments. This suggests that a part of alumina structure and/or composition along the current paths is modified during the switching operations.

  10. The possibility of multi-layer nanofabrication via atomic force microscope-based pulse electrochemical nanopatterning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Uksu; Morita, Noboru; Lee, Deug; Jun, Martin; Park, Jeong Woo

    2017-03-27

    Pulse electrochemical nanopatterning (PECN), a non-contact scanning probe lithography (NC-SPL) process using ultrashort voltage pulses, is based primarily on an electrochemical machining (ECM) process using localized electrochemical oxidation between a sharp tool tip and the sample surface. In this study, nanoscale oxide patterns were formed on silicon Si (100) wafer surfaces via electrochemical surface nanopatterning, by supplying external pulsed currents through non-contact atomic force microscopy. Nanoscale oxide width and height were controlled by modulating the applied pulse duration. Additionally, protruding nanoscale oxides were removed completely by simple chemical etching, showing a depressed pattern on the sample substrate surface. Nanoscale two-dimensional oxides, prepared by a localized electrochemical reaction, can be defined easily by controlling physical and electrical variables, before proceeding further to a layer-by-layer nanofabrication process.

  11. Dynamic nano-triboelectrification using torsional resonance mode atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei; Yao, Nan

    2016-06-01

    Understanding the mechanism of charge generation, distribution, and transfer between surfaces is very important for energy harvesting applications based on triboelectric effect. Here, we demonstrate dynamic nanotriboelectrification with torsional resonance (TR) mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). Experiments on rubbing the sample surface using TR mode for the generation of triboelectric charges and in-situ characterization of the charge distribution using scanning Kelvin probe microcopy (SKPM) were performed. This method allows the tip to perform lateral oscillation and maintains the tip-sample interaction in the attractive region to ensure high efficiency of the charge generation during the rubbing process. The measured efficiency of generating triboelectric charges can achieve ~10.53 times higher than conventional static/contact mode in the triboelectrification experiments. In addition to the charge generation, local discharging experiments were also performed. This work would provide a new method to generate patterned charges and also be helpful in understanding the mechanism of nanotriboelectrification.

  12. High-speed imaging upgrade for a standard sample scanning atomic force microscope using small cantilevers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Jonathan D.; Nievergelt, Adrian; Erickson, Blake W.; Yang, Chen; Dukic, Maja; Fantner, Georg E.

    2014-09-15

    We present an atomic force microscope (AFM) head for optical beam deflection on small cantilevers. Our AFM head is designed to be small in size, easily integrated into a commercial AFM system, and has a modular architecture facilitating exchange of the optical and electronic assemblies. We present two different designs for both the optical beam deflection and the electronic readout systems, and evaluate their performance. Using small cantilevers with our AFM head on an otherwise unmodified commercial AFM system, we are able to take tapping mode images approximately 5–10 times faster compared to the same AFM system using large cantilevers. By using additional scanner turnaround resonance compensation and a controller designed for high-speed AFM imaging, we show tapping mode imaging of lipid bilayers at line scan rates of 100–500 Hz for scan areas of several micrometers in size.

  13. Probing electrical transport across oxide interfaces by noncontact atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shao Rui; Bonnell, Dawn A.

    2004-11-22

    An approach for determining surface potential based on noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) has been used to acquire the potential profile of the grain boundary in a 24 deg. 0.05 wt % Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3} bicrystal under lateral bias. The breakdown voltage of the grain boundary is found to be 1.2 V. The current-voltage characteristics obtained from this surface potentiometry have been compared with standard four-point measurement. The exponential dependence of the current on voltage indicates a Schottky-type transport mechanism. In addition, we found that NC-AFM topography is affected by the nonuniform potential distribution across the boundary, and this effect is especially strong at large lateral biases, resulting in a spurious step feature, which implies that true topography of an inhomogeneous surface cannot be obtained without first nullifying electrostatic interaction between tip and sample.

  14. In-vivo Atomic Force Microscopy of Surface Proteins within Deinococcus Radiodurans

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, Tedd Edward; Pinhero, Patrick Joseph

    2001-04-01

    We present in vivo images of the outer cell wall of the bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans using noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM). High-resolution imaging shows a hexagonal-packed lattice. This lattice is consistent with previous observations of a hexagonally packed intermediate layer from extracted cell wall material. The ordered hexagonal structures were primarily observed at the interfaces between adjoining bacteria, while rougher, "orange-peel-like" structures were observed in other regions. It is possible that the bacteria were in a dormant state during imaging as the desiccation tolerance of D. radiodurans is well documented. The only previous observations of the HPI layer of D. radiodurans have been performed on chemically extracted S-layers applied to flat substrates. Our report is the first in vivo observation of these structures in D. radiodurans without invasive sample preparation. Additionally, this is the first known report of in vivo observation of bacterial S-layers by AFM.

  15. α-amylase crystal growth investigated by in situ atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astier, J. P.; Bokern, D.; Lapena, L.; Veesler, S.

    2001-06-01

    The growth behavior of porcine pancreatic α-amylase at defined supersaturation has been investigated by means of temperature controlled in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The step velocities measured by AFM were in overall agreement with the normal growth rates of an individual face measured by optical microscopy. In addition, highly local growth dynamics could be visualized. Imaging in tapping mode revealed crystalline amylase aggregates attached to the basal face and their subsequent incorporation into growing terraces producing a macrodefect. At high supersaturation ( β=1.6) 2-D nucleation was found to be the dominating growth mechanism, whereas at lower supersaturation ( β=1.3) the growth process appears to be defect controlled (spiral growth). The analysis of step heights on 2-D nucleation islands (monomolecular protein layers) and growth steps (two molecules in height) in combination with results from light scattering experiments suggest that a single protein molecule is the basic growth unit.

  16. All-Atom Internal Coordinate Mechanics (ICM) Force Field for Hexopyranoses and Glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Arnautova, Yelena A; Abagyan, Ruben; Totrov, Maxim

    2015-05-12

    We present an extension of the all-atom internal-coordinate force field, ICMFF, that allows for simulation of heterogeneous systems including hexopyranose saccharides and glycan chains in addition to proteins. A library of standard glycan geometries containing α- and β-anomers of the most common hexapyranoses, i.e., d-galactose, d-glucose, d-mannose, d-xylose, l-fucose, N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, sialic, and glucuronic acids, is created based on the analysis of the saccharide structures reported in the Cambridge Structural Database. The new force field parameters include molecular electrostatic potential-derived partial atomic charges and the torsional parameters derived from quantum mechanical data for a collection of minimal molecular fragments and related molecules. The ϕ/ψ torsional parameters for different types of glycosidic linkages are developed using model compounds containing the key atoms in the full carbohydrates, i.e., glycosidic-linked tetrahydropyran-cyclohexane dimers. Target data for parameter optimization include two-dimensional energy surfaces corresponding to the ϕ/ψ glycosidic dihedral angles in the disaccharide analogues, as determined by quantum mechanical MP2/6-31G** single-point energies on HF/6-31G** optimized structures. To achieve better agreement with the observed geometries of glycosidic linkages, the bond angles at the O-linkage atoms are added to the internal variable set and the corresponding bond bending energy term is parametrized using quantum mechanical data. The resulting force field is validated on glycan chains of 1-12 residues from a set of high-resolution X-ray glycoprotein structures based on heavy atom root-mean-square deviations of the lowest-energy glycan conformations generated by the biased probability Monte Carlo (BPMC) molecular mechanics simulations from the native structures. The appropriate BPMC distributions for monosaccharide-monosaccharide and protein-glycan linkages are derived from the

  17. Atomic-resolution single-spin magnetic resonance detection concept based on tunneling force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, A.; Ambal, K.; Boehme, C.; Williams, C. C.

    2015-05-01

    A study of a force detected single-spin magnetic resonance measurement concept with atomic spatial resolution is presented. The method is based upon electrostatic force detection of spin-selection rule controlled single-electron tunneling between two electrically isolated paramagnetic states. Single-spin magnetic resonance detection is possible by measuring the force detected tunneling charge noise on and off spin resonance. Simulation results of this charge noise, based upon physical models of the tunneling and spin physics, are directly compared to measured atomic force microscopy system noise. The results show that the approach could provide single-spin measurement of electrically isolated qubit states with atomic spatial resolution at room temperature.

  18. Revealing the angular symmetry of chemical bonds by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Welker, Joachim; Giessibl, Franz J

    2012-04-27

    We have measured the angular dependence of chemical bonding forces between a carbon monoxide molecule that is adsorbed to a copper surface and the terminal atom of the metallic tip of a combined scanning tunneling microscope and atomic force microscope. We provide tomographic maps of force and current as a function of distance that revealed the emergence of strongly directional chemical bonds as tip and sample approach. The force maps show pronounced single, dual, or triple minima depending on the orientation of the tip atom, whereas tunneling current maps showed a single minimum for all three tip conditions. We introduce an angular dependent model for the bonding energy that maps the observed experimental data for all observed orientations and distances.

  19. Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Unocic, Raymond R.; Guo, Daqiang; Okatan, M. Baris; Dai, Sheng; Cummings, Peter T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Feng, Guang; Balke, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance measurements are used to investigate the layered ion structure of Ionic Liquids (ILs) at the mica surface. The effects of various tip properties on the measured force profiles are examined and reveal that the measured ion position is independent of tip properties, while the tip radius affects the forces required to break through the ion layers as well as the adhesion force. Force data is collected for different ILs and directly compared with interfacial ion density profiles predicted by molecular dynamics. Through this comparison it is concluded that AFM force measurements are sensitive to the position of the ion with the larger volume and mass, suggesting that ion selectivity in force-distance measurements are related to excluded volume effects and not to electrostatic or chemical interactions between ions and AFM tip. The comparison also revealed that at distances greater than 1 nm the system maintains overall electroneutrality between the AFM tip and sample, while at smaller distances other forces (e.g., van der waals interactions) dominate and electroneutrality is no longer maintained. PMID:27587276

  20. Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Black, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; ...

    2016-09-02

    In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance measurements are used to investigate the layered ion structure of Ionic Liquids (ILs) at the mica surface. The effects of various tip properties on the measured force profiles are examined and reveal that the measured ion position is independent of tip properties, while the tip radius affects the forces required to break through the ion layers as well as the adhesion force. Force data is collected for different ILs and directly compared with interfacial ion density profiles predicted by molecular dynamics. Through this comparison it is concluded that AFM force measurements aremore » sensitive to the position of the ion with the larger volume and mass, suggesting that ion selectivity in force-distance measurements are related to excluded volume effects and not to electrostatic or chemical interactions between ions and AFM tip. Finally, the comparison also revealed that at distances greater than 1 nm the system maintains overall electroneutrality between the AFM tip and sample, while at smaller distances other forces (e.g., van der waals interactions) dominate and electroneutrality is no longer maintained.« less

  1. Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Black, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Unocic, Raymond R.; Guo, Daqiang; Okatan, M. Baris; Dai, Sheng; Cummings, Peter T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Feng, Guang; Balke, Nina

    2016-09-02

    In this paper, atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance measurements are used to investigate the layered ion structure of Ionic Liquids (ILs) at the mica surface. The effects of various tip properties on the measured force profiles are examined and reveal that the measured ion position is independent of tip properties, while the tip radius affects the forces required to break through the ion layers as well as the adhesion force. Force data is collected for different ILs and directly compared with interfacial ion density profiles predicted by molecular dynamics. Through this comparison it is concluded that AFM force measurements are sensitive to the position of the ion with the larger volume and mass, suggesting that ion selectivity in force-distance measurements are related to excluded volume effects and not to electrostatic or chemical interactions between ions and AFM tip. Finally, the comparison also revealed that at distances greater than 1 nm the system maintains overall electroneutrality between the AFM tip and sample, while at smaller distances other forces (e.g., van der waals interactions) dominate and electroneutrality is no longer maintained.

  2. Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jennifer M.; Zhu, Mengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Unocic, Raymond R.; Guo, Daqiang; Okatan, M. Baris; Dai, Sheng; Cummings, Peter T.; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Feng, Guang; Balke, Nina

    2016-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) force-distance measurements are used to investigate the layered ion structure of Ionic Liquids (ILs) at the mica surface. The effects of various tip properties on the measured force profiles are examined and reveal that the measured ion position is independent of tip properties, while the tip radius affects the forces required to break through the ion layers as well as the adhesion force. Force data is collected for different ILs and directly compared with interfacial ion density profiles predicted by molecular dynamics. Through this comparison it is concluded that AFM force measurements are sensitive to the position of the ion with the larger volume and mass, suggesting that ion selectivity in force-distance measurements are related to excluded volume effects and not to electrostatic or chemical interactions between ions and AFM tip. The comparison also revealed that at distances greater than 1 nm the system maintains overall electroneutrality between the AFM tip and sample, while at smaller distances other forces (e.g., van der waals interactions) dominate and electroneutrality is no longer maintained.

  3. Characterization of asphaltene structure using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Sabbaghi, S; Shariaty-Niassar, M; Ayatollahi, Sh; Jahanmiri, A

    2008-09-01

    In this study, at the first stage, asphaltene was extracted. The roughness of asphaltene coating at different rpm was studied using an image analysis confocal microscopy. The basics of quantum mechanics and statistical thermodynamics are used to predict the potential energy and the intermolecular forces of asphaltene molecules. The functional forms for the potential energy and intermolecular forces are evaluated. Our final goal is to be able to observe and determine the surface structures of asphaltene micelles with scanning probe microscopes. So, the focus of the work on these unusual molecules is to characterize their structure, dynamics and thermodynamics and to establish the relationship between these properties and petroleum fluid behaviour. The existence of various nanostructures of asphaltene in petroleum has been extensively discussed. A set of fitted data is used to check the validity of the calculated results. The good agreement between the proposed models and the data is promising.

  4. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Siretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Dirk; Mugele, Frieder

    2016-04-21

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid-liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to dominate many aspects of surface chemistry and physics. Here, we use high resolution dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to visualize and characterize in ambient water the morphology and atomic scale structure of a variety of nanoparticles of common clay minerals adsorbed to flat solid surfaces. Atomically resolved images of the (001) basal planes are obtained on all materials investigated, namely gibbsite, kaolinite, illite, and Na-montmorillonite of both natural and synthetic origin. Next to regions of perfect crystallinity, we routinely observe extended regions of various types of defects on the surfaces, including vacancies of one or few atoms, vacancy islands, atomic steps, apparently disordered regions, as well as strongly adsorbed seemingly organic and inorganic species. While their exact nature is frequently difficult to identify, our observations clearly highlight the ubiquity of such defects and their relevance for the overall physical and chemical properties of clay nanoparticle-water interfaces.

  5. Atomic force microscopy as a tool for the investigation of living cells.

    PubMed

    Morkvėnaitė-Vilkončienė, Inga; Ramanavičienė, Almira; Ramanavičius, Arūnas

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy is a valuable and useful tool for the imaging and investigation of living cells in their natural environment at high resolution. Procedures applied to living cell preparation before measurements should be adapted individually for different kinds of cells and for the desired measurement technique. Different ways of cell immobilization, such as chemical fixation on the surface, entrapment in the pores of a membrane, or growing them directly on glass cover slips or on plastic substrates, result in the distortion or appearance of artifacts in atomic force microscopy images. Cell fixation allows the multiple use of samples and storage for a prolonged period; it also increases the resolution of imaging. Different atomic force microscopy modes are used for the imaging and analysis of living cells. The contact mode is the best for cell imaging because of high resolution, but it is usually based on the following: (i) image formation at low interaction force, (ii) low scanning speed, and (iii) usage of "soft," low resolution cantilevers. The tapping mode allows a cell to behave like a very solid material, and destructive shear forces are minimized, but imaging in liquid is difficult. The force spectroscopy mode is used for measuring the mechanical properties of cells; however, obtained results strongly depend on the cell fixation method. In this paper, the application of 3 atomic force microscopy modes including (i) contact, (ii) tapping, and (iii) force spectroscopy for the investigation of cells is described. The possibilities of cell preparation for the measurements, imaging, and determination of mechanical properties of cells are provided. The applicability of atomic force microscopy to diagnostics and other biomedical purposes is discussed.

  6. Casimir-Polder-like force on an atom outside a Schwarzschild black hole

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jialin; Yu Hongwei

    2011-10-15

    We calculate, in the framework of open quantum systems, the ground state energy-level shift for a static two-level atom outside a spherically symmetric black hole in interaction with fluctuating massless scalar fields in the Boulware and Unruh vacuums. We find that the energy-level shift is position dependent and thus gives rise to a force on the atom besides the classical gravitational force. For the case of the Boulware vacuum that represents a star which has not collapsed through its event horizon, this force is attractive near the horizon and is repulsive far away from the black hole with a behavior of r{sup -3}. For the case of the Unruh vacuum which represents a radiating black hole, we find that the contribution to the Casimir-Polder-like force due to the presence of Hawking radiation is always attractive and, remarkably, this attractive force diverges at the event horizon.

  7. Nano-rheology of hydrogels using direct drive force modulation atomic force microscopy†

    PubMed Central

    Nalam, Prathima C.; Gosvami, Nitya N.; Caporizzo, Matthew A.; Composto, Russell J.

    2016-01-01

    We present a magnetic force-based direct drive modulation method to measure local nano-rheological properties of soft materials across a broad frequency range (10 Hz to 2 kHz) using colloid-attached atomic force microscope (AFM) probes in liquid. The direct drive method enables artefact-free measurements over several decades of excitation frequency, and avoids the need to evaluate medium-induced hydrodynamic drag effects. The method was applied to measure the local mechanical properties of polyacrylamide hydrogels. The frequency-dependent storage stiffness, loss stiffness, and loss tangent (tan δ) were quantified for hydrogels having high and low crosslinking densities by measuring the amplitude and the phase response of the cantilever while the colloid was in contact with the hydrogel. The frequency bandwidth was further expanded to lower effective frequencies (0.1 Hz to 10 Hz) by obtaining force–displacement (FD) curves. Slow FD measurements showed a recoverable but highly hysteretic response, with the contact mechanical behaviour dependent on the loading direction: approach curves showed Hertzian behaviour while retraction curves fit the JKR contact mechanics model well into the adhesive regime, after which multiple detachment instabilities occurred. Using small amplitude dynamic modulation to explore faster rates, the load dependence of the storage stiffness transitioned from Hertzian to a dynamic punch-type (constant contact area) model, indicating significant influence of material dissipation coupled with adhesion. Using the appropriate contact model across the full frequency range measured, the storage moduli were found to remain nearly constant until an increase began near ∼100 Hz. The softer gels' storage modulus increased from 7.9 ± 0.4 to 14.5 ± 2.1 kPa (∼85%), and the stiffer gels' storage modulus increased from 16.3 ± 1.1 to 31.7 ± 5.0 kPa (∼95%). This increase at high frequencies may be attributed to a contribution from solvent

  8. Nanostructure and force spectroscopy analysis of human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Mingqian; Wang, Jiongkun; Cai, Jiye; Wu, Yangzhe; Wang, Xiaoping

    2008-09-12

    To date, nanoscale imaging of the morphological changes and adhesion force of CD4(+) T cells during in vitro activation remains largely unreported. In this study, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study the morphological changes and specific binding forces in resting and activated human peripheral blood CD4(+) T cells. The AFM images revealed that the volume of activated CD4(+) T cells increased and the ultrastructure of these cells also became complex. Using a functionalized AFM tip, the strength of the specific binding force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction was found to be approximately three times that of the unspecific force. The adhesion forces were not randomly distributed over the surface of a single activated CD4(+) T cell, indicated that the CD4 molecules concentrated into nanodomains. The magnitude of the adhesion force of the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction did not change markedly with the activation time. Multiple bonds involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction were measured at different activation times. These results suggest that the adhesion force involved in the CD4 antigen-antibody interaction is highly selective and of high affinity.

  9. Accurate noncontact calibration of colloidal probe sensitivities in atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Shaw, Gordon A; Pratt, Jon R

    2009-06-01

    The absolute force sensitivities of colloidal probes comprised of atomic force microscope, or AFM, cantilevers with microspheres attached to their distal ends are measured. The force sensitivities are calibrated through reference to accurate electrostatic forces, the realizations of which are described in detail. Furthermore, the absolute accuracy of a common AFM force calibration scheme, known as the thermal noise method, is evaluated. It is demonstrated that the thermal noise method can be applied with great success to colloidal probe calibration in air and in liquid to yield force measurements with relative standard uncertainties below 5%. Techniques to combine the electrostatics-based determination of the AFM force sensitivity with measurements of the colloidal probe's thermal noise spectrum to compute noncontact estimates of the displacement sensitivity and spring constant are also developed.

  10. Accurate noncontact calibration of colloidal probe sensitivities in atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Koo-Hyun; Shaw, Gordon A.; Pratt, Jon R.

    2009-06-15

    The absolute force sensitivities of colloidal probes comprised of atomic force microscope, or AFM, cantilevers with microspheres attached to their distal ends are measured. The force sensitivities are calibrated through reference to accurate electrostatic forces, the realizations of which are described in detail. Furthermore, the absolute accuracy of a common AFM force calibration scheme, known as the thermal noise method, is evaluated. It is demonstrated that the thermal noise method can be applied with great success to colloidal probe calibration in air and in liquid to yield force measurements with relative standard uncertainties below 5%. Techniques to combine the electrostatics-based determination of the AFM force sensitivity with measurements of the colloidal probe's thermal noise spectrum to compute noncontact estimates of the displacement sensitivity and spring constant are also developed.

  11. Pairwise-additive force fields for selected aqueous monovalent ions from adaptive force matching

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jicun; Wang, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Simple non-polarizable potentials were developed for Na+, K+, Cl−, and Br− using the adaptive force matching (AFM) method with ab initio MP2 method as reference. Our MP2-AFM force field predicts the solvation free energies of the four salts formed by the ions with an error of no more than 5%. Other properties such as the ion-water radial distribution functions, first solvation shell water tilt angle distributions, ion diffusion constants, concentration dependent diffusion constant of water, and concentration dependent surface tension of the solutions were calculated with this potential. Very good agreement was achieved for these properties. In particular, the diffusion constants of the ions are within 6% of experimental measurements. The model predicts bromide to be enriched at the interface in the 1.6M KBr solution but predicts the ion to be repelled for the surface at lower concentration. PMID:26590540

  12. Dual-frequency resonance-tracking atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Brian J.; Callahan, Clint; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Proksch, Roger

    2007-11-01

    A dual-excitation method for resonant-frequency tracking in scanning probe microscopy based on amplitude detection is developed. This method allows the cantilever to be operated at or near resonance for techniques where standard phase locked loops are not possible. This includes techniques with non-acoustic driving where the phase of the driving force is frequency and/or position dependent. An example of the latter is piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM), where the resonant frequency of the cantilever is strongly dependent on the contact stiffness of the tip-surface junction and the local mechanical properties, but the spatial variability of the drive phase rules out the use of a phase locked loop. Combined with high-voltage switching and imaging, dual-frequency, resonance-tracking PFM allows reliable studies of electromechanical and elastic properties and polarization dynamics in a broad range of inorganic and biological systems, and is illustrated using lead zirconate-titanate, rat tail collagen, and native and switched ferroelectric domains in lithium niobate.

  13. Role of silver ions in destabilization of intermolecular adhesion forces measured by atomic force microscopy in Staphylococcus epidermidis biofilms.

    PubMed

    Chaw, K C; Manimaran, M; Tay, Francis E H

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, we report on the potential use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) as a tool to measure the intermolecular forces in biofilm structures and to study the effect of silver ions on sessile Staphylococcus epidermidis cell viability and stability. We propose a strategy of destabilizing the biofilm matrix by reducing the intermolecular forces within the extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) using a low concentration (50 ppb) of silver ions. Our AFM studies on the intermolecular forces within the EPSs of S. epidermidis RP62A and S.epidermidis 1457 biofilms suggest that the silver ions can destabilize the biofilm matrix by binding to electron donor groups of the biological molecules. This leads to reductions in the number of binding sites for hydrogen bonds and electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions and, hence, the destabilization of the biofilm structure.

  14. Antimicrobial properties of analgesic kyotorphin peptides unraveled through atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ribeiro, Marta M.B.; Franquelim, Henri G.; Torcato, Ines M.; Ramu, Vasanthakumar G.; Heras, Montserrat; Bardaji, Eduard R.; Castanho, Miguel A.R.B.

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New kyotorphin derivatives have antimicrobial properties against S. aureus. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Atomic force microscopy show membrane disturbing effects of KTP-NH{sub 2} and IbKTP-NH{sub 2}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer None of the KTP derivatives are hemolytic. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The minimal peptidic sequence with antimicrobial activity is Tyr-Arg, if amidated. -- Abstract: Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising candidates as alternatives to conventional antibiotics for the treatment of resistant pathogens. In the last decades, new AMPs have been found from the cleavage of intact proteins with no antibacterial activity themselves. Bovine hemoglobin hydrolysis, for instance, results in AMPs and the minimal antimicrobial peptide sequence was defined as Tyr-Arg plus a positively charged amino acid residue. The Tyr-Arg dipeptide alone, known as kyotorphin (KTP), is an endogenous analgesic neuropeptide but has no antimicrobial activity itself. In previous studies new KTP derivatives combining C-terminal amidation and Ibuprofen (Ib) - KTP-NH{sub 2}, IbKTP, IbKTP-NH{sub 2} - were designed in order to improve KTP brain targeting. Those modifications succeeded in enhancing peptide-cell membrane affinity towards fluid anionic lipids and higher analgesic activity after systemic injection resulted therefrom. Here, we investigated if this affinity for anionic lipid membranes also translates into antimicrobial activity because bacteria have anionic membranes. Atomic force microscopy revealed that KTP derivatives perturbed Staphylococcus aureus membrane structure by inducing membrane blebbing, disruption and lysis. In addition, these peptides bind to red blood cells but are non-hemolytic. From the KTP derivatives tested, amidated KTP proves to be the most active antibacterial agent. The combination of analgesia and antibacterial activities with absence of toxicity is highly appealing from the clinical point of view

  15. Sufficient conditions for the additivity of stall forces generated by multiple filaments or motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bameta, Tripti; Das, Dipjyoti; Das, Dibyendu; Padinhateeri, Ranjith; Inamdar, Mandar M.

    2017-02-01

    Molecular motors and cytoskeletal filaments work collectively most of the time under opposing forces. This opposing force may be due to cargo carried by motors or resistance coming from the cell membrane pressing against the cytoskeletal filaments. Some recent studies have shown that the collective maximum force (stall force) generated by multiple cytoskeletal filaments or molecular motors may not always be just a simple sum of the stall forces of the individual filaments or motors. To understand this excess or deficit in the collective force, we study a broad class of models of both cytoskeletal filaments and molecular motors. We argue that the stall force generated by a group of filaments or motors is additive, that is, the stall force of N number of filaments (motors) is N times the stall force of one filament (motor), when the system is reversible at stall. Conversely, we show that this additive property typically does not hold true when the system is irreversible at stall. We thus present a novel and unified understanding of the existing models exhibiting such non-addivity, and generalise our arguments by developing new models that demonstrate this phenomena. We also propose a quantity similar to thermodynamic efficiency to easily predict this deviation from stall-force additivity for filament and motor collectives.

  16. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  17. Atomic Force Microscopy of DNA-wrapped Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Takuya; Umemura, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated hybrids of DNA and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in aqueous solution and in air using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Although intensive AFM observations of these hybrids were previously carried out for samples in air, this is the first report on AFM observations of these hybrids in solution. As expected, diameters of DNA-SWNT hybrids dramatically increased in tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (TE) buffer solution. The data suggest that DNA molecules maintain their structures even on the SWNT surfaces. Furthermore, we simultaneously observed single DNA-SWNT hybrids using three different AFM modes in air and in the TE buffer solution. Height value of the hybrids was largest in the solution, and lowest for the mode that repulsive force is expected in air. For the bare SWNT molecules, height differences among the three AFM modes were much lower than those of the DNA-SWNT hybrids. DNA molecules adsorbed on SWNT surfaces flexibly changed their morphology as well as DNA molecules on flat surfaces such as mica. This is hopeful results for biological applications of DNA-SWNT hybrids. In addition, our results revealed the importance of the single-molecule approach to evaluate DNA structures on SWNT surfaces.

  18. Nonlinear Dynamics of Cantilever-Sample Interactions in Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, John H.; Cantrell, Sean A.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of the cantilever tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with the sample surface is obtained by treating the cantilever and sample as independent systems coupled by a nonlinear force acting between the cantilever tip and a volume element of the sample surface. The volume element is subjected to a restoring force from the remainder of the sample that provides dynamical equilibrium for the combined systems. The model accounts for the positions on the cantilever of the cantilever tip, laser probe, and excitation force (if any) via a basis set of set of orthogonal functions that may be generalized to account for arbitrary cantilever shapes. The basis set is extended to include nonlinear cantilever modes. The model leads to a pair of coupled nonlinear differential equations that are solved analytically using a matrix iteration procedure. The effects of oscillatory excitation forces applied either to the cantilever or to the sample surface (or to both) are obtained from the solution set and applied to the to the assessment of phase and amplitude signals generated by various acoustic-atomic force microscope (A-AFM) modalities. The influence of bistable cantilever modes of on AFM signal generation is discussed. The effects on the cantilever-sample surface dynamics of subsurface features embedded in the sample that are perturbed by surface-generated oscillatory excitation forces and carried to the cantilever via wave propagation are accounted by the Bolef-Miller propagating wave model. Expressions pertaining to signal generation and image contrast in A-AFM are obtained and applied to amplitude modulation (intermittent contact) atomic force microscopy and resonant difference-frequency atomic force ultrasonic microscopy (RDF-AFUM). The influence of phase accumulation in A-AFM on image contrast is discussed, as is the effect of hard contact and maximum nonlinearity regimes of A-AFM operation.

  19. Atomic-Scale Variations of the Mechanical Response of 2D Materials Detected by Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, B; Ellner, M; Pou, P; Nicoara, N; Pérez, Rubén; Gómez-Rodríguez, J M

    2016-06-17

    We show that noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) is sensitive to the local stiffness in the atomic-scale limit on weakly coupled 2D materials, as graphene on metals. Our large amplitude AFM topography and dissipation images under ultrahigh vacuum and low temperature resolve the atomic and moiré patterns in graphene on Pt(111), despite its extremely low geometric corrugation. The imaging mechanisms are identified with a multiscale model based on density-functional theory calculations, where the energy cost of global and local deformations of graphene competes with short-range chemical and long-range van der Waals interactions. Atomic contrast is related with short-range tip-sample interactions, while the dissipation can be understood in terms of global deformations in the weakly coupled graphene layer. Remarkably, the observed moiré modulation is linked with the subtle variations of the local interplanar graphene-substrate interaction, opening a new route to explore the local mechanical properties of 2D materials at the atomic scale.

  20. Atomic vacancy-induced friction on the graphite surface: observation by lateral force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Paredes, J I; Martínez-Alonso, A; Tascón, J M D

    2003-05-01

    Lateral force microscopy has been employed to investigate the frictional behaviour of atomic vacancies on the graphite surface. Such a study was only made possible by the controlled expansion of originally single-atom vacancies into multiatom vacancies, employing oxygen plasma etching for this purpose. Enhanced friction was observed on the vacancy regions compared with pristine areas of graphite, the origin of which is examined and discussed.

  1. Nanobiosensors exploiting specific interactions between an enzyme and herbicides in atomic force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Aline C N; Deda, Daiana K; Bueno, Carolina C; Moraes, Ariana S; Da Roz, Alessandra L; Yamaji, Fabio M; Prado, Rogilene A; Viviani, Vadim; Oliveira, Osvaldo N; Leite, Fábio L

    2014-09-01

    The development of sensitive methodologies for detecting agrochemicals has become important in recent years due to the increasingly indiscriminate use of these substances. In this context, nanosensors based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips are useful because they provide higher sensitivity with operation at the nanometer scale. In this paper we exploit specific interactions between AFM tips functionalized with the enzyme acetolactate synthase (ALS) to detect the ALS-inhibitor herbicides metsulfuron-methyl and imazaquin. Using atomic force spectroscopy (AFS) we could measure the adhesion force between tip and substrate, which was considerably higher when the ALS-functionalized tip (nanobiosensor) was employed. The increase was approximately 250% and 160% for metsulfuron-methyl and imazaquin, respectively, in comparison to unfunctionalized probes. We estimated the specific enzyme-herbicide force by assuming that the measured force comprises an adhesion force according to the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) model, the capillary force and the specific force. We show that the specific, biorecognition force plays a crucial role in the higher sensitivity of the nanobiosensor, thus opening the way for the design of similarly engineered tips for detecting herbicides and other analytes.

  2. From Atoms to Animals: The Vital Force in Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Kornberg, Roger

    2008-02-26

    Perhaps the most significant event in intellectual history has occurred over the past several decades, a convergence of the sciences, a blurring of the distinctions between disciplines, from physics to chemistry to biology. Fundamental questions about human existence have been answered in chemical terms. What brings matter to life? What are our origins? What is the basis of cognitive activity? These and related questions have been a fertile area for philosophy and nonscientific analysis. The long history of such alternative approaches persists to this day. Life chemistry is explained by protein catalysts, in their simplest form known as enzymes, and in their full complexity, referred to as molecular machines. An example of great significance is the so-called transcription machinery, which reads out the genetic code, to direct the formation and function of all living things. The atomic structure of the transcription machinery was determined at Stanford, with the use of intense X-ray beams and facilities at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. The result is an image of this complex machinery in action, bringing genetic information to life.

  3. Experimental Demonstration of Synthetic Lorentz Force on Cold Atoms by Using Radiation Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Ticijana; Santic, Neven; Dubcek, Tena; Aumiler, Damir; Buljan, Hrvoje

    2015-05-01

    The quest for synthetic magnetism in quantum degenerate atomic gases is motivated by producing controllable quantum emulators, which could mimic complex quantum systems such as interacting electrons in magnetic fields. Experiments on synthetic magnetic fields for neutral atoms have enabled realization of the Hall effect, Harper and Haldane Hamiltonians, and other intriguing topological effects. Here we present the first demonstration of a synthetic Lorentz force, based on the radiation pressure and the Doppler effect, in cold atomic gases captured in a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). Synthetic Lorentz force on cold atomic cloud is measured by recording the cloud trajectory. The observed force is perpendicular to the cloud velocity, and it is zero for the atomic cloud at rest. The proposed concept is straightforward to implement in a large volume and different geometries, it is applicable for a broad range of velocities, and it can be realized for different atomic species. The experiment is based on the theoretical proposal introduced in. This work was supported by the UKF Grant No. 5/13 and Croatian MZOS.

  4. Atomic force microscopy reveals bistable configurations of dibenzo[a,h]thianthrene and their interconversion pathway.

    PubMed

    Pavliček, Niko; Fleury, Benoit; Neu, Mathias; Niedenführ, Judith; Herranz-Lancho, Coral; Ruben, Mario; Repp, Jascha

    2012-02-24

    We investigated dibenzo[a,h]thianthrene molecules adsorbed on ultrathin layers of NaCl using a combined low-temperature scanning tunneling and atomic force microscope. Two stable configurations exist corresponding to different isomers of free nonplanar molecules. By means of excitations from inelastic electron tunneling we can switch between both configurations. Atomic force microscopy with submolecular resolution allows unambiguous determination of the molecular geometry, and the pathway of the interconversion of the isomers. Our investigations also shed new light on contrast mechanisms in scanning tunneling microscopy.

  5. Force acting on an atom and a classical oscillator in an electromagnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Makarov, V. P. Rukhadze, A. A.

    2010-01-15

    The expression for the force exerted by the field on an atom and averaged over the field period is derived in quantum-mechanical perturbation theory, in which a quasi-monochromatic electromagnetic field plays the role of a perturbation. An approximate solution is obtained to the classical (Newton) equation of motion in the same field for a harmonic isotropic oscillator. In both problems, the expressions for the force acting on a particle are completely identical if they are written in terms of the polarizability (of the atom and the oscillator). These results conform with the data obtained in macroscopic electrodynamics for rarefied media.

  6. Efficient first-principles simulation of noncontact atomic force microscopy for structural analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, T-L; Wang, C Z; Ho, K M; Chelikowsky, James R

    2009-05-01

    We propose an efficient scheme to simulate noncontact atomic force microscopy images by using first-principles self-consistent potential from the sample as input without explicit modeling of the atomic force microscopy tip. Our method is applied to various types of semiconductor surfaces including Si(111)-(7x7), TiO2(110)-(1x1), Ag/Si(111)-(sqrt[3]xsqrt[3])R30 degrees, and Ge/Si(105)-(1x2) surfaces. We obtain good agreement with experimental results and previous theoretical studies, and our method can aid in identifying different structural models for surface reconstruction.

  7. Preparation and atomic force microscopy of CTAB stabilized polythiophene nanoparticles thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graak, Pinki; Devi, Ranjna; Kumar, Dinesh; Singh, Vishal; Kumar, Sacheen

    2016-05-01

    Polythiophene nanoparticles were synthesized by iron catalyzed oxidative polymerization method. Polythiophene formation was detected by UV-Visible spectroscopy with λmax 375nm. Thin films of CTAB stabilized polythiophene nanoparticles was deposited on n-type silicon wafer by spin coating technique at 3000rpm in three cycles. Thickness of the thin films was computed as 300-350nm by ellipsometry. Atomic force micrscopyrevealws the particle size of polymeric nanoparticles in the range of 30nm to 100nm. Roughness of thinfilm was also analyzed from the atomic force microscopy data by Picoimage software. The observed RMS value lies in the range of 6 nm to 12 nm.

  8. A measurement of the hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves using a tuning-fork atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Lange, Manfred; van Vörden, Dennis; Möller, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the frequency shift versus distance in noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) allow measurements of the force gradient between the oscillating tip and a surface (force-spectroscopy measurements). When nonconservative forces act between the tip apex and the surface the oscillation amplitude is damped. The dissipation is caused by bistabilities in the potential energy surface of the tip-sample system, and the process can be understood as a hysteresis of forces between approach and retraction of the tip. In this paper, we present the direct measurement of the whole hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves at 77 K on the PTCDA/Ag/Si(111) √3 × √3 surface by means of a tuning-fork-based NC-AFM with an oscillation amplitude smaller than the distance range of the hysteresis loop. The hysteresis effect is caused by the making and breaking of a bond between PTCDA molecules on the surface and a PTCDA molecule at the tip. The corresponding energy loss was determined to be 0.57 eV by evaluation of the force-distance curves upon approach and retraction. Furthermore, a second dissipation process was identified through the damping of the oscillation while the molecule on the tip is in contact with the surface. This dissipation process occurs mainly during the retraction of the tip. It reaches a maximum value of about 0.22 eV/cycle.

  9. A consistent S-Adenosylmethionine force field improved by dynamic Hirshfeld-I atomic charges for biomolecular simulation.

    PubMed

    Saez, David Adrian; Vöhringer-Martinez, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is involved in many biological processes as cofactor in enzymes transferring its sulfonium methyl group to various substrates. Additionally, it is used as drug and nutritional supplement to reduce the pain in osteoarthritis and against depression. Due to the biological relevance of AdoMet it has been part of various computational simulation studies and will also be in the future. However, to our knowledge no rigorous force field parameter development for its simulation in biological systems has been reported. Here, we use electronic structure calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent to develop force field parameters compatible with the AMBER99 force field. Additionally, we propose new dynamic Hirshfeld-I atomic charges which are derived from the polarized electron density of AdoMet in aqueous solution to describe its electrostatic interactions in biological systems. The validation of the force field parameters and the atomic charges is performed against experimental interproton NOE distances of AdoMet in aqueous solution and crystal structures of AdoMet in the cavity of three representative proteins.

  10. A consistent S-Adenosylmethionine force field improved by dynamic Hirshfeld-I atomic charges for biomolecular simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saez, David Adrian; Vöhringer-Martinez, Esteban

    2015-10-01

    S-Adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) is involved in many biological processes as cofactor in enzymes transferring its sulfonium methyl group to various substrates. Additionally, it is used as drug and nutritional supplement to reduce the pain in osteoarthritis and against depression. Due to the biological relevance of AdoMet it has been part of various computational simulation studies and will also be in the future. However, to our knowledge no rigorous force field parameter development for its simulation in biological systems has been reported. Here, we use electronic structure calculations combined with molecular dynamics simulations in explicit solvent to develop force field parameters compatible with the AMBER99 force field. Additionally, we propose new dynamic Hirshfeld-I atomic charges which are derived from the polarized electron density of AdoMet in aqueous solution to describe its electrostatic interactions in biological systems. The validation of the force field parameters and the atomic charges is performed against experimental interproton NOE distances of AdoMet in aqueous solution and crystal structures of AdoMet in the cavity of three representative proteins.

  11. Characterization of Akiyama probe applied to dual-probes atomic force microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hequn; Gao, Sitian; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Li, Qi; Li, Shi; Zhu, Zhendong

    2016-10-01

    The measurement of nano-scale line-width has always been important and difficult in the field of nanometer measurements, while the rapid development of integrated circuit greatly raises the demand again. As one kind of scanning probe microscope (SPM), atomic force microscope (AFM) can realize quasi three-dimensional measurement, which is widely used in nanometer scale line-width measurement. Our team researched a dual-probes atomic force microscope, which can eliminate the prevalent effect of probe width on measurement results. In dual-probes AFM system, a novel head are newly designed. A kind of self-sensing and self-exciting probes which is Nanosensors cooperation's patented probe—Akiyama probe, is used in this novel head. The Akiyama probe applied to dual-probe atomic force microscope is one of the most important issues. The characterization of Akiyama probe would affect performance and accuracy of the whole system. The fundamental features of the Akiyama probe are electrically and optically characterized in "approach-withdraw" experiments. Further investigations include the frequency response of an Akiyama probe to small mechanical vibrations externally applied to the tip and the effective loading force yielding between the tip and the sample during the periodic contact. We hope that the characterization of the Akiyama probe described in this paper will guide application for dual-probe atomic force microscope.

  12. Atomic force microscopy as a tool to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guedes, Ana Filipa; Carvalho, Filomena A.; Malho, Inês; Lousada, Nuno; Sargento, Luís; Santos, Nuno C.

    2016-08-01

    The availability of biomarkers to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases is limited. High fibrinogen levels have been identified as a relevant cardiovascular risk factor, but the biological mechanisms remain unclear. Increased aggregation of erythrocytes (red blood cells) has been linked to high plasma fibrinogen concentration. Here, we show, using atomic force microscopy, that the interaction between fibrinogen and erythrocytes is modified in chronic heart failure patients. Ischaemic patients showed increased fibrinogen-erythrocyte binding forces compared with non-ischaemic patients. Cell stiffness in both patient groups was also altered. A 12-month follow-up shows that patients with higher fibrinogen-erythrocyte binding forces initially were subsequently hospitalized more frequently. Our results show that atomic force microscopy can be a promising tool to identify patients with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Atomic force microscopy as a tool to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases in patients.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Ana Filipa; Carvalho, Filomena A; Malho, Inês; Lousada, Nuno; Sargento, Luís; Santos, Nuno C

    2016-08-01

    The availability of biomarkers to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular diseases is limited. High fibrinogen levels have been identified as a relevant cardiovascular risk factor, but the biological mechanisms remain unclear. Increased aggregation of erythrocytes (red blood cells) has been linked to high plasma fibrinogen concentration. Here, we show, using atomic force microscopy, that the interaction between fibrinogen and erythrocytes is modified in chronic heart failure patients. Ischaemic patients showed increased fibrinogen-erythrocyte binding forces compared with non-ischaemic patients. Cell stiffness in both patient groups was also altered. A 12-month follow-up shows that patients with higher fibrinogen-erythrocyte binding forces initially were subsequently hospitalized more frequently. Our results show that atomic force microscopy can be a promising tool to identify patients with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases.

  14. Mechanism of Velocity Saturation of Atomic Friction Force and Dynamic Superlubricity at Torsional Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, Masanori; Nakamura, Jun; Natori, Akiko

    2007-08-01

    We studied both mechanisms of the scan velocity saturation of the average friction force of friction force microscopy and the resonant reduction in the average friction force by superimposing torsional oscillation on a cantilever on the basis of the one-dimensional Tomlinson model at a finite temperature. The velocity saturation is caused by the appearance of a high degree of slip motion for a tip, which is induced by increasing the scan velocity. We proposed two possible mechanisms for the resonant reduction in the average friction force, namely, the enhanced synchronous slip motion of a tip atom with a support point and the activated slip motion of a tip atom caused by oscillation excitation at a stick point. The calculated results reproduce the experimental results well.

  15. Covalent and reversible short-range electrostatic imaging in noncontact atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Dieska, Peter; Stich, Ivan; Pérez, Rubén

    2003-11-21

    We present a computational study of atomic-scale image formation in noncontact atomic force microscopy on metallic surfaces. We find two imaging scenarios: (1). atomic resolution arising due to very strong covalent tip-sample interaction exhibiting striking similarity with the imaging mechanism found on semiconductor surfaces, and (2). a completely new mechanism, reversible short-range electrostatic imaging, arising due to subtle charge-transfer interactions. Contrary to the strong covalent-bond imaging, the newly identified mechanism causes only negligible surface perturbation and can account for results recently observed experimentally.

  16. Bacterial Immobilization for Imaging by Atomic Force Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Allison, David P; Sullivan, Claretta; Mortensen, Ninell P; Retterer, Scott T; Doktycz, Mitchel John

    2011-01-01

    AFM is a high-resolution (nm scale) imaging tool that mechanically probes a surface. It has the ability to image cells and biomolecules, in a liquid environment, without the need to chemically treat the sample. In order to accomplish this goal, the sample must sufficiently adhere to the mounting surface to prevent removal by forces exerted by the scanning AFM cantilever tip. In many instances, successful imaging depends on immobilization of the sample to the mounting surface. Optimally, immobilization should be minimally invasive to the sample such that metabolic processes and functional attributes are not compromised. By coating freshly cleaved mica surfaces with porcine (pig) gelatin, negatively charged bacteria can be immobilized on the surface and imaged in liquid by AFM. Immobilization of bacterial cells on gelatin-coated mica is most likely due to electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged bacteria and the positively charged gelatin. Several factors can interfere with bacterial immobilization, including chemical constituents of the liquid in which the bacteria are suspended, the incubation time of the bacteria on the gelatin coated mica, surface characteristics of the bacterial strain and the medium in which the bacteria are imaged. Overall, the use of gelatin-coated mica is found to be generally applicable for imaging microbial cells.

  17. Atomic force microscopy of swelling and hardening of intact erythrocytes fixed on substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalisov, M. M.; Timoshchuk, K. I.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Timoshenko, T. E.

    2017-02-01

    Peak force measurements with the aid of atomic force microscopy are used to quantitatively map nanomechanical properties of intact erythrocytes of rats under conditions that are close to physiological conditions. Erythrocytes that are immobilized on the substrate preliminary processed using poly-L-lysine predominantly exhibit plane shape. However, cells may also exhibit stepwise transformation to semispherical objects with an increase in volume and hardening. Possible reasons for such transformations are discussed.

  18. Detection of Bacillus Spores by Apatmer Selectivity Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Caugant, Henning A. Johansen, Agnes Fouet, Michèle Mock, Ida Hegna, and Anne-Britt Kolsto. “ Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus cereus , and Bacillus ...DETECTION OF BACILLUS SPORES BY APATMER SELECTIVITY USING ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY THESIS Nina M. Houtkooper, Captain, USAF...or position of the United States Air Force, Department of Defense, or the United States Government. AFIT/GAP/ENP/05-03 DETECTION OF BACILLUS

  19. Probing the viscoelastic response of glassy polymer films using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guanwen; Rao, Nanxia; Yin, Zejie; Zhu, Da-Ming

    2006-05-01

    The mechanical properties of glassy films and glass surfaces have been studied using an atomic force microscope (AFM) through various imaging modes and measuring methods. In this paper, we discuss the viscoelastic response of a glassy surface probed using an AFM. We analyzed the force-distance curves measured on a glassy film or a glassy surface at temperatures near the glass transition temperature, Tg, using a Burgers model. We found that the material's characteristics of reversible anelastic response and viscous creep can be extracted from a force-distance curve. Anelastic response shifts the repulsive force-distance curve while viscous creep strongly affects the slope of the repulsive force-distance curve. When coupled with capillary force, due to the condensation of a thin layer of liquid film at the tip-surface joint, the anelasticity and viscous creep can alter the curve significantly in the attractive region.

  20. A hybrid high-speed atomic force-optical microscope for visualizing single membrane proteins on eukaryotic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colom, Adai; Casuso, Ignacio; Rico, Felix; Scheuring, Simon

    2013-07-01

    High-speed atomic force microscopy is a powerful tool for studying structure and dynamics of proteins. So far, however, high-speed atomic force microscopy was restricted to well-controlled molecular systems of purified proteins. Here we integrate an optical microscopy path into high-speed atomic force microscopy, allowing bright field and fluorescence microscopy, without loss of high-speed atomic force microscopy performance. This hybrid high-speed atomic force microscopy/optical microscopy setup allows positioning of the high-speed atomic force microscopy tip with high spatial precision on an optically identified zone of interest on cells. We present movies at 960 ms per frame displaying aquaporin-0 array and single molecule dynamics in the plasma membrane of intact eye lens cells. This hybrid setup allows high-speed atomic force microscopy imaging on cells about 1,000 times faster than conventional atomic force microscopy/optical microscopy setups, and allows first time visualization of unlabelled membrane proteins on a eukaryotic cell under physiological conditions. This development advances high-speed atomic force microscopy from molecular to cell biology to analyse cellular processes at the membrane such as signalling, infection, transport and diffusion.

  1. Insights into the Electronic Structure of Ozone and Sulfur Dioxide from Generalized Valence Bond Theory: Addition of Hydrogen Atoms.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Beth A; Takeshita, Tyler Y; Dunning, Thom H

    2016-05-05

    Ozone (O3) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) are valence isoelectronic species, yet their properties and reactivities differ dramatically. In particular, O3 is highly reactive, whereas SO2 is chemically relatively stable. In this paper, we investigate serial addition of hydrogen atoms to both the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2 and to the central atom of these species. It is well-known that the terminal atoms of O3 are much more amenable to bond formation than those of SO2. We show that the differences in the electronic structure of the π systems in the parent triatomic species account for the differences in the addition of hydrogen atoms to the terminal atoms of O3 and SO2. Further, we find that the π system in SO2, which is a recoupled pair bond dyad, facilitates the addition of hydrogen atoms to the sulfur atom, resulting in stable HSO2 and H2SO2 species.

  2. {beta}-connectin studies by small-angle x-ray scattering and single-molecule force spectroscopy by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, S.; Carla, M.; Gambi, C. M. C.; Sbrana, F.; Vassalli, M.; Toscano, A.; Pacini, A.; Fratini, E.; Tiribilli, B.

    2011-05-15

    The three-dimensional structure and the mechanical properties of a {beta}-connectin fragment from human cardiac muscle, belonging to the I band, from I{sub 27} to I{sub 34}, were investigated by small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). This molecule presents an entropic elasticity behavior, associated to globular domain unfolding, that has been widely studied in the last 10 years. In addition, atomic force microscopy based SMFS experiments suggest that this molecule has an additional elastic regime, for low forces, probably associated to tertiary structure remodeling. From a structural point of view, this behavior is a mark of the fact that the eight domains in the I{sub 27}-I{sub 34} fragment are not independent and they organize in solution, assuming a well-defined three-dimensional structure. This hypothesis has been confirmed by SAXS scattering, both on a diluted and a concentrated sample. Two different models were used to fit the SAXS curves: one assuming a globular shape and one corresponding to an elongated conformation, both coupled with a Coulomb repulsion potential to take into account the protein-protein interaction. Due to the predominance of the structure factor, the effective shape of the protein in solution could not be clearly disclosed. By performing SMFS by atomic force microscopy, mechanical unfolding properties were investigated. Typical sawtooth profiles were obtained and the rupture force of each unfolding domain was estimated. By fitting a wormlike chain model to each peak of the sawtooth profile, the entropic elasticity of octamer was described.

  3. Identification of 6H-SiC polar faces with pull-off force of atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Di; Song, Youting; Yang, Junwei; Chen, Hongxiang; Guo, Liwei; Chen, Xiaolong

    2016-12-01

    Distinguishing SiC (0001) Si-face from SiC (000-1) C-face without any damages is extremely important because the two polar faces have different physical and chemical properties which seriously influence the quality of a homoepitaxy or heteroepitaxy thin film on it. Here, a convenient and nondestructive detection method is developed to distinguish the Si-face and C-face of a (0001) oriented SiC wafer by employing a pull-off force measurement using atomic force microscopy. It is found that the pull-off force from a Si-face of 6H-SiC is about two times of that from a C-face, no matter it is a two-face chemical mechanical polishing or etched 6H-SiC wafer. The method developed here is suitable to identify polar faces of materials only if the two polar faces having different surface energy.

  4. Reverse engineering of an affinity-switchable molecular interaction characterized by atomic force microscopy single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Anselmetti, Dario; Bartels, Frank Wilco; Becker, Anke; Decker, Björn; Eckel, Rainer; McIntosh, Matthew; Mattay, Jochen; Plattner, Patrik; Ros, Robert; Schäfer, Christian; Sewald, Norbert

    2008-02-19

    Tunable and switchable interaction between molecules is a key for regulation and control of cellular processes. The translation of the underlying physicochemical principles to synthetic and switchable functional entities and molecules that can mimic the corresponding molecular functions is called reverse molecular engineering. We quantitatively investigated autoinducer-regulated DNA-protein interaction in bacterial gene regulation processes with single atomic force microscopy (AFM) molecule force spectroscopy in vitro, and developed an artificial bistable molecular host-guest system that can be controlled and regulated by external signals (UV light exposure and thermal energy). The intermolecular binding functionality (affinity) and its reproducible and reversible switching has been proven by AFM force spectroscopy at the single-molecule level. This affinity-tunable optomechanical switch will allow novel applications with respect to molecular manipulation, nanoscale rewritable molecular memories, and/or artificial ion channels, which will serve for the controlled transport and release of ions and neutral compounds in the future.

  5. A test method for determining adhesion forces and Hamaker constants of cementitious materials using atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lomboy, Gilson; Sundararajan, Sriram; Wang Kejin; Subramaniam, Shankar

    2011-11-15

    A method for determining Hamaker constant of cementitious materials is presented. The method involved sample preparation, measurement of adhesion force between the tested material and a silicon nitride probe using atomic force microscopy in dry air and in water, and calculating the Hamaker constant using appropriate contact mechanics models. The work of adhesion and Hamaker constant were computed from the pull-off forces using the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts and Derjagin-Muller-Toropov models. Reference materials with known Hamaker constants (mica, silica, calcite) and commercially available cementitious materials (Portland cement (PC), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS)) were studied. The Hamaker constants of the reference materials obtained are consistent with those published by previous researchers. The results indicate that PC has a higher Hamaker constant than GGBFS. The Hamaker constant of PC in water is close to the previously predicted value C{sub 3}S, which is attributed to short hydration time ({<=} 45 min) used in this study.

  6. A measurement of the hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves using a tuning-fork atomic force microscope

    PubMed Central

    van Vörden, Dennis; Möller, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Summary Measurements of the frequency shift versus distance in noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) allow measurements of the force gradient between the oscillating tip and a surface (force-spectroscopy measurements). When nonconservative forces act between the tip apex and the surface the oscillation amplitude is damped. The dissipation is caused by bistabilities in the potential energy surface of the tip–sample system, and the process can be understood as a hysteresis of forces between approach and retraction of the tip. In this paper, we present the direct measurement of the whole hysteresis loop in force-spectroscopy curves at 77 K on the PTCDA/Ag/Si(111) √3 × √3 surface by means of a tuning-fork-based NC-AFM with an oscillation amplitude smaller than the distance range of the hysteresis loop. The hysteresis effect is caused by the making and breaking of a bond between PTCDA molecules on the surface and a PTCDA molecule at the tip. The corresponding energy loss was determined to be 0.57 eV by evaluation of the force–distance curves upon approach and retraction. Furthermore, a second dissipation process was identified through the damping of the oscillation while the molecule on the tip is in contact with the surface. This dissipation process occurs mainly during the retraction of the tip. It reaches a maximum value of about 0.22 eV/cycle. PMID:22496993

  7. The Ehrenfest force field: Topology and consequences for the definition of an atom in a molecule.

    PubMed

    Martín Pendás, A; Hernández-Trujillo, J

    2012-10-07

    The Ehrenfest force is the force acting on the electrons in a molecule due to the presence of the other electrons and the nuclei. There is an associated force field in three-dimensional space that is obtained by the integration of the corresponding Hermitian quantum force operator over the spin coordinates of all of the electrons and the space coordinates of all of the electrons but one. This paper analyzes the topology induced by this vector field and its consequences for the definition of molecular structure and of an atom in a molecule. Its phase portrait reveals: that the nuclei are attractors of the Ehrenfest force, the existence of separatrices yielding a dense partitioning of three-dimensional space into disjoint regions, and field lines connecting the attractors through these separatrices. From the numerical point of view, when the Ehrenfest force field is obtained as minus the divergence of the kinetic stress tensor, the induced topology was found to be highly sensitive to choice of gaussian basis sets at long range. Even the use of large split valence and highly uncontracted basis sets can yield spurious critical points that may alter the number of attraction basins. Nevertheless, at short distances from the nuclei, in general, the partitioning of three-dimensional space with the Ehrenfest force field coincides with that induced by the gradient field of the electron density. However, exceptions are found in molecules where the electron density yields results in conflict with chemical intuition. In these cases, the molecular graphs of the Ehrenfest force field reveal the expected atomic connectivities. This discrepancy between the definition of an atom in a molecule between the two vector fields casts some doubts on the physical meaning of the integration of Ehrenfest forces over the basins of the electron density.

  8. Quantitative analyses of RAG-RSS interactions and conformations revealed by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pavlicek, Jeffrey W; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Chang, Yung

    2008-10-28

    During V(D)J recombination, site specific DNA excision is dictated by the binding of RAG1/2 proteins to the conserved recombination signal sequence (RSS) within the genome. The interaction between RAG1/2 and RSS is thought to involve a large DNA distortion that is permissive for DNA cleavage. In this study, using atomic force microscopy imaging (AFM), we analyzed individual RAG-RSS complexes, in which the bending angle of RAG-associated RSS substrates could be visualized and quantified. We provided the quantitative measurement on the conformations of specific RAG-12RSS complexes. Previous data indicating the necessity of RAG2 for recombination implies a structural role in the RAG-RSS complex. Surprisingly, however, no significant difference was observed in conformational bending with AFM between RAG1-12RSS and RAG1/2-12RSS. RAG1 was found sufficient to induce DNA bending, and the addition of RAG2 did not change the bending profile. In addition, a prenicked 12RSS bound by RAG1/2 proteins displayed a conformation similar to the one observed with the intact 12RSS, implying that no greater DNA bending occurs after the nicking step in the signal complex. Taken together, the quantitative AFM results on the components of the recombinase emphasize a tightly held complex with a bend angle value near 60 degrees , which may be a prerequisite step for the site-specific nicking by the V(D)J recombinase.

  9. Atomic Force Microscopy Studies of Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) Molecules in Lipid Bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    LAST, JULIE A.; HUBER, TINA; SASAKI, DARRYL Y.; SALVATORE, BRIAN; TURCO, SALVATORE J.

    2003-03-01

    Lipophosphoglycan (LPG) is a lypopolysaccharide found on the surface of the parasite Leishmania donovani that is thought to play an essential role in the infection of humans with leishamniasis. LPG acts as an adhesion point for the parasite to the gut of the sand fly, whose bite is responsible for transmitting the disease. In addition, LPG acts to inhibit protein kinase C (PKC) in the human macrophage, possibly by structural changes in the membrane. The Ca{sup 2+} ion is believed to play a role in the infection cycle, acting both as a crosslinker between LPG molecules and by playing a part in modulating PKC activity. To gain insight into the structure of LPG within a supported lipid membrane and into the structural changes that occur due to Ca{sup 2+} ions, we have employed the atomic force microscope (AFM). We have observed that the LPG molecules inhibit bilayer fusion, resulting in bilayer islands on the mica surface. One experiment suggests that the LPG molecules are parallel to the mica surface and that the structure of the LPG changes upon addition of Ca{sup 2+}, with an increase in the height of the LPG molecules from the bilayer surface and an almost complete coverage of LPG on the bilayer island.

  10. Atomic force microscope infrared spectroscopy of griseofulvin nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, A. J.; Bilgili, E. A.; Beaudoin, S. P.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the ability of photothermal induced resonance (PTIR) to measure the local infrared absorption spectra of crystalline organic drug nanoparticles embedded within solid matrices. Herein, the first reports of the chemical characterization of sub-100 nm organic crystals are described; infrared spectra of 90 nm griseofulvin particles were obtained, confirming the chemical resolution of PTIR beyond the diffraction limit. Additionally, particle size distributions via dynamic light scattering and PTIR image analysis were found to be similar, suggesting that the PTIR measurements are not significantly affected by inhomogeneous infrared absorptivity of this system. Thus as medical applications increasingly emphasize localized drug delivery via micro/nano-engineered structures, PTIR can be used to unambiguously chemically characterize drug formulations at these length scales. PMID:24171582

  11. Spatial spectrograms of vibrating atomic force microscopy cantilevers coupled to sample surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Ryan; Raman, Arvind; Proksch, Roger

    2013-12-23

    Many advanced dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) techniques such as contact resonance, force modulation, piezoresponse force microscopy, electrochemical strain microscopy, and AFM infrared spectroscopy exploit the dynamic response of a cantilever in contact with a sample to extract local material properties. Achieving quantitative results in these techniques usually requires the assumption of a certain shape of cantilever vibration. We present a technique that allows in-situ measurements of the vibrational shape of AFM cantilevers coupled to surfaces. This technique opens up unique approaches to nanoscale material property mapping, which are not possible with single point measurements alone.

  12. Energy landscape investigation by wavelet transform analysis of atomic force spectroscopy data in a biorecognition experiment.

    PubMed

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Force fluctuations recorded in an atomic force spectroscopy experiment, during the approach of a tip functionalized with biotin towards a substrate charged with avidin, have been analyzed by a wavelet transform. The observation of strong transient changes only when a specific biorecognition process between the partners takes place suggests a drastic modulation of the force fluctuations when biomolecules recognize each other. Such an analysis allows to investigate the peculiar features of a biorecognition process. These results are discussed in connection with the possible role of energy minima explored by biomolecules during the biorecognition process.

  13. Sensing dipole fields at atomic steps with combined scanning tunneling and force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Sacha, G M; Enachescu, M; Ogletree, D F; Ribeiro, R A; Canfield, P C; Jenks, C J; Thiel, P A; Sáenz, J J; Salmeron, M

    2005-09-23

    The electric field of dipoles localized at the atomic steps of metal surfaces due to the Smoluchowski effect were measured from the electrostatic force exerted on the biased tip of a scanning tunneling microscope. By varying the tip-sample bias the contribution of the step dipole was separated from changes in the force due to van der Waals and polarization forces. Combined with electrostatic calculations, the method was used to determine the local dipole moment in steps of different heights on Au(111) and on the twofold surface of an Al-Ni-Co decagonal quasicrystal.

  14. A Computer-Controlled Classroom Model of an Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Tyler A.; Johnson, Matthew M.; Eklund, Peter C.; Russin, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    The concept of "seeing by feeling" as a way to circumvent limitations on sight is universal on the macroscopic scale--reading Braille, feeling one's way around a dark room, etc. The development of the atomic force microscope (AFM) in 1986 extended this concept to imaging in the nanoscale. While there are classroom demonstrations that use…

  15. Characterization of novel sufraces by FTIR spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy for food pathogen detection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Single molecular detection of pathogens and toxins of interest to food safety is within grasp using technology such as Atomic Force Microscopy. Using antibodies or specific aptamers connected to the AFM tip make it possible to detect a pathogen molecule on a surface. However, it also becomes necess...

  16. Detection of viruses: atomic force microscopy and surface enhanced raman spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper demonstrated the capability of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to function effectively as ultra-sensitive readout tools for chip-scale platforms designed for pathogen detection in complex biological media. AFM allows direct (i.e. label-free) vi...

  17. Convergent Inquiry in Science & Engineering: The Use of Atomic Force Microscopy in a Biology Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Il-Sun; Byeon, Jung-Ho; Kwon, Yong-Ju

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to design a teaching method suitable for science high school students using atomic force microscopy. During their scientific inquiry procedure, high school students observed a micro-nanostructure of a biological sample, which is unobservable via an optical microscope. The developed teaching method enhanced students'…

  18. Atomic force microscope-assisted scanning tunneling spectroscopy under ambient conditions.

    PubMed

    Vakhshouri, Amin; Hashimoto, Katsushi; Hirayama, Yoshiro

    2014-12-01

    We have developed a method of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-assisted scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) under ambient conditions. An AFM function is used for rapid access to a selected position prior to performing STS. The AFM feedback is further used to suppress vertical thermal drift of the tip-sample distance during spectroscopy, enabling flexible and stable spectroscopy measurements at room temperature.

  19. Observation of DNA Molecules Using Fluorescence Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ito, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This article describes experiments for an undergraduate instrumental analysis laboratory that aim to observe individual double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM). dsDNA molecules are observed under several different conditions to discuss their chemical and physical properties. In…

  20. Mapping nanomechanical properties of live cells using multi-harmonic atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raman, A.; Trigueros, S.; Cartagena, A.; Stevenson, A. P. Z.; Susilo, M.; Nauman, E.; Contera, S. Antoranz

    2011-12-01

    The nanomechanical properties of living cells, such as their surface elastic response and adhesion, have important roles in cellular processes such as morphogenesis, mechano-transduction, focal adhesion, motility, metastasis and drug delivery. Techniques based on quasi-static atomic force microscopy techniques can map these properties, but they lack the spatial and temporal resolution that is needed to observe many of the relevant details. Here, we present a dynamic atomic force microscopy method to map quantitatively the nanomechanical properties of live cells with a throughput (measured in pixels/minute) that is ~10-1,000 times higher than that achieved with quasi-static atomic force microscopy techniques. The local properties of a cell are derived from the 0th, 1st and 2nd harmonic components of the Fourier spectrum of the AFM cantilevers interacting with the cell surface. Local stiffness, stiffness gradient and the viscoelastic dissipation of live Escherichia coli bacteria, rat fibroblasts and human red blood cells were all mapped in buffer solutions. Our method is compatible with commercial atomic force microscopes and could be used to analyse mechanical changes in tumours, cells and biofilm formation with sub-10 nm detail.

  1. A Cost-Effective Atomic Force Microscope for Undergraduate Control Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, C. N.; Goncalves, J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a simple, cost-effective and robust atomic force microscope (AFM), which has been purposely designed and built for use as a teaching aid in undergraduate controls labs. The guiding design principle is to have all components be open and visible to the students, so the inner functioning of the microscope has been made clear to…

  2. Probing three-dimensional surface force fields with atomic resolution: Measurement strategies, limitations, and artifact reduction.

    PubMed

    Baykara, Mehmet Z; Dagdeviren, Omur E; Schwendemann, Todd C; Mönig, Harry; Altman, Eric I; Schwarz, Udo D

    2012-01-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) is being increasingly used to measure the interaction force between an atomically sharp probe tip and surfaces of interest, as a function of the three spatial dimensions, with picometer and piconewton accuracy. Since the results of such measurements may be affected by piezo nonlinearities, thermal and electronic drift, tip asymmetries, and elastic deformation of the tip apex, these effects need to be considered during image interpretation.In this paper, we analyze their impact on the acquired data, compare different methods to record atomic-resolution surface force fields, and determine the approaches that suffer the least from the associated artifacts. The related discussion underscores the idea that since force fields recorded by using NC-AFM always reflect the properties of both the sample and the probe tip, efforts to reduce unwanted effects of the tip on recorded data are indispensable for the extraction of detailed information about the atomic-scale properties of the surface.

  3. Atomic force microscope with combined FTIR-Raman spectroscopy having a micro thermal analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Fink, Samuel D.; Fondeur, Fernando F.

    2011-10-18

    An atomic force microscope is provided that includes a micro thermal analyzer with a tip. The micro thermal analyzer is configured for obtaining topographical data from a sample. A raman spectrometer is included and is configured for use in obtaining chemical data from the sample.

  4. Microcontroller-driven fluid-injection system for atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kasas, S; Alonso, L; Jacquet, P; Adamcik, J; Haeberli, C; Dietler, G

    2010-01-01

    We present a programmable microcontroller-driven injection system for the exchange of imaging medium during atomic force microscopy. Using this low-noise system, high-resolution imaging can be performed during this process of injection without disturbance. This latter circumstance was exemplified by the online imaging of conformational changes in DNA molecules during the injection of anticancer drug into the fluid chamber.

  5. Nano Goes to School: A Teaching Model of the Atomic Force Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Kovac, Janez

    2008-01-01

    The paper describes a teaching model of the atomic force microscope (AFM), which proved to be successful in the role of an introduction to nanoscience in high school. The model can demonstrate the two modes of operation of the AFM (contact mode and oscillating mode) as well as some basic principles that limit the resolution of the method. It can…

  6. Quantification of atomic-scale elasticity on Ge(001)-c(4 × 2) surfaces via noncontact atomic force microscopy with a tungsten-coated tip.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, Y; Kamijo, T; Li, Y J; Sugawara, Y

    2012-11-21

    We investigated the bonding stiffness of individual atoms on substrate surfaces using noncontact atomic force microscopy with frequency modulation. We measured the frequency shift distribution of the (110) plane above buckling-up and buckling-down dimer atoms of the Ge(001)-c(4 × 2) surface using a tungsten-coated atomic force microscopy cantilever. The tip-surface chemical force distribution was reproduced from the frequency shift data using calculations based on Sader's formula. The total harmonic bonding stiffness between the dimer atoms and the substrate was first discovered by fitting the Morse force to the tip-surface chemical force distribution with consideration of the relaxation in the tip-surface gap. By excluding the contribution exerted by the probe tip, we observed that the harmonic bonding compliance of the buckling-up dimer atom was 4.8 × 10(-3) m/N stiffer than that of the buckling-down dimer atom. This technique for probing the elastic bonding states of individual surface atoms at the atomic scale is unique.

  7. Measurement of polyamide and polystyrene adhesion with coated-tip atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Thio, Beng Joo Reginald; Meredith, J Carson

    2007-10-01

    This work presents atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements of adhesion forces between polyamides, polystyrene and AFM tips coated with the same materials. The polymers employed were polyamide 6 (PA6), PA66, PA12 and polystyrene (PS). All adhesion forces between the various unmodified or modified AFM tips and the polymer surfaces were in the range -1.5 to -8 nN. The weakest force was observed for an unmodified AFM tip with a PS surface and the strongest was between a PS-coated tip and PS surface. The results point to both the benefits and drawbacks of coated-tip AFM force-distance measurements. Adhesion forces between the two most dissimilar (PA6-PS and PA66-PS) materials were significantly asymmetric, e.g., the forces were different depending on the relative placement of each polymer on the AFM tip or substrate. Materials with similar chemistry and intermolecular interactions yielded forces in close agreement regardless of placement on tip or substrate. Using experimental forces, we calculated the contact radii via four models: Derjaguin, Muller, and Toporov; Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts; parametric tip-force-distance relation; and a square pyramid-flat surface (SPFS) model developed herein. The SPFS model gave the most reasonable contact tip radius estimate. Hamaker constants calculated from the SPFS model using this radius agreed in both magnitude and trends with experiment and Lifshitz theory.

  8. Force field analysis suggests a lowering of diffusion barriers in atomic manipulation due to presence of STM tip.

    PubMed

    Emmrich, Matthias; Schneiderbauer, Maximilian; Huber, Ferdinand; Weymouth, Alfred J; Okabayashi, Norio; Giessibl, Franz J

    2015-04-10

    We study the physics of atomic manipulation of CO on a Cu(111) surface by combined scanning tunneling microscopy and atomic force microscopy at liquid helium temperatures. In atomic manipulation, an adsorbed atom or molecule is arranged on the surface using the interaction of the adsorbate with substrate and tip. While previous experiments are consistent with a linear superposition model of tip and substrate forces, we find that the force threshold depends on the force field of the tip. Here, we use carbon monoxide front atom identification (COFI) to characterize the tip's force field. Tips that show COFI profiles with an attractive center can manipulate CO in any direction while tips with a repulsive center can only manipulate in certain directions. The force thresholds are independent of bias voltage in a range from 1 to 10 mV and independent of temperature in a range of 4.5 to 7.5 K.

  9. A Sensitive Technique Using Atomic Force Microscopy to Measure the Low Earth Orbit Atomic Oxygen Erosion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deGroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Clark, Gregory W.; Hammerstrom, Anne M.; Youngstrom, Erica E.; Kaminski, Carolyn; Fine, Elizabeth S.; Marx, Laura M.

    2001-01-01

    Polymers such as polyimide Kapton and Teflon FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) are commonly used spacecraft materials due to their desirable properties such as flexibility, low density, and in the case of FEP low solar absorptance and high thermal emittance. Polymers on the exterior of spacecraft in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment are exposed to energetic atomic oxygen. Atomic oxygen erosion of polymers occurs in LEO and is a threat to spacecraft durability. It is therefore important to understand the atomic oxygen erosion yield (E, the volume loss per incident oxygen atom) of polymers being considered in spacecraft design. Because long-term space exposure data is rare and very costly, short-term exposures such as on the shuttle are often relied upon for atomic oxygen erosion determination. The most common technique for determining E is through mass loss measurements. For limited duration exposure experiments, such as shuttle experiments, the atomic oxygen fluence is often so small that mass loss measurements can not produce acceptable uncertainties. Therefore, a recession measurement technique has been developed using selective protection of polymer samples, combined with postflight atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis, to obtain accurate erosion yields of polymers exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. This paper discusses the procedures used for this recession depth technique along with relevant characterization issues. In particular, a polymer is salt-sprayed prior to flight, then the salt is washed off postflight and AFM is used to determine the erosion depth from the protected plateau. A small sample was salt-sprayed for AFM erosion depth analysis and flown as part of the Limited Duration Candidate Exposure (LDCE-4,-5) shuttle flight experiment on STS-51. This sample was used to study issues such as use of contact versus non-contact mode imaging for determining recession depth measurements. Error analyses were conducted and the percent probable

  10. Training program to prepare the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the protocol additional to the agreement between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in the United

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Brian David; Stevens, Rebecca C; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Valente, John N; Valente, John U; Jo, Jae H; Sellen, Joana

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, a joint team from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) consisting of specialists in training IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the U.S. Additional Protocol. Since the U.S. Additional Protocol would allow for IAEA access to the DOE laboratories under the aegis of complementary access activities, the DOE laboratories would need to prepare for such visits. The goal of the training was to ensure that the DOE laboratories would successfully host an IAEA complementary access. In doing so, the labs must be able to provide the IAEA with the information that the IAEA would need to resolve its questions about the U.S. Declaration and declared activities at the lab, and also protect certain equities, as provided under the U.S. Additional Protocol Article 1.b and c. which set forth a 'National Security Exclusion.' This 'NSE' states that the AP provisions apply within the United States 'excluding only instances where its application would result in access by the Agency to activities with direct national security significance to the United States or to location or information associated with such activities.' These activities are referred to collectively as DNSS-direct national security significance. Furthermore, the U.S. has a specific right to employ managed access, without prejudice to the right under Article 1.b, in connection with activities of DNSS. The provisions in Articles 1.b and 1.c are unique to the U.S. AP, and are additional to the more general right, under Article 7, to use managed access to protect from disclosure proprietary and/or proliferation-sensitive information, and to meet safety and security requirements, that is incorporated directly from the Model Additional Protocol. The BNL-LANL team performed training at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak

  11. Measuring the viscoelastic properties of human platelets with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed Central

    Radmacher, M; Fritz, M; Kacher, C M; Cleveland, J P; Hansma, P K

    1996-01-01

    We have measured force curves as a function of the lateral position on top of human platelets with the atomic force microscope. These force curves show the indentation of the cell as the tip loads the sample. By analyzing these force curves we were able to determine the elastic modulus of the platelet with a lateral resolution of approximately 100 nm. The elastic moduli were in a range of 1-50 kPa measured in the frequency range of 1-50 Hz. Loading forces could be controlled with a resolution of 80 pN and indentations of the platelet could be determined with a resolution of 20 nm. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 PMID:8770233

  12. Mechanical sensing of the penetration of various nanoneedles into a living cell using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Obataya, Ikuo; Nakamura, Chikashi; Han, SungWoong; Nakamura, Noriyuki; Miyake, Jun

    2005-02-15

    Mechanical responses during insertion of a silicon nanoneedle into a living melanocyte were observed by using an atomic force microscope (AFM). In order to study the dependence of the mechanical response on the shape of the nanoneedle, we prepared various shapes of silicon AFM tips by focused-ion beam (FIB) etching. The force curves showed increases up to 0.65-1.9 nN after contact on the cell surface, and then the force dropped corresponding with the penetration of the needle through the cell membrane. The force required for penetration was significantly smaller than that using a normal pyramidal tip. The force curves with a cylindrical tip showed a shorter indenting distance before penetration than that with the cone-shaped tip. It is considered that the information about the geometry of penetrating material leads to the development of more suitable micro- and nano-materials to insert into a living cell for cell surgery.

  13. A study of single drug particle adhesion interactions using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Eve, J K; Patel, N; Luk, S Y; Ebbens, S J; Roberts, C J

    2002-05-15

    This paper aims to use Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) to characterise the interaction forces between micronized salbutamol particles, an active ingredient frequently used in metered dose inhalers, and also to glass, lactose and a fluoropolymer. The methodology used involves challenging a salbutamol functionalized AFM tip to the surfaces of interest and measuring the force experienced by the cantilever as a function of tip-sample separation. Analysis of this force-distance data allows quantification of the particle-substrate adhesion. This study yields a ranking of adhesion as glass>lactose>salbutamol>polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). An increase in the interaction force between the salbutamol particle and PTFE on repeated contact due to tribocharging is also observed.

  14. Water distribution at solid/liquid interfaces visualized by frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Fukuma, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    Interfacial phenomena at solid/water interfaces play an important role in a wide range of industrial technologies and biological processes. However, it has been a great challenge to directly probe the molecular-scale behavior of water at solid/water interfaces. Recently, there have been tremendous advancements in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM), enabling its operation in liquids with atomic resolution. The high spatial and force resolutions of FM-AFM have enabled the visualization of one-dimensional (1D) profiles of the hydration force, two-dimensional (2D) images of hydration layers and three-dimensional (3D) images of the water distribution at solid/water interfaces. Here I present an overview of the recent advances in FM-AFM instrumentation and its applications to the study of solid/water interfaces. PMID:27877337

  15. Mechanical Properties of Pore-Spanning Lipid Bilayers Probed by Atomic Force Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Steltenkamp, Siegfried; Müller, Martin Michael; Deserno, Markus; Hennesthal, Christian; Steinem, Claudia; Janshoff, Andreas

    2006-01-01

    We measure the elastic response of a free-standing lipid membrane to a local indentation by using an atomic force microscope. Starting point is a planar gold-coated alumina substrate with a chemisorbed 3-mercaptopropionic acid monolayer displaying circular pores of very well defined and tunable size, over which bilayers composed of N,N,-dimethyl-N,N,-dioctadecylammonium bromide or 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane chloride were spread. Centrally indenting these “nanodrums” with an atomic force microscope tip yields force-indentation curves, which we quantitatively analyze by solving the corresponding shape equations of continuum curvature elasticity. Since the measured response depends in a known way on the system geometry (pore size, tip radius) and on material parameters (bending modulus, lateral tension), this opens the possibility to monitor local elastic properties of lipid membranes in a well-controlled setting. PMID:16617084

  16. Multiparametric atomic force microscopy imaging of single bacteriophages extruding from living bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsteens, David; Trabelsi, Heykel; Soumillion, Patrice; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2013-12-01

    Force-distance (FD) curve-based atomic force microscopy is a valuable tool to simultaneously image the structure and map the biophysical properties of biological samples at the nanoscale. Traditionally, FD-based atomic force microscopy has been severely limited by its poor temporal and lateral resolutions. Here we report the use of advanced FD-based technology combined with biochemically sensitive tips to image filamentous bacteriophages extruding from living bacteria at unprecedented speed and resolution. Directly correlated multiparametric images of the structure, adhesion and elasticity of infected bacteria demonstrate that the sites of assembly and extrusion localize at the bacterial septum in the form of soft nanodomains surrounded by stiff cell wall material. The quantitative nano-bio-imaging method presented here offers a wealth of opportunities for mapping the physical properties and molecular interactions of complex biosystems, from viruses to tissues.

  17. Impact of titanium addition on film characteristics of HfO2 gate dielectrics deposited by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triyoso, D. H.; Hegde, R. I.; Zollner, S.; Ramon, M. E.; Kalpat, S.; Gregory, R.; Wang, X.-D.; Jiang, J.; Raymond, M.; Rai, R.; Werho, D.; Roan, D.; White, B. E.; Tobin, P. J.

    2005-09-01

    The impact of 8-to 45-at. % Ti on physical and electrical characteristics of atomic-layer-deposited and annealed hafnium dioxide was studied using vacuum-ultraviolet spectroscopic ellipsometry, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and x-ray reflectometry. The role of Ti addition on the electrical performance is investigated using molybdenum (Mo)-gated capacitors. The film density decreases with increasing Ti addition. Ti addition stabilizes the amorphous phase of HfO2, resulting in amorphous films as deposited. After a high-temperature annealing, the films transition from an amorphous to a polycrystalline phase. Orthorhombic Hf-Ti-O peaks are detected in polycrystalline films containing 33-at. % or higher Ti content. As Ti content is decreased, monoclinic HfO2 becomes the predominant microstructure. No TiSi is formed at the dielectric/Si interface, indicating films with good thermal stability. The band gap of Hf-Ti-O was found to be lower than that of HfO2. Well-behaved capacitance-voltage and leakage current density-voltage characteristics were obtained for Hf-Ti-O. However, an increased leakage current density was observed with Ti addition. The data from capacitance-voltage stressing indicate a smaller flatband voltage (Vfb) shift in the HfO2 films with low Ti content when compared with the HfO2 films. This indicates less charge trapping with a small amount of Ti addition.

  18. Ultrahigh-resolution imaging of water networks by atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Shiotari, Akitoshi; Sugimoto, Yoshiaki

    2017-01-01

    Local defects in water layers growing on metal surfaces have a key influence on the wetting process at the surfaces; however, such minor structures are undetectable by macroscopic methods. Here, we demonstrate ultrahigh-resolution imaging of single water layers on a copper(110) surface by using non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) with molecular functionalized tips at 4.8 K. AFM with a probe tip terminated by carbon monoxide predominantly images oxygen atoms, whereas the contribution of hydrogen atoms is modest. Oxygen skeletons in the AFM images reveal that the water networks containing local defects and edges are composed of pentagonal and hexagonal rings. The results reinforce the applicability of AFM to characterize atomic structures of weakly bonded molecular assemblies. PMID:28155856

  19. Atomic force microscopy imaging and single molecule recognition force spectroscopy of coat proteins on the surface of Bacillus subtilis spore.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jilin; Krajcikova, Daniela; Zhu, Rong; Ebner, Andreas; Cutting, Simon; Gruber, Hermann J; Barak, Imrich; Hinterdorfer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Coat assembly in Bacillus subtilis serves as a tractable model for the study of the self-assembly process of biological structures and has a significant potential for use in nano-biotechnological applications. In the present study, the morphology of B. subtilis spores was investigated by magnetically driven dynamic force microscopy (MAC mode atomic force microscopy) under physiological conditions. B. subtilis spores appeared as prolate structures, with a length of 0.6-3 microm and a width of about 0.5-2 microm. The spore surface was mainly covered with bump-like structures with diameters ranging from 8 to 70 nm. Besides topographical explorations, single molecule recognition force spectroscopy (SMRFS) was used to characterize the spore coat protein CotA. This protein was specifically recognized by a polyclonal antibody directed against CotA (anti-CotA), the antibody being covalently tethered to the AFM tip via a polyethylene glycol linker. The unbinding force between CotA and anti-CotA was determined as 55 +/- 2 pN. From the high-binding probability of more than 20% in force-distance cycles it is concluded that CotA locates in the outer surface of B. subtilis spores.

  20. Investigating biomolecular recognition at the cell surface using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Congzhou; Yadavalli, Vamsi K

    2014-05-01

    Probing the interaction forces that drive biomolecular recognition on cell surfaces is essential for understanding diverse biological processes. Force spectroscopy has been a widely used dynamic analytical technique, allowing measurement of such interactions at the molecular and cellular level. The capabilities of working under near physiological environments, combined with excellent force and lateral resolution make atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based force spectroscopy a powerful approach to measure biomolecular interaction forces not only on non-biological substrates, but also on soft, dynamic cell surfaces. Over the last few years, AFM-based force spectroscopy has provided biophysical insight into how biomolecules on cell surfaces interact with each other and induce relevant biological processes. In this review, we focus on describing the technique of force spectroscopy using the AFM, specifically in the context of probing cell surfaces. We summarize recent progress in understanding the recognition and interactions between macromolecules that may be found at cell surfaces from a force spectroscopy perspective. We further discuss the challenges and future prospects of the application of this versatile technique.

  1. Tribological behavior of a charged atomic force microscope tip on graphene oxide films.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yan; Li, Yang; Liang, Bing; Yang, Xiaofei; Han, Tongwei; Wang, Ze

    2012-12-14

    The tribological behavior of graphene oxide (GO) films deposited on a mica substrate has been investigated by atomic force microscopy, in which different voltages were applied to a tip. It was found that the frictional forces on the GO films remain unchanged in the presence of negative tip voltages, while the frictional forces increase remarkably with an increase of the voltage when positive voltages are given to the tip, and at a certain positive tip voltage the frictional forces reach a stable value with increasing number of repeated cycles. To study the influence of the tip voltage on the frictional forces of the GO films, the adhesive and electrostatic force gradients between the tip and GO films were measured. The results showed that the adhesive and electrostatic forces increased with increase of the positive tip voltages. This phenomenon is due to the polarization of charges in the GO films induced by the applied tip voltages, which causes intensive electrostatic interactions between the tip and GO films and a corresponding rise in the adhesive forces and the frictional forces.

  2. Hydrogen atom addition to the surface of graphene nanoflakes: A density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto

    2017-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) provide a 2-dimensional (2D) reaction surface in 3-dimensional (3D) interstellar space and have been utilized as a model of graphene surfaces. In the present study, the reaction of PAHs with atomic hydrogen was investigated by means of density functional theory (DFT) to systematically elucidate the binding nature of atomic hydrogen to graphene nanoflakes. PAHs with n = 4-37 were chosen, where n indicates the number of benzene rings. Activation energies of hydrogen addition to the graphene surface were calculated to be 5.2-7.0 kcal/mol at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level, which is almost constant for all PAHs. The binding energies of hydrogen atom were slightly dependent on the size (n): 14.8-28.5 kcal/mol. The absorption spectra showed that a long tail is generated at the low-energy region after hydrogen addition to the graphene surface. The electronic states of hydrogenated graphenes were discussed on the basis of theoretical results.

  3. Additives to reduce susceptibility of thermosets and thermoplastics to erosion from atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orwoll, Robert A.

    1990-01-01

    Polymeric materials have many attractive features such as light weight, high strength, and broad applicability in the form of films, fibers, and molded objects. In low earth orbit (LEO), these materials, when exposed on the exterior of the spacecraft, have the serious disadvantage of being susceptible to erosion by atomic oxygen (AO). AO is the most common chemical species at LEO altitudes. AO can be an extremely efficient oxidizing agent as was apparent from the extensive erosion of organic films exposed in STS missions. The mechanism for erosion involves the reaction of oxygen atoms at the surface of the substrate to form small molecular species. The susceptibility of polymeric materials varies with their chemical composition. Films with silicon atoms incorporated in the molecular structures have large coefficients of thermal expansion. This limits their utility. In an alternative approach additives were sought that mix physically and form a protective oxide layer when the film is exposed to AO. A large number of organic compounds containing silicon, germanium, or tin atoms were screened. Most were found to have very limited solubility in the polyetherimide (Ultem) films that were being protected from AO. However, one, bis(triphenyl tin) oxide, (BTO), is miscible in Ultem up to about 25 percent. Films of Ultem polyimide containing up to 25 wt percent BTO were prepared by evaporation of solvent from a solution of Ultem and BTO. The effects of AO on these films were simulated in the oxygen atmosphere of a radio frequency glow-discharge chamber. In the second part of this study, atoms were incorporated in epoxy resins. Experiments are in progress to measure the resistance of films of the cured epoxy to AO in the discharge chamber.

  4. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics.

    PubMed

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O; Thompson, Hugh P G; Day, Graeme M

    2016-08-01

    We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%.

  5. An optimized intermolecular force field for hydrogen-bonded organic molecular crystals using atomic multipole electrostatics

    PubMed Central

    Pyzer-Knapp, Edward O.; Thompson, Hugh P. G.; Day, Graeme M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a re-parameterization of a popular intermolecular force field for describing intermolecular interactions in the organic solid state. Specifically we optimize the performance of the exp-6 force field when used in conjunction with atomic multipole electrostatics. We also parameterize force fields that are optimized for use with multipoles derived from polarized molecular electron densities, to account for induction effects in molecular crystals. Parameterization is performed against a set of 186 experimentally determined, low-temperature crystal structures and 53 measured sublimation enthalpies of hydrogen-bonding organic molecules. The resulting force fields are tested on a validation set of 129 crystal structures and show improved reproduction of the structures and lattice energies of a range of organic molecular crystals compared with the original force field with atomic partial charge electrostatics. Unit-cell dimensions of the validation set are typically reproduced to within 3% with the re-parameterized force fields. Lattice energies, which were all included during parameterization, are systematically underestimated when compared with measured sublimation enthalpies, with mean absolute errors of between 7.4 and 9.0%. PMID:27484370

  6. High-speed adaptive contact-mode atomic force microscopy imaging with near-minimum-force

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Juan; Zou, Qingze

    2014-07-15

    In this paper, an adaptive contact-mode imaging approach is proposed to replace the traditional contact-mode imaging by addressing the major concerns in both the speed and the force exerted to the sample. The speed of the traditional contact-mode imaging is largely limited by the need to maintain precision tracking of the sample topography over the entire imaged sample surface, while large image distortion and excessive probe-sample interaction force occur during high-speed imaging. In this work, first, the image distortion caused by the topography tracking error is accounted for in the topography quantification. Second, the quantified sample topography is utilized in a gradient-based optimization method to adjust the cantilever deflection set-point for each scanline closely around the minimal level needed for maintaining stable probe-sample contact, and a data-driven iterative feedforward control that utilizes a prediction of the next-line topography is integrated to the topography feeedback loop to enhance the sample topography tracking. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated through imaging a calibration sample of square pitches at both high speeds (e.g., scan rate of 75 Hz and 130 Hz) and large sizes (e.g., scan size of 30 μm and 80 μm). The experimental results show that compared to the traditional constant-force contact-mode imaging, the imaging speed can be increased by over 30 folds (with the scanning speed at 13 mm/s), and the probe-sample interaction force can be reduced by more than 15% while maintaining the same image quality.

  7. Atomic Structures of Silicene Layers Grown on Ag(111): Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy Observations

    PubMed Central

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer. PMID:23928998

  8. Atomic structures of silicene layers grown on Ag(111): scanning tunneling microscopy and noncontact atomic force microscopy observations.

    PubMed

    Resta, Andrea; Leoni, Thomas; Barth, Clemens; Ranguis, Alain; Becker, Conrad; Bruhn, Thomas; Vogt, Patrick; Le Lay, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Silicene, the considered equivalent of graphene for silicon, has been recently synthesized on Ag(111) surfaces. Following the tremendous success of graphene, silicene might further widen the horizon of two-dimensional materials with new allotropes artificially created. Due to stronger spin-orbit coupling, lower group symmetry and different chemistry compared to graphene, silicene presents many new interesting features. Here, we focus on very important aspects of silicene layers on Ag(111): First, we present scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and non-contact Atomic Force Microscopy (nc-AFM) observations of the major structures of single layer and bi-layer silicene in epitaxy with Ag(111). For the (3 × 3) reconstructed first silicene layer nc-AFM represents the same lateral arrangement of silicene atoms as STM and therefore provides a timely experimental confirmation of the current picture of the atomic silicene structure. Furthermore, both nc-AFM and STM give a unifying interpretation of the second layer (√3 × √3)R ± 30° structure. Finally, we give support to the conjectured possible existence of less stable, ~2% stressed, (√7 × √7)R ± 19.1° rotated silicene domains in the first layer.

  9. Stabilized atomic force microscopy imaging in liquids using second harmonic of cantilever motion for setpoint control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiener, Jens; Witt, Susanne; Stark, Martin; Guckenberger, Reinhard

    2004-08-01

    We present an automated stabilization of the imaging process in tapping mode atomic force microscopy. For biological applications, the requirement of stable imaging conditions to achieve reliable high resolution is contradicted by the necessity to work in solution to ensure biological functionality: thermal and saline variations of the viscosity, in particular when exchanging the solution the sample is surrounded with, strongly affect the cantilever motion rendering the imaging process instable. Using anharmonic contributions in the deflection signal, the amplitude setpoint is controlled to compensate for unavoidable drift in the free oscillation. By this additional feedback, the tip-sample interaction is maintained stable at a low value, making the instrument robust against drift and tolerant to environmental changes. As a delicate test sample, the "single ring"-mutant of the bacterial chaperonin GroEL from E. coli was imaged. To prove the efficiency of our setup, we show highly stabilized, continuous imaging with minimized user interaction while strong perturbations by exchange of the buffer solution were imposed during the scanning.

  10. Atomic force microscopy imaging of lipid rafts of human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Orsini, F; Cremona, A; Arosio, P; Corsetto, P A; Montorfano, G; Lascialfari, A; Rizzo, A M

    2012-12-01

    Several studies suggest that the plasma membrane is composed of micro-domains of saturated lipids that segregate together to form lipid rafts. Lipid rafts have been operationally defined as cholesterol- and sphingolipid-enriched membrane micro-domains resistant to solubilization by non-ionic detergents at low temperatures. Here we report a biophysical approach aimed at investigating lipid rafts of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells by coupling an atomic force microscopy (AFM) study to biochemical assays namely Western blotting and high performance thin layer chromatography. Lipid rafts were purified by ultracentrifugation on discontinuous sucrose gradient using extraction with Triton X-100. Biochemical analyses proved that the fractions isolated at the 5% and 30% sucrose interface (fractions 5 and 6) have a higher content of cholesterol, sphingomyelin and flotillin-1 with respect to the other purified fractions. Tapping mode AFM imaging of fraction 5 showed membrane patches whose height corresponds to the one awaited for a single lipid bilayer as well as the presence of micro-domains with lateral dimensions in the order of a few hundreds of nanometers. In addition, an AFM study using specific antibodies suggests the presence, in these micro-domains, of a characteristic marker of lipid rafts, the protein flotillin-1.

  11. Continuous electrospinning of polymer nanofibers of Nylon-6 using an atomic force microscope tip.

    PubMed

    Gururajan, Giriprasath; Sullivan, S P; Beebe, T P; Chase, D B; Rabolt, J F

    2011-08-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe is successfully utilized as an electrospinning tip for fabricating Nylon-6 nanofibers. The nanometre-size tip enabled controlled deposition of uniform polymeric nanofibers within a 1 cm diameter area. Nylon-6 nanofibers were continuously electrospun at a solution concentration as low as 1 wt% Nylon-6 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of the AFM electrospun fibers indicated that the nanofibers predominantly display the meta-stable γ crystalline form suggesting rapid crystallization rate during the process. In addition to precise control over fiber deposition and diameter, some of the drawbacks of conventional electrospinning such as large volume of solutions and clogging of needles can be overcome using this AFM based electrospinning technique. Lastly, a comparison of electrospun fibers from syringe-needle based electrospinning and AFM probe-tip based electrospinning indicated significant morphological and microstructural differences in the case of AFM based electrospinning.

  12. Continuous electrospinning of polymer nanofibers of Nylon-6 using an atomic force microscope tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gururajan, Giriprasath; Sullivan, S. P.; Beebe, T. P.; Chase, D. B.; Rabolt, J. F.

    2011-08-01

    An atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe is successfully utilized as an electrospinning tip for fabricating Nylon-6 nanofibers. The nanometre-size tip enabled controlled deposition of uniform polymeric nanofibers within a 1 cm diameter area. Nylon-6 nanofibers were continuously electrospun at a solution concentration as low as 1 wt% Nylon-6 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP). Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (WAXD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results of the AFM electrospun fibers indicated that the nanofibers predominantly display the meta-stable γ crystalline form suggesting rapid crystallization rate during the process. In addition to precise control over fiber deposition and diameter, some of the drawbacks of conventional electrospinning such as large volume of solutions and clogging of needles can be overcome using this AFM based electrospinning technique. Lastly, a comparison of electrospun fibers from syringe-needle based electrospinning and AFM probe-tip based electrospinning indicated significant morphological and microstructural differences in the case of AFM based electrospinning.

  13. An integrated instrumental setup for the combination of atomic force microscopy with optical spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Owen, R J; Heyes, C D; Knebel, D; Röcker, C; Nienhaus, G U

    2006-07-01

    In recent years, the study of single biomolecules using fluorescence microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques has resulted in a plethora of new information regarding the physics underlying these complex biological systems. It is especially advantageous to be able to measure the optical, topographical, and mechanical properties of single molecules simultaneously. Here an AFM is used that is especially designed for integration with an inverted optical microscope and that has a near-infrared light source (850 nm) to eliminate interference between the optical experiment and the AFM operation. The Tip Assisted Optics (TAO) system consists of an additional 100 x 100-microm(2) X-Y scanner for the sample, which can be independently and simultaneously used with the AFM scanner. This allows the offset to be removed between the confocal optical image obtained with the sample scanner and the simultaneously acquired AFM topography image. The tip can be positioned exactly into the optical focus while the user can still navigate within the AFM image for imaging or manipulation of the sample. Thus the tip-enhancement effect can be maximized and it becomes possible to perform single molecule manipulation experiments within the focus of a confocal optical image. Here this is applied to simultaneous measurement of single quantum dot fluorescence and topography with high spatial resolution.

  14. Quantitative nanohistological investigation of scleroderma: an atomic force microscopy-based approach to disease characterization

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Adam P; Aguayo, Sebastian; Ahmed, Tarek; Mordan, Nicola; Stratton, Richard; Porter, Stephen R; Parekh, Susan; Bozec, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    Scleroderma (or systemic sclerosis, SSc) is a disease caused by excess crosslinking of collagen. The skin stiffens and becomes painful, while internally, organ function can be compromised by the less elastic collagen. Diagnosis of SSc is often only possible in advanced cases by which treatment time is limited. A more detailed analysis of SSc may provide better future treatment options and information of disease progression. Recently, the histological stain picrosirius red showing collagen register has been combined with atomic force microscopy (AFM) to study SSc. Skin from healthy individuals and SSc patients was biopsied, stained and studied using AFM. By investigating the crosslinking of collagen at a smaller hierarchical stage, the effects of SSc were more pronounced. Changes in morphology and Young’s elastic modulus were observed and quantified; giving rise to a novel technique, we have termed “quantitative nanohistology”. An increase in nanoscale stiffness in the collagen for SSc compared with healthy individuals was seen by a significant increase in the Young’s modulus profile for the collagen. These markers of stiffer collagen in SSc are similar to the symptoms experienced by patients, giving additional hope that in the future, nanohistology using AFM can be readily applied as a clinical tool, providing detailed information of the state of collagen. PMID:28138238

  15. Surface-mediated chromate-resistant mechanism of Enterobacter cloacae bacteria investigated by atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunpeng; Cheng, Yangjian; Ma, Xiaoyan; Zhu, Ying; Holman, Hoi-Ying; Lin, Zhang; Wang, Chen

    2007-04-10

    The Enterobacter cloacae CYS-25 strain isolated from a chromate plant shows a strong capability for chromate resistance instead of chromate reduction in aerobic conditions. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used for studying the morphology characteristics of bacterial properties during the chromate resistance process. The average length of E. cloacae bacteria in the stationary phase is about 2.3 +/- 0.6 microm, while under the stimulation of 400 mg/L CrO42-, the length of bacteria increases to 3.2 +/- 0.7 microm. Height and phase images showed that, with the addition of CrO42-, the smooth surface of bacteria changed into one with discontinuous features with characteristic dimension of 40-200 nm. Analysis reveals that these compact convex patches are organic components stimulated by CrO42-. A chromate resistance mechanism relating to the overexpression of extracellular biologic components for preventing the permeability of CrO42- into the cell is proposed as the survival strategy of E. cloacae in chromate situation.

  16. Determining the Molecular Growth Mechanisms of Protein Crystal faces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Huayu; Nadarajah, Arunan; Pusey, Marc L.

    1998-01-01

    A high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) study had shown that the molecular packing on the tetragonal lysozyme (110) face corresponded to only one of two possible packing arrangements, suggesting that growth layers on this face were of bimolecular height (Li et al., 1998). Theoretical analyses of the packing had also indicated that growth of this face should proceed by the addition of growth units of at least tetramer size corresponding to the 43 helices in the crystal. In this study an AFM linescan technique was devised to measure the dimensions of individual growth units on protein crystal faces. The growth process of tetragonal lysozyme crystals was slowed down by employing very low supersaturations. As a result images of individual growth events on the (110) face were observed, shown by jump discontinuities in the growth step in the linescan images. The growth unit dimension in the scanned direction was obtained by suitably averaging these images. A large number of scans in two directions on the (110) face were performed and the distribution of lysozyme aggregate sizes were obtained. A variety of growth units, all of which were 43 helical lysozyme aggregates, were shown to participate in the growth process with a 43 tetramer being the minimum observed size. This technique represents a new application for AFM allowing time resolved studies of molecular process to be carried out.

  17. Determining the Molecular Growth Mechanisms of Protein Crystal Faces by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nadarajah, Arunan; Li, Huayu; Pusey, Marc L.

    1999-01-01

    A high resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) study had shown that the molecular packing on the tetragonal lysozyme (110) face corresponded to only one of two possible packing arrangements, suggesting that growth layers on this face were of bimolecular height. Theoretical analyses of the packing also indicated that growth of this face should proceed by the addition of growth units of at least tetramer size corresponding to the 43 helices in the crystal. In this study an AFM linescan technique was devised to measure the dimensions of individual growth units on protein crystal faces as they were being incorporated into the lattice. Images of individual growth events on the (110) face of tetragonal lysozyme crystals were observed, shown by jump discontinuities in the growth step in the linescan images as shown in the figure. The growth unit dimension in the scanned direction was obtained from these images. A large number of scans in two directions on the (110) face were performed and the distribution of lysozyme growth unit sizes were obtained. A variety of unit sizes corresponding to 43 helices, were shown to participate in the growth process, with the 43 tetramer being the minimum observed size. This technique represents a new application for AFM allowing time resolved studies of molecular process to be carried out.

  18. A beginner's guide to atomic force microscopy probing for cell mechanics

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Atomic Force microscopy (AFM) is becoming a prevalent tool in cell biology and biomedical studies, especially those focusing on the mechanical properties of cells and tissues. The newest generation of bio‐AFMs combine ease of use and seamless integration with live‐cell epifluorescence or more advanced optical microscopies. As a unique feature with respect to other bionanotools, AFM provides nanometer‐resolution maps for cell topography, stiffness, viscoelasticity, and adhesion, often overlaid with matching optical images of the probed cells. This review is intended for those about to embark in the use of bio‐AFMs, and aims to assist them in designing an experiment to measure the mechanical properties of adherent cells. In addition to describing the main steps in a typical cell mechanics protocol and explaining how data is analysed, this review will also discuss some of the relevant contact mechanics models available and how they have been used to characterize specific features of cellular and biological samples. Microsc. Res. Tech. 80:75–84, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27676584

  19. Atomic force microscopy shows that vaccinia topoisomerase IB generates filaments on DNA in a cooperative fashion.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Herrero, Fernando; Holtzer, Laurent; Koster, Daniel A; Shuman, Stewart; Dekker, Cees; Dekker, Nynke H

    2005-01-01

    Type IB DNA topoisomerases cleave and rejoin one strand of the DNA duplex, allowing for the removal of supercoils generated during replication and transcription. In addition, electron microscopy of cellular and viral TopIB-DNA complexes has suggested that the enzyme promotes long-range DNA-DNA crossovers and synapses. Here, we have used the atomic force microscope to visualize and quantify the interaction between vaccinia topoisomerase IB (vTopIB) and DNA. vTopIB was found to form filaments on nicked-circular DNA by intramolecular synapsis of two segments of a single DNA molecule. Measuring the filament length as a function of protein concentration showed that synapsis is a highly cooperative process. At high protein:DNA ratios, synapses between distinct DNA molecules were observed, which led to the formation of large vTopIB-induced DNA clusters. These clusters were observed in the presence of Mg2+, Ca2+ or Mn2+, suggesting that the formation of intermolecular vTopIB-mediated DNA synapsis is favored by screening of the DNA charge.

  20. Characterization of micro- and nanophase separation of dentin bonding agents by stereoscopy and atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Yamauti, Monica; Osorio, Estrella; Monticelli, Francesca; Osorio, Raquel

    2012-04-01

    The aim was to study the effect of solvents on the phase separation of four commercial dental adhesives. Four materials were tested: Clearfil™ SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil Protect Bond (CPB), Clearfil S3 Bond (CS3), and One-Up Bond F Plus (OUB). Distilled water or ethanol was used as a solvent (30 vol%) for microphase separation studies, by stereoscopy. For nanophase images, the mixtures were formulated with two different solvent concentrations (2.5 versus 5 vol%) and observed by atomic force microscopy. Images were analyzed by using MacBiophotonics ImageJ to measure the area of bright domains. Macrophase separations, identified as a loss of clarity, were only observed after mixing the adhesives with water. Nanophase separations were detected with all adhesive combinations. The area of bright domains ranged from 132 to 1,145 nm² for CSE, from 15 to 285 nm² for CPB, from 149 to 380 nm² for CS3, and from 26 to 157 nm² for OUB. In water-resins mixtures, CPB was the most homogeneous and OUB showed the most heterogeneous phase formation. In ethanol-resin mixtures, CSE attained the most homogeneous structure and OUB showed the most heterogeneous phase. Addition of 5 vol% ethanol to resins decreased the nanophase separation when compared with the control materials.